National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for total effective dose

  1. Estimating Radiation Risk from Total Effective Dose Equivalent...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    of Dose to the Public, DOE Report DOEEH-0070, July 1988. DOE, 1988b. Internal Dose Conversion Factors for Calculation of Dose to the Public, DOE Report DOEEH-0071, July 1988. ...

  2. Total Ionizing Dose and Displacement Damage Effects in Embedded...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effects on Components and Systems: 2013 Conference held September 23-27, 2013 in Oxford, United Kindom.; Related Information: Proposed for presentation at the Radiation...

  3. Passivation layers for reduced total dose effects and ELDRS in linear bipolar devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodd, Paul Emerson; Riewe, Leonard Charles; Pease, Ronald L.; Shaneyfelt, Marty Ray; Gupta, Sunny; Maher, Michael C.; Schwank, James Ralph

    2003-07-01

    It is shown that final chip passivation layers can have a significant impact on total dose hardness. A number of final chip passivation layers are evaluated to identify films that mitigate enhanced low-dose-rate sensitivity (ELDRS) in National Semiconductor Corporation's linear bipolar technologies. It is shown that devices fabricated with either a low temperature oxide or a tetraethyl ortho silicate passivation do not exhibit significant ELDRS effects up to 100 krad(SiO{sub 2}). Passivation studies on CMOS SRAMs suggest that it is unlikely that the passivation layers (or processing tools) are acting as a new source of hydrogen, which could drift or diffuse into the oxide and increase ELDRS sensitivity. Instead, it is possible that the passivation layers affect the mechanical stress in the oxide, which may affect oxide trap properties and possibly the release and mobility of hydrogen. Correlations between mechanical stress induced by the passivation layers and radiation degradation are discussed.

  4. Peripheral Dose Heterogeneity Due to the Thread Effect in Total Marrow Irradiation With Helical Tomotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Yutaka; Verneris, Michael R.; Dusenbery, Kathryn E.; Wilke, Christopher T.; Storme, Guy; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Hui, Susanta K.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To report potential dose heterogeneity leading to underdosing at different skeletal sites in total marrow irradiation (TMI) with helical tomotherapy due to the thread effect and provide possible solutions to reduce this effect. Methods and Materials: Nine cases were divided into 2 groups based on patient size, defined as maximum left-to-right arm distance (mLRD): small mLRD (≤47 cm) and large mLRD (>47 cm). TMI treatment planning was conducted by varying the pitch and modulation factor while a jaw size (5 cm) was kept fixed. Ripple amplitude, defined as the peak-to-trough dose relative to the average dose due to the thread effect, and the dose–volume histogram (DVH) parameters for 9 cases with various mLRD was analyzed in different skeletal regions at off-axis (eg, bones of the arm or femur), at the central axis (eg, vertebrae), and planning target volume (PTV), defined as the entire skeleton plus 1-cm margin. Results: Average ripple amplitude for a pitch of 0.430, known as one of the magic pitches that reduce thread effect, was 9.2% at 20 cm off-axis. No significant differences in DVH parameters of PTV, vertebrae, or femur were observed between small and large mLRD groups for a pitch of ≤0.287. Conversely, in the bones of the arm, average differences in the volume receiving 95% and 107% dose (V95 and V107, respectively) between large and small mLRD groups were 4.2% (P=.016) and 16% (P=.016), respectively. Strong correlations were found between mLRD and ripple amplitude (rs=.965), mLRD and V95 (rs=−.742), and mLRD and V107 (rs=.870) of bones of the arm. Conclusions: Thread effect significantly influences DVH parameters in the bones of the arm for large mLRD patients. By implementing a favorable pitch value and adjusting arm position, peripheral dose heterogeneity could be reduced.

  5. Compact modeling of total ionizing dose and aging effects in MOS technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esqueda, Ivan S.; Barnaby, Hugh J.; King, Michael Patrick

    2015-06-18

    This paper presents a physics-based compact modeling approach that incorporates the impact of total ionizing dose (TID) and stress-induced defects into simulations of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices and integrated circuits (ICs). This approach utilizes calculations of surface potential (?s) to capture the charge contribution from oxide trapped charge and interface traps and to describe their impact on MOS electrostatics and device operating characteristics as a function of ionizing radiation exposure and aging effects. The modeling approach is demonstrated for bulk and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) MOS device. The formulation is verified using TCAD simulations and through the comparison of model calculations and experimental I-V characteristics from irradiated devices. The presented approach is suitable for modeling TID and aging effects in advanced MOS devices and ICs.

  6. Compact modeling of total ionizing dose and aging effects in MOS technologies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Esqueda, Ivan S.; Barnaby, Hugh J.; King, Michael Patrick

    2015-06-18

    This paper presents a physics-based compact modeling approach that incorporates the impact of total ionizing dose (TID) and stress-induced defects into simulations of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices and integrated circuits (ICs). This approach utilizes calculations of surface potential (ψs) to capture the charge contribution from oxide trapped charge and interface traps and to describe their impact on MOS electrostatics and device operating characteristics as a function of ionizing radiation exposure and aging effects. The modeling approach is demonstrated for bulk and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) MOS device. The formulation is verified using TCAD simulations and through the comparison of model calculations and experimentalmore » I-V characteristics from irradiated devices. The presented approach is suitable for modeling TID and aging effects in advanced MOS devices and ICs.« less

  7. Impact of total ionizing dose irradiation on electrical property of ferroelectric-gate field-effect transistor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, S. A.; Tang, M. H. Xiao, Y. G.; Zhang, W. L.; Ding, H.; Chen, J. W.; Zhou, Y. C.; Xiong, Y.; Li, Z.; Zhao, W.; Guo, H. X.

    2014-05-28

    P-type channel metal-ferroelectric-insulator-silicon field-effect transistors (FETs) with a 300?nm thick SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} ferroelectric film and a 10?nm thick HfTaO layer on silicon substrate were fabricated and characterized. The prepared FeFETs were then subjected to {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation in steps of three dose levels. Irradiation-induced degradation on electrical characteristics of the fabricated FeFETs was observed after 1 week annealing at room temperature. The possible irradiation-induced degradation mechanisms were discussed and simulated. All the irradiation experiment results indicated that the stability and reliability of the fabricated FeFETs for nonvolatile memory applications will become uncontrollable under strong irradiation dose and/or long irradiation time.

  8. Total ionizing dose effect of ?-ray radiation on the switching characteristics and filament stability of HfOx resistive random access memory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Runchen; Yu, Shimeng; Gonzalez Velo, Yago; Chen, Wenhao; Holbert, Keith E.; Kozicki, Michael N.; Barnaby, Hugh

    2014-05-05

    The total ionizing dose (TID) effect of gamma-ray (?-ray) irradiation on HfOx based resistive random access memory was investigated by electrical and material characterizations. The memory states can sustain TID level ?5.2 Mrad (HfO{sub 2}) without significant change in the functionality or the switching characteristics under pulse cycling. However, the stability of the filament is weakened after irradiation as memory states are more vulnerable to flipping under the electrical stress. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was performed to ascertain the physical mechanism of the stability degradation, which is attributed to the Hf-O bond breaking by the high-energy ?-ray exposure.

  9. Total dose and dose rate models for bipolar transistors in circuit simulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Phillip Montgomery; Wix, Steven D.

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a model for total dose effects in bipolar junction transistors for use in circuit simulation. The components of the model are an electrical model of device performance that includes the effects of trapped charge on device behavior, and a model that calculates the trapped charge densities in a specific device structure as a function of radiation dose and dose rate. Simulations based on this model are found to agree well with measurements on a number of devices for which data are available.

  10. The susceptibility of TaOx-based memristors to high dose rate ionizing radiation and total ionizing dose

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McLain, Michael Lee; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Mickel, Patrick R.; Hanson, Donald J.; McDonald, Joseph K.; Hughart, David Russell; Marinella, Matthew J.

    2014-11-11

    This paper investigates the effects of high dose rate ionizing radiation and total ionizing dose (TID) on tantalum oxide (TaOx) memristors. Transient data were obtained during the pulsed exposures for dose rates ranging from approximately 5.0 ×107 rad(Si)/s to 4.7 ×108 rad(Si)/s and for pulse widths ranging from 50 ns to 50 μs. The cumulative dose in these tests did not appear to impact the observed dose rate response. Static dose rate upset tests were also performed at a dose rate of ~3.0 ×108 rad(Si)/s. This is the first dose rate study on any type of memristive memory technology. Inmore » addition to assessing the tolerance of TaOx memristors to high dose rate ionizing radiation, we also evaluated their susceptibility to TID. The data indicate that it is possible for the devices to switch from a high resistance off-state to a low resistance on-state in both dose rate and TID environments. The observed radiation-induced switching is dependent on the irradiation conditions and bias configuration. Furthermore, the dose rate or ionizing dose level at which a device switches resistance states varies from device to device; the enhanced susceptibility observed in some devices is still under investigation. As a result, numerical simulations are used to qualitatively capture the observed transient radiation response and provide insight into the physics of the induced current/voltages.« less

  11. The Role of Electron Transport and Trapping in MOS Total-Dose Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Winokur, P.S.; Riewe, L.C.; Flament, O.; Paillet, P.; Leray, J.L.

    1999-07-19

    Radiation-induced hole and electron transport and trapping are fundamental to MOS total-dose models. Here we separate the effects of electron-hole annihilation and electron trapping on the neutralization of radiation-induced charge during switched-bias irradiation for hard and soft oxides, via combined thermally stimulated current (TSC) and capacitance-voltage measurements. We also show that present total-dose models cannot account for the thermal stability of deeply trapped electrons near the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface, or the inability of electrons in deep or shallow traps to contribute to TSC at positive bias following (1) room-temperature, (2) high-temperature, or (3) switched-bias irradiation. These results require revisions of modeling parameters and boundary conditions for hole and electron transport in SiO{sub 2}. The nature of deep and shallow electron traps in the near-interfacial SiO{sub 2} is discussed.

  12. On effective dose for radiotherapy based on doses to nontarget organs and tissues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uselmann, Adam J. Thomadsen, Bruce R.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The National Council for Radiation Protection and Measurement (NCRP) published estimates for the collective population dose and the mean effective dose to the population of the United States from medical imaging procedures for 1980/1982 and for 2006. The earlier report ignored the effective dose from radiotherapy and the latter gave a cursory discussion of the topic but again did not include it in the population exposure for various reasons. This paper explains the methodology used to calculate the effective dose in due to radiotherapy procedures in the latter NCRP report and revises the values based on more detailed modeling. Methods: This study calculated the dose to nontarget organs from radiotherapy for reference populations using CT images and published peripheral dose data. Results: Using International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 60 weighting factors, the total effective dose to nontarget organs in radiotherapy patients is estimated as 298 ± 194 mSv per patient, while the U.S. population effective dose is 0.939 ± 0.610 mSv per person, with a collective dose of 283 000 ± 184 000 person Sv per year. Using ICRP 103 weighting factors, the effective dose is 281 ± 183 mSv per patient, 0.887 ± 0.577 mSv per person in the U.S., and 268 000 ± 174 000 person Sv per year. The uncertainty in the calculations is largely governed by variations in patient size, which was accounted for by considering a range of patient sizes and taking the average treatment site to nontarget organ distance. Conclusions: The methods used to estimate the effective doses from radiotherapy used in NCRP Report No. 160 have been explained and the values updated.

  13. Table 6a. Total Electricity Consumption per Effective Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Total Electricity Consumption per Effective Occupied Square Foot, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings Using Electricity (thousand) Total Electricity Consumption...

  14. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cell shipments Total Inventory, start-of-year 328,658 Manufactured during reporting year ... Table 5. Source and disposition of photovoltaic cell shipments, 2013 (peak kilowatts) ...

  15. Total............................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total................................................................... 111.1 2,033 1,618 1,031 791 630 401 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500............................................... 3.2 357 336 113 188 177 59 500 to 999....................................................... 23.8 733 667 308 343 312 144 1,000 to 1,499................................................. 20.8 1,157 1,086 625 435 409 235 1,500 to 1,999................................................. 15.4 1,592

  16. Table 5a. Total District Heat Consumption per Effective Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Total District Heat Consumption per Effective Occupied Square Foot, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings Using District Heat (thousand) Total District Heat Consumption...

  17. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500...... 3.2 0.7 Q 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.3 Q 500 to ...

  18. Estimating Radiation Risk from Total Effective Dose Equivalent...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    0 Tc 0.37 No. 1Tj 5.25 0 TD 0.098 Tc 0 Tw (No.) Tj 15.755 -13.5 TD 0.3to Tw ( ) Tj 5.25 0 TD F1 10.5 Tf -0.1925 Tc 0 5 Report 0 1Tj 5.25 0 TD 0.098 Tc 0 Tw 8No. 7 0 TD -0.IRRPC,

  19. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Gasoline Blending Components Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil, 15 ppm Sulfur and Under Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur

  20. Total..........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . 111.1 20.6 15.1 5.5 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.5 0.4 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 4.6 3.6 1.1 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 2.8 2.2 0.6 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 1.9 1.4 0.5 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 2.3 1.7 0.5 2,500 to

  1. Total..........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.5 0.3 Q 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 3.9 2.4 1.5 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 4.4 3.2 1.2 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 3.5 2.4 1.1 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 3.2 2.1 1.1 2,500 to

  2. Total..........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.6 Q Q 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 9.0 4.2 1.5 3.2 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 8.6 4.7 1.5 2.5 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 6.0 2.9 1.2 1.9 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 4.1 2.1 0.7

  3. Total..........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 1.0 0.2 0.8 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 6.3 1.4 4.9 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 5.0 1.6 3.4 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 4.0 1.4 2.6 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 2.6 0.9 1.7 2,500 to

  4. Total..........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 2.1 0.6 Q 0.4 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 13.6 3.7 3.2 3.2 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 9.5 3.7 3.4 4.2 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 6.6 2.7 2.5 3.6 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 5.0 2.1

  5. Total................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    .. 111.1 86.6 2,522 1,970 1,310 1,812 1,475 821 1,055 944 554 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500............................. 3.2 0.9 261 336 162 Q Q Q 334 260 Q 500 to 999.................................... 23.8 9.4 670 683 320 705 666 274 811 721 363 1,000 to 1,499.............................. 20.8 15.0 1,121 1,083 622 1,129 1,052 535 1,228 1,090 676 1,500 to 1,999.............................. 15.4 14.4 1,574 1,450 945 1,628 1,327 629 1,712 1,489 808 2,000 to

  6. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    .. 111.1 24.5 1,090 902 341 872 780 441 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500...................................... 3.1 2.3 403 360 165 366 348 93 500 to 999.............................................. 22.2 14.4 763 660 277 730 646 303 1,000 to 1,499........................................ 19.1 5.8 1,223 1,130 496 1,187 1,086 696 1,500 to 1,999........................................ 14.4 1.0 1,700 1,422 412 1,698 1,544 1,348 2,000 to 2,499........................................ 12.7

  7. Total...................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500............................................ 3.2 0.4 Q 0.6 1.7 0.4 500 to 999................................................... 23.8 4.8 1.4 4.2 10.2 3.2 1,000 to 1,499............................................. 20.8 10.6 1.8 1.8 4.0 2.6 1,500 to 1,999............................................. 15.4 12.4 1.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 2,000 to 2,499............................................. 12.2 10.7 1.0 0.2 Q Q 2,500 to

  8. Total.........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 2 Fewer than 500.................................................. 3.2 Q 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.5 500 to 999.......................................................... 23.8 1.5 5.4 5.5 6.1 5.3 1,000 to 1,499.................................................... 20.8 1.4 4.0 5.2 5.0 5.2 1,500 to 1,999.................................................... 15.4 1.4 3.1 3.5 3.6 3.8 2,000 to 2,499.................................................... 12.2 1.4 3.2 3.0 2.3 2.3

  9. Total..........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    25.6 40.7 24.2 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.5 0.9 1.0 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 4.6 3.9 9.0 6.3 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 2.8 4.4 8.6 5.0 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 1.9 3.5 6.0 4.0 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 2.3 3.2 4.1

  10. Total..........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.4 Q Q 0.5 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 2.5 1.5 2.1 3.7 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 1.1 2.0 1.5 2.5 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 0.5 1.2 1.2 1.9 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 0.7 0.5 0.8 1.4

  11. Total...........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................... 3.2 1.9 0.9 Q Q Q 1.3 2.3 500 to 999........................................... 23.8 10.5 7.3 3.3 1.4 1.2 6.6 12.9 1,000 to 1,499..................................... 20.8 5.8 7.0 3.8 2.2 2.0 3.9 8.9 1,500 to 1,999..................................... 15.4 3.1 4.2 3.4 2.0 2.7 1.9 5.0 2,000 to 2,499..................................... 12.2 1.7 2.7 2.9 1.8 3.2 1.1 2.8

  12. Table 3a. Total Natural Gas Consumption per Effective Occupied...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3a. Natural Gas Consumption per Sq Ft Table 3a. Total Natural Gas Consumption per Effective Occupied Square Foot, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings Using Natural Gas...

  13. Estimation of organ and effective dose due to Compton backscatter security scans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Michael E.; Schmidt, Taly Gilat

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: To estimate organ and effective radiation doses due to backscatter security scanners using Monte Carlo simulations and a voxelized phantom set. Methods: Voxelized phantoms of male and female adults and children were used with the GEANT4 toolkit to simulate a backscatter security scan. The backscatter system was modeled based on specifications available in the literature. The simulations modeled a 50 kVp spectrum with 1.0 mm-aluminum-equivalent filtration and a previously measured exposure of approximately 4.6 {mu}R at 30 cm from the source. Photons and secondary interactions were tracked from the source until they reached zero kinetic energy or exited from the simulation's boundaries. The energy deposited in the phantoms' respective organs was tallied and used to calculate total organ dose and total effective dose for frontal, rear, and full scans with subjects located 30 and 75 cm from the source. Results: For a full screen, all phantoms' total effective doses were below the established 0.25 {mu}Sv standard, with an estimated maximum total effective dose of 0.07 {mu}Sv for full screen of a male child. The estimated maximum organ dose due to a full screen was 1.03 {mu}Gy, deposited in the adipose tissue of the male child phantom when located 30 cm from the source. All organ dose estimates had a coefficient of variation of less than 3% for a frontal scan and less than 11% for a rear scan. Conclusions: Backscatter security scanners deposit dose in organs beyond the skin. The effective dose is below recommended standards set by the Health Physics Society (HPS) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) assuming the system provides a maximum exposure of approximately 4.6 {mu}R at 30 cm.

  14. Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohmann, Ulrike; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andy; Rotstayn, Leon; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto

    2009-09-25

    Uncertainties in aerosol forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of rain formation. Traditionally these feedbacks were not included in estimates of total aerosol forcing. Here we argue that they should be included because these feedbacks act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases) the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP), that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Thus we propose replacing the direct and indirect aerosol forcing in the IPCC forcing chart with RFP estimates. This implies that it is better to evaluate the total anthropogenic aerosol effect as a whole.

  15. SU-E-T-501: Normal Tissue Toxicities of Pulsed Low Dose Rate Radiotherapy and Conventional Radiotherapy: An in Vivo Total Body Irradiation Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cvetkovic, D; Zhang, P; Wang, B; Chen, L; Ma, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Pulsed low dose rate radiotherapy (PLDR) is a re-irradiation technique for therapy of recurrent cancers. We have previously shown a significant difference in the weight and survival time between the mice treated with conventional radiotherapy (CRT) and PLDR using total body irradiation (TBI). The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo effects of PLDR on normal mouse tissues.Materials and Methods: Twenty two male BALB/c nude mice, 4 months of age, were randomly assigned into a PLDR group (n=10), a CRT group (n=10), and a non-irradiated control group (n=2). The Siemens Artiste accelerator with 6 MV photon beams was used. The mice received a total of 18Gy in 3 fractions with a 20day interval. The CRT group received the 6Gy dose continuously at a dose rate of 300 MU/min. The PLDR group was irradiated with 0.2Gyx20 pulses with a 3min interval between the pulses. The mice were weighed thrice weekly and sacrificed 2 weeks after the last treatment. Brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, gastrointestinal, urinary and reproductive organs, and sternal bone marrow were removed, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and stained with H and E. Morphological changes were observed under a microscope. Results: Histopathological examination revealed atrophy in several irradiated organs. The degree of atrophy was mild to moderate in the PLDR group, but severe in the CRT group. The most pronounced morphological abnormalities were in the immune and hematopoietic systems, namely spleen and bone marrow. Brain hemorrhage was seen in the CRT group, but not in the PLDR group. Conclusions: Our results showed that PLDR induced less toxicity in the normal mouse tissues than conventional radiotherapy for the same dose and regimen. Considering that PLDR produces equivalent tumor control as conventional radiotherapy, it would be a good modality for treatment of recurrent cancers.

  16. A comparative study of small field total scatter factors and dose profiles using plastic scintillation detectors and other stereotactic dosimeters: The case of the CyberKnife

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morin, J.; Beliveau-Nadeau, D.; Chung, E.; Seuntjens, J.; Theriault, D.; Archambault, L.; Beddar, S.; Beaulieu, L.

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: Small-field dosimetry is challenging, and the main limitations of most dosimeters are insufficient spatial resolution, water nonequivalence, and energy dependence. The purpose of this study was to compare plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) to several commercial stereotactic dosimeters by measuring total scatter factors and dose profiles on a CyberKnife system. Methods: Two PSDs were developed, having sensitive volumes of 0.196 and 0.785 mm{sup 3}, and compared with other detectors. The spectral discrimination method was applied to subtract Cerenkov light from the signal. Both PSDs were compared to four commercial stereotactic dosimeters by measuring total scatter factors, namely, an IBA dosimetry stereotactic field diode (SFD), a PTW 60008 silicon diode, a PTW 60012 silicon diode, and a microLion. The measured total scatter factors were further compared with those of two independent Monte Carlo studies. For the dose profiles, two commercial detectors were used for the comparison, i.e., a PTW 60012 silicon diode and Gafchromics EBT2. Total scatter factors for a CyberKnife system were measured in circular fields with diameters from 5 to 60 mm. Dose profiles were measured for the 5- and 60-mm cones. The measurements were performed in a water tank at a 1.5-cm depth and an 80-cm source-axis distance. Results: The total scatter factors measured using all the detectors agreed within 1% with the Monte Carlo values for cones of 20 mm or greater in diameter. For cones of 10-20 mm in diameter, the PTW 60008 silicon diode was the only dosimeter whose measurements did not agree within 1% with the Monte Carlo values. For smaller fields (<10 mm), each dosimeter type showed different behaviors. The silicon diodes over-responded because of their water nonequivalence; the microLion and 1.0-mm PSD under-responded because of a volume-averaging effect; and the 0.5-mm PSD was the only detector within the uncertainties of the Monte Carlo simulations for all the cones. The PSDs, the PTW 60012 silicon diode, and the Gafchromics EBT2 agreed within 2% and 0.2 mm (gamma evaluation) for the measured dose profiles except in the tail of the 60-mm cone. Conclusions: Silicon diodes can be used to accurately measure small-field dose profiles but not to measure total scatter factors, whereas PSDs can be used to accurately measure both. The authors' measurements show that the use of a 1.0-mm PSD resulted in a negligible volume-averaging effect (under-response of Almost-Equal-To 1%) down to a field size of 5 mm. Therefore, PSDs are strong candidates to become reference radiosurgery detectors for beam characterization and quality assurance measurements.

  17. Multi-level effects of low dose rate ionizing radiation on southern toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E.; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P.; Hinton, Thomas G.; Amendola, Roberto

    2015-04-30

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development –embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of ¹³⁷Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d⁻¹, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did notmore » affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21mGy d⁻¹ and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.« less

  18. The effects of gantry tilt on breast dose and image noise in cardiac CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Michael E.; Gandhi, Diksha; Schmidt, Taly Gilat; Stevens, Grant M.; Foley, W. Dennis

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: This study investigated the effects of tilted-gantry acquisition on image noise and glandular breast dose in females during cardiac computed tomography (CT) scans. Reducing the dose to glandular breast tissue is important due to its high radiosensitivity and limited diagnostic significance in cardiac CT scans.Methods: Tilted-gantry acquisition was investigated through computer simulations and experimental measurements. Upon IRB approval, eight voxelized phantoms were constructed from previously acquired cardiac CT datasets. Monte Carlo simulations quantified the dose deposited in glandular breast tissue over a range of tilt angles. The effects of tilted-gantry acquisition on breast dose were measured on a clinical CT scanner (CT750HD, GE Healthcare) using an anthropomorphic phantom with MOSFET dosimeters in the breast regions. In both simulations and experiments, scans were performed at gantry tilt angles of 0°–30°, in 5° increments. The percent change in breast dose was calculated relative to the nontilted scan for all tilt angles. The percent change in noise standard deviation due to gantry tilt was calculated in all reconstructed simulated and experimental images.Results: Tilting the gantry reduced the breast dose in all simulated and experimental phantoms, with generally greater dose reduction at increased gantry tilts. For example, at 30° gantry tilt, the dosimeters located in the superior, middle, and inferior breast regions measured dose reductions of 74%, 61%, and 9%, respectively. The simulations estimated 0%–30% total breast dose reduction across the eight phantoms and range of tilt angles. However, tilted-gantry acquisition also increased the noise standard deviation in the simulated phantoms by 2%–50% due to increased pathlength through the iodine-filled heart. The experimental phantom, which did not contain iodine in the blood, demonstrated decreased breast dose and decreased noise at all gantry tilt angles.Conclusions: Tilting the gantry reduced the dose to the breast, while also increasing noise standard deviation. Overall, the noise increase outweighed the dose reduction for the eight voxelized phantoms, suggesting that tilted gantry acquisition may not be beneficial for reducing breast dose while maintaining image quality.

  19. Table 4a. Total Fuel Oil Consumption per Effective Occupied Square...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Table 4a. Total Fuel Oil Consumption per Effective Occupied Square Foot, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings Using Fuel Oil (thousand) Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion...

  20. SU-E-T-515: Field-In-Field Compensation Technique Using Multi-Leaf Collimator to Deliver Total Body Irradiation (TBI) Dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lakeman, T; Wang, IZ

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) uses large parallel-opposed radiation fields to suppress the patient's immune system and eradicate the residual cancer cells in preparation of recipient for bone marrow transplant. The manual placement of lead compensators has been used conventionally to compensate for the varying thickness through the entire body in large-field TBI. The goal of this study is to pursue utilizing the modern field-in-field (FIF) technique with the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) to more accurately and efficiently deliver dose to patients in need of TBI. Method: Treatment plans utilizing the FIF technique to deliver a total body dose were created retrospectively for patients for whom CT data had been previously acquired. Treatment fields include one pair of opposed open large fields (collimator=45) with a specific weighting and a succession of smaller fields (collimator=90) each with their own weighting. The smaller fields are shaped by moving MLC to block the sections of the patient which have already received close to 100% of the prescribed dose. The weighting factors for each of these fields were calculated using the attenuation coefficient of the initial lead compensators and the separation of the patient in different positions in the axial plane. Results: Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were calculated for evaluating the FIF compensation technique. The maximum body doses calculated from the DVH were reduced from the non-compensated 179.3% to 148.2% in the FIF plans, indicating a more uniform dose with the FIF compensation. All calculated monitor units were well within clinically acceptable limits and exceeded those of the original lead compensation plan by less than 50 MU (only ~1.1% increase). Conclusion: MLC FIF technique for TBI will not significantly increase the beam on time while it can substantially reduce the compensator setup time and the potential risk of errors in manually placing lead compensators.

  1. Hanford Technical Basis for Multiple Dosimetry Effective Dose Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, Robin L.; Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2010-08-01

    The current method at Hanford for dealing with the results from multiple dosimeters worn during non-uniform irradiation is to use a compartmentalization method to calculate the effective dose (E). The method, as documented in the current version of Section 6.9.3 in the 'Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual, PNL-MA-842,' is based on the compartmentalization method presented in the 1997 ANSI/HPS N13.41 standard, 'Criteria for Performing Multiple Dosimetry.' With the adoption of the ICRP 60 methodology in the 2007 revision to 10 CFR 835 came changes that have a direct affect on the compartmentalization method described in the 1997 ANSI/HPS N13.41 standard, and, thus, to the method used at Hanford. The ANSI/HPS N13.41 standard committee is in the process of updating the standard, but the changes to the standard have not yet been approved. And, the drafts of the revision of the standard tend to align more with ICRP 60 than with the changes specified in the 2007 revision to 10 CFR 835. Therefore, a revised method for calculating effective dose from non-uniform external irradiation using a compartmental method was developed using the tissue weighting factors and remainder organs specified in 10 CFR 835 (2007).

  2. Quantitative Proteomic Profiling of Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Effects in a Human Skin Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hengel, Shawna; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Waters, Katrina M.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Stenoien, David L.

    2014-07-29

    To assess molecular responses to low doses of radiation that may be encountered during medical diagnostic procedures, nuclear accidents, or terrorist acts, a quantitative global proteomic approach was used to identify protein alterations in a reconstituted human skin tissue treated with 10 cGy of ionizing radiation. Subcellular fractionation was employed to remove highly abundant structural proteins and provide insight on radiation induced alterations in protein abundance and localization. In addition, peptides were post-fractionated using high resolution 2-dimensional liquid chromatography to increase the dynamic range of detection of protein abundance and translocation changes. Quantitative data was obtained by labeling peptides with 8-plex isobaric iTRAQ tags. A total of 207 proteins were detected with statistically significant alterations in abundance and/or subcellular localization compared to sham irradiated tissues. Bioinformatics analysis of the data indicated that the top canonical pathways affected by low dose radiation are related to cellular metabolism. Among the proteins showing alterations in abundance, localization and proteolytic processing was the skin barrier protein filaggrin which is consistent with our previous observation that ionizing radiation alters profilaggrin processing with potential effects on skin barrier functions. In addition, a large number of proteases and protease regulators were affected by low dose radiation exposure indicating that altered proteolytic activity may be a hallmark of low dose radiation exposure. While several studies have demonstrated altered transcriptional regulation occurs following low dose radiation exposures, the data presented here indicates post-transcriptional regulation of protein abundance, localization, and proteolytic processing play an important role in regulating radiation responses in complex human tissues.

  3. Multi-level effects of low dose rate ionizing radiation on southern toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E.; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P.; Hinton, Thomas G.; Amendola, Roberto

    2015-04-30

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development –embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of ¹³⁷Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d⁻¹, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21mGy d⁻¹ and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.

  4. The effects of repeated low-dose sarin exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, T.-M. . E-mail: tsungming.a.shih@us.army.mil; Hulet, S.W.; McDonough, J.H.

    2006-09-01

    This project assessed the effects of repeated low-dose exposure of guinea pigs to the organophosphorus nerve agent sarin. Animals were injected once a day, 5 days per week (Monday-Friday), for 2 weeks with fractions (0.3x, 0.4x, 0.5x, or 0.6x) of the established LD{sub 5} dose of sarin (42 {mu}g/kg, s.c.). The animals were assessed for changes in body weight, red blood cell (RBC) acetylcholinesterase (AChE) levels, neurobehavioral reactions to a functional observational battery (FOB), cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectrum, and intrinsic acetylcholine (ACh) neurotransmitter (NT) regulation over the 2 weeks of sarin exposure and for up to 12 days postinjection. No guinea pig receiving 0.3, 0.4 or 0.5 x LD{sub 5} of sarin showed signs of cortical EEG seizures despite decreases in RBC AChE levels to as low as 10% of baseline, while seizures were evident in animals receiving 0.6 x LD{sub 5} of sarin as early as the second day; subsequent injections led to incapacitation and death. Animals receiving 0.5 x LD{sub 5} sarin showed obvious signs of cholinergic toxicity; overall, 2 of 13 animals receiving 0.5 x LD{sub 5} sarin died before all 10 injections were given, and there was a significant increase in the angle of gait in the animals that lived. By the 10th day of injection, the animals receiving saline were significantly easier to remove from their cages and handle and significantly less responsive to an approaching pencil and touch on the rump in comparison with the first day of testing. In contrast, the animals receiving 0.4 x LD{sub 5} sarin failed to show any significant reductions in their responses to an approaching pencil and a touch on the rump as compared with the first day. The 0.5 x LD{sub 5} sarin animals also failed to show any significant changes to the approach and touch responses and did not adjust to handling or removal from the cage from the first day of injections to the last day of handling. Thus, the guinea pigs receiving the 0.4 and 0.5 x LD{sub 5} doses of sarin failed to habituate to some aspects of neurobehavioral testing. Spectral analysis of EEG data suggested that repeated sarin exposure may disrupt normal sleeping patterns (i.e., lower frequency bandwidths). While these EEG changes returned to relative normalcy 6 days after the last injection in animals receiving 0.4 x LD{sub 5} sarin, these changes were still observed in the animals that received 0.5 x LD{sub 5} sarin. Ten to twelve days after the last sarin injection (in 0.4 x LD{sub 5} group only), neurochemical data showed that striatal choline levels were reduced in comparison to the saline group. At this time, atropine sulfate (5 mg/kg, i.p.) challenge resulted in a transient elevation in striatal ACh levels in animals exposed to repeated 0.4 x LD{sub 5} sarin as well as in control animals. No evidence of brain or heart pathology was found in any guinea pig that survived all 10 sarin injections.

  5. Dose-Effect Relationships for Adverse Events After Cranial Radiation Therapy in Long-term Childhood Cancer Survivors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dijk, Irma W.E.M. van, E-mail: i.w.vandijk@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cardous-Ubbink, Mathilde C. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pal, Helena J.H. van der [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heinen, Richard C. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Flora E. van [Department of Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oldenburger, Foppe; Os, Rob M. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ronckers, Ccile M. [Dutch Childhood Oncology Group, Long-term Effects after Childhood Cancer, The Hague (Netherlands)] [Dutch Childhood Oncology Group, Long-term Effects after Childhood Cancer, The Hague (Netherlands); Schoutenvan Meeteren, Antoinette Y.N. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Caron, Huib N. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands) [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Koning, Caro C.E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kremer, Leontien C.M. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands) [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of clinical adverse events (AEs) and treatment-related risk factors in childhood cancer survivors treated with cranial radiation therapy (CRT), with the aim of assessing dose-effect relationships. Methods and Materials: The retrospective study cohort consisted of 1362 Dutch childhood cancer survivors, of whom 285 were treated with CRT delivered as brain irradiation (BI), as part of craniospinal irradiation (CSI), and as total body irradiation (TBI). Individual CRT doses were converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). Survivors had received their diagnoses between 1966 and 1996 and survived at least 5 years after diagnosis. A complete inventory of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 3.0 AEs was available from our hospital-based late-effect follow-up program. We used multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses to examine the EQD{sub 2} in relation to the prevalence and severity of AEs, correcting for sex, age at diagnosis, follow-up time, and the treatment-related risk factors surgery and chemotherapy. Results: There was a high prevalence of AEs in the CRT group; over 80% of survivors had more than 1 AE, and almost half had at least 5 AEs, both representing significant increases in number of AEs compared with survivors not treated with CRT. Additionally, the proportion of severe, life-threatening, or disabling AEs was significantly higher in the CRT group. The most frequent AEs were alopecia and cognitive, endocrine, metabolic, and neurologic events. Using the EQD{sub 2}, we found significant dose-effect relationships for these and other AEs. Conclusion: Our results confirm that CRT increases the prevalence and severity of AEs in childhood cancer survivors. Furthermore, analyzing dose-effect relationships with the cumulative EQD{sub 2} instead of total physical dose connects the knowledge from radiation therapy and radiobiology with the clinical experience.

  6. SU-E-T-628: Effect of Dose Rate and Leakage Correction for Dosimetric Leaf Gap Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, W; Chu, A; Chi, Y; Hu, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To study the dose rate response of Mapcheck and quantify/correct dose rate/leakage effect on IMRT QA. Evaluate the dose rate/leakage effect on dosimetric leaf gap (DLG) measurement. Methods: Varian Truebeam Linac with HD120 MLC was used for all measurement, it is capable to adjust dose rate from 600MU/min to 5MU/min. Fluke Advanced Therapy Doisemter and PTW 30013 Farmer chamber for chamber measurement; SunNuclear Mapcheck2 with 5cm total buildup for diode measurement. DLG was measured with both chamber and diode.Diode response was measured by varies dose rate, while fixed mapcheck setup and total MU. MLC Leakage was measured with both chamber and diode. Mapcheck measurement was saved as movie file (mcm file), which include measurement updated every 50mSec. The difference between intervals can be converted to dose and dose rate and leakage response correction can be applied to them. Results: DLG measurement results with chamber and diode were showed as follows, the DLG value is 0.36 vs. 0.24mm respectively. Diode dose rate response drops from 100% at 600MU/min to 95.5% at 5MU/min as follows. MLC Leakage measured with diode is 1.021%, which is 9% smaller than 1.112% from chamber measurement. By apply the dose rate and leakage correction, the residue error reduced 2/3. Conclusions: Diode has lower response at lower dose rate, as low as 4.5% for 5MU/min; diode has lower energy response for low energy too, 5% lower for Co-60 than 6MV. It partially explains the leakage difference of 9% between chamber and diode. Lower DLG with diode is because of the lower response at narrower gap, in Eclipse however DLG need to increase to makeup lower response, which is over correction for chamber though. Correction can reduce error by 2/3, the rest 1/3 can be corrected by scatter effect, which is under study.

  7. MO-G-BRF-09: Investigating Magnetic Field Dose Effects in Mice: A Monte Carlo Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubinstein, A; Guindani, M; Followill, D; Melancon, A; Hazle, J; Court, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In MRI-linac treatments, radiation dose distributions are affected by magnetic fields, especially at high-density/low-density interfaces. Radiobiological consequences of magnetic field dose effects are presently unknown; therefore, preclinical studies are needed to ensure the safe clinical use of MRI-linacs. This study investigates the optimal combination of beam energy and magnetic field strength needed for preclinical murine studies. Methods: The Monte Carlo code MCNP6 was used to simulate the effects of a magnetic field when irradiating a mouse-sized lung phantom with a 1.0cmx1.0cm photon beam. Magnetic field effects were examined using various beam energies (225kVp, 662keV[Cs-137], and 1.25MeV[Co-60]) and magnetic field strengths (0.75T, 1.5T, and 3T). The resulting dose distributions were compared to Monte Carlo results for humans with various field sizes and patient geometries using a 6MV/1.5T MRI-linac. Results: In human simulations, the addition of a 1.5T magnetic field caused an average dose increase of 49% (range:36%60%) to lung at the soft tissue-to-lung interface and an average dose decrease of 30% (range:25%36%) at the lung-to-soft tissue interface. In mouse simulations, the magnetic fields had no effect on the 225kVp dose distribution. The dose increases for the Cs-137 beam were 12%, 33%, and 49% for 0.75T, 1.5T, and 3.0T magnetic fields, respectively while the dose decreases were 7%, 23%, and 33%. For the Co-60 beam, the dose increases were 14%, 45%, and 41%, and the dose decreases were 18%, 35%, and 35%. Conclusion: The magnetic field dose effects observed in mouse phantoms using a Co-60 beam with 1.5T or 3T fields and a Cs-137 beam with a 3T field compare well with those seen in simulated human treatments with an MRI-linac. These irradiator/magnet combinations are suitable for preclinical studies investigating potential biological effects of delivering radiation therapy in the presence of a magnetic field. Partially funded by Elekta.

  8. Effect of particle size and doses of olivine addition on carbon dioxide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sequestration during anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge at ambient and mesophilic temperatures | Argonne National Laboratory particle size and doses of olivine addition on carbon dioxide sequestration during anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge at ambient and mesophilic temperatures Title Effect of particle size and doses of olivine addition on carbon dioxide sequestration during anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge at ambient and mesophilic temperatures Publication Type Journal Article

  9. Sex-specific tissue weighting factors for effective dose equivalent calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, X.G. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Reece, W.D. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The effective dose equivalent was defined in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 26 in 1977 and later adopted by the U.S. Nuclear REgulatory Commission. To calculate organ doses and effective dose equivalent for external exposures using Monte Carlo simulations, sex-specific anthropomorphic phantoms and sex-specific weighting factors are always employed. This paper presents detailed mathematical derivation of a set of sex-specific tissue weighting factors and the conditions which the weighting factors must satisfy. Results of effective dose equivalent calculations using female and male phantoms exposed to monoenergetic photon beams of 0.08, 0.3, and 1.0 MeV are provided and compared with results published by other authors using different sex-specific weighting factors and phantoms. The results indicate that females always receive higher effective dose equivalent than males for the photon energies and geometries considered and that some published data may be wrong due to mistakes in deriving the sex-specific weighting factors. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Effective atomic numbers and mass attenuation coefficients of some thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds for total photon interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shivaramu; Amutha, R.; Ramprasath, V.

    1999-05-01

    Effective atomic numbers for total gamma-ray interaction with some selected thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds such as barium acetate, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, calcium sulfate dihydrate, cadmium sulfate (anhydrous), cadmium sulfate, strontium sulfate, and lithium fluoride have been calculated in the 1-keV to 20-MeV energy region. Experimental mass attenuation coefficients and effective atomic numbers for these compounds at selected photon energies of 26.3, 33.2, 59.54, and 661.6 keV have been obtained from good geometry transmission measurements and compared with theoretical values. The effect of absorption edge on effective atomic numbers and its variation with energy, and nonvalidity of the Bragg`s mixture rule at incident photon energies closer to the absorption edges of constituent elements of compounds are discussed.

  11. Total Dissolved Gas Effects on Fishes of the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrath, Kathy E.; Dawley, Earl; Geist, David R.

    2006-03-31

    Gas supersaturation problems generated by spill from dams on the Columbia River were first identified in the 1960s. Since that time, considerable research has been conducted on effects of gas supersaturation on aquatic life, primarily juvenile salmonids. Also since that time, modifications to dam structures and operations have reduced supersaturated gas levels produced by the dams. The limit for total dissolved gas saturation (TDGS) as mandated by current Environmental Protection Agency water quality standards is 110%. State management agencies issue limited waivers to water quality, allowing production of levels of up to 120% TDGS to facilitate the downstream migration of juvenile salmonids. Recently, gas supersaturation as a water quality issue has resurfaced as concerns have grown regarding chronic effects of spill-related total dissolved gas on salmonids, including incubating embryos and larvae, resident fish species, and other aquatic organisms. Because of current concerns, and because the last comprehensive review of research on supersaturation effects on fishes was conducted in 1997, we reviewed recent supersaturation literature to identify new or ongoing issues that may not be adequately addressed by the current 110% TDGS limit and the 120% TDGS water quality waiver. We found that recent work supports older research indicating that short-term exposure to levels up to 120% TDGS does not produce acute effects on migratory juvenile or adult salmonids when compensating depths are available. Monitoring programs at Snake and Columbia river dams from 1995 to the early 2000s documented a low incidence of significant gas bubble disease or mortality in Columbia River salmonids, resident fishes, or other taxa. We did, however, identify five areas of concern in which total dissolved gas levels lower than water quality limits may produce sublethal effects on fishes of the Columbia River. These areas of concern are 1) sensitive and vulnerable species or life stages, 2) long-term chronic or multiple exposure, 3) vulnerable habitats and reaches, 4) effects on incubating fish in hyporheic habitats, and 5) community and ecosystem effects. Although some of these areas of concern may have been identified previously in earlier works, we suggest that consideration of the issues is warranted to avoid detrimental impacts on aquatic resources of the Columbia River system. We discuss these issues and provide recommendations to regulatory and management agencies based on our review of recent literature. In general, we recommend that additional attention be directed toward resolving the uncertainties within these five areas.

  12. SU-E-T-510: Mathematical Analysis of Approximate Biological Effective Dose (BED) Calculation for Multi-Phase Radiotherapy Treatment Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kauweloa, K; Gutierrez, A; Bergamo, A; Stathakis, S; Papanikolaou, N; Mavroidis, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: There is growing interest about biological effective dose (BED) and its application in treatment plan evaluation due to its stronger correlation with treatment outcome. An approximate biological effective dose (BEDA) equation was introduced to simplify BED calculations by treatment planning systems in multi-phase treatments. The purpose of this work is to reveal its mathematical properties relative to the true, multi-phase BED (BEDT) equation. Methods: The BEDT equation was derived and used to reveal the mathematical properties of BEDA. MATLAB (MathWorks, Natick, MA) was used to simulate and analyze common and extreme clinical multi-phase cases. In those cases, percent error (Perror) and Bland-Altman analysis were used to study the significance of the inaccuracies of BEDA for different combinations of total doses, numbers of fractions, doses per fractions and ? over ? values. All the calculations were performed on a voxel-basis in order to study how dose distributions would affect the accuracy of BEDA. Results: When the voxel dose-per-fractions (DPF) delivered by both phases are equal, BEDA and BEDT are equal. In heterogeneous dose distributions, which significantly vary between the phases, there are fewer occurrences of equal DPFs and hence the imprecision of BEDA is greater. It was shown that as the ? over ? ratio increased the accuracy of BEDA would improve. Examining twenty-four cases, it was shown that the range of DPF ratios for a 3 Perror varied from 0.32 to 7.50Gy, whereas for Perror of 1 the range varied from 0.50 to 2.96Gy. Conclusion: The DPF between the different phases should be equal in order to render BEDA accurate. OARs typically receive heterogeneous dose distributions hence the probability of equal DPFs is low. Consequently, the BEDA equation should only be used for targets or OARs that receive uniform or very similar dose distributions by the different treatment phases.

  13. SU-E-J-63: Estimating the Effects of Respiratory Motion On Dose Heterogeneity for ITV-Based Treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, C; Lewis, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify the relationship between the amount of dose heterogeneity in a treatment plan that uses an internal target volume (ITV) to account for respiratory motion and the true amount of heterogeneity in the dose delivered to the tumor contained within that ITV. Methods: We develop a convolution-based framework for calculating dose delivered to a tumor moving inside an ITV according to a common sinusoid-based breathing model including asymmetry. We model the planned ITV dose distribution as a centrally peaked analytic function approximating the profile of clinical stereotactic body radiotherapy treatments. Expressions for the minimum and maximum dose received by the tumor are derived and evaluated for a range of clinically relevant parameters. Results of the model are validated with phantom measurements using an ion chamber array. Results: An analytic expression is presented for the maximum and minimum doses received by the tumor relative to the planned ITV dose. The tumor dose heterogeneity depends solely on the ratio of tumor size to ITV size, the peak dose in the planned ITV dose distribution, and the respiratory asymmetry parameter. Under the assumptions of this model, using a typical breathing asymmetry parameter and a dose distribution with a fixed size ITV covered by the 100% line and with a 130% hotspot, the maximum dose to the tumor varies between 113%130%, and the minimum dose varies between 100%116% depending on the amount of tumor motion. Conclusion: This modeling exercise demonstrates the interplay between motion and dose heterogeneity. Tumors that exhibit large amounts of respiratory motion relative to their size will receive a more homogeneous dose and a larger minimum dose than would be inferred from the ITV dose distribution. This effect is not captured in current clinical treatment planning methods unless 4D dose calculation techniques are used. This work was partially supported by a Varian Medical Systems research grant.

  14. Critical dose and toxicity index of organs at risk in radiotherapy: Analyzing the calculated effects of modified dose fractionation in nonsmall cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pedicini, Piernicola; Strigari, Lidia; Benassi, Marcello; Caivano, Rocchina; Fiorentino, Alba; Nappi, Antonio; Salvatore, Marco; Storto, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    To increase the efficacy of radiotherapy for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC), many schemes of dose fractionation were assessed by a new toxicity index (I), which allows one to choose the fractionation schedules that produce less toxic treatments. Thirty-two patients affected by non resectable NSCLC were treated by standard 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) with a strategy of limited treated volume. Computed tomography datasets were employed to re plan by simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The dose distributions from plans were used to test various schemes of dose fractionation, in 3DCRT as well as in IMRT, by transforming the dose-volume histogram (DVH) into a biological equivalent DVH (BDVH) and by varying the overall treatment time. The BDVHs were obtained through the toxicity index, which was defined for each of the organs at risk (OAR) by a linear quadratic model keeping an equivalent radiobiological effect on the target volume. The less toxic fractionation consisted in a severe/moderate hyper fractionation for the volume including the primary tumor and lymph nodes, followed by a hypofractionation for the reduced volume of the primary tumor. The 3DCRT and IMRT resulted, respectively, in 4.7% and 4.3% of dose sparing for the spinal cord, without significant changes for the combined-lungs toxicity (p < 0.001). Schedules with reduced overall treatment time (accelerated fractionations) led to a 12.5% dose sparing for the spinal cord (7.5% in IMRT), 8.3% dose sparing for V{sub 20} in the combined lungs (5.5% in IMRT), and also significant dose sparing for all the other OARs (p < 0.001). The toxicity index allows to choose fractionation schedules with reduced toxicity for all the OARs and equivalent radiobiological effect for the tumor in 3DCRT, as well as in IMRT, treatments of NSCLC.

  15. Modeling of transient ionizing radiation effects in bipolar devices at high dose-rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FJELDLY,T.A.; DENG,Y.; SHUR,M.S.; HJALMARSON,HAROLD P.; MUYSHONDT,ARNOLDO

    2000-04-25

    To optimally design circuits for operation at high intensities of ionizing radiation, and to accurately predict their a behavior under radiation, precise device models are needed that include both stationary and dynamic effects of such radiation. Depending on the type and intensity of the ionizing radiation, different degradation mechanisms, such as photoelectric effect, total dose effect, or single even upset might be dominant. In this paper, the authors consider the photoelectric effect associated with the generation of electron-hole pairs in the semiconductor. The effects of low radiation intensity on p-II diodes and bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) were described by low-injection theory in the classical paper by Wirth and Rogers. However, in BJTs compatible with modem integrated circuit technology, high-resistivity regions are often used to enhance device performance, either as a substrate or as an epitaxial layer such as the low-doped n-type collector region of the device. Using low-injection theory, the transient response of epitaxial BJTs was discussed by Florian et al., who mainly concentrated on the effects of the Hi-Lo (high doping - low doping) epilayer/substrate junction of the collector, and on geometrical effects of realistic devices. For devices with highly resistive regions, the assumption of low-level injection is often inappropriate, even at moderate radiation intensities, and a more complete theory for high-injection levels was needed. In the dynamic photocurrent model by Enlow and Alexander. p-n junctions exposed to high-intensity radiation were considered. In their work, the variation of the minority carrier lifetime with excess carrier density, and the effects of the ohmic electric field in the quasi-neutral (q-n) regions were included in a simplified manner. Later, Wunsch and Axness presented a more comprehensive model for the transient radiation response of p-n and p-i-n diode geometries. A stationary model for high-level injection in p-n junctions was developed by Isaque et al. They used a more complete ambipolar transport equation, which included the dependencies of the transport parameters (ambipolar diffusion constant, mobility, and recombination rate) on the excess minority carrier concentration. The expression used for the recombination rate was that of Shockley-Reed-Hall (SRH) recombination which is dominant for low to mid-level radiation intensities. However, at higher intensities, Auger recombination becomes important eventually dominant. The complete ambipolar transport equation including the complicated dependence of transport parameters on the radiation intensity, cannot be solved analytically. This solution is obtained for each of the regimes where a given recombination mechanism dominates, and then by joining these solutions using appropriate smoothing functions. This approach allows them to develop a BJT model accounting for the photoelectric effect of the ionizing radiation that can be implemented in SPICE.

  16. Practical aspects and uncertainty analysis of biological effective dose (BED) regarding its three-dimensional calculation in multiphase radiotherapy treatment plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kauweloa, Kevin I. Gutierrez, Alonso N.; Bergamo, Angelo; Stathakis, Sotirios; Papanikolaou, Nikos; Mavroidis, Panayiotis

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: There is a growing interest in the radiation oncology community to use the biological effective dose (BED) rather than the physical dose (PD) in treatment plan evaluation and optimization due to its stronger correlation with radiobiological effects. Radiotherapy patients may receive treatments involving a single only phase or multiple phases (e.g., primary and boost). Since most treatment planning systems cannot calculate the analytical BED distribution in multiphase treatments, an approximate multiphase BED expression, which is based on the total physical dose distribution, has been used. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the mathematical properties of the approximate BED formulation, relative to the true BED. Methods: The mathematical properties of the approximate multiphase BED equation are analyzed and evaluated. In order to better understand the accuracy of the approximate multiphase BED equation, the true multiphase BED equation was derived and the mathematical differences between the true and approximate multiphase BED equations were determined. The magnitude of its inaccuracies under common clinical circumstances was also studied. All calculations were performed on a voxel-by-voxel basis using the three-dimensional dose matrices. Results: Results showed that the approximate multiphase BED equation is accurate only when the dose-per-fractions (DPFs) in both the first and second phases are equal, which occur when the dose distribution does not significantly change between the phases. In the case of heterogeneous dose distributions, which significantly vary between the phases, there are fewer occurrences of equal DPFs and hence the inaccuracy of the approximate multiphase BED is greater. These characteristics are usually seen in the dose distributions being delivered to organs at risk rather than to targets. Conclusions: The finding of this study indicates that the true multiphase BED equation should be implemented in the treatment planning systems due to the inconsistent accuracy of the approximate multiphase BED equation in most of the clinical situations.

  17. Final Report - Epigenetics of low dose radiation effects in an animal model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovalchuk, Olga

    2014-10-22

    This project sought mechanistic understanding of the epigenetic response of tissues as well as the consequences of those responses, when induced by low dose irradiation in a well-established model system (mouse). Based on solid and extensive preliminary data we investigated the molecular epigenetic mechanisms of in vivo radiation responses, particularly effects of low, occupationally relevant radiation exposures on the genome stability and adaptive response in mammalian tissues and organisms. We accumulated evidence that low dose irradiation altered epigenetic profiles and impacted radiation target organs of the exposed animals. The main long-term goal was to dissect the epigenetic basis of induction of the low dose radiation-induced genome instability and adaptive response and the specific fundamental roles of epigenetic changes (i.e. DNA methylation, histone modifications and miRNAs) in their generation. We hypothesized that changes in global and regional DNA methylation, global histone modifications and regulatory microRNAs played pivotal roles in the generation and maintenance low-dose radiation-induced genome instability and adaptive response. We predicted that epigenetic changes influenced the levels of genetic rearrangements (transposone reactivation). We hypothesized that epigenetic responses from low dose irradiation were dependent on exposure regimes, and would be greatest when organisms are exposed in a protracted/fractionated manner: fractionated exposures > acute exposures. We anticipated that the epigenetic responses were correlated with the gene expression levels. Our immediate objectives were: To investigate the exact nature of the global and locus-specific DNA methylation changes in the LDR exposed cells and tissues and dissect their roles in adaptive response To investigate the roles of histone modifications in the low dose radiation effects and adaptive response To dissect the roles of regulatory microRNAs and their targets in low dose radiation effects and adaptive response To correlate the levels of epigenetic changes with genetic rearrangement levels and gene expression patterns. In sum, we determined the precise global and locus-specific DNA methylation patterns in the LDR-exposed cells and tissues of mice, and to correlated DNA methylation changes with the gene expression patterns and manifestations of genome instability. We also determined the alterations of global histone modification pattern in the LDR exposed tissues. Additionally, we established the nature of microRNAome changes in the LDR exposed tissue. In this study we for the first time found that LDR exposure caused profound tissue-specific epigenetic changes in the exposed tissues. We established that LDR exposure affect methylation of repetitive elements in the murine genome, causes changes in histone methylation, acetylation and phosphorylation. Importantly, we found that LDR causes profound and persistent effects on small RNA profiles and gene expression, and that miRNAs are excellent biomarkers of LDR exposure. Furthermore, we extended our analysis and studied LDR effects in rat tissues and human tissues and cell lines. There we also analyzed LDR-induced gene expression, DNA methylation and miRNA changes. Our datasets laid foundation for several new research projects aimed to understand molecular underpinnings of low dose radiation responses, and biological repercussions of low dose radiation effects and radiation carcinogenesis.

  18. Proteomic-based mechanistic investigation of low-dose radiation-induced cellular responses/effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xian

    2013-10-23

    The goal of our project is to apply our unique systems investigation strategy to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying the radiation induction and transmission of oxidative damage, adaptive response, and bystander effect at low-doses. Beginning with simple in vitro systems such as fibroblast or epithelial pure culture, our amino acid-coded mass tagging (AACT) comparative proteomic platform will be used to measure quantitatively proteomic changes at high- or low-dose level with respect to their endogenous damage levels respectively, in which a broad range of unique regulated proteins sensitive to low-dose IR will be distinguished. To zoom in how these regulated proteins interact with other in the form of networks in induction/transmission pathways, these regulated proteins will be selected as baits for making a series of fibroblast cell lines that stably express each of them. Using our newly developed method of ?dual-tagging? quantitative proteomics that integrate the capabilities of natural complex expression/formation, simple epitope affinity isolation (not through tandem affinity purification or TAP), and ?in-spectra? AACT quantitative measurements using mass spectrometry (MS), we will be able to distinguish systematically interacting proteins with each bait in real time. Further, in addition to both proteome-wide (global differentially expressed proteins) and pathway-scale (bait-specific) profiling information, we will perform a computational network analysis to elucidate a global pathway/mechanisms underlying cellular responses to real-time low-dose IR. Similarly, we will extend our scheme to investigate systematically those induction/transmission pathways occurring in a fibroblast-epithelial interacting model in which the bystander cell (fibroblast) monitor the IR damage to the target cell (epithelial cell). The results will provide the proteome base (molecular mechanisms/pathways for signaling) for the low dose radiation-induced essential tissue environment interactions, including cell-cell, extracellular matrix and extracellular paracrine interactions.

  19. Radiation Exposure During Uterine Artery Embolization: Effective Measures to Minimize Dose to the Patient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheurig-Muenkler, Christian; Powerski, Maciej J.; Mueller, Johann-Christoph; Kroencke, Thomas J.

    2015-06-15

    PurposeEvaluation of patient radiation exposure during uterine artery embolization (UAE) and literature review to identify techniques minimizing required dose.MethodsA total of 224 of all included 286 (78 %) women underwent UAE according to a standard UAE-protocol (bilateral UAE from unilateral approach using a Rösch inferior mesenteric and a microcatheter, no aortography, no ovarian artery catheterization or embolization) and were analyzed for radiation exposure. Treatment was performed on three different generations of angiography systems: (I) new generation flat-panel detector (N = 108/151); (II) classical image amplifier and pulsed fluoroscopy (N = 79/98); (III) classical image amplifier and continuous fluoroscopy (N = 37/37). Fluoroscopy time (FT) and dose-area product (DAP) were documented. Whenever possible, the following dose-saving measures were applied: optimized source-object, source-image, and object-image distances, pulsed fluoroscopy, angiographic runs in posterior-anterior direction with 0.5 frames per second, no magnification, tight collimation, no additional aortography.ResultsIn a standard bilateral UAE, the use of the new generation flat-panel detector in group I led to a significantly lower DAP of 3,156 cGy × cm{sup 2} (544–45,980) compared with 4,000 cGy × cm{sup 2} (1,400–13,000) in group II (P = 0.033). Both doses were significantly lower than those of group III with 8,547 cGy × cm{sup 2} (3,324–35,729; P < 0.001). Other reasons for dose escalation were longer FT due to difficult anatomy or a large leiomyoma load, additional angiographic runs, supplementary ovarian artery embolization, and obesity.ConclusionsThe use of modern angiographic units with flat panel detectors and strict application of methods of radiation reduction lead to a significantly lower radiation exposure. Target DAP for UAE should be kept below 5,000 cGy × cm{sup 2}.

  20. Effects of Total Dissolved Gas on Chum Salmon Fry Incubating in the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Hand, Kristine D.; Geist, David R.; Murray, Katherine J.; Panther, Jenny; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Dawley, Earl M.; Elston, Ralph A.

    2008-01-30

    This report describes research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY 2007 for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, to characterize the effects of total dissolved gas (TDG) on the incubating fry of chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) in the lower Columbia River. The tasks conducted and results obtained in pursuit of three objectives are summarized: * to conduct a field monitoring program at the Ives Island and Multnomah Falls study sites, collecting empirical data on TDG to obtain a more thorough understanding of TDG levels during different river stage scenarios (i.e., high-water year versus low-water year) * to conduct laboratory toxicity tests on hatchery chum salmon fry at gas levels likely to occur downstream from Bonneville Dam * to sample chum salmon sac fry during Bonneville Dam spill operations to determine if there is a physiological response to TDG levels. Chapter 1 discusses the field monitoring, Chapter 2 reports the findings of the laboratory toxicity tests, and Chapter 3 describes the field-sampling task. Each chapter contains an objective-specific introduction, description of the study site and methods, results of research, and discussion of findings. Literature cited throughout this report is listed in Chapter 4. Additional details on the study methdology and results are provided in Appendixes A through D.

  1. Imprinted genes and transpositions: epigenomic targets for low dose radiation effects. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jirtle, Randy L.

    2012-10-11

    The overall hypothesis of this grant application is that low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) elicits adaptive responses in part by causing heritable DNA methylation changes in the epigenome. This novel postulate was tested by determining if the level of DNA methylation at the Agouti viable yellow (A{sup vy}) metastable locus is altered, in a dose-dependent manner, by low dose radiation exposure (<10 cGy) during early gestation. This information is particularly important to ascertain given the increased use of CT scans in disease diagnosis, increased number of people predicted to live and work in space, and the present concern about radiological terrorism. We showed for the first time that LDIR significantly increased DNA methylation at the A{sup vy} locus in a sex-specific manner (p=0.004). Average DNA methylation was significantly increased in male offspring exposed to doses between 0.7 cGy and 7.6 cGy with maximum effects at 1.4 cGy and 3.0 cGy (p<0.01). Offspring coat color was concomitantly shifted towards pseudoagouti (p<0.01). Maternal dietary antioxidant supplementation mitigated both the DNA methylation changes and coat color shift in the irradiated offspring (p<0.05). Thus, LDIR exposure during gestation elicits epigenetic alterations that lead to positive adaptive phenotypic changes that are negated with antioxidants, indicating they are mediated in part by oxidative stress. These findings provide evidence that in the isogenic Avy mouse model epigenetic alterations resulting from LDIR play a role in radiation hormesis, bringing into question the assumption that every dose of radiation is harmful. Our findings not only have significant implications concerning the mechanism of hormesis, but they also emphasize the potential importance of this phenomenon in determining human risk at low radiation doses. Since the epigenetic regulation of genes varies markedly between species, the effect of LDIR on other epigenetically labile genes (e.g. imprinted genes) in animals and humans needs to be defined.

  2. Thrombomodulin exerts cytoprotective effect on low-dose UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwata, Masahiro; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Kawabata, Hisashi; Ito, Takashi; Mera, Kentaro; Biswas, Kamal Krishna; Tancharoen, Salunya; Higashi, Yuko; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Hashiguchi, Teruto

    2008-12-12

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is an endothelial cell surface anticoagulant glycoprotein that performs antimetastatic, angiogenic, adhesive, and anti-inflammatory functions in various tissues. It is also expressed in epidermal keratinocytes. We found that a physiological dose (10 mJ/cm{sup 2}) of mid-wavelength ultraviolet irradiation (UVB) significantly induced TM expression via the p38mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/cyclic AMP response element (CRE) signaling pathway in the epidermal keratinocyte cell line HaCaT; this shows that TM regulates the survival of HaCaT cells. SB203580, a p38MAPK inhibitor, significantly decreased TM expression and the viability of cells exposed to UVB. Furthermore, overexpression of TM markedly increased cell viability, and it was abrogated by TM small interfering RNA (siRNA), suggesting that TM may play an important role in exerting cytoprotective effect on epidermal keratinocytes against low-dose UVB.

  3. Biologically Effective Dose (BED) Correlation With Biochemical Control After Low-Dose Rate Prostate Brachytherapy for Clinically Low-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, Edward F.; Nelson, John W.; Alkaissi, Ali K.; Das, Shiva; Clough, Robert W.; Broadwater, Gloria; Anscher, Mitchell S.; Chino, Junzo P.; Oleson, James R.

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: To assess the correlation of postimplant dosimetric quantifiers with biochemical control of prostate cancer after low-dose rate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: The biologically effective dose (BED), dose in Gray (Gy) to 90% of prostate (D{sub 90}), and percent volume of the prostate receiving 100% of the prescription dose (V{sub 100}) were calculated from the postimplant dose-volume histogram for 140 patients undergoing low-dose rate prostate brachytherapy from 1997 to 2003 at Durham Regional Hospital and the Durham VA Medical Center (Durham, NC). Results: The median follow-up was 50 months. There was a 7% biochemical failure rate (10 of 140), and 91% of patients (127 of 140) were alive at last clinical follow-up. The median BED was 148 Gy (range, 46-218 Gy). The median D{sub 90} was 139 Gy (range, 45-203 Gy). The median V{sub 100} was 85% (range, 44-100%). The overall 5-year biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) rate was 90.1%. On univariate Cox proportional hazards modeling, no pretreatment characteristic (Gleason score sum, age, baseline prostate-specific antigen, or clinical stage) was predictive of bRFS. The BED, D{sub 90}, and V{sub 100} were all highly correlated (Pearson coefficients >92%), and all were strongly correlated with bRFS. Using the Youden method, we identified the following cut points for predicting freedom from biochemical failure: D{sub 90} >= 110 Gy, V{sub 100} >= 74%, and BED >= 115 Gy. None of the covariates significantly predicted overall survival. Conclusions: We observed significant correlation between BED, D{sub 90}, and V{sub 100} with bRFS. The BED is at least as predictive of bRFS as D{sub 90} or V{sub 100}. Dosimetric quantifiers that account for heterogeneity in tumor location and dose distribution, tumor repopulation, and survival probability of tumor clonogens should be investigated.

  4. Effects of total solids concentrations of poultry, cattle, and piggery waste slurries on biogas yield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Itodo, I.N.; Awulu, J.O.

    1999-12-01

    The effects of total solids concentrations of poultry, cattle and piggery waste slurries on biogas yield was investigated. Twelve laboratory-size anaerobic batch digesters with 25 L volume were constructed and used for the experiments. Three replicates of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% TS concentrations of poultry, cattle, and piggery waste slurries were anaerobically digested for a 30-day detention period and gas yield was measured by the method of water displacement. Temperature variation within the digesters was measured with a maximum and minimum thermometer. Anaerobic digestion of the slurries was undertaken in the mesophilic temperature range (20--40 C). The carbon:nitrogen ratio of each of the slurries digested was determined. The carbon content was determined using the wackley-Black method, and nitrogen content was determined by the regular kjeldhal method. The pH was measured weekly during the period of digestion from a digital pH meter. Gas quality (% methane fraction) was also measured weekly from an analyzer. Coefficient of variation was computed to ascertain the status of the digestion process. Analysis of variance was used to determine the significant difference in gas yield at p < 0.05. Duncan's New Multiple Range Test at p < 0.05 was used to analyze the difference in gas yield among the various TS concentrations of the slurries investigated. The results indicate that biogas yield is of the order: 5% TS > 10% TS > 15% TS > 20% TS. This result shows that gas yield increases with decreasing TS concentration of the slurries. The ANOVA showed that the gas yield from the various TS % was significantly different (p < 0.05). DNMRT showed that there was significant difference in gas yield from the slurries and wastetypes investigated. Poultry waste slurries had the greatest gas yield (L CH4/kg TS) as the gas yield from the waste types was of the order: Poultry > Piggery > Cattle. The pH of the slurries was of the range 5.5 to 6.8 (weakly acidic). The C:N of the slurries varied between 6:1 and 9:1. The Coefficient of Variation (CV) for 10 consecutive days of digestion was less than 10% indicating a steady state in all the digesters.

  5. SU-C-12A-07: Effect of Vertical Position On Dose Reduction Using X-Care

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silosky, M; Marsh, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Reduction of absorbed dose to radiosensitive tissues is an important goal in diagnostic radiology. Siemens Medical has introduced a technique (X-CARE) to lower CT dose to anterior anatomy by reducing the tube current during 80° of rotation over radiosensitive tissues. Phantom studies have shown 30-40% dose reduction when phantoms are positioned at isocenter. However, for CT face and sinus exams, the center of the head is commonly positioned below isocenter. This work investigated the effects of vertical patient positioning on dose reduction using X-CARE. Methods: A 16cm Computed Tomography Dose Index phantom was scanned on a Siemens Definition Flash CT scanner using a routine head protocol, with the phantom positioned at scanner isocenter. Optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters were placed on the anterior and posterior sides of the phantom. The phantom was lowered in increments of 2cm and rescanned, up to 8cm below isocenter. The experiment was then repeated using the same scan parameters but adding the X-CARE technique. The mean dosimeter counts were determined for each phantom position, and the difference between XCARE and routine scans was plotted as a function of distance from isocenter. Results: With the phantom positioned at isocenter, using XCARE reduced dose to the anterior side of the phantom by 40%, compared to dose when X-CARE was not used. Positioned below isocenter, anterior dose was reduced by only 20-27%. Additionally, using X-CARE at isocenter reduced dose to the anterior portion of the phantom by 45.6% compared to scans performed without X-CARE 8cm below isocenter. Conclusion: While using X-CARE substantially reduced dose to the anterior side of the phantom, this effect was diminished when the phantom was positioned below isocenter, simulating common practice for face and sinus scans. This indicates that centering the head in the gantry will maximize the effect of X-CARE.

  6. Biomarkers and Surrogate Endpoints for Normal-Tissue Effects of Radiation Therapy: The Importance of Dose-Volume Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bentzen, Soren M.; Parliament, Matthew; Deasy, Joseph O.; Dicker, Adam; Curran, Walter J.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Rosenstein, Barry S.

    2010-03-01

    Biomarkers are of interest for predicting or monitoring normal tissue toxicity of radiation therapy. Advances in molecular radiobiology provide novel leads in the search for normal tissue biomarkers with sufficient sensitivity and specificity to become clinically useful. This article reviews examples of studies of biomarkers as predictive markers, as response markers, or as surrogate endpoints for radiation side effects. Single nucleotide polymorphisms are briefly discussed in the context of candidate gene and genomewide association studies. The importance of adjusting for radiation dose distribution in normal tissue biomarker studies is underlined. Finally, research priorities in this field are identified and discussed.

  7. Review of Department of Energy research on human health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Energy research program on the human health effects of low-dose ionizing radiation consists of 16 projects conducted under the sponsorship of the Human Health and Assessments Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research. Each of these projects was reviewed by the Committee with the project's principal investigators and associated scientific personnel and with the DOE staff and the associate directors of the national laboratories where appropriate. The principal objectives of this research program include the determination of the risks from exposure to external radiation and from internally deposited radionuclides and the use of this information in the development of standards to protect the health of nuclear workers at DOE and related facilities and of the population at large. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Modification of the effects of continuous low dose rate irradiation by concurrent chemotherapy infusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, K.K.; Rayner, P.A.; Lam, K.N.

    1984-08-01

    The combined effects of continuous low dose rate irradiation (CLDRI) and concurrent infusion of bleomycin, cyclophosphamide, cis-platinum, 5-fluorouracil, actinomycin D, and mitomycin C were studied in the SCC VII/SF tumor, a squamous cell carcinoma and the jejunal crypt cells in the mouse. For the SCC VII/SF tumor, enhanced cell killing was seen with each of the six drugs when infused concurrently with CLDRI; the greatest enhancement was seen with mitomycin C and cis-platinum. For the jejunal crypt cells, enhanced cell killing was seen primarily with bleomycin. The authors results suggest a therapeutic gain with concurrent CLDRI and chemotherapy infusion for five of the six chemotherapeutic drugs studied with the exception of bleomycin.

  9. Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baulch, Janet

    2013-09-11

    This is a 'glue grant' that was part of a DOE Low Dose project entitled 'Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation'. This collaborative program has involved Drs. David L. Springer from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), John H. Miller from Washington State University, Tri-cities (WSU) and William F. Morgan then from the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB). In July 2008, Dr. Morgan moved to PNNL and Dr. Janet E. Baulch became PI for this project at University of Maryland. In November of 2008, a one year extension with no new funds was requested to complete the proteomic analyses. The project stemmed from studies in the Morgan laboratory demonstrating that genomically unstable cells secret a soluble factor or factors into the culture medium, that cause cytogenetic aberrations and apoptosis in normal parental GM10115 cells. The purpose of this project was to identify the death inducing effect (DIE) factor or factors, estimate their relative abundance, identify the cell signaling pathways involved and finally recapitulate DIE in normal cells by exogenous manipulation of putative DIE factors in culture medium. As reported in detail in the previous progress report, analysis of culture medium from the parental cell line, and stable and unstable clones demonstrated inconsistent proteomic profiles as relate to candidate DIE factors. While the proposed proteomic analyses did not provide information that would allow DIE factors to be identified, the analyses provided another important set of observations. Proteomic analysis suggested that proteins associated with the cellular response to oxidative stress and mitochondrial function were elevated in the medium from unstable clones in a manner consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings correlate with previous studies of these clones that demonstrated functional differences between the mitochondria of stable and unstable clones. These mitochondrial abnormalities in the unstable clones contributes to oxidative stress.

  10. Non-Targeted Effects of Ionizing Radiation: Implications for Risk Assessment and the Radiation Dose Response Profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, William F.; Sowa, Marianne B.

    2009-11-01

    Radiation risks at low doses remain a hotly debated topic. Recent experimental advances in our understanding of effects occurring in the progeny of irradiated cells, and/or the non-irradiated neighbors of irradiated cells, i.e., non-targeted effects associated with exposure to ionizing radiation, have influenced this debate. The goal of this document is to summarize the current status of this debate and speculate on the potential impact of non-targeted effects on radiation risk assessment and the radiation dose response profile.

  11. Irradiation effect on deuterium behaviour in low-dose HFIR neutron-irradiated tungsten

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimada, Masashi; Cao, G.; Otsuka, T.; Hara, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Oya, Y.; Hatano, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Tungsten samples were irradiated by neutrons in the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Oak Ridge National Laboratory at reactor coolant temperatures of 50-70C to low displacement damage of 0.025 and 0.3 dpa under the framework of the US-Japan TITAN program (2007-2013). After cooling down, the HFIR neutron-irradiated tungsten samples were exposed to deuterium plasmas in the Tritium Plasma Experiment, Idaho National Laboratory at 100, 200 and 500 C twice at the ion fluence of 510? m? to reach a total ion fluence of 110? m? in order to investigate the near surface deuterium retention and saturation via nuclear reaction analysis. Final thermal desorption spectroscopy was performed to elucidate irradiation effect on total deuterium retention. Nuclear reaction analysis results showed that the maximum near surface (<5 m depth) deuterium concentration increased from 0.5 at % D/W in 0.025 dpa samples to 0.8 at. % D/W in 0.3 dpa samples. The large discrepancy between the total retention via thermal desorption spectroscopy and the near surface retention via nuclear reaction analysis indicated the deuterium was migrated and trapped in bulk (at least 50 m depth for 0.025 dpa and 35 m depth for 0.025 dpa) at 500 C case even in the relatively low ion fluence of 10? m?.

  12. Total Dissolved Gas Effects on Incubating Chum Salmon Below Bonneville Dam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Hand, Kristine D.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Geist, David R.; Murray, Katherine J.; Dawley, Earl M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Elston, Ralph A.; Vavrinec, John

    2009-01-29

    At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE; Portland District), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook a project in 2006 to look further into issues of total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in the lower Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. In FY 2008, the third year of the project, PNNL conducted field monitoring and laboratory toxicity testing to both verify results from 2007 and answer some additional questions about how salmonid sac fry respond to elevated TDG in the field and the laboratory. For FY 2008, three objectives were 1) to repeat the 2006-2007 field effort to collect empirical data on TDG from the Ives Island and Multnomah Falls study sites; 2) to repeat the static laboratory toxicity tests on hatchery chum salmon fry to verify 2007 results and to expose wild chum salmon fry to incremental increases in TDG, above those of the static test, until external symptoms of gas bubble disease were clearly present; and 3) to assess physiological responses to TDG levels in wild chum salmon sac fry incubating below Bonneville Dam during spill operations. This report summarizes the tasks conducted and results obtained in pursuit of the three objectives. Chapter 1 discusses the field monitoring, Chapter 2 reports the findings of the laboratory toxicity tests, and Chapter 3 describes the field-sampling task. Each chapter contains an objective-specific introduction, description of the study site and methods, results of research, and discussion of findings. Literature cited throughout this report is listed in Chapter 4. Additional details on the monitoring methodology and results are provided in Appendices A and B included on the compact disc bound inside the back cover of the printed version of this report.

  13. The effect of back scatter radiation on surface dose as measured by TLDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boguslavsky, R.; Gmuer, N.; Thomlinson, W.

    1991-12-01

    A group of scientists at HASYLAB in Germany are doing an Angiography project in parallel with a group of scientists at the Brookhaven National, National Synchrotron Light Source. In order to determine the X-ray dose to a patient, the German group places lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) on the front (upstream) surface of their patient. The found that the TLD dose was higher than the dose calculated from an ionization chamber. An ionization chamber is a device that counts the number of photons when a beam of synchrotron radiation passes through Dr. Wolf-Rainer Dix of HASYLAB found that there is a difference of about 15% between dose data from TLDs put on a water tub and TLDs in the air. The goal of the experiment we did was to understand and maybe match the dose numbers Dix obtained.

  14. The effect of low dose ionizing radiation on homeostasis and functional integrity in an organotypic human skin model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    von Neubeck, Claere; Geniza, Matthew; Kauer, Paula M.; Robinson, Joseph E.; Chrisler, William B.; Sowa, Marianne B.

    2015-05-01

    Outside the protection of earths atmosphere, astronauts are exposed to low doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. Future NASA plans for deep space missions or a permanent settlement on the moon are limited by the health risks associated with space radiation exposures. There is a paucity of direct epidemiological data for low dose exposures to space radiation-relevant high LET ions. Health risk models are used to estimate the risk for such exposures, though these models are based on high dose experiments. There is increasing evidence, however, that low and high dose exposures result in different signaling events at the molecular level, and may involve different response mechanisms. Further, despite their low abundance, high LET particles have been identified as the major contributor to health risk during manned space flight. The human skin is exposed in every external radiation scenario, making it an ideal epithelial tissue model in which to study radiation induced effects. Here, we exposed an in vitro three dimensional (3-D) human organotypic skin tissue model to low doses of high LET oxygen (O), silicon (Si) and iron (Fe) ions. We measured proliferation and differentiation profiles in the skin tissue and examined the integrity of the skins barrier function. We discuss the role of secondary particles in changing the proportion of cells receiving a radiation dose, emphasizing the possible impact on radiation-induced health issues in astronauts.

  15. Irradiation effect on deuterium behaviour in low-dose HFIR neutron-irradiated tungsten

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shimada, Masashi; Cao, G.; Otsuka, T.; Hara, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Oya, Y.; Hatano, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Tungsten samples were irradiated by neutrons in the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Oak Ridge National Laboratory at reactor coolant temperatures of 50-70°C to low displacement damage of 0.025 and 0.3 dpa under the framework of the US-Japan TITAN program (2007-2013). After cooling down, the HFIR neutron-irradiated tungsten samples were exposed to deuterium plasmas in the Tritium Plasma Experiment, Idaho National Laboratory at 100, 200 and 500 °C twice at the ion fluence of 5×10²⁵ m⁻² to reach a total ion fluence of 1×10²⁶ m⁻² in order to investigate the near surface deuterium retention and saturation via nuclear reaction analysis. Finalmore » thermal desorption spectroscopy was performed to elucidate irradiation effect on total deuterium retention. Nuclear reaction analysis results showed that the maximum near surface (<5 µm depth) deuterium concentration increased from 0.5 at % D/W in 0.025 dpa samples to 0.8 at. % D/W in 0.3 dpa samples. The large discrepancy between the total retention via thermal desorption spectroscopy and the near surface retention via nuclear reaction analysis indicated the deuterium was migrated and trapped in bulk (at least 50 µm depth for 0.025 dpa and 35 µm depth for 0.025 dpa) at 500 °C case even in the relatively low ion fluence of 10²⁶ m⁻².« less

  16. Experimental and Monte Carlo evaluation of Eclipse treatment planning system for effects on dose distribution of the hip prostheses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    atl?, Serap; Tan?r, Gne?

    2013-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of titanium, titanium alloy, and stainless steel hip prostheses on dose distribution based on the Monte Carlo simulation method, as well as the accuracy of the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) at 6 and 18 MV photon energies. In the present study the pencil beam convolution (PBC) method implemented in the Eclipse TPS was compared to the Monte Carlo method and ionization chamber measurements. The present findings show that if high-Z material is used in prosthesis, large dose changes can occur due to scattering. The variance in dose observed in the present study was dependent on material type, density, and atomic number, as well as photon energy; as photon energy increased back scattering decreased. The dose perturbation effect of hip prostheses was significant and could not be predicted accurately by the PBC method for hip prostheses. The findings show that for accurate dose calculation the Monte Carlo-based TPS should be used in patients with hip prostheses.

  17. Country Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Country Total Percent of U.S. total China 1,461,074 34 Republic of Korea 172,379 4 Taiwan 688,311 16 All others 1,966,263 46 Total 4,288,027 100 Note: All Others includes Canada, Czech Republic, Federal Republic of Germany, Malaysia, Mexico, Philippines and Singapore Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report.' Table 7 . Photovoltaic module import shipments by country, 2013 (peak kilowatts)

  18. SU-E-T-145: Effects of Temporary Tachytherapy Inhibition Magnet On MOSFET Dose Measurements of Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices (CIED) in Radiation Therapy Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P, Joshi; Salomons, G; Kerr, A; Peters, C; Lalonde, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the effects of temporary tachytherapy inhibition magnet on MOSFET dose measurements of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIED) in radiation therapy patients. Methods: Infield and peripheral MOSFET dose measurements with 6MV photon beams were performed to evaluate dose to a CIED in the presence of a doughnut shaped temporary tachytherapy inhibition magnet. Infield measurements were done to quantify the effects of the magnetic field alone and shielding by the magnet. MOSFETs were placed inside a 2020cm{sup 2} field at a depth of 3cm in the isocentre plane in the presence and absence of the magnet. Peripheral dose measurements were done to determine the impact of the magnet on dose to the CIED in a clinical setting. These measurements were performed at the centre, under the rim and half way between a 1010cm{sup 2} field edge and the magnet with MOSFETS placed at the surface, 0.5cm and 1cm depths in the presence and absence of the magnet. Results: Infield measurements showed that effects of magnetic field on the MOSFET readings were within the 2% MOSFET dose measurement uncertainty; a 20% attenuation of dose under the magnet rim was observed. Peripheral dose measurements at the centre of the magnet show an 8% increase in surface dose and a 6% decrease in dose at 1cm depth. Dose under the magnet rim was reduced by approximately 68%, 45% and 25% for MOSFET placed at 0.0, 0.5 and 1.0cm bolus depths, respectively. Conclusions: The magnetic field has an insignificant effect on MOSFET dose measurements. Dose to the central region of CIED represented by centre of the magnet doughnut increases at the surface, and decreases at depths due to low energy scattering contributions from the magnet. Dose under the magnet rim, representing CIED edges, decreased significantly due to shielding.

  19. State Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State Total Percent of U.S. total Alabama 1,652 0.0 Alaska 152 0.0 Arizona 912,975 19.9 Arkansas 2,724 0.1 California 2,239,983 48.8 Colorado 49,903 1.1 Connecticut 33,627 0.7 Delaware 3,080 0.1 District of Columbia 1,746 0.0 Florida 22,061 0.5 Georgia 99,713 2.2 Guam 39 0.0 Hawaii 126,595 2.8 Idaho 1,423 0.0 Illinois 8,176 0.2 Indiana 12,912 0.3 Iowa 4,480 0.1 Kansas 523 0.0 Kentucky 2,356 0.1 Louisiana 27,704 0.6 Maine 993 0.0 Maryland 30,528 0.7 Massachusetts 143,539 3.1 Michigan 3,416 0.1

  20. SU-E-I-57: Evaluation and Optimization of Effective-Dose Using Different Beam-Hardening Filters in Clinical Pediatric Shunt CT Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gill, K; Aldoohan, S; Collier, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Study image optimization and radiation dose reduction in pediatric shunt CT scanning protocol through the use of different beam-hardening filters Methods: A 64-slice CT scanner at OU Childrens Hospital has been used to evaluate CT image contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and measure effective-doses based on the concept of CT dose index (CTDIvol) using the pediatric head shunt scanning protocol. The routine axial pediatric head shunt scanning protocol that has been optimized for the intrinsic x-ray tube filter has been used to evaluate CNR by acquiring images using the ACR approved CT-phantom and radiation dose CTphantom, which was used to measure CTDIvol. These results were set as reference points to study and evaluate the effects of adding different filtering materials (i.e. Tungsten, Tantalum, Titanium, Nickel and Copper filters) to the existing filter on image quality and radiation dose. To ensure optimal image quality, the scanner routine air calibration was run for each added filter. The image CNR was evaluated for different kVps and wide range of mAs values using above mentioned beam-hardening filters. These scanning protocols were run under axial as well as under helical techniques. The CTDIvol and the effective-dose were measured and calculated for all scanning protocols and added filtration, including the intrinsic x-ray tube filter. Results: Beam-hardening filter shapes energy spectrum, which reduces the dose by 27%. No noticeable changes in image low contrast detectability Conclusion: Effective-dose is very much dependent on the CTDIVol, which is further very much dependent on beam-hardening filters. Substantial reduction in effective-dose is realized using beam-hardening filters as compare to the intrinsic filter. This phantom study showed that significant radiation dose reduction could be achieved in CT pediatric shunt scanning protocols without compromising in diagnostic value of image quality.

  1. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Phillips, W.A.

    1987-07-01

    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and /sup 137/Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  2. Degradation and decoloration of textiles wastewater by electron beam irradiation: Effect of energy, current and absorbed dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Zulkafli,; Hashim, Siti A'aisah; Ahmad, Pauzi

    2014-09-03

    In this study, electron beam accelerator (EB) was used to treat textiles wastewater from Rawang Industrial Park, Selangor. The objectives were to determine effective energy, beam current and absorbed dose required for decoloration and degradation of the textiles effluent. The textiles effluent was irradiated in a batch with various energy of 1MeV to 3MeV at constant beam current of 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with higher beam energy. The EB energy of 1MeV effectively to removed 58% color and 19% COD. For textile effluent sample irradiated at fix energy of 1MeV and 3Mev but at different beam current 10mA, 20mA and 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with the increased of beam current at each energy. However removal of color was significantly better at 1Mev as compared to 3Mev. In the case of textiles effluent, irradiated at doses of 17, 20,25,30, 35, 100 and 200kGy using 30 kW power of EB (1Mev, 30mA), results shows removal of BOD{sub 5}, COD and color were in the range 9%-33%, 14%-38% and 43%-78% respectively.

  3. Non-Invasive Early Detection and Molecular Analysis of Low X-ray Dose Effects in the Lens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, Lee

    2014-07-02

    This is the Final Progress Report for DOE-funded research project DE-PS02-08ER08-01 titled “Non-Invasive Early Detection and Molecular Analysis of Low X-ray Dose Effects in the Lens”. The project focuses on the effects of low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation on the ocular lens. The lens is an exquisitely radiosensitive tissue with a highly-ordered molecular structure that is amenable to non-invasive optical study from the periphery. These merits point to the lens as an ideal target for laser-based molecular biodosimetry (MBD). Following exposure to different types of ionizing radiations, the lens demonstrates molecular changes (e.g., oxidation, racemization, crosslinkage, truncation, aggregation, etc.) that impact the structure and function of the long-lived proteins in the cytosol of lens fiber cells. The vast majority of proteins in the lens comprise the highly-ordered crystallins. These highly conserved lens proteins are amongst the most concentrated and stable in the body. Once synthesized, the crystallins are retained in the fiber cell cytoplasm for life. Taken together, these properties point to the lens as an ideal system for quantitative in vivo MBD assessment using quasi-elastic light scattering (QLS) analysis. In this project, we deploy a purpose-designed non-invasive infrared laser QLS instrument as a quantitative tool for longitudinal assessment of pre-cataractous molecular changes in the lenses of living mice exposed to low-dose low-LET radiation compared to non-irradiated sham controls. We hypothesize that radiation exposure will induce dose-dependent changes in the molecular structure of matrix proteins in the lens. Mechanistic assays to ascertain radiation-induced molecular changes in the lens focus on protein aggregation and gene/protein expression patterns. We anticipate that this study will contribute to our understanding of early molecular changes associated with radiation-induced tissue pathology. This study also affords potential for translational development of molecular biodosimetry instrumentation to assess human exposure to mixed radiation fields.

  4. SU-E-T-318: The Effect of Patient Positioning Errors On Target Coverage and Cochlear Dose in Stereotactic Radiosurgery Treatment of Acoustic Neuromas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dellamonica, D.; Luo, G.; Ding, G.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Setup errors on the order of millimeters may cause under-dosing of targets and significant changes in dose to critical structures especially when planning with tight margins in stereotactic radiosurgery. This study evaluates the effects of these types of patient positioning uncertainties on planning target volume (PTV) coverage and cochlear dose for stereotactic treatments of acoustic neuromas. Methods: Twelve acoustic neuroma patient treatment plans were retrospectively evaluated in Brainlab iPlan RT Dose 4.1.3. All treatment beams were shaped by HDMLC from a Varian TX machine. Seven patients had planning margins of 2mm, five had 11.5mm. Six treatment plans were created for each patient simulating a 1mm setup error in six possible directions: anterior-posterior, lateral, and superiorinferior. The arcs and HDMLC shapes were kept the same for each plan. Change in PTV coverage and mean dose to the cochlea was evaluated for each plan. Results: The average change in PTV coverage for the 72 simulated plans was ?1.7% (range: ?5 to +1.1%). The largest average change in coverage was observed for shifts in the patient's superior direction (?2.9%). The change in mean cochlear dose was highly dependent upon the direction of the shift. Shifts in the anterior and superior direction resulted in an average increase in dose of 13.5 and 3.8%, respectively, while shifts in the posterior and inferior direction resulted in an average decrease in dose of 17.9 and 10.2%. The average change in dose to the cochlea was 13.9% (range: 1.4 to 48.6%). No difference was observed based on the size of the planning margin. Conclusion: This study indicates that if the positioning uncertainty is kept within 1mm the setup errors may not result in significant under-dosing of the acoustic neuroma target volumes. However, the change in mean cochlear dose is highly dependent upon the direction of the shift.

  5. Dose reconstruction for the Urals population. Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research, Project 1.1 -- Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Degteva, M.O.; Drozhko, E.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Napier, B.A.; Bouville, A.C.; Miller, C.W.

    1996-02-01

    This work is being carried out as a feasibility study to determine if a long-term course of work can be implemented to assess the long-term risks of radiation exposure delivered at low to moderate dose rates to the populations living in the vicinity of the Mayak Industrial Association (MIA). This work was authorized and conducted under the auspices of the US-Russian Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER) and its Executive Committee (EC). The MIA was the first Russian site for the production and separation of plutonium. This plant began operation in 1948, and during its early days there were technological failures that resulted in the release of large amounts of waste into the rather small Techa River. There were also gaseous releases of radioiodines and other radionuclides during the early days of operation. In addition, there was an accidental explosion in a waste storage tank in 1957 that resulted in a significant release. The Techa River Cohort has been studied for several years by scientists from the Urals Research Centre for Radiation Medicine and an increase in both leukemia and solid tumors has been noted.

  6. The Effects of Low Dose Irradiation on Inflammatory Response Proteins in a 3D Reconstituted Human Skin Tissue Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varnum, Susan M.; Springer, David L.; Chaffee, Mary E.; Lien, Katie A.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Waters, Katrina M.; Sacksteder, Colette A.

    2012-12-01

    Skin responses to moderate and high doses of ionizing radiation include the induction of DNA repair, apoptosis, and stress response pathways. Additionally, numerous studies indicate that radiation exposure leads to inflammatory responses in skin cells and tissue. However, the inflammatory response of skin tissue to low dose radiation (<10 cGy) is poorly understood. In order to address this, we have utilized a reconstituted human skin tissue model (MatTek EpiDerm FT) and assessed changes in 23 cytokines twenty-four and forty eight hours following treatment of skin with either 3 or 10 cGy low-dose of radiation. Three cytokines, IFN-?, IL-2, MIP-1?, were significantly altered in response to low dose radiation. In contrast, seven cytokines were significantly altered in response to a high radiation dose of 200 cGy (IL-2, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-?, MIP-1?, TNF ?, and VEGF) or the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-1?, IL-8, MIP-1?, MIP-1?, RANTES). Additionally, radiation induced inflammation appears to have a distinct cytokine response relative to the non-radiation induced stressor, TPA. Overall, these results indicate that there are subtle changes in the inflammatory protein levels following exposure to low dose radiation and this response is a sub-set of what is seen following a high dose in a human skin tissue model.

  7. The effects of total dissolved gas on chum salmon fry survival, growth, gas bubble disease, and seawater tolerance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geist, David R.; Linley, Timothy J.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2013-02-01

    Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta alevin developing in gravel habitats downstream of Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River are exposed to elevated levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) when water is spilled at the dam to move migrating salmon smolts downstream to the Pacific Ocean. Current water quality criteria for the management of dissolved gas in dam tailwaters were developed primarily to protect salmonid smolts and are assumed to be protective of alevin if adequate depth compensation is provided. We studied whether chum salmon alevin exposed to six levels of dissolved gas ranging from 100% to 130% TDG at three development periods between hatch and emergence (hereafter early, middle, and late stage) suffered differential mortality, growth, gas bubble disease, or seawater tolerance. Each life stage was exposed for 50 d (early stage), 29 d (middle stage), or 16 d (late stage) beginning at 13, 34, and 37 d post-hatch, respectively, through 50% emergence. The mortality for all stages from exposure to emergence was estimated to be 8% (95% confidence interval (CI) of 4% to 12%) when dissolved gas levels were between 100% and 117% TDG. Mortality significantly increased as dissolved gas levels rose above 117% TDG,; with the lethal concentration that produced 50% mortality (LC50 ) was estimated to be 128.7% TDG (95% CI of 127.2% to 130.2% TDG) in the early and middle stages. By contrast, there was no evidence that dissolved gas level significantly affected growth in any life stage except that the mean wet weight at emergence of early stage fish exposed to 130% TDG was significantly less than the modeled growth of unexposed fish. The proportion of fish afflicted with gas bubble disease increased with increasing gas concentrations and occurred most commonly in the nares and gastrointestinal tract. Early stage fish exhibited higher ratios of filament to lamellar gill chloride cells than late stage fish, and these ratios increased and decreased for early and late stage fish, respectively, as gas levels increased; however, there were no significant differences in mortality between life stages after 96 h in seawater. The study results suggest that current water quality guidelines for the management of dissolved gas appear to offer a conservative level of protection to chum salmon alevin incubating in gravel habitat downstream of Bonneville Dam.

  8. Low-Dose Hyper-Radiosensitivity Is Not a Common Effect in Normal Asynchronous and G2-Phase Fibroblasts of Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S?onina, Dorota; Biesaga, Beata; Janecka, Anna; Kabat, Damian; Bukowska-Strakova, Karolina; Gasi?ska, Anna

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: In our previous study, using the micronucleus assay, a low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS)-like phenomenon was observed for normal fibroblasts of 2 of the 40 cancer patients investigated. In this article we report, for the first time, the survival response of primary fibroblasts from 25 of these patients to low-dose irradiation and answer the question regarding the effect of G2-phase enrichment on HRS elicitation. Methods and Materials: The clonogenic survival of asynchronous as well as G2-phase enriched fibroblast populations was measured. Separation of G2-phase cells and precise cell counting was performed using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. Sorted and plated cells were irradiated with single doses (0.1-4 Gy) of 6-MV x-rays. For each patient, at least 4 independent experiments were performed, and the induced-repair model was fitted over the whole data set to confirm the presence of HRS effect. Results: The HRS response was demonstrated for the asynchronous and G2-phase enriched cell populations of 4 patients. For the rest of patients, HRS was not defined in either of the 2 fibroblast populations. Thus, G2-phase enrichment had no effect on HRS elicitation. Conclusions: The fact that low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity is not a common effect in normal human fibroblasts implies that HRS may be of little consequence in late-responding connective tissues with regard to radiation fibrosis.

  9. Barge Truck Total

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Barge Truck Total delivered cost per short ton Shipments with transportation rates over total shipments Total delivered cost per short ton Shipments with transportation rates over...

  10. SU-E-T-599: The Variation of Hounsfield Unit and Relative Electron Density Determination as a Function of KVp and Its Effect On Dose Calculation Accuracy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohl, A; Boer, S De

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the differences in relative electron density for different energy (kVp) settings and the effect that these differences have on dose calculations. Methods: A Nuclear Associates 76-430 Mini CT QC Phantom with materials of known relative electron densities was imaged by one multi-slice (16) and one single-slice computed tomography (CT) scanner. The Hounsfield unit (HU) was recorded for each material with energies ranging from 80 to 140 kVp and a representative relative electron density (RED) curve was created. A 5 cm thick inhomogeneity was created in the treatment planning system (TPS) image at a depth of 5 cm. The inhomogeneity was assigned HU for various materials for each kVp calibration curve. The dose was then calculated with the analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) at points within and below the inhomogeneity and compared using the 80 kVp beam as a baseline. Results: The differences in RED values as a function of kVp showed the largest variations of 580 and 547 HU for the Aluminum and Bone materials; the smallest differences of 0.6 and 3.0 HU were observed for the air and lung inhomogeneities. The corresponding dose calculations for the different RED values assigned to the 5 cm thick slab revealed the largest differences inside the aluminum and bone inhomogeneities of 2.2 to 6.4% and 4.3 to 7.0% respectively. The dose differences beyond these two inhomogeneities were between 0.4 to 1.6% for aluminum and 1.9 to 2.2 % for bone. For materials with lower HU the calculated dose differences were less than 1.0%. Conclusion: For high CT number materials the dose differences in the phantom calculation as high as 7.0% are significant. This result may indicate that implementing energy specific RED curves can increase dose calculation accuracy.

  11. Sample size requirements for estimating effective dose from computed tomography using solid-state metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trattner, Sigal; Cheng, Bin; Pieniazek, Radoslaw L.; Hoffmann, Udo; Douglas, Pamela S.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Effective dose (ED) is a widely used metric for comparing ionizing radiation burden between different imaging modalities, scanners, and scan protocols. In computed tomography (CT), ED can be estimated by performing scans on an anthropomorphic phantom in which metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) solid-state dosimeters have been placed to enable organ dose measurements. Here a statistical framework is established to determine the sample size (number of scans) needed for estimating ED to a desired precision and confidence, for a particular scanner and scan protocol, subject to practical limitations. Methods: The statistical scheme involves solving equations which minimize the sample size required for estimating ED to desired precision and confidence. It is subject to a constrained variation of the estimated ED and solved using the Lagrange multiplier method. The scheme incorporates measurement variation introduced both by MOSFET calibration, and by variation in MOSFET readings between repeated CT scans. Sample size requirements are illustrated on cardiac, chest, and abdomenpelvis CT scans performed on a 320-row scanner and chest CT performed on a 16-row scanner. Results: Sample sizes for estimating ED vary considerably between scanners and protocols. Sample size increases as the required precision or confidence is higher and also as the anticipated ED is lower. For example, for a helical chest protocol, for 95% confidence and 5% precision for the ED, 30 measurements are required on the 320-row scanner and 11 on the 16-row scanner when the anticipated ED is 4 mSv; these sample sizes are 5 and 2, respectively, when the anticipated ED is 10 mSv. Conclusions: Applying the suggested scheme, it was found that even at modest sample sizes, it is feasible to estimate ED with high precision and a high degree of confidence. As CT technology develops enabling ED to be lowered, more MOSFET measurements are needed to estimate ED with the same precision and confidence.

  12. The effect of head size/shape, miscentering, and bowtie filter on peak patient tissue doses from modern brain perfusion 256-slice CT: How can we minimize the risk for deterministic effects?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perisinakis, Kostas; Seimenis, Ioannis; Tzedakis, Antonis; Papadakis, Antonios E.; Damilakis, John

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To determine patient-specific absorbed peak doses to skin, eye lens, brain parenchyma, and cranial red bone marrow (RBM) of adult individuals subjected to low-dose brain perfusion CT studies on a 256-slice CT scanner, and investigate the effect of patient head size/shape, head position during the examination and bowtie filter used on peak tissue doses. Methods: The peak doses to eye lens, skin, brain, and RBM were measured in 106 individual-specific adult head phantoms subjected to the standard low-dose brain perfusion CT on a 256-slice CT scanner using a novel Monte Carlo simulation software dedicated for patient CT dosimetry. Peak tissue doses were compared to corresponding thresholds for induction of cataract, erythema, cerebrovascular disease, and depression of hematopoiesis, respectively. The effects of patient head size/shape, head position during acquisition and bowtie filter used on resulting peak patient tissue doses were investigated. The effect of eye-lens position in the scanned head region was also investigated. The effect of miscentering and use of narrow bowtie filter on image quality was assessed. Results: The mean peak doses to eye lens, skin, brain, and RBM were found to be 124, 120, 95, and 163 mGy, respectively. The effect of patient head size and shape on peak tissue doses was found to be minimal since maximum differences were less than 7%. Patient head miscentering and bowtie filter selection were found to have a considerable effect on peak tissue doses. The peak eye-lens dose saving achieved by elevating head by 4 cm with respect to isocenter and using a narrow wedge filter was found to approach 50%. When the eye lies outside of the primarily irradiated head region, the dose to eye lens was found to drop to less than 20% of the corresponding dose measured when the eye lens was located in the middle of the x-ray beam. Positioning head phantom off-isocenter by 4 cm and employing a narrow wedge filter results in a moderate reduction of signal-to-noise ratio mainly to the peripheral region of the phantom. Conclusions: Despite typical peak doses to skin, eye lens, brain, and RBM from the standard low-dose brain perfusion 256-slice CT protocol are well below the corresponding thresholds for the induction of erythema, cataract, cerebrovascular disease, and depression of hematopoiesis, respectively, every effort should be made toward optimization of the procedure and minimization of dose received by these tissues. The current study provides evidence that the use of the narrower bowtie filter available may considerably reduce peak absorbed dose to all above radiosensitive tissues with minimal deterioration in image quality. Considerable reduction in peak eye-lens dose may also be achieved by positioning patient head center a few centimeters above isocenter during the exposure.

  13. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  14. Dose Calculation Spreadsheet

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-06-10

    VENTSAR XL is an EXCEL Spreadsheet that can be used to calculate downwind doses as a result of a hypothetical atmospheric release. Both building effects and plume rise may be considered. VENTSAR XL will run using any version of Microsoft EXCEL version 4.0 or later. Macros (the programming language of EXCEL) was used to automate the calculations. The user enters a minimal amount of input and the code calculates the resulting concentrations and doses atmore » various downwind distances as specified by the user.« less

  15. Higher Biologically Effective Dose of Radiotherapy Is Associated With Improved Outcomes for Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Treated With Chemoradiation: An Analysis of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machtay, Mitchell; Movsas, Benjamin; Paulus, Rebecca; Gore, Elizabeth M.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Albain, Kathy; Sause, William T.; Curran, Walter J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma (LA-NSCLC) were analyzed for local-regional failure (LRF) and overall survival (OS) with respect to radiotherapy dose intensity. Methods and Materials: This study combined data from seven Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials in which chemoradiotherapy was used for LA-NSCLC: RTOG 88-08 (chemoradiation arm only), 90-15, 91-06, 92-04, 93-09 (nonoperative arm only), 94-10, and 98-01. The radiotherapeutic biologically effective dose (BED) received by each individual patient was calculated, as was the overall treatment time-adjusted BED (tBED) using standard formulae. Heterogeneity testing was done with chi-squared statistics, and weighted pooled hazard ratio estimates were used. Cox and Fine and Gray's proportional hazard models were used for OS and LRF, respectively, to test the associations between BED and tBED adjusted for other covariates. Results: A total of 1,356 patients were analyzed for BED (1,348 for tBED). The 2-year and 5-year OS rates were 38% and 15%, respectively. The 2-year and 5-year LRF rates were 46% and 52%, respectively. The BED (and tBED) were highly significantly associated with both OS and LRF, with or without adjustment for other covariates on multivariate analysis (p < 0.0001). A 1-Gy BED increase in radiotherapy dose intensity was statistically significantly associated with approximately 4% relative improvement in survival; this is another way of expressing the finding that the pool-adjusted hazard ratio for survival as a function of BED was 0.96. Similarly, a 1-Gy tBED increase in radiotherapy dose intensity was statistically significantly associated with approximately 3% relative improvement in local-regional control; this is another way of expressing the finding that the pool-adjusted hazard ratio as a function of tBED was 0.97. Conclusions: Higher radiotherapy dose intensity is associated with improved local-regional control and survival in the setting of chemoradiotherapy.

  16. Dose Reduction Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  17. Mechanisms of Low Dose Radio-Suppression of Genomic Instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelward, Bevin P

    2009-09-16

    The major goal of this project is to contribute toward the elucidation of the impact of long term low dose radiation on genomic stability. We have created and characterized novel technologies for delivering long term low dose radiation to animals, and we have studied genomic stability by applying cutting edge molecular analysis technologies. Remarkably, we have found that a dose rate that is 300X higher than background radiation does not lead to any detectable genomic damage, nor is there any significant change in gene expression for genes pertinent to the DNA damage response. These results point to the critical importance of dose rate, rather than just total dose, when evaluating public health risks and when creating regulatory guidelines. In addition to these studies, we have also further developed a mouse model for quantifying cells that have undergone a large scale DNA sequence rearrangement via homologous recombination, and we have applied these mice in studies of both low dose radiation and space radiation. In addition to more traditional approaches for assessing genomic stability, we have also explored radiation and possible beneficial effects (adaptive response), long term effects (persistent effects) and effects on communication among cells (bystander effects), both in vitro and in vivo. In terms of the adaptive response, we have not observed any significant induction of an adaptive response following long term low dose radiation in vivo, delivered at 300X background. In terms of persistent and bystander effects, we have revealed evidence of a bystander effect in vivo and with researchers at and demonstrated for the first time the molecular mechanism by which cells remember radiation exposure. Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms by which radiation can induce genomic instability is fundamental to our ability to assess the biological impact of low dose radiation. Finally, in a parallel set of studies we have explored the effects of heavy iron particle radiation on large scale sequence rearrangements and we have discovered tissue specific differences in sensitivity to homologous recombination. DOE support has given rise to critical new knowledge about the biological impact of low dose rate radiation and about the underlying mechanisms that govern genomic stability in response to radiation exposure. This work has spurred interest in radiation among MIT scientists, and has fostered ongoing research projects that will continue to contribute toward our understanding of the biological effects of low dose radiation exposure.

  18. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per...

  19. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  20. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region, 1999" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per Square Foot"...

  1. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

  2. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per...

  3. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  4. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

  5. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings*...

  6. Patient dose estimation from CT scans at the Mexican National Neurology and Neurosurgery Institute

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alva-Sánchez, Héctor

    2014-11-07

    In the radiology department of the Mexican National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, a dedicated institute in Mexico City, on average 19.3 computed tomography (CT) examinations are performed daily on hospitalized patients for neurological disease diagnosis, control scans and follow-up imaging. The purpose of this work was to estimate the effective dose received by hospitalized patients who underwent a diagnostic CT scan using typical effective dose values for all CT types and to obtain the estimated effective dose distributions received by surgical and non-surgical patients. Effective patient doses were estimated from values per study type reported in the applications guide provided by the scanner manufacturer. This retrospective study included all hospitalized patients who underwent a diagnostic CT scan between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2012. A total of 8777 CT scans were performed in this two-year period. Simple brain scan was the CT type performed the most (74.3%) followed by contrasted brain scan (6.1%) and head angiotomography (5.7%). The average number of CT scans per patient was 2.83; the average effective dose per patient was 7.9 mSv; the mean estimated radiation dose was significantly higher for surgical (9.1 mSv) than non-surgical patients (6.0 mSv). Three percent of the patients had 10 or more brain CT scans and exceeded the organ radiation dose threshold set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for deterministic effects of the eye-lens. Although radiation patient doses from CT scans were in general relatively low, 187 patients received a high effective dose (>20 mSv) and 3% might develop cataract from cumulative doses to the eye lens.

  7. Parallel Total Energy

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-10-21

    This is a total energy electronic structure code using Local Density Approximation (LDA) of the density funtional theory. It uses the plane wave as the wave function basis set. It can sue both the norm conserving pseudopotentials and the ultra soft pseudopotentials. It can relax the atomic positions according to the total energy. It is a parallel code using MP1.

  8. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on functional status in chronic multiple sclerosis: importance of lymphopenia early after treatment--the pros

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devereux, C.; Troiano, R.; Zito, G.; Devereux, R.B.; Kopecky, K.J.; Friedman, R.; Dowling, P.C.; Hafstein, M.P.; Rohowsky-Kochan, C.; Cook, S.D.

    1988-07-01

    To determine whether immunosuppression by total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) slowed deterioration of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), functional impairment score and blood lymphocyte counts were compared at 6-month intervals through 4 years following treatment of MS patients by either TLI (n = 27) or sham irradiation (n = 21). At each interval, 20 to 30% fewer TLI-treated patients had deteriorated (p less than 0.05 at 6, 12, and 18 months), and the difference in mean functional impairment score between groups became progressively greater (p less than 0.01 at 42 and 48 months). Benefit accrued principally to the 17 TLI-treated patients with absolute blood lymphocyte counts less than 900/mm3 3 months after treatment, whose mean functional impairment score remained within 0.6 units of baseline (p = NS), whereas the ten TLI patients with higher post-treatment lymphocyte counts had progressive deterioration (p less than 0.05 to p less than 0.001 versus TLI-treated patients with lower lymphocyte counts at all intervals except 30 months) and had deteriorated by more than 5 functional scale units by 42 and 48 months. Side effects were minor and complications rare in TLI-treated patients, but one TLI-treated patient developed staphylococcal sepsis. Thus, TLI slows deterioration of chronic progressive MS, with what appears to be enduring benefit through 4 years compartmented to patients with greater induced lymphopenia. Modification of lymphoid irradiation regimens to increase the proportion of MS patients who achieve a favorable degree of lymphopenia and to avert functional hyposplenism may further improve the benefit/risk ratio.

  9. Summary Max Total Units

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Summary Max Total Units *If All Splits, No Rack Units **If Only FW, AC Splits 1000 52 28 28 2000 87 59 35 3000 61 33 15 4000 61 33 15 Totals 261 153 93 ***Costs $1,957,500.00 $1,147,500.00 $697,500.00 Notes: added several refrigerants removed bins from analysis removed R-22 from list 1000lb, no Glycol, CO2 or ammonia Seawater R-404A only * includes seawater units ** no seawater units included *** Costs = (total units) X (estimate of $7500 per unit) 1000lb, air cooled split systems, fresh water

  10. Country/Continent Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    peak kilowatts) Country/Continent Total Percent of U.S. total Africa 14,279 3.7 Asia/Australia 330,200 86.2 Europe 19,771 5.1 South/Central America 7,748 2.0 Canada 5,507 1.4 Mexico 5,747 1.5 Total 383,252 100.0 Table 8. Destination of photovoltaic module export shipments, 2013 Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report.'

  11. SU-E-T-371: Validation of Organ Doses Delivered During Craniospinal Irradiation with Helical Tomotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Andujar, A; Chen, J; Garcia, A; Haas-Kogan, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: New techniques have been developed to deliver more conformal treatments to the craniospinal axis. One concern, however, is the widespread low dose delivered and implications for possible late effects. The purpose of this work is for the first time to validate the organ doses calculated by the treatment planning system (TPS), including out-of-field doses for a pediatric craniospinal treatment (CSI). Methods: A CSI plan prescribed to 23.4 Gy and a posterior fossa boost plan to 30.6 Gy (total dose 54.0 Gy) was developed for a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom representing a 13 yearold- child. For the CSI plan, the planning target volumes (PTV) consisted of the brain and spinal cord with 2 mm and 5 mm expansions, respectively. Organs at risk (OAR) were contoured and included in the plan optimization. The plans were delivered on a helical tomotherapy unit. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to measure the dose at 54 positions within the PTV and OARs. Results: For the CSI treatment, the mean percent difference between TPS dose calculations and measurements was 5% for the PTV and 10% for the OARs. For the boost, the average was 3% for the PTV. The percent difference for the OARs, which lie outside the field and received a small fraction of the prescription dose, varied from 15% to 200%. However in terms of absolute dose, the average difference between measurement and TPS per treatment Gy was 2 cGy/Gy and 3 mGy/Gy for the CSI and boost plans, respectively. Conclusion: There was good agreement between doses calculated by the TPS and measurements for the CSI treatment. Higher percent differences were observed for out-of-field doses in the boost plan, but absolute dose differences were very small compared to the prescription dose. These findings can help in the estimation of late effects after radiotherapy for pediatric patients.

  12. Structural changes caused by radiation-induced reduction and radiolysis: the effect of X-ray absorbed dose in a fungal multicopper oxidase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De la Mora, Eugenio; Lovett, Janet E.; Blanford, Christopher F.; Garman, Elspeth F.; Valderrama, Brenda; Rudino-Pinera, Enrique

    2012-05-01

    Radiation-induced reduction, radiolysis of copper sites and the effect of pH value together with the concomitant geometrical distortions of the active centres were analysed in several fungal (C. gallica) laccase structures collected at cryotemperature. This study emphasizes the importance of careful interpretation when the crystallographic structure of a metalloprotein is described. X-ray radiation induces two main effects at metal centres contained in protein crystals: radiation-induced reduction and radiolysis and a resulting decrease in metal occupancy. In blue multicopper oxidases (BMCOs), the geometry of the active centres and the metal-to-ligand distances change depending on the oxidation states of the Cu atoms, suggesting that these alterations are catalytically relevant to the binding, activation and reduction of O{sub 2}. In this work, the X-ray-determined three-dimensional structure of laccase from the basidiomycete Coriolopsis gallica (Cg L), a high catalytic potential BMCO, is described. By combining spectroscopic techniques (UVVis, EPR and XAS) and X-ray crystallography, structural changes at and around the active copper centres were related to pH and absorbed X-ray dose (energy deposited per unit mass). Depletion of two of the four active Cu atoms as well as low occupancies of the remaining Cu atoms, together with different conformations of the metal centres, were observed at both acidic pH and high absorbed dose, correlating with more reduced states of the active coppers. These observations provide additional evidence to support the role of flexibility of copper sites during O{sub 2} reduction. This study supports previous observations indicating that interpretations regarding redox state and metal coordination need to take radiation effects explicitly into account.

  13. Dose reconstruction for the Urals population: Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research Project 1.1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Degteva, M.O.; Drozhko, E.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Napier, B.A.; Bouville, A.C.; Miller, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    Population exposure in the Urals occurred as a result of failures in the technological processes at the Mayak plutonium facility in the 1950s. Construction of the Mayak facility began in 1945 and was completed in 1948. Initially this complex consisted of three main parts: Reactor plant, radiochemical facility, and waste-management facilities. The major sources of radioactive contamination were the discharges of 2.7 x 10{sup 6}Ci of liquid wastes into the Techa River (1949-1956); an explosion in the radioactive waste storage facility in 1957 (the so-called Kyshtym Accident) that formed the East Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT) due to dispersion. of 2 x 10{sup 6}Ci into the atmosphere; and gaseous aerosol releases (about 560,000 Ci of {sup 131}I in total) within the first decades of the facility`s operation. The significant portion of activity for the Techa River and EURT consists of long-lived radionuclides, mainly {sup 9O}Sr. These releases resulted in the long-lived contamination of surrounding territories. The predominant radionuclide for operating gaseous aerosol releases was short-lived {sup 131}I resulting from reprocessing of nuclear fuel. The maximal annual rates, which occurred in 1952-1953, were reconstructed on the basis of technological records by the Mayak team.

  14. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other...

  15. ARM - Measurement - Total carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Total carbon The total concentration of carbon in all its organic and non-organic forms. Categories Aerosols, Atmospheric Carbon Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including

  16. Characterization of hydrogenated amorphous germanium compounds obtained by x-ray chemical vapor deposition of germane: Effect of the irradiation dose on optical parameters and structural order

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arrais, Aldo; Benzi, Paola; Bottizzo, Elena; Demaria, Chiara

    2007-11-15

    Hydrogenated nonstoichiometric germanium materials have been produced by x-ray activated-chemical vapor deposition from germane. The reactions pattern leading to the solid products has been investigated. The dose effect on the composition, the local bonding configuration, and structural characteristics of the deposited solids has been studied using infrared absorption and Raman spectroscopy and has been discussed. Optical parameters have been also determined from ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry data. The results show that the solids are formed by a random bound network of germanium and hydrogen atoms with a-Ge zones dispersed in the matrix. The Raman results and optical parameters indicate that the structural order, both short-range and intermediate-range, decreases with increasing irradiation time. This behavior suggests that the solid is involved in the reactions leading to the final product and indicates that the formation of amorphous germanium zones is stimulated by postdeposition irradiation, which induces compositional and structural modifications.

  17. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasiolek, Maryla A.

    2000-12-21

    The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to development of the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postclosure nominal performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations concerned twenty-four radionuclides. This selection included sixteen radionuclides that may be significant nominal performance dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, five additional radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure, and three relatively short-lived radionuclides important for the human intrusion scenario. Consideration of radionuclide buildup in soil caused by previous irrigation with contaminated groundwater was taken into account in the BDCF development. The effect of climate evolution, from the current arid conditions to a wetter and cooler climate, on the BDCF values was evaluated. The analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. Calculations of nominal performance BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. BDCFs for the nominal performance, when combined with the concentrations of radionuclides in groundwater allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculated estimates of radionuclide concentration in groundwater result from the saturated zone modeling. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) to calculate doses to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

  18. Total DOE/NNSA

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    8 Actuals 2009 Actuals 2010 Actuals 2011 Actuals 2012 Actuals 2013 Actuals 2014 Actuals 2015 Actuals Total DOE/NNSA 4,385 4,151 4,240 4,862 5,154 5,476 7,170 7,593 Total non-NNSA 3,925 4,017 4,005 3,821 3,875 3,974 3,826 3765 Total Facility 8,310 8,168 8,245 8,683 9,029 9,450 10,996 11,358 non-NNSA includes DOE offices and Strategic Parternship Projects (SPP) employees NNSA M&O Employee Reporting

  19. Investigation of the effects of cell model and subcellular location of gold nanoparticles on nuclear dose enhancement factors using Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Zhongli; Chattopadhyay, Niladri; Kwon, Yongkyu Luke; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Lechtman, Eli; Reilly, Raymond M.; Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2; Toronto General Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: The authors aims were to model how various factors influence radiation dose enhancement by gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and to propose a new modeling approach to the dose enhancement factor (DEF).Methods: The authors used Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP 5) computer code to simulate photon and electron transport in cells. The authors modeled human breast cancer cells as a single cell, a monolayer, or a cluster of cells. Different numbers of 5, 30, or 50 nm AuNPs were placed in the extracellular space, on the cell surface, in the cytoplasm, or in the nucleus. Photon sources examined in the simulation included nine monoenergetic x-rays (10100 keV), an x-ray beam (100 kVp), and {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd brachytherapy seeds. Both nuclear and cellular dose enhancement factors (NDEFs, CDEFs) were calculated. The ability of these metrics to predict the experimental DEF based on the clonogenic survival of MDA-MB-361 human breast cancer cells exposed to AuNPs and x-rays were compared.Results: NDEFs show a strong dependence on photon energies with peaks at 15, 30/40, and 90 keV. Cell model and subcellular location of AuNPs influence the peak position and value of NDEF. NDEFs decrease in the order of AuNPs in the nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, and extracellular space. NDEFs also decrease in the order of AuNPs in a cell cluster, monolayer, and single cell if the photon energy is larger than 20 keV. NDEFs depend linearly on the number of AuNPs per cell. Similar trends were observed for CDEFs. NDEFs using the monolayer cell model were more predictive than either single cell or cluster cell models of the DEFs experimentally derived from the clonogenic survival of cells cultured as a monolayer. The amount of AuNPs required to double the prescribed dose in terms of mg Au/g tissue decreases as the size of AuNPs increases, especially when AuNPs are in the nucleus and the cytoplasm. For 40 keV x-rays and a cluster of cells, to double the prescribed x-ray dose (NDEF = 2) using 30 nm AuNPs, would require 5.1 0.2, 9 1, 10 1, 10 1 mg Au/g tissue in the nucleus, in the cytoplasm, on the cell surface, or in the extracellular space, respectively. Using 50 nm AuNPs, the required amount decreases to 3.1 0.3, 8 1, 9 1, 9 1 mg Au/g tissue, respectively.Conclusions: NDEF is a new metric that can predict the radiation enhancement of AuNPs for various experimental conditions. Cell model, the subcellular location and size of AuNPs, and the number of AuNPs per cell, as well as the x-ray photon energy all have effects on NDEFs. Larger AuNPs in the nucleus of cluster cells exposed to x-rays of 15 or 40 keV maximize NDEFs.

  20. 21 briefing pages total

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1 briefing pages total p. 1 Reservist Differential Briefing U.S. Office of Personnel Management December 11, 2009 p. 2 Agenda - Introduction of Speakers - Background - References/Tools - Overview of Reservist Differential Authority - Qualifying Active Duty Service and Military Orders - Understanding Military Leave and Earnings Statements p. 3 Background 5 U.S.C. 5538 (Section 751 of the Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009, March 11, 2009) (Public Law 111-8) Law requires OPM to consult with DOD Law

  1. Low-dose gold nanoparticles exert subtle endocrine-modulating effects on the ovarian steroidogenic pathway ex vivo independent of oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, Jeremy K.; Carvan, Michael J.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Krystofiak, Evan; Hutz, Reinhold J.

    2014-12-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have gained considerable attention for application in science and industry. However, the untoward effects of such particles on female fertility remain unclear. The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the effects of 10-nm GNPs on progesterone and estradiol-17b accumulation by rat ovaries ex vivo and (2) to identify the locus/loci whereby GNPs modulate steroidogenesis via multiple-reference gene quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Regression analyses indicated a positive relationship between both Star (p < 0.05, r2 = 0.278) and Cyp11a1 (p < 0.001, r2 = 0.366) expression and P4 accumulation. upon exposure to 1.43 * 106 GNPs/mL. Additional analyses showed that E2 accumulation was positively associated with Hsd3b1 (p < 0.05, r2 = 0.181) and Cyp17a1 (p < 0.01, r2 = 0.301) expression upon exposure to 1.43 * 13 and 1.43 * 109 GNPs/mL, respectively. These results suggest a subtle treatmentdependent impact of low-dose GNPs on the relationship between progesterone or estradiol-17b and specific steroidogenic target genes, independent of oxidative stress or inhibin.

  2. Radiation Therapy Photon Beams Dose Conformation According to Dose Distribution Around Intracavitary-Applied Brachytherapy Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jurkovic, Slaven Zauhar, Gordana; Faj, Dario; Radojcic, Deni Smilovic; Svabic, Manda

    2010-04-01

    Intracavitary application of brachytherapy sources followed by external beam radiation is essential for the local treatment of carcinoma of the cervix. Due to very high doses to the central portion of the target volume delivered by brachytherapy sources, this part of the target volume must be shielded while being irradiated by photon beams. Several shielding techniques are available, from rectangular block and standard cervix wedge to more precise, customized step wedge filters. Because the calculation of a step wedge filter's shape was usually based on effective attenuation coefficient, an approach that accounts, in a more precise way, for the scattered radiation, is suggested. The method was verified under simulated clinical conditions using film dosimetry. Measured data for various compensators were compared to the numerically determined sum of the dose distribution around brachytherapy sources and one of compensated beam. Improvements in total dose distribution are demonstrated, using our method. Agreement between calculation and measurements were within 3%. Sensitivity of the method on sources displacement during treatment has also been investigated.

  3. Effects of prenatal exposure to a low dose atrazine metabolite mixture on pubertal timing and prostate development of male Long-Evans rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanko, Jason; Enoch, Rolondo; Rayner, Jennifer L; Davis, Christine; Wolf, Douglas; Malarkey, David; Fenton, Suzanne

    2010-12-01

    The present study examines the postnatal reproductive development of male rats following prenatal exposure to an atrazine metabolite mixture (AMM) consisting of the herbicide atrazine and its environmental metabolites diaminochlorotriazine, hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were treated by gavage with 0.09, 0.87, or 8.73 mg AMM/kg body weight (BW), vehicle, or 100 mg ATR/kg BW positive control, on gestation days 15 19. Preputial separation was significantly delayed in 0.87 mg and 8.73 mg AMM-exposed males. AMM-exposed males demonstrated a significant treatment-related increase in incidence and severity of inflammation in the prostate on postnatal day (PND) 120. A dose-dependent increase in epididymal fat masses and prostate foci were grossly visible in AMM-exposed offspring. These results indicate that a short, late prenatal exposure to mixture of chlorotriazine metabolites can cause chronic prostatitis in male LE rats. The mode of action for these effects is presently unclear.

  4. Revision of Army regulation (AR) 200-2, environmental effects of Army actions, and the application of total quality mangement (TQM) principles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkel, H,K.; Robitaille, P.

    1995-12-01

    AR 200-2 is the Army`s implementing regulation to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and DoD`s NEPA Directive DoDD 6050.1. AR 200-2 was last revised in the late 1980s and since then the scope of Army NEPA compliance activities have significantly increased, and NEPA practice and case law are continually changing. The purpose of revising AR 200-2 is to provide Army personel with clear and Concise guidance on how to meet their NEPA compliance requirements. The revision process included reviewing the current AR 200-2 to identify areas and topics needing clarification or modification; conferring with Army NEPA personnel to obtain views on NEPA compliance practices and procedures; conducting a review and analysis of significant, recent developments in NEPA case law; reviewing other federal NEPA implementing regulations to identify useful, transferrable concepts; preparing a {open_quotes}strawman{close_quotes} version of AR 200-2 to use as a starting point in the revision process; coordinating and consolidating input from the AR 200-2 Revisions Steering Committee; and responding to review comments. A draft version of AR 200-2 has been completed and informal Army-wide comments have been addressed. Some of the issues that the AR 200-2 Revisions Steering Committee considered during the revision effort included expanding the list of categorical exclusions, determining the appropriate length for the public comment period for environmental assessments prior to approval of the finding of no significant impact, determining the appropriate level of analysis for Army actions abroad, and determining whether Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation Liability Act (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) actions should be addressed under NEPA. Total Quality Management (TQM) principles were applied during the revision process. GroupSystems{trademark} software was used as a vehicle to enhance total group participation from managers to practitioners.

  5. Total Sales of Kerosene

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Farm All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 269,010 305,508 187,656 81,102 79,674 137,928 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 198,762 237,397 142,189 63,075 61,327 106,995 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 56,661 53,363 38,448 15,983 15,991 27,500 1984-2014 Connecticut 8,800 7,437

  6. Table 6b. Relative Standard Errors for Total Electricity Consumption...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Relative Standard Errors for Total Electricity Consumption per Effective Occupied Square Foot, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings Using Electricity (thousand) Total...

  7. Real-time Molecular Study of Bystander Effects of Low dose Low LET radiation Using Living Cell Imaging and Nanoparticale Optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natarajan, Mohan; Xu, Nancy R; Mohan, Sumathy

    2013-06-03

    In this study two novel approaches are proposed to investigate precisely the low dose low LET radiation damage and its effect on bystander cells in real time. First, a flow shear model system, which would provide us a near in vivo situation where endothelial cells in the presence of extra cellular matrix experiencing continuous flow shear stress, will be used. Endothelial cells on matri-gel (simulated extra cellular matrix) will be subjected to physiological flow shear (that occurs in normal blood vessels). Second, a unique tool (Single nano particle/single live cell/single molecule microscopy and spectroscopy; Figure A) will be used to track the molecular trafficking by single live cell imaging. Single molecule chemical microscopy allows one to single out and study rare events that otherwise might be lost in assembled average measurement, and monitor many target single molecules simultaneously in real-time. Multi color single novel metal nanoparticle probes allow one to prepare multicolor probes (Figure B) to monitor many single components (events) simultaneously and perform multi-complex analysis in real-time. These nano-particles resist to photo bleaching and hence serve as probes for unlimited timeframe of analysis. Single live cell microscopy allows one to image many single cells simultaneously in real-time. With the combination of these unique tools, we will be able to study under near-physiological conditions the cellular and sub-cellular responses (even subtle changes at one molecule level) to low and very low doses of low LET radiation in real time (milli-second or nano-second) at sub-10 nanometer spatial resolution. This would allow us to precisely identify, at least in part, the molecular mediators that are responsible of radiation damage in the irradiated cells and the mediators that are responsible for initiating the signaling in the neighboring cells. Endothelial cells subjected to flow shear (2 dynes/cm2 or 16 dynes/cm2) and exposed to 0.1, 1 and 10 cGy on coverslips will be examined for (a) low LET radiation-induced alterations of cellular function and its physiological relevance in real time; and (b) radiation damage triggered bystander effect on the neighboring unirradiated cells. First, to determine the low LET radiation induced alteration of cellular function we will examine: (i) the real time transformation of single membrane transporters in single living cells; (ii) the pump efficiency of membrane efflux pump of live cells in real time at the molecular level; (iii) the kinetics of single-ligand receptor interaction on single live cell surface (Figure C); and (iv) alteration in chromosome replication in living cell. Second, to study the radiation triggered bystander responses, we will examine one of the key signaling pathway i.e. TNF- alpha/NF-kappa B mediated signaling. TNF-alpha specific nano particle sensors (green) will be developed to detect the releasing dynamics, transport mechanisms and ligand-receptor binding on live cell surface in real time. A second sensor (blue) will be developed to simultaneously monitor the track of NF-kB inside the cell. The proposed nano-particle optics approach would complement our DOE funded study on biochemical mechanisms of TNF-alpha- NF-kappa B-mediated bystander effect.

  8. Neutron dose equivalent meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsher, Richard H. (Los Alamos, NM); Hsu, Hsiao-Hua (Los Alamos, NM); Casson, William H. (Los Alamos, NM); Vasilik, Dennis G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kleck, Jeffrey H. (Menlo Park, CA); Beverding, Anthony (Foster City, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A neutron dose equivalent detector for measuring neutron dose capable of accurately responding to neutron energies according to published fluence to dose curves. The neutron dose equivalent meter has an inner sphere of polyethylene, with a middle shell overlying the inner sphere, the middle shell comprising RTV.RTM. silicone (organosiloxane) loaded with boron. An outer shell overlies the middle shell and comprises polyethylene loaded with tungsten. The neutron dose equivalent meter defines a channel through the outer shell, the middle shell, and the inner sphere for accepting a neutron counter tube. The outer shell is loaded with tungsten to provide neutron generation, increasing the neutron dose equivalent meter's response sensitivity above 8 MeV.

  9. An updated dose assessment for a U.S. Nuclear Test Site - Bikini Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W.L.; Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L.

    1995-10-01

    On March 1, 1954, a nuclear weapon test, code-named BRAVO, conducted at Bikini Atoll in the northern Marshall Islands contaminated the major residence island. There has been a continuing effort since 1977 to refine dose assessments for resettlement options at Bikini Atoll. Here we provide a radiological dose assessment for the main residence island, Bikini, using extensive radionuclide concentration data derived from analysis of food crops, ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, animals, air, and soil collected at Bikini Island as part of our continuing research and monitoring program that began in 1975. The unique composition of coral soil greatly alters the relative contribution of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr) to the total estimated dose relative to expectations based on North American and European soils. Without counter measures, cesium-137 produces 96% of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake from the soil to terrestrial food crops but also from external gamma exposure. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1999. The estimated maximum annual effective dose for current island conditions is 4.0 mSv when imported foods, which are now an established part of the diet, are available. The corresponding 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 9.1 cSv, 13 cSv, and 15 cSv, respectively. A corresponding uncertainty analysis showed that after about 5 y of residence, the 95% confidence limits on population-average dose would be {plus_minus}35% of its expected value. We have evaluated various countermeasures to reduce {sup 137}Cs in food crops. Treatment with potassium reduces the uptake of {sup 137}Cs into food crops, and therefore the ingestion dose, to about 5% of pretreatment levels and has essentially no negative environmental consequences.

  10. Toward Dose Optimization for Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Acoustic Neuromas: Comparison of Two Dose Cohorts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, David W. Werner-Wasik, Maria; Den, Robert B.; Paek, Sun Ha; Downes-Phillips, Beverly; Willcox, Thomas O.; Bednarz, Greg; Maltenfort, Mitchel; Evans, James J.; Curran, Walter J.

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: To describe our initial experience of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy dose reduction comparing two dose cohorts with examination of tumor control rates and serviceable hearing preservation rates. Methods and Materials: After institutional review board approval, we initiated a retrospective chart review to study the hearing outcomes and tumor control rates. All data were entered into a JMP, version 7.01, statistical spreadsheet for analysis. Results: A total of 89 patients with serviceable hearing had complete serial audiometric data available for analysis. The higher dose cohort included 43 patients treated to 50.4 Gy with a median follow-up (latest audiogram) of 53 weeks and the lower dose cohort included 46 patients treated to 46.8 Gy with a median follow-up of 65 weeks. The tumor control rate was 100% in both cohorts, and the pure tone average was significantly improved in the low-dose cohort (33 dB vs. 40 dB, p = 0.023, chi-square). When the patient data were analyzed at comparable follow-up points, the actuarial hearing preservation rate was significantly longer for the low-dose cohort than for the high-dose cohort (165 weeks vs. 79 weeks, p = .0318, log-rank). Multivariate analysis revealed the dose cohort (p = 0.0282) and pretreatment Gardner-Robertson class (p = 0.0215) to be highly significant variables affecting the hearing outcome. Conclusion: A lower total dose at 46.8 Gy was associated with a 100% local control tumor rate and a greater hearing preservation rate. An additional dose reduction is justified to achieve the optimal dose that will yield the greatest hearing preservation rate without compromising tumor control for these patients.

  11. Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Using Total Carbon Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    2002-05-10

    Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon(TM)-extraction method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content. For reasons of cost, sensitivity, precision, or simplicity, none of the replacement methods are feasible for analysis of radioactive samples at our facility. We have developed a method to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon content in aqueous sample matrixes using total organic carbon (total carbon) determination. The total carbon content (TC1) of the sample is measured using a total organic carbon analyzer. The sample is then contacted with a small volume of non-pokar solvent to extract the total petroleum hydrocarbons. The total carbon content of the resultant aqueous phase of the extracted sample (TC2) is measured. Total petroleum hydrocarbon content is calculated (TPH = TC1-TC2). The resultant data are consistent with results obtained using Freon(TM) extraction followed by infrared absorbance.

  12. A research study to determine the effect of Total Quality Management (TQM) on employee morale in Plant Procedures Division at EG&G, Rocky Flats, Inc.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, E.F.

    1994-01-01

    EG&G at Rocky Flats, Golden, Colorado, experienced a high amount of low morale, due to the plant site having been designated to close, and the uneasiness of the working force was very visible. Some employees accepted early retirement in October 1992, however, all received letters of 120 days notice in March 1993, and were advised several cuts Would be made by October 1, 1993. This information alone caused many insecurities in employees, and caused morale to decrease even more. This is an in depth study of morale, which was upgraded in Plant Procedures Group (PPG), through the effect of TQM. The primary research included a survey of employees with results included. The study also increased additional questions in PPG, some of which were added to the agenda of the Process Improvement Team (PIT) to improve PPG in the eyes of customers. Statistics did show that morale improved, not necessarily because of TQM or the progress of the Process Improvement Team (PIT), but due to efforts of the staff implementing the principles of TQM the best they knew how.

  13. Fractionated total body irradiation for metastatic neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kun, L.E.; Casper, J.T.; Kline, R.W.; Piaskowski, V.D.

    1981-11-01

    Twelve patients over one year old with neuroblastoma (NBL) metastatic to bone and bone marrow entered a study of adjuvant low-dose, fractionated total body irradiation (TBI). Six children who achieved a ''complete clinical response'' following chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide and adriamycin) and surgical resection of the abdominal primary received TBI (10 rad/fraction to totals of 100-120 rad/10-12 fx/12-25 days). Two children received concurrent local irradiation for residual abdominal tumor. The intervals from cessation of chemotherapy to documented progression ranged from 2-16 months, not substatially different from patients receiving similar chemotherapy and surgery without TBI. Three additional children with progressive NBL received similar TBI (80-120 rad/8-12 fx) without objective response.

  14. Dose-Effect Relationships for Femoral Fractures After Multimodality Limb-Sparing Therapy of Soft-Tissue Sarcomas of the Proximal Lower Extremity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pak, Daniel; Vineberg, Karen A.; Griffith, Kent A.; Sabolch, Aaron; Chugh, Rashmi; Biermann, Janet Sybil; Feng, Mary

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: We investigated the clinical and dosimetric predictors for radiation-associated femoral fractures in patients with proximal lower extremity soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Methods and Materials: We examined 131 patients with proximal lower extremity STS who received limb-sparing surgery and external-beam radiation therapy between 1985 and 2006. Five (4%) patients sustained pathologic femoral fractures. Dosimetric analysis was limited to 4 fracture patients with full three-dimensional dose information, who were compared with 59 nonfracture patients. The mean doses and volumes of bone (V{sub d}) receiving specified doses ({>=}30 Gy, 45 Gy, 60 Gy) at the femoral body, femoral neck, intertrochanteric region, and subtrochanteric region were compared. Clinical predictive factors were also evaluated. Results: Of 4 fracture patients in our dosimetric series, there were three femoral neck fractures with a mean dose of 57.6 {+-} 8.9 Gy, V30 of 14.5 {+-} 2.3 cc, V45 of 11.8 {+-} 1.1 cc, and V60 of 7.2 {+-} 2.2 cc at the femoral neck compared with 22.9 {+-} 20.8 Gy, 4.8 {+-} 5.6 cc, 2.5 {+-} 3.9 cc, and 0.8 {+-} 2.7 cc, respectively, for nonfracture patients (p < 0.03 for all). The femoral neck fracture rate was higher than at the subtrochanteric region despite lower mean doses at these subregions. All fracture sites received mean doses greater than 40 Gy. Also, with our policy of prophylactic femoral intramedullary nailing for high-risk patients, there was no significant difference in fracture rates between patients with and without periosteal excision. There were no significant differences in age, sex, tumor size, timing of radiation therapy, and use of chemotherapy between fracture and nonfracture patients. Conclusions: These dose-volume toxicity relationships provide RT optimization goals to guide future efforts for reducing pathologic fracture rates. Prophylactic femoral intramedullary nailing may also reduce fracture risk for susceptible patients.

  15. An updated dose assessment for Rongelap Island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T.

    1994-07-01

    We have updated the radiological dose assessment for Rongelap Island at Rongelap Atoll using data generated from field trips to the atoll during 1986 through 1993. The data base used for this dose assessment is ten fold greater than that available for the 1982 assessment. Details of each data base are presented along with details about the methods used to calculate the dose from each exposure pathway. The doses are calculated for a resettlement date of January 1, 1995. The maximum annual effective dose is 0.26 mSv y{sup {minus}1} (26 mrem y{sup {minus}1}). The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 0.0059 Sv (0.59 rem), 0.0082 Sv (0.82 rem), and 0.0097 Sv (0.97 rem), respectively. More than 95% of these estimated doses are due to 137-Cesium ({sup 137}Cs). About 1.5% of the estimated dose is contributed by 90-Strontium ({sup 90}Sr), and about the same amount each by 239+240-Plutonium ({sup 239+240}PU), and 241-Americium ({sup 241}Am).

  16. WE-G-17A-07: Investigation of the Influence of the Electron Return Effect (ERE) On the Dose Distribution in Rectal Cancer Patients On a 1.5T MR-Linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uilkema, S; Heide, U; Nijkamp, J; Sonke, J; Moreau, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this planning study is to investigate the influence of the ERE on the day-to-day dose distribution in rectal cancer patients, where changes in gas-pockets frequently occur. Methods: Daily CT scans of 5 patients treated neo-adjuvant with 5x5Gy for rectal cancer were used. We optimized two plans on the planning CT (Monaco, 1 mm3 dosegrid), a conventional 7-field 6MV IMRT plan (Dconv) and a plan in the presence of a 1.5T field (Dmrl). We recalculated the plans on all repeat-CT scans and evaluated under/over-dosage of the daily CTVs. Changes of more than 1% were considered significant. In the bowel area, we investigated the relative dose changes due to the ERE, where the contribution of the ERE was separated from other effects such as attenuation. Results: Both plans were comparable and compliant with ICRU 62 for all patients. For 2 fractions in one patient under-dosage in the CTV was significant, due to a disappearing gas-pocket. Here the V95 was 96.82 and 97.36% in in Dmrl compared to 98.85 and 98.66% in Dconv, respectively. For 3 fractions in another patient appearing gas-pockets resulted in significant over-dosage of the CTV. In these fractions the V107 was 1.882.68% in Dmrl compared to 0.331.27% in Dconv. In the bowel area the dose changes attributable to the ERE were approximately 5% in 1cc, at low dose levels. Conclusion: We were able to calculate acceptable treatment plans with and without a magnetic field. The ERE was present in the Dmrl, but the volumetric effect within the CTV was limited. Outside the CTV relative dose differences were similar, but on small volumes at lower, less relevant dose levels. This suggests that there is no clinical relevant ERE on dose distributions in rectal cancer patients on a 1.5T MR-Linac.

  17. Total Eolica | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Eolica Jump to: navigation, search Name: Total Eolica Place: Spain Product: Project developer References: Total Eolica1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding...

  18. Derivation of dose conversion factors for tritium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Killough, G. G.

    1982-03-01

    For a given intake mode (ingestion, inhalation, absorption through the skin), a dose conversion factor (DCF) is the committed dose equivalent to a specified organ of an individual per unit intake of a radionuclide. One also may consider the effective dose commitment per unit intake, which is a weighted average of organ-specific DCFs, with weights proportional to risks associated with stochastic radiation-induced fatal health effects, as defined by Publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This report derives and tabulates organ-specific dose conversion factors and the effective dose commitment per unit intake of tritium. These factors are based on a steady-state model of hydrogen in the tissues of ICRP's Reference Man (ICRP Publication 23) and equilibrium of specific activities between body water and other tissues. The results differ by 27 to 33% from the estimate on which ICRP Publication 30 recommendations are based. The report also examines a dynamic model of tritium retention in body water, mineral bone, and two compartments representing organically-bound hydrogen. This model is compared with data from human subjects who were observed for extended periods. The manner of combining the dose conversion factors with measured or model-predicted levels of contamination in man's exposure media (air, drinking water, soil moisture) to estimate dose rate to an individual is briefly discussed.

  19. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil, 15 ppm Sulfur and Under Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 500 ppm ...

  20. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 or More Units Mobile Homes Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Million U.S. Housing Units ...

  1. Total..............................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    111.1 86.6 2,720 1,970 1,310 1,941 1,475 821 1,059 944 554 Census Region and Division Northeast.................................... 20.6 13.9 3,224 2,173 836 2,219 1,619 583 903 830 Q New England.......................... 5.5 3.6 3,365 2,154 313 2,634 1,826 Q 951 940 Q Middle Atlantic........................ 15.1 10.3 3,167 2,181 1,049 2,188 1,603 582 Q Q Q Midwest...................................... 25.6 21.0 2,823 2,239 1,624 2,356 1,669 1,336 1,081 961 778 East North

  2. Total........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    111.1 24.5 1,090 902 341 872 780 441 Census Region and Division Northeast............................................. 20.6 6.7 1,247 1,032 Q 811 788 147 New England.................................... 5.5 1.9 1,365 1,127 Q 814 748 107 Middle Atlantic.................................. 15.1 4.8 1,182 978 Q 810 800 159 Midwest................................................ 25.6 4.6 1,349 1,133 506 895 810 346 East North Central............................ 17.7 3.2 1,483 1,239 560 968 842 351

  3. Total...........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Q Table HC3.2 Living Space Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Units, 2005 2 to 4 Units 5 or More Units Mobile Homes Million U.S. Housing Units Owner- Occupied Housing Units (millions) Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit Housing Units (millions) Single-Family Units Apartments in Buildings With-- Living Space Characteristics Detached Attached Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Table HC3.2 Living Space

  4. Total............................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

  5. Total.............................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer........... 35.5 17.1 10.8 4.2 1.8 1.6 10.3 20.6 Use a Personal Computer....................... 75.6 9.6 18.0 16.4 11.3 20.3 6.4 17.9 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model.................................. 58.6 7.6 14.2 13.1 9.2 14.6 5.0 14.5 Laptop Model...................................... 16.9 2.0 3.8 3.3 2.1 5.7 1.3 3.5 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2 Hours..............................

  6. Total..............................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,171 1,618 1,031 845 630 401 Census Region and Division Northeast................................................... 20.6 2,334 1,664 562 911 649 220 New England.......................................... 5.5 2,472 1,680 265 1,057 719 113 Middle Atlantic........................................ 15.1 2,284 1,658 670 864 627 254 Midwest...................................................... 25.6 2,421 1,927 1,360 981 781 551 East North Central.................................. 17.7 2,483 1,926 1,269

  7. Total..............................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................ 17.8 5.3 4.7 2.8 1.9 3.1 3.6 7.5 Have Cooling Equipment............................. 93.3 21.5 24.1 17.8 11.2 18.8 13.0 31.1 Use Cooling Equipment.............................. 91.4 21.0 23.5 17.4 11.0 18.6 12.6 30.3 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............. 1.9 0.5 0.6 0.4 Q Q 0.5 0.8 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.......................................... 65.9 11.0 16.5 13.5 8.7 16.1 6.4 17.2 Without a Heat

  8. Total...............................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    20.6 25.6 40.7 24.2 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 6.9 8.1 14.2 6.4 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 13.7 17.5 26.6 17.8 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 9.3 11.9 18.2 11.0 2.......................................................... 16.2 2.9 3.5 5.5 4.4 3 or More............................................. 9.0 1.5 2.1 2.9 2.5 Number of Laptop PCs

  9. Total...............................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 14.2 7.2 2.8 4.2 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 26.6 14.5 4.1 7.9 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 18.2 10.0 2.9 5.3 2.......................................................... 16.2 5.5 3.0 0.7 1.8 3 or More............................................. 9.0 2.9 1.5 0.5 0.8 Number of Laptop PCs

  10. Total...............................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 17.1 10.8 4.2 1.8 1.6 10.3 20.6 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 9.6 18.0 16.4 11.3 20.3 6.4 17.9 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 8.3 14.2 11.4 7.2 9.2 5.3 14.2 2.......................................................... 16.2 0.9 2.6 3.7 2.9 6.2 0.8 2.6 3 or More............................................. 9.0 0.4 1.2

  11. Total...............................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................. 17.8 5.3 4.7 2.8 1.9 3.1 3.6 7.5 Have Cooling Equipment.............................. 93.3 21.5 24.1 17.8 11.2 18.8 13.0 31.1 Use Cooling Equipment............................... 91.4 21.0 23.5 17.4 11.0 18.6 12.6 30.3 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............. 1.9 0.5 0.6 0.4 Q Q 0.5 0.8 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System............................................ 65.9 11.0 16.5 13.5 8.7 16.1 6.4 17.2 Without a Heat

  12. Total...............................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    47.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 16.9 6.5 4.6 7.6 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 30.3 12.5 18.1 14.7 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 21.1 8.3 10.7 10.1 2.......................................................... 16.2 6.2 2.8 4.1 3.0 3 or More............................................. 9.0 2.9 1.4 3.2 1.6 Number of Laptop PCs

  13. Total................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    111.1 26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment....... 1.2 0.5 0.3 0.2 Q 0.2 0.3 0.6 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.......... 109.8 26.2 28.5 20.4 13.0 21.8 16.3 37.9 Use Main Space Heating Equipment............ 109.1 25.9 28.1 20.3 12.9 21.8 16.0 37.3 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It.............. 0.8 0.3 0.3 Q Q N 0.4 0.6 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.................................................. 58.2 12.2 14.4 11.3 7.1 13.2 7.6 18.3 Central

  14. Total.................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    49.2 15.1 15.6 11.1 7.0 5.2 8.0 Have Cooling Equipment............................... 93.3 31.3 15.1 15.6 11.1 7.0 5.2 8.0 Use Cooling Equipment................................ 91.4 30.4 14.6 15.4 11.1 6.9 5.2 7.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............... 1.9 1.0 0.5 Q Q Q Q Q Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................... 17.8 17.8 N N N N N N Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System............................................. 65.9 3.9 15.1 15.6 11.1 7.0 5.2 8.0 Without a Heat

  15. Total.................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment........ 1.2 N Q Q 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.2 Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment........... 109.8 14.7 7.4 12.4 12.2 18.5 18.3 17.1 9.2 Use Main Space Heating Equipment............. 109.1 14.6 7.3 12.4 12.2 18.2 18.2 17.1 9.1 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It............... 0.8 Q Q Q Q 0.3 Q N Q Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas................................................... 58.2 9.2 4.9 7.8 7.1 8.8 8.4 7.8 4.2 Central

  16. Total.................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day.............................. 8.2 2.9 2.5 1.3 0.5 1.0 2.4 4.6 2 Times A Day........................................... 24.6 6.5 7.0 4.3 3.2 3.6 4.8 10.3 Once a Day................................................ 42.3 8.8 9.8 8.7 5.1 10.0 5.0 12.9 A Few Times Each Week........................... 27.2 5.6 7.2 4.7 3.3 6.3 3.2 7.5 About Once a Week................................... 3.9 1.1 1.1

  17. Total..................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    78.1 64.1 4.2 1.8 2.3 5.7 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment..................... 17.8 11.3 9.3 0.6 Q 0.4 0.9 Have Cooling Equipment................................. 93.3 66.8 54.7 3.6 1.7 1.9 4.8 Use Cooling Equipment.................................. 91.4 65.8 54.0 3.6 1.7 1.9 4.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it................. 1.9 1.1 0.8 Q N Q Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.............................................. 65.9 51.7 43.9 2.5 0.7 1.6 3.1 Without a Heat

  18. Total..................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . 111.1 14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment..................... 17.8 3.9 1.8 2.2 2.1 3.1 2.6 1.7 0.4 Have Cooling Equipment................................. 93.3 10.8 5.6 10.3 10.4 15.8 16.0 15.6 8.8 Use Cooling Equipment.................................. 91.4 10.6 5.5 10.3 10.3 15.3 15.7 15.3 8.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it................. 1.9 Q Q Q Q 0.6 0.4 0.3 Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central

  19. Total...................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    15.2 7.8 1.0 1.2 3.3 1.9 For Two Housing Units............................. 0.9 Q N Q 0.6 N Heat Pump.................................................. 9.2 7.4 0.3 Q 0.7 0.5 Portable Electric Heater............................... 1.6 0.8 Q Q Q 0.3 Other Equipment......................................... 1.9 0.7 Q Q 0.7 Q Fuel Oil........................................................... 7.7 5.5 0.4 0.8 0.9 0.2 Steam or Hot Water System........................ 4.7 2.9 Q 0.7 0.8 N For One Housing

  20. Total....................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Household Size 1 Person.......................................................... 30.0 4.6 2.5 3.7 3.2 5.4 5.5 3.7 1.6 2 Persons......................................................... 34.8 4.3 1.9 4.4 4.1 5.9 5.3 5.5 3.4 3 Persons......................................................... 18.4 2.5 1.3 1.7 1.9 2.9 3.5 2.8 1.6 4 Persons......................................................... 15.9 1.9 0.8 1.5 1.6 3.0 2.5 3.1 1.4 5

  1. Total.......................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.6 15.1 5.5 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ................... 35.5 6.9 5.3 1.6 Use a Personal Computer................................ 75.6 13.7 9.8 3.9 Number of Desktop PCs 1.................................................................. 50.3 9.3 6.8 2.5 2.................................................................. 16.2 2.9 1.9 1.0 3 or More..................................................... 9.0 1.5 1.1 0.4 Number of Laptop PCs

  2. Total.......................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ................... 35.5 8.1 5.6 2.5 Use a Personal Computer................................ 75.6 17.5 12.1 5.4 Number of Desktop PCs 1.................................................................. 50.3 11.9 8.4 3.4 2.................................................................. 16.2 3.5 2.2 1.3 3 or More..................................................... 9.0 2.1 1.5 0.6 Number of Laptop PCs

  3. Total.......................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ................... 35.5 6.4 2.2 4.2 Use a Personal Computer................................ 75.6 17.8 5.3 12.5 Number of Desktop PCs 1.................................................................. 50.3 11.0 3.4 7.6 2.................................................................. 16.2 4.4 1.3 3.1 3 or More..................................................... 9.0 2.5 0.7 1.8 Number of Laptop PCs

  4. Total........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    25.6 40.7 24.2 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q Q 0.7 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 20.5 25.6 40.3 23.4 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 20.5 25.6 40.1 22.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N N Q 0.6 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 11.4 18.4 13.6 14.7 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 6.1

  5. Total........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    15.1 5.5 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 20.5 15.1 5.4 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 20.5 15.1 5.4 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 11.4 9.1 2.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 6.1 5.3 0.8 For One Housing

  6. Total........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q N Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 25.6 17.7 7.9 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 25.6 17.7 7.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 18.4 13.1 5.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 16.2 11.6 4.7 For One Housing

  7. Total........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q N Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 40.3 21.4 6.9 12.0 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 40.1 21.2 6.9 12.0 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 Q Q N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 13.6 5.6 2.3 5.7 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 11.0 4.4

  8. Total........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 0.7 Q 0.7 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 23.4 7.5 16.0 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 22.9 7.4 15.4 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 0.6 Q 0.5 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 14.7 4.6 10.1 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 11.4 4.0 7.4 For One

  9. Total........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q Q 0.2 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 7.1 6.8 7.9 11.9 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 7.1 6.6 7.9 11.4 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N Q N 0.5 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 3.8 0.4 3.8 8.4 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 1.8 Q 3.1 6.0

  10. Total........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 0.7 Q 0.2 Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 46.3 18.9 22.5 22.1 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 45.6 18.8 22.5 22.1 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 0.7 Q N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 27.0 11.9 14.9 4.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7

  11. Total...........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.6 15.1 5.5 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................. 17.8 4.0 2.4 1.7 Have Cooling Equipment.......................................... 93.3 16.5 12.8 3.8 Use Cooling Equipment........................................... 91.4 16.3 12.6 3.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it.......................... 1.9 0.3 Q Q Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 6.0 5.2 0.8 Without a Heat

  12. Total...........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................. 17.8 10.3 3.1 7.3 Have Cooling Equipment.......................................... 93.3 13.9 4.5 9.4 Use Cooling Equipment........................................... 91.4 12.9 4.3 8.5 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it.......................... 1.9 1.0 Q 0.8 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 10.5 3.9 6.5 Without a Heat

  13. Total.............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 4.0 2.1 1.4 10.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 16.5 23.5 39.3 13.9 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 16.3 23.4 38.9 12.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 0.3 Q 0.5 1.0 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 6.0 17.3 32.1 10.5 Without a Heat

  14. Total.............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day......................................... 8.2 1.2 1.0 0.2 2 Times A Day...................................................... 24.6 4.0 2.7 1.2 Once a Day........................................................... 42.3 7.9 5.4 2.5 A Few Times Each Week...................................... 27.2 6.0 4.8 1.2 About Once a Week.............................................. 3.9 0.6 0.5 Q Less Than Once a

  15. Total.............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day......................................... 8.2 1.4 1.0 0.4 2 Times A Day...................................................... 24.6 5.8 3.5 2.3 Once a Day........................................................... 42.3 10.7 7.8 2.9 A Few Times Each Week...................................... 27.2 5.6 4.0 1.6 About Once a Week.............................................. 3.9 0.9 0.6 0.3 Less Than Once a

  16. Total.............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 1.4 0.8 0.2 0.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 39.3 20.9 6.7 11.8 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 38.9 20.7 6.6 11.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 0.5 Q Q Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 32.1 17.6 5.2 9.3 Without a Heat

  17. Total.............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day......................................... 8.2 2.6 0.7 1.9 2 Times A Day...................................................... 24.6 6.6 2.0 4.6 Once a Day........................................................... 42.3 8.8 2.9 5.8 A Few Times Each Week...................................... 27.2 4.7 1.5 3.1 About Once a Week.............................................. 3.9 0.7 Q 0.6 Less Than Once a

  18. Total.............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 10.3 3.1 7.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 13.9 4.5 9.4 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 12.9 4.3 8.5 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 1.0 Q 0.8 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 10.5 3.9 6.5 Without a Heat

  19. Total.............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 8.5 2.7 2.6 4.0 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 38.6 16.2 20.1 18.4 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 37.8 15.9 19.8 18.0 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 0.9 0.3 0.3 0.4 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 25.8 10.9 16.6 12.5 Without a Heat

  20. Total..............................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer .......................... 35.5 3.0 2.0 2.7 3.1 Use a Personal Computer....................................... 75.6 4.2 5.0 5.3 9.0 Number of Desktop PCs 1......................................................................... 50.3 3.1 3.4 3.4 5.4 2......................................................................... 16.2 0.7 1.1 1.2 2.2 3 or More............................................................ 9.0 0.3

  1. Total.................................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................................... 17.8 1.8 Q Q 4.9 Have Cooling Equipment................................................ 93.3 5.3 7.0 7.8 7.2 Use Cooling Equipment................................................. 91.4 5.3 7.0 7.7 6.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................... 1.9 Q N Q 0.6 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.............................................................. 65.9 1.1 6.4 6.4 5.4 Without a

  2. Total....................................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    25.6 40.7 24.2 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 6.9 8.1 14.2 6.4 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 13.7 17.5 26.6 17.8 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 10.4 14.1 20.5 13.7 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 3.3 3.4 6.1 4.1 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  3. Total....................................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 8.1 5.6 2.5 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 17.5 12.1 5.4 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 14.1 10.0 4.0 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 3.4 2.1 1.3 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  4. Total....................................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day................................................. 8.2 3.0 1.6 0.3 1.1 2 Times A Day.............................................................. 24.6 8.3 4.2 1.3 2.7 Once a Day................................................................... 42.3 15.0 8.1 2.7 4.2 A Few Times Each Week............................................. 27.2 10.9 6.0 1.8 3.1 About Once a Week..................................................... 3.9

  5. Total....................................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 14.2 7.2 2.8 4.2 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 26.6 14.5 4.1 7.9 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 20.5 11.0 3.4 6.1 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 6.1 3.5 0.7 1.9 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  6. Total....................................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 6.4 2.2 4.2 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 17.8 5.3 12.5 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 13.7 4.2 9.5 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 4.1 1.1 3.0 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  7. Total....................................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day................................................. 8.2 3.7 1.6 1.4 1.5 2 Times A Day.............................................................. 24.6 10.8 4.1 4.3 5.5 Once a Day................................................................... 42.3 17.0 7.2 8.7 9.3 A Few Times Each Week............................................. 27.2 11.4 4.7 6.4 4.8 About Once a Week.....................................................

  8. Total....................................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    111.1 47.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 16.9 6.5 4.6 7.6 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 30.3 12.5 18.1 14.7 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 22.9 9.8 14.1 11.9 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 7.4 2.7 4.0 2.9 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  9. Total.........................................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ..... 111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer...................................... 35.5 3.0 2.0 2.7 3.1 Use a Personal Computer.................................................. 75.6 4.2 5.0 5.3 9.0 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model............................................................. 58.6 3.2 3.9 4.0 6.7 Laptop Model................................................................. 16.9 1.0 1.1 1.3 2.4 Hours Turned on Per Week Less

  10. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic CellModule Shipments Report.'rounding. ... Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic CellModule Shipments Report.' CellModule ...

  11. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 41.8 2,603 2,199 1,654 941 795 598 1-Car Garage...... 9.5 2,064 1,664 1,039 775 624 390 2-Car Garage......

  12. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Type of Glass in Windows Single-pane Glass...... 27.4 ... Q Q N Q N N Proportion of Windows Replaced All......

  13. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Type of Glass in Windows Single-pane Glass......Q Q Q Q Proportion of Windows Replaced All......

  14. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System...... 65.9 25.8 10.9 16.6 12.5 Without a Heat Pump......

  15. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System...... 65.9 6.0 17.3 32.1 10.5 Without a Heat Pump......

  16. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System...... 65.9 47.5 4.0 2.8 7.9 3.7 Without a Heat Pump...... 53.5 ...

  17. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System...... 65.9 32.1 17.6 5.2 9.3 Without a Heat Pump......

  18. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment...... 17.8 2.1 1.8 0.3 Have Cooling Equipment...... 93.3 23.5 16.0 7.5 Use ...

  19. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 111.1 20.6 15.1 5.5 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment...... 17.8 4.0 2.4 1.7 Have Cooling Equipment...... 93.3 ...

  20. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    33.0 8.0 3.4 5.9 14.4 1.2 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment...... 17.8 6.5 1.6 0.9 1.3 2.4 0.2 Have Cooling Equipment...... 93.3 26.5 6.5 2.5 ...

  1. Fast optimization and dose calculation in scanned ion beam therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hild, S.; Graeff, C.; Trautmann, J.; Kraemer, M.; Zink, K.; Durante, M.; Bert, C.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Particle therapy (PT) has advantages over photon irradiation on static tumors. An increased biological effectiveness and active target conformal dose shaping are strong arguments for PT. However, the sensitivity to changes of internal geometry complicates the use of PT for moving organs. In case of interfractionally moving objects adaptive radiotherapy (ART) concepts known from intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can be adopted for PT treatments. One ART strategy is to optimize a new treatment plan based on daily image data directly before a radiation fraction is delivered [treatment replanning (TRP)]. Optimizing treatment plans for PT using a scanned beam is a time consuming problem especially for particles other than protons where the biological effective dose has to be calculated. For the purpose of TRP, fast optimization and fast dose calculation have been implemented into the GSI in-house treatment planning system (TPS) TRiP98. Methods: This work reports about the outcome of a code analysis that resulted in optimization of the calculation processes as well as implementation of routines supporting parallel execution of the code. To benchmark the new features, the calculation time for therapy treatment planning has been studied. Results: Compared to the original version of the TPS, calculation times for treatment planning (optimization and dose calculation) have been improved by a factor of 10 with code optimization. The parallelization of the TPS resulted in a speedup factor of 12 and 5.5 for the original version and the code optimized version, respectively. Hence the total speedup of the new implementation of the authors' TPS yielded speedup factors up to 55. Conclusions: The improved TPS is capable of completing treatment planning for ion beam therapy of a prostate irradiation considering organs at risk in this has been overseen in the review process. Also see below 6 min.

  2. Low Dose Suppression of Neoplastic Transformation in Vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Leslie Redpath

    2012-05-01

    This grant was to study the low dose suppression of neoplastic transformation in vitro and the shape of the dose-response curve at low doses and dose-rates of ionizing radiation. Previous findings had indicated a suppression of transformation at dose <10cGy of low-LET radiation when delivered at high dose-rate. The present study indicates that such suppression extends out to doses in excess of 100cGy when the dose (from I-125 photons) is delivered at dose-rates as low as 0.2 mGy/min and out to in excess of {approx}25cGy the highest dose studied at the very low dose-rate of 0.5 mGy/day. We also examined dose-rate effects for high energy protons (which are a low-LET radiation) and suppression was evident below {approx}10cGy for high dose-rate delivery and at least out to 50cGy for low dose-rate (20cGy/h) delivery. Finally, we also examined the effect of low doses of 1 GeV/n iron ions (a high-LET radiation) delivered at high dose-rate on transformation at low doses and found a suppression below {approx}10cGy that could be attributable to an adaptive response in bystander cells induced by the associated low-LET delta rays. These results have implications for cancer risk assessment at low doses.

  3. Radon Dose Determination for Cave Guides in Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thinova, Lenka; Rovenska, Katerina

    2008-08-07

    According to recommended approach there are six (from total of twelve) open-to-public caves in Czech Republic, reaching near to an effective lung-dose of 6mSv/year. A conservative approach for estimating the potential effective lung-dose in caves (or underground) is based on two season's measurements, using solid state alpha track detector (Kodak in plastic diffusion chamber). The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose, in agreement with the ICRP65 recommendation, using the 'cave factor' 1.5. The value of 'cave factor' which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached/attached ratio (6.5 : 93.5 for residential places, 13.6 : 86.4 for caves due to lower concentration of free aerosols) and on the equilibrium factor. Thus conversion factor is 1.5 times higher in comparison with ICRP 65. Is this correct? Because a more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies, or on restricting the time workers stay underground, a series of measurement was initiated in 2003 with the aim to specify input data, computation and errors in effective dose assessment in each one of the evaluated caves separately. The enhancement of personal dosimetry for underground work places includes a study of the given questions, from the following points of view in each cave: continual radon measurement; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of free {sup 218}Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoil and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; determination of the free fraction from continual unattached and attached fraction measurement (grid and filter); thoron measurement. Air flow measurements provide very interesting information about the origin of 'radon pockets' with very high radon concentration, and enable study of the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave. Most of the results show the equilibrium factor around F = 0.2-0.7 and the unattached fraction around 2%-30%. One of the most important question remains: how accurately was the unattached fraction measured? Part of this project was to verify the influence of etched track detector position in the cave.

  4. LADTAPXL Aqueous Dose Spreadsheet

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-08-10

    LADTAPXL is an EXCEL spreadsheet model of the NRC computer code LADTAP. LADTAPXL calculates maximally exposed individual and population doses from chronic liquid releases. Environmental pathways include external exposure resulting from recreational activities on the Savannah River and ingestion of water, fish, and invertebrates of Savannah River origin.

  5. Determination of Total Solids in Biomass and Total Dissolved...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The published moisture loss on drying for sodium tartrate is 15.62% (84.38% total solids). 14.6 Sample size: Determined by sample matrix. 14.7 Sample storage: Samples should be ...

  6. TotalView Training 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TotalView Training 2015 TotalView Training 2015 NERSC will host an in-depth training course on TotalView, a graphical parallel debugger developed by Rogue Wave Software, on Thursday, March 26, 2015. This will be provided by Rogue Wave Software staff members. The training will include a lecture and demo sessions in the morning, followed by a hands-on parallel debugging session in the afternoon. Location This event will be presented online using WebEx technology and in person at NERSC Oakland

  7. Agriculture-related radiation dose calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furr, J.M.; Mayberry, J.J.; Waite, D.A.

    1987-10-01

    Estimates of radiation dose to the public must be made at each stage in the identification and qualification process leading to siting a high-level nuclear waste repository. Specifically considering the ingestion pathway, this paper examines questions of reliability and adequacy of dose calculations in relation to five stages of data availability (geologic province, region, area, location, and mass balance) and three methods of calculation (population, population/food production, and food production driven). Calculations were done using the model PABLM with data for the Permian and Palo Duro Basins and the Deaf Smith County area. Extra effort expended in gathering agricultural data at succeeding environmental characterization levels does not appear justified, since dose estimates do not differ greatly; that effort would be better spent determining usage of food types that contribute most to the total dose; and that consumption rate and the air dispersion factor are critical to assessment of radiation dose via the ingestion pathway. 17 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs.

  8. Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Agglomeration Influences Dose-Rates and Modulates Oxidative Stress Mediated Dose-Response Profiles In Vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Kodali, Vamsi K.; Gaffrey, Matthew J.; Wang, Wei; Minard, Kevin R.; Karin, Norman J.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2013-07-31

    Spontaneous agglomeration of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is a common problem in cell culture media which can confound interpretation of in vitro nanotoxicity studies. The authors created stable agglomerates of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in conventional culture medium, which varied in hydrodynamic size (276 nm-1.5 ?m) but were composed of identical primary particles with similar surface potentials and protein coatings. Studies using C10 lung epithelial cells show that the dose rate effects of agglomeration can be substantial, varying by over an order of magnitude difference in cellular dose in some cases. Quantification by magnetic particle detection showed that small agglomerates of carboxylated IONPs induced greater cytotoxicity and redox-regulated gene expression when compared with large agglomerates on an equivalent total cellular IONP mass dose basis, whereas agglomerates of amine-modified IONPs failed to induce cytotoxicity or redox-regulated gene expression despite delivery of similar cellular doses. Dosimetry modelling and experimental measurements reveal that on a delivered surface area basis, large and small agglomerates of carboxylated IONPs have similar inherent potency for the generation of ROS, induction of stress-related genes and eventual cytotoxicity. The results suggest that reactive moieties on the agglomerate surface are more efficient in catalysing cellular ROS production than molecules buried within the agglomerate core. Because of the dynamic, size and density-dependent nature of ENP delivery to cells in vitro, the biological consequences of agglomeration are not discernible from static measures of exposure concentration (?g/ml) alone, highlighting the central importance of integrated physical characterisation and quantitative dosimetry for in vitro studies. The combined experimental and computational approach provides a quantitative framework for evaluating relationships between the biocompatibility of nanoparticles and their physical and chemical characteristics.

  9. ARM - Measurement - Total cloud water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cloud water ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Total cloud water The...

  10. U.S. Total Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    CA Otay Mesa, CA Alamo, TX Clint, TX Del Rio, TX Eagle Pass, TX El Paso, TX Freeport, TX Hidalgo, TX Laredo, TX McAllen, TX Penitas, TX Rio Bravo, TX Rio Grande, TX Roma, TX Total ...

  11. Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and 1994 Vehicle Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total 1993 Family Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral Assist- ance 1 RSE Row Factor: Less than 5,000 5,000...

  12. 2014 Total Electric Industry- Customers

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Customers (Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A, 4B, 4D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U) State Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total New England 6,243,013 862,269 28,017 8 ...

  13. "2014 Total Electric Industry- Customers"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Customers" "(Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A, 4B, 4D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U)" "State","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation","Total" "New England",6243013,8...

  14. Radiation dose-rate meter using an energy-sensitive counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopp, Manfred K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-01-01

    A radiation dose-rate meter is provided which uses an energy-sensitive detector and combines charge quantization and pulse-rate measurement to monitor radiation dose rates. The charge from each detected photon is quantized by level-sensitive comparators so that the resulting total output pulse rate is proportional to the dose-rate.

  15. Radiation Leukemogenesis at Low Dose Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weil, Michael; Ullrich, Robert

    2013-09-25

    The major goals of this program were to study the efficacy of low dose rate radiation exposures for the induction of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and to characterize the leukemias that are caused by radiation exposures at low dose rate. An irradiator facility was designed and constructed that allows large numbers of mice to be irradiated at low dose rates for protracted periods (up to their life span). To the best of our knowledge this facility is unique in the US and it was subsequently used to study radioprotectors being developed for radiological defense (PLoS One. 7(3), e33044, 2012) and is currently being used to study the role of genetic background in susceptibility to radiation-induced lung cancer. One result of the irradiation was expected; low dose rate exposures are ineffective in inducing AML. However, another result was completely unexpected; the irradiated mice had a very high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), approximately 50%. It was unexpected because acute exposures are ineffective in increasing HCC incidence above background. This is a potential important finding for setting exposure limits because it supports the concept of an 'inverse dose rate effect' for some tumor types. That is, for the development of some tumor types low dose rate exposures carry greater risks than acute exposures.

  16. Monte Carlo prompt dose calculations for the National Ingition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latkowski, J.F.; Phillips, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    During peak operation, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will conduct as many as 600 experiments per year and attain deuterium- tritium fusion yields as high as 1200 MJ/yr. The radiation effective dose equivalent (EDE) to workers is limited to an average of 03 mSv/yr (30 mrem/yr) in occupied areas of the facility. Laboratory personnel determined located outside the facility will receive EDEs <= 0.5 mSv/yr (<= 50 mrem/yr). The total annual occupational EDE for the facility will be maintained at <= 0.1 person-Sv/yr (<= 10 person- rem/yr). To ensure that prompt EDEs meet these limits, three- dimensional Monte Carlo calculations have been completed.

  17. ORISE: Dose modeling and assessments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dose modeling and assessments The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) offers dose modeling and assessment services to demonstrate that federal and/or state regulatory compliance requirements are being met during the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Dose modeling is an important step in the assessment of safety and regulatory compliance, as well as the development of standards and regulatory rulemaking. The ultimate goal of dose modeling and assessments

  18. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M.

    1992-10-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) provides technical direction. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates):Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture, and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  19. Total lymphoid irradiation for multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devereux, C.K.; Vidaver, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Troiano, R.; Dowling, P.C.; Cook, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Although chemical immunosuppression has been shown to benefit patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), it appears that chemotherapy has an appreciable oncogenic potential in patients with multiple sclerosis. Accordingly, we developed a modified total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) regimen designed to reduce toxicity and applied it to a randomized double blind trial of TLI or sham irradiation in MS. Standard TLI regimens were modified to reduce dose to 1,980 rad, lowering the superior mantle margin to midway between the thyroid cartilage and angle of the mandible (to avert xerostomia) and the lower margin of the mantle field to the inferior margin of L1 (to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity by dividing abdominal radiation between mantle and inverted Y), limiting spinal cord dose to 1,000 rad by custom-made spine blocks in the mantle and upper 2 cm of inverted Y fields, and also protecting the left kidney even if part of the spleen were shielded. Clinical efficacy was documented by the less frequent functional scale deterioration of 20 TLI treated patients with chronic progressive MS compared to to 20 sham-irradiated progressive MS patients after 12 months (16% versus 55%, p less than 0.03), 18 months (28% versus 63%, p less than 0.03), and 24 months (44% versus 74%, N.S.). Therapeutic benefit during 3 years follow-up was related to the reduction in lymphocyte count 3 months post-irradiation (p less than 0.02). Toxicity was generally mild and transient, with no instance of xerostomia, pericarditis, herpes zoster, or need to terminate treatment in TLI patients. However, menopause was induced in 2 patients and staphylococcal pneumonia in one.

  20. CATEGORY Total Procurement Total Small Business Small Disadvantaged

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    CATEGORY Total Procurement Total Small Business Small Disadvantaged Business Woman Owned Small Business HubZone Small Business Veteran-Owned Small Business Service Disabled Veteran Owned Small Business FY 2013 Dollars Accomplished $1,049,087,940 $562,676,028 $136,485,766 $106,515,229 $12,080,258 $63,473,852 $28,080,960 FY 2013 % Accomplishment 54.40% 13.00% 10.20% 1.20% 6.60% 2.70% FY 2014 Dollars Accomplished $868,961,755 $443,711,175 $92,478,522 $88,633,031 $29,867,820 $43,719,452 $26,826,374

  1. Guidance on the Use of Hand-Held Survey Meters for radiological Triage: Time-Dependent Detector Count Rates Corresponding to 50, 250, and 500 mSv Effective Dose for Adult Males and Adult Females

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolch, W.E.; Hurtado, J.L.; Lee, C.; Manger, Ryan P; Hertel, Nolan; Burgett, E.; Dickerson, W.

    2012-01-01

    In June 2006, the Radiation Studies Branch of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention held a workshop to explore rapid methods of facilitating radiological triage of large numbers of potentially contaminated individuals following detonation of a radiological dispersal device. Two options were discussed. The first was the use of traditional gamma cameras in nuclear medicine departments operated as makeshift wholebody counters. Guidance on this approach is currently available from the CDC. This approach would be feasible if a manageable number of individuals were involved, transportation to the relevant hospitals was quickly provided, and the medical staff at each facility had been previously trained in this non-traditional use of their radiopharmaceutical imaging devices. If, however, substantially larger numbers of individuals (100 s to 1,000 s) needed radiological screening, other options must be given to first responders, first receivers, and health physicists providing medical management. In this study, the second option of the workshop was investigated by the use of commercially available portable survey meters (either NaI or GM based) for assessing potential ranges of effective dose (G50, 50Y250, 250Y500, and 9500 mSv). Two hybrid computational phantoms were used to model an adult male and an adult female subject internally contaminated with 241Am, 60Cs, 137Cs, 131I, or 192Ir following an acute inhalation or ingestion intake. As a function of time following the exposure, the net count rates corresponding to committed effective doses of 50, 250, and 500 mSv were estimated via Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation for each of four different detector types, positions, and screening distances. Measured net count rates can be compared to these values, and an assignment of one of four possible effective dose ranges could be made. The method implicitly assumes that all external contamination has been removed prior to screening and that the measurements be conducted in a low background, and possibly mobile, facility positioned at the triage location. Net count rate data are provided in both tabular and graphical format within a series of eight handbooks available at the CDC website (http://www.bt.cdc.gov/radiation/clinicians/evaluation).

  2. 131I-Tositumomab Myeloablative Radioimmunotherapy for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Radiation Dose to the Testes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hattori, Naoya; Gopal, Ajay K.; Shields, Andrew T.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Gooley, Ted; Pagel, John M.; Press, Oliver W.; Rajendran, Joseph G.

    2012-12-01

    To investigate radiation dose to testes delivered by radiolabeled anti-CD20 antibody and its effects on male sex hormone levels. METHODS: We evaluated dosimetry results for 67 male patients (54 ± 11 years old) with non-Hodgkin lymphoma who underwent myeloablative radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using 131I-tositumomab. In a subset of patients, male sex hormones were measured before and one year after the therapy. RESULTS: Absorbed dose to testes showed greater variability (range = 4.4 to 70.2 Gy) than did dose to lungs (9.5 to 28.4 Gy, p < 0.0001) or liver (6.5 to 27.2 Gy, p < 0.0001). Absorbed dose to the testes per 131I administered (1.18 ± 0.59 mGy/MBq) was not significantly different from that to the liver (1.03 ± 0.29 mGy/MBq, p = 0.08), or to the lungs (1.19 ± 0.50 mGy/MBq, p = 0.889). Pre-therapy levels of total testosterone were below the lower limit of the reference range, and post-therapy evaluation demonstrated further reduction (4.6 ± 1.8 nmol/L (pre-RIT) vs. 3.8 ± 2.9 nmol/L (post-RIT), p < 0.05). Patients receiving higher radiation doses to the testes (≥ 25 Gy) showed a greater reduction (4.7 ± 1.6 nmol/L (pre RIT) vs. 3.3 ± 2.7 nmol/L (post-RIT), p < 0.05) than did patients receiving lower doses (< 25 Gy), who showed no significant change in total testosterone levels. CONCLUSION: The testicular radiation absorbed dose varied highly among individual patients. Patients receiving higher doses to testes were more likely to show post-RIT suppression of testosterone levels. Key Words: 131I-tositumomab, follicular lymphoma, radioimmunotherapy, radiation dosimetry, male sex hormones.  

  3. Standardized radiological dose evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, V.L.; Stahlnecker, E.

    1996-05-01

    Following the end of the Cold War, the mission of Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site changed from production of nuclear weapons to cleanup. Authorization baseis documents for the facilities, primarily the Final Safety Analysis Reports, are being replaced with new ones in which accident scenarios are sorted into coarse bins of consequence and frequency, similar to the approach of DOE-STD-3011-94. Because this binning does not require high precision, a standardized approach for radiological dose evaluations is taken for all the facilities at the site. This is done through a standard calculation ``template`` for use by all safety analysts preparing the new documents. This report describes this template and its use.

  4. Radiotherapy Dose Fractionation under Parameter Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davison, Matt; Kim, Daero; Keller, Harald

    2011-11-30

    In radiotherapy, radiation is directed to damage a tumor while avoiding surrounding healthy tissue. Tradeoffs ensue because dose cannot be exactly shaped to the tumor. It is particularly important to ensure that sensitive biological structures near the tumor are not damaged more than a certain amount. Biological tissue is known to have a nonlinear response to incident radiation. The linear quadratic dose response model, which requires the specification of two clinically and experimentally observed response coefficients, is commonly used to model this effect. This model yields an optimization problem giving two different types of optimal dose sequences (fractionation schedules). Which fractionation schedule is preferred depends on the response coefficients. These coefficients are uncertainly known and may differ from patient to patient. Because of this not only the expected outcomes but also the uncertainty around these outcomes are important, and it might not be prudent to select the strategy with the best expected outcome.

  5. Dose reduction for cardiac CT using a registration-based approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wierzbicki, Marcin; Guiraudon, Gerard M.; Jones, Douglas L.; Peters, Terry

    2007-06-15

    Two reasons for the recent rise in radiation exposure from CT are increases in its clinical applicability and the desire to maintain high SNR while acquiring smaller voxels. To address this emerging dose problem, several strategies for reducing patient exposure have already been proposed. One method employed in cardiac imaging is ECG-driven modulation of the tube current between 100% at one time point in the cardiac cycle and a reduced fraction at the remaining phases. In this paper, we describe how images obtained during such acquisition can be used to reconstruct 4D data of consistent high quality throughout the cardiac cycle. In our approach, we assume that the mid-diastole (MD) phase is imaged with full dose. The MD image is then independently registered to lower dose images (lower SNR) at other frames, resulting in a set of transformations. Finally, the transformations are used to warp the MD frame through the cardiac cycle to generate the full 4D image. In addition, the transformations may be interpolated to increase the temporal sampling or to generate images at arbitrary time points. Our approach was validated using various data obtained with simulated and scanner-implemented dose modulation. We determined that as little as 10% of the total dose was required to reproduce full quality images with a 1 mm spatial error and an error in intensity values on the order of the image noise. Thus, our technique offers considerable dose reductions compared to standard imaging protocols, with minimal effects on the quality of the final data.

  6. ORISE: Dose modeling and assessments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) offers dose modeling and assessment services to demonstrate that federal andor state regulatory compliance requirements...

  7. TU-F-18A-03: Improving Tissue Segmentation for Monte Carlo Dose Calculation Using DECT Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di, Salvio A; Bedwani, S; Carrier, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a new segmentation technique using dual energy CT (DECT) to overcome limitations related to segmentation from a standard Hounsfield unit (HU) to electron density (ED) calibration curve. Both methods are compared with a Monte Carlo analysis of dose distribution. Methods: DECT allows a direct calculation of both ED and effective atomic number (EAN) within a given voxel. The EAN is here defined as a function of the total electron cross-section of a medium. These values can be effectively acquired using a calibrated method from scans at two different energies. A prior stoichiometric calibration on a Gammex RMI phantom allows us to find the parameters to calculate EAN and ED within a voxel. Scans from a Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash dual source system provided the data for our study. A Monte Carlo analysis compares dose distribution simulated by dosxyz-nrc, considering a head phantom defined by both segmentation techniques. Results: Results from depth dose and dose profile calculations show that materials with different atomic compositions but similar EAN present differences of less than 1%. Therefore, it is possible to define a short list of basis materials from which density can be adapted to imitate interaction behavior of any tissue. Comparison of the dose distributions on both segmentations shows a difference of 50% in dose in areas surrounding bone at low energy. Conclusion: The presented segmentation technique allows a more accurate medium definition in each voxel, especially in areas of tissue transition. Since the behavior of human tissues is highly sensitive at low energies, this reduces the errors on calculated dose distribution. This method could be further developed to optimize the tissue characterization based on anatomic site.

  8. Total Adjusted Sales of Kerosene

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Farm All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 269,010 305,508 187,656 81,102 79,674 137,928 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 198,762 237,397 142,189 63,075 61,327 106,995 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 56,661 53,363 38,448 15,983 15,991 27,500 1984-2014 Connecticut 8,800 7,437

  9. Total Imports of Residual Fuel

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 Jan-16 Feb-16 View History U.S. Total 7,281 4,217 5,941 6,842 9,010 5,030 1936-2016 PAD District 1 4,571 2,206 2,952 3,174 3,127 2,664 1981-2016 Connecticut 1995-2015 Delaware 678 85 1995-2015 Florida 351 299 932 836 858 649 1995-2016 Georgia 120 295 210 262 1995-2016 Maine 1995-2015 Maryland 1995-2015 Massachusetts 1995-2015 New Hampshire 1995-2015 New Jersey 1,575 400 1,131 1,712 1,283 843 1995-2016 New York 1,475 998 350 322 234 824 1995-2016 North Carolina

  10. Table 4b. Relative Standard Errors for Total Fuel Oil Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4b. Relative Standard Errors for Total Fuel Oil Consumption per Effective Occupied Square Foot, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings Using Fuel Oil (thousand) Total Fuel Oil...

  11. Total-derivative supersymmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Uekusa, Nobuhiro

    2010-05-15

    On an interval compactification in supersymmetric theory, boundary conditions for bulk fields must be treated carefully. If they are taken arbitrarily following the requirement that a theory is supersymmetric, the conditions could give redundant constraints on the theory. We construct a supersymmetric action integral on an interval by introducing brane interactions with which total-derivative terms under the supersymmetry transformation become zero due to a cancellation. The variational principle leads equations of motion and also boundary conditions for bulk fields, which determine boundary values of bulk fields. By estimating mass spectrum, spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in this simple setup can be realized in a new framework. This supersymmetry breaking does not induce a massless R axion, which is favorable for phenomenology. It is worth noting that fermions in hyper-multiplet, gauge bosons, and the fifth-dimensional component of gauge bosons can have zero-modes (while the other components are all massive as Kaluza-Klein modes), which fits the gauge-Higgs unification scenarios.

  12. ,"West Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption ... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: West Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)" ...

  13. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption ... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)" ...

  14. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement : Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance The total diffuse and direct radiant energy that comes from some continuous range of directions, at wavelengths ...

  15. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing...

  16. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  17. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  18. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  19. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  20. Dose Limits | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Limits Dose Limits (Question Posted to ERAD in May 2012) Who do you define as a member of the public for the onsite MEI? This question implies that there may be more than one maximally exposed individual (MEI), one on-site and one off-site, when demonstrating compliance with the Public Dose Limit of DOE Order 458.1. Although all potential MEIs should be considered and documented, as well as the calculated doses and pathways considered, the intent of DOE Order 458.1 is in fact to ultimately

  1. Dose Recalculation and the Dose-Guided Radiation Therapy (DGRT) Process Using Megavoltage Cone-Beam CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, Joey Aubry, Jean-Francois; Yom, Sue S.; Gottschalk, Alexander R.; Celi, Juan Carlos; Pouliot, Jean

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: At University of California San Francisco, daily or weekly three-dimensional images of patients in treatment position are acquired for image-guided radiation therapy. These images can be used for calculating the actual dose delivered to the patient during treatment. In this article, we present the process of performing dose recalculation on megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography images and discuss possible strategies for dose-guided radiation therapy (DGRT). Materials and Methods: A dedicated workstation has been developed to incorporate the necessary elements of DGRT. Patient image correction (cupping, missing data artifacts), calibration, completion, recontouring, and dose recalculation are all implemented in the workstation. Tools for dose comparison are also included. Examples of image correction and dose analysis using 6 head-and-neck and 2 prostate patient datasets are presented to show possible tracking of interfraction dosimetric endpoint variation over the course of treatment. Results: Analysis of the head-and-neck datasets shows that interfraction treatment doses vary compared with the planning dose for the organs at risk, with the mean parotid dose and spinal cord D{sub 1} increasing by as much as 52% and 10%, respectively. Variation of the coverage to the target volumes was small, with an average D{sub 5} dose difference of 1%. The prostate patient datasets revealed accurate dose coverage to the targeted prostate and varying interfraction dose distributions to the organs at risk. Conclusions: An effective workflow for the clinical implementation of DGRT has been established. With these techniques in place, future clinical developments in adaptive radiation therapy through daily or weekly dosimetric measurements of treatment day images are possible.

  2. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMakin, A.H.; Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The TSP consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included are appointed technical members representing the states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, a representative of Native American tribes, and an individual representing the public. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demography, food consumption, and agriculture, and environmental pathways and dose estimates. Progress is discussed.

  3. Estimate Radiological Dose for Animals

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-12-18

    Estimate Radiological dose for animals in ecological environment using open literature values for parameters such as body weight, plant and soil ingestion rate, rad. halflife, absorbed energy, biological halflife, gamma energy per decay, soil-to-plant transfer factor, ...etc

  4. Effect of Fractionation in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Using the Linear Quadratic Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Jun; Philadelphia Cyberknife, Havertown, Pennsylvania ; Lamond, John; Philadelphia Cyberknife, Havertown, Pennsylvania ; Fowler, Jack; Lanciano, Rachelle; Philadelphia Cyberknife, Havertown, Pennsylvania ; Feng, Jing; Brady, Luther; Philadelphia Cyberknife, Havertown, Pennsylvania

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: To examine the fractionation effect of stereotactic body radiation therapy with a heterogeneous dose distribution. Methods: Derived from the linear quadratic formula with measurements from a hypothetical 2-cm radiosurgical tumor, the threshold percentage was defined as (?/?{sub tissue}/?/?{sub tumor}), the balance ?/? ratio was defined as (prescription dose/tissue tolerance*?/?{sub tumor}), and the balance dose was defined as (tissue tolerance/threshold percentage). Results: With increasing fractions and equivalent peripheral dose to the target, the biological equivalent dose of hot spots in a target decreases. The relative biological equivalent doses of serial organs decrease only when the relative percentage of its dose to the prescription dose is above the threshold percentage. The volume of parallel organs at risk decreases only when the tumor's ?/? ratio is above the balance ?/? ratio and the prescription dose is lower than balance dose. Conclusions: The potential benefits of fractionation in stereotactic body radiation therapy depend on the complex interplay between the total dose, ?/? ratios, and dose differences between the target and the surrounding normal tissues.

  5. Weldon Spring historical dose estimate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.

    1986-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr.

  6. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 634 578 46 1 Q 116.4 106.3...

  7. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Alaska - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S2. Summary statistics for natural gas - Alaska, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 269 277 185 R 159 170 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 127,417 112,268

  8. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 District of Columbia - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S9. Summary statistics for natural gas - District of Columbia, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  9. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Massachusetts - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S23. Summary statistics for natural gas - Massachusetts, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0

  10. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    50 North Dakota - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S36. Summary statistics for natural gas - North Dakota, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 188 239 211 200 200 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  11. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Washington - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S49. Summary statistics for natural gas - Washington, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil

  12. Total System Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Peer Review Panel for predicting the performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain.

  13. Introduction to benchmark dose methods and U.S. EPA's benchmark dose software (BMDS) version 2.1.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, J. Allen; Gift, Jeffrey S.; Zhao, Q. Jay

    2011-07-15

    Traditionally, the No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) approach has been used to determine the point of departure (POD) from animal toxicology data for use in human health risk assessments. However, this approach is subject to substantial limitations that have been well defined, such as strict dependence on the dose selection, dose spacing, and sample size of the study from which the critical effect has been identified. Also, the NOAEL approach fails to take into consideration the shape of the dose-response curve and other related information. The benchmark dose (BMD) method, originally proposed as an alternative to the NOAEL methodology in the 1980s, addresses many of the limitations of the NOAEL method. It is less dependent on dose selection and spacing, and it takes into account the shape of the dose-response curve. In addition, the estimation of a BMD 95% lower bound confidence limit (BMDL) results in a POD that appropriately accounts for study quality (i.e., sample size). With the recent advent of user-friendly BMD software programs, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) Benchmark Dose Software (BMDS), BMD has become the method of choice for many health organizations world-wide. This paper discusses the BMD methods and corresponding software (i.e., BMDS version 2.1.1) that have been developed by the U.S. EPA, and includes a comparison with recently released European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) BMD guidance.

  14. Multi-institutional Feasibility Study of a Fast Patient Localization Method in Total Marrow Irradiation With Helical Tomotherapy: A Global Health Initiative by the International Consortium of Total Marrow Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Yutaka; Vagge, Stefano; Agostinelli, Stefano; Han, Eunyoung; Matulewicz, Lukasz; Schubert, Kai; Chityala, Ravishankar; Ratanatharathorn, Vaneerat; Tournel, Koen; Penagaricano, Jose A.; Florian, Sterzing; Mahe, Marc-Andre; Verneris, Michael R.; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; and others

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop, characterize, and implement a fast patient localization method for total marrow irradiation. Methods and Materials: Topographic images were acquired using megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) detector data by delivering static orthogonal beams while the couch traversed through the gantry. Geometric and detector response corrections were performed to generate a megavoltage topogram (MVtopo). We also generated kilovoltage topograms (kVtopo) from the projection data of 3-dimensional CT images to reproduce the same geometry as helical tomotherapy. The MVtopo imaging dose and the optimal image acquisition parameters were investigated. A multi-institutional phantom study was performed to verify the image registration uncertainty. Forty-five MVtopo images were acquired and analyzed with in-house image registration software. Results: The smallest jaw size (front and backup jaws of 0) provided the best image contrast and longitudinal resolution. Couch velocity did not affect the image quality or geometric accuracy. The MVtopo dose was less than the MVCT dose. The image registration uncertainty from the multi-institutional study was within 2.8 mm. In patient localization, the differences in calculated couch shift between the registration with MVtopo-kVtopo and MVCT-kVCT images in lateral, cranial–caudal, and vertical directions were 2.2 ± 1.7 mm, 2.6 ± 1.4 mm, and 2.7 ± 1.1 mm, respectively. The imaging time in MVtopo acquisition at the couch speed of 3 cm/s was <1 minute, compared with ≥15 minutes in MVCT for all patients. Conclusion: Whole-body MVtopo imaging could be an effective alternative to time-consuming MVCT for total marrow irradiation patient localization.

  15. BENCHMARKING UPGRADED HOTSPOT DOSE CALCULATIONS AGAINST MACCS2 RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brotherton, Kevin

    2009-04-30

    The radiological consequence of interest for a documented safety analysis (DSA) is the centerline Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE) incurred by the Maximally Exposed Offsite Individual (MOI) evaluated at the 95th percentile consequence level. An upgraded version of HotSpot (Version 2.07) has been developed with the capabilities to read site meteorological data and perform the necessary statistical calculations to determine the 95th percentile consequence result. These capabilities should allow HotSpot to join MACCS2 (Version 1.13.1) and GENII (Version 1.485) as radiological consequence toolbox codes in the Department of Energy (DOE) Safety Software Central Registry. Using the same meteorological data file, scenarios involving a one curie release of {sup 239}Pu were modeled in both HotSpot and MACCS2. Several sets of release conditions were modeled, and the results compared. In each case, input parameter specifications for each code were chosen to match one another as much as the codes would allow. The results from the two codes are in excellent agreement. Slight differences observed in results are explained by algorithm differences.

  16. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A. )

    1989-10-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1986. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 66 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 31 person-rem to a low of 0.0007 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 1.7 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 110 person-rem for the 140 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 2 {times} 10{sup -6} mrem to a high of 0.02 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites. 12 refs.

  17. Population Dose Commitments Due to Radioactive Releases from Nuclear Power Plant Sites in 1977

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D. A.

    1980-10-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1977. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each site. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ, Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitment from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 220 person-rem to a low of 0.003 person-rem with an arithmetic mean of 16 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 700 person-rem for the 92 million people considered at risk. The average individual dose commitment from all pathways on a site basis ranged from a low of 2 x 10{sup -5} mrem to a high of 0.1 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  18. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1984. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 56 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 110 person-rem to a low of 0.002 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 5 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 280 person-rem for the 100 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 6 x 10/sup -6/ mrem to a high of 0.04 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  19. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from Nuclear-Power-Plant Sites in 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1982-12-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1979. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each site. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitment from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 1300 person-rem to a low of 0.0002 person-rem with an arithmetic mean of 38 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 1800 person-rem for the 94 million people considered at risk. The average individual dose commitment from all pathways on a site basis ranged from a low of 2 x 10/sup -6/ mrem to a high of 0.7 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  20. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A.

    1988-08-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commericial power reactors operating during 1985. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 61 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 73 person-rem to a low of 0.011 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 200 person-rem for the 110 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 5 /times/ 10/sup /minus/6/ mrem to a high of 0.02 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  1. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear-power-plant sites in 1978

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peloquin, R.A.; Schwab, J.D.; Baker, D.A.

    1982-06-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1978. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each site. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitment from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 200 person-rem to a low of 0.0004 person-rem with an arithmetic mean of 14 person-rem. The total population dose for allsites was estimated at 660 person-rem for the 93 million people considered at risk. The average individual dose commitment from all pathways on a site basis ranged from a low of 3 x 10/sup -6/ mrem to a high of 0.08 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  2. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1982. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1986-06-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1982. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 51 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 30 person-rem to a low of 0.007 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 130 person-rem for the 100 million people considered at risk. The average individual dose commitment from all pathways on a site basis ranged from a low of 6 x 10/sup -7/ mrem to a high of 0.06 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  3. Effects of Low-Dose Alpha-Particle Irradiation in Human Cells: The Role of Induced Genes and the Bystander Effect. Final Technical Report (9/15/1998-5/31/2005)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Little, John B.

    2013-09-17

    This grant was designed to examine the cellular and molecular mechanisms for the bystander effect of radiation (initially described in this laboratory) whereby damage signals are passed from irradiated to non-irradiated cells in a population. These signals induce genetic effects including DNA damage, mutations and chromosomal aberrations in the nonirradiated cells. Experiments were carried out in cultured mammalian cells, primarily human diploid cells, irradiated with alpha particles. This research resulted in 17 publications in the refereed literature and is described in the Progress Report where it is keyed to the publication list. This project was initiated at the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) and continued in collaboration with students/fellows at Colorado State University (CSU) and the New Jersey Medical School (NJMS).

  4. Dose Calculation Evolution for Internal Organ Irradiation in Humans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jimenez V, Reina A.

    2007-10-26

    The International Commission of Radiation Units (ICRU) has established through the years, a discrimination system regarding the security levels on the prescription and administration of doses in radiation treatments (Radiotherapy, Brach therapy, Nuclear Medicine). The first level is concerned with the prescription and posterior assurance of dose administration to a point of interest (POI), commonly located at the geometrical center of the region to be treated. In this, the effects of radiation around that POI, is not a priority. The second level refers to the dose specifications in a particular plane inside the patient, mostly the middle plane of the lesion. The dose is calculated to all the structures in that plane regardless if they are tumor or healthy tissue. In this case, the dose is not represented by a point value, but by level curves called 'isodoses' as in a topographic map, so you can assure the level of doses to this particular plane, but it also leave with no information about how this values go thru adjacent planes. This is why the third level is referred to the volumetrical description of doses so these isodoses construct now a volume (named 'cloud') that give us better assurance about tissue irradiation around the volume of the lesion and its margin (sub clinical spread or microscopic illness). This work shows how this evolution has resulted, not only in healthy tissue protection improvement but in a rise of tumor control, quality of life, better treatment tolerance and minimum permanent secuelae.

  5. Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Health with Low-Dose, Low-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Globus, Ruth K.

    2014-11-03

    We performed in vivo and in vitro experiments to accomplish the following specific aims of this project: 1) determine if low dose, low LET radiation affects skeletal remodeling at structural, cellular and molecular levels and 2) determine if low dose, low LET radiation modulates skeletal health during aging via oxidative mechanisms. A third aim is supported by NASA supplement to this DOE grant focusing on the influence of high LET radiation on bone. A series of experiments were conducted at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven, NSRL-BNL, using iron (56Fe) or a sequential exposure to protons / iron / protons, and separate experiments at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) using 137Cs. The following provides a summary of key findings. (1) Exposure of nine-week old female mice to priming doses of gamma radiation (10cGy x 5) did not significantly affect bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) or microarchitecture as analyzed by 3D microcomputed tomography. As expected, exposure to the challenge dose of 2 Gy gamma irradiation resulted in significant decreases in BV/TV. The priming dose combined with the 2Gy challenge dose had no further effect on BV/TV compared to challenge dose alone, with the sole exception of the Structural Model Index (SMI). SMI reflects the ratio of rods-to-plates in cancellous bone tissue, such that higher SMI values indicate a tendency toward a weaker structure compared to lower SMI values. Mice treated with both priming and challenge dose had 25% higher SMI values compared to sham-irradiated controls and 7% higher values compared to mice treated with the challenge dose alone. Thus, although this priming regimen had relatively modest effects on cancellous tissue, the difference in SMI suggests this fractionated priming doses have adverse, rather than beneficial, effects on bone structure. (2) In 10-week old male mice, a single exposure to 100cGy of 137Cs reduces trabecular bone number and connectivity density by 20% and 36% respectively one month after irradiation (IR). At four months post-IR, these animals were comparable to sham-treated controls with regards to the abovementioned structural parameters. Irradation at 1 or 10 cGy did not result in any significant changes in bone structural parameters. (3) Irradiation of 16-wk old male mice with high doses of 56Fe or proton (50 or 200cGy), but not at low doses (5 or 10cGy), showed a similar loss of cancellous BV/TV and trabecular number at five weeks post-IR. (4) Age-related bone loss overtook acute radiation-induced decrements in bone structure within four months post-IR with 100 cGy gamma and 12 months post-IR with 200 cGy iron. Transgenic mice globally overexpressing human catalase gene in mitochondria did not exhibit cancellous bone loss as assessed at four month post-IR with 10 cGy proton, 50 cGy iron, or in combination. (5) The cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for loss of bone with radiation are mediated primarily through increased osteoclastogenesis. Our data provide evidence that there are increases in gene expression of TNF alpha and MCP1 in the bone marrow cells 24 hours post-IR and of osteoclastogenic differentiation factor RANKL by day 3. These cytokines in the marrow may stimulate mature osteoclasts or drive osteoclastogenesis from precursors. (6) Osteoblastogenesis from marrow progenitors evaluated ex vivo decreased following whole body 56Fe irradiation at a dose threshold between 20 and 50 cGy whereas osteoclastogenesis ex vivo increased with doses as low as 10cGy two days post-IR of mice. However, the latter finding was not observed in more than a single experiment. (7) Gamma irradiation of cells in vitro requires relatively high doses (200cGy) to disturb normal osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis as evidenced by decrements in mineralized nodule formation, osteoclast counts, and expression of osteoblast related genes such as runx2, col1a1. (8) We also investigated the effect of antioxidants on osteoblastogenesis following low dose in vitro gamma irradiation (15cGy) on day four bone marrow stromal cell cultures. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was added to the cell culture medium for 2 or 3 days post-irradiation and cell colonies were counted on days 7 and 10. SOD treatment increased cell growth as measured by DNA content and colony forming units (CFU) in both irradiated cells and 0 cGy control groups. However, low dose radiation of 15cGy abolished SOD stimulatory effects on cell growth and CFU number. These results suggest that exogenous SOD increases osteoblast cell growth and colony formation and that low-dose radiation (15cGy) can interfere with the antioxidant effects. In summary, our findings indicate that acute, whole body irradiation at high doses (50-200 cGy) results in prompt tissue degradation and bone loss. Lower doses (<50 cGy) do not cause bone structural deterioration but may deplete stem/progenitor cell pools in the bone marrow.

  6. SU-C-12A-05: Radiation Dose in High-Pitch Pediatric Cardiac CTA: Correlation Between Lung Dose and CTDIvol, DLP, and Size Specific Dose Estimates (SSDE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J; Kino, A; Newman, B; Chan, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the radiation dose for pediatric high pitch cardiac CTA Methods: A total of 14 cases were included in this study, with mean age of 6.2 years (ranges from 2 months to 15 years). Cardiac CTA was performed using a dual-source CT system (Definition Flash, Siemens). Tube voltage (70, 80 and 100kV) was chosen based on patient weight. All patients were scanned using a high-pitch spiral mode (pitch ranges from 2.5 to 3) with tube current modulation technique (CareDose4D, Siemens). For each case, the three dimensional dose distributions were calculated using a Monte Carlo software package (IMPACT-MC, CT Image GmbH). Scanning parameters of each exam, including tube voltage, tube current, beamshaping filters, beam collimation, were defined in the Monte Carlo calculation. Tube current profile along projection angles was obtained from projection data of each tube, which included data within the over-scanning range along z direction. The volume of lungs was segmented out with CT images (3DSlicer). Lung doses of all patients were calculated and compared with CTDIvol, DLP, and SSDE. Results: The average (range) of CTDIvol, DLP and SSDE of all patients was 1.19 mGy (0.58 to 3.12mGy), 31.54 mGy*cm (12.56 to 99 mGy*cm), 2.26 mGy (1.19 to 6.24 mGy), respectively. Radiation dose to the lungs ranged from 0.83 to 4.18 mGy. Lung doses correlated with CTDIvol, DLP and SSDE with correlation coefficients(k) at 0.98, 0.93, and 0.99. However, for the cases with CTDIvol less than 1mGy, only SSDE preserved a strong correlation with lung doses (k=0.83), while much weaker correlations were found for CTDIvol (k=0.29) and DLP (k=-0.47). Conclusion: Lung doses to pediatric patients during Cardiac CTA were estimated. SSDE showed the most robust correlation with lung doses in contrast to CTDIvol and DLP.

  7. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 6. Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, S

    2007-09-05

    Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 792,000 Ci (29,300 TBq) of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); about 75% was tritium gas (HT) primarily from the accidental releases of 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 100,000 Ci (3,700 TBq) HT and about 75,000 Ci (2,800 TBq) tritiated water vapor (HTO) to the total. A Tritium Dose Reconstruction was undertaken to estimate both the annual doses to the public for each year of LLNL operations and the doses from the few accidental releases. Some of the dose calculations were new, and the others could be compared with those calculated by LLNL. Annual doses (means and 95% confidence intervals) to the potentially most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Predicted tritium concentrations in air were compared with observed mean annual concentrations at one location from 1973 onwards. Doses predicted from annual emissions were compared with those reported in the past by LLNL. The highest annual mean dose predicted from routine emissions was 34 {micro}Sv (3.4 mrem) in 1957; its upper confidence limit, based on very conservative assumptions about the speciation of the release, was 370 {micro}Sv (37 mrem). The upper confidence limits for most annual doses were well below the current regulatory limit of 100 {micro}Sv (10 mrem) for dose to the public from release to the atmosphere; the few doses that exceeded this were well below the regulatory limits of the time. Lacking the hourly meteorological data needed to calculate doses from historical accidental releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from a time-dependent accident consequence model that accounts for the complex behavior of tritium in the environment. Ratios were modified to account for only those foods growing at the time of the releases. The highest dose from an accidental release was calculated for a release of about 1,500 Ci HTO that occurred in October 1954. The likely dose for this release was probably less than 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem), but, because of many unknowns (e.g., release-specific meteorological and accidental conditions) and conservative assumptions, the uncertainty was very high. As a result, the upper confidence limit on the predictions, considered a dose that could not have been exceeded, was estimated to be 2 mSv (200 mrem). The next highest dose, from the 1970 accidental release of about 290,000 Ci (10,700 TBq) HT when wind speed and wind direction were known, was one-third as great. Doses from LLNL accidental releases were well below regulatory reporting limits. All doses, from both routine and accidental releases, were far below the level (3.6 mSv [360 mrem] per year) at which adverse health effects have been documented in the literature.

  8. Reassessment of the potential radiological doses for residents resettling Enewetak Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W.L.; Phillips, W.A.; Mount, M.E.; Clegg, B.R.; Conrado, C.L.

    1980-10-30

    The purpose of this report is to refine the dose predictions, subsequent to the cleanup effort, for alternate living patterns proposed for resettlement of Enewetak Atoll. The most recent data developed from projects at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls for concentration and uptake of Cs, Sr, Pu, and Am were used in conjunction with recent dietary information and current dose models to predict annual dose rates and 30- and 50-y integral doses (dose commitments). The terrestrial food chain in the most significant exposure pathway - it contributes more than 50% of the total dose - and external gamma exposure is the second most significant pathway. Other pathways evaluated are the marine food chain, drinking water, and inhalation.

  9. Cell Total Activity Final Estimate.xls

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    WSSRAP Cell Total Activity Final Estimate (calculated September 2002, Fleming) (Waste streams & occupied cell volumes from spreadsheet titled "cell waste volumes-8.23.02 with ...

  10. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Alabama - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S1. Summary statistics for natural gas - Alabama, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 7,026 7,063 6,327 R 6,165 6,118 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  11. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Colorado - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S6. Summary statistics for natural gas - Colorado, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 28,813 30,101 32,000 R 32,468 38,346 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  12. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Florida - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S10. Summary statistics for natural gas - Florida, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 17,182 16,459 19,742

  13. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Hawaii - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S13. Summary statistics for natural gas - Hawaii, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0

  14. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Idaho - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S14. Summary statistics for natural gas - Idaho, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0

  15. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Kansas - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S18. Summary statistics for natural gas - Kansas, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 22,145 25,758 24,697 R 23,792 24,354 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  16. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Louisiana - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S20. Summary statistics for natural gas - Louisiana, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 19,137 21,235 19,792 R 19,528 19,251 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  17. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 New Mexico - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S33. Summary statistics for natural gas - New Mexico, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 44,748 32,302 28,206 R 27,073 27,957 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From

  18. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Oregon - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S39. Summary statistics for natural gas - Oregon, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 26 24 27 R 26 28 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 1,407 1,344 770 770

  19. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle ... due to independent rounding. Prices are in nominal dollars. ... Annual Consumption per Consumer (thousand cubic feet) ...

  20. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    from Electric Power to Industrial for years 2002 through ... Totals may not add due to independent rounding. Prices are ... Annual Consumption per Consumer (thousand cubic feet) ...

  1. Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Capacity Salt Caverns Storage Capacity Aquifers Storage Capacity Depleted Fields Storage Capacity Total Working Gas Capacity Working Gas Capacity of Salt Caverns Working...

  2. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband total downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband total downwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 mum, passes ...

  3. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband total upwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband total upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 mum, passes ...

  4. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral total downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send Measurement : Shortwave spectral total downwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, at specrally-resolved wavelengths between 0.4 and 4 mum, is being emitted ...

  5. 2014 Total Electric Industry- Sales (Megawatthours

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    EIA-861U)" "State","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation","Total" "New England",47211525,53107038,19107433,557463,119983459 "Connecticut",12777579,12893531,351479...

  6. Total Supplemental Supply of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Product: Total Supplemental Supply Synthetic Propane-Air Refinery Gas Biomass Other Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & ...

  7. Dosimetric aspects of inverse-planned modulated-arc total-body irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Held, Mareike; Kirby, Neil; Morin, Olivier; Pouliot, Jean

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To develop optimal beam parameters and to verify the dosimetric aspects of the recently developed modulated-arc total-body irradiation (MATBI) technique, which delivers an inverse-planned dose to the entire body using gantry rotation. Methods: The patient is positioned prone and supine underneath the gantry at about 2 m source-to-surface distance (SSD). Then, up to 28 beams irradiate the patient from different gantry angles. Based on full-body computed-tomography (CT) images of the patient, the weight of each beam is optimized, using inverse planning, to create a uniform body dose. This study investigates how to best simulate patients and the ideal beam setup parameters, such as field size, number of beams, and beam geometry, for treatment time and dose homogeneity. In addition, three anthropomorphic water phantoms were constructed and utilized to verify the accuracy of dose delivery, with both diode array and ion chamber measurements. Furthermore, to improve the accuracy of the new technique, a beam model is created specifically for the extended-SSD positioning for MATBI. Results: Low dose CT scans can be utilized for dose calculations without affecting the accuracy. The largest field size of 40 Multiplication-Sign 40 cm{sup 2} was found to deliver the most uniform dose in the least amount of time. Moreover, a higher number of beams improves dose homogeneity. The average dose discrepancy between ion chamber measurements and extended-SSD beam model calculations was 1.2%, with the largest discrepancy being 3.2%. This average dose discrepancy was 1.4% with the standard beam model for delivery at isocenter. Conclusions: The optimum beam setup parameters, regarding dose uniformity and treatment duration, are laid out for modulated-arc TBI. In addition, the presented dose measurements show that these treatments can be delivered accurately. These measurements also indicated that a new beam model did not significantly improve the accuracy of dose calculations. The optimum beam setup parameters along with the measurements performed to ensure accurate dose delivery serve as a useful guide for the clinical implementation of MATBI.

  8. Implications of Intercellular Signaling for Radiation Therapy: A Theoretical Dose-Planning Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahon, Stephen J.; McGarry, Conor K.; Butterworth, Karl T.; O'Sullivan, Joe M.; Hounsell, Alan R.; Prise, Kevin M.

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Recent in vitro results have shown significant contributions to cell killing from signaling effects at doses that are typically used in radiation therapy. This study investigates whether these in vitro observations can be reconciled with in vivo knowledge and how signaling may have an impact on future developments in radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Prostate cancer treatment plans were generated for a series of 10 patients using 3-dimensional conformal therapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy techniques. These plans were evaluated using mathematical models of survival following modulated radiation exposures that were developed from in vitro observations and incorporate the effects of intercellular signaling. The impact on dosevolume histograms and mean doses were evaluated by converting these survival levels into signaling-adjusted doses for comparison. Results: Inclusion of intercellular communication leads to significant differences between the signalling-adjusted and physical doses across a large volume. Organs in low-dose regions near target volumes see the largest increases, with mean signaling-adjusted bladder doses increasing from 23 to 33 Gy in IMRT plans. By contrast, in high-dose regions, there is a small decrease in signaling-adjusted dose due to reduced contributions from neighboring cells, with planning target volume mean doses falling from 74 to 71 Gy in IMRT. Overall, however, the dose distributions remain broadly similar, and comparisons between the treatment modalities are largely unchanged whether physical or signaling-adjusted dose is compared. Conclusions: Although incorporating cellular signaling significantly affects cell killing in low-dose regions and suggests a different interpretation for many phenomena, their effect in high-dose regions for typical planning techniques is comparatively small. This indicates that the significant signaling effects observed in vitro are not contradicted by comparison with clinical observations. Future investigations are needed to validate these effects in vivo and to quantify their ranges and potential impact on more advanced radiation therapy techniques.

  9. Low dose ionizing radiation detection using conjugated polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, E.A.B.; Borin, J.F.; Nicolucci, P.; Graeff, C.F.O.; Netto, T. Ghilardi; Bianchi, R.F.

    2005-03-28

    In this work, the effect of gamma radiation on the optical properties of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2{sup '}-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) is studied. The samples were irradiated at room temperature with different doses from 0 Gy to 152 Gy using a {sup 60}Co gamma ray source. For thin films, significant changes in the UV-visible spectra were only observed at high doses (>1 kGy). In solution, shifts in absorption peaks are observed at low doses (<10 Gy), linearly dependent on dose. The shifts are explained by conjugation reduction, and possible causes are discussed. Our results indicate that MEH-PPV solution can be used as a dosimeter adequate for medical applications.

  10. Dose comparisons for mammographic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speiser, R.C.; Zanrosso, E.M.; Jeromin, L.S.; Carlson, R.A.

    1986-09-01

    Dose estimates were made for Kodak Min-R screens combined with Kodak Min-R film and Kodak Ortho M film, both with and without a 5:1 Bucky grid; for standard xeroradiographic techniques in negative development mode; and for the new, higher sensitivity xeroradiographic process of the Xerox 175 System. The estimates were derived from exposure versus depth measurements in phantoms made of BR12 breast simulation material using thermoluminescent detectors. A molybdenum target source with molybdenum filtration, at a half-value layer of 0.37-mm Al, was used for the screen-film measurements. All xeroradiographic measurements were made with a tungsten target source with aluminum filtration at half-value layers of 1.5 to 1.56 mm Al. Mean glandular dose estimates for the Min-R screen/Ortho M film combination with Bucky grid and for the new xeroradiographic process were found to be similar. Dose reduction with the new xeroradiographic system was achieved through a more sensitive photoreceptor and more sensitive development, which also improved the unique imaging characteristics of xeroradiography.

  11. Dose optimization in cardiac x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gislason-Lee, Amber J.; McMillan, Catherine; Cowen, Arnold R.; Davies, Andrew G.

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to optimize x-ray image quality to dose ratios in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. This study examined independently the effects of peak x-ray tube voltage (kVp), copper (Cu), and gadolinium (Gd) x-ray beam filtration on the image quality to radiation dose balance for adult patient sizes.Methods: Image sequences of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms representing two adult patient sizes were captured using a modern flat panel detector based x-ray imaging system. Tin and copper test details were used to simulate iodine-based contrast medium and stents/guide wires respectively, which are used in clinical procedures. Noise measurement for a flat field image and test detail contrast were used to calculate the contrast to noise ratio (CNR). Entrance surface dose (ESD) and effective dose measurements were obtained to calculate the figure of merit (FOM), CNR{sup 2}/dose. This FOM determined the dose efficiency of x-ray spectra investigated. Images were captured with 0.0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.4, and 0.9 mm Cu filtration and with a range of gadolinium oxysulphide (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S) filtration.Results: Optimum x-ray spectra were the same for the tin and copper test details. Lower peak tube voltages were generally favored. For the 20 cm phantom, using 2 Lanex Fast Back Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S screens as x-ray filtration at 65 kVp provided the highest FOM considering ESD and effective dose. Considering ESD, this FOM was only marginally larger than that from using 0.4 mm Cu at 65 kVp. For the 30 cm phantom, using 0.25 mm copper filtration at 80 kVp was most optimal; considering effective dose the FOM was highest with no filtration at 65 kVp.Conclusions: These settings, adjusted for x-ray tube loading limits and clinically acceptable image quality, should provide a useful option for optimizing patient dose to image quality in cardiac x-ray imaging. The same optimal x-ray beam spectra were found for both the tin and copper details, suggesting that iodine contrast based imaging and visualization of interventional devices could potentially be optimized for dose using similar x-ray beam spectra.

  12. 2009 Total Energy Production by State | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Total Energy Production by State 2009 Total Energy Production by State 2009 Total Energy Production by State...

  13. A Method for Correcting IMRT Optimizer Heterogeneity Dose Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zacarias, Albert S.; Brown, Mellonie F. Mills, Michael D.

    2010-04-01

    Radiation therapy treatment planning for volumes close to the patient's surface, in lung tissue and in the head and neck region, can be challenging for the planning system optimizer because of the complexity of the treatment and protected volumes, as well as striking heterogeneity corrections. Because it is often the goal of the planner to produce an isodose plan with uniform dose throughout the planning target volume (PTV), there is a need for improved planning optimization procedures for PTVs located in these anatomical regions. To illustrate such an improved procedure, we present a treatment planning case of a patient with a lung lesion located in the posterior right lung. The intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan generated using standard optimization procedures produced substantial dose nonuniformity across the tumor caused by the effect of lung tissue surrounding the tumor. We demonstrate a novel iterative method of dose correction performed on the initial IMRT plan to produce a more uniform dose distribution within the PTV. This optimization method corrected for the dose missing on the periphery of the PTV and reduced the maximum dose on the PTV to 106% from 120% on the representative IMRT plan.

  14. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Monthly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M.

    1992-10-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) provides technical direction. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates):Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture, and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  15. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    8 Minnesota - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet ... Summary statistics for natural gas - Minnesota, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 ...

  16. EQUUS Total Return Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: EQUUS Total Return Inc Place: Houston, Texas Product: A business development company and VC investor that trades as a closed-end fund. EQUUS is...

  17. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Totals may not add due to independent rounding. Prices are ... 250,994 253,127 Industrial 9,332 9,088 8,833 8,497 8,156 Average Annual Consumption per Consumer (thousand cubic ...

  18. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Notes: Totals may not add due to independent rounding. Prices ... 34,078 34,283 34,339 Industrial 102 94 97 95 92 Average Annual Consumption per Consumer (thousand cubic feet) ...

  19. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    as known volumes of natural gas that were the result of leaks, damage, accidents, migration, andor blow down. Notes: Totals may not add due to independent rounding. Prices are...

  20. TotalView Parallel Debugger at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The performance of the GUI can be greatly improved if used in conjunction with free NX software. The TotalView documentation web page is a good resource for learning more...

  1. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband total upwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband total upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, at a wavelength between 0.4 and 4 mum, is being emitted upwards into a ...

  2. "2014 Total Electric Industry- Revenue (Thousands Dollars)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    EIA-861U)" "State","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation","Total" "New England",8414175.4,7806276.7,2262752.4,57837.4,18541041.8 "Connecticut",2523348.7,2004629.1...

  3. 2014 Total Electric Industry- Revenue (Thousands Dollars)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Revenue (Thousands Dollars) (Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U) State Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total New England 8,414,175 ...

  4. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S11. ... 2,314 764 719 180 4,046 Supplemental Gas Supplies 732 701 660 642 635 Balancing Item ...

  5. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S35. ... 3,762 7,315 10,303 Supplemental Gas Supplies 0 0 0 0 0 Balancing Item 65,897 -19,970 ...

  6. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S7. ... 473 526 484 626 1,359 Supplemental Gas Supplies 0 0 0 0 0 Balancing Item -6,645 3,976 ...

  7. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S31. ... 35 108 71 124 185 Supplemental Gas Supplies 0 0 0 0 0 Balancing Item -1,393 -3,726 ...

  8. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S51. ... 92 87 100 89 138 Supplemental Gas Supplies 0 0 0 0 0 Balancing Item -2,885 -12,890 ...

  9. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S8. ... 76 96 66 131 128 Supplemental Gas Supplies 1 0 * * 6 Balancing Item 3,249 7,362 ...

  10. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S17. ... 1,844 980 2,403 2,701 Supplemental Gas Supplies 2 1 0 0 1 Balancing Item -1,989 -7,914 ...

  11. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S32. ... 4,404 3,278 5,208 6,218 Supplemental Gas Supplies 457 392 139 255 530 Balancing Item ...

  12. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S41. ... 698 436 457 645 879 Supplemental Gas Supplies 0 0 0 0 0 Balancing Item -1,269 1,045 ...

  13. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S47. ... 0 LNG Storage 0 0 0 0 0 Supplemental Gas Supplies 1 2 3 3 5 Balancing Item -453 -1,711 ...

  14. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S30. ... 195 154 146 210 211 Supplemental Gas Supplies 0 0 0 0 0 Balancing Item 17,590 4,622 ...

  15. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Dose Painting to Treat Rhabdomyosarcoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Joanna C.; Dharmarajan, Kavita V.; Wexler, Leonard H.; La Quaglia, Michael P.; Happersett, Laura; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To examine local control and patterns of failure in rhabdomyosarcoma patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (RT) with dose painting (DP-IMRT). Patients and Methods: A total of 41 patients underwent DP-IMRT with chemotherapy for definitive treatment. Nineteen also underwent surgery with or without intraoperative RT. Fifty-six percent had alveolar histologic features. The median interval from beginning chemotherapy to RT was 17 weeks (range, 4-25). Very young children who underwent second-look procedures with or without intraoperative RT received reduced doses of 24-36 Gy in 1.4-1.8-Gy fractions. Young adults received 50.4 Gy to the primary tumor and lower doses of 36 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions to at-risk lymph node chains. Results: With 22 months of median follow-up, the actuarial local control rate was 90%. Patients aged {<=}7 years who received reduced overall and fractional doses had 100% local control, and young adults had 79% (P=.07) local control. Three local failures were identified in young adults whose primary target volumes had received 50.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions. Conclusions: DP-IMRT with lower fractional and cumulative doses is feasible for very young children after second-look procedures with or without intraoperative RT. DP-IMRT is also feasible in adolescents and young adults with aggressive disease who would benefit from prophylactic RT to high-risk lymph node chains, although dose escalation might be warranted for improved local control. With limited follow-up, it appears that DP-IMRT produces local control rates comparable to those of sequential IMRT in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma.

  16. Low-Dose Radiation Cataract and Genetic Determinants of Radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleiman, Norman Jay

    2013-11-30

    The lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the body. Ocular ionizing radiation exposure results in characteristic, dose related, progressive lens changes leading to cataract formation. While initial, early stages of lens opacification may not cause visual disability, the severity of such changes progressively increases with dose until vision is impaired and cataract extraction surgery may be required. Because of the transparency of the eye, radiation induced lens changes can easily be followed non-invasively over time. Thus, the lens provides a unique model system in which to study the effects of low dose ionizing radiation exposure in a complex, highly organized tissue. Despite this observation, considerable uncertainties remain surrounding the relationship between dose and risk of developing radiation cataract. For example, a growing number of human epidemiological findings suggest significant risk among various groups of occupationally and accidentally exposed individuals and confidence intervals that include zero dose. Nevertheless, questions remain concerning the relationship between lens opacities, visual disability, clinical cataract, threshold dose and/or the role of genetics in determining radiosensitivity. Experimentally, the response of the rodent eye to radiation is quite similar to that in humans and thus animal studies are well suited to examine the relationship between radiation exposure, genetic determinants of radiosensitivity and cataractogenesis. The current work has expanded our knowledge of the low-dose effects of X-irradiation or high-LET heavy ion exposure on timing and progression of radiation cataract and has provided new information on the genetic, molecular, biochemical and cell biological features which contribute to this pathology. Furthermore, findings have indicated that single and/or multiple haploinsufficiency for various genes involved in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control, such as Atm, Brca1 or Rad9, influence cataract development and thus radiosensitivity. These observations have direct applicability to various human populations including accidentally exposed individuals, interventional medical workers, astronauts and nuclear plant workers.

  17. TSD-DOSE: A radiological dose assessment model for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfingston, M.; Arnish, J.; LePoire, D.; Chen, S.-Y.

    1998-10-14

    Past practices at US Department of Energy (DOE) field facilities resulted in the presence of trace amounts of radioactive materials in some hazardous chemical wastes shipped from these facilities. In May 1991, the DOE Office of Waste Operations issued a nationwide moratorium on shipping all hazardous waste until procedures could be established to ensure that only nonradioactive hazardous waste would be shipped from DOE facilities to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. To aid in assessing the potential impacts of shipments of mixed radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes, a radiological assessment computer model (or code) was developed on the basis of detailed assessments of potential radiological exposures and doses for eight commercial hazardous waste TSD facilities. The model, called TSD-DOSE, is designed to incorporate waste-specific and site-specific data to estimate potential radiological doses to on-site workers and the off-site public from waste-handling operations at a TSD facility. The code is intended to provide both DOE and commercial TSD facilities with a rapid and cost-effective method for assessing potential human radiation exposures from the processing of chemical wastes contaminated with trace amounts of radionuclides.

  18. Estimated dose rates to members of the public from external exposure to patients with {sup 131}I thyroid treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewji, S. Bellamy, M.; Leggett, R.; Eckerman, K.; Hertel, N.; Sherbini, S.; Saba, M.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Estimated dose rates that may result from exposure to patients who had been administered iodine-131 ({sup 131}I) as part of medical therapy were calculated. These effective dose rate estimates were compared with simplified assumptions under United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 8.39, which does not consider body tissue attenuation nor time-dependent redistribution and excretion of the administered {sup 131}I. Methods: Dose rates were estimated for members of the public potentially exposed to external irradiation from patients recently treated with {sup 131}I. Tissue attenuation and iodine biokinetics were considered in the patient in a larger comprehensive effort to improve external dose rate estimates. The external dose rate estimates are based on Monte Carlo simulations using the Phantom with Movable Arms and Legs (PIMAL), previously developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. PIMAL was employed to model the relative positions of the {sup 131}I patient and members of the public in three exposure scenarios: (1) traveling on a bus in a total of six seated or standing permutations, (2) two nursing home cases where a caregiver is seated at 30 cm from the patient’s bedside and a nursing home resident seated 250 cm away from the patient in an adjacent bed, and (3) two hotel cases where the patient and a guest are in adjacent rooms with beds on opposite sides of the common wall, with the patient and guest both in bed and either seated back-to-back or lying head to head. The biokinetic model predictions of the retention and distribution of {sup 131}I in the patient assumed a single voiding of urinary bladder contents that occurred during the trip at 2, 4, or 8 h after {sup 131}I administration for the public transportation cases, continuous first-order voiding for the nursing home cases, and regular periodic voiding at 4, 8, or 12 h after administration for the hotel room cases. Organ specific activities of {sup 131}I in the thyroid, bladder, and combined remaining tissues were calculated as a function of time after administration. Exposures to members of the public were considered for {sup 131}I patients with normal thyroid uptake (peak thyroid uptake of ∼27% of administered {sup 131}I), differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, 5% uptake), and hyperthyroidism (80% uptake). Results: The scenario with the patient seated behind the member of the public yielded the highest dose rate estimate of seated public transportation exposure cases. The dose rate to the adjacent room guest was highest for the exposure scenario in which the hotel guest and patient are seated by a factor of ∼4 for the normal and differentiated thyroid cancer uptake cases and by a factor of ∼3 for the hyperthyroid case. Conclusions: It was determined that for all modeled cases, the DTC case yielded the lowest external dose rates, whereas the hyperthyroid case yielded the highest dose rates. In estimating external dose to members of the public from patients with {sup 131}I therapy, consideration must be given to (patient- and case-specific) administered {sup 131}I activities and duration of exposure for a more complete estimate. The method implemented here included a detailed calculation model, which provides a means to determine dose rate estimates for a range of scenarios. The method was demonstrated for variations of three scenarios, showing how dose rates are expected to vary with uptake, voiding pattern, and patient location.

  19. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1987-04-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1983. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 52 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 45 person-rem to a low of 0.002 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 170 person-rem for the 100 million people considered at risk.

  20. Novel methods of measuring single scan dose profiles and cumulative dose in CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakonechny, K.D.; Fallone, B.G.; Rathee, S.

    2005-01-01

    Computed tomography dose index (CTDI) is a conventional indicator of the patient dose in CT studies. It is measured as the integration of the longitudinal single scan dose profile (SSDP) by using a 100-mm-long pencil ionization chamber and a single axial scan. However, the assumption that most of the SSDP is contained within the chamber length may not be valid even for thin slices. We have measured the SSDPs for several slice widths on two CT scanners using a PTW diamond detector placed in a 300 mmx200 mmx300 mm water-equivalent plastic phantom. One SSDP was also measured using lithium fluoride (LiF) TLDs and an IC-10 small volume ion chamber, verifying the general shape of the SSDP measured using the diamond detector. Standard cylindrical PMMA CT phantoms (140 mm length) were also used to qualitatively study the effects of phantom shape, length, and composition on the measured SSDP. The SSDPs measured with the diamond detector in the water-equivalent phantom were numerically integrated to calculate the relative accumulated dose D{sub L}(0){sub calc} at the center of various scan lengths L. D{sub L}(0){sub calc} reached an equilibrium value for L>300 mm, suggesting the need for phantoms longer than standard CT dose phantoms. We have also measured the absolute accumulated dose using an IC-10 small volume ion chamber, D{sub L}(0){sub SV}, at three points in the phantom cross section for several beamwidths and scan lengths. For one CT system, these measurements were made in both axial and helical scanning modes. The absolute CTDI{sub 100}, measured with a 102 mm active length pencil chamber, were within 4% of D{sub L}(0){sub SV} measured with the small volume ion chamber for L{approx_equal}100 mm suggesting that nonpencil chambers can be successfully used for CT dosimetry. For nominal beam widths ranging from 3 to 20 mm and for L{approx_equal}250 mm, D{sub L}(0){sub SV} values at the center of the water-equivalent phantom's elliptic cross section were approximately 25%-30% higher than the measured CTDI{sub 100}. For small beamwidths, the difference in D{sub L}(0){sub SV} for L{approx_equal}250 mm and L{approx_equal}14xbeamwidth (CTDI{sub 14nT}) reached up to 50%. Peripheral point doses at 70 mm depth along the major axis of the phantom for L{approx_equal}250 mm were up to 22% higher than for L{approx_equal}100 mm. The differences between CTDI{sub 100} and D{sub L}(0){sub SV} for L{approx_equal}250 mm were in good agreement with the predictions made from the numerical integration of the measured SSDPs. Due to the considerable dose measured beyond the length of standard CT phantoms, CT dosimetry for longer body scan series should be performed in longer phantoms. Measurements could be made as we have shown, using a small volume chamber translating through the beam using multiple scans.

  1. Radiation doses in cone-beam breast computed tomography: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi Ying; Lai, Chao-Jen; Han Tao; Zhong Yuncheng; Shen Youtao; Liu Xinming; Ge Shuaiping; You Zhicheng; Wang Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C.

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: In this article, we describe a method to estimate the spatial dose variation, average dose and mean glandular dose (MGD) for a real breast using Monte Carlo simulation based on cone beam breast computed tomography (CBBCT) images. We present and discuss the dose estimation results for 19 mastectomy breast specimens, 4 homogeneous breast models, 6 ellipsoidal phantoms, and 6 cylindrical phantoms. Methods: To validate the Monte Carlo method for dose estimation in CBBCT, we compared the Monte Carlo dose estimates with the thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements at various radial positions in two polycarbonate cylinders (11- and 15-cm in diameter). Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of 19 mastectomy breast specimens, obtained with a bench-top experimental scanner, were segmented and used to construct 19 structured breast models. Monte Carlo simulation of CBBCT with these models was performed and used to estimate the point doses, average doses, and mean glandular doses for unit open air exposure at the iso-center. Mass based glandularity values were computed and used to investigate their effects on the average doses as well as the mean glandular doses. Average doses for 4 homogeneous breast models were estimated and compared to those of the corresponding structured breast models to investigate the effect of tissue structures. Average doses for ellipsoidal and cylindrical digital phantoms of identical diameter and height were also estimated for various glandularity values and compared with those for the structured breast models. Results: The absorbed dose maps for structured breast models show that doses in the glandular tissue were higher than those in the nearby adipose tissue. Estimated average doses for the homogeneous breast models were almost identical to those for the structured breast models (p=1). Normalized average doses estimated for the ellipsoidal phantoms were similar to those for the structured breast models (root mean square (rms) percentage difference=1.7%; p=0.01), whereas those for the cylindrical phantoms were significantly lower (rms percentage difference=7.7%; p<0.01). Normalized MGDs were found to decrease with increasing glandularity. Conclusions: Our results indicate that it is sufficient to use homogeneous breast models derived from CBCT generated structured breast models to estimate the average dose. This investigation also shows that ellipsoidal digital phantoms of similar dimensions (diameter and height) and glandularity to actual breasts may be used to represent a real breast to estimate the average breast dose with Monte Carlo simulation. We have also successfully demonstrated the use of structured breast models to estimate the true MGDs and shown that the normalized MGDs decreased with the glandularity as previously reported by other researchers for CBBCT or mammography.

  2. Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A. )

    1993-02-01

    Population and individual radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1989. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 72 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is an estimate of individual doses which are compared with 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix I design objectives. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 14 person-rem to a low of 0.005 person-rem for the sites with plants in operation and producing power during the year. The arithmetic mean was 1.2 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 84 person-rem for the 140 million people considered at risk. The individual dose commitments estimated for all sites were below the Appendix I design objectives.

  3. Total skin electron beam therapy using an inclinable couch on motorized table and a compensating filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuse, H.; Suzuki, K.; Shida, K.; Takahashi, H.; Kobayashi, D.; Seki, M.; Mori, Y.; Sakae, T.; Isobe, T.; Okumura, T.; Sakurai, H.

    2014-06-15

    Total skin electron beam is a specialized technique that involves irradiating the entire skin from the skin surface to only a few millimetres in depth. In the Stanford technique, the patient is in a standing position and six different directional positions are used during treatment. Our technique uses large electron beams in six directions with an inclinable couch on motorized table and a compensating filter was also used to spread the electron beam and move its intensity peak. Dose uniformity measurements were performed using Gafchromic films which indicated that the surface dose was 2.04 0.05 Gy. This technique can ensure the dose reproducibility because the patient is fixed in place using an inclinable couch on a motorized table.

  4. Multicriteria optimization of the spatial dose distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlaefer, Alexander; Viulet, Tiberiu; Muacevic, Alexander; Frweger, Christoph

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Treatment planning for radiation therapy involves trade-offs with respect to different clinical goals. Typically, the dose distribution is evaluated based on few statistics and dosevolume histograms. Particularly for stereotactic treatments, the spatial dose distribution represents further criteria, e.g., when considering the gradient between subregions of volumes of interest. The authors have studied how to consider the spatial dose distribution using a multicriteria optimization approach.Methods: The authors have extended a stepwise multicriteria optimization approach to include criteria with respect to the local dose distribution. Based on a three-dimensional visualization of the dose the authors use a software tool allowing interaction with the dose distribution to map objectives with respect to its shape to a constrained optimization problem. Similarly, conflicting criteria are highlighted and the planner decides if and where to relax the shape of the dose distribution.Results: To demonstrate the potential of spatial multicriteria optimization, the tool was applied to a prostate and meningioma case. For the prostate case, local sparing of the rectal wall and shaping of a boost volume are achieved through local relaxations and while maintaining the remaining dose distribution. For the meningioma, target coverage is improved by compromising low dose conformality toward noncritical structures. A comparison of dosevolume histograms illustrates the importance of spatial information for achieving the trade-offs.Conclusions: The results show that it is possible to consider the location of conflicting criteria during treatment planning. Particularly, it is possible to conserve already achieved goals with respect to the dose distribution, to visualize potential trade-offs, and to relax constraints locally. Hence, the proposed approach facilitates a systematic exploration of the optimal shape of the dose distribution.

  5. Total internal reflection laser tools and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zediker, Mark S.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Kolachalam, Sharath K.; Grubb, Daryl L.

    2016-02-02

    There is provided high power laser tools and laser heads that utilize total internal reflection ("TIR") structures to direct the laser beam along a laser beam path within the TIR structure. The TIR structures may be a TIR prism having its hypotenuse as a TIR surface.

  6. Total pressing Indonesian gas development, exports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-24

    Total is on track to become Indonesia's leading gas exporter by the turn of the century. Total's aggressive development of its Mahakam Delta acreage in East Kalimantan is intended to keep pace with growing liquefied natural gas demand, mainly from Japan but also increasingly from South Korea and Taiwan. A frantic scramble is under way among natural gas suppliers in the Pacific Rim region, particularly those with current LNG export facilities, to accommodate projections of soaring natural gas demand in the region. Accordingly, Total's Indonesian gas production goal is the centerpiece of a larger strategy to become a major player in the Far East Asia gas scene. Its goals also fall in line with Indonesia's. Facing flat or declining oil production while domestic oil demand continues to soar along with a rapidly growing economy, Indonesia is heeding some studies that project the country could become a net oil importer by the turn of the century. The paper describes Total's Far East strategy, the Mahakam acreage which it operates, the shift to gas development, added discoveries, future development, project spending levels, and LNG export capacity.

  7. Cancer risk estimates from radiation therapy for heterotopic ossification prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Berris, Theoharris; Damilakis, John; Lyraraki, Efrossyni

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a frequent complication following total hip arthroplasty. This study was conducted to calculate the radiation dose to organs-at-risk and estimate the probability of cancer induction from radiotherapy for HO prophylaxis.Methods: Hip irradiation for HO with a 6 MV photon beam was simulated with the aid of a Monte Carlo model. A realistic humanoid phantom representing an average adult patient was implemented in Monte Carlo environment for dosimetric calculations. The average out-of-field radiation dose to stomach, liver, lung, prostate, bladder, thyroid, breast, uterus, and ovary was calculated. The organ-equivalent-dose to colon, that was partly included within the treatment field, was also determined. Organ dose calculations were carried out using three different field sizes. The dependence of organ doses upon the block insertion into primary beam for shielding colon and prosthesis was investigated. The lifetime attributable risk for cancer development was estimated using organ, age, and gender-specific risk coefficients.Results: For a typical target dose of 7 Gy, organ doses varied from 1.0 to 741.1 mGy by the field dimensions and organ location relative to the field edge. Blocked field irradiations resulted in a dose range of 1.4146.3 mGy. The most probable detriment from open field treatment of male patients was colon cancer with a high risk of 564.3 10{sup ?5} to 837.4 10{sup ?5} depending upon the organ dose magnitude and the patient's age. The corresponding colon cancer risk for female patients was (372.2541.0) 10{sup ?5}. The probability of bladder cancer development was more than 113.7 10{sup ?5} and 110.3 10{sup ?5} for males and females, respectively. The cancer risk range to other individual organs was reduced to (0.00368.5) 10{sup ?5}.Conclusions: The risk for cancer induction from radiation therapy for HO prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty varies considerably by the treatment parameters, organ site in respect to treatment volume and patient's gender and age. The presented risk estimates may be useful in the follow-up studies of irradiated patients.

  8. Measurements of radiation effects on a 4 Mb PSRAM memory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonalez, Odair Lelis; Pereira Junior, Evaldo Carlos Fonseca; Vaz, Rafael Galhardo; Pereira, Marlon Antonio; Wirth, Gilson Incio; Both, Thiago Hanna

    2014-11-11

    The results of a static test of total ionizing dose (TID) effects on an ISSI 4Mb PSRAM memory are reported in this work. The irradiation was performed at the IEAvs Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation with 1.17 and 1.32 MeV gamma-rays from a {sup 60}Co source at a dose rate of 2.5 krad/h up to an accumulated dose of 215.7 krad. The TID threshold for bit flip found in this experiment was 52.5 krad. From a sampling of 4096 memory addresses it was estimated a bit flip rate of approximately 50% at an accumulated dose of 215.7 krad.

  9. Precision Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy in Poor Performing Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Phase 1 Dose Escalation Trial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westover, Kenneth D.; Loo, Billy W.; Gerber, David E.; Iyengar, Puneeth; Choy, Hak; Diehn, Maximilian; Hughes, Randy; Schiller, Joan; Dowell, Jonathan; Wardak, Zabi; Sher, David; Christie, Alana; Xie, Xian-Jin; Corona, Irma; Sharma, Akanksha; Wadsworth, Margaret E.; Timmerman, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: Treatment regimens for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) give suboptimal clinical outcomes. Technological advancements such as radiation therapy, the backbone of most treatment regimens, may enable more potent and effective therapies. The objective of this study was to escalate radiation therapy to a tumoricidal hypofractionated dose without exceeding the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) in patients with locally advanced NSCLC. Methods and Materials: Patients with stage II to IV or recurrent NSCLC and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or greater and not candidates for surgical resection, stereotactic radiation, or concurrent chemoradiation were eligible. Highly conformal radiation therapy was given to treat intrathoracic disease in 15 fractions to a total of 50, 55, or 60 Gy. Results: Fifty-five patients were enrolled: 15 at the 50-Gy, 21 at the 55-Gy, and 19 at the 60-Gy dose levels. A 90-day follow-up was completed in each group without exceeding the MTD. With a median follow-up of 12.5 months, there were 93 grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs), including 39 deaths, although most AEs were considered related to factors other than radiation therapy. One patient from the 55- and 60-Gy dose groups developed grade ≥3 esophagitis, and 5, 4, and 4 patients in the respective dose groups experienced grade ≥3 dyspnea, but only 2 of these AEs were considered likely related to therapy. There was no association between fraction size and toxicity (P=.24). The median overall survival was 6 months with no significant differences between dose levels (P=.59). Conclusions: Precision hypofractionated radiation therapy consisting of 60 Gy in 15 fractions for locally advanced NSCLC is generally well tolerated. This treatment regimen could provide patients with poor performance status a potent alternative to chemoradiation. This study has implications for the cost effectiveness of lung cancer therapy. Additional studies of long-term safety and efficacy of this therapy are warranted.

  10. Early Internal and External Dose Magnitude Estimation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Internal and External Dose Estimation (initial version: 08/2008, current version: 10/2015) Early Internal and External Dose Magnitude Estimation The Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site REAC/TS PO Box 117, MS-39 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (865)576-3131 http://orise.orau.gov/reacts prepared by: Stephen L. (Steve) Sugarman, MS, CHP, CHCM Health Physics Project Manager Cytogenetic Biodosimetry Laboratory Coordinator Early Internal and External Dose Estimation (initial version: 08/2008,

  11. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A. )

    1990-08-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1987. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 70 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for reach of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} mrem to a high of 0.009 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites. However, licensee calculation of doses to the maximally exposed individual at some sites indicated values of up to approximately 100 times average individual doses (on the order of a few millirem per year). 2 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Uterine Artery Embolization for Leiomyomata: Optimization of the Radiation Dose to the Patient Using a Flat-Panel Detector Angiographic Suite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sapoval, Marc Pellerin, Olivier; Rehel, Jean-Luc; Houdoux, Nicolas; Rahmoune, Ghizlaine; Aubert, Bernard; Fitton, Isabelle

    2010-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of low-dose/low-frame fluoroscopy/angiography with a flat-panel detector angiographic suite to reduce the dose delivered to patients during uterine fibroid embolization (UFE). A two-step prospective dosimetric study was conducted, with a flat-panel detector angiography suite (Siemens Axiom Artis) integrating automatic exposure control (AEC), during 20 consecutive UFEs. Patient dosimetry was performed using calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters placed on the lower posterior pelvis skin. The first step (10 patients; group A) consisted in UFE (bilateral embolization, calibrated microspheres) performed using the following parameters: standard fluoroscopy (15 pulses/s) and angiography (3 frames/s). The second step (next consecutive 10 patients; group B) used low-dose/low-frame fluoroscopy (7.5 pulses/s for catheterization and 3 pulses/s for embolization) and angiography (1 frame/s). We also recorded the total dose-area product (DAP) delivered to the patient and the fluoroscopy time as reported by the manufacturer's dosimetry report. The mean peak skin dose decreased from 2.4 {+-} 1.3 to 0.4 {+-} 0.3 Gy (P = 0.001) for groups A and B, respectively. The DAP values decreased from 43,113 {+-} 27,207 {mu}Gy m{sup 2} for group A to 9,515 {+-} 4,520 {mu}Gy m{sup 2} for group B (P = 0.003). The dose to ovaries and uterus decreased from 378 {+-} 238 mGy (group A) to 83 {+-} 41 mGy (group B) and from 388 {+-} 246 mGy (group A) to 85 {+-} 39 mGy (group B), respectively. Effective doses decreased from 112 {+-} 71 mSv (group A) to 24 {+-} 12 mSv (group B) (P = 0.003). In conclusion, the use of low-dose/low-frame fluoroscopy/angiography, based on a good understanding of the AEC system and also on the technique during uterine fibroid embolization, allows a significant decrease in the dose exposure to the patient.

  13. ORISE: Radiation Dose Estimates and Other Compendia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Medicine" (M. Stabin, in Pediatric Nuclear Medicine, S. Treves, ed., Springer-Verlag, 1995). The compendium of dose estimates for pregnant women was published...

  14. Frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kallman, Jeffrey S.

    2000-01-01

    A frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor which allows the acquisition of the acoustic field over an entire plane, all at once. The sensor finds use in acoustic holography and acoustic diffraction tomography. For example, the sensor may be produced by a transparent plate with transparent support members tall enough to support one or more flexible membranes at an appropriate height for frustrated total internal reflection to occur. An acoustic wave causes the membrane to deflect away from its quiescent position and thus changes the amount of light that tunnels through the gap formed by the support members and into the membrane, and so changes the amount of light reflected by the membrane. The sensor(s) is illuminated by a uniform tight field, and the reflection from the sensor yields acoustic wave amplitude and phase information which can be picked up electronically or otherwise.

  15. Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Exports Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter

  16. HDRMC, an accelerated Monte Carlo dose calculator for high dose rate brachytherapy with CT-compatible applicators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chibani, Omar C-M Ma, Charlie

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To present a new accelerated Monte Carlo code for CT-based dose calculations in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. The new code (HDRMC) accounts for both tissue and nontissue heterogeneities (applicator and contrast medium). Methods: HDRMC uses a fast ray-tracing technique and detailed physics algorithms to transport photons through a 3D mesh of voxels representing the patient anatomy with applicator and contrast medium included. A precalculated phase space file for the{sup 192}Ir source is used as source term. HDRM is calibrated to calculated absolute dose for real plans. A postprocessing technique is used to include the exact density and composition of nontissue heterogeneities in the 3D phantom. Dwell positions and angular orientations of the source are reconstructed using data from the treatment planning system (TPS). Structure contours are also imported from the TPS to recalculate dose-volume histograms. Results: HDRMC was first benchmarked against the MCNP5 code for a single source in homogenous water and for a loaded gynecologic applicator in water. The accuracy of the voxel-based applicator model used in HDRMC was also verified by comparing 3D dose distributions and dose-volume parameters obtained using 1-mm{sup 3} versus 2-mm{sup 3} phantom resolutions. HDRMC can calculate the 3D dose distribution for a typical HDR cervix case with 2-mm resolution in 5 min on a single CPU. Examples of heterogeneity effects for two clinical cases (cervix and esophagus) were demonstrated using HDRMC. The neglect of tissue heterogeneity for the esophageal case leads to the overestimate of CTV D90, CTV D100, and spinal cord maximum dose by 3.2%, 3.9%, and 3.6%, respectively. Conclusions: A fast Monte Carlo code for CT-based dose calculations which does not require a prebuilt applicator model is developed for those HDR brachytherapy treatments that use CT-compatible applicators. Tissue and nontissue heterogeneities should be taken into account in modern HDR brachytherapy planning.

  17. Residual radioactive contamination from decommissioning: Technical basis for translating contamination levels to annual dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A. )

    1990-01-01

    This document describes the generic modeling of the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to an individual in a population from a unit concentration of residual radioactive contamination. Radioactive contamination inside buildings and soil contamination are considered. Unit concentration TEDE factors by radionuclide, exposure pathway, and exposure scenario are calculated. Reference radiation exposure scenarios are used to derive unit concentration TEDE factors for about 200 individual radionuclides and parent-daughter mixtures. For buildings, these unit concentration factors list the annual TEDE for volume and surface contamination situations. For soil, annual TEDE factors are presented for unit concentrations of radionuclides in soil during residential use of contaminated land and the TEDE per unit total inventory for potential use of drinking water from a ground-water source. Because of the generic treatment of potentially complex ground-water systems, the annual TEDE factors for drinking water for a given inventory may only indicate when additional site data or modeling sophistication are warranted. Descriptions are provided of the models, exposure pathways, exposure scenarios, parameter values, and assumptions used. An analysis of the potential annual TEDE resulting from reference mixtures of residual radionuclides is provided to demonstrate application of the TEDE factors. 62 refs., 5 figs., 66 tabs.

  18. "Table A28. Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Expenditures for Purchased Energy Sources by Census Region" " and Economic ... "," ","Coke"," ","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Total","Electricity...

  19. Total Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Oil Company Farm Electric Power Railroad Vessel Bunkering On-Highway Military Off-Highway All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 55,664,448 58,258,830 59,769,444 57,512,994 58,675,008 61,890,990 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 18,219,180 17,965,794 17,864,868 16,754,388

  20. Total Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Commercial Industrial Oil Company Electric Power Vessel Bunkering Military All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 7,835,436 8,203,062 7,068,306 5,668,530 4,883,466 3,942,750 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 3,339,162 3,359,265 2,667,576 1,906,700 1,699,418 1,393,068 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 318,184

  1. Total Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Oil Company Farm Electric Power Railroad Vessel Bunkering On-Highway Military Off-Highway All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 54,100,092 56,093,645 57,082,558 57,020,840 58,107,155 60,827,930 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 17,821,973 18,136,965 17,757,005 17,382,566

  2. Total Sales of Residual Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Commercial Industrial Oil Company Electric Power Vessel Bunkering Military All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 6,908,028 7,233,765 6,358,120 6,022,115 5,283,350 4,919,255 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 2,972,575 2,994,245 2,397,932 2,019,294 1,839,237 1,724,167 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 281,895

  3. RADIATION EFFECTS ON EPOXY/CARBON FIBER COMPOSITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, E; Eric Skidmore, E

    2008-12-12

    The Department of Energy Savannah River Site vitrifies nuclear waste incident to defense programs through its Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The piping in the DWPF seal pot jumper configuration must withstand the stresses during an unlikely but potential deflagration event, and maintain its safety function for a 20-year service life. Carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy composites (CFR) were proposed for protection and reinforcement of piping during such an event. The proposed CFR materials have been ASME-approved (Section XI, Code Case N-589-1) for post-construction maintenance and is DOT-compliant per 49CFR 192 and 195. The proposed carbon fiber/epoxy composite reinforcement system was originally developed for pipeline rehabilitation and post-construction maintenance in petrochemical, refineries, DOT applications and other industries. The effects of ionizing radiation on polymers and organic materials have been studied for many years. The majority of available data are based on traditional exposures to gamma irradiation at high dose rates ({approx}10,000 Gy/hr) allowing high total dose within reasonable test periods and general comparison of different materials exposed at such conditions. However, studies in recent years have shown that degradation of many polymers are sensitive to dose rate, with more severe degradation often observed at similar or even lower total doses when exposed to lower dose rates. This behavior has been primarily attributed to diffusion-limited oxidation which is minimized during very high dose rate exposures. Most test standards for accelerated aging and nuclear qualification of components acknowledge these limitations. The results of testing to determine the radiation resistance and microstructural effects of gamma irradiation exposure on a bisphenol-A based epoxy matrix composite reinforced with carbon fibers are presented. This work provides a foundation for a more extensive evaluation of dose rate effects on advanced epoxy reinforced composites.

  4. Volumetric tumor burden and its effect on brachial plexus dosimetry in head and neck intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romesser, Paul B.; Qureshi, Muhammad M.; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Truong, Minh Tam

    2014-07-01

    To determine the effect of gross tumor volume of the primary (GTV-P) and nodal (GTV-N) disease on planned radiation dose to the brachial plexus (BP) in head and neck intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Overall, 75 patients underwent definitive IMRT to a median total dose of 69.96 Gy in 33 fractions. The right BP and left BP were prospectively contoured as separate organs at risk. The GTV was related to BP dose using the unpaired t-test. Receiver operating characteristics curves were constructed to determine optimized volumetric thresholds of GTV-P and GTV-N corresponding to a maximum BP dose cutoff of > 66 Gy. Multivariate analyses were performed to account for factors associated with a higher maximal BP dose. A higher maximum BP dose (> 66 vs ? 66 Gy) correlated with a greater mean GTV-P (79.5 vs 30.8 cc; p = 0.001) and ipsilateral GTV-N (60.6 vs 19.8 cc; p = 0.014). When dichotomized by the optimized nodal volume, patients with an ipsilateral GTV-N ? 4.9 vs < 4.9 cc had a significant difference in maximum BP dose (64.2 vs 59.4 Gy; p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis confirmed that an ipsilateral GTV-N ? 4.9 cc was an independent predictor for the BP to receive a maximal dose of > 66 Gy when adjusted individually for BP volume, GTV-P, the use of a low anterior neck field technique, total planned radiation dose, and tumor category. Although both the primary and the nodal tumor volumes affected the BP maximal dose, the ipsilateral nodal tumor volume (GTV-N ? 4.9 cc) was an independent predictor for high maximal BP dose constraints in head and neck IMRT.

  5. Dose homogeneity specification for reference dosimetry of nonstandard fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Eunah; Soisson, Emilie; Seuntjens, Jan [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital (L5-113), 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Medical Physics Unit, McGill University and Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal General Hospital (L5-113), 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital (L5-113), 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: To investigate the sensitivity of the plan-class specific correction factor to dose distributions in composite nonstandard field dosimetry. Methods: A cylindrical water-filled PMMA phantom was constructed at the center of which reference absorbed dose could be measured. Ten different TomoTherapy-based IMRT fields were created on the CT images of the phantom. The dose distribution for each IMRT field was estimated at the position of a radiation detector or ionization chamber. The dose in each IMRT field normalized to that in a reference 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} field was measured using a PTW micro liquid ion chamber. Based on the new dosimetry formalism, a plan-class specific correction factor k{sub Q{sub p{sub c{sub s{sub r,Q}{sup f{sub p}{sub c}{sub s}{sub r},f{sub r}{sub e}{sub f}}}}}} for each field was measured for two Farmer-type chambers, Exradin A12 and NE2571, as well as for a smaller Exradin A1SL chamber. The dependence of the measured correction factor on parameters characterizing dose distribution was analyzed. Results: Uncertainty on the plan-class specific correction factor measurement was in the range of 0.3%-0.5% and 0.3%-0.8% for the Farmer-type chambers and the Exradin A1SL, respectively. When the heterogeneity of the central region of the target volume was less than 5%, the correction factor did not differ from unity by more than 0.7% for the three air-filled ionization chambers. For more heterogeneous dose deliveries, the correction factor differed from unity by up to 2.4% for the Farmer-type chambers. For the Exradin A1SL, the correction factor was closer to unity due to the reduced effect of dose gradients, while it was highly variable in different IMRT fields because of a more significant impact of positioning uncertainties on the response of this chamber. Conclusions: The authors have shown that a plan-class specific correction factor can be specified as a function of plan evaluation parameters especially for Farmer-type chambers. This work provides a recipe based on quantifying dose distribution to accurately select air-filled ionization chamber correction factors for nonstandard fields.

  6. SU-E-T-279: Realization of Three-Dimensional Conformal Dose Planning in Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Z; Jiang, S; Yang, Z; Bai, H; Zhang, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Successful clinical treatment in prostate brachytherapy is largely dependent on the effectiveness of pre-surgery dose planning. Conventional dose planning method could hardly arrive at a satisfy result. In this abstract, a three-dimensional conformal localized dose planning method is put forward to ensure the accuracy and effectiveness of pre-implantation dose planning. Methods: Using Monte Carlo method, the pre-calculated 3-D dose map for single source is obtained. As for multiple seeds dose distribution, the maps are combined linearly to acquire the 3-D distribution. The 3-D dose distribution is exhibited in the form of isodose surface together with reconstructed 3-D organs group real-timely. Then it is possible to observe the dose exposure to target volume and normal tissues intuitively, thus achieving maximum dose irradiation to treatment target and minimum healthy tissues damage. In addition, the exfoliation display of different isodose surfaces can be realized applying multi-values contour extraction algorithm based on voxels. The needles could be displayed in the system by tracking the position of the implanted seeds in real time to conduct block research in optimizing insertion trajectory. Results: This study extends dose planning from two-dimensional to three-dimensional, realizing the three-dimensional conformal irradiation, which could eliminate the limitations of 2-D images and two-dimensional dose planning. A software platform is developed using VC++ and Visualization Toolkit (VTK) to perform dose planning. The 3-D model reconstruction time is within three seconds (on a Intel Core i5 PC). Block research could be conducted to avoid inaccurate insertion into sensitive organs or internal obstructions. Experiments on eight prostate cancer cases prove that this study could make the dose planning results more reasonable. Conclusion: The three-dimensional conformal dose planning method could improve the rationality of dose planning by safely reducing the large target margin and avoiding dose dead zones for prostate cancer treatment. 1) National Natural Science Foundation of People's Republic of China (No. 51175373); 2) New Century Educational Talents Plan of Chinese Education Ministry (NCET-10-0625); 3) Scientific and Technological Major Project, Tianjin (No. 12ZCDZSY10600)

  7. Dose factor entry and display tool for BNCT radiotherapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessol, Daniel E.; Wheeler, Floyd J.; Cook, Jeremy L.

    1999-01-01

    A system for use in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) radiotherapy planning where a biological distribution is calculated using a combination of conversion factors and a previously calculated physical distribution. Conversion factors are presented in a graphical spreadsheet so that a planner can easily view and modify the conversion factors. For radiotherapy in multi-component modalities, such as Fast-Neutron and BNCT, it is necessary to combine each conversion factor component to form an effective dose which is used in radiotherapy planning and evaluation. The Dose Factor Entry and Display System is designed to facilitate planner entry of appropriate conversion factors in a straightforward manner for each component. The effective isodose is then immediately computed and displayed over the appropriate background (e.g. digitized image).

  8. Predicting Pneumonitis Risk: A Dosimetric Alternative to Mean Lung Dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, Susan L.; Mohan, Radhe; Liengsawangwong, Raweewan; Martel, Mary K.; Liao Zhongxing

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the association between mean lung dose (MLD) and risk of severe (grade {>=}3) radiation pneumonitis (RP) depends on the dose distribution pattern to normal lung among patients receiving 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Three cohorts treated with different beam arrangements were identified. One cohort (2-field boost [2FB]) received 2 parallel-opposed (anteroposterior-posteroanterior) fields per fraction initially, followed by a sequential boost delivered using 2 oblique beams. The other 2 cohorts received 3 or 4 straight fields (3FS and 4FS, respectively), ie, all fields were irradiated every day. The incidence of severe RP was plotted against MLD in each cohort, and data were analyzed using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. Results: The incidence of grade {>=}3 RP rose more steeply as a function of MLD in the 2FB cohort (N=120) than in the 4FS cohort (N=138), with an intermediate slope for the 3FS group (N=99). The estimated volume parameter from the LKB model was n=0.41 (95% confidence interval, 0.15-1.0) and led to a significant improvement in fit (P=.05) compared to a fit with volume parameter fixed at n=1 (the MLD model). Unlike the MLD model, the LKB model with n=0.41 provided a consistent description of the risk of severe RP in all three cohorts (2FB, 3FS, 4FS) simultaneously. Conclusions: When predicting risk of grade {>=}3 RP, the mean lung dose does not adequately take into account the effects of high doses. Instead, the effective dose, computed from the LKB model using volume parameter n=0.41, may provide a better dosimetric parameter for predicting RP risk. If confirmed, these findings support the conclusion that for the same MLD, high doses to small lung volumes ('a lot to a little') are worse than low doses to large volumes ('a little to a lot').

  9. State Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Megawatthours) (Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A, 4B, 4D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U) State Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total New England 47,211,525 53,107,038 19,107,433 557,463 119,983,459 Connecticut 12,777,579 12,893,531 3,514,798 168,552 29,354,460 Maine 4,660,605 3,984,570 3,357,486 0 12,002,661 Massachusetts 20,071,160 26,076,208 7,960,941 360,983 54,469,292 New Hampshire 4,510,487 4,464,530 1,969,064 0 10,944,081 Rhode Island 3,070,347 3,657,679 887,150 27,928

  10. Total Ore Processing Integration and Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie Gertsch; Richard Gertsch

    2006-01-30

    This report outlines the technical progress achieved for project DE-FC26-03NT41785 (Total Ore Processing Integration and Management) during the period 01 July through 30 September of 2005. This ninth quarterly report discusses the activities of the project team during the period 1 July through 30 September 2005. Richard Gertsch's unexpected death due to natural causes while in Minnesota to work on this project has temporarily slowed progress. Statistical analysis of the Minntac Mine data set for late 2004 is continuing. Preliminary results raised several questions that could be amenable to further study. Detailed geotechnical characterization is being applied to improve the predictability of mill and agglomerator performance at Hibtac Mine.

  11. Performance Period Total Fee Paid FY2001

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    FY2001 $4,547,400 FY2002 $4,871,000 FY2003 $6,177,902 FY2004 $8,743,007 FY2005 $13,134,189 FY2006 $7,489,704 FY2007 $9,090,924 FY2008 $10,045,072 FY2009 $12,504,247 FY2010 $17,590,414 FY2011 $17,558,710 FY2012 $14,528,770 Cumulative Fee Paid $126,281,339 Cost Plus Award Fee DE-AC29-01AL66444 Washington TRU Solutions LLC Contractor: Contract Number: Contract Type: $8,743,007 Contract Period: $1,813,482,000 Fee Information Maximum Fee $131,691,744 Total Estimated Contract Cost: $4,547,400

  12. Performance Period Total Fee Paid FY2008

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    FY2008 $87,580 FY2009 $87,580 FY2010 $171,763 FY2011 $1,339,286 FY 2012 $38,126 FY 2013 $42,265 Cumulative Fee Paid $1,766,600 $42,265 Cost Plus Incentive Fee/Cost Plus Fixed Fee $36,602,425 Contract Period: September 2007 - November 30, 2012 Target Fee $521,595 Total Estimated Contract Cost Contract Type: Maximum Fee $3,129,570 $175,160 $377,516 $1,439,287 Fee Available $175,160 $80,871 Accelerated Remediation Company (aRc) DE-AT30-07CC60013 Contractor: Contract Number: Minimum Fee $2,086,380

  13. Ultralow dose computed tomography attenuation correction for pediatric PET CT using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Samuel L.; Shulkin, Barry L.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To develop ultralow dose computed tomography (CT) attenuation correction (CTAC) acquisition protocols for pediatric positron emission tomography CT (PET CT). Methods: A GE Discovery 690 PET CT hybrid scanner was used to investigate the change to quantitative PET and CT measurements when operated at ultralow doses (1035 mA s). CT quantitation: noise, low-contrast resolution, and CT numbers for 11 tissue substitutes were analyzed in-phantom. CT quantitation was analyzed to a reduction of 90% volume computed tomography dose index (0.39/3.64; mGy) from baseline. To minimize noise infiltration, 100% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) was used for CT reconstruction. PET images were reconstructed with the lower-dose CTAC iterations and analyzed for: maximum body weight standardized uptake value (SUV{sub bw}) of various diameter targets (range 837 mm), background uniformity, and spatial resolution. Radiation dose and CTAC noise magnitude were compared for 140 patient examinations (76 post-ASiR implementation) to determine relative dose reduction and noise control. Results: CT numbers were constant to within 10% from the nondose reduced CTAC image for 90% dose reduction. No change in SUV{sub bw}, background percent uniformity, or spatial resolution for PET images reconstructed with CTAC protocols was found down to 90% dose reduction. Patient population effective dose analysis demonstrated relative CTAC dose reductions between 62% and 86% (3.2/8.30.9/6.2). Noise magnitude in dose-reduced patient images increased but was not statistically different from predose-reduced patient images. Conclusions: Using ASiR allowed for aggressive reduction in CT dose with no change in PET reconstructed images while maintaining sufficient image quality for colocalization of hybrid CT anatomy and PET radioisotope uptake.

  14. Radiological Dose Calculations for Fusion Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Abbott; Lee C. Cadwallader; David A. Petti

    2003-04-01

    This report summarizes the results and rationale for radiological dose calculations for the maximally exposed individual during fusion accident conditions. Early doses per unit activity (Sieverts per TeraBecquerel) are given for 535 magnetic fusion isotopes of interest for several release scenarios. These data can be used for accident assessment calculations to determine if the accident consequences exceed Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Department of Energy evaluation guides. A generalized yearly dose estimate for routine releases, based on 1 Terabecquerel unit releases per radionuclide, has also been performed using averaged site parameters and assumed populations. These routine release data are useful for assessing designs against US Environmental Protection Agency yearly release limits.

  15. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Monthly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMakin, A.H.; Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The TSP consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included are appointed technical members representing the states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, a representative of Native American tribes, and an individual representing the public. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demography, food consumption, and agriculture, and environmental pathways and dose estimates. Progress is discussed.

  16. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project monthly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMakin, A.H., Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction MDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The TSP consists of experts in envirorunental pathways. epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering. radiation dosimetry. and cultural anthropology. Included are appointed members representing the states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, a representative of Native American tribes, and an individual representing the public. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source Terms; Environmental Transport; Environmental Monitoring Data Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture; and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  17. Influence of polarization and a source model for dose calculation in MRT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartzsch, Stefan Oelfke, Uwe; Lerch, Michael; Petasecca, Marco; Bruer-Krisch, Elke

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT), an alternative preclinical treatment strategy using spatially modulated synchrotron radiation on a micrometer scale, has the great potential to cure malignant tumors (e.g., brain tumors) while having low side effects on normal tissue. Dose measurement and calculation in MRT is challenging because of the spatial accuracy required and the arising high dose differences. Dose calculation with Monte Carlo simulations is time consuming and their accuracy is still a matter of debate. In particular, the influence of photon polarization has been discussed in the literature. Moreover, it is controversial whether a complete knowledge of phase space trajectories, i.e., the simulation of the machine from the wiggler to the collimator, is necessary in order to accurately calculate the dose. Methods: With Monte Carlo simulations in the Geant4 toolkit, the authors investigate the influence of polarization on the dose distribution and the therapeutically important peak to valley dose ratios (PVDRs). Furthermore, the authors analyze in detail phase space information provided byMartnez-Rovira et al. [Development and commissioning of a Monte Carlo photon model for the forthcoming clinical trials in microbeam radiation therapy, Med. Phys. 39(1), 119131 (2012)] and examine its influence on peak and valley doses. A simple source model is developed using parallel beams and its applicability is shown in a semiadjoint Monte Carlo simulation. Results are compared to measurements and previously published data. Results: Polarization has a significant influence on the scattered dose outside the microbeam field. In the radiation field, however, dose and PVDRs deduced from calculations without polarization and with polarization differ by less than 3%. The authors show that the key consequences from the phase space information for dose calculations are inhomogeneous primary photon flux, partial absorption due to inclined beam incidence outside the field center, increased beam width and center to center distance due to the beam propagation from the collimator to the phantom surface and imperfect absorption in the absorber material of the Multislit Collimator. These corrections have an effect of approximately 10% on the valley dose and suffice to describe doses in MRT within the measurement uncertainties of currently available dosimetry techniques. Conclusions: The source for the first clinical pet trials in MRT is characterized with respect to its phase space and the photon polarization. The results suggest the use of a presented simplified phase space model in dose calculations and hence pave the way for alternative and fast dose calculation algorithms. They also show that the polarization is of minor importance for the clinical important peak and valley doses inside the microbeam field.

  18. Total least squares for anomalous change detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theiler, James P; Matsekh, Anna M

    2010-01-01

    A family of difference-based anomalous change detection algorithms is derived from a total least squares (TLSQ) framework. This provides an alternative to the well-known chronochrome algorithm, which is derived from ordinary least squares. In both cases, the most anomalous changes are identified with the pixels that exhibit the largest residuals with respect to the regression of the two images against each other. The family of TLSQ-based anomalous change detectors is shown to be equivalent to the subspace RX formulation for straight anomaly detection, but applied to the stacked space. However, this family is not invariant to linear coordinate transforms. On the other hand, whitened TLSQ is coordinate invariant, and furthermore it is shown to be equivalent to the optimized covariance equalization algorithm. What whitened TLSQ offers, in addition to connecting with a common language the derivations of two of the most popular anomalous change detection algorithms - chronochrome and covariance equalization - is a generalization of these algorithms with the potential for better performance.

  19. Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caldwell, John T. (Los Alamos, NM); Kunz, Walter E. (Santa Fe, NM); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Franks, Larry A. (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fissions are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for .sup.239 Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed neutrons.

  20. Minnesota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Minnesota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 ... Share of Total U.S. Natural Gas Residential Deliveries Minnesota Share of Total U.S. ...

  1. California Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    California Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 ... Share of Total U.S. Natural Gas Residential Deliveries California Share of Total U.S. ...

  2. Radiological assessment. A textbook on environmental dose analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Till, J.E.; Meyer, H.R.

    1983-09-01

    Radiological assessment is the quantitative process of estimating the consequences to humans resulting from the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. It is a multidisciplinary subject requiring the expertise of a number of individuals in order to predict source terms, describe environmental transport, calculate internal and external dose, and extrapolate dose to health effects. Up to this time there has been available no comprehensive book describing, on a uniform and comprehensive level, the techniques and models used in radiological assessment. Radiological Assessment is based on material presented at the 1980 Health Physics Society Summer School held in Seattle, Washington. The material has been expanded and edited to make it comprehensive in scope and useful as a text. Topics covered include (1) source terms for nuclear facilities and Medical and Industrial sites; (2) transport of radionuclides in the atmosphere; (3) transport of radionuclides in surface waters; (4) transport of radionuclides in groundwater; (5) terrestrial and aquatic food chain pathways; (6) reference man; a system for internal dose calculations; (7) internal dosimetry; (8) external dosimetry; (9) models for special-case radionuclides; (10) calculation of health effects in irradiated populations; (11) evaluation of uncertainties in environmental radiological assessment models; (12) regulatory standards for environmental releases of radionuclides; (13) development of computer codes for radiological assessment; and (14) assessment of accidental releases of radionuclides.

  3. Minnesota Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Minnesota Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Consumption Minnesota Natural Gas Consumption by End Use ...

  4. California Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Consumption California Natural Gas Consumption by End Use ...

  5. Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Imports by Processing...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Total Products Other Liquids Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Heavy Gas Oils Residuum ...

  6. NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Stacey Rothgeb, NREL View the ...

  7. ,"Total District Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District Heat Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  8. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  9. Total Energy Facilities Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Facilities Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Total Energy Facilities Biomass Facility Facility Total Energy Facilities Sector Biomass Facility Type...

  10. Webtrends Archives by Fiscal Year — EERE Totals

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Historical EERE office total reports include only Webtrends archives by fiscal year. EERE total reports dating after FY11 can be accessed in EERE's Google Analytics account.

  11. Estimation of Anisotoropy from Total Cross Section and Optical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Estimation of Anisotoropy from Total Cross Section and Optical Model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimation of Anisotoropy from Total Cross Section and ...

  12. Static jaw collimation settings to minimize radiation dose to normal brain tissue during stereotactic radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Eun Young; Zhang Xin; Yan Yulong; Sharma, Sunil; Penagaricano, Jose; Moros, Eduardo; Corry, Peter

    2012-01-01

    At University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is performed by using a linear accelerator with an add-on micromultileaf collimator (mMLC). In our clinical setting, static jaws are automatically adapted to the furthest edge of the mMLC-defined segments with 2-mm (X jaw) and 5-mm (Y jaw) margin and the same jaw values are applied for all beam angles in the treatment planning system. This additional field gap between the static jaws and the mMLC allows additional radiation dose to normal brain tissue. Because a radiosurgery procedure consists of a single high dose to the planning target volume (PTV), reduction of unnecessary dose to normal brain tissue near the PTV is important, particularly for pediatric patients whose brains are still developing or when a critical organ, such as the optic chiasm, is near the PTV. The purpose of this study was to minimize dose to normal brain tissue by allowing minimal static jaw margin around the mMLC-defined fields and different static jaw values for each beam angle or arc. Dose output factors were measured with various static jaw margins and the results were compared with calculated doses in the treatment planning system. Ten patient plans were randomly selected and recalculated with zero static jaw margins without changing other parameters. Changes of PTV coverage, mean dose to predefined normal brain tissue volume adjacent to PTV, and monitor units were compared. It was found that the dose output percentage difference varied from 4.9-1.3% for the maximum static jaw opening vs. static jaw with zero margins. The mean dose to normal brain tissue at risk adjacent to the PTV was reduced by an average of 1.9%, with negligible PTV coverage loss. This dose reduction strategy may be meaningful in terms of late effects of radiation, particularly in pediatric patients. This study generated clinical knowledge and tools to consistently minimize dose to normal brain tissue.

  13. Emergency Doses (ED) - Revision 3: A calculator code for environmental dose computations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1990-12-01

    The calculator program ED (Emergency Doses) was developed from several HP-41CV calculator programs documented in the report Seven Health Physics Calculator Programs for the HP-41CV, RHO-HS-ST-5P (Rittman 1984). The program was developed to enable estimates of offsite impacts more rapidly and reliably than was possible with the software available for emergency response at that time. The ED - Revision 3, documented in this report, revises the inhalation dose model to match that of ICRP 30, and adds the simple estimates for air concentration downwind from a chemical release. In addition, the method for calculating the Pasquill dispersion parameters was revised to match the GENII code within the limitations of a hand-held calculator (e.g., plume rise and building wake effects are not included). The summary report generator for printed output, which had been present in the code from the original version, was eliminated in Revision 3 to make room for the dispersion model, the chemical release portion, and the methods of looping back to an input menu until there is no further no change. This program runs on the Hewlett-Packard programmable calculators known as the HP-41CV and the HP-41CX. The documentation for ED - Revision 3 includes a guide for users, sample problems, detailed verification tests and results, model descriptions, code description (with program listing), and independent peer review. This software is intended to be used by individuals with some training in the use of air transport models. There are some user inputs that require intelligent application of the model to the actual conditions of the accident. The results calculated using ED - Revision 3 are only correct to the extent allowed by the mathematical models. 9 refs., 36 tabs.

  14. SU-E-T-68: Clinical Implementation of Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy: A New- York Presbyterian Hospital Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afghan, M; Shih, R; Chen, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Total skin electron beam therapy (TSET) is used in the treatment of rare skin diseases such as mycosis fungoides, the most common type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. We report our experience with clinical implementation of TSET. Methods: A modified six-dual-field irradiation technique was chosen to deliver TSET. A Varian Trilogy linear accelerator with a nominal 6 MeV beam using high dose rate total skin electron mode (HDTSe) was employed. The recommendations of AAPM task group report 23 were followed for the commissioning. An acrylic plate (energy degrader) of 3.2 mm depth was mounted on the HDTSe applicator. The nominal source to skin distance was set at 450 cm. The optimum tilt angle of the gantry was determined using NACP-02 ionization chamber embedded in certified therapy grade solid water. Percent depth dose measurements were performed using ionization chamber and radiochromic films embedded in solid water and anthropomorphic phantom. For absolute dose measurements, TG-51 formalism was employed. The dose distribution on the entire skin was measured by irradiating the anthropomorphic phantom, with TLDs attached, mimicking the real treatment. Results: The 3.2 mm acrylic plate mounted on the HDTSe applicator degraded the energy of the electron beam to 4.1 MeV in the treatment plane, located at an SSD of 450 cm. The optimum tilt angle was found to be 20. A single-dual field had a longitudinal uniformity, measured at a depth of dose maximum, of 7% over a length of about 200 cm. For the entire treatment the multiplication factor was found to be 2.86. On the surface of the phantom, the dose varied from 108% to 93% of the prescription dose. Conclusion: We have successfully commissioned TSET meeting the guidelines of the TG report 23, and treated our first patient on February 25, 2014.

  15. SU-E-T-238: Monte Carlo Estimation of Cerenkov Dose for Photo-Dynamic Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chibani, O; Price, R; Ma, C; Eldib, A; Mora, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Estimation of Cerenkov dose from high-energy megavoltage photon and electron beams in tissue and its impact on the radiosensitization using Protoporphyrine IX (PpIX) for tumor targeting enhancement in radiotherapy. Methods: The GEPTS Monte Carlo code is used to generate dose distributions from 18MV Varian photon beam and generic high-energy (45-MV) photon and (45-MeV) electron beams in a voxel-based tissueequivalent phantom. In addition to calculating the ionization dose, the code scores Cerenkov energy released in the wavelength range 375425 nm corresponding to the pick of the PpIX absorption spectrum (Fig. 1) using the Frank-Tamm formula. Results: The simulations shows that the produced Cerenkov dose suitable for activating PpIX is 4000 to 5500 times lower than the overall radiation dose for all considered beams (18MV, 45 MV and 45 MeV). These results were contradictory to the recent experimental studies by Axelsson et al. (Med. Phys. 38 (2011) p 4127), where Cerenkov dose was reported to be only two orders of magnitude lower than the radiation dose. Note that our simulation results can be corroborated by a simple model where the Frank and Tamm formula is applied for electrons with 2 MeV/cm stopping power generating Cerenkov photons in the 375425 nm range and assuming these photons have less than 1mm penetration in tissue. Conclusion: The Cerenkov dose generated by high-energy photon and electron beams may produce minimal clinical effect in comparison with the photon fluence (or dose) commonly used for photo-dynamic therapy. At the present time, it is unclear whether Cerenkov radiation is a significant contributor to the recently observed tumor regression for patients receiving radiotherapy and PpIX versus patients receiving radiotherapy only. The ongoing study will include animal experimentation and investigation of dose rate effects on PpIX response.

  16. SU-E-T-500: Dose Escalation Strategy for Lung Cancer Patients Using a Biologically- Guided Target Definition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shusharina, N; Khan, F; Choi, N; Sharp, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Dose escalation strategy for lung cancer patients can lead to late symptoms such as pneumonitis and cardiac injury. We propose a strategy to increase radiation dose for improving local tumor control while simultaneously striving to minimize the injury of organs at risk (OAR). Our strategy is based on defining a small, biologically-guided target volume for receiving additional radiation dose. Methods: 106 patients with lung cancer treated with radiotherapy were selected for patients diagnosed with stage II and III disease. Previous research has shown that 50% of the maximum SUV threshold in FDG-PET imaging is appropriate for delineation of the most aggressive part of a tumor. After PET- and CT-derived targets were contoured, an IMRT treatment plan was designed to deliver 60 Gy to the GTV as delineated on a 4D CT (Plan 1). A second plan was designed with additional dose of 18 Gy to the PET-derived volume (Plan 2). A composite plan was generated by the addition of Plan 1 and Plan 2. Results: Plan 1 was compared to the composite plan and increases in OAR dose were assessed. For seven patients on average, lung V5 was increased by 1.4% and V20 by 4.2% for ipsilateral lung and by 13.5% and 7% for contralateral lung. For total lung, V5 and V20 were increased by 4.5% and 4.8% respectively. Mean lung dose was increased by 9.7% for the total lung. The maximum dose to the spinal cord increased by 16% on average. For the heart, V20 increased by 4.2% and V40 by 5.2%. Conclusion: It seems feasible that an additional 18 Gy of radiation dose can be delivered to FDG PET-derived subvolume of the CT-based GTV of the primary tumor without significant increase in total dose to the critical organs such as lungs, spinal cord and heart.

  17. Clinical Application of High-Dose, Image-Guided Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayley, Andrew, E-mail: Andrew.Bayley@rmp.uhn.on.c [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Rosewall, Tara; Craig, Tim; Bristow, Rob; Chung, Peter; Gospodarowicz, Mary; Menard, Cynthia; Milosevic, Michael; Warde, Padraig; Catton, Charles [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: To report the feasibility and early toxicity of dose-escalated image-guided IMRT to the pelvic lymph nodes (LN), prostate (P), and seminal vesicles (SV). Methods and Materials: A total of 103 high-risk prostate cancer patients received two-phase, dose-escalated, image-guided IMRT with 3 years of androgen deprivation therapy. Clinical target volumes (CTVs) were delineated using computed tomography/magnetic resonance co-registration and included the prostate, portions of the SV, and the LN. Planning target volume margins (PTV) used were as follows: P (10 mm, 7 mm posteriorly), SV (10 mm), and LN (5 mm). Organs at risk (OaR) were the rectal and bladder walls, femoral heads, and large and small bowel. The IMRT was planned with an intended dose of 55.1 Gy in 29 fractions to all CTVs (Phase 1), with P+SV consecutive boost of 24.7 Gy in 13 fractions. Daily online image guidance was performed using bony landmarks and intraprostatic markers. Feasibility criteria included delivery of intended doses in 80% of patients, 95% of CTV displacements incorporated within PTV during Phase 1, and acute toxicity rate comparable to that of lower-dose pelvic techniques. Results: A total of 91 patients (88%) received the total prescription dose. All patients received at least 72 Gy. In Phase 1, 63 patients (61%) received the intended 55.1 Gy, whereas 87% of patients received at least 50 Gy. Dose reductions were caused by small bowel and rectal wall constraints. All CTVs received the planned dose in >95% of treatment fractions. There were no Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute toxicities greater than Grade 3, although there were five incidences equivalent to Grade 3 within a median follow-up of 23 months. Conclusion: These results suggest that dose escalation to the PLN+P+SV using IMRT is feasible, with acceptable rates of acute toxicity.

  18. MO-E-17A-06: Organ Dose in Abdomen-Pelvis CT: Does TG 111 Equilibrium Dose Concept Better Accounts for KVp Dependence Than Conventional CTDI?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X; Morgan, A; Davros, W; Dong, F; Primak, A; Segars, W

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In CT imaging, a desirable quality assurance (QA) dose quantity should account for the dose variability across scan parameters and scanner models. Recently, AAPM TG 111 proposed to use equilibrium dose-pitch product, in place of CT dose index (CTDI100), for scan modes involving table translation. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether this new concept better accounts for the kVp dependence of organ dose than the conventional CTDI concept. Methods: The adult reference female extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom was used for this study. A Monte Carlo program developed and validated for a 128-slice CT system (Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare) was used to simulate organ dose for abdomenpelvis scans at five tube voltages (70, 80, 100, 120, 140 kVp) with a pitch of 0.8 and a detector configuration of 2x64x0.6 mm. The same Monte Carlo program was used to simulate CTDI100 and equilibrium dose-pitch product. For both metrics, the central and peripheral values were used together with helical pitch to calculate a volume-weighted average, i.e., CTDIvol and (Deq)vol, respectively. Results: While other scan parameters were kept constant, organ dose depended strongly on kVp; the coefficient of variation (COV) across the five kVp values ranged between 70–75% for liver, spleen, stomach, pancreas, kidneys, colon, small intestine, bladder, and ovaries, all of which were inside the primary radiation beam. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the effect of kVp was highly significant (p=3e−30). When organ dose was normalized by CTDIvol, the COV across the five kVp values reduced to 7–16%. The effect of kVp was still highly significant (p=4e−4). When organ dose was normalized by (Deq)vol, the COV further reduced to 4−12%. The effect of kVp was borderline significant (p=0.04). Conclusion: In abdomen-pelvis CT, TG 111 equilibrium dose concept better accounts for kVp dependence than the conventional CTDI. This work is supported by a faculty startup fund from the Cleveland State University.

  19. Development of autonomous gamma dose logger for environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jisha, N. V.; Krishnakumar, D. N.; Surya Prakash, G.; Kumari, Anju; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2012-03-15

    Continuous monitoring and archiving of background radiation levels in and around the nuclear installation is essential and the data would be of immense use during analysis of any untoward incidents. A portable Geiger Muller detector based autonomous gamma dose logger (AGDL) for environmental monitoring is indigenously designed and developed. The system operations are controlled by microcontroller (AT89S52) and the main features of the system are software data acquisition, real time LCD display of radiation level, data archiving at removable compact flash card. The complete system operates on 12 V battery backed up by solar panel and hence the system is totally portable and ideal for field use. The system has been calibrated with Co-60 source (8.1 MBq) at various source-detector distances. The system is field tested and performance evaluation is carried out. This paper covers the design considerations of the hardware, software architecture of the system along with details of the front-end operation of the autonomous gamma dose logger and the data file formats. The data gathered during field testing and inter comparison with GammaTRACER are also presented in the paper. AGDL has shown excellent correlation with energy fluence monitor tuned to identify {sup 41}Ar, proving its utility for real-time plume tracking and source term estimation.

  20. MILDOS - A Computer Program for Calculating Environmental Radiation Doses from Uranium Recovery Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strange, D. L.; Bander, T. J.

    1981-04-01

    The MILDOS Computer Code estimates impacts from radioactive emissions from uranium milling facilities. These impacts are presented as dose commitments to individuals and the regional population within an 80 km radius of the facility. Only airborne releases of radioactive materials are considered: releases to surface water and to groundwater are not addressed in MILDOS. This code is multi-purposed and can be used to evaluate population doses for NEPA assessments, maximum individual doses for predictive 40 CFR 190 compliance evaluations, or maximum offsite air concentrations for predictive evaluations of 10 CFR 20 compliance. Emissions of radioactive materials from fixed point source locations and from area sources are modeled using a sector-averaged Gaussian plume dispersion model, which utilizes user-provided wind frequency data. Mechanisms such as deposition of particulates, resuspension. radioactive decay and ingrowth of daughter radionuclides are included in the transport model. Annual average air concentrations are computed, from which subsequent impacts to humans through various pathways are computed. Ground surface concentrations are estimated from deposition buildup and ingrowth of radioactive daughters. The surface concentrations are modified by radioactive decay, weathering and other environmental processes. The MILDOS Computer Code allows the user to vary the emission sources as a step function of time by adjustinq the emission rates. which includes shutting them off completely. Thus the results of a computer run can be made to reflect changing processes throughout the facility's operational lifetime. The pathways considered for individual dose commitments and for population impacts are: • Inhalation • External exposure from ground concentrations • External exposure from cloud immersion • Ingestioo of vegetables • Ingestion of meat • Ingestion of milk • Dose commitments are calculated using dose conversion factors, which are ultimately based on recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). These factors are fixed internally in the code, and are not part of the input option. Dose commitments which are available from the code are as follows: • Individual dose commitments for use in predictive 40 CFR 190 compliance evaluations (Radon and short-lived daughters are excluded) • Total individual dose commitments (impacts from all available radionuclides are considered) • Annual population dose commitments (regional, extraregional, total and cummulative). This model is primarily designed for uranium mill facilities, and should not be used for operations with different radionuclides or processes.

  1. Historical river flow rates for dose calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlton, W.H.

    1991-06-10

    Annual average river flow rates are required input to the LADTAP Computer Code for calculating offsite doses from liquid releases of radioactive materials to the Savannah River. The source of information on annual river flow rates used in dose calculations varies, depending on whether calculations are for retrospective releases or prospective releases. Examples of these types of releases are: Retrospective - releases from routine operations (annual environmental reports) and short term release incidents that have occurred. Prospective - releases that might be expected in the future from routine or abnormal operation of existing or new facilities (EIS`s, EID`S, SAR`S, etc.). This memorandum provides historical flow rates at the downstream gauging station at Highway 301 for use in retrospective dose calculations and derives flow rate data for the Beaufort-Jasper and Port Wentworth water treatment plants.

  2. Extended range radiation dose-rate monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valentine, Kenneth H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1988-01-01

    An extended range dose-rate monitor is provided which utilizes the pulse pileup phenomenon that occurs in conventional counting systems to alter the dynamic response of the system to extend the dose-rate counting range. The current pulses from a solid-state detector generated by radiation events are amplified and shaped prior to applying the pulses to the input of a comparator. The comparator generates one logic pulse for each input pulse which exceeds the comparator reference threshold. These pulses are integrated and applied to a meter calibrated to indicate the measured dose-rate in response to the integrator output. A portion of the output signal from the integrator is fed back to vary the comparator reference threshold in proportion to the output count rate to extend the sensitive dynamic detection range by delaying the asymptotic approach of the integrator output toward full scale as measured by the meter.

  3. The impact of low-Z and high-Z metal implants in IMRT: A Monte Carlo study of dose inaccuracies in commercial dose algorithms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spadea, Maria Francesca; Verburg, Joost Mathias; Seco, Joao; Baroni, Guido

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the dosimetric impact of low-Z and high-Z metallic implants on IMRT plans. Methods: Computed tomography (CT) scans of three patients were analyzed to study effects due to the presence of Titanium (low-Z), Platinum and Gold (high-Z) inserts. To eliminate artifacts in CT images, a sinogram-based metal artifact reduction algorithm was applied. IMRT dose calculations were performed on both the uncorrected and corrected images using a commercial planning system (convolution/superposition algorithm) and an in-house Monte Carlo platform. Dose differences between uncorrected and corrected datasets were computed and analyzed using gamma index (P?{sub <1}) and setting 2 mm and 2% as distance to agreement and dose difference criteria, respectively. Beam specific depth dose profiles across the metal were also examined. Results: Dose discrepancies between corrected and uncorrected datasets were not significant for low-Z material. High-Z materials caused under-dosage of 20%25% in the region surrounding the metal and over dosage of 10%15% downstream of the hardware. Gamma index test yielded P?{sub <1}>99% for all low-Z cases; while for high-Z cases it returned 91% < P?{sub <1}< 99%. Analysis of the depth dose curve of a single beam for low-Z cases revealed that, although the dose attenuation is altered inside the metal, it does not differ downstream of the insert. However, for high-Z metal implants the dose is increased up to 10%12% around the insert. In addition, Monte Carlo method was more sensitive to the presence of metal inserts than superposition/convolution algorithm. Conclusions: The reduction in terms of dose of metal artifacts in CT images is relevant for high-Z implants. In this case, dose distribution should be calculated using Monte Carlo algorithms, given their superior accuracy in dose modeling in and around the metal. In addition, the knowledge of the composition of metal inserts improves the accuracy of the Monte Carlo dose calculation significantly.

  4. A GREEN'S FUNCTION APPROACH FOR DETERMINING DOSE RATES FOR SMALL GRAM QUANTITIES IN SHIPPING PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathan, S.

    2012-06-14

    The Small Gram Quantity (SGQ) concept is based on the understanding that small amounts of hazardous materials, in this case radioactive materials (RAM), are significantly less hazardous than large amounts of the same materials. This paper describes a methodology designed to estimate an SGQ for several neutron and gamma emitting isotopes that can be shipped in a package in compliance with 10 CFR Part 71 external radiation level limits regulations. The neutron and photon sources were calculated using both ORIGEN-S and RASTA. The response from a unit source in each neutron and photon group was calculated using MCNP5 with each unshielded and shielded container configuration. Effects of self-shielding on both neutron and photon response were evaluated by including either plutonium oxide or iron in the source region for the case with no shielded container. For the cases of actinides mixed with light elements, beryllium is the bounding light element. The added beryllium (10 to 90 percent of the actinide mass) in the cases studied represents between 9 and 47 percent concentration of the total mixture mass. For beryllium concentrations larger than 50 percent, the increase in the neutron source term and dose rate tend to increase at a much lower rate than at concentrations lower than 50%. The intimately mixed actinide-beryllium form used in these models is very conservative and thus the limits presented in this report are practical bounds on the mass that can be safely shipped. The calculated dose rate from one gram of each isotope was then used to determin the maximum amount of a single isotope that could be shipped in the Model 9977 Package (or packagings having the same or larger external dimensions as well as similar structural materials) and have the external radiation level within the regulatory dose limits at the surface of the package. The estimates of the mass limits presented would also serve as conservative limits for both the Models 9975 and 9978 packages. If a package contains a mixture of isotopes, the acceptability for shipment can be determined by a sum of fractions approach. It should be noted that the SGQ masses presented in this report represent limits that would comply with the external radiation limits under 10CFR Part 71. They do not necessarily bound lower limits that may be required to comply with other factors such as heat load of the package.

  5. Systematic measurements of whole-body dose distributions for various treatment machines and delivery techniques in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haelg, Roger A.; Besserer, Juergen; Schneider, Uwe

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Contemporary radiotherapy treatment techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy, could increase the radiation-induced malignancies because of the increased beam-on time, i.e., number of monitor units needed to deliver the same dose to the target and the larger volume irradiated with low doses. In this study, whole-body dose distributions from typical radiotherapy patient plans using different treatment techniques and therapy machines were measured using the same measurement setup and irradiation intention. Methods: Individually calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure absorbed dose in an anthropomorphic phantom at 184 locations. The dose distributions from 6 MV beams were compared in terms of treatment technique (3D-conformal, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, volumetric modulated arc therapy, helical TomoTherapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, hard wedges, and flattening filter-free radiotherapy) and therapy machine (Elekta, Siemens and Varian linear accelerators, Accuray CyberKnife and TomoTherapy). Results: Close to the target, the doses from intensity-modulated treatments (including flattening filter-free) were below the dose from a static treatment plan, whereas the CyberKnife showed a larger dose by a factor of two. Far away from the treatment field, the dose from intensity-modulated treatments showed an increase in dose from stray radiation of about 50% compared to the 3D-conformal treatment. For the flattening filter-free photon beams, the dose from stray radiation far away from the target was slightly lower than the dose from a static treatment. The CyberKnife irradiation and the treatment using hard wedges increased the dose from stray radiation by nearly a factor of three compared to the 3D-conformal treatment. Conclusions: This study showed that the dose outside of the treated volume is influenced by several sources. Therefore, when comparing different treatment techniques, the dose ratios vary with distance to the isocenter. The effective dose outside the treated volume of intensity-modulated treatments with or without flattening filter was 10%-30% larger when compared to 3D-conformal radiotherapy. This dose increase is much lower than the monitor unit scaled effective dose from a static treatment.

  6. A total risk assessment methodology for security assessment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguilar, Richard; Pless, Daniel J.; Kaplan, Paul Garry; Silva, Consuelo Juanita; Rhea, Ronald Edward; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Conrad, Stephen Hamilton

    2009-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performed a two-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to develop a new collaborative risk assessment method to enable decision makers to fully consider the interrelationships between threat, vulnerability, and consequence. A five-step Total Risk Assessment Methodology was developed to enable interdisciplinary collaborative risk assessment by experts from these disciplines. The objective of this process is promote effective risk management by enabling analysts to identify scenarios that are simultaneously achievable by an adversary, desirable to the adversary, and of concern to the system owner or to society. The basic steps are risk identification, collaborative scenario refinement and evaluation, scenario cohort identification and risk ranking, threat chain mitigation analysis, and residual risk assessment. The method is highly iterative, especially with regard to scenario refinement and evaluation. The Total Risk Assessment Methodology includes objective consideration of relative attack likelihood instead of subjective expert judgment. The 'probability of attack' is not computed, but the relative likelihood for each scenario is assessed through identifying and analyzing scenario cohort groups, which are groups of scenarios with comparable qualities to the scenario being analyzed at both this and other targets. Scenarios for the target under consideration and other targets are placed into cohort groups under an established ranking process that reflects the following three factors: known targeting, achievable consequences, and the resources required for an adversary to have a high likelihood of success. The development of these target cohort groups implements, mathematically, the idea that adversaries are actively choosing among possible attack scenarios and avoiding scenarios that would be significantly suboptimal to their objectives. An adversary who can choose among only a few comparable targets and scenarios (a small comparable target cohort group) is more likely to choose to attack the specific target under analysis because he perceives it to be a relatively unique attack opportunity. The opposite is also true. Thus, total risk is related to the number of targets that exist in each scenario cohort group. This paper describes the Total Risk Assessment Methodology and illustrates it through an example.

  7. Establishment and validation of a method for multi-dose irradiation of cells in 96-well microplates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abatzoglou, Ioannis; Zois, Christos E.; Pouliliou, Stamatia

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ? We established a method for multi-dose irradiation of cell cultures within a 96-well plate. ? Equations to adjust to preferable dose levels are produced and provided. ? Up to eight different dose levels can be tested in one microplate. ? This method results in fast and reliable estimation of radiation doseresponse curves. -- Abstract: Microplates are useful tools in chemistry, biotechnology and molecular biology. In radiobiology research, these can be also applied to assess the effect of a certain radiation dose delivered to the whole microplate, to test radio-sensitivity, radio-sensitization or radio-protection. Whether different radiation doses can be accurately applied to a single 96-well plate to further facilitate and accelerated research by one hand and spare funds on the other, is a question dealt in the current paper. Following repeated ion-chamber, TLD and radiotherapy planning dosimetry we established a method for multi-dose irradiation of cell cultures within a 96-well plate, which allows an accurate delivery of desired doses in sequential columns of the microplate. Up to eight different dose levels can be tested in one microplate. This method results in fast and reliable estimation of radiation doseresponse curves.

  8. SU-E-T-335: Transit Dosimetry for Verification of Dose Delivery Using Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baek, T; Chung, E; Lee, S; Yoon, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of transit dose, measured with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID), in verifying actual dose delivery to patients. Methods: Plans of 5 patients with lung cancer, who received IMRT treatment, were examined using homogeneous solid water phantom and inhomogeneous anthropomorphic phantom. To simulate error in patient positioning, the anthropomorphic phantom was displaced from 5 mm to 10 mm in the inferior to superior (IS), superior to inferior (SI), left to right (LR), and right to left (RL) directions. The transit dose distribution was measured with EPID and was compared to the planed dose using gamma index. Results: Although the average passing rate based on gamma index (GI) with a 3% dose and a 3 mm distance-to-dose agreement tolerance limit was 94.34 % for the transit dose with homogeneous phantom, it was reduced to 84.63 % for the transit dose with inhomogeneous anthropomorphic phantom. The Result also shows that the setup error of 5mm (10mm) in IS, SI, LR and SI direction can Result in the decrease in values of GI passing rates by 1.3% (3.0%), 2.2% (4.3%), 5.9% (10.9%), and 8.9% (16.3%), respectively. Conclusion: Our feasibility study suggests that the transit dose-based quality assurance may provide information regarding accuracy of dose delivery as well as patient positioning.

  9. Narrowband filter radiometer for ground-based measurements of global ultraviolet solar irradiance and total ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petkov, Boyan; Vitale, Vito; Tomasi, Claudio; Bonafe, Ubaldo; Scaglione, Salvatore; Flori, Daniele; Santaguida, Riccardo; Gausa, Michael; Hansen, Georg; Colombo, Tiziano

    2006-06-20

    The ultraviolet narrowband filter radiometer (UV-RAD) designed by the authors to take ground-based measurements of UV solar irradiance, total ozone, and biological dose rate is described, together with the main characteristics of the seven blocked filters mounted on it, all of which have full widths at half maxima that range 0.67 to 0.98 nm. We have analyzed the causes of cosine response and calibration errors carefully to define the corresponding correction terms, paying particular attention to those that are due to the spectral displacements of the filter transmittance peaks from the integer wavelength values. The influence of the ozone profile on the retrieved ozone at large solar zenith angles has also been examined by means of field measurements. The opportunity of carrying out nearly monochromatic irradiance measurements offered by the UV-RAD allowed us to improve the procedure usually followed to reconstruct the solar spectrum at the surface by fitting the computed results, using radiative transfer models with field measurements of irradiance. Two long-term comparison campaigns took place, showing that a mean discrepancy of+0.3% exists between the UV-RAD total ozone values and those given by the Brewer no. 63 spectroradiometer and that mean differences of+0.3% and-0.9% exist between the erythemal dose rates determined with the UV-RAD and those obtained with the Brewer no. 63 and the Brewer no. 104 spectroradiometers, respectively.

  10. High and Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation Induce Different Secretome Profiles in a Human Skin Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Qibin; Matzke, Melissa M.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Moore, Ronald J.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Hu, Zeping; Monroe, Matthew E.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Morgan, William F.

    2014-03-18

    It is postulated that secreted soluble factors are important contributors of bystander effect and adaptive responses observed in low dose ionizing radiation. Using multidimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based proteomics, we quantified the changes of skin tissue secretome the proteins secreted from a full thickness, reconstituted 3-dimensional skin tissue model 48 hr after exposure to 3, 10 and 200 cGy of X-rays. Overall, 135 proteins showed statistical significant difference between the sham (0 cGy) and any of the irradiated groups (3, 10 or 200 cGy) on the basis of Dunnett adjusted t-test; among these, 97 proteins showed a trend of downregulation and 9 proteins showed a trend of upregulation with increasing radiation dose. In addition, there were 21 and 8 proteins observed to have irregular trends with the 10 cGy irradiated group either having the highest or the lowest level among all three radiated doses. Moreover, two proteins, carboxypeptidase E and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 were sensitive to ionizing radiation, but relatively independent of radiation dose. Conversely, proteasome activator complex subunit 2 protein appeared to be sensitive to the dose of radiation, as rapid upregulation of this protein was observed when radiation doses were increased from 3, to 10 or 200 cGy. These results suggest that different mechanisms of action exist at the secretome level for low and high doses of ionizing radiation.

  11. New Mexico Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) New Mexico Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  12. Connecticut Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Connecticut Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  13. Connecticut Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Connecticut Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  14. Maine Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Maine Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's...

  15. Maine Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Maine Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  16. Project Functions and Activities Definitions for Total Project Cost

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter provides guidelines developed to define the obvious disparity of opinions and practices with regard to what exactly is included in total estimated cost (TEC) and total project cost (TPC).

  17. Total China Investment Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Investment Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Total (China) Investment Co. Ltd. Place: Beijing, China Zip: 100004 Product: Total has been present in China for about 30...

  18. Virginia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Virginia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  19. Washington Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Washington Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  20. Delaware Total Electric Power Industry Net Generation, by Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...e","-","-","-","-","-" "Other","-","-",11,6,"-" "Total",7182,8534,7524,4842,5628 " " "s Value is less than 0.5 of the table metric, but value is included in any associated total.

  1. Kansas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Kansas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  2. Arizona Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Arizona Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  3. Arizona Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Arizona Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  4. ,"Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Net Receipts by Pipeline...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Net Receipts by ... PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Net Receipts by ...

  5. Low dose radiation hypersensitivity and clustered DNA damages in human fibroblasts exposed to low dose and dose rate protons or 137CS y-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett P. V.; Bennett, P.V.; Keszenman, D.J.; Johnson, A.M.; Sutherland, B.M.; Wilson, P.F.

    2013-05-14

    Effective radioprotection for human space travelers hinges upon understanding the individual properties of charged particles. A significant fraction of particle radiation astronauts will encounter in space exploratory missions will come from high energy protons in galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and/or possible exposures to lower energy proton flux from solar particle events (SPEs). These potential exposures present major concerns for NASA and others, in planning and executing long term space exploratory missions. We recently reported cell survival and transformation (acquisition of anchorage-independent growth in soft agar) frequencies in apparently normal NFF-28 primary human fibroblasts exposed to 0-30 cGy of 50MeV, 100MeV (SPE-like), or 1000 MeV (GCR-like) monoenergetic protons. These were modeled after 1989 SPE energies at an SPE-like low dose-rate (LDR) of 1.65 cGy/min or high dose rate (HDR) of 33.3 cGy/min delivered at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL.

  6. NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Stacey Rothgeb, NREL View the Presentation PDF icon NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review More Documents & Publications Home Performance with ENERGY STAR - 2014 BTO Peer Review NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review R25 Polyisocyanurate Composite Insulation Material

  7. A low dose simulation tool for CT systems with energy integrating detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zabic, Stanislav; Morton, Thomas; Brown, Kevin M.; Wang Qiu

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: This paper introduces a new strategy for simulating low-dose computed tomography (CT) scans using real scans of a higher dose as an input. The tool is verified against simulations and real scans and compared to other approaches found in the literature. Methods: The conditional variance identity is used to properly account for the variance of the input high-dose data, and a formula is derived for generating a new Poisson noise realization which has the same mean and variance as the true low-dose data. The authors also derive a formula for the inclusion of real samples of detector noise, properly scaled according to the level of the simulated x-ray signals. Results: The proposed method is shown to match real scans in number of experiments. Noise standard deviation measurements in simulated low-dose reconstructions of a 35 cm water phantom match real scans in a range from 500 to 10 mA with less than 5% error. Mean and variance of individual detector channels are shown to match closely across the detector array. Finally, the visual appearance of noise and streak artifacts is shown to match in real scans even under conditions of photon-starvation (with tube currents as low as 10 and 80 mA). Additionally, the proposed method is shown to be more accurate than previous approaches (1) in achieving the correct mean and variance in reconstructed images from pure-Poisson noise simulations (with no detector noise) under photon-starvation conditions, and (2) in simulating the correct noise level and detector noise artifacts in real low-dose scans. Conclusions: The proposed method can accurately simulate low-dose CT data starting from high-dose data, including effects from photon starvation and detector noise. This is potentially a very useful tool in helping to determine minimum dose requirements for a wide range of clinical protocols and advanced reconstruction algorithms.

  8. WE-E-BRE-06: High-Dose Microbeam Radiation Induces Different Responses in Tumor Microenvironment Compared to Conventional Seamless Radiation in Window Chamber Tumor Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S; Zhang, J; Hadsell, M; Fontanella, A; Schroeder, T; Palmer, G; Dewhirst, M; Boss, M; Berman, K

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy and GRID therapy are different forms of Spatially-Fractioned Radiation Therapy (SFRT) that is fundamentally different from the conventional seamless and temporally fractionated radiation therapy. SFRT is characterized by a ultra-high dose (10s –100s Gy) dose single treatment with drastic inhomogeneity pattern of given spatial frequencies. Preclinical and limited clinical studies have shown that the SFRT treatments may offer significant improvements in reducing treatment toxicity, especially for those patients who have not benefited from the state-of-the-art radiation therapy approaches. This preliminary study aims to elucidate the underlying working mechanisms of SFRT, which currently remains poorly understood. Methods: A genetically engineered 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma cell line and nude mice skin fold window chamber were used. A nanotechnology-based 160kV x-ray irradiator delivered 50Gy (entrance dose) single treatments of microbeam or seamless radiation. Animals were in 3 groups: mock, seamless radiation, and 300μm microbeam radiation. The windows were imaged using a hyperspectral system to capture total hemoglobin/saturation, GFP fluorescence emission, RFP fluorescence emission, and vessel density at 9 time points up to 7 days post radiation. Results: We found unique physiologic changes in different tumor/normal tissue regions and differential effects between seamless and microbeam treatments. They include 1) compared to microbeam and mock radiation seamless radiation damaged more microvasculature in tumor-surrounding normal tissue, 2) a pronounced angiogenic effect was observed with vascular proliferation in the microbeam irradiated portion of the tumor days post treatment (no such effect observed in seamless and mock groups), and 3) a notable change in tumor vascular orientation was observed where vessels initially oriented parallel to the beam length were replaced by vessels running perpendicular to the irradiation portion of the tumor. Conclusion: Our preliminary study indicated that microbeam radiation modified tumor microenvironment in ways significantly different than of the conventional seamless radiation.

  9. Epigenomic Adaptation to Low Dose Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gould, Michael N.

    2015-06-30

    The overall hypothesis of this grant application is that the adaptive responses elicited by low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) result in part from heritable DNA methylation changes in the epigenome. In the final budget period at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, we will specifically address this hypothesis by determining if the epigenetically labile, differentially methylated regions (DMRs) that regulate parental-specific expression of imprinted genes are deregulated in agouti mice by low dose radiation exposure during gestation. This information is particularly important to ascertain given the 1) increased human exposure to medical sources of radiation; 2) increased number of people predicted to live and work in space; and 3) enhanced citizen concern about radiation exposure from nuclear power plant accidents and terrorist ‘dirty bombs.’

  10. Scaling properties of proton-nucleus total reaction cross sections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abu-Ibrahim, Badawy; Kohama, Akihisa

    2010-05-15

    We study the scaling properties of proton-nucleus total reaction cross sections for stable nuclei and propose an approximate expression in proportion to Z{sup 2/3}sigma{sub pp}{sup total}+N{sup 2/3}sigma{sub pn}{sup total}. Based on this expression, we can derive a relation that enables us to predict a total reaction cross section for any stable nucleus within 10% uncertainty at most, using the empirical value of the total reaction cross section of a given nucleus.

  11. Correction for FDG PET dose extravasations: Monte Carlo validation and quantitative evaluation of patient studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva-Rodrguez, Jess Aguiar, Pablo; Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Complexo Hospitalario Universidade de Santiago de Compostela , 15782, Galicia; Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Instituto de Investigacin Sanitarias , Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia ; Snchez, Manuel; Mosquera, Javier; Luna-Vega, Vctor; Corts, Julia; Garrido, Miguel; Pombar, Miguel; Ruibal, lvaro; Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Instituto de Investigacin Sanitarias , Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia; Fundacin Tejerina, 28003, Madrid

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Current procedure guidelines for whole body [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) state that studies with visible dose extravasations should be rejected for quantification protocols. Our work is focused on the development and validation of methods for estimating extravasated doses in order to correct standard uptake value (SUV) values for this effect in clinical routine. Methods: One thousand three hundred sixty-seven consecutive whole body FDG-PET studies were visually inspected looking for extravasation cases. Two methods for estimating the extravasated dose were proposed and validated in different scenarios using Monte Carlo simulations. All visible extravasations were retrospectively evaluated using a manual ROI based method. In addition, the 50 patients with higher extravasated doses were also evaluated using a threshold-based method. Results: Simulation studies showed that the proposed methods for estimating extravasated doses allow us to compensate the impact of extravasations on SUV values with an error below 5%. The quantitative evaluation of patient studies revealed that paravenous injection is a relatively frequent effect (18%) with a small fraction of patients presenting considerable extravasations ranging from 1% to a maximum of 22% of the injected dose. A criterion based on the extravasated volume and maximum concentration was established in order to identify this fraction of patients that might be corrected for paravenous injection effect. Conclusions: The authors propose the use of a manual ROI based method for estimating the effectively administered FDG dose and then correct SUV quantification in those patients fulfilling the proposed criterion.

  12. Dose masking feature for BNCT radiotherapy planning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, Jeremy L.; Wessol, Daniel E.; Wheeler, Floyd J.

    2000-01-01

    A system for displaying an accurate model of isodoses to be used in radiotherapy so that appropriate planning can be performed prior to actual treatment on a patient. The nature of the simulation of the radiotherapy planning for BNCT and Fast Neutron Therapy, etc., requires that the doses be computed in the entire volume. The "entire volume" includes the patient and beam geometries as well as the air spaces in between. Isodoses derived from the computed doses will therefore extend into the air regions between the patient and beam geometries and thus depict the unrealistic possibility that radiation deposition occurs in regions containing no physical media. This problem is solved by computing the doses for the entire geometry and then masking the physical and air regions along with the isodose contours superimposed over the patient image at the corresponding plane. The user is thus able to mask out (remove) the contour lines from the unwanted areas of the image by selecting the appropriate contour masking region from the raster image.

  13. Risk of Low Dose/Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation to Humans Symposium at the EMS 2009 Annual Meeting - September 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, William F.; von Borstel, Robert C.; Brenner, David; Redpath, J. Leslie; Erickson, Barbra E.; Brooks, Antone L.

    2009-11-12

    The low dose symposium thoughtfully addressed controversy of risk from low dose radiation exposure, hormesis and radon therapy. The stem cell symposium cogently considered the role of DNA damage and repair in hematopoietic stem cells underlying aging and malignancy and provocatively presented evidence that stem cells may have distinct morphologies and replicative properties, as well as special roles in cancer initiation. In the epigenetics symposium, studies illustrated the long range interaction of epigenetic mechanisms, the roles of CTCF and BORIS in region/specific regulation of epigenetic processes, the impact of DNA damage on epigenetic processes as well as links between epigenetic mechanisms and early nutrition and bystander effects.

  14. ITER Generic Diagnostic Upper Port Plug Nuclear Heating and Personnel Dose Rate Assesment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell E. Feder and Mahmoud Z. Youssef

    2009-01-28

    Neutronics analysis to find nuclear heating rates and personnel dose rates were conducted in support of the integration of diagnostics in to the ITER Upper Port Plugs. Simplified shielding models of the Visible-Infrared diagnostic and of a large aperture diagnostic were incorporated in to the ITER global CAD model. Results for these systems are representative of typical designs with maximum shielding and a small aperture (Vis-IR) and minimal shielding with a large aperture. The neutronics discrete-ordinates code ATTILA and SEVERIAN (the ATTILA parallel processing version) was used. Material properties and the 500 MW D-T volume source were taken from the ITER Brand Model MCNP benchmark model. A biased quadrature set equivelant to Sn=32 and a scattering degree of Pn=3 were used along with a 46-neutron and 21-gamma FENDL energy subgrouping. Total nuclear heating (neutron plug gamma heating) in the upper port plugs ranged between 380 and 350 kW for the Vis-IR and Large Aperture cases. The Large Aperture model exhibited lower total heating but much higher peak volumetric heating on the upper port plug structure. Personnel dose rates are calculated in a three step process involving a neutron-only transport calculation, the generation of activation volume sources at pre-defined time steps and finally gamma transport analyses are run for selected time steps. ANSI-ANS 6.1.1 1977 Flux-to-Dose conversion factors were used. Dose rates were evaluated for 1 full year of 500 MW DT operation which is comprised of 3000 1800-second pulses. After one year the machine is shut down for maintenance and personnel are permitted to access the diagnostic interspace after 2-weeks if dose rates are below 100 ?Sv/hr. Dose rates in the Visible-IR diagnostic model after one day of shutdown were 130 ?Sv/hr but fell below the limit to 90 ?Sv/hr 2-weeks later. The Large Aperture style shielding model exhibited higher and more persistent dose rates. After 1-day the dose rate was 230 ?Sv/hr but was still at 120 ?Sv/hr 4-weeks later.

  15. 3D inpatient dose reconstruction from the PET-CT imaging of {sup 90}Y microspheres for metastatic cancer to the liver: Feasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fourkal, E.; Veltchev, I.; Lin, M.; Meyer, J.; Koren, S.; Doss, M.; Yu, J. Q.

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The introduction of radioembolization with microspheres represents a significant step forward in the treatment of patients with metastatic disease to the liver. This technique uses semiempirical formulae based on body surface area or liver and target volumes to calculate the required total activity for a given patient. However, this treatment modality lacks extremely important information, which is the three-dimensional (3D) dose delivered by microspheres to different organs after their administration. The absence of this information dramatically limits the clinical efficacy of this modality, specifically the predictive power of the treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop a 3D dose calculation technique that is based on the PET imaging of the infused microspheres.Methods: The Fluka Monte Carlo code was used to calculate the voxel dose kernel for {sup 90}Y source with voxel size equal to that of the PET scan. The measured PET activity distribution was converted to total activity distribution for the subsequent convolution with the voxel dose kernel to obtain the 3D dose distribution. In addition, dose-volume histograms were generated to analyze the dose to the tumor and critical structures.Results: The 3D inpatient dose distribution can be reconstructed from the PET data of a patient scanned after the infusion of microspheres. A total of seven patients have been analyzed so far using the proposed reconstruction method. Four patients underwent treatment with SIR-Spheres for liver metastases from colorectal cancer and three patients were treated with Therasphere for hepatocellular cancer. A total of 14 target tumors were contoured on post-treatment PET-CT scans for dosimetric evaluation. Mean prescription activity was 1.7 GBq (range: 0.583.8 GBq). The resulting mean maximum measured dose to targets was 167 Gy (range: 71311 Gy). Mean minimum dose to 70% of target (D70) was 68 Gy (range: 25155 Gy). Mean minimum dose to 90% of target (D90) was 53 Gy (range: 13125 Gy).Conclusions: A three-dimensional inpatient dose reconstruction method has been developed that is based on the PET/CT data of a patient treated with {sup 90}Y microspheres. It allows for a complete description of the absorbed dose by the tumor and critical structures. It represents the first step in building predictive models for treatment outcomes for patients receiving this therapeutic modality as well as it allows for better analysis of patients' dose response and will ultimately improve future treatment administration.

  16. Suppression of alkylating agent induced cell transformation and gastric ulceration by low-dose alkylating agent pretreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onodera, Akira; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kobegakuin University, 1-1-3 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8586 ; Kawai, Yuichi; Kashimura, Asako; Ogita, Fumiya; Tsutsumi, Yasuo; Itoh, Norio

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: Low-dose MNNG pretreatment suppresses high-dose MNNG induced in vitro transformation. Gastric ulcers induced by high-dose MNNG decreased after low-dose MNNG pretreatment. Efficacy of low-dose MNNG related to resistance of mutation and oxidative stress. -- Abstract: Exposure to mild stress by chemicals and radiation causes DNA damage and leads to acquired stress resistance. Although the linear no-threshold (LNT) model of safety assessment assumes risk from any dose, evidence from radiological research demonstrates a conflicting hormetic phenomenon known as the hormesis effect. However, the mechanisms underlying radiation hormesis have not yet been clarified, and little is known about the effects of low doses of chemical carcinogens. We analyzed the efficacy of pretreatment with low doses of the alkylating agent N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) on the subsequent induction of cell transformation and gastric ulceration by high-dose MNNG. We used an in vitro Balb/3T3 A31-1-1 cell transformation test and monitored the formation of gastric ulcers in 5-week-old male ICR mice that were administered MNNG in drinking water. The treatment concentrations of MNNG were determined by the cell survival rate and past reports. For low-dose in vitro and in vivo experiments, MNNG was used at 0.028 ?M, and 2.8 ?g/mL, respectively. The frequency of cell transformation induced by 10 ?m MNNG was decreased by low-dose MNNG pretreatment to levels similar to that of spontaneous transformation. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mutation frequencies induced by 10 ?m MNNG were decreased by low-dose MNNG pretreatment. Importantly, low-dose MNNG pretreatment had no effect on cell proliferation. In vivo studies showed that the number of gastric ulcers induced by 1 mg/mL MNNG decreased after low-dose MNNG pretreatment. These data indicate that low-dose pretreatment with carcinogens may play a beneficial role in the prevention of chemical toxicity under specified conditions.

  17. Second Solid Cancers After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review of the Epidemiologic Studies of the Radiation Dose-Response Relationship

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Gilbert, Ethel; Curtis, Rochelle; Inskip, Peter; Kleinerman, Ruth; Morton, Lindsay; Rajaraman, Preetha; Little, Mark P.

    2013-06-01

    Rapid innovations in radiation therapy techniques have resulted in an urgent need for risk projection models for second cancer risks from high-dose radiation exposure, because direct observation of the late effects of newer treatments will require patient follow-up for a decade or more. However, the patterns of cancer risk after fractionated high-dose radiation are much less well understood than those after lower-dose exposures (0.1-5 Gy). In particular, there is uncertainty about the shape of the dose-response curve at high doses and about the magnitude of the second cancer risk per unit dose. We reviewed the available evidence from epidemiologic studies of second solid cancers in organs that received high-dose exposure (>5 Gy) from radiation therapy where dose-response curves were estimated from individual organ-specific doses. We included 28 eligible studies with 3434 second cancer patients across 11 second solid cancers. Overall, there was little evidence that the dose-response curve was nonlinear in the direction of a downturn in risk, even at organ doses of ≥60 Gy. Thyroid cancer was the only exception, with evidence of a downturn after 20 Gy. Generally the excess relative risk per Gray, taking account of age and sex, was 5 to 10 times lower than the risk from acute exposures of <2 Gy among the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. However, the magnitude of the reduction in risk varied according to the second cancer. The results of our review provide insights into radiation carcinogenesis from fractionated high-dose exposures and are generally consistent with current theoretical models. The results can be used to refine the development of second solid cancer risk projection models for novel radiation therapy techniques.

  18. Mammalian Tissue Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation: The Role of Oxidative Metabolism and Intercellular Communication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azzam, Edouard I

    2013-01-16

    The objective of the project was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of low dose/low dose rate ionizing radiation in organs/tissues of irradiated mice that differ in their susceptibility to ionizing radiation, and in human cells grown under conditions that mimic the natural in vivo environment. The focus was on the effects of sparsely ionizing cesium-137 gamma rays and the role of oxidative metabolism and intercellular communication in these effects. Four Specific Aims were proposed. The integrated outcome of the experiments performed to investigate these aims has been significant towards developing a scientific basis to more accurately estimate human health risks from exposures to low doses ionizing radiation. By understanding the biochemical and molecular changes induced by low dose radiation, several novel markers associated with mitochondrial functions were identified, which has opened new avenues to investigate metabolic processes that may be affected by such exposure. In particular, a sensitive biomarker that is differentially modulated by low and high dose gamma rays was discovered.

  19. Potential Offsite Radiological Doses Estimated for the Proposed Divine Strake Experiment, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ron Warren

    2006-12-01

    An assessment of the potential radiation dose that residents offsite of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) might receive from the proposed Divine Strake experiment was made to determine compliance with Subpart H of Part 61 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities. The Divine Strake experiment, proposed by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, consists of a detonation of 700 tons of heavy ammonium nitrate fuel oil-emulsion above the U16b Tunnel complex in Area 16 of the NTS. Both natural radionuclides suspended, and historic fallout radionuclides resuspended from the detonation, have potential to be transported outside the NTS boundary by wind. They may, therefore, contribute radiological dose to the public. Subpart H states ''Emissions of radionuclides to the ambient air from Department of Energy facilities shall not exceed those amounts that would cause any member of the public to receive in any year an effective dose equivalent of 10 mrem/yr'' (Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 61.92) where mrem/yr is millirem per year. Furthermore, application for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approval of construction of a new source or modification of an existing source is required if the effective dose equivalent, caused by all emissions from the new construction or modification, is greater than or equal to 0.1 mrem/yr (40 CFR 61.96). In accordance with Section 61.93, a dose assessment was conducted with the computer model CAP88-PC, Version 3.0. In addition to this model, a dose assessment was also conducted by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This modeling was conducted to obtain dose estimates from a model designed for acute releases and which addresses terrain effects and uses meteorology from multiple locations. Potential radiation dose to a hypothetical maximally exposed individual at the closest NTS boundary to the proposed Divine Strake experiment, as estimated by the CAP88-PC model, was 0.005 mrem with wind blowing directly towards that location. Boundary dose, as modeled by NARAC, ranged from about 0.006 to 0.007 mrem. Potential doses to actual offsite populated locations were generally two to five times lower still, or about 40 to 100 times lower then the 0.1 mrem level at which EPA approval is required pursuant to Section 61.96.

  20. The alanine detector in BNCT dosimetry: Dose response in thermal and epithermal neutron fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitz, T.; Bassler, N.; Blaickner, M.; Ziegner, M.; Hsiao, M. C.; Liu, Y. H.; Koivunoro, H.; Auterinen, I.; Sern, T.; Kotiluoto, P.; Palmans, H.; Sharpe, P.; Langguth, P.; Hampel, G.

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: The response of alanine solid state dosimeters to ionizing radiation strongly depends on particle type and energy. Due to nuclear interactions, neutron fields usually also consist of secondary particles such as photons and protons of diverse energies. Various experiments have been carried out in three different neutron beams to explore the alanine dose response behavior and to validate model predictions. Additionally, application in medical neutron fields for boron neutron capture therapy is discussed. Methods: Alanine detectors have been irradiated in the thermal neutron field of the research reactor TRIGA Mainz, Germany, in five experimental conditions, generating different secondary particle spectra. Further irradiations have been made in the epithermal neutron beams at the research reactors FiR 1 in Helsinki, Finland, and Tsing Hua open pool reactor in HsinChu, Taiwan ROC. Readout has been performed with electron spin resonance spectrometry with reference to an absorbed dose standard in a {sup 60}Co gamma ray beam. Absorbed doses and dose components have been calculated using the Monte Carlo codes FLUKA and MCNP. The relative effectiveness (RE), linking absorbed dose and detector response, has been calculated using the Hansen and Olsen alanine response model. Results: The measured dose response of the alanine detector in the different experiments has been evaluated and compared to model predictions. Therefore, a relative effectiveness has been calculated for each dose component, accounting for its dependence on particle type and energy. Agreement within 5% between model and measurement has been achieved for most irradiated detectors. Significant differences have been observed in response behavior between thermal and epithermal neutron fields, especially regarding dose composition and depth dose curves. The calculated dose components could be verified with the experimental results in the different primary and secondary particle fields. Conclusions: The alanine detector can be used without difficulty in neutron fields. The response has been understood with the model used which includes the relative effectiveness. Results and the corresponding discussion lead to the conclusion that application in neutron fields for medical purpose is limited by its sensitivity but that it is a useful tool as supplement to other detectors and verification of neutron source descriptions.

  1. Percentage of Total Natural Gas Industrial Deliveries included in Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices Industrial Price Percentage of Total Industrial Deliveries included in Prices Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010

  2. Percentage of Total Natural Gas Industrial Deliveries included in Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices Industrial Price Percentage of Total Industrial Deliveries included in Prices Electric Power Price Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 Jan-16 Feb-16 View History U.S.

  3. Percentage of Total Natural Gas Residential Deliveries included in Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices Industrial Price Percentage of Total Industrial Deliveries included in Prices Electric Power Price Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 Jan-16 Feb-16 View History U.S.

  4. Percentage of Total Natural Gas Commercial Deliveries included in Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices Industrial Price Percentage of Total Industrial Deliveries included in Prices Electric Power Price Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 Jan-16 Feb-16 View History U.S.

  5. Characterization of a new photo-fluorescent film dosimeter for high-radiation dose applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Mark K. ); Miller, Steven D. ); Kovacs, Andras; Mclaughlin, William L.; Slezsak, Istvan

    2001-12-01

    Characterization studies on one of the first versions of the Sunna fluorescent dosimeter have been published by Kovacs and McLaughlin. This present study describes testing results of a newer version of the dosimeter (Model and 61543;, batch 0399-20). This dosimeter is a 1-cm by 3-cm polymeric film of 0.5 mm thickness that emits a green fluorescence component at intensities almost linear with dose. The manufacturing method (injection molding) allows potential batch sizes on the order of a million while maintaining a signal precision on the order of+/- 1%. Studies include dose response, dose rate dependence, energy dependence, post-irradiation stability, environmental effects, and variation of response within a batch. Data for both food irradiation and sterilization dose levels were obtained. The results indicate that the green signal (0.3-200 kGy) works well for food irradiation dose levels, especially in refrigerated facilities that maintain tight temperature control. The green signal also works well in sterilization facilities because its irradiation temperature coefficient above room temperature is minimal at sterilization doses. If the user requires readout results in less than 22 hours after room temperature irradiation, the user can either calibrate for a specific post-irradiation readout time(s) or simply heat the dosimeters in a small laboratory oven to quickly stabilize the signal.

  6. Real-space formulation of the electrostatic potential and total...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Real-space formulation of the electrostatic potential and total energy of solids Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Real-space formulation of the ...

  7. Table A19. Components of Total Electricity Demand by Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Components of Total Electricity Demand by Census Region and" " Economic Characteristics of ...ansfers","Onsite","Transfers"," ","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Purchases","In(b)",...

  8. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Total Primary Energy Detail

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Consumption and Graph Total Primary Energy Consumption Graph Detail and Data Table 1979 to 1992 primary consumption trend with 95% confidence ranges 1979 to 1992 primary...

  9. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Total Site Energy Detail

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Consumption and Graph Total Site Energy Consumption Graph Detail and Data Table 1979 to 1992 site consumption trend with 95% confidence ranges 1979 to 1992 site...

  10. ,"Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type",6,"Monthly","82015","1151956"...

  11. ,"Other States Total Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ...

  12. TENESOL formerly known as TOTAL ENERGIE | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: TENESOL (formerly known as TOTAL ENERGIE) Place: la Tour de Salvagny, France Zip: 69890 Sector: Solar Product: Makes polycrystalline silicon modules, and PV-based...

  13. Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (Million Cubic...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gross Withdrawals Total Offshore (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals ... Offshore Gross Withdrawals of Natural Gas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Texas Offshore ...

  14. National Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Overview: Total Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presentation by Sunita Satyapal at the Total Energy USA 2012 meeting in Houston, Texas, on November 27, 2012. PDF icon National Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Overview More ...

  15. Montana Total Maximum Daily Load Development Projects Wiki |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wiki Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Total Maximum Daily Load Development Projects Wiki Abstract Provides information on...

  16. ,"Motor Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes",60,"Monthly","22016","1151983" ,"Release Date:","522016" ,"Next Release Date:","612016" ,"Excel File Name:","petconsrefmg...

  17. Total Agroindustria Canavieira S A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agroindustria Canavieira S A Jump to: navigation, search Name: Total Agroindustria Canavieira SA Place: Bambui, Minas Gerais, Brazil Product: Ethanol producer in Minas Gerais,...

  18. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (Btu) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity (thousand Btu...

  19. ,"U.S. Total Refiner Petroleum Product Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NUSDPG","EMAEPPRPTGNUSDPG","EMAEPPRLPTGNUSDPG","EMAEPPRHPTGNUSDPG" "Date","U.S. Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per Gallon)","U.S. Aviation Gasoline...

  20. $787 Million Total in Small Business Contract Funding Awarded...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    787 Million Total in Small Business Contract Funding Awarded in FY2009 by DOE Programs in Oak Ridge | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS...

  1. ,"Conventional Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes",60,"Monthly","22016","1151994" ,"Release Date:","522016" ,"Next Release Date:","612016" ,"Excel File Name:","petconsrefmg...

  2. Dosimetric verification of stereotactic radiosurgery/stereotactic radiotherapy dose distributions using Gafchromic EBT3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cusumano, Davide; Fumagalli, Maria L.; Marchetti, Marcello; Fariselli, Laura; De Martin, Elena

    2015-10-01

    Aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of using the new Gafchromic EBT3 film in a high-dose stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy quality assurance procedure. Owing to the reduced dimensions of the involved lesions, the feasibility of scanning plan verification films on the scanner plate area with the best uniformity rather than using a correction mask was evaluated. For this purpose, signal values dispersion and reproducibility of film scans were investigated. Uniformity was then quantified in the selected area and was found to be within 1.5% for doses up to 8 Gy. A high-dose threshold level for analyses using this procedure was established evaluating the sensitivity of the irradiated films. Sensitivity was found to be of the order of centiGray for doses up to 6.2 Gy and decreasing for higher doses. The obtained results were used to implement a procedure comparing dose distributions delivered with a CyberKnife system to planned ones. The procedure was validated through single beam irradiation on a Gafchromic film. The agreement between dose distributions was then evaluated for 13 patients (brain lesions, 5 Gy/die prescription isodose ~80%) using gamma analysis. Results obtained using Gamma test criteria of 5%/1 mm show a pass rate of 94.3%. Gamma frequency parameters calculation for EBT3 films showed to strongly depend on subtraction of unexposed film pixel values from irradiated ones. In the framework of the described dosimetric procedure, EBT3 films proved to be effective in the verification of high doses delivered to lesions with complex shapes and adjacent to organs at risk.

  3. Wide-range radiation dose monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopp, Manfred K.

    1986-01-01

    A radiation dose-rate monitor is provided which operates in a conventional linear mode for radiation in the 0 to 0.5 R/h range and utilizes a nonlinear mode of operation for sensing radiation from 0.5 R/h to over 500 R/h. The nonlinear mode is achieved by a feedback circuit which adjusts the high voltage bias of the proportional counter, and hence its gas gain, in accordance with the amount of radiation being monitored. This allows compression of readout onto a single scale over the range of 0 to greater than 500 R/h without scale switching operations.

  4. Wide-range radiation dose monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopp, M.K.

    1984-09-20

    A radiation dose-rate monitor is provided which operates in a conventional linear mode for radiation in the 0 to 0.5 R/h range and utilizes a nonlinear mode of operation for sensing radiation from 0.5 R/h to over 500 R/h. The nonlinear mode is achieved by a feedback circuit which adjusts the high voltage bias of the proportional counter, and hence its gas gain, in accordance with the amount of radiation being monitored. This allows compression of readout onto a single scale over the range of 0 to greater than 500 R/h without scale switching operations.

  5. How does LANL estimate the potential dose to the public?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dose to the public How does LANL estimate the potential dose to the public? LANL calculates doses from two different maximally exposed individuals (MEIs): airborne-pathway and all-pathway. The limit that LANL is allowed to contribute is less than 10 millirem. Comparing Radiation Doses A maximally exposed individual, or MEI, is a hypothetical person located on the border of LANL property. MEI assumes the person eats food grown and drinks water found at the location, and also assumes the

  6. RADIATION DOSE ESTIMATES TO ADULTS AND CHILDREN FROM VARIOUS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RADIATION DOSE ESTIMATES TO ADULTS AND CHILDREN FROM VARIOUS RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS Latest Revision Date: 4/30/96 Radiation Internal Dose Information Center Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education P.O. Box 117 Mail Stop 51 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 The radiopharmaceuticals and nuclear medicine studies considered in this report are listed in the Table of Contents on page 2. The radiation dose estimates given in the dose tables are based on the assumptions and models given in Chapter 17, Radiation

  7. Results of the Phase I Dose-Escalating Study of Motexafin Gadolinium With Standard Radiotherapy in Patients With Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, Judith M. Seiferheld, Wendy; Alger, Jeffrey R.; Wu, Genevieve; Endicott, Thyra J.; Mehta, Minesh; Curran, Walter; Phan, See-Chun

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: Motexafin gadolinium (MGd) is a putative radiation enhancer initially evaluated in patients with brain metastases. This Phase I trial studied the safety and tolerability of a 2-6-week course (10-22 doses) of MGd with radiotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme. Methods and Materials: A total of 33 glioblastoma multiforme patients received one of seven MGd regimens starting at 10 doses of 4 mg/kg/d MGd and escalating to 22 doses of 5.3 mg/kg/d MGd (5 or 10 daily doses then three times per week). The National Cancer Institute Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program toxicity and stopping rules were applied. Results: The maximal tolerated dose was 5.0 mg/kg/d MGd (5 d/wk for 2 weeks, then three times per week) for 22 doses. The dose-limiting toxicity was reversible transaminase elevation. Adverse reactions included rash/pruritus (45%), chills/fever (30%), and self-limiting vesiculobullous rash of the thumb and fingers (42%). The median survival of 17.6 months prompted a case-matched analysis. In the case-matched analysis, the MGd patients had a median survival of 16.1 months (n = 31) compared with the matched Radiation Therapy Oncology Group database patients with a median survival of 11.8 months (hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.94). Conclusion: The maximal tolerated dose of MGd with radiotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme in this study was 5 mg/kg/d for 22 doses (daily for 2 weeks, then three times weekly). The baseline survival calculations suggest progression to Phase II trials is appropriate, with the addition of MGd to radiotherapy with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide.

  8. Radionuclide characterization and associated dose from long-lived radionuclides in close-in fallout delivered to the marine environment at Bikini and Enewetak Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noshkin, V. E.; Robison, W. L.

    1998-09-01

    Between June 1946 and October 1958, Enewetak and Bikini Atolls were used by the United States as testing grounds for 66 nuclear devices. The combined explosive yield from these tests was 107 Mt (Mt TNT equivalents). This testing produced close-in fallout debris that was contaminated with quantities of radioactive fission and particle activated products, and unspent radioactive nuclear fuel that entered the aquatic environment of the atolls. Today, the sediments in the lagoons are reservoirs for 10's of TBq of the transuranics and some long-lived fission and activation products. The larger amounts of contamination are associated with fine and coarse sediment material adjacent to the locations of the high yield explosions. Radionuclides are also distributed vertically in the sediment column to various depths in all regions of the lagoons. Concentrations greater than fallout background levels are found in filtered water sampled over several decades from all locations and depths in the lagoons. This is a direct indication that the radionuclides are continuously mobilized to solution from the solid phases. Of particular importance is the fact that the long-lived radionuclides are accumulated to different levels by indigenous aquatic plants and organisms that are used as food by resident people. One might anticipate finding continuous high contamination levels in many of the edible marine organisms from the lagoons, since the radionuclides associated with the sediments are not contained and are available to the different organisms in a relatively shallow water environment. This is not the case. We estimate that the radiological dose from consumption of the edible parts of marine foods at Enewetak and Bikini is presently about 0.05% of the total 50-year integral effective dose from all other exposure pathways that include ingestion of terrestrial foods and drinking water, external exposure and inhalation. The total radiological dose from the marine pathway is dominated by the natural radionuclides, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb. Man-made radionuclides presently contribute less than 0.3% of the dose from these natural radionuclides in the marine food chain.

  9. The Contribution of Tissue Level Organization to Genomic Stability Following Low Dose/Low Dose Rate Gamma and Proton Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheryl G. Burrell, Ph.D.

    2012-05-14

    The formation of functional tissue units is necessary in maintaining homeostasis within living systems, with individual cells contributing to these functional units through their three-dimensional organization with integrin and adhesion proteins to form a complex extra-cellular matrix (ECM). This is of particular importance in those tissues susceptible to radiation-induced tumor formation, such as epithelial glands. The assembly of epithelial cells of the thyroid is critical to their normal receipt of, and response to, incoming signals. Traditional tissue culture and live animals present significant challenges to radiation exposure and continuous sampling, however, the production of bioreactor-engineered tissues aims to bridge this gap by improve capabilities in continuous sampling from the same functional tissue, thereby increasing the ability to extrapolate changes induced by radiation to animals and humans in vivo. Our study proposes that the level of tissue organization will affect the induction and persistence of low dose radiation-induced genomic instability. Rat thyroid cells, grown in vitro as 3D tissue analogs in bioreactors and as 2D flask grown cultures were exposed to acute low dose (1, 5, 10 and 200 cGy) gamma rays. To assess immediate (6 hours) and delayed (up to 30 days) responses post-irradiation, various biological endpoints were studied including cytogenetic analyses, apoptosis analysis and cell viability/cytotoxicity analyses. Data assessing caspase 3/7 activity levels show that, this activity varies with time post radiation and that, overall, 3D cultures display more genomic instability (as shown by the lower levels of apoptosis over time) when compared to the 2D cultures. Variation in cell viability levels were only observed at the intermediate and late time points post radiation. Extensive analysis of chromosomal aberrations will give further insight on the whether the level of tissue organization influences genomic instability patterns after low dose radiation exposure. Cells viability/cytotoxicity analysis data are currently being analyzed to determine how these endpoints are affected under our experimental conditions. The results from this study will be translatable to risk assessment for assigning limits to radiation workers, pre-dosing for more effective radiotherapy and the consequences of long duration space flight. The data from this study has been presented a various scientific meetings/workshops and a manuscript, containing the findings, is currently being prepared for publication. Due to unforeseen challenges in collecting the data and standardizing experimental procedures, the second and third aims have not been completed. However, attempts will be made, based on the availability of funds, to continue this project so that these aims can be satisfied.

  10. Th Cell Gene Expression and Function in Response to Low Dose and Acute Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daila S. Gridley, PhD

    2012-03-30

    FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Supported by the Low Dose Radiation Research Program, Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64345 Project ID: 0012965 Award Register#: ER64345 Project Manager: Noelle F. Metting, Sc.D. Phone: 301-903-8309 Division SC-23.2 noelle.metting@science.doe.gov Submitted March 2012 To: https://www.osti.gov/elink/241.3.jsp Title: Th Cell Gene Expression and Function in Response to Low Dose and Acute Radiation PI: Daila S. Gridley, Ph.D. Human low dose radiation data have been derived primarily from studies of space and airline flight personnel, nuclear plant workers and others exposed occupationally, as well as victims in the vicinity of atomic bomb explosions. The findings remain inconclusive due to population inconsistencies and complex interactions among total dose, dose rate, radiation quality and age at exposure. Thus, safe limits for low dose occupational irradiation are currently based on data obtained with doses far exceeding the levels expected for the general population and health risks have been largely extrapolated using the linear-nonthreshold dose-response model. The overall working hypothesis of the present study is that priming with low dose, low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation can ameliorate the response to acute high-dose radiation exposure. We also propose that the efficacy of low-dose induced protection will be dependent upon the form and regimen of the high-dose exposure: photons versus protons versus simulated solar particle event protons (sSPE). The emphasis has been on gene expression and function of CD4+ T helper (Th) lymphocytes harvested from spleens of whole-body irradiated C57BL/6 mice, a strain that provides the genetic background for many genetically engineered strains. Evaluations of the responses of other selected cells, tissues such as skin, and organs such as lung, liver and brain were also initiated (partially funded by other sources). The long-term goal is to provide information that will be useful in estimating human health risks due to radiation that may occur during exposures in the work environment, nuclear/radiological catastrophes, as well as radiotherapy. Several papers have been published, accepted for publication or are in preparation. A number of poster and oral presentations have been made at scientific conferences and workshops. Archived tissues of various types will continue to be evaluated via funding from other sources (the DoE Low Dose Radiation Research Program, Office of Science and this specific grant will be appropriately included in the Acknowledgements of all subsequent publications/presentations). A post-doc and several students have participated in this study. More detailed description of the accomplishments is described in attached file.

  11. Low Dose Gamma Irradiation Potentiates Secondary Exposure to Gamma Rays or Protons in Thyroid Tissue Analogs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Lora M

    2006-05-25

    We have utilized our unique bioreactor model to produce three-dimensional thyroid tissue analogs that we believe better represent the effects of radiation in vivo than two-dimensional cultures. Our thyroid model has been characterized at multiple levels, including: cell-cell exchanges (bystander), signal transduction, functional changes and modulation of gene expression. We have significant preliminary data on structural, functional, signal transduction and gene expression responses from acute exposures at high doses (50-1000 rads) of gamma, protons and iron (Green et al., 2001a; 2001b; 2002a; 2002b; 2005). More recently, we used our DOE funding (ending Feb 06) to characterize the pattern of radiation modulated gene expression in rat thyroid tissue analogs using low-dose/low-dose rate radiation, plus/minus acute challenge exposures. Findings from these studies show that the low-dose/low-dose rate priming exposures to radiation invoked changes in gene expression profiles that varied with dose and time. The thyrocytes transitioned to a primed state, so that when the tissue analogs were challenged with an acute exposure to radiation they had a muted response (or an increased resistance) to cytopathological changes relative to un-primed cells. We measured dramatic differences in the primed tissue analogs, showing that our original hypothesis was correct: that low dose gamma irradiation will potentiate the repair/adaptation response to a secondary exposure. Implications from these findings are that risk assessments based on classical in vitro tissue culture assays will overestimate risk, and that low dose rate priming results in a reduced response in gene expression to a secondary challenge exposure, which implies that a priming dose provides enhanced protection to thyroid cells grown as tissue analogs. If we can determine that the effects of radiation on our tissue analogs more closely resemble the effects of radiation in vivo, then we can better estimate the risks and modify assign limits to radiation worker and astronauts. Additionally, confirmation that tissue analogs represent a realistic in vivo response to radiation will allow scientists to perform tissue relevant experiments without the expense of using animals. Confirmation of the in vivo approximation of our model will strengthen our findings from the recent completion of our DOE funding which is the subject of the current proposal.

  12. SU-D-204-06: Dose and Image Quality Evaluation of a Low-Dose Slot-Scanning X-Ray System for Pediatric Orthopedic Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Z; Hoerner, M; Lamoureux, R; Rill, L; Arreola, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Children in early teens with scoliosis require repeated radiographic exams over a number of years. The EOS (EOS imaging S.A., Paris, France) is a novel low-dose slot-scanning digital radiographic system designed to produce full-spine images of a free-standing patient. The radiation dose and image quality characteristics of the EOS were evaluated relative to those of a Computed Radiography (CR) system for scoliosis imaging. Methods: For dose evaluation, a full-torso anthropomorphic phantom was scanned five times using the default standard clinical protocols for both the EOS and a CR system, which include both posteroanterior and lateral full-spine views. Optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs), also known as nanoDots™ (Landauer, Inc., Glenwood, IL), were placed on the phantom’s surface to measure entrance skin dose. To assess image quality, MTF curves were generated from sampling the noise levels within the high-contrast regions of a line-pair phantom. Vertical and horizontal distortions were measured for the square line-pair phantom with the EOS system to evaluate the effects of geometric magnification and misalignment with the indicated imaging plane. Results: The entrance skin dose was measured to be 0.4 to 1.1 mGy for the EOS, and 0.7 to 3.6 mGy for the CR study. MTF comparison shows that CR greatly outperforms the EOS, despite both systems having a limiting resolution at 1.8 line-pairs per mm. Vertical distortion was unaffected by phantom positioning, because of the EOS slot-scanning geometry. Horizontal distortion increased linearly with miscentering distance. Conclusion: The EOS system resulted in approximately 70% lower radiation dose than CR for full-spine images. Image quality was found to be inferior to CR. Further investigation is required to see if EOS system is an acceptable modality for performing clinically diagnostic scoliosis examinations.

  13. TU-F-17A-08: The Relative Accuracy of 4D Dose Accumulation for Lung Radiotherapy Using Rigid Dose Projection Versus Dose Recalculation On Every Breathing Phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamb, J; Lee, C; Tee, S; Lee, P; Iwamoto, K; Low, D; Valdes, G; Robinson, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy of 4D dose accumulation using projection of dose calculated on the end-exhalation, mid-ventilation, or average intensity breathing phase CT scan, versus dose accumulation performed using full Monte Carlo dose recalculation on every breathing phase. Methods: Radiotherapy plans were analyzed for 10 patients with stage I-II lung cancer planned using 4D-CT. SBRT plans were optimized using the dose calculated by a commercially-available Monte Carlo algorithm on the end-exhalation 4D-CT phase. 4D dose accumulations using deformable registration were performed with a commercially available tool that projected the planned dose onto every breathing phase without recalculation, as well as with a Monte Carlo recalculation of the dose on all breathing phases. The 3D planned dose (3D-EX), the 3D dose calculated on the average intensity image (3D-AVE), and the 4D accumulations of the dose calculated on the end-exhalation phase CT (4D-PR-EX), the mid-ventilation phase CT (4D-PR-MID), and the average intensity image (4D-PR-AVE), respectively, were compared against the accumulation of the Monte Carlo dose recalculated on every phase. Plan evaluation metrics relating to target volumes and critical structures relevant for lung SBRT were analyzed. Results: Plan evaluation metrics tabulated using 4D-PR-EX, 4D-PR-MID, and 4D-PR-AVE differed from those tabulated using Monte Carlo recalculation on every phase by an average of 0.140.70 Gy, - 0.110.51 Gy, and 0.000.62 Gy, respectively. Deviations of between 8 and 13 Gy were observed between the 4D-MC calculations and both 3D methods for the proximal bronchial trees of 3 patients. Conclusions: 4D dose accumulation using projection without re-calculation may be sufficiently accurate compared to 4D dose accumulated from Monte Carlo recalculation on every phase, depending on institutional protocols. Use of 4D dose accumulation should be considered when evaluating normal tissue complication probabilities as well as in clinical situations where target volumes are directly inferior to mobile critical structures.

  14. SciFri PM: Topics 06: The influence of regional dose sensitivity on salivary loss and recovery in the parotid gland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, H; Thomas, S; Moiseenko, V; Hovan, A; Wu, J

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: The Quantitative Analyses of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC 2010) survey of radiation dose-volume effects on salivary gland function has called for improved understanding of intragland dose sensitivity and the effectiveness of partial sparing in salivary glands. Regional dose susceptibility of sagittally- and coronally-sub-segmented parotid gland has been studied. Specifically, we examine whether individual consideration of sub-segments leads to improved prediction of xerostomia compared with whole parotid mean dose. Methods: Data from 102 patients treated for head-and-neck cancers at the BC Cancer Agency were used in this study. Whole mouth stimulated saliva was collected before (baseline), three months, and one year after cessation of radiotherapy. Organ volumes were contoured using treatment planning CT images and sub-segmented into regional portions. Both non-parametric (local regression) and parametric (mean dose exponential fitting) methods were employed. A bootstrap technique was used for reliability estimation and cross-comparison. Results: Salivary loss is described well using non-parametric and mean dose models. Parametric fits suggest a significant distinction in dose response between medial-lateral and anterior-posterior aspects of the parotid (p<0.01). Least-squares and least-median squares estimates differ significantly (p<0.00001), indicating fits may be skewed by noise or outliers. Salivary recovery exhibits a weakly arched dose response: the highest recovery is seen at intermediate doses. Conclusions: Salivary function loss is strongly dose dependent. In contrast no useful dose dependence was observed for function recovery. Regional dose dependence was observed, but may have resulted from a bias in dose distributions.

  15. Dose reconstruction for real-time patient-specific dose estimation in CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Man, Bruno Yin, Zhye; Wu, Mingye; FitzGerald, Paul; Kalra, Mannudeep

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: Many recent computed tomography (CT) dose reduction approaches belong to one of three categories: statistical reconstruction algorithms, efficient x-ray detectors, and optimized CT acquisition schemes with precise control over the x-ray distribution. The latter category could greatly benefit from fast and accurate methods for dose estimation, which would enable real-time patient-specific protocol optimization. Methods: The authors present a new method for volumetrically reconstructing absorbed dose on a per-voxel basis, directly from the actual CT images. The authors’ specific implementation combines a distance-driven pencil-beam approach to model the first-order x-ray interactions with a set of Gaussian convolution kernels to model the higher-order x-ray interactions. The authors performed a number of 3D simulation experiments comparing the proposed method to a Monte Carlo based ground truth. Results: The authors’ results indicate that the proposed approach offers a good trade-off between accuracy and computational efficiency. The images show a good qualitative correspondence to Monte Carlo estimates. Preliminary quantitative results show errors below 10%, except in bone regions, where the authors see a bigger model mismatch. The computational complexity is similar to that of a low-resolution filtered-backprojection algorithm. Conclusions: The authors present a method for analytic dose reconstruction in CT, similar to the techniques used in radiation therapy planning with megavoltage energies. Future work will include refinements of the proposed method to improve the accuracy as well as a more extensive validation study. The proposed method is not intended to replace methods that track individual x-ray photons, but the authors expect that it may prove useful in applications where real-time patient-specific dose estimation is required.

  16. SU-E-T-616: Comparison of Plan Dose Accuracy for Anterior Vs. Lateral Fields in Proton Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moteabbed, M; Trofimov, A; Testa, M; Sharp, G; Wang, Y; Paganetti, H; Zietman, A; Efstathiou, J; Lu, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: With the anticipated introduction of in vivo range verification methods, the use of anterior fields for proton therapy of prostate cancer may become an attractive treatment option, and improve upon the dose distributions achievable with conventional lateral-opposed fields. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the planned dose accuracy for lateral versus anterior oblique field arrangements. Methods: Four patients with low/intermediate risk prostate cancer, participating in a clinical trial at our institution, were selected for this study. All patients were treated using lateral-opposed fields (LAT). The clinical target volume (CTV) received a total dose of 79.2 Gy in 44 fractions. Anterior oblique research plans (ANT) were created using the clinical planning system, and featured beams with 35-degree gantry angle, 1.2 cm aperture margins, 3-mm range compensator smearing and no range uncertainty margins. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed for both beam arrangements using TOPAS. Dose volume histograms were analyzed and compared for planned and MC dose distributions. Differences between MC and planned DVH parameters were computed as a percentage of the total prescribed dose. Results: For all patients, CTV dose was systematically lower (?22.5%) for MC than the plan. This discrepancy was slightly larger (?0.5%) for LAT compared to ANT plans for all cases. Although the dose differences for bladder and anterior rectal wall remained within 0.7% for all LAT cases, they were slightly larger for ANT plans, especially for case 3 due to larger patient size and MC-plan range difference. The EUD difference for femoral heads was within 0.6% for both LAT and ANT cases. Conclusion: The dose calculated by the treatment planning system using pencil beam algorithm agrees with MC to within 2.5% and is comparable for lateral and anterior scenarios. The dose agreement in the anterior rectal wall is range- and hence, patient-dependent for ANT treatments.

  17. Comparison of methods for the measurement of radiation dose distributions in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy: Ge-doped optical fiber, EBT3 Gafchromic film, and PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign} radiochromic plastic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, A. L.; Di Pietro, P.; Alobaidli, S.; Issa, F.; Doran, S.; Bradley, D.; Nisbet, A.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: Dose distribution measurement in clinical high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy is challenging, because of the high dose gradients, large dose variations, and small scale, but it is essential to verify accurate treatment planning and treatment equipment performance. The authors compare and evaluate three dosimetry systems for potential use in brachytherapy dose distribution measurement: Ge-doped optical fibers, EBT3 Gafchromic film with multichannel analysis, and the radiochromic material PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign} with optical-CT readout. Methods: Ge-doped SiO{sub 2} fibers with 6 {mu}m active core and 5.0 mm length were sensitivity-batched and their thermoluminescent properties used via conventional heating and annealing cycles. EBT3 Gafchromic film of 30 {mu}m active thickness was calibrated in three color channels using a nominal 6 MV linear accelerator. A 48-bit transmission scanner and advanced multichannel analysis method were utilized to derive dose measurements. Samples of the solid radiochromic polymer PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign }, 60 mm diameter and 100 mm height, were analyzed with a parallel beam optical CT scanner. Each dosimetry system was used to measure the dose as a function of radial distance from a Co-60 HDR source, with results compared to Monte Carlo TG-43 model data. Each system was then used to measure the dose distribution along one or more lines through typical clinical dose distributions for cervix brachytherapy, with results compared to treatment planning system (TPS) calculations. Purpose-designed test objects constructed of Solid Water and held within a full-scatter water tank were utilized. Results: All three dosimetry systems reproduced the general shape of the isolated source radial dose function and the TPS dose distribution. However, the dynamic range of EBT3 exceeded those of doped optical fibers and PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign }, and the latter two suffered from unacceptable noise and artifact. For the experimental conditions used in this study, the useful range from an isolated HDR source was 5-40 mm for fibers, 3-50 mm for EBT3, and 4-21 mm for PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign }. Fibers demonstrated some over-response at very low dose levels, suffered from volume averaging effects in the dose distribution measurement, and exhibited up to 9% repeatability variation over three repeated measurements. EBT3 demonstrated excellent agreement with Monte Carlo and TPS dose distributions, with up to 3% repeatability over three measurements. PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign} gave promising results, being the only true 3D dosimeter, but artifacts and noise were apparent. Conclusions: The comparative response of three emerging dosimetry systems for clinical brachytherapy dose distribution measurement has been investigated. Ge-doped optical fibers have excellent spatial resolution for single-direction measurement but are currently too large for complex dose distribution assessment. The use of PRESAGE{sup Registered-Sign} with optical-CT readout gave promising results in the measurement of true 3D dose distributions but further development work is required to reduce noise and improve dynamic range for brachytherapy dose distribution measurements. EBT3 Gafchromic film with multichannel analysis demonstrated accurate and reproducible measurement of dose distributions in HDR brachytherapy. Calibrated dose measurements were possible with agreement within 1.5% of TPS dose calculations. The suitability of EBT3 as a dosimeter for 2D quality control or commissioning work has been demonstrated.

  18. SU-E-T-531: Performance Evaluation of Multithreaded Geant4 for Proton Therapy Dose Calculations in a High Performance Computing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, J; Coss, D; McMurry, J; Farr, J [St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Faddegon, B [UC San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficiency of multithreaded Geant4 (Geant4-MT, version 10.0) for proton Monte Carlo dose calculations using a high performance computing facility. Methods: Geant4-MT was used to calculate 3D dose distributions in 111 mm3 voxels in a water phantom and patient's head with a 150 MeV proton beam covering approximately 55 cm2 in the water phantom. Three timestamps were measured on the fly to separately analyze the required time for initialization (which cannot be parallelized), processing time of individual threads, and completion time. Scalability of averaged processing time per thread was calculated as a function of thread number (1, 100, 150, and 200) for both 1M and 50 M histories. The total memory usage was recorded. Results: Simulations with 50 M histories were fastest with 100 threads, taking approximately 1.3 hours and 6 hours for the water phantom and the CT data, respectively with better than 1.0 % statistical uncertainty. The calculations show 1/N scalability in the event loops for both cases. The gains from parallel calculations started to decrease with 150 threads. The memory usage increases linearly with number of threads. No critical failures were observed during the simulations. Conclusion: Multithreading in Geant4-MT decreased simulation time in proton dose distribution calculations by a factor of 64 and 54 at a near optimal 100 threads for water phantom and patient's data respectively. Further simulations will be done to determine the efficiency at the optimal thread number. Considering the trend of computer architecture development, utilizing Geant4-MT for radiotherapy simulations is an excellent cost-effective alternative for a distributed batch queuing system. However, because the scalability depends highly on simulation details, i.e., the ratio of the processing time of one event versus waiting time to access for the shared event queue, a performance evaluation as described is recommended.

  19. DoseVolume Modeling of Brachial Plexus-Associated Neuropathy After Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: Findings From a Prospective Screening Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M.; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Daly, Megan E.; Cui, Jing; Hall, William H.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Phillips, Theodore L.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Purdy, James A.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Data from a prospective screening protocol administered for patients previously irradiated for head-and-neck cancer was analyzed to identify dosimetric predictors of brachial plexus-associated neuropathy. Methods and Materials: Three hundred fifty-two patients who had previously completed radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were prospectively screened from August 2007 to April 2013 using a standardized self-administered instrument for symptoms of neuropathy thought to be related to brachial plexus injury. All patients were disease-free at the time of screening. The median time from radiation therapy was 40 months (range, 6-111 months). A total of 177 patients (50%) underwent neck dissection. Two hundred twenty-one patients (63%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Results: Fifty-one patients (14%) reported brachial plexus-related neuropathic symptoms withthe most common being ipsilateral pain (50%), numbness/tingling (40%), and motor weakness and/or muscle atrophy (25%). The 3- and 5-year estimates of freedom from brachial plexus-associated neuropathy were 86% and 81%, respectively. Clinical/pathological N3 disease (P<.001) and maximum radiation dose to the ipsilateral brachial plexus (P=.01) were significantly associated with neuropathic symptoms. Cox regression analysis revealed significant dosevolume effects for brachial plexus-associated neuropathy. The volume of the ipsilateral brachial plexus receiving >70 Gy (V70) predicted for symptoms, with the incidence increasing with V70 >10% (P<.001). A correlation was also observed for the volume receiving >74 Gy (V74) among patients treated without neck dissection, with a cutoff of 4% predictive of symptoms (P=.038). Conclusions: Dosevolume guidelines were developed for radiation planning that may limit brachial plexus-related neuropathies.

  20. PSA Response to Neoadjuvant Androgen Deprivation Therapy Is a Strong Independent Predictor of Survival in High-Risk Prostate Cancer in the Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy Era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGuire, Sean E.; Lee, Andrew K.; Cerne, Jasmina Z.; Munsell, Mark F.; Levy, Lawrence B.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Choi, Seungtaek L.; Nguyen, Quynh N.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Pugh, Thomas J.; Frank, Steven J.; Corn, Paul G.; Logothetis, Christopher J.; Kuban, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response to neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) prior to dose-escalated radiation therapy (RT) and long-term ADT in high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the charts of all patients diagnosed with high-risk prostate cancer and treated with a combination of long-term ADT (median, 24 months) and dose-escalated (median, 75.6 Gy) RT between 1990 and 2007. The associations among patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics with biochemical response to neoadjuvant ADT and their effects on failure-free survival (FFS), time to distant metastasis (TDM), prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) and overall survival (OS) were examined. Results: A total of 196 patients met criteria for inclusion. Median follow-up time for patients alive at last contact was 7.0 years (range, 0.5-18.1 years). Multivariate analysis identified the pre-RT PSA concentration (<0.5 vs {>=}0.5 ng/mL) as a significant independent predictor of FFS (P=.021), TDM (P=.009), PCSM (P=.039), and OS (P=.037). On multivariate analysis, pretreatment PSA (iPSA) and African-American race were significantly associated with failure to achieve a pre-RT PSA of <0.5 ng/mL. Conclusions: For high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with long-term ADT and dose-escalated RT, a pre-RT PSA level {>=}0.5 ng/mL after neoadjuvant ADT predicts for worse survival measures. Both elevated iPSA and African-American race are associated with increased risk of having a pre-RT PSA level {>=}0.5 ng/mL. These patients should be considered for clinical trials that test newer, more potent androgen-depleting therapies such as abiraterone and MDV3100 in combination with radiation.

  1. Table 16. Total Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6. Total Energy Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected (quadrillion Btu) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 ...

  2. Prisms with total internal reflection as solar reflectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabl, Arnulf; Rabl, Veronika

    1978-01-01

    An improved reflective wall for radiant energy collection and concentration devices is provided. The wall is comprised of a plurality of prisms whose frontal faces are adjacent and which reflect the desired radiation by total internal reflection.

  3. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    in this table do not include enclosed malls and strip malls. In the 1999 CBECS, total fuel oil consumption in malls was not statistically significant. (*)Value rounds to zero...

  4. CIGNA Study Uncovers Relationship of Disabilities to Total Benefits Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The findings of a new study reveal an interesting trend. Integrating disability programs with health care programs can potentially lower employers' total benefits costs and help disabled employees get back to work sooner and stay at work.

  5. ,"U.S. Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...dnavnghistn5290us2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, ... 1: U.S. Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N5290US2" ...

  6. ,"U.S. Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...dnavnghistn5290us2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, ... 1: U.S. Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N5290US2" ...

  7. AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Total Underground Storage Capacity...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Total Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec...

  8. U.S. Total Shell Storage Capacity at Operable Refineries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Total 710,413 -- -- -- -- -- 1982-2015 Crude Oil 180,846 -- -- -- -- -- 1985-2015 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 33,842 -- -- -- ...

  9. Summary and recommendations: Total fuel cycle assessment workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Total Fuel Cycle Assessment Workshop held in Austin, Texas, during October 6--7, 1994. It also contains the proceedings from that workshop.

  10. Ultrasound image guided acetabular implant orientation during total hip replacement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, John; Haddad, Waleed; Kluiwstra, Jan-Ulco; Matthews, Dennis; Trauner, Kenneth

    2003-08-19

    A system for assisting in precise location of the acetabular implant during total hip replacement. The system uses ultrasound imaging for guiding the placement and orientation of the implant.

  11. Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercTotal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PElectrtyUsePercTotal" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 100.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 100.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 +...

  12. Property:RenewableFuelStandard/Total | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:RenewableFuelStandardTotal Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Pages using the...

  13. Gathering total items count for pagination | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gathering total items count for pagination Home > Groups > Utility Rate Hi I'm using the following base link plus some restrictions to sector, utility, and locations to poll for...

  14. ,"U.S. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    10:54:24 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports" ...-NVM1","MTTIMUSVQ1","MTTIMUSYE1" "Date","U.S. Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products ...

  15. AEO2011:Total Energy Supply, Disposition, and Price Summary ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    case. The dataset uses quadrillion Btu and the U.S. Dollar. The data is broken down into production, imports, exports, consumption and price. Data and Resources AEO2011:Total...

  16. Estimation of Anisotoropy from Total Cross Section and Optical Model

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Estimation of Anisotoropy from Total Cross Section and Optical Model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimation of Anisotoropy from Total Cross Section and Optical Model Authors: Kawano, Toshihiko [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2013-06-03 OSTI Identifier: 1082234 Report Number(s): LA-UR-13-24025 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Working Party

  17. Determination of ferrous and total iron in refractory spinels (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Determination of ferrous and total iron in refractory spinels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Determination of ferrous and total iron in refractory spinels Accurate and precise determination of the redox state of iron (Fe) in spinels presents a significant challenge due to their refractory nature. The resultant extreme conditions needed to obtain complete dissolution generally oxidize some of the Fe(II) initially present and thus prevent the use of

  18. Shared dosimetry error in epidemiological dose-response analyses

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stram, Daniel O.; Preston, Dale L.; Sokolnikov, Mikhail; Napier, Bruce; Kopecky, Kenneth J.; Boice, John; Beck, Harold; Till, John; Bouville, Andre; Zeeb, Hajo

    2015-03-23

    Radiation dose reconstruction systems for large-scale epidemiological studies are sophisticated both in providing estimates of dose and in representing dosimetry uncertainty. For example, a computer program was used by the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study to provide 100 realizations of possible dose to study participants. The variation in realizations reflected the range of possible dose for each cohort member consistent with the data on dose determinates in the cohort. Another example is the Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2013 which estimates both external and internal exposures and provides multiple realizations of "possible" dose history to workers given dose determinants. This paper takesmore » up the problem of dealing with complex dosimetry systems that provide multiple realizations of dose in an epidemiologic analysis. In this paper we derive expected scores and the information matrix for a model used widely in radiation epidemiology, namely the linear excess relative risk (ERR) model that allows for a linear dose response (risk in relation to radiation) and distinguishes between modifiers of background rates and of the excess risk due to exposure. We show that treating the mean dose for each individual (calculated by averaging over the realizations) as if it was true dose (ignoring both shared and unshared dosimetry errors) gives asymptotically unbiased estimates (i.e. the score has expectation zero) and valid tests of the null hypothesis that the ERR slope β is zero. Although the score is unbiased the information matrix (and hence the standard errors of the estimate of β) is biased for β≠0 when ignoring errors in dose estimates, and we show how to adjust the information matrix to remove this bias, using the multiple realizations of dose. The use of these methods in the context of several studies including, the Mayak Worker Cohort, and the U.S. Atomic Veterans Study, is discussed.« less

  19. Shared dosimetry error in epidemiological dose-response analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stram, Daniel O.; Preston, Dale L.; Sokolnikov, Mikhail; Napier, Bruce; Kopecky, Kenneth J.; Boice, John; Beck, Harold; Till, John; Bouville, Andre; Zeeb, Hajo

    2015-03-23

    Radiation dose reconstruction systems for large-scale epidemiological studies are sophisticated both in providing estimates of dose and in representing dosimetry uncertainty. For example, a computer program was used by the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study to provide 100 realizations of possible dose to study participants. The variation in realizations reflected the range of possible dose for each cohort member consistent with the data on dose determinates in the cohort. Another example is the Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2013 which estimates both external and internal exposures and provides multiple realizations of "possible" dose history to workers given dose determinants. This paper takes up the problem of dealing with complex dosimetry systems that provide multiple realizations of dose in an epidemiologic analysis. In this paper we derive expected scores and the information matrix for a model used widely in radiation epidemiology, namely the linear excess relative risk (ERR) model that allows for a linear dose response (risk in relation to radiation) and distinguishes between modifiers of background rates and of the excess risk due to exposure. We show that treating the mean dose for each individual (calculated by averaging over the realizations) as if it was true dose (ignoring both shared and unshared dosimetry errors) gives asymptotically unbiased estimates (i.e. the score has expectation zero) and valid tests of the null hypothesis that the ERR slope ? is zero. Although the score is unbiased the information matrix (and hence the standard errors of the estimate of ?) is biased for ??0 when ignoring errors in dose estimates, and we show how to adjust the information matrix to remove this bias, using the multiple realizations of dose. The use of these methods in the context of several studies including, the Mayak Worker Cohort, and the U.S. Atomic Veterans Study, is discussed.

  20. The increase in animal mortality risk following exposure to sparsely ionizing radiation is not linear quadratic with dose

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Haley, Benjamin M.; Paunesku, Tatjana; Grdina, David J.; Woloschak, Gayle E.; Aravindan, Natarajan

    2015-12-09

    The US government regulates allowable radiation exposures relying, in large part, on the seventh report from the committee to estimate the Biological Effect of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR VII), which estimated that most contemporary exposures- protracted or low-dose, carry 1.5 fold less risk of carcinogenesis and mortality per Gy than acute exposures of atomic bomb survivors. This correction is known as the dose and dose rate effectiveness factor for the life span study of atomic bomb survivors (DDREFLSS). As a result, it was calculated by applying a linear-quadratic dose response model to data from Japanese atomic bomb survivors and a limitedmore » number of animal studies.« less

  1. The increase in animal mortality risk following exposure to sparsely ionizing radiation is not linear quadratic with dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haley, Benjamin M.; Paunesku, Tatjana; Grdina, David J.; Woloschak, Gayle E.; Aravindan, Natarajan

    2015-12-09

    The US government regulates allowable radiation exposures relying, in large part, on the seventh report from the committee to estimate the Biological Effect of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR VII), which estimated that most contemporary exposures- protracted or low-dose, carry 1.5 fold less risk of carcinogenesis and mortality per Gy than acute exposures of atomic bomb survivors. This correction is known as the dose and dose rate effectiveness factor for the life span study of atomic bomb survivors (DDREFLSS). As a result, it was calculated by applying a linear-quadratic dose response model to data from Japanese atomic bomb survivors and a limited number of animal studies.

  2. Individualized Radical Radiotherapy of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Based on Normal Tissue Dose Constraints: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baardwijk, Angela van Bosmans, Geert; Boersma, Liesbeth; Wanders, Stofferinus; Dekker, Andre; Dingemans, Anne Marie C.; Bootsma, Gerben; Geraedts, Wiel; Pitz, Cordula; Simons, Jean; Lambin, Philippe; Ruysscher, Dirk de

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: Local recurrence is a major problem after (chemo-)radiation for non-small-cell lung cancer. We hypothesized that for each individual patient, the highest therapeutic ratio could be achieved by increasing total tumor dose (TTD) to the limits of normal tissues, delivered within 5 weeks. We report first results of a prospective feasibility trial. Methods and Materials: Twenty-eight patients with medically inoperable or locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, World Health Organization performance score of 0-1, and reasonable lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second > 50%) were analyzed. All patients underwent irradiation using an individualized prescribed TTD based on normal tissue dose constraints (mean lung dose, 19 Gy; maximal spinal cord dose, 54 Gy) up to a maximal TTD of 79.2 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions twice daily. No concurrent chemoradiation was administered. Toxicity was scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events criteria. An {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan was performed to evaluate (metabolic) response 3 months after treatment. Results: Mean delivered dose was 63.0 {+-} 9.8 Gy. The TTD was most often limited by the mean lung dose (32.1%) or spinal cord (28.6%). Acute toxicity generally was mild; only 1 patient experienced Grade 3 cough and 1 patient experienced Grade 3 dysphagia. One patient (3.6%) died of pneumonitis. For late toxicity, 2 patients (7.7%) had Grade 3 cough or dyspnea; none had severe dysphagia. Complete metabolic response was obtained in 44% (11 of 26 patients). With a median follow-up of 13 months, median overall survival was 19.6 months, with a 1-year survival rate of 57.1%. Conclusions: Individualized maximal tolerable dose irradiation based on normal tissue dose constraints is feasible, and initial results are promising.

  3. Individualized 3D Reconstruction of Normal Tissue Dose for Patients With Long-term Follow-up: A Step Toward Understanding Dose Risk for Late Toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, Angela; Brock, Kristy K.; Sharpe, Michael B.; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario ; Moseley, Joanne L.; Craig, Tim; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario ; Hodgson, David C.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Understanding the relationship between normal tissue dose and delayed radiation toxicity is an important component of developing more effective radiation therapy. Late outcome data are generally available only for patients who have undergone 2-dimensional (2D) treatment plans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of 3D normal tissue dosimetry derived from reconstructed 2D treatment plans in Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) patients. Methods and Materials: Three-dimensional lung, heart, and breast volumes were reconstructed from 2D planning radiographs for HL patients who received mediastinal radiation therapy. For each organ, a reference 3D organ was modified with patient-specific structural information, using deformable image processing software. Radiation therapy plans were reconstructed by applying treatment parameters obtained from patient records to the reconstructed 3D volumes. For each reconstructed organ mean dose (D{sub mean}) and volumes covered by at least 5 Gy (V{sub 5}) and 20Gy (V{sub 20}) were calculated. This process was performed for 15 patients who had both 2D and 3D planning data available to compare the reconstructed normal tissue doses with those derived from the primary CT planning data and also for 10 historically treated patients with only 2D imaging available. Results: For patients with 3D planning data, the normal tissue doses could be reconstructed accurately using 2D planning data. Median differences in D{sub mean} between reconstructed and actual plans were 0.18 Gy (lungs), -0.15 Gy (heart), and 0.30 Gy (breasts). Median difference in V{sub 5} and V{sub 20} were less than 2% for each organ. Reconstructed 3D dosimetry was substantially higher in historical mantle-field treatments than contemporary involved-field mediastinal treatments: average D{sub mean} values were 15.2 Gy vs 10.6 Gy (lungs), 27.0 Gy vs 14.3 Gy (heart), and 8.0 Gy vs 3.2 Gy (breasts). Conclusions: Three-dimensional reconstruction of absorbed dose to organs at risk can be estimated accurately many years after exposure by using limited 2D data. Compared to contemporary involved-field treatments, normal tissue doses were significantly higher in historical mantle-field treatments. These methods build capacity to quantify the relationship between 3D normal tissue dose and observed late effects.

  4. United States-assisted studies on dose reconstruction in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Bouville, A.

    1995-12-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, the US and the USSR entered into an agreement to work on the safety of civilian nuclear reactors; one aspect of that work was to study the environmental transport and health effects of radionuclides released by the accident. After the break-up of the USSR separate agreements were established between the US and Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia to continue work on dose reconstruction and epidemiologic studies of health effects from exposure to external radiation and the incorporation of radionuclides. Studies in Belarus and Ukraine related to the Chernobyl accident now emphasize epidemiologic: studies of childhood-thyroid cancer and leukemia, and eye-lens-cataract formation in liquidators. Supporting studies on dose reconstruction emphasize a variety of ecological, physical, and biological techniques. Studies being conducted in Russia currently emphasize health effects in the workers and the population around the Mayak Industrial Association. As this production complex is an analogue of the US Hanford Works, advantage is being taken of the US experience in conducting a similar, recently completed dose-reconstruction study. In all cases the primary work on dose reconstruction is being performed by scientists from the former Soviet Union. US assistance is in the form of expert consultation and participation, exchange visits, provision of supplies and equipment, and other forms of local assistance.

  5. 3D dose and TCP distribution for radionuclide therapy in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valente, M.; Malano, F.; Perez, P.

    2010-08-04

    A common feature to any radiant therapy is that lesion and health tissue dosimetry provides relevant information for treatment optimization along with dose-efficacy and dose-complication correlation studies. Nowadays, different radionuclide therapies are commonly available, assessing both systemic and loco-regional approach and using different alfa-, beta-and gamma-emitting isotopes and binding molecules. It is well established, that specific dosimetric approaches become necessary according to each therapy modality. Sometimes, observed activity distribution can be satisfactory represented by simple geometrical models. However, Monte Carlo techniques are capable of better approaches, therefore becoming sometimes the only way to get dosimetric data since the patient-specific situation can not be adequately represented by conventional dosimetry techniques. Therefore, due to strong limitations of traditional and standard methods, this work concentrates on the development of a dedicated and novel calculation system in order to assess the dose distribution within the irradiated patient. However, physical dose may not be enough information in order to establish real deterministic biological/metabolic effects; therefore complementary radiobiological models have been suitably introduced with the aim of performing realistic 3D dose as well as corresponding Tumor Control Probability distribution calculation.

  6. Effects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effects of particles with large gyroradii on resistive magnetohydrodynamic stability V. A. Svidzinski and S. C. Prager University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 ͑Received 19 September 2003; accepted 25 November 2003͒ Fast ions in tokamaks are known to have a significant influence on global plasma instabilities. In normal mode analyses for tokamaks, the perturbed electric and magnetic fields have been evaluated at the position of the particle's guiding center. The effect of

  7. EFFECT OF FAST NEUTRON IRRADIATION ON SINTERED ALUMINA AND MAGNESIA...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    IRRADIATION; LATTICES; MAGNESIUM OXIDES; MONOCRYSTALS; NEUTRON FLUX; RADIATION DOSES; RADIATION EFFECTS; SINTERED MATERIALS; TEMPERATURE; THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY ALUMINUM OXIDES

  8. Characterization of the role of Fhit in maintenance of genomic integrity following low dose radiation, in vivo and in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ya Wang

    2010-05-31

    The major goal of this study is to determine the effects of the Fhit pathway on low dose ({le} 0.1 Gy) ionizing radiation (IR)-induced genetic instability. Reduction of Fhit protein expression is observed in most solid tumors particularly in those tumors resulting from exposure to environmental carcinogens. Therefore, characterization of the role of the Fhit-dependent pathway in preventing low dose IR-induced genetic instability will provide useful parameters for evaluating the low dose IR-induced risk of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. We pursued 3 specific aims to study our hypothesis that the Fhit-dependent pathways maintain genomic integrity through adjusting checkpoint response and repair genes expression following low dose IR. Aim 1: Determine whether Fhit interaction with RPA is necessary for Fhit to affect the cellular response to low dose IR. We combined the approaches of in vitro (GST pull-down and site-directed mutagenesis) and in vivo (observing the co-localization and immunoprecipitation of Fhit and RPA in Fhit knock out mouse cells transfected with mutant Fhit which has lost ability to interact with RPA in vitro). Aim 2: Determine the role of genes whose expression is affected by Fhit in low dose irradiated cells. We analyzed the distinct signature of gene expression in low dose irradiated Fhit-/- cells compared with Fhit+/+ cells by combining microarray, gene transfection and siRNA approaches. Aim 3: Determine the role of Fhit in genetic susceptibility to low dose IR in vivo. We compared the gene mutation frequency and the fragile site stability in the cells isolated from the Fhit+/+ and Fhit-/- mice at 1.5 years following low dose IR. These results determine the role of the Fhit-dependent pathway in maintaining genomic integrity in vitro and in vivo, which provide a basis for choosing surrogate markers in the Fhit-dependent pathway to evaluate low dose IR-induced risk of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis.

  9. Characterization of the role of Fhit in maintenance of genomic integrity following low dose radiation, in vivo and in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Ya

    2010-05-14

    The major goal of this study is to determine the effects of the Fhit pathway on low dose (< 0.1 Gy) ionizing radiation (IR)-induced genetic instability. Reduction of Fhit protein expression is observed in most solid tumors particularly in those tumors resulting from exposure to environmental carcinogens. Therefore, characterization of the role of the Fhit-dependent pathway in preventing low dose IR-induced genetic instability will provide useful parameters for evaluating the low dose IR-induced risk of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. We pursued 3 specific aims to study our hypothesis that the Fhit-dependent pathways maintain genomic integrity through adjusting checkpoint response and repair genes expression following low dose IR. Aim 1: Determine whether Fhit interaction with RPA is necessary for Fhit to affect the cellular response to low dose IR. We combined the approaches of in vitro (GST pull-down and site-directed mutagenesis) and in vivo (observing the co-localization and immunoprecipitation of Fhit and RPA in Fhit knock out mouse cells transfected with mutant Fhit which has lost ability to interact with RPA in vitro). Aim 2: Determine the role of genes whose expression is affected by Fhit in low dose irradiated cells. We analyzed the distinct signature of gene expression in low dose irradiated Fhit-/- cells compared with Fhit+/+ cells by combining microarray, gene transfection and siRNA approaches. Aim 3: Determine the role of Fhit in genetic susceptibility to low dose IR in vivo. We compared the gene mutation frequency and the fragile site stability in the cells isolated from the Fhit+/+ and Fhit-/- mice at 1.5 years following low dose IR. These results determine the role of the Fhit-dependent pathway in maintaining genomic integrity in vitro and in vivo, which provide a basis for choosing surrogate markers in the Fhit-dependent pathway to evaluate low dose IR-induced risk of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis.

  10. Dose discrepancies in the buildup region and their impact on dose calculations for IMRT fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, Shu-Hui; Moran, Jean M.; Chen Yu; Kulasekere, Ravi; Roberson, Peter L.

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: Dose accuracy in the buildup region for radiotherapy treatment planning suffers from challenges in both measurement and calculation. This study investigates the dosimetry in the buildup region at normal and oblique incidences for open and IMRT fields and assesses the quality of the treatment planning calculations. Methods: This study was divided into three parts. First, percent depth doses and profiles (for 5x5, 10x10, 20x20, and 30x30 cm{sup 2} field sizes at 0 deg., 45 deg., and 70 deg. incidences) were measured in the buildup region in Solid Water using an Attix parallel plate chamber and Kodak XV film, respectively. Second, the parameters in the empirical contamination (EC) term of the convolution/superposition (CVSP) calculation algorithm were fitted based on open field measurements. Finally, seven segmental head-and-neck IMRT fields were measured on a flat phantom geometry and compared to calculations using {gamma} and dose-gradient compensation (C) indices to evaluate the impact of residual discrepancies and to assess the adequacy of the contamination term for IMRT fields. Results: Local deviations between measurements and calculations for open fields were within 1% and 4% in the buildup region for normal and oblique incidences, respectively. The C index with 5%/1 mm criteria for IMRT fields ranged from 89% to 99% and from 96% to 98% at 2 mm and 10 cm depths, respectively. The quality of agreement in the buildup region for open and IMRT fields is comparable to that in nonbuildup regions. Conclusions: The added EC term in CVSP was determined to be adequate for both open and IMRT fields. Due to the dependence of calculation accuracy on (1) EC modeling, (2) internal convolution and density grid sizes, (3) implementation details in the algorithm, and (4) the accuracy of measurements used for treatment planning system commissioning, the authors recommend an evaluation of the accuracy of near-surface dose calculations as a part of treatment planning commissioning.

  11. SU-E-T-315: The Change of Optically Stimulated Luminescent Dosimeters (OSLDs) Sensitivity by Accumulated Dose and High Dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, S; Jung, H; Kim, M; Ji, Y; Kim, K [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S; Park, S; Yoo, H [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, C [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to evaluate radiation sensitivity of optical stimulated luminance dosimeters (OSLDs) by accumulated dose and high dose. Methods: This study was carried out in Co-60 unit (Theratron 780, AECL, and Canada) and used InLight MicroStar reader (Landauer, Inc., Glenwood, IL) for reading. We annealed for 30 min using optical annealing system which contained fluorescent lamps (Osram lumilux, 24 W, 280 ?780 nm). To evaluate change of OSLDs sensitivity by repeated irradiation, the dosimeters were repeatedly irradiated with 1 Gy. And whenever a repeated irradiation, we evaluated OSLDs sensitivity. To evaluate OSLDs sensitivity after accumulated dose with 5 Gy, We irradiated dose accumulatively (from 1 Gy to 5 Gy) without annealing. And OSLDs was also irradiated with 15, 20, 30 Gy to certify change of OSLDs sensitivity after high dose irradiation. After annealing them, they were irradiated with 1Gy, repeatedly. Results: The OSLDs sensitivity increased up to 3% during irradiating seven times and decreased continuously above 8 times. That dropped by about 0.35 Gy per an irradiation. Finally, after 30 times irradiation, OSLDs sensitivity decreased by about 7%. For accumulated dose from 1 Gy to 5 Gy, OSLDs sensitivity about 1 Gy increased until 4.4% after second times accumulated dose compared with before that. OSLDs sensitivity about 1 Gy decreased by 1.6% in five times irradiation. When OSLDs were irradiated ten times with 1Gy after irradiating high dose (10, 15, 20 Gy), OSLDs sensitivity decreased until 6%, 9%, 12% compared with it before high dose irradiation, respectively. Conclusion: This study certified OSLDs sensitivity by accumulated dose and high dose. When irradiated with 1Gy, repeatedly, OSLDs sensitivity decreased linearly and the reduction rate of OSLDs sensitivity after high dose irradiation had dependence on irradiated dose.

  12. Total dissolved gas prediction and optimization in RiverWare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Kevin M.; Witt, Adam M.; Hadjerioua, Boualem

    2015-09-01

    Management and operation of dams within the Columbia River Basin (CRB) provides the region with irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage. These various system-wide demands can require unique dam operations that may result in both voluntary and involuntary spill, thereby increasing tailrace levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) which can be fatal to fish. Appropriately managing TDG levels within the context of the systematic demands requires a predictive framework robust enough to capture the operationally related effects on TDG levels. Development of the TDG predictive methodology herein attempts to capture the different modes of hydro operation, thereby making it a viable tool to be used in conjunction with a real-time scheduling model such as RiverWare. The end result of the effort will allow hydro operators to minimize system-wide TDG while meeting hydropower operational targets and constraints. The physical parameters such as spill and hydropower flow proportions, accompanied by the characteristics of the dam such as plant head levels and tailrace depths, are used to develop the empirically-based prediction model. In the broader study, two different models are developed a simplified and comprehensive model. The latter model incorporates more specific bubble physics parameters for the prediction of tailrace TDG levels. The former model is presented herein and utilizes an empirically based approach to predict downstream TDG levels based on local saturation depth, spillway and powerhouse flow proportions, and entrainment effects. Representative data collected from each of the hydro projects is used to calibrate and validate model performance and the accuracy of predicted TDG uptake. ORNL, in conjunction with IIHR - Hydroscience & Engineering, The University of Iowa, carried out model adjustments to adequately capture TDG levels with respect to each plant while maintaining a generalized model configuration. Validation results indicate excellent model performance with coefficient of determination values exceeding 92% for all sites. This approach enables model extension to an increasingly wider array of hydropower plants, i.e., with the proper data input, TDG uptake can be calculated independent of actual physical component design. The TDG model is used as a module in the systematic optimization framework of RiverWare, a river and reservoir modeling tool used by federal agencies, public utility districts, and other dam owners and operators to forecast, schedule, and manage hydropower assets. The integration and testing of the TDG module within RiverWare, led by University of Colorado s Center for Advanced Decision Support for Water and Environmental Systems (CADSWES), will allow users to generate optimum system schedules based on the minimization of TDG. Optimization analysis and added value will be quantified as system wide reductions in TDG achieved while meeting existing hydropower constraints. Future work includes the development of a method to predict downstream reservoir forebay TDG levels as a function of upstream reservoir tailrace TDG values based on river hydrodynamics, hydro operations, and reservoir characteristics. Once implemented, a holistic model that predicts both TDG uptake and transport will give hydropower operators valuable insight into how system-wide environmental effects can be mitigated while simultaneously balancing stakeholder interests.

  13. Radiation dose rates from UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friend, P.J.

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes the results of many studies, both theoretical and experimental, which have been carried out by Urenco over the last 15 years into radiation dose rates from uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders. The contents of the cylinder, its history, and the geometry all affect the radiation dose rate. These factors are all examined in detail. Actual and predicted dose rates are compared with levels permitted by IAEA transport regulations.

  14. Average Neutron Total Cross Sections in the Unresolved Energy Range From ORELA High Resolutio Transmission Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derrien, H

    2004-05-27

    Average values of the neutron total cross sections of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu have been obtained in the unresolved resonance energy range from high-resolution transmission measurements performed at ORELA in the past two decades. The cross sections were generated by correcting the effective total cross sections for the self-shielding effects due to the resonance structure of the data. The self-shielding factors were found by calculating the effective and true cross sections with the computer code SAMMY for the same Doppler and resolution conditions as for the transmission measurements, using an appropriate set of resonance parameters. Our results are compared to results of previous measurements and to the current ENDF/B-VI data.

  15. Measurements of radiation doses induced by high intensity laser...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Measurements of radiation doses induced by high intensity laser between 1016 ... Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ...

  16. Deterministic absorbed dose estimation in computed tomography using a discrete ordinates method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, Edward T.; Liu, Xin; Hsieh, Jiang

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Organ dose estimation for a patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scanning is very important. Although Monte Carlo methods are considered gold-standard in patient dose estimation, the computation time required is formidable for routine clinical calculations. Here, the authors instigate a deterministic method for estimating an absorbed dose more efficiently. Methods: Compared with current Monte Carlo methods, a more efficient approach to estimating the absorbed dose is to solve the linear Boltzmann equation numerically. In this study, an axial CT scan was modeled with a software package, Denovo, which solved the linear Boltzmann equation using the discrete ordinates method. The CT scanning configuration included 16 x-ray source positions, beam collimators, flat filters, and bowtie filters. The phantom was the standard 32 cm CT dose index (CTDI) phantom. Four different Denovo simulations were performed with different simulation parameters, including the number of quadrature sets and the order of Legendre polynomial expansions. A Monte Carlo simulation was also performed for benchmarking the Denovo simulations. A quantitative comparison was made of the simulation results obtained by the Denovo and the Monte Carlo methods. Results: The difference in the simulation results of the discrete ordinates method and those of the Monte Carlo methods was found to be small, with a root-mean-square difference of around 2.4%. It was found that the discrete ordinates method, with a higher order of Legendre polynomial expansions, underestimated the absorbed dose near the center of the phantom (i.e., low dose region). Simulations of the quadrature set 8 and the first order of the Legendre polynomial expansions proved to be the most efficient computation method in the authors’ study. The single-thread computation time of the deterministic simulation of the quadrature set 8 and the first order of the Legendre polynomial expansions was 21 min on a personal computer. Conclusions: The simulation results showed that the deterministic method can be effectively used to estimate the absorbed dose in a CTDI phantom. The accuracy of the discrete ordinates method was close to that of a Monte Carlo simulation, and the primary benefit of the discrete ordinates method lies in its rapid computation speed. It is expected that further optimization of this method in routine clinical CT dose estimation will improve its accuracy and speed.

  17. SU-C-207-03: Optimization of a Collimator-Based Sparse Sampling Technique for Low-Dose Cone-Beam CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, T; Cho, S; Kim, I; Han, B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In computed tomography (CT) imaging, radiation dose delivered to the patient is one of the major concerns. Sparse-view CT takes projections at sparser view angles and provides a viable option to reducing dose. However, a fast power switching of an X-ray tube, which is needed for the sparse-view sampling, can be challenging in many CT systems. We have earlier proposed a many-view under-sampling (MVUS) technique as an alternative to sparse-view CT. In this study, we investigated the effects of collimator parameters on the image quality and aimed to optimize the collimator design. Methods: We used a bench-top circular cone-beam CT system together with a CatPhan600 phantom, and took 1440 projections from a single rotation. The multi-slit collimator made of tungsten was mounted on the X-ray source for beam blocking. For image reconstruction, we used a total-variation minimization (TV) algorithm and modified the backprojection step so that only the measured data through the collimator slits are to be used in the computation. The number of slits and the reciprocation frequency have been varied and the effects of them on the image quality were investigated. We also analyzed the sampling efficiency: the sampling density and data incoherence in each case. We tested three sets of slits with their number of 6, 12 and 18, each at reciprocation frequencies of 10, 30, 50 and 70 Hz/ro. Results: Consistent results in the image quality have been produced with the sampling efficiency, and the optimum condition was found to be using 12 slits at 30 Hz/ro. As image quality indices, we used the CNR and the detectability. Conclusion: We conducted an experiment with a moving multi-slit collimator to realize a sparse-sampled cone-beam CT. Effects of collimator parameters on the image quality have been systematically investigated, and the optimum condition has been reached.

  18. Gamma irradiation effects in W films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claro, Luiz H.; Santos, Ingrid A.; Silva, Cassia F.

    2013-05-06

    Using the van Der Pauw methodology, the surface resistivity of irradiated tungsten films deposited on Silicon substrate was measured. The films were exposed to {gamma} radiation using a isotopic {sup 60}Co source in three irradiation stages attaining 40.35 kGy in total dose. The obtained results for superficial resistivity display a time annealing features and their values are proportional to the total dose.

  19. High-dose radioiodine treatment for differentiated thyroid carcinoma is not associated with change in female fertility or any genetic risk to the offspring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bal, Chandrasekhar . E-mail: csbal@hotmail.com; Kumar, Ajay; Tripathi, Madhavi; Chandrashekar, Narayana; Phom, Hentok; Murali, Nadig R.; Chandra, Prem; Pant, Gauri S.

    2005-10-01

    Background: We tried to evaluate the female fertility and genetic risk to the offspring from the exposure to high-dose {sup 131}I by assessing the pregnancy outcomes and health status of the children of female patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who had received therapeutic doses of {sup 131}I. Materials and Methods: From 1967 to 2002, a total of 1,282 women had been treated with {sup 131}I. Of these patients, 692 (54%) were in the reproductive age group (18-45 years). Forty women had a total of 50 pregnancies after high-dose {sup 131}I. Age at presentation ranged from 16 to 36 years (mean, 23 {+-} 4 years). Histopathology was papillary thyroid cancer in 32 cases and follicular thyroid cancer in 8 cases. Results: Single high-dose therapy was given in 30 cases, 2 doses were given in 7 cases, 3 doses were given in 2 cases, and four doses were given in 1 case in which lung metastases had occurred. In 37 patients (92%), disease was successfully ablated before pregnancy. Ovarian absorbed-radiation dose calculated by the MIRD method ranged from 3.5 to 60 cGy (mean, 12 {+-} 11 cGy). The interval between {sup 131}I therapy and pregnancy varied from 7 to 120 months (37.4 {+-} 28.2 months). Three spontaneous abortions occurred in 2 women. Forty-seven babies (20 females and 27 males) were born. Forty-four babies were healthy with normal birth weight and normal developmental milestones. Twenty women delivered their first baby after {sup 131}I therapy. The youngest child in our series is 11 months of age, and the oldest is 8.5 years of age. Conclusions: Female fertility is not affected by high-dose radioiodine treatment, and the therapy does not appear to be associated with any genetic risks to the offspring.

  20. Improvements in dose calculation accuracy for small off-axis targets in high dose per fraction tomotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardcastle, Nicholas; Bayliss, Adam; Wong, Jeannie Hsiu Ding; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: A recent field safety notice from TomoTherapy detailed the underdosing of small, off-axis targets when receiving high doses per fraction. This is due to angular undersampling in the dose calculation gantry angles. This study evaluates a correction method to reduce the underdosing, to be implemented in the current version (v4.1) of the TomoTherapy treatment planning software. Methods: The correction method, termed 'Super Sampling' involved the tripling of the number of gantry angles from which the dose is calculated during optimization and dose calculation. Radiochromic film was used to measure the dose to small targets at various off-axis distances receiving a minimum of 21 Gy in one fraction. Measurements were also performed for single small targets at the center of the Lucy phantom, using radiochromic film and the dose magnifying glass (DMG). Results: Without super sampling, the peak dose deficit increased from 0% to 18% for a 10 mm target and 0% to 30% for a 5 mm target as off-axis target distances increased from 0 to 16.5 cm. When super sampling was turned on, the dose deficit trend was removed and all peak doses were within 5% of the planned dose. For measurements in the Lucy phantom at 9.7 cm off-axis, the positional and dose magnitude accuracy using super sampling was verified using radiochromic film and the DMG. Conclusions: A correction method implemented in the TomoTherapy treatment planning system which triples the angular sampling of the gantry angles used during optimization and dose calculation removes the underdosing for targets as small as 5 mm diameter, up to 16.5 cm off-axis receiving up to 21 Gy.