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1

Estimating Radiation Risk from Total Effective Dose Equivalent...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

and UNSCEAR 1988 in Radiation Risk Assessment - Lifetime Total Cancer Mortality Risk Estimates at Low Doses and Low Dose Rates for Low-LET Radiation, Committee on Interagency...

2

Total effective dose equivalent associated with fixed uranium surface contamination  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides the technical basis for establishing a uranium fixed-contamination action level, a fixed uranium surface contamination level exceeding the total radioactivity values of Appendix D of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, part 835 (10CFR835), but below which the monitoring, posting, and control requirements for Radiological Areas are not required for the area of the contamination. An area of fixed uranium contamination between 1,000 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} and that level corresponding to an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) of 100 mrem requires only routine monitoring, posting to alert personnel of the contamination, and administrative control. The more extensive requirements for monitoring, posting, and control designated by 10CFR835 for Radiological Areas do not have to be applied for these intermediate fixed-contamination levels.

Bogard, J.S.; Hamm, R.N.; Ashley, J.C.; Turner, J.E.; England, C.A.; Swenson, D.E.; Brown, K.S.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Estimation of the total effective dose from low-dose CT scans and radiopharmaceutical administrations delivered to patients undergoing SPECT/CT explorations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effective dose calculation is useful to compare the doses from, and the radiation risks associated with, different diagnostic examinations. ... account the uncertainties associated with the estimated effectiv...

Carlos Montes; Pilar Tamayo; Jorge Hernandez…

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Interplay effects between dose distribution quality and positioning accuracy in total marrow irradiation with volumetric modulated arc therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric consequences of inaccurate isocenter positioning during treatment of total marrow (lymph-node) irradiation (TMI-TMLI) using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT).Methods: Four patients treated with TMI and TMLI were randomly selected from the internal database. Plans were optimized with VMAT technique. Planning target volume (PTV) included all the body bones; for TMLI, lymph nodes and spleen were considered into the target, too. Dose prescription to PTV was 12 Gy in six fractions, two times per day for TMI, and 2 Gy in single fraction for TMLI. Ten arcs on five isocenters (two arcs for isocenter) were used to cover the upper part of PTV (i.e., from cranium to middle femurs). For each plan, three series of random shifts with values between ?3 and +3 mm and three between ?5 and +5 mm were applied to the five isocenters simulating involuntary patient motion during treatment. The shifts were applied separately in the three directions: left–right (L-R), anterior–posterior (A-P), and cranial–caudal (C-C). The worst case scenario with simultaneous random shifts in all directions simultaneously was considered too. Doses were recalculated for the 96 shifted plans (24 for each patient).Results: For all shifts, differences <0.5% were found for mean doses to PTV, body, and organs at risk with volumes >100 cm{sup 3}. Maximum doses increased up to 15% for C-C shifted plans. PTV covered by the 95% isodose decreased of 2%–8% revealing target underdosage with the highest values in C-C direction.Conclusions: The correct isocenter repositioning of TMI-TMLI patients is fundamental, in particular in C-C direction, in order to avoid over- and underdosages especially in the overlap regions. For this reason, a dedicated immobilization system was developed in the authors' center to best immobilize the patient.

Mancosu, Pietro; Navarria, Piera; Reggiori, Giacomo; Tomatis, Stefano; Alongi, Filippo; Scorsetti, Marta [Department of Radiation Oncology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Milan 20089 (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Milan 20089 (Italy); Castagna, Luca; Sarina, Barbara [Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Milan 20089 (Italy)] [Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Milan 20089 (Italy); Nicolini, Giorgia; Fogliata, Antonella; Cozzi, Luca [Medical Physics Unit, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona 6500 (Switzerland)] [Medical Physics Unit, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona 6500 (Switzerland)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

5

Total ionizing dose effect of ?-ray radiation on the switching characteristics and filament stability of HfOx resistive random access memory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The total ionizing dose (TID) effect of gamma-ray (?-ray) irradiation on HfOx based resistive random access memory was investigated by electrical and material characterizations. The memory states can sustain TID level ?5.2 Mrad (HfO{sub 2}) without significant change in the functionality or the switching characteristics under pulse cycling. However, the stability of the filament is weakened after irradiation as memory states are more vulnerable to flipping under the electrical stress. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was performed to ascertain the physical mechanism of the stability degradation, which is attributed to the Hf-O bond breaking by the high-energy ?-ray exposure.

Fang, Runchen; Yu, Shimeng, E-mail: shimengy@asu.edu [School of Computing, Informatics, and Decision Systems Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85281 (United States); School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Gonzalez Velo, Yago; Chen, Wenhao; Holbert, Keith E.; Kozicki, Michael N.; Barnaby, Hugh [School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

6

Bounding the total-dose response of modern bipolar transistors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The base current in modern bipolar transistors saturates at large total doses once a critical oxide charge is reached. The saturated value of base current is dose-rate independent. Testing implications are discussed.

Kosier, S.L.; Wei, A.; Schrimpf, R.D. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Combs, W.E. [Naval Surface Warfare Center-Crane, Crane, IN (United States); Fleetwood, D.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); DeLaus, M. [Analog Devices, Inc., Wilmington, MA (United States); Pease, R.L. [RLP Research, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Total dose radiation response of plasma-damaged NMOS devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasma-damaged NMOS devices were subjected to the X-ray total dose irradiation. Unlike the traditional hot-carrier or Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) stress where the hole trap generation is less pronounced, this study shows enhanced hole trap and interface trap generation on plasma-damaged devices after total dose irradiation.

Yue, J.; Lo, E.; Flanery, M. [Honeywell Solid-State Electronic Center, Plymouth, MN (United States)] [Honeywell Solid-State Electronic Center, Plymouth, MN (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Method to Improve Total Dose Radiation Hardness in a CMOS dc-dc Boost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a wide range of radiation environment, with increasing total dose radiation, The efticieney also greatlyMethod to Improve Total Dose Radiation Hardness in a CMOS dc-dc Boost Converter Huadian Pan to natural radiation in space. Among the effects of ionizing radiation are shiftsin threshold voltageand

Wilamowski, Bogdan Maciej

9

Revisiting Low-Dose Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy in Mycosis Fungoides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is a highly effective treatment for mycosis fungoides (MF). The standard course consists of 30 to 36 Gy delivered over an 8- to 10-week period. This regimen is time intensive and associated with significant treatment-related toxicities including erythema, desquamation, anhydrosis, alopecia, and xerosis. The aim of this study was to identify a lower dose alternative while retaining a favorable efficacy profile. Methods and Materials: One hundred two MF patients were identified who had been treated with an initial course of low-dose TSEBT (5-<30 Gy) between 1958 and 1995. Patients had a T stage classification of T2 (generalized patch/plaque, n = 51), T3 (tumor, n = 29), and T4 (erythrodermic, n = 22). Those with extracutaneous disease were excluded. Results: Overall response (OR) rates (>50% improvement) were 90% among patients with T2 to T4 disease receiving 5 to <10 Gy (n = 19). In comparison, OR rates between the 10 to <20 Gy and 20 to <30 Gy subgroups were 98% and 97%, respectively. There was no significant difference in median progression free survival (PFS) in T2 and T3 patients when stratified by dose group, and PFS in each was comparable to that of the standard dose. Conclusions: OR rates associated with low-dose TSEBT in the ranges of 10 to <20 Gy and 20 to <30 Gy are comparable to that of the standard dose ({>=} 30 Gy). Efficacy measures including OS, PFS, and RFS are also favorable. Given that the efficacy profile is similar between 10 and <20 Gy and 20 and <30 Gy, the utility of TSEBT within the lower dose range of 10 to <20 Gy merits further investigation, especially in the context of combined modality treatment.

Harrison, Cameron, E-mail: cameronh@stanford.edu [Department of Dermatology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, California (United States); Young, James; Navi, Daniel [Department of Dermatology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, California (United States); Riaz, Nadeem [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, California (United States); Lingala, Bharathi; Kim, Youn [Department of Dermatology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, California (United States); Hoppe, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, California (United States)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

10

Effective dose estimation during conventional and CT urography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Intravenous urography (IVU) and CT urography (CTU) are efficient radiological examinations for the evaluation of the urinary system disorders. However patients are exposed to a significant radiation dose. The objectives of this study are to: (i) measure and compare patient radiation dose by computed tomography urography (CTU) and conventional intravenous urography (IVU) and (ii) evaluate organ equivalent dose and cancer risks from CTU and IVU imaging procedures. A total of 141 patients were investigated. A calibrated CT machine (Siemens-Somatom Emotion duo) was used for CTU, while a Shimadzu X ray machine was used for IVU. Thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD-GR200A) were used to measure patients' entrance surface doses (ESD). \\{TLDs\\} were calibrated under reproducible reference conditions. Patients radiation dose values (DLP) for CTU were 172±61 mGy cm, \\{CTDIvol\\} 4.75±2 mGy and effective dose 2.58±1 mSv. Patient cancer probabilities were estimated to be 1.4 per million per CTU examination. Patients \\{ESDs\\} values for IVU were 21.62±5 mGy, effective dose 1.79±1 mSv. CT involves a higher effective dose than IVU. In this study the radiation dose is considered low compared to previous studies. The effective dose from CTU procedures was 30% higher compared to IVU procedures. Wide dose variation between patient doses suggests that optimization is not fulfilled yet.

K. Alzimami; A. Sulieman; E. Omer; I.I. Suliman; K. Alsafi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Development of Real-Time Measurement of Effective Dose for High Dose Rate Neutron Fields  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies of the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation require sources of radiation which are well characterized in terms of the dose and the quality of the radiation. One of the best measures of the quality of neutron irradiation is the dose mean lineal energy. At very low dose rates this can be determined by measuring individual energy deposition events, and calculating the dose mean of the event size. However, at the dose rates that are normally required for biology experiments, the individual events can not be separated by radiation detectors. However, the total energy deposited in a specified time interval can be measured. This total energy has a random variation which depends on the size of the individual events, so the dose mean lineal energy can be calculated from the variance of repeated measurements of the energy deposited in a fixed time. We have developed a specialized charge integration circuit for the measurement of the charge produced in a small ion chamber in typical neutron irradiation experiments. We have also developed 4.3 mm diameter ion chambers with both tissue equivalent and carbon walls for the purpose of measuring dose mean lineal energy due to all radiations and due to all radiations except neutrons, respectively. By adjusting the gas pressure in the ion chamber, it can be made to simulate tissue volumes from a few nanometers to a few millimeters in diameter. The charge is integrated for 0.1 seconds, and the resulting pulse height is recorded by a multi channel analyzer. The system has been used in a variety of photon and neutron radiation fields, and measured values of dose and dose mean lineal energy are consistent with values extrapolated from measurements made by other techniques at much lower dose rates. It is expected that this technique will prove to be much more reliable than extrapolations from measurements made at low dose rates because these low dose rate exposures generally do not accurately reproduce the attenuation and scattering environment of the actual radiation exposure.

L. A. Braby; W. D. Reece; W. H. Hsu

2003-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

12

We can do better than effective dose for estimating or comparing low-dose radiation risks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We can do better than effective dose for estimating or comparing low-dose radiation risks D of exposure to different radiation fields. More commonly these days, it is used to estimate or compare radi. Keywords: Low dose risk estimation; Effective dose; Flawed definition; Effective risk 1. INTRODUCTION

Brenner, David Jonathan

13

85Kr management trade-offs: a perspective to total radiation dose commitment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radiological consequences arising from the trade-offs for /sup 85/Kr waste management from possible nuclear fuel resource recovery activities have been investigated. The reference management technique is to release all the waste gas to the atmosphere where it is diluted and dispersed. A potential alternative is to collect, concentrate, package and submit the gas to long-term storage. This study compares the radiation dose commitment to the public and to the occupationally exposed work force from these alternatives. The results indicate that it makes little difference to the magnitude of the world population dose whether /sup 85/Kr is captured and stored or chronically released to the environment. Further, comparisons of radiation exposures (for the purpose of estimating health effects) at very low dose rates to very large populations with exposures to a small number of occupationally exposed workers who each receive much higher dose rates may be misleading. Finally, cost studies (EPA 1976 and DOE 1979a) show that inordinate amounts of money will be required to lower this already extremely small 80-year cumulative world population dose of 0.05 mrem/person (<0.001% of natural background radiation for the same time period).

Mellinger, P.J.; Hoenes, G.R.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Greenborg, J.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

3822 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, VOL. 51, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2004 High Total Dose Tolerance of Prototype Silicon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3822 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, VOL. 51, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2004 High Total Dose Tolerance). Alternative technologies that are being developed for the general market are also under eval- uation

Atwater, Harry

15

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessing total doses Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

UV doses during Summary: ACPD 8, 1-19, 2008 UV doses during psoriasis climate therapy at Gran Canaria L. T. N. Nilsen et al... Chemistry and Physics Discussions Estimated UV doses...

16

E-Print Network 3.0 - adjust total dose Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

UV doses during Summary: ACPD 8, 1-19, 2008 UV doses during psoriasis climate therapy at Gran Canaria L. T. N. Nilsen et al... Chemistry and Physics Discussions Estimated UV doses...

17

Estimating Radiation Risk from Total Effective Dose Equivalent...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

0CTc itt 0 Tw (an) Tj 10.3 0 Tw (an) Tj 10.3 0 Tw (an) Tj 10.3 a ( )75 Tw5ndj 5.25 0 TD F1 10.5 Tf -0.3 33twithsj 24 0 .75059 0 TD(FactorsTw ( 32 ) Tj 5.25 0 TD F1 10.5 Tf...

18

Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Total Total .............. 16,164,874 5,967,376 22,132,249 2,972,552 280,370 167,519 18,711,808 1993 Total .............. 16,691,139 6,034,504 22,725,642 3,103,014 413,971 226,743 18,981,915 1994 Total .............. 17,351,060 6,229,645 23,580,706 3,230,667 412,178 228,336 19,709,525 1995 Total .............. 17,282,032 6,461,596 23,743,628 3,565,023 388,392 283,739 19,506,474 1996 Total .............. 17,680,777 6,370,888 24,051,665 3,510,330 518,425 272,117 19,750,793 Alabama Total......... 570,907 11,394 582,301 22,601 27,006 1,853 530,841 Onshore ................ 209,839 11,394 221,233 22,601 16,762 1,593 180,277 State Offshore....... 209,013 0 209,013 0 10,244 260 198,509 Federal Offshore... 152,055 0 152,055 0 0 0 152,055 Alaska Total ............ 183,747 3,189,837 3,373,584 2,885,686 0 7,070 480,828 Onshore ................ 64,751 3,182,782

19

Estimation of effective imaging dose for kilovoltage intratreatment monitoring of the prostate position during cancer radiotherapy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kilovoltage intratreatment monitoring (KIM) is a novel real-time localization modality where the tumor position is continuously measured during intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) by a kilovoltage (kV) x-ray imager. Adding kV imaging during therapy adds radiation dose. The additional effective dose is quantified for prostate radiotherapy and compared to dose from other localization modalities. The software PCXMC 2.0 was used to calculate the effective dose delivered to a phantom as a function of imager angle and field size for a Varian On-Board Imager. The average angular effective dose was calculated for a field size of 6 cm ? 6 cm. The average angular effective dose was used in calculations for different treatment scenarios. Treatment scenarios considered were treatment type and fractionation. For all treatment scenarios, (i.e. conventionally fractionated and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), IMRT and IMAT), the total KIM dose at 1 Hz ranged from 2–10 mSv. This imaging dose is less than the Navotek radioactive implant dose (64 mSv) and a standard SBRT cone beam computed tomography pretreatment scan dose (22 mSv) over an entire treatment regime. KIM delivers an acceptably low effective dose for daily use as a real-time image-guidance method for prostate radiotherapy.

J A Ng; J Booth; P Poulsen; Z Kuncic; P J Keall

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low Dose Radiation Effects in  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radiation Effects in Differentiating Human Lens Cells Radiation Effects in Differentiating Human Lens Cells E.A. Blakely1, M.P. McNamara1, P.Y. Chang1, K.A. Bjornstad1, D. Sudar1, and A.C. Thompson2 1Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California; 2Advanced Light Source Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California. Introduction The human lens is one of the most radiosensitive organs of the body. Cataract, the opacification of the lens, is a late-appearing response to radiation damage. There are few data available on the late radiation effects of exposure in space flight to charged particle beams, the most prevalent of which are protons. Basic research in this area is needed to integrate the responses of both critical and other representative tissues

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total effective dose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Total............................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total................................................................... Total................................................................... 111.1 2,033 1,618 1,031 791 630 401 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500............................................... 3.2 357 336 113 188 177 59 500 to 999....................................................... 23.8 733 667 308 343 312 144 1,000 to 1,499................................................. 20.8 1,157 1,086 625 435 409 235 1,500 to 1,999................................................. 15.4 1,592 1,441 906 595 539 339 2,000 to 2,499................................................. 12.2 2,052 1,733 1,072 765 646 400 2,500 to 2,999................................................. 10.3 2,523 2,010 1,346 939 748 501 3,000 to 3,499................................................. 6.7 3,020 2,185 1,401 1,177 851 546

22

Total...................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4,690,065 52,331,397 2,802,751 4,409,699 7,526,898 209,616 1993 Total................... 4,956,445 52,535,411 2,861,569 4,464,906 7,981,433 209,666 1994 Total................... 4,847,702 53,392,557 2,895,013 4,533,905 8,167,033 202,940 1995 Total................... 4,850,318 54,322,179 3,031,077 4,636,500 8,579,585 209,398 1996 Total................... 5,241,414 55,263,673 3,158,244 4,720,227 8,870,422 206,049 Alabama ...................... 56,522 766,322 29,000 62,064 201,414 2,512 Alaska.......................... 16,179 81,348 27,315 12,732 75,616 202 Arizona ........................ 27,709 689,597 28,987 49,693 26,979 534 Arkansas ..................... 46,289 539,952 31,006 67,293 141,300 1,488 California ..................... 473,310 8,969,308 235,068 408,294 693,539 36,613 Colorado...................... 110,924 1,147,743

23

Estimation of organ and effective dose due to Compton backscatter security scans  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To estimate organ and effective radiation doses due to backscatter security scanners using Monte Carlo simulations and a voxelized phantom set. Methods: Voxelized phantoms of male and female adults and children were used with the GEANT4 toolkit to simulate a backscatter security scan. The backscatter system was modeled based on specifications available in the literature. The simulations modeled a 50 kVp spectrum with 1.0 mm-aluminum-equivalent filtration and a previously measured exposure of approximately 4.6 {mu}R at 30 cm from the source. Photons and secondary interactions were tracked from the source until they reached zero kinetic energy or exited from the simulation's boundaries. The energy deposited in the phantoms' respective organs was tallied and used to calculate total organ dose and total effective dose for frontal, rear, and full scans with subjects located 30 and 75 cm from the source. Results: For a full screen, all phantoms' total effective doses were below the established 0.25 {mu}Sv standard, with an estimated maximum total effective dose of 0.07 {mu}Sv for full screen of a male child. The estimated maximum organ dose due to a full screen was 1.03 {mu}Gy, deposited in the adipose tissue of the male child phantom when located 30 cm from the source. All organ dose estimates had a coefficient of variation of less than 3% for a frontal scan and less than 11% for a rear scan. Conclusions: Backscatter security scanners deposit dose in organs beyond the skin. The effective dose is below recommended standards set by the Health Physics Society (HPS) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) assuming the system provides a maximum exposure of approximately 4.6 {mu}R at 30 cm.

Hoppe, Michael E.; Schmidt, Taly Gilat [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Marquette University, P.O. Box 1881, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

24

Total..........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7.1 7.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 2.1 0.6 Q 0.4 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 13.6 3.7 3.2 3.2 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 9.5 3.7 3.4 4.2 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 6.6 2.7 2.5 3.6 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 5.0 2.1 2.8 2.4 2,500 to 2,999..................................................... 10.3 3.7 1.8 2.8 2.1 3,000 to 3,499..................................................... 6.7 2.0 1.4 1.7 1.6 3,500 to 3,999..................................................... 5.2 1.6 0.8 1.5 1.4 4,000 or More.....................................................

25

Total..........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0.7 0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.6 Q Q 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 9.0 4.2 1.5 3.2 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 8.6 4.7 1.5 2.5 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 6.0 2.9 1.2 1.9 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 4.1 2.1 0.7 1.3 2,500 to 2,999..................................................... 10.3 3.0 1.8 0.5 0.7 3,000 to 3,499..................................................... 6.7 2.1 1.2 0.5 0.4 3,500 to 3,999..................................................... 5.2 1.5 0.8 0.3 0.4 4,000 or More.....................................................

26

Total..........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

25.6 25.6 40.7 24.2 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.5 0.9 1.0 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 4.6 3.9 9.0 6.3 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 2.8 4.4 8.6 5.0 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 1.9 3.5 6.0 4.0 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 2.3 3.2 4.1 2.6 2,500 to 2,999..................................................... 10.3 2.2 2.7 3.0 2.4 3,000 to 3,499..................................................... 6.7 1.6 2.1 2.1 0.9 3,500 to 3,999..................................................... 5.2 1.1 1.7 1.5 0.9 4,000 or More.....................................................

27

Total..........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4.2 4.2 7.6 16.6 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 1.0 0.2 0.8 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 6.3 1.4 4.9 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 5.0 1.6 3.4 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 4.0 1.4 2.6 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 2.6 0.9 1.7 2,500 to 2,999..................................................... 10.3 2.4 0.9 1.4 3,000 to 3,499..................................................... 6.7 0.9 0.3 0.6 3,500 to 3,999..................................................... 5.2 0.9 0.4 0.5 4,000 or More.....................................................

28

Total.........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Floorspace (Square Feet) Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 2 Fewer than 500.................................................. 3.2 Q 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.5 500 to 999.......................................................... 23.8 1.5 5.4 5.5 6.1 5.3 1,000 to 1,499.................................................... 20.8 1.4 4.0 5.2 5.0 5.2 1,500 to 1,999.................................................... 15.4 1.4 3.1 3.5 3.6 3.8 2,000 to 2,499.................................................... 12.2 1.4 3.2 3.0 2.3 2.3 2,500 to 2,999.................................................... 10.3 1.5 2.3 2.7 2.1 1.7 3,000 to 3,499.................................................... 6.7 1.0 2.0 1.7 1.0 1.0 3,500 to 3,999.................................................... 5.2 0.8 1.5 1.5 0.7 0.7 4,000 or More.....................................................

29

Total..........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

. . 111.1 20.6 15.1 5.5 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.5 0.4 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 4.6 3.6 1.1 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 2.8 2.2 0.6 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 1.9 1.4 0.5 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 2.3 1.7 0.5 2,500 to 2,999..................................................... 10.3 2.2 1.7 0.6 3,000 to 3,499..................................................... 6.7 1.6 1.0 0.6 3,500 to 3,999..................................................... 5.2 1.1 0.9 0.3 4,000 or More.....................................................

30

Total..........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.4 Q Q 0.5 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 2.5 1.5 2.1 3.7 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 1.1 2.0 1.5 2.5 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 0.5 1.2 1.2 1.9 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 0.7 0.5 0.8 1.4 2,500 to 2,999..................................................... 10.3 0.5 0.5 0.4 1.1 3,000 to 3,499..................................................... 6.7 0.3 Q 0.4 0.3 3,500 to 3,999..................................................... 5.2 Q Q Q Q 4,000 or More.....................................................

31

Total..........................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

.. .. 111.1 24.5 1,090 902 341 872 780 441 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500...................................... 3.1 2.3 403 360 165 366 348 93 500 to 999.............................................. 22.2 14.4 763 660 277 730 646 303 1,000 to 1,499........................................ 19.1 5.8 1,223 1,130 496 1,187 1,086 696 1,500 to 1,999........................................ 14.4 1.0 1,700 1,422 412 1,698 1,544 1,348 2,000 to 2,499........................................ 12.7 0.4 2,139 1,598 Q Q Q Q 2,500 to 2,999........................................ 10.1 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q 3,000 or More......................................... 29.6 0.3 Q Q Q Q Q Q Heated Floorspace (Square Feet) None...................................................... 3.6 1.8 1,048 0 Q 827 0 407 Fewer than 500......................................

32

Total...................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2,033 2,033 1,618 1,031 791 630 401 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500............................................... 3.2 357 336 113 188 177 59 500 to 999....................................................... 23.8 733 667 308 343 312 144 1,000 to 1,499................................................. 20.8 1,157 1,086 625 435 409 235 1,500 to 1,999................................................. 15.4 1,592 1,441 906 595 539 339 2,000 to 2,499................................................. 12.2 2,052 1,733 1,072 765 646 400 2,500 to 2,999................................................. 10.3 2,523 2,010 1,346 939 748 501 3,000 to 3,499................................................. 6.7 3,020 2,185 1,401 1,177 851 546 3,500 to 3,999................................................. 5.2 3,549 2,509 1,508

33

Total...........................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

26.7 26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................... 3.2 1.9 0.9 Q Q Q 1.3 2.3 500 to 999........................................... 23.8 10.5 7.3 3.3 1.4 1.2 6.6 12.9 1,000 to 1,499..................................... 20.8 5.8 7.0 3.8 2.2 2.0 3.9 8.9 1,500 to 1,999..................................... 15.4 3.1 4.2 3.4 2.0 2.7 1.9 5.0 2,000 to 2,499..................................... 12.2 1.7 2.7 2.9 1.8 3.2 1.1 2.8 2,500 to 2,999..................................... 10.3 1.2 2.2 2.3 1.7 2.9 0.6 2.0 3,000 to 3,499..................................... 6.7 0.9 1.4 1.5 1.0 1.9 0.4 1.4 3,500 to 3,999..................................... 5.2 0.8 1.2 1.0 0.8 1.5 0.4 1.3 4,000 or More...................................... 13.3 0.9 1.9 2.2 2.0 6.4 0.6 1.9 Heated Floorspace

34

Total...........................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

14.7 14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500.................................... 3.2 0.7 Q 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.3 Q 500 to 999........................................... 23.8 2.7 1.4 2.2 2.8 5.5 5.1 3.0 1.1 1,000 to 1,499..................................... 20.8 2.3 1.4 2.4 2.5 3.5 3.5 3.6 1.6 1,500 to 1,999..................................... 15.4 1.8 1.4 2.2 2.0 2.4 2.4 2.1 1.2 2,000 to 2,499..................................... 12.2 1.4 0.9 1.8 1.4 2.2 2.1 1.6 0.8 2,500 to 2,999..................................... 10.3 1.6 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.5 1.5 1.7 0.8 3,000 to 3,499..................................... 6.7 1.0 0.5 0.8 0.8 1.2 0.8 0.9 0.8 3,500 to 3,999..................................... 5.2 1.1 0.3 0.7 0.7 0.4 0.5 1.0 0.5 4,000 or More...................................... 13.3

35

Total................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

.. .. 111.1 86.6 2,522 1,970 1,310 1,812 1,475 821 1,055 944 554 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500............................. 3.2 0.9 261 336 162 Q Q Q 334 260 Q 500 to 999.................................... 23.8 9.4 670 683 320 705 666 274 811 721 363 1,000 to 1,499.............................. 20.8 15.0 1,121 1,083 622 1,129 1,052 535 1,228 1,090 676 1,500 to 1,999.............................. 15.4 14.4 1,574 1,450 945 1,628 1,327 629 1,712 1,489 808 2,000 to 2,499.............................. 12.2 11.9 2,039 1,731 1,055 2,143 1,813 1,152 Q Q Q 2,500 to 2,999.............................. 10.3 10.1 2,519 2,004 1,357 2,492 2,103 1,096 Q Q Q 3,000 or 3,499.............................. 6.7 6.6 3,014 2,175 1,438 3,047 2,079 1,108 N N N 3,500 to 3,999.............................. 5.2 5.1 3,549 2,505 1,518 Q Q Q N N N 4,000 or More...............................

36

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Effects of Low Doses of Radiation on  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Abstract Abstract Title: Effects of Low Doses of Radiation on DNA Repair (PNNL Project # 42699) Authors: Eric J. Ackerman, Ph.D. Institutions: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA We developed a functional assay to measure the effects of LDR on repair of many different lesions representative of those found in cells as consequences of normal oxidative metabolism, as well as those caused by radiation. Currently only 1/10th attomole =105 damaged molecules/cell and 3000 cells/measurement are required. We have found that even low doses (10 rad) exert measurable effects on DNA repair. Interestingly, the amount of DNA repair increases at 10-50 rads, plateaus, and then increases even further at higher doses well below doses where radiation-induced lethality

37

Errors and Uncertainties in Dose Reconstruction for Radiation Effects Research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dose reconstruction for studies of the health effects of ionizing radiation have been carried out for many decades. Major studies have included Japanese bomb survivors, atomic veterans, downwinders of the Nevada Test Site and Hanford, underground uranium miners, and populations of nuclear workers. For such studies to be credible, significant effort must be put into applying the best science to reconstructing unbiased absorbed doses to tissues and organs as a function of time. In many cases, more and more sophisticated dose reconstruction methods have been developed as studies progressed. For the example of the Japanese bomb survivors, the dose surrogate “distance from the hypocenter” was replaced by slant range, and then by TD65 doses, DS86 doses, and more recently DS02 doses. Over the years, it has become increasingly clear that an equal level of effort must be expended on the quantitative assessment of uncertainty in such doses, and to reducing and managing uncertainty. In this context, this paper reviews difficulties in terminology, explores the nature of Berkson and classical uncertainties in dose reconstruction through examples, and proposes a path forward for Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER) Project 2.4 that requires a reasonably small level of effort for DOSES-2008.

Strom, Daniel J.

2008-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

38

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Effects of Low Doses of Radiation on  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Low Doses of Radiation on DNA Repair Low Doses of Radiation on DNA Repair Eric Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Why this Project? Even low doses (0.1 Gy) exert measurable effects on DNA repair. The first-known oxidative lesion repaired only by nucleotide excision repair found in normal cells is cyclo-dA. This lesion is found in normal cells and thought to be a byproduct of oxidative metabolism. When this lesion occurs, it stimulates repair. If repair is stimulated by low dose radiation, there are some implications for human health. For example, do some individuals exhibit a greater, lower, or no stimulation to certain DNA lesions? If there are population polymorphism that influence DNA repair, then it would be possible to use our assay for screening individuals for repair sensitivity.

39

CT effective dose per dose length product using ICRP 103 weighting factors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To generate effective dose per unit dose length product (E/DLP) conversion factors incorporating ICRP Publication 103 tissue weighting factors. Methods: Effective doses for CT examinations were obtained using the IMPACT Dosimetry Calculator using all 23 dose data sets that are offered by this spreadsheet. CT examinations were simulated for scans performed along the patient long axis for each dosimetry data set using a 4 cm beam width ranging from the upper thighs to top of the head. Five basic body regions (head, neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis), as well as combinations of the regions (head/neck, chest/abdomen, abdomen/pelvis, and chest/abdomen/pelvis) and whole body CT scans were investigated. Correction factors were generated that can be applied to convert E/DLP conversion factors based on ICRP 60 data to conversion factors that are valid for ICRP 103 data (i.e., E{sub 103}/E{sub 60}). Results: Use of ICRP 103 weighting factors increase effective doses for head scans by {approx}11%, for chest scans by {approx}20%, and decrease effective doses for pelvis scans by {approx}25%. Current E/DLP conversion factors are estimated to be 2.4 {mu}Sv/mGy cm for head CT examinations and range between 14 and 20 {mu}Sv/mGy cm for body CT examinations. Conclusions: Factors that enable patient CT doses to be adjusted to account for ICRP 103 tissue weighting factors are provided, which result in E/DLP factors that were increased in head and chest CT, reduced in pelvis CT, and showed no marked change in neck and abdomen CT.

Huda, Walter; Magill, Dennise; He Wenjun [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, Clemson-MUSC Bioengineering Program, Clemson University, Charleston, South Carolina 29425 (United States)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

40

Chronic Low Dose Radiation Effects on Radiation Sensitivity  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Chronic Low Dose Radiation Effects on Radiation Sensitivity Chronic Low Dose Radiation Effects on Radiation Sensitivity and Chromosome Instability Induction in TK6 Cells Schwartz J.L. 1 , Jordan R. 1 , Slovic J. 1 , Moruzzi A. 1 , Kimmel R. 2 , and Liber, H.L. 3 1 University of Washington, Seattle, WA; 2 Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; 3 Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado There are a number of cell responses that can be detected after low dose radiation exposures including the adaptive response, low dose hypersensitivity, and induced genomic instability. The relationship between these different phenomena is unknown. In this study, we measured adaptive responses, low dose hypersensitivity, and induced genomic instability in a human B-lymphoblastoid cell model, TK6, where we could genetically modify radiation responses by either over-expression of BCL-2 or deletion of TP53. TK6

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41

Low Dose Radiation Exposure: Exploring Bystander Effects In Vivo.  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Exposure: Exploring Bystander Effects Exposure: Exploring Bystander Effects In Vivo. 1 Blyth, B.J., 1 Sykes, P.J. 1 Department of Haematology and Genetic Pathology, Flinders University and Medical Centre, Bedford Park, South Australia, 5042, The general population is daily exposed to chronic, low doses of ionizing radiation from both natural and artificial sources. The shape of the radiation dose-response curve at these low doses is currently linearly extrapolated from data obtained after high dose exposure due to the low sensitivity of traditional biological assays after near-background exposures. At odds with this Linear No-Threshold model, are the phenomena collectively referred to as the radiation-induced bystander effect. The bystander effect describes a collection of in vitro

42

E-Print Network 3.0 - average effective dose Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

effective dose Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 A Unified Framework for PoC and Dose Estimation with Summary: of dose effect Four questions (Ruberg, 1995): 1.Is there any evidence...

43

Alanine/EPR dosimetry applied to the verification of a total body irradiation protocol and treatment planning dose calculation using a humanoid phantom  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To avoid complications in total body irradiation (TBI), it is important to achieve a homogeneous dose distribution throughout the body and to deliver a correct dose to the lung which is an organ at risk. The purpose of this work was to validate the TBI dose protocol and to check the accuracy of the 3D dose calculations of the treatment planning system. Methods: Dosimetry based on alanine/electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was used to measure dose at numerous locations within an anthropomorphic phantom (Alderson) that was irradiated in a clinical TBI beam setup. The alanine EPR dosimetry system was calibrated against water calorimetry in a Co-60 beam and the absorbed dose was determined by the use of ''dose-normalized amplitudes'' A{sub D}. The dose rate of the TBI beam was checked against a Farmer ionization chamber. The phantom measurements were compared to 3D dose calculations from a treatment planning system (Pinnacle) modeled for standard dose calculations. Results: Alanine dosimetry allowed accurate measurements which were in accordance with ionization chamber measurements. The combined relative standard measurement uncertainty in the Alderson phantom was U{sub r}(A{sub D})=0.6%. The humanoid phantom was irradiated to a reference dose of 10 Gy, limiting the lung dose to 7.5 Gy. The ratio of the average measured dose midplane in the craniocaudal direction to the reference dose was 1.001 with a spread of {+-}4.7% (1 sd). Dose to the lung was measured in 26 locations and found, in average, 1.8% lower than expected. Lung dose was homogeneous in the ventral-dorsal direction but a dose gradient of 0.10 Gy cm{sup -1} was observed in the craniocaudal direction midline within the lung lobe. 3D dose calculations (Pinnacle) were found, in average, 2% lower compared to dose measurements on the body axis and 3% lower for the lungs. Conclusions: The alanine/EPR dosimetry system allowed accurate dose measurements which enabled the authors to validate their TBI dose protocol. Dose calculations based on a collapsed cone convolution dose algorithm modeled for regular treatments are accurate within 3% and can further be improved when the algorithm is modeled for TBI.

Schaeken, B.; Lelie, S.; Meijnders, P.; Van den Weyngaert, D.; Janssens, H.; Verellen, D. [NuTeC-EPR Dosimetry Laboratory, Xios Hogeschool Limburg, Technologiecentrum 27, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium) and Department of Radiotherapy, ZNA-Middelheim, Lindendreef 1, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); NuTeC-EPR Dosimetry Laboratory, Xios Hogeschool Limburg, Technologiecentrum 27, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Department of Radiotherapy, ZNA-Middelheim, Lindendreef 1, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); NuTeC-EPR Dosimetry Laboratory, Xios Hogeschool Limburg, Technologiecentrum 27, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); UZ-Brussels, Laarbeeklaan 1, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

44

Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Brain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have reviewed the published data regarding radiotherapy (RT)-induced brain injury. Radiation necrosis appears a median of 1-2 years after RT; however, cognitive decline develops over many years. The incidence and severity is dose and volume dependent and can also be increased by chemotherapy, age, diabetes, and spatial factors. For fractionated RT with a fraction size of <2.5 Gy, an incidence of radiation necrosis of 5% and 10% is predicted to occur at a biologically effective dose of 120 Gy (range, 100-140) and 150 Gy (range, 140-170), respectively. For twice-daily fractionation, a steep increase in toxicity appears to occur when the biologically effective dose is >80 Gy. For large fraction sizes (>=2.5 Gy), the incidence and severity of toxicity is unpredictable. For single fraction radiosurgery, a clear correlation has been demonstrated between the target size and the risk of adverse events. Substantial variation among different centers' reported outcomes have prevented us from making toxicity-risk predictions. Cognitive dysfunction in children is largely seen for whole brain doses of >=18 Gy. No substantial evidence has shown that RT induces irreversible cognitive decline in adults within 4 years of RT.

Lawrence, Yaacov Richard, E-mail: richard.lawrence@jefferson.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); El Naqa, Issam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hahn, Carol A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Effects of environmental parameters to total, quantum and classical correlations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We quantify the total, quantum, and classical correlations with entropic measures, and quantitatively compare these correlations in a quantum system, as exemplified by a Heisenberg dimer which is subjected to the change of environmental parameters: temperature and nonuniform external field. Our results show that the quantum correlation may exceed the classical correlation at some nonzero temperatures, though the former is rather fragile than the later under thermal fluctuation. The effect of the external field to the classical correlation is quite different from the quantum correlation.

Wen-Ling Chan; Jun-Peng Cao; Dong Yang; Shi-Jian Gu

2006-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

46

Effects of non-lethal doses of ionising radiation on the instrumental behaviour of rats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dose-effect dependence of the instrumental behaviour of white rats after a single total ?-exposure (60Co) in the dosage range of 0.05 to 7.0 Gy was studied. Generalised results of seven years of our studies of post-radiation changes of operant behaviour in shuttle (active avoidance of shock â?? negative reinforcement) and in Skinner (drinking reward â?? positive reinforcement) boxes were evaluated weekly for a two-month period after exposure. The dose dependence, obtained using these two behavioural paradigms, displays a non-linear pattern. Three regions with different characteristic patterns of the observed effects were found: performance declines relative to control animals after exposure to doses up to 1.0 Gy; performance increases at doses in the range from 1.0 to 3.0 Gy; and again declines with dose increases up to 7.0 Gy. Possible underlying mechanisms, particularly the role of additional stress caused by animal testing, are discussed.

Eugene V. Tukalenko; Vyacheslav V. Varetsky; Olexander G. Rakochi; Inna R. Dmitrieva; Mikola U. Makarchuk

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Total Pollution Effect and Total Energy Cost per Output of Different Products for Polish Industrial System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For many years a broad use has been made of the indices of total energy requirements in the whole large production system corresponding to unit output of particular goods (Boustead I., Hancock G.F., 1979). The...

Henryk W. Balandynowicz

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Dose optimization with first-order total-variation minimization for dense angularly sampled and sparse intensity modulated radiation therapy (DASSIM-RT)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: A new treatment scheme coined as dense angularly sampled and sparse intensity modulated radiation therapy (DASSIM-RT) has recently been proposed to bridge the gap between IMRT and VMAT. By increasing the angular sampling of radiation beams while eliminating dispensable segments of the incident fields, DASSIM-RT is capable of providing improved conformity in dose distributions while maintaining high delivery efficiency. The fact that DASSIM-RT utilizes a large number of incident beams represents a major computational challenge for the clinical applications of this powerful treatment scheme. The purpose of this work is to provide a practical solution to the DASSIM-RT inverse planning problem. Methods: The inverse planning problem is formulated as a fluence-map optimization problem with total-variation (TV) minimization. A newly released L1-solver, template for first-order conic solver (TFOCS), was adopted in this work. TFOCS achieves faster convergence with less memory usage as compared with conventional quadratic programming (QP) for the TV form through the effective use of conic forms, dual-variable updates, and optimal first-order approaches. As such, it is tailored to specifically address the computational challenges of large-scale optimization in DASSIM-RT inverse planning. Two clinical cases (a prostate and a head and neck case) are used to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed planning technique. DASSIM-RT plans with 15 and 30 beams are compared with conventional IMRT plans with 7 beams in terms of plan quality and delivery efficiency, which are quantified by conformation number (CN), the total number of segments and modulation index, respectively. For optimization efficiency, the QP-based approach was compared with the proposed algorithm for the DASSIM-RT plans with 15 beams for both cases. Results: Plan quality improves with an increasing number of incident beams, while the total number of segments is maintained to be about the same in both cases. For the prostate patient, the conformation number to the target was 0.7509, 0.7565, and 0.7611 with 80 segments for IMRT with 7 beams, and DASSIM-RT with 15 and 30 beams, respectively. For the head and neck (HN) patient with a complicated target shape, conformation numbers of the three treatment plans were 0.7554, 0.7758, and 0.7819 with 75 segments for all beam configurations. With respect to the dose sparing to the critical structures, the organs such as the femoral heads in the prostate case and the brainstem and spinal cord in the HN case were better protected with DASSIM-RT. For both cases, the delivery efficiency has been greatly improved as the beam angular sampling increases with the similar or better conformal dose distribution. Compared with conventional quadratic programming approaches, first-order TFOCS-based optimization achieves far faster convergence and smaller memory requirements in DASSIM-RT. Conclusions: The new optimization algorithm TFOCS provides a practical and timely solution to the DASSIM-RT or other inverse planning problem requiring large memory space. The new treatment scheme is shown to outperform conventional IMRT in terms of dose conformity to both the targetand the critical structures, while maintaining high delivery efficiency.

Kim, Hojin; Li Ruijiang; Lee, Rena; Goldstein, Thomas; Boyd, Stephen; Candes, Emmanuel; Xing Lei [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-9505 (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Ehwa University, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-9505 (United States); Department of Statistics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-4065 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5304 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

49

Influence of organs in the ICRP's remainder on effective dose equivalent computed for diagnostic radiation exposures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ICRP effective dose equivalent has been compared with a weighted dose equivalent, computed by treating the entire remainder instead of the sample of five remainder organs in the ICRP method as uniformly radiosensitive, for dose distributions from three common diagnostic exposures: chest, dental full-mouth and dental panoramic. Complete dose distributions were computed by a Monte Carlo model. In all three cases the effective dose equivalent was greater than the weighted dose equivalent. The difference was only 20% for the chest exam but was more than fivefold for both dental exposures. Dose distributions for the dental exposures were less homogeneous than for the chest examination. Selection of organs to be included in the remainder markedly affects the effective dose equivalent. In the case of highly inhomogeneous dose distributions, the effective dose equivalent probably significantly over-estimates radiation detriment.

Gibbs, S.J.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Characterizing Bystander Effects  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Irradiation. Irradiation. Authors: L.A. Braby and J.R. Ford. Institutions: Texas A&M University. Bystander effects, which are typically seen as in increase in the cellular concentration of specific repair related molecules or as cytogenetic changes which appear to be the consequence of DNA damage, may be a significant factor in the risk of long-term health effects of low doses of radiation. These effects clearly increase the effective size of the target for radiation response, from the diameter of a single cell or cell nucleus to something significantly larger, by bringing additional cells into the process. It is unclear whether this larger target will result in an increase or a decrease in the probability of inducing a change which would be detrimental to the health of the organism, but it clearly reduces the

51

Hanford Technical Basis for Multiple Dosimetry Effective Dose Methodology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current method at Hanford for dealing with the results from multiple dosimeters worn during non-uniform irradiation is to use a compartmentalization method to calculate the effective dose (E). The method, as documented in the current version of Section 6.9.3 in the 'Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual, PNL-MA-842,' is based on the compartmentalization method presented in the 1997 ANSI/HPS N13.41 standard, 'Criteria for Performing Multiple Dosimetry.' With the adoption of the ICRP 60 methodology in the 2007 revision to 10 CFR 835 came changes that have a direct affect on the compartmentalization method described in the 1997 ANSI/HPS N13.41 standard, and, thus, to the method used at Hanford. The ANSI/HPS N13.41 standard committee is in the process of updating the standard, but the changes to the standard have not yet been approved. And, the drafts of the revision of the standard tend to align more with ICRP 60 than with the changes specified in the 2007 revision to 10 CFR 835. Therefore, a revised method for calculating effective dose from non-uniform external irradiation using a compartmental method was developed using the tissue weighting factors and remainder organs specified in 10 CFR 835 (2007).

Hill, Robin L.; Rathbone, Bruce A.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Standard Test Method for Measuring Dose for Use in Linear Accelerator Pulsed Radiation Effects Tests  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 This test method covers a calorimetric measurement of the total dose delivered in a single pulse of electrons from an electron linear accelerator or a flash X-ray machine (FXR, e-beam mode) used as an ionizing source in radiation-effects testing. The test method is designed for use with pulses of electrons in the energy range from 10 to 50 MeV and is only valid for cases in which both the calorimeter and the test specimen to be irradiated are“thin” compared to the range of these electrons in the materials of which they are constructed. 1.2 The procedure described can be used in those cases in which (1) the dose delivered in a single pulse is 5 Gy (matl) (500 rd (matl)) or greater, or (2) multiple pulses of a lower dose can be delivered in a short time compared to the thermal time constant of the calorimeter. Matl refers to the material of the calorimeter. The minimum dose per pulse that can be acceptably monitored depends on the variables of the particular test, including pulse rate, pulse uniformity...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

RADIATION EXPOSURE DURING PAEDIATRIC CT IN SUDAN: CT DOSE, ORGAN AND EFFECTIVE DOSES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research-article Paper RADIATION EXPOSURE DURING PAEDIATRIC...Energy Commission, Radiation Safety Institute, PO Box 3001...assess the magnitude of radiation exposure during paediatric...CT-Expo 2.1 dosimetry software. Doses were evaluated......

I. I. Suliman; H. M. Khamis; T. H. Ombada; K. Alzimami; M. Alkhorayef; A. Sulieman

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

E-Print Network 3.0 - annual effective dose Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dose Calculations For The Annual Environmental Surveillance Report Effective Date: 7112008 Next... ;Procedure No : SOP-5203 Revision: 0 Effective Date: 7112008...

55

Committed effective dose from naturally occuring radionuclides in shellfish  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recognizing their importance in the average Malaysian daily diet, the radioactivity concentrations in mollusc- and crustacean-based food have been determined for key naturally occuring radionuclides. Fresh samples collected from various maritime locations around peninsular Malaysia have been processed using standard procedures; the radionuclide concentrations being determined using an \\{HPGe\\} ?-ray spectrometer. For molluscs, assuming secular equilibrium, the range of activities of 238U (226Ra), 232Th (228Ra) and 40K were found to be 3.28±0.35 to 5.34±0.52, 1.20±0.21 to 2.44±0.21 and 118±6 to 281±14 Bq kg?1 dry weight, respectively. The respective values for crustaceans were 3.02±0.57 to 4.70±0.52, 1.38±0.21 to 2.40±0.35 and 216±11 to 316±15 Bq kg?1. The estimated average daily intake of radioactivity from consumption of molluscs are 0.37 Bq kg?1 for 238U (226Ra), 0.16 Bq kg?1 for 232Th (228Ra) and 18 Bq kg?1 for 40K; the respective daily intake values from crustaceans are 0.36 Bq kg?1, 0.16 Bq kg?1 and 23 Bq kg?1. Associated annual committed effective doses from molluscs are estimated to be in the range 21.3 to 34.7 ?Sv for 226Ra, 19.3 to 39.1 ?Sv for 228Ra and 17.0 to 40.4 ?Sv for 40K. For crustaceans, the respective dose ranges are 19.6 to 30.5 ?Sv, 22.0 to 38.4 ?Sv and 31.1 to 45.5 ?Sv, being some several times world average values.

Mayeen Uddin Khandaker; Norfadira Binti Wahib; Yusoff Mohd. Amin; D.A. Bradley

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

The Effects of High Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiations on Solutions of Iron and Cerium Salts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article The Effects of High Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiations on Solutions of Iron and Cerium...of 1.3 duration and over a range of dose rates from 0.5 to 20 000 rads/pulse. Radiation yields at constant dose rate...

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

MEASUREMENT OF THE HIGH GAMMA RADIATION DOSE USING THE MEMS BASED DOSIMETER AND RADIOLISYS EFFECT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

radiation dose. If we consider, that the average time of exploitation is estimated to be 40 years and veryMEASUREMENT OF THE HIGH GAMMA RADIATION DOSE USING THE MEMS BASED DOSIMETER AND RADIOLISYS EFFECT M of high and very high doses of ionizing radiation is crucial for the monitoring of the existing Nuclear

Boyer, Edmond

58

The Reproductive Effects in Rats after Chronic Oral Exposure to Low-dose Depleted Uranium  

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......Oral Exposure to Low-dose Depleted Uranium Yuhui Hao Rong Li * Yanbing...study evaluated the effects of depleted uranium (DU) on reproduction in rats...effects were obvious in F1 rats. Depleted uranium|Ingestion|Reproductive effects......

Yuhui Hao; Rong Li; Yanbing Leng; Jiong Ren; Jing Liu; Guoping Ai; Hui Xu; Yongping Su; Tianmin Cheng

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Heart  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The literature is reviewed to identify the main clinical and dose-volume predictors for acute and late radiation-induced heart disease. A clear quantitative dose and/or volume dependence for most cardiac toxicity has not yet been shown, primarily because of the scarcity of the data. Several clinical factors, such as age, comorbidities and doxorubicin use, appear to increase the risk of injury. The existing dose-volume data is presented, as well as suggestions for future investigations to better define radiation-induced cardiac injury.

Gagliardi, Giovanna, E-mail: giovanna.gagliardi@karolinska.s [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Constine, Louis S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Cancer Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Moiseenko, Vitali [Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Correa, Candace; Pierce, Lori J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Allen, Aaron M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana- Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Rabin Medical Center Petach Tikvah (Israel); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

The Impact of Heart Irradiation on Dose-Volume Effects in the Rat Lung  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To test the hypothesis that heart irradiation increases the risk of a symptomatic radiation-induced loss of lung function (SRILF) and that this can be well-described as a modulation of the functional reserve of the lung. Methods and Materials: Rats were irradiated with 150-MeV protons. Dose-response curves were obtained for a significant increase in breathing frequency after irradiation of 100%, 75%, 50%, or 25% of the total lung volume, either including or excluding the heart from the irradiation field. A significant increase in the mean respiratory rate after 6-12 weeks compared with 0-4 weeks was defined as SRILF, based on biweekly measurements of the respiratory rate. The critical volume (CV) model was used to describe the risk of SRILF. Fits were done using a maximum likelihood method. Consistency between model and data was tested using a previously developed goodness-of-fit test. Results: The CV model could be fitted consistently to the data for lung irradiation only. However, this fitted model failed to predict the data that also included heart irradiation. Even refitting the model to all data resulted in a significant difference between model and data. These results imply that, although the CV model describes the risk of SRILF when the heart is spared, the model needs to be modified to account for the impact of dose to the heart on the risk of SRILF. Finally, a modified CV model is described that is consistent to all data. Conclusions: The detrimental effect of dose to the heart on the incidence of SRILF can be described by a dose dependent decrease in functional reserve of the lung.

Luijk, Peter van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center, Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: p.van.luijk@rt.umcg.nl; Faber, Hette [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, Section Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Meertens, Harm [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center, Groningen (Netherlands); Schippers, Jacobus M. [Accelerator Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switerland (Switzerland); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center, Groningen (Netherlands); Brandenburg, Sytze [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Kampinga, Harm H. [Department of Cell Biology, Section Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Coppes, Robert P. Ph.D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, Section Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

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61

Calculation of total effective dose equivalent and collective dose in the event of a LOCA in Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant  

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......3000 MW Duration of reactor operation at nominal...nominal loading of the reactor 79,870 kg Fuel burn-up...accident scenario, the reactor containment is not breached...study is providing more reliability to the results through...in the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) of BNPP......

G. Raisali; H. Davilu; A. Haghighishad; R. Khodadadi; M. Sabet

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Dose-Effect Relationship in Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: A Randomized Trial Comparing Two Radiation Doses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Locally advanced rectal cancer represents a major therapeutic challenge. Preoperative chemoradiation therapy is considered standard, but little is known about the dose-effect relationship. The present study represents a dose-escalation phase III trial comparing 2 doses of radiation. Methods and Materials: The inclusion criteria were resectable T3 and T4 tumors with a circumferential margin of {<=}5 mm on magnetic resonance imaging. The patients were randomized to receive 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions to the tumor and pelvic lymph nodes (arm A) or the same treatment supplemented with an endorectal boost given as high-dose-rate brachytherapy (10 Gy in 2 fractions; arm B). Concomitant chemotherapy, uftoral 300 mg/m{sup 2} and L-leucovorin 22.5 mg/d, was added to both arms on treatment days. The primary endpoint was complete pathologic remission. The secondary endpoints included tumor response and rate of complete resection (R0). Results: The study included 248 patients. No significant difference was found in toxicity or surgical complications between the 2 groups. Based on intention to treat, no significant difference was found in the complete pathologic remission rate between the 2 arms (18% and 18%). The rate of R0 resection was different in T3 tumors (90% and 99%; P=.03). The same applied to the rate of major response (tumor regression grade, 1+2), 29% and 44%, respectively (P=.04). Conclusions: This first randomized trial comparing 2 radiation doses indicated that the higher dose increased the rate of major response by 50% in T3 tumors. The endorectal boost is feasible, with no significant increase in toxicity or surgical complications.

Jakobsen, Anders, E-mail: anders.jakobsen@slb.regionsyddanmark.dk [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark) [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark); University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Ploen, John [University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark)] [University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Vuong, Te [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Appelt, Ane [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark) [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark); University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Lindebjerg, Jan; Rafaelsen, Soren R. [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark)] [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

Attribution of the presentday total greenhouse effect Gavin A. Schmidt,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Attribution of the presentday total greenhouse effect Gavin A. Schmidt,1 Reto A. Ruedy,1 Ron L to the presentday global greenhouse effect are among the most misquoted statistics in public discussions of climate though the magnitude of the total greenhouse effect is significantly larger than the initial radiative

64

Dose-Rate Dependence of High-Dose Health Effects in Humans from Photon Radiation with Application to Radiological Terrorism  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1981, as part of a symposium entitled ''The Control of Exposure of the Public to Ionizing Radiation in the Event of Accident or Attack,'' Lushbaugh, H?bner, and Fry published a paper examining ''radiation tolerance'' of various human health endpoints as a function of dose rate. This paper may not have received the notice it warrants. The health endpoints examined by Lushbaugh et al. were the lethal dose that will kill 50% of people within 60 days of exposure without medical care (LD50/60); severe bone marrow damage in healthy men; severe bone marrow damage in leukemia patients; temporary sterility (azoospermia); reduced male fertility; and late effects such as cancer. Their analysis was grounded in extensive clinical experience and anchored to a few selected data points, and based on the 1968 dose-rate dependence theory of J.L. Bateman. The Lushbaugh et al. paper did not give predictive equations for the relationships, although they were implied in the text, and the relationships were presented in a non-intuitive way. This work derives the parameters needed in Bateman's equation for each health endpoint, tabulates the results, and plots them in a more conventional manner on logarithmic scales. The results give a quantitative indication of how the human organism can tolerate more radiation dose when it is delivered at lower dose rates. For example, the LD50/60 increases from about 3 grays (300 rads) when given at very high dose rates to over 10 grays (1,000 rads) when given at much lower dose rates over periods of several months. The latter figure is borne out by the case of an individual who survived for at least 19 years after receiving doses in the range of 9 to 17 grays (900-1700 rads) over 106 days. The Lushbaugh et al. work shows the importance of sheltering when confronted with long-term exposure to radiological contamination such as would be expected from a radiological dispersion event, reactor accident, or ground-level nuclear explosion.

Strom, Daniel J.

2005-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

65

USE OF MOVING AVERAGES AND INTERPOLATION TO ESTIMATE MEDIAN-EFFECTIVE DOSE: I. Fundamental Formulas, Estimation of Error, and Relation to Other Methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...median-effective dose; fundamental formulas, estimation of error, and...median-effective dose, in cases of a...150-154. 144 ESTIMATION OF MEDL4N-EFFECTIVE DOSE 31. EJUSSEY...The effects of radiations on biological systems...

William R. Thompson

1947-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

The effect of different adaptation strengths on image quality and radiation dose using Siemens Care Dose 4D  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......undertaking strategies for CT radiation dose optimisation...supported by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSI P 1579...4D new technique for radiation dose reduction. SOMATOM...Application Guide. Software Version syngo CT 2005A......

Marcus Söderberg; Mikael Gunnarsson

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Effective dose in the manufacturing process of rutile covered welding electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Shielded metal arc welding using covered electrodes is the most common welding process. Sometimes the covering contains naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs). In Spain the most used electrodes are those covered with rutile mixed with other materials. Rutile contains some detectable natural radionuclides, so it can be considered a NORM. This paper mainly focuses on the use of MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code) as a predictive tool to obtain doses in a factory which produces this type of electrode and assess the radiological impact in a specific facility after estimating the internal dose.To do this, in the facility, areas of highest radiation and positions of workers were identified, radioactive content of rutile and rutile covered electrodes was measured, and, considering a worst possible scenario, external dose at working points has been calculated using MCNP. This procedure has been validated comparing the results obtained with those from a pressurised ionisation chamber and TLD dosimeters. The internal dose has been calculated using DCAL (dose and risk calculation). The doses range between 8.8 and 394 ?Sv yr?1, always lower than the effective dose limit for the public, 1 mSv yr?1. The highest dose corresponds to the mixing area.

M Herranz; S Rozas; C Pérez; R Idoeta; R Núñez-Lagos; F Legarda

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Radiosurgery for Para-IAC Meningiomas: The Effect of Radiation Dose to the Cochlea on Hearing Outcome  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: This study was performed to assess the radiosurgical results of meningiomas extending into the internal acoustic canal (para-IAC meningiomas), with a particular focus on the effect of radiation dose to the cochlea on hearing outcome. Methods and Materials: A total of 50 patients who underwent radiosurgery for para-IAC meningiomas between 1998 and 2009, which were followed for 2 years, were enrolled. The mean age was 55.8 years (range, 15-75). The mean tumor volume was 6.1 cm{sup 3} (range, 1.0-19.0), the mean tumor length in the IAC was 6.9 mm (range, 1.3-13.3), and the mean prescribed marginal dose was 13.1 Gy (range, 10-15) at an isodose line of 50%. The mean follow-up duration was 46 months (range, 24-122). Results: Eight (16.0%) patients had nonserviceable hearing at the time of surgery. At the last follow-up, the tumor control rate was 94%; unchanged in 17 patients, decreased in 30 patients, and increased in 3 patients. Among 42 patients with serviceable hearing at the time of radiosurgery, it was preserved in 41 (97.6%) patients at the last follow-up. The maximal and mean radiation doses to the cochleae of these 41 patients were 5.8 Gy {+-} 0.3 (range, 3.1-11.5) and 4.3 Gy {+-} 0.2 (range, 2.2-7.5), respectively. The maximal dose to the cochlea of the patient who lost hearing after radiosurgery was 4.7 Gy. Conclusions: The radiation dose to the cochlea may have the minimal toxic effect on the hearing outcome in patients who undergo radiosurgery for para-IAC meningiomas.

Kim, Young-Hoon [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Gyu, E-mail: gknife@plaza.snu.ac.kr [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jung Ho [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hyun-Tai; Kim, In Kyung; Song, Sang Woo [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong-Hoon [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Yong Hwy; Park, Chul-Kee [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chae-Yong [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Sun Ha; Jung, Hee-Won [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Estimation of risk from medical radiation exposure based on effective and organ dose: how much difference is there?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Russian Basic Sanitary Radiation Protection Standards...Basic Sanitary Rules for Radiation Safety of 2010(3). It is...CT)(4). Although radiation dose is the primary...effective dose; this software is addressed to radiologists......

V. K. Ivanov; V. V. Kashcheev; S. Yu. Chekin; A. N. Menyaylo; E. A. Pryakhin; A. F. Tsyb; F. A. Mettler

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

In Vivo Effects of Low Dose γ-Rays on Mitochondrial Function  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In Vivo Effects of Low Dose γ-Rays on Mitochondrial Function In Vivo Effects of Low Dose γ-Rays on Mitochondrial Function Edouard Azzam New Jersey Medical School Cancer Center Abstract Mitochondria consume about 90% of the body’s oxygen and are the richest source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). They play an integral part in signaling events that occur in response to oxidizing agents, including ionizing radiation. To gain insight into radiation-induced effects on mitochondria, we investigated the in vivo effects of low dose γ-rays on mitochondrial protein import, aconitase activity and modulation of antioxidants in tissues of whole body-irradiated mice. Mitochondrial protein import is a fundamental mechanism of mitochondrial biogenesis, and the TCA cycle in the mitochondrial matrix is a central pathway of oxidative

71

Effect of stress at dosing on organophosphate and heavy metal toxicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reviews recent studies assessing the effect of well-defined, severe, transient stress at dosing on two classical models of toxicity. These are the acute (anticholinesterase) toxicity seen following exposure to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos, and the nephrotoxicity elicited by the heavy metal depleted uranium, in rats. Stress was induced by periods of restraint and forced swimming in days to weeks preceding toxicant exposure. Forced swimming was far more stressful, as measured by marked, if transient, elevation of plasma corticosterone. This form of stress was administered immediately prior to administration of chlorpyrifos or depleted uranium. Chlorpyrifos (single 60 mg/kg subcutaneously) elicited marked inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase 4-day post-dosing. Depleted uranium (single intramuscular doses of 0.1, 0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg uranium) elicited dose-dependent increase in kidney concentration of the metal, with associated injury to proximal tubular epithelium and increases in serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine during the 30-day post-dosing period. Stress at dosing had no effect on these toxicologic endpoints.

Jortner, Bernard S. [Laboratory for Neurotoxicity Studies, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, 1 Duck Pond Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0442 (United States)], E-mail: bjortner@vt.edu

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

72

Effective dose equivalent to the operator in intra-oral dental radiography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effective dose equivalent to the operator in intra-oral dental radiography has been determined. The exposure from a bitewing radiograph and periapical views of the left maxillary incisors and first molar was measured at nine heights and 16 positions, all 1 m from the patient. The effective dose equivalent was determined using data from ICRP 51 (International Commission on Radiological Protection: Data for Use in Protection Against External Radiation). The values presented are related to an exposure of 1 C kg-1 (3876 R) measured free in air at the tube-end. They thus constitute ratios which are not influenced by the sensitivity of the film or other detector used and form standard tables which permit the calculation of the effective dose equivalent in clinical situations.

de Haan, R.A.; van Aken, J. (Utrecht Univ., (The Netherlands))

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

A method to estimate the effect of deformable image registration uncertainties on daily dose mapping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To develop a statistical sampling procedure for spatially-correlated uncertainties in deformable image registration and then use it to demonstrate their effect on daily dose mapping. Methods: Sequential daily CT studies are acquired to map anatomical variations prior to fractionated external beam radiotherapy. The CTs are deformably registered to the planning CT to obtain displacement vector fields (DVFs). The DVFs are used to accumulate the dose delivered each day onto the planning CT. Each DVF has spatially-correlated uncertainties associated with it. Principal components analysis (PCA) is applied to measured DVF error maps to produce decorrelated principal component modes of the errors. The modes are sampled independently and reconstructed to produce synthetic registration error maps. The synthetic error maps are convolved with dose mapped via deformable registration to model the resulting uncertainty in the dose mapping. The results are compared to the dose mapping uncertainty that would result from uncorrelated DVF errors that vary randomly from voxel to voxel. Results: The error sampling method is shown to produce synthetic DVF error maps that are statistically indistinguishable from the observed error maps. Spatially-correlated DVF uncertainties modeled by our procedure produce patterns of dose mapping error that are different from that due to randomly distributed uncertainties. Conclusions: Deformable image registration uncertainties have complex spatial distributions. The authors have developed and tested a method to decorrelate the spatial uncertainties and make statistical samples of highly correlated error maps. The sample error maps can be used to investigate the effect of DVF uncertainties on daily dose mapping via deformable image registration. An initial demonstration of this methodology shows that dose mapping uncertainties can be sensitive to spatial patterns in the DVF uncertainties.

Murphy, Martin J.; Salguero, Francisco J.; Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Staub, David; Vaman, Constantin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond Virginia 23298 (United States)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

Effect of the embolization material in the dose calculation for stereotactic radiosurgery of arteriovenous malformations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is reported in the literature that the material used in an embolization of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) can attenuate the radiation beams used in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) up to 10% to 15%. The purpose of this work is to assess the dosimetric impact of this attenuating material in the SRS treatment of embolized AVMs, using Monte Carlo simulations assuming clinical conditions. A commercial Monte Carlo dose calculation engine was used to recalculate the dose distribution of 20 AVMs previously planned with a pencil beam dose calculation algorithm. Dose distributions were compared using the following metrics: average, minimal and maximum dose of AVM, and 2D gamma index. The effect in the obliteration rate was investigated using radiobiological models. It was found that the dosimetric impact of the embolization material is less than 1.0 Gy in the prescription dose to the AVM for the 20 cases studied. The impact in the obliteration rate is less than 4.0%. There is reported evidence in the literature that embolized AVMs treated with SRS have low obliteration rates. This work shows that there are dosimetric implications that should be considered in the final treatment decisions for embolized AVMs.

Galván de la Cruz, Olga Olinca [Unidad de Radioneurocirugía, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (Mexico); Lárraga-Gutiérrez, José Manuel, E-mail: jlarraga@innn.edu.mx [Unidad de Radioneurocirugía, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (Mexico); Laboratorio de Física Médica, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (Mexico); Moreno-Jiménez, Sergio [Unidad de Radioneurocirugía, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (Mexico); García-Garduño, Olivia Amanda [Unidad de Radioneurocirugía, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (Mexico); Laboratorio de Física Médica, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (Mexico); Celis, Miguel Angel [Unidad de Radioneurocirugía, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (Mexico)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Investigation of non-targeted effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the mammary gland  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

non-targeted effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the mammary gland non-targeted effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the mammary gland utilizing three-dimensional culture models of mammary cells derived from mouse strains that differ in susceptibility to tumorigenesis Joni D. Mott, Antoine M. Snijders, Alvin Lo, Dinah Levy-Groesser, Bahram Parvin, Andrew J. Wyrobek, Jian-Hua Mao, and Mina J. Bissell Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA 94720 Goal: Within the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's SFA, Project 2, our studies focus on utilizing three dimensional (3D) cell culture models as surrogates for in vivo studies to determine how low doses of ionizing radiation influence mammary gland tissue architecture and how this may relate both to tumor progression and/or adaptive response.

76

Risk Factors and Dose-Effect Relationship for Mandibular Osteoradionecrosis in Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer Patients  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To analyze risk factors and the dose-effect relationship for osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the mandible after radiotherapy of oral and oropharyngeal cancers. Materials and Methods: One-hundred ninety-eight patients with oral (45%) and oropharyngeal cancer (55%) who had received external radiotherapy between 1990 and 2000 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had a dental evaluation before radiotherapy. The median radiation dose was 60 Gy (range, 16-75 Gy), and the median biologically effective dose for late effects (BED{sub late}) in bone was 114 Gy{sub 2} (range, 30-167 Gy{sub 2}). Results: The frequency of ORN was 13 patients (6.6%). Among patients with mandibular surgery, eight had ORN at the surgical site. Among patients without mandibular surgery, five patients had ORN on the molar area of the mandible. The median time to ORN was 22 months (range, 1-69 months). Univariate analysis revealed that mandibular surgery and Co-60 were significant risk factors for ORN (p = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). In multivariate analysis, mandibular surgery was the most important factor (p = 0.001). High radiation doses over BED 102.6 Gy{sub 2} (conventional dose of 54 Gy at 1.8 Gy/fraction) were also a significant factor for ORN (p = 0.008) and showed a positive dose-effect relationship in logistic regression (p = 0.04) for patients who had undergone mandibular surgery. Conclusions: Mandibular surgery was the most significant risk factor for ORN of mandible in oral and oropharyngeal cancers patients. A BED of 102.6 Gy{sub 2} or higher to the mandible also significantly increases the risk of ORN.

Lee, Ik Jae; Koom, Woong Sub [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Geol, E-mail: cglee1023@yuhs.a [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Bae; Yoo, Sei Whan; Keum, Ki Chang; Kim, Gwi Eon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Chang [Department of Otolaryngology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, In Ho [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

Calculation of conversion factors for effective dose for various interventional radiology procedures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To provide dose-area-product (DAP) to effective dose (E) conversion factors for complete interventional procedures, based on in-the-field clinical measurements of DAP values and using tabulated E/DAP conversion factors for single projections available from the literature. Methods: Nine types of interventional procedures were performed on 84 patients with two angiographic systems. Different calibration curves (with and without patient table attenuation) were calculated for each DAP meter. Clinical and dosimetric parameters were recorded in-the-field for each projection and for all patients, and a conversion factor linking DAP and effective doses was derived for each complete procedure making use of published, Monte Carlo calculated conversion factors for single static projections. Results: Fluoroscopy time and DAP values for the lowest-dose procedure (biliary drainage) were approximately 3-fold and 13-fold lower, respectively, than those for the highest-dose examination (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, TIPS). Median E/DAP conversion factors from 0.12 (abdominal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty) to 0.25 (Nephrostomy) mSvGy{sup -1} cm{sup -2} were obtained and good correlations between E and DAP were found for all procedures, with R{sup 2} coefficients ranging from 0.80 (abdominal angiography) to 0.99 (biliary stent insertion, Nephrostomy and TIPS). The DAP values obtained in this study showed general consistency with the values provided in the literature and median E values ranged from 4.0 mSv (biliary drainage) to 49.6 mSv (TIPS). Conclusions: Values of E/DAP conversion factors were derived for each procedure from a comprehensive analysis of projection and dosimetric data: they could provide a good evaluation for the stochastic effects. These results can be obtained by means of a close cooperation between different interventional professionals involved in patient care and dose optimization.

Compagnone, Gaetano; Giampalma, Emanuela; Domenichelli, Sara; Renzulli, Matteo; Golfieri, Rita [Medical Physics Department, S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Radiology Department, S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Medical Physics Department, S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Radiology Department, S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna (Italy)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

78

Dose-dependent cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of antineoplastic alkylating agents on human lymphoblastoid cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The alkylating agents in clinical use as antineoplastics are strongly implicated as human carcinogens on the basis of animal studies and human epidemiologic studies. However, there is little quantitative information on the extent to which exposure to these drugs is mutagenic for normal (non-malignant) cells and the extent to which such mutagenicity correlates with cytotoxicity of these agents. Human lymphoblastoid cells (WIL2-NS) were exposed to graded doses of eight antineoplastic alkylating agents. Dose-dependent decreases in survival were used to calculate IC{sub 50}s for each of the drugs tested. The mutagenicity of these agents is correlated strongly with cytotoxicity. These results quantitate the dose-dependent cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of these bifunctional alkylating agents on human cells. All are cytotoxic and mutagenic, although their mutagenic efficiency varies.

Sanderson, B.J.S.; Johnson, K.J.; Henner, W.D. (Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Combined methodology for estimating dose rates and health effects from exposure to radioactive pollutants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work described in the report is basically a synthesis of two previously existing computer codes: INREM II, developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); and CAIRD, developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The INREM II code uses contemporary dosimetric methods to estimate doses to specified reference organs due to inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide. The CAIRD code employs actuarial life tables to account for competing risks in estimating numbers of health effects resulting from exposure of a cohort to some incremental risk. The combined computer code, referred to as RADRISK, estimates numbers of health effects in a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 persons due to continuous lifetime inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide. Also briefly discussed in this report is a method of estimating numbers of health effects in a hypothetical cohort due to continuous lifetime exposure to external radiation. This method employs the CAIRD methodology together with dose conversion factors generated by the computer code DOSFACTER, developed at ORNL; these dose conversion factors are used to estimate dose rates to persons due to radionuclides in the air or on the ground surface. The combination of the life table and dosimetric guidelines for the release of radioactive pollutants to the atmosphere, as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.

Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Leggett, R.W.; Yalcintas, M.G.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Dose-Response Effect of Charged Carbon Beam on Normal Rat Retina Assessed by Electroretinography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To compare the effects of carbon beam irradiation with those of proton beam irradiation on the physiology of the retina of rats. Methods and Materials: Eight-week-old Wister rats were used. The right eyes were irradiated with carbon beam (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 Gy) or proton beam (4, 8, 16, and 24 Gy) with the rats under general anesthesia. Electroretinograms were recorded 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the irradiation, and the amplitudes of the a and b waves were compared with those of control rats. Results: The amplitude of b waves was reduced more than that of a waves at lower irradiation doses with both types of irradiation. With carbon ion irradiation, the amplitudes of the b wave were significantly reduced after radiation doses of 8 and 16 Gy at 6 months and by radiation doses of 4, 8, and 16 Gy at 12 months. With proton beam irradiation, the b-wave amplitudes were significantly reduced after 16 and 24 Gy at 6 months and with doses of 8 Gy or greater at 12 months. For the maximum b-wave amplitude, a significant difference was observed in rats irradiated with carbon beams of 4 Gy or more and with proton beams of 8 Gy or more at 12 months after irradiation. Conclusions: These results indicate that carbon beam irradiation is about two times more damaging than proton beam irradiation on the rat retina at the same dose.

Mizota, Atsushi, E-mail: mizota-a@med.teikyo-u.ac.j [Department of Ophthalmology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Urayasu (Japan); Tanaka, Minoru [Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Urayasu (Japan); Kubota, Mariko; Negishi, Hisanari [Department of Ophthalmology, National Hospital Organization Chiba Medical Center, Chiba (Japan); Watanabe, Emiko [Department of Ophthalmology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Tsuji, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Nobuyuki; Furusawa, Yoshiya [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total effective dose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

PATIENT DOSE FOR COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY EXAMINATION: DOSE REFERENCE LEVELS AND EFFECTIVE DOSES BASED ON A NATIONAL SURVEY OF 2013 IN KOREA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......dose at three types of phantom studies (brain, chest and abdomen) were compared with...64-slice CT of four manufacturers in brain, chest and abdomen CT. RESULTS Characteristics...Sequential scanning was used more often in brain CT. The majority of chest, abdomen and......

Moon Chan Kim; Dong Kyoon Han; Yoon Chul Nam; Yon Min Kim; Joon Yoon

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

The estimation of the effective dose to a population from nuclear medicine procedures in north of Iran  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Despite extensive research over the last decades, there remain considerable uncertainties as to the risks of low doses of ionising radiation as encountered in nuclear medicine. The effective dose to a population is a very important factor in the estimation of risk. The main goal of this study is to determine the effective dose to members of the public from diagnostic nuclear medicine in the northern province, Mazandaran, of Iran.

Ali Shabestani Monfared; Mehrangiz Amiri; Fereidoon Mahboob; Sima Farahi Ashtiani

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Table 5a. Total District Heat Consumption per Effective Occupied Square  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

a. Total District Heat Consumption per Effective a. Total District Heat Consumption per Effective Occupied Square Foot, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings Using District Heat (thousand) Total District Heat Consumption (trillion Btu) District Heat Intensities (thousand Btu) Per Square Foot Per Effective Occupied Square Foot All Buildings 94 429 84 93 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 18 Q Q Q 5,001 to 10,000 11 Q Q Q 10,001 to 25,000 28 65 144 155 25,001 to 50,000 16 Q Q Q 50,001 to 100,000 9 50 79 81 100,001 to 200,000 6 59 76 79 200,001 to 500,000 5 109 71 77 Over 500,000 1 65 62 80 Principal Building Activity Education 22 50 71 78 Food Sales and Service Q Q Q Q Health Care 3 57 100 142 Lodging 9 66 112 116 Mercantile and Service 9 Q Q Q Office 24 110 63 70 Public Assembly 10 23 64 66 Public Order and Safety Q Q Q Q Religious Worship Q Q Q Q Warehouse and Storage

84

Low-dose Photon and Simulated Solar Particle Event Proton Effects on Foxp3+  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Photon and Simulated Solar Particle Event Proton Effects on Foxp3+ Photon and Simulated Solar Particle Event Proton Effects on Foxp3+ Treg Cells and Other Leukocytes Daila Gridley Loma Linda University and Medical Center Abstract Purpose: Radiation is a major factor in the spaceflight environment that can compromise immune defense mechanisms. Astronauts on missions are continuously exposed to lowdose/ low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation and may receive relatively high doses during a solar particle event (SPE) that consists primarily of protons. However, there are very few reports in which LDR photons were combined with protons. The goal of this study was to determine whether exposure to LDR γ-rays would modulate the effect of proton radiation mimicking an SPE. Materials and Methods: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 1.7 Gy simulated SPE

85

THE MAGNETIC CONFINEMENT OF ELECTRON AND PHOTON DOSE PROFILES AND THE POSSIBLE EFFECT OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD ON  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE MAGNETIC CONFINEMENT OF ELECTRON AND PHOTON DOSE PROFILES AND THE POSSIBLE EFFECT OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD ON RELATIVE BIOLOGICAL EFFECTIVENESS by Yu Chen A dissertation submitted in partial magnetic field can significantly improve electron beam dose profiles. This could permit improved targeting

Becchetti, Fred

86

Effects of low-dose radiation on immune cell function using genetic and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

low-dose radiation on immune cell function using genetic and low-dose radiation on immune cell function using genetic and metabolomics approaches Henghong Li Georgetown University Abstract The objectives of this study are to investigate acute and persistent effects of ionizing radiation and space radiation on immune cell subsets and function. The role(s) for p38 MAP kinase in such radiation responses is being investigated using a genetic approach where an engineered mouse line has had one wt p38α gene replaced with a dominantnegative mutant (p38α+/DN). T cells are one of the most radiosensitive cell types in vivo, and radiation is known to impact CD4 T cell function long term. T cells are normally activated by antigen, which triggers differentiation to specific subsets involving various cytokines. In addition, T cells have a

87

Total failure mode and effect analysis: a powerful technique for overcoming failures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the recent past, researchers and practitioners have been attempting failure prevention as one of the major enablers of attaining continuous quality improvement. For this, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) technique is adopted to reduce the probability of system failure and achieve good product quality. However, there has been no significant effort made by the researchers to overcome the pitfalls of FMEA. This practical gap is overcome by applying a technique called total failure mode and effect analysis (TFMEA). This research gap has been indicated and explored further by conducting literature review to draw synergy out of TFMEA along with the unconquered areas of the TFMEA, where TFMEA can be applied. A roadmap for implementing TFMEA has also been contributed in this paper.

C. Krishnaraj; K.M. Mohanasundram; S.R. Devadasan; N.M. Sivaram

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Dose-Effect Relationships for the Submandibular Salivary Glands and Implications for Their Sparing by Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Submandibular salivary glands (SMGs) dysfunction contributes to xerostomia after radiotherapy (RT) of head-and-neck (HN) cancer. We assessed SMG dose-response relationships and their implications for sparing these glands by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 148 HN cancer patients underwent unstimulated and stimulated SMG salivary flow rate measurements selectively from Wharton's duct orifices, before RT and periodically through 24 months after RT. Correlations of flow rates and mean SMG doses were modeled throughout all time points. IMRT replanning in 8 patients whose contralateral level I was not a target incorporated the results in a new cost function aiming to spare contralateral SMGs. Results: Stimulated SMG flow rates decreased exponentially by (1.2%){sup Gy} as mean doses increased up to 39 Gy threshold, and then plateaued near zero. At mean doses {<=}39 Gy, but not higher, flow rates recovered over time at 2.2%/month. Similarly, the unstimulated salivary flow rates decreased exponentially by (3%){sup Gy} as mean dose increased and recovered over time if mean dose was <39 Gy. IMRT replanning reduced mean contralateral SMG dose by average 12 Gy, achieving {<=}39 Gy in 5 of 8 patients, without target underdosing, increasing the mean doses to the parotid glands and swallowing structures by average 2-3 Gy. Conclusions: SMG salivary flow rates depended on mean dose with recovery over time up to a threshold of 39 Gy. Substantial SMG dose reduction to below this threshold and without target underdosing is feasible in some patients, at the expense of modestly higher doses to some other organs.

Murdoch-Kinch, Carol-Anne [Department of Oral Medicine/Hospital Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kim, Hyugnjin M. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Vineberg, Karen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ship, Jonathan [Department of Oral Medicine/Hospital Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Eisbruch, Avraham [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)], E-mail: eisbruch@umich.edu

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Development of an optimal anisotropic responding (OAR) dosimeter for two-dosimeter dosimetry for better estimation of effective dose equivalent (He) and the impact of dosimeter misposition on estimating effective dose equivalent using isotropic dosimeters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A single dosimeter is commonly worn on a radiation worker's chest to monitor radiation exposure. However, when a radiation worker is exposed to a posterior photon beam, effective dose equivalent (HE) can be severely underestimated using a single...

Han, Hsiang-Jung

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

90

Low Dose Ionizing Radiation and HZE Particle Effects on Adult Hippocampal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and HZE Particle Effects on Adult Hippocampal and HZE Particle Effects on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis and mRNA Expression Kerry O'Banion University of Rochester School of Medicine & Dentistry Abstract Most of our knowledge about low dose radiation effects relates to DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations that result in cell death or alterations in genetic programs leading to malignancy. In addition To direct DNA damage, there is accumulating evidence that radiation induced alterations in the microenvironment can have significant effects on programs of cell replication and differentiation such as neurogenesis in adult mammalian brain. Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is postulated to play an important role in learning and memory and manipulations that alter neurogenesis, including inhibition following radiation exposure, have been

91

Reduced Kilovoltage in Computed Tomography–Guided Intervention in a Community Hospital: Effect on the Radiation Dose  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractPurpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether low-kilovoltage (80 or 100 kV) computed tomography (CT)-guided interventions performed in a community-based hospital are feasible and to compare radiation exposure incurred with conventional 120 kV potential. Materials and Methods Effective doses (ED) received by patients who underwent CT-guided intervention were analysed before and after a low-dose kilovoltage protocol was instituted in our department. We performed CT-guided procedures of 93 consecutive patients by using conventional 120-kV tube voltage (50 patients) and a low voltage of 80 or 100 kV for the remainder of this cohort. Automatic tube current modulation was enabled to obtain the best image quality. Procedure details were prospectively recorded and included examination site and type, slice width, tube voltage and current, dose length product, volume CT dose index, and size-specific dose estimate. Dose length product was converted to ED to account for radiosensitivity of specific organs. Statistical comparisons with test differences in the ED, volume CT dose index, size-specific dose estimate, and effective diameter (patient size) were made by using the Student t test. Results All but 6 of the procedures performed at 80 kV were successful, for a success rate of 86%. At lower voltages, the ED was significantly (P dose radiation technique by using 80 or 100 kV results in a high technical success rate for pelvic, chest, and abdomen CT-guided interventional procedures, although dramatically decreasing radiation exposure. There was no significant difference in effective diameter (patient size) between the conventional and the low-dose groups, which would suggest that dose reduction was indeed a result of kVp change and not patient size.

Saman Rezazadeh; Steven J. Co; Simon Bicknell

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

An effective medium study of surface plasmon polaritons in nanostructured gratings using attenuated total reflection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent work studied surface plasmon resonances in structured materials by the method of attenuated total reflection using a prism on top of a metallic grating. That calculation considered Transverse Magnetic polarized radiation, involved an expansion in 121 Fourier modes, and found a number of interesting features. Many of these features were attributed to localized plasmons or other factors, which arise from a discrete structure. We use a simple effective medium theory to address the same problem, and find many of the same reflection features observed in the more complex calculation, indicating that localization is not an important factor. We also evaluate the possibility of using some of the new features in the reflection spectrum for bio-sensing and find that the sensitivity of the system to small changes in relative permittivity is increased compared to some standard methods.

Tyboroski, M. H.; Anderson, N. R.; Camley, R. E. [UCCS BioFrontiers Center, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 (United States)

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

93

Natural radioactivity in groundwater and estimates of committed effective dose due to water ingestion in the state of Chihuahua (Mexico)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......effective dose due to water ingestion in the state of Chihuahua (Mexico) L. Villalba 1 M. E. Montero-Cabrera...C. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua, C.P. 31109, Chih., Mexico 2 Departamento......

L. Villalba; M. E. Montero-Cabrera; G. Manjón-Collado; L. Colmenero-Sujo; M. Rentería-Villalobos; A. Cano-Jiménez; A. Rodríguez-Pineda; I. Dávila-Rangel; L. Quirino-Torres; E. F. Herrera-Peraza

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Long-term epigenetic effects of exposure to low doses of 56Fe in the mouse lung  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......The dose-effect was statistically assessed using ROUT's test (to eliminate outliers) and one-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis methods, followed by Tukey's test and the Jonckheere trend test when appropriate. RESULTS Analysis of expression......

Etienne Nzabarushimana; Isabelle R. Miousse; Lijian Shao; Jianhui Chang; Antiño R. Allen; Jennifer Turner; Blair Stewart; Jacob Raber; Igor Koturbash

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

The Effect of Continuous and Pulse Dose Ammonium Chloride Regimens on the Urine pH of Goats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

i THE EFFECT OF CONTINUOUS AND PULSE DOSE AMMONIUM CHLORIDE REGIMENS ON THE URINE PH OF GOATS A Thesis by PHILIPPA MAY SPRAKE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2012 Major Subject: Biomedical Sciences ii The effect of continuous and pulse dose ammonium chloride regimens on the urine pH of goats. Copyright...

Sprake, Philippa May

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

96

Toxic effects of low doses of Bisphenol-A on human placental cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Humans are exposed daily to a great number of xenobiotics and their metabolites present as pollutants. Bisphenol-A (BPA) is extensively used in a broad range of products including baby bottles, food-storage containers, medical equipment, and consumer electronics. Thus, BPA is the most common monomer for polycarbonates intended for food contact. Levels of this industrial product are found in maternal blood, amniotic fluid, follicular fluid, placental tissue, umbilical cord blood, and maternal urine. In this study, we investigated toxic effects of BPA concentrations close to levels found in serum of pregnant women on human cytotrophoblasts (CTB). These cells were isolated from fresh placentas and exposed to BPA for 24 h. Our results showed that very low doses of BPA induce apoptosis (2 to 3 times) as assessed using M30 antibody immunofluorescent detection, and necrosis (1.3 to 1.7 times) as assessed through the cytosolic Adenylate Kinase (AK) activity after cell membrane damage. We also showed that BPA increased significantly the tumor-necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene expression and protein excretion as measured by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA luminescent test, respectively. Moreover, we observed that induction of AK activation and TNF-alpha gene expression require lower levels of BPA than apoptosis or TNF-alpha protein excretion. Our findings suggest that exposure of placental cells to low doses of BPA may cause detrimental effects, leading in vivo to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, prematurity and pregnancy loss.

Benachour, Nora [Laboratory of Research in Reproductive and Gestational Health, Quebec (Canada); Aris, Aziz, E-mail: aziz.aris@usherbrooke.c [Laboratory of Research in Reproductive and Gestational Health, Quebec (Canada); Department of Obstetrics-Gynecology, University of Sherbrooke Hospital Centre, Quebec (Canada)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

97

Computed Tomography-Guided High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Safety, Efficacy, and Effect on Survival  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To determine the saftety and efficacy of computed tomography (CT)-guided brachytherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: A total of 83 patients were recruited, presenting with 140 HCC- lesions. Treatment was performed by CT-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy with an iridium-192 source. The primary endpoint was time to progression; secondary endpoints included local tumor control and overall survival (OS). A matched-pair analysis with patients not receiving brachytherapy was performed. Match criteria included the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) score, alpha-fetoprotein, presence, and extent of multifocal disease. For statistical analysis, Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression were performed. Results: Mean and median cumulative TTP for all patients (n = 75) were 17.7 and 10.4 months. Five local recurrences were observed. The OS after inclusion reached median times of 19.4 months (all patients), 46.3 months (CLIP score, 0), 20.6 months (CLIP score, 1) 12.7 months, (CLIP score, 2), and 8.3 months (CLIP score, {>=}3). The 1- and 3-year OS were 94% and 65% (CLIP score, 0), 69% and 12% (CLIP score, 1), and 48% and 19% (CLIP score, 2), respectively. Nine complications requiring intervention were encountered in 124 interventions. Matched-pair analysis revealed a significantly longer OS for patients undergoing CT-guided brachytherapy. Conclusion: Based on our results the study treatment could be safely performed. The study treatment had a beneficial effect on OS in patients with advanced HCC, with respect to (and depending on) the CLIP score and compared with OS in a historical control group. A high rate of local control was also observed, regardless of applied dose in a range of 15 to 25 Gy.

Mohnike, Konrad; Wieners, Gero; Schwartz, Franziska; Seidensticker, Max; Pech, Maciej; Ruehl, Ricarda [Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg (Germany); Wust, Peter [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin (Germany); Lopez-Haenninen, Enrique [Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Martin-Luther-Krankenhaus, Berlin (Germany); Gademann, Guenther; Peters, Nils [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg (Germany); Berg, Thomas [Medizinische Klinik mit Schwerpunkt Hepato-Gastroenterologie, Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin (Germany); Malfertheiner, Peter [Klinik fuer Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg (Germany); Ricke, Jens, E-mail: ricke@med.ovgu.d [Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg (Germany)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

E-Print Network 3.0 - additional effective dose Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

varied between 2... ACPD 8, 1-19, 2008 UV doses during psoriasis climate therapy at Gran Canaria L. T. N. Nilsen et al... Chemistry and Physics Discussions Estimated UV doses...

99

Effects of Total Dissolved Gas on Chum Salmon Fry Incubating in the Lower Columbia River  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY 2007 for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, to characterize the effects of total dissolved gas (TDG) on the incubating fry of chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) in the lower Columbia River. The tasks conducted and results obtained in pursuit of three objectives are summarized: * to conduct a field monitoring program at the Ives Island and Multnomah Falls study sites, collecting empirical data on TDG to obtain a more thorough understanding of TDG levels during different river stage scenarios (i.e., high-water year versus low-water year) * to conduct laboratory toxicity tests on hatchery chum salmon fry at gas levels likely to occur downstream from Bonneville Dam * to sample chum salmon sac fry during Bonneville Dam spill operations to determine if there is a physiological response to TDG levels. Chapter 1 discusses the field monitoring, Chapter 2 reports the findings of the laboratory toxicity tests, and Chapter 3 describes the field-sampling task. Each chapter contains an objective-specific introduction, description of the study site and methods, results of research, and discussion of findings. Literature cited throughout this report is listed in Chapter 4. Additional details on the study methdology and results are provided in Appendixes A through D.

Arntzen, Evan V.; Hand, Kristine D.; Geist, David R.; Murray, Katherine J.; Panther, Jenny; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Dawley, Earl M.; Elston, Ralph A.

2008-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

100

Modeling Low-Dose-Rate Effects in Irradiated Bipolar-Base Oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A physical model is developed to quantify the contribution of oxide-trapped charge to enhanced low-dose-rate gain degradation in bipolar junction transistors. Multiple-trapping simulations show that space charge limited transport is partially responsible for low-dose-rate enhancement. At low dose rates, more holes are trapped near the silicon-oxide interface than at high dose rates, resulting in larger midgap voltage shifts at lower dose rates. The additional trapped charge near the interface may cause an exponential increase in excess base current, and a resultant decrease in current gain for some NPN bipolar technologies.

Cirba, C.R.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Graves, R.J.; Michez, A.; Milanowski, R.J.; Saigne, F.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Witczak, S.C.

1998-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total effective dose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Utirik Atoll Dose Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On March 1, 1954, radioactive fallout from the nuclear test at Bikini Atoll code-named BRAVO was deposited on Utirik Atoll which lies about 187 km (300 miles) east of Bikini Atoll. The residents of Utirik were evacuated three days after the fallout started and returned to their atoll in May 1954. In this report we provide a final dose assessment for current conditions at the atoll based on extensive data generated from samples collected in 1993 and 1994. The estimated population average maximum annual effective dose using a diet including imported foods is 0.037 mSv y{sup -1} (3.7 mrem y{sup -1}). The 95% confidence limits are within a factor of three of their population average value. The population average integrated effective dose over 30-, 50-, and 70-y is 0.84 mSv (84, mrem), 1.2 mSv (120 mrem), and 1.4 mSv (140 mrem), respectively. The 95% confidence limits on the population-average value post 1998, i.e., the 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral doses, are within a factor of two of the mean value and are independent of time, t, for t > 5 y. Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is the radionuclide that contributes most of this dose, mostly through the terrestrial food chain and secondarily from external gamma exposure. The dose from weapons-related radionuclides is very low and of no consequence to the health of the population. The annual background doses in the U. S. and Europe are 3.0 mSv (300 mrem), and 2.4 mSv (240 mrem), respectively. The annual background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 1.4 mSv (140 mrem). The total estimated combined Marshall Islands background dose plus the weapons-related dose is about 1.5 mSv y{sup -1} (150 mrem y{sup -1}) which can be directly compared to the annual background effective dose of 3.0 mSv y{sup -1} (300 mrem y{sup -1}) for the U. S. and 2.4 mSv y{sup -1} (240 mrem y{sup -1}) for Europe. Moreover, the doses listed in this report are based only on the radiological decay of {sup 137}Cs (30.1 y half-life) and other radionuclides. However, we continually see {sup 137}Cs in the groundwater at all contaminated atolls; the turnover time of the groundwater is about 5 y. The {sup 137}Cs can only get to the groundwater by leaching through the soil column when a portion of the soluble fraction of {sup 137}Cs inventory in the soil is transported to the groundwater when rainfall is heavy enough to cause recharge of the aquifer. This process is causing a loss of {sup 137}Cs out of the root zone of the plants that provides an environmental loss constant ({lambda}{sub env}) in addition to radiological decay {lambda}{sub rad}. Consequently, there is an effective rate of loss, {lambda}{sub eff} = {lambda}{sub rad} + {lambda}{sub env} that is the sum of the radiological and environmental-loss decay constants. We have had, and continue to have, a vigorous program to determine the rate of the environmental loss process. What we do know at this time is that the loss of {sup 137}Cs over time is greater than the estimate based on radiological decay only, and that the actual dose received by the Utirik people over 30-, 50-, or 70-y will be less than those presented in this report.

Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T

1999-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

102

Strengths and limitations of using repeat-dose toxicity studies to predict effects on fertility  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The upcoming European chemicals legislation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and Authorisation of Chemicals) will require the risk assessment of many thousands of chemicals. It is therefore necessary to develop intelligent testing strategies to ensure that chemicals of concern are identified whilst minimising the testing of chemicals using animals. Xenobiotics may perturb the reproductive cycle, and for this reason several reproductive studies are recommended under REACH. One of the endpoints assessed in this battery of tests is mating performance and fertility. Animal tests that address this endpoint use a relatively large number of animals and are also costly in terms of resource, time, and money. If it can be shown that data from non-reproductive studies such as in-vitro or repeat-dose toxicity tests are capable of generating reliable alerts for effects on fertility then some animal testing may be avoided. Available rat sub-chronic and fertility data for 44 chemicals that have been classified by the European Union as toxic to fertility were therefore analysed for concordance of effects. Because it was considered appropriate to read across data for some chemicals these data sets were considered relevant for 73 of the 102 chemicals currently classified as toxic to reproduction (fertility) under this system. For all but 5 of these chemicals it was considered that a well-performed sub-chronic toxicity study would have detected pathology in the male, and in some cases, the female reproductive tract. Three showed evidence of direct interaction with oestrogen or androgen receptors (linuron, nonylphenol, and fenarimol). The remaining chemicals (quinomethionate and azafenidin) act by modes of action that do not require direct interaction with steroid receptors. However, both these materials caused in-utero deaths in pre-natal developmental toxicity studies, and the relatively low \\{NOAELs\\} and the nature of the hazard identified in the sub-chronic tests provides an alert for possible effects on fertility (or early embryonic development), the biological significance of which can be ascertained in a littering (e.g. 2-generation) study. From the chemicals reviewed it would appear that where there are no alerts from a repeat-dose toxicity study, a pre-natal developmental toxicity study and sex steroid receptor binding assays, there exists a low priority for animal studies to address the fertility endpoint. The ability for these types of tests to provide alerts for effects on fertility is clearly dependent on the mode of action of the toxicant in question. Further work should therefore be performed to determine the ‘failure rate’ of this type of approach when applied to a larger group of chemicals with diverse modes of action.

M.P. Dent

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Bevacizumab Has Differential and Dose-Dependent Effects on Glioma Blood Vessels and Tumor Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...5, 5, and 25 mg/kg every other day (eod), respectively. Survival dose dependently...Bevacizumab at a dose of 5 and 25 mg/kg eod lead to a significant reduction of glioma...reaching significance in the medium (5 mg/kg eod, blue line) and in the high (25 mg...

Louisa von Baumgarten; David Brucker; Anca Tirniceru; Yvonne Kienast; Stefan Grau; Steffen Burgold; Jochen Herms; Frank Winkler

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Searching Effective Parameters for Low-Dose CT Reconstruction by Ant Colony Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Eric Papenhausen and Klaus Mueller Abstract-- Low-dose Computed Tomography (CT) has been gaining. To cope with the limited data collected at 30% of standard radiation, low-dose CT reconstruction algorithms generally require several iterations of forward projection, back-projection and regularization

Mueller, Klaus

105

The Effect of Flow Rate of Very Dilute Sulfuric Acid on Xylan, Lignin, and Total Mass Removal from Corn Stover  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Effect of Flow Rate of Very Dilute Sulfuric Acid on Xylan, Lignin, and Total Mass Removal from mass, xylan, and lignin and increases cellulose digestibility compared to batch operations at otherwise in corn stover at 180 °C. A flow rate of 10 mL/min in a 3.8-mL reactor enhanced xylan removal by about 25

California at Riverside, University of

106

Effect of Radiotherapy Volume and Dose on Secondary Cancer Risk in Stage I Testicular Seminoma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To estimate and compare the secondary cancer risk (SCR) due to para-aortic (PA), dogleg field (DLF), or extensive field (EF) radiotherapy (RT) at different dose levels for Stage I testicular seminoma. Methods and Materials: The organ equivalent dose concept with a linear, plateau, and linear-exponential dose-response model was applied to the dose distributions to estimate the SCR. The dose distributions were calculated in a voxel-based anthropomorphic phantom. Three different three-dimensional plans were computed: PA, DLF, and EF. The plans were calculated with 6-MV photons and two opposed fields, using 20 Gy in 10 fractions. Results: The estimated cumulative SCR for a 75-year-old patient treated with PA-RT at age 35 was 23.3% (linear model), 20.9% (plateau model), and 20.8% (linear-exponential model) compared with 19.8% for the general population. Dependent on the model, PA-RT compared with DLF-RT reduced the SCR by 48-63% or 64-69% when normalized to EF-RT. For PA-RT, the linear dose-response model predicted a decrease of 45% in the SCR, using 20 Gy instead of 30 Gy; the linear-exponential dose-response model predicted no change in SCR. Conclusion: Our model suggested that the SCR after PA-RT for Stage I testicular seminoma is reduced by approximately one-half to two-thirds compared with DLF-RT, independent of the dose-response model. The SCR is expected to be equal or lower with 20 Gy than with 30 Gy. In the absence of mature patient data, the organ equivalent dose concept offers the best potential method of estimating the SCR when discussing treatment options with patients.

Zwahlen, Daniel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); William Buckland Radiotherapy Centre, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)], E-mail: daniel.zwahlen@gmx.ch; Martin, Jarad M. [Radiation Oncology Queensland, St. Andrews Hospital, Toowoomba, Queensland (Australia); Millar, Jeremy L. [William Buckland Radiotherapy Centre, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Schneider, Uwe [Division of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Triemli Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Effective dose conversion coefficients for health care provider exposed to pediatric and adult victims in radiological dispersal device incident  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After an incident of radiological dispersal devices (RDD), health care providers will be exposed to the contaminated patients in the extended medical treatments. Assessment of potential radiation dose to the health care providers will be crucial to minimize their health risk. In this study, we compiled a set of conversion coefficients (mSv?MBq?1?s?1) to readily estimate the effective dose from the time-integrated activity for the health care providers while they deal with internally contaminated patients at different ages. We selected Co-60, Ir-192, Am-241, Cs-137, and I-131 as the major radionuclides that may be used for RDD. We obtained the age-specific organ burdens after the inhalation of those radionuclides from the Dose and Risk Calculation Software (DCAL) program. A series of hybrid computational phantoms (1-, 5-, 10-, and 15?year-old, and adult males) were implemented in a general purpose Monte Carlo (MC) transport code, MCNPX v 2.7, to simulate an adult male health care provider exposed to contaminated patients at different ages. Two exposure scenarios were taken into account: a health care provider (a) standing at the side of patients lying in bed and (b) sitting face to face with patients. The conversion coefficients overall depended on radionuclides, the age of the patients, and the orientation of the patients. The conversion coefficient was greatest for Co-60 and smallest for Am-241. The dose from the 1?year-old patient phantom was up to three times greater than that from the adult patient phantom. The conversion coefficients were less dependent on the age of the patients in the scenario of a health care provider sitting face to face with patients. The dose conversion coefficients established in this study will be useful to readily estimate the effective dose to the health care providers in RDD events.

Eun Young Han; Wi-Ho Ha; Young-Woo Jin; Wesley E Bolch; Choonsik Lee

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

7 - Estimation of Radiation Doses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Radiation doses to the Japanese population from inhalation of contaminated air, external irradiation, terrestrial and marine food contamination are estimated and compared with other sources of anthropogenic (global fallout, Chernobyl accident), natural (radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation) and medical applications (X-ray tests, CT-tests, etc.) of ionizing radiation. The estimated doses from inhalation, ingestion of terrestrial and marine food, and radiation exposure from radioactive clouds and deposited radionuclides were generally below the levels which could cause health damage of the Japanese population, as well as of the world population. The estimated total radiation doses to fish and shellfish in coastal waters during the largest radionuclide releases were by a factor of 10 lower than the baseline safe level postulated for the marine organisms, therefore no harmful effects are expected for the marine ecosystem as well.

Pavel P. Povinec; Katsumi Hirose; Michio Aoyama

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Effect of iodine chemical form on thyroid doses during a severe accident  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In most of the accidents that may occur in nuclear reactors, the short-term radiological consequences are expected to be dominated by isotopes of iodine. The assessment of doses resulting from iodine release during a severe reactor accident requires knowledge of the iodine chemical forms and removal mechanisms prior to the release to the environment. In this paper, the arguments concerning iodine chemical form in severe accidents are stated. Removal mechanisms prior to release to the environment are summarised. Various assumptions of iodine chemical form during a severe accident were used to assess the radiation doses to thyroid at site boundaries and at the low population zone of a pressurised water reactor. Doses were calculated for an adult and a ten-year-old child. It was concluded that if the spray system was used prior to the release, with proper additives to raise the pH of the sump, the doses are generally reduced. The main contributor to dose in this case is organic iodine.

Mohamed Y. Khalil; Mohamed S. Nagy; Kamal A. Talha; Mohga I. Hassan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Protective Effects of Inosine on Mice Subjected to Lethal Total-body Ionizing Irradiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......effectiveness and efficiency of any putatively...quadrant of a cir- cular pool of 60 cm in height...swim for 60 s in the pool with the platform removed. The swimming behavior of the mice...adenosine against high-energy protons]. Kosm......

Bing Hou; Zhi-Wei Xu; Chao-Wen Yang; Yan Gao; Shi-Fu Zhao; Cheng-Gang Zhang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Total analysis of cooling effects of cross-ventilation affected by microclimate around a building  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study aims to develop a simulation system for evaluating the passive cooling effects, such as cross-ventilation, solar shading by trees, etc. Since the passive cooling effects are strongly affected by the spatial distributions of airflow, air temperature and radiative heat transports around a building, the microclimate around a building should be accurately predicted for this type of simulations. In this study, convective and radiative heat transports around buildings are analyzed by CFD (computational fluid dynamics) and radiation computations. Furthermore, the heat load calculation with the program “TRNSYS” was carried out, using the values of the cross-ventilation rates predicted by CFD computation and incoming solar radiation onto the building walls under the shade of trees obtained by the radiation computation as boundary conditions. Indoor velocity and indoor air temperature obtained by the simulation system developed here showed generally good agreement with measured data.

Akashi Mochida; Hiroshi Yoshino; Satoshi Miyauchi; Teruaki Mitamura

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Total Dissolved Gas Effects on Incubating Chum Salmon Below Bonneville Dam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE; Portland District), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook a project in 2006 to look further into issues of total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in the lower Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. In FY 2008, the third year of the project, PNNL conducted field monitoring and laboratory toxicity testing to both verify results from 2007 and answer some additional questions about how salmonid sac fry respond to elevated TDG in the field and the laboratory. For FY 2008, three objectives were 1) to repeat the 2006-2007 field effort to collect empirical data on TDG from the Ives Island and Multnomah Falls study sites; 2) to repeat the static laboratory toxicity tests on hatchery chum salmon fry to verify 2007 results and to expose wild chum salmon fry to incremental increases in TDG, above those of the static test, until external symptoms of gas bubble disease were clearly present; and 3) to assess physiological responses to TDG levels in wild chum salmon sac fry incubating below Bonneville Dam during spill operations. This report summarizes the tasks conducted and results obtained in pursuit of the three objectives. Chapter 1 discusses the field monitoring, Chapter 2 reports the findings of the laboratory toxicity tests, and Chapter 3 describes the field-sampling task. Each chapter contains an objective-specific introduction, description of the study site and methods, results of research, and discussion of findings. Literature cited throughout this report is listed in Chapter 4. Additional details on the monitoring methodology and results are provided in Appendices A and B included on the compact disc bound inside the back cover of the printed version of this report.

Arntzen, Evan V.; Hand, Kristine D.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Geist, David R.; Murray, Katherine J.; Dawley, Earl M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Elston, Ralph A.; Vavrinec, John

2009-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

113

EFFECT OF TUBE CURRENT MODULATION FOR DOSE ESTIMATION USING A SIMULATION TOOL ON BODY CT EXAMINATION  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......equivalent dose and w R is the radiation-weighting factor. F TCM, which represents the bone marrow, skin, bone surface, brain and salivary glands, was assumed to be 1.0 because the tube current could not be read for each region. The D TCM value of......

Ai Kawaguchi; Yuta Matsunaga; Masanao Kobayashi; Shoichi Suzuki; Kosuke Matsubara; Koichi Chida

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

K+ Total Cross-Sections on C-12 and Medium Effects in Nuclei  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2 target was determined in an independent experi- ment using a neutron beam from the Brookhaven High Flux Beam Reactor, in which 2.224 MeV p rays from the iH(n, p)~H reaction were detected with a germanium de- tector. It was found that a sample..., with differing nucleon densities, might reveal medium effects. Such a comparison was originally suggested by Siegel, Kaufmann, and Gibbs [7]. Their suggestions strongly motivated the present experi- ment which was conceived to test their predictions...

Krauss, R. A.; Alster, J.; Ashery, D.; Bart, S.; Chrien, R. E.; Hiebert, John C.; Johnson, R. R.; Kishimoto, T.; Mardor, I.; Mardor, Y.; Moinester, M. A.; Olshevsky, R.; Piasetzky, E.; Pile, P. H.; Sawafta, R.; Stearns, R. L.; Sutter, R. J.; WEISS, R.; Yavin, A. I.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Image reconstruction and the effect on dose calculation for hip prostheses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High atomic number inserts, such as hip prostheses and dental fillings, cause streak artifacts on computed tomography (CT) images when filtered back-projection (FBP) methods are used. These streak artifacts severely degrade our ability to differentiate the tumor volume. Also, incorrect Hounsfield numbers yield incorrect electron density information that may lead to erroneous dose calculations, and, as a result, compromise clinical outcomes. The aim of this research was to evaluate the dosimetric consequences of artifacts during radiotherapy planning of a prostate patient containing a hip prosthesis. The CT numbers corresponding to an iron prosthesis were inserted into the right femoral head of an existing CT image set. This artifact-free image was used as the standard image set. CT projections through the image set formed the sinogram, from which filtered back projection and iterative deblurring methods were used to create reconstructed image sets. These reconstructed image sets contained artifacts. Prostate treatment plans were then calculated using a Monte Carlo system for the standard and reconstructed CT image sets. Close to the prosthesis, the CT numbers between the reconstructed and standard image sets differed substantially. However, because the CT number differences covered only a small area, the dose distributions on the reconstructed and standard image sets were not significantly different. The dose-volume histograms for the prostate, rectum, and bladder were virtually identical. Our results indicate that even though CT image artifacts restrict our ability to differentiate tumors and critical structures, the dose distributions for a prostate plan containing a hip prosthesis, calculated on both artifact-free image sets and image sets containing artifacts, are not significantly different.

Keall, Paul J.; Chock, Leah B.; Jeraj, Robert; Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Mohan, Radhe

2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

116

TOTAL Full-TOTAL Full-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conducting - Orchestral 6 . . 6 5 1 . 6 5 . . 5 Conducting - Wind Ensemble 3 . . 3 2 . . 2 . 1 . 1 Early- X TOTAL Full- Part- X TOTAL Alternative Energy 6 . . 6 11 . . 11 13 2 . 15 Biomedical Engineering 52 English 71 . 4 75 70 . 4 74 72 . 3 75 Geosciences 9 . 1 10 15 . . 15 19 . . 19 History 37 1 2 40 28 3 3 34

Portman, Douglas

117

Effects of Dosing Condition on the Oral Bioavailability of Green Tea Catechins after Single-Dose Administration of Polyphenon E in Healthy Individuals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the Oral Bioavailability of Green Tea Catechins after Single-Dose...indicate this fact. Purpose: Green tea has been shown to exhibit...for determination of free green tea catechins, plasma or urine...an ESA Model 580 two-pump solvent delivery system, an ESA 5500...

H-H. Sherry Chow; Iman A. Hakim; Donna R. Vining; James A. Crowell; James Ranger-Moore; Wade M. Chew; Catherine A. Celaya; Steven R. Rodney; Yukihiko Hara; and David S. Alberts

2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

Dose and Dose-rate Effects of X rays and Fission Neutrons on Lymphocyte Apoptosis in p53(+/+) and p53(-/-) Mice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......p53 accumulation was not observed in similarly treated ATM-defective (AT) fibroblasts; moreover, when AT fibroblasts were treated...low-level radiation, i.e., mutagenesis, teratogenesis and car- cinogenesis, are dose-rate dependent events. All of the......

Kazuo Fujikawa; Yukinori Hasegawa; Shinya Matsuzawa; Akihiro Fukunaga; Tetsuo Itoh; Sohei Kondo

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Total Imports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Data Series: Imports - Total Imports - Crude Oil Imports - Crude Oil, Commercial Imports - by SPR Imports - into SPR by Others Imports - Total Products Imports - Total Motor Gasoline Imports - Finished Motor Gasoline Imports - Reformulated Gasoline Imports - Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Imports - Other Reformulated Gasoline Imports - Conventional Gasoline Imports - Conv. Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Imports - Conv. Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 & Ed55 Imports - Other Conventional Gasoline Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components, RBOB Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components, RBOB w/ Ether Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components, RBOB w/ Alcohol Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components, CBOB Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components, GTAB Imports - Motor Gasoline Blend. Components, Other Imports - Fuel Ethanol Imports - Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Imports - Distillate Fuel Oil Imports - Distillate F.O., 15 ppm Sulfur and Under Imports - Distillate F.O., > 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur Imports - Distillate F.O., > 500 ppm to 2000 ppm Sulfur Imports - Distillate F.O., > 2000 ppm Sulfur Imports - Residual Fuel Oil Imports - Propane/Propylene Imports - Other Other Oils Imports - Kerosene Imports - NGPLs/LRGs (Excluding Propane/Propylene) Exports - Total Crude Oil and Products Exports - Crude Oil Exports - Products Exports - Finished Motor Gasoline Exports - Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Exports - Distillate Fuel Oil Exports - Residual Fuel Oil Exports - Propane/Propylene Exports - Other Oils Net Imports - Total Crude Oil and Products Net Imports - Crude Oil Net Imports - Petroleum Products Period: Weekly 4-Week Avg.

120

The Reproductive Effects in Rats after Chronic Oral Exposure to Low-dose Depleted Uranium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Fairlie I (2009) Depleted uranium: properties, military use and health risks. Med Confl...et al (2002) Health effects of embedded depleted uranium. Mil Med 167...et al (2000) Health effects of depleted uranium on exposed Gulf......

Yuhui Hao; Rong Li; Yanbing Leng; Jiong Ren; Jing Liu; Guoping Ai; Hui Xu; Yongping Su; Tianmin Cheng

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total effective dose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Effect of ?-Irradiation on Agaritine, ?-Glutaminyl-4-hydroxybenzene (GHB), Antioxidant Capacity, and Total Phenolic Content of Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Isolde Sommer †, Heidi Schwartz ‡, Sonja Solar *† and Gerhard Sontag ‡ ... Sample irradiation was performed using a Cobalt-60-?-ray irradiator type “Gammacell 220” (Nordion International, Inc., Kanata, Ontario, Canada) at a dose rate of 34 Gy/min. ...

Isolde Sommer; Heidi Schwartz; Sonja Solar; Gerhard Sontag

2009-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

122

Effect of incremental doses of radiation on viability of the microbial population on synthetic operating room gowns.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...manufacturer and peri- 528 RADIATION DOSE AND MICROBIAL VIABILITY...used to calculate the radiation resistances because...SEM does allow an estimation of the number of cells...ENVIRON. MICROBIOL. RADIATION DOSE AND MICROBIAL VIABILITY...

J L Whitby; D G Storey

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Mycorrhizae and phosphorus fertilization effects on survival, growth, total biomass and leaf nutrient levels of two-year old Leucaena leucocephala  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MYCORRHIZAE AND PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZATION EFFECTS ON SURVIVAL, GRONTH& TOTAL BIOMASS AND LEAF NUTRIENT LEVELS OF TWO-YEAR CLD LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA A Thesis by DAVID KAHURIA MBUGUA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1985 Major Subject: Forestry MYCORRHIZAE AND PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZATION EFFECTS ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH& TOTAL BIOMASS AND LEAF NUTRIENT LEVELS OF TWO-YEAR OLD LEUCAENA...

Mbugua, David Kahuria

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

124

Improvement of epidemiological data analysis by unbiased estimates of log-normal dose distribution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of radiation on population and risk assessment are studied through epidemiological studies that are heavily dependent on dose distribution. Radiation doses to individual workers follow a log-normal distribution. Computation of the collective dose with the minimum detectable values (Detection Limit or DL) as zero is biased. Hence the expectation value of the 'missed' doses is computed as the ratio of the collective dose of all dosimeters with DL to the product of the total number of dosimeters. So far, in all epidemiological studies, doses below DL are set equal to the DL itself and yield a positive bias in the dose-response relation. This paper presents an enhanced method by removing the bias with the help of the Expectation Maximisation (EM) algorithm. This algorithm, along with unbiased characteristic estimates of log-normal distribution, significantly improves the estimation of confounders by 95%, and improves the dose-response relationship.

Joyeeta Mukhopadhyaya; D. Datta; H.S. Kushwaha

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Non-Invasive Early Detection and Molecular Analysis of Low X-ray Dose Effects in the Lens  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the Final Progress Report for DOE-funded research project DE-PS02-08ER08-01 titled “Non-Invasive Early Detection and Molecular Analysis of Low X-ray Dose Effects in the Lens”. The project focuses on the effects of low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation on the ocular lens. The lens is an exquisitely radiosensitive tissue with a highly-ordered molecular structure that is amenable to non-invasive optical study from the periphery. These merits point to the lens as an ideal target for laser-based molecular biodosimetry (MBD). Following exposure to different types of ionizing radiations, the lens demonstrates molecular changes (e.g., oxidation, racemization, crosslinkage, truncation, aggregation, etc.) that impact the structure and function of the long-lived proteins in the cytosol of lens fiber cells. The vast majority of proteins in the lens comprise the highly-ordered crystallins. These highly conserved lens proteins are amongst the most concentrated and stable in the body. Once synthesized, the crystallins are retained in the fiber cell cytoplasm for life. Taken together, these properties point to the lens as an ideal system for quantitative in vivo MBD assessment using quasi-elastic light scattering (QLS) analysis. In this project, we deploy a purpose-designed non-invasive infrared laser QLS instrument as a quantitative tool for longitudinal assessment of pre-cataractous molecular changes in the lenses of living mice exposed to low-dose low-LET radiation compared to non-irradiated sham controls. We hypothesize that radiation exposure will induce dose-dependent changes in the molecular structure of matrix proteins in the lens. Mechanistic assays to ascertain radiation-induced molecular changes in the lens focus on protein aggregation and gene/protein expression patterns. We anticipate that this study will contribute to our understanding of early molecular changes associated with radiation-induced tissue pathology. This study also affords potential for translational development of molecular biodosimetry instrumentation to assess human exposure to mixed radiation fields.

Goldstein, Lee [Boston University] [Boston University

2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

126

Low dose radiation effects of multipotent neural stem and progenitor cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

effects of multipotent neural stem and progenitor cells effects of multipotent neural stem and progenitor cells Charles L. Limoli, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Irvine 92697-2695 Multipotent neural cells (both stem cells and their precursor cell progeny) retain their capacity to proliferate and differentiate throughout the mammalian lifespan. High numbers of these cells are located within the dentate subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus and the subventricular (SVZ) zone adjacent to the lateral ventricles, where they produce cells that can migrate away and differentiate into neurons (neurogenesis) and glia (gliogenesis). The realization that the brain contains such cells has sparked intense interest and speculation regarding their potential function. While significant data

127

Assessment of Fukushima-Derived Radiation Doses and Effects on Wildlife in Japan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Following releases from the nuclear accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), contention has arisen over the potential radiological impact on wildlife. ... This work was conducted under the auspices of the UNSCEAR, and a more comprehensive version of the assessment presented here is reported within the UN publication “Levels and effects of radiation exposure due to the nuclear accident after the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and Tsunami”. ...

P. Strand; T. Aono; J. E. Brown; J. Garnier-Laplace; A. Hosseini; T. Sazykina; F. Steenhuisen; J. Vives i Batlle

2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

128

Synchronized dynamic dose reconstruction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Variations in target volume position between and during treatment fractions can lead to measurable differences in the dose distribution delivered to each patient. Current methods to estimate the ongoing cumulative delivered dose distribution make idealized assumptions about individual patient motion based on average motions observed in a population of patients. In the delivery of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a multi-leaf collimator (MLC), errors are introduced in both the implementation and delivery processes. In addition, target motion and MLC motion can lead to dosimetric errors from interplay effects. All of these effects may be of clinical importance. Here we present a method to compute delivered dose distributions for each treatment beam and fraction, which explicitly incorporates synchronized real-time patient motion data and real-time fluence and machine configuration data. This synchronized dynamic dose reconstruction method properly accounts for the two primary classes of errors that arise from delivering IMRT with an MLC: (a) Interplay errors between target volume motion and MLC motion, and (b) Implementation errors, such as dropped segments, dose over/under shoot, faulty leaf motors, tongue-and-groove effect, rounded leaf ends, and communications delays. These reconstructed dose fractions can then be combined to produce high-quality determinations of the dose distribution actually received to date, from which individualized adaptive treatment strategies can be determined.

Litzenberg, Dale W.; Hadley, Scott W.; Tyagi, Neelam; Balter, James M.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Chetty, Indrin J. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

129

Dose Limits  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Dose Limits ERAD (Question Posted to ERAD in May 2012) Who do you define as a member of the public for the onsite MEI? This question implies that there may be more than one maximally exposed individual (MEI), one on-site and one off-site, when demonstrating compliance with the Public Dose Limit of DOE Order 458.1. Although all potential MEIs should be considered and documented, as well as the calculated doses and pathways considered, the intent of DOE Order 458.1 is in fact to ultimately identify only one MEI, a theoretical individual who could be either on-site or off-site.

130

Effect of radon dose on cleanup criteria and using RESRAD for chemical risk assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy has used RESRAD, a pathway analysis program developed at Argonne National Laboratory, in conjunction with the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principle to develop site-specific residual radioactive material guidelines (cleanup criteria) for many sites. This study examines the effects of the radon pathway, recently added to the RESRAD program, on the calculation of uranium, radium, and thorium cleanup criteria. The results show that the derived uranium guidelines will not be affected by the radon ingrowth considerations. The effect of radon on radium and thorium generic guidelines is more significant, but the model does indicate that at the generic soil limits used for radium and thorium the indoor radon decay product concentrations would be below the 0.02 working level standard. This study also examines the feasibility of applying RESRAD to chemical risk assessment. The results show that RESRAD can perform risk assessment of toxic chemicals after simple modifications. Expansion of the RESRAD database to include chemical compounds will increase its capability to handle chemical risk assessments. 11 refs., 3 tabs.

Yu, C.; Cheng, J.-J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Wallo, A. III (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

The effect of thymosin on the survival of CBA/J mice exposed to lethal and acute doses of ionizing radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECT OF THYMOSIN ON THE SURVIVAL OF CBA/J MICE EXPOSED TO LETHAL AND ACUTE DOSES OF IONIZING RADIATION A Thesis ROGER LYNN HUCHTON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M Unrversrty in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1978 Major Subject: Biophysrcs THE EFFECT OF THYMQSIN ON THE SURVIVAL OF CBA/J MICE EXPOSED TO LETHAL AND ACUTE DOSES OF IONIZING RADIATION A Thesis by ROGER LYNN HUCHTQN Approved as to style and content by...

Huchton, Roger Lynn

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Bleaching Miscanthus x giganteus Acetosolv Pulps with a New Totally Chlorine-free Sequence and the Effect of Carbohydrate Protectors  

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The bleaching of semibleached Miscanthus x giganteus Acetosolv pulp, after alkaline and peroxyacetate treatments, was investigated by a novel totally chlorine-free (TCF) sequence. Oxygen delignification (O-stage), peroxide (P-stage), and oxygen-...

Juan José Villaverde; Pablo Ligero; Alberto de Vega

2009-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

133

Doseâ??effect relationship and estimation of the carcinogenic effects of low doses of ionising radiation: the Joint Report of the Academie des Sciences (Paris) and of the Academie Nationale de Medecine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of the Joint Report of the two French Academies is to discuss the validity of the linear non threshold (LNT) dose-effect relationship for assessing the detrimental effects of small doses such as those delivered by X-ray examinations (0.1 mGy to 20 mGy). The conclusion of the report is that extrapolation with LNT could greatly overestimate those risks and thus may have a detrimental effect for public health by discouraging physicians and patients from performing potentially useful radiological examinations (for example a mammography or a CT scan) when the risk appears to be too large. This conclusion against the validity of LNT is based on several types of data: 1. Epidemiology has not evidenced cancer excess in humans for doses below 100 mSv. 2. Experimental animal data have not evidenced a carcinogenic effect for doses below 100 mSv. Moreover, dose-effect relationships are very seldom linear; most of them are linear-quadratic or quadratic. A practical threshold or hormetic effects have been observed in a large number of experimental studies. 3. Radiobiology: LNT assumes that the genotoxic risk (per unit dose) is constant irrespective of dose and dose rate and thus that the efficacy of the two guardians of the genome, DNA repair and elimination by death of cells with DNA damage do not vary with dose and dose rate. This assumption is not consistent with a large number of recent radiobiological data, for example mutational effect and lethal effect vary (per unit dose). The second assumption is that a given DNA damage has the same probability of initiating a cancer irrespective of the number of other DNA damage in the same cell and in the neighbouring cells. This assumption is also non consistent with recent data and modern concepts of carcinogenesis in which the microenvironment and tissue disorganisation play an important role. The existence of a threshold dose in individuals or animals contaminated by radium or thorium shows that the irradiation of a cell surrounded by non-irradiated cells does not initiate carcinogenesis. It is the responsibility of the proponents of LNT to demonstrate the validity of these two assumptions in order to justify the use of LNT. The recent reports do not provide such demonstrations.

Maurice Tubiana; Andre Aurengo

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Mitigation Effect of an FGF-2 Peptide on Acute Gastrointestinal Syndrome After High-Dose Ionizing Radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Acute gastrointestinal syndrome (AGS) resulting from ionizing radiation causes death within 7 days. Currently, no satisfactory agent exists for mitigation of AGS. A peptide derived from the receptor binding domain of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-P) was synthesized and its mitigation effect on AGS was examined. Methods and Materials: A subtotal body irradiation (sub-TBI) model was created to induce gastrointestinal (GI) death while avoiding bone marrow death. After 10.5 to 16 Gy sub-TBI, mice received an intramuscular injection of FGF-P (10 mg/kg/day) or saline (0.2 ml/day) for 5 days; survival (frequency and duration) was measured. Crypt cells and their proliferation were assessed by hematoxylin, eosin, and BrdU staining. In addition, GI hemoccult score, stool formation, and plasma levels of endotoxin, insulin, amylase, interleukin (IL)-6, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were evaluated. Results: Treatment with FGF-P rescued a significant fraction of four strains of mice (33-50%) exposed to a lethal dose of sub-TBI. Use of FGF-P improved crypt survival and repopulation and partially preserved or restored GI function. Furthermore, whereas sub-TBI increased plasma endotoxin levels and several pro-inflammation cytokines (IL-6, KC, MCP-1, and TNF-alpha), FGF-P reduced these adverse responses. Conclusions: The study data support pursuing FGF-P as a mitigator for AGS.

Zhang Lurong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Sun Weimin; Wang Jianjun [Second Military Medical College, Shanghai (China); Zhang Mei; Yang Shanmin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Tian Yeping [Second Military Medical College, Shanghai (China); Vidyasagar, Sadasivan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Pena, Louis A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Medical Department, Upton, NY (United States); Zhang Kunzhong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Cao Yongbing [Second Military Medical College, Shanghai (China); Yin Liangjie [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Wang Wei [Department of Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian (China); Zhang Lei [Department of Laboratory Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Schaefer, Katherine L.; Saubermann, Lawrence J. [Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Swarts, Steven G.; Fenton, Bruce M.; Keng, Peter C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Okunieff, Paul, E-mail: Paul_Okunieff@URMC.Rochester.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States)

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Dose reconstruction for the Urals population. Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research, Project 1.1 -- Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work is being carried out as a feasibility study to determine if a long-term course of work can be implemented to assess the long-term risks of radiation exposure delivered at low to moderate dose rates to the populations living in the vicinity of the Mayak Industrial Association (MIA). This work was authorized and conducted under the auspices of the US-Russian Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER) and its Executive Committee (EC). The MIA was the first Russian site for the production and separation of plutonium. This plant began operation in 1948, and during its early days there were technological failures that resulted in the release of large amounts of waste into the rather small Techa River. There were also gaseous releases of radioiodines and other radionuclides during the early days of operation. In addition, there was an accidental explosion in a waste storage tank in 1957 that resulted in a significant release. The Techa River Cohort has been studied for several years by scientists from the Urals Research Centre for Radiation Medicine and an increase in both leukemia and solid tumors has been noted.

Degteva, M.O. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)] [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Drozhko, E. [Branch 1 of Moscow Biophysics Inst., Ozersk (Russian Federation)] [Branch 1 of Moscow Biophysics Inst., Ozersk (Russian Federation); Anspaugh, L.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Napier, B.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bouville, A.C. [National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)] [National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States); Miller, C.W. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Effects of Forest Management on Total Biomass Production and CO2 Emissions from use of Energy Biomass of Norway Spruce and Scots Pine  

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The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of forest management on the total biomass production (t ha-1a-1) and CO2 emissions (kg CO2 MWh-1) from use of energy biomass of Norway spruce and Scots pine grown ...

Johanna Routa; Seppo Kellomäki; Harri Strandman

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Re-examination of the Linear No Threshold (LNT) hypothesis, and a trial for the public to comprehend the reality of the low-dose effects of radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

People have imprinted knowledge of the LNT hypothesis. Use of the terms LNT hypothesis, ALARA, or stochastic effect, etc. clouds the understanding of people about the real effects of very low doses of radiation. In this paper, the scientific basis of the LNT hypothesis is re-examined. A denial of the presence of a threshold means that individuals have no protection from even very small doses or dose rates of radiation in the body. As the human population is heterogeneous, a linear dose-response curve is obtained, as even whole majorities have a threshold. Current results from radiation epidemiological studies and experimental studies from cells and animals were reported by experts from USA, Canada and Japan at the Radition Effects Association (REA) symposium in March 2005 in Tokyo. The findings did not support the LNT hypothesis, but the importance of biological reactions and factors involving radiation-carcinogenesis. Even a few antinuclear audiences started to think about the presence of a body-defence mechanism against radiation. Necessary information on radiation-carcinogenesis is summarised in several figures for better comprehensions by the public.

Junko Matsubara

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Targeted and Nontargeted Effects of Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation on Delayed Genomic Instability in Human Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...humans receive some radiation exposure, mostly...risks associated with radiation exposure come from populations exposed to ionizing radiation, primarily from epidemiologic...However, those doses, in the range of 0.2 to 2.5...

Lei Huang; Perry M. Kim; Jac A. Nickoloff; and William F. Morgan

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Sample size requirements for estimating effective dose from computed tomography using solid-state metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor dosimetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Effective dose (ED) is a widely used metric for comparing ionizing radiation burden between different imaging modalities, scanners, and scan protocols. In computed tomography (CT), ED can be estimated by performing scans on an anthropomorphic phantom in which metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) solid-state dosimeters have been placed to enable organ dose measurements. Here a statistical framework is established to determine the sample size (number of scans) needed for estimating ED to a desired precision and confidence, for a particular scanner and scan protocol, subject to practical limitations. Methods: The statistical scheme involves solving equations which minimize the sample size required for estimating ED to desired precision and confidence. It is subject to a constrained variation of the estimated ED and solved using the Lagrange multiplier method. The scheme incorporates measurement variation introduced both by MOSFET calibration, and by variation in MOSFET readings between repeated CT scans. Sample size requirements are illustrated on cardiac, chest, and abdomen–pelvis CT scans performed on a 320-row scanner and chest CT performed on a 16-row scanner. Results: Sample sizes for estimating ED vary considerably between scanners and protocols. Sample size increases as the required precision or confidence is higher and also as the anticipated ED is lower. For example, for a helical chest protocol, for 95% confidence and 5% precision for the ED, 30 measurements are required on the 320-row scanner and 11 on the 16-row scanner when the anticipated ED is 4 mSv; these sample sizes are 5 and 2, respectively, when the anticipated ED is 10 mSv. Conclusions: Applying the suggested scheme, it was found that even at modest sample sizes, it is feasible to estimate ED with high precision and a high degree of confidence. As CT technology develops enabling ED to be lowered, more MOSFET measurements are needed to estimate ED with the same precision and confidence.

Trattner, Sigal [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York 10032 (United States)] [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York 10032 (United States); Cheng, Bin [Department of Biostatistics, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, New York 10032 (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, New York 10032 (United States); Pieniazek, Radoslaw L. [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York 10032 (United States)] [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York 10032 (United States); Hoffmann, Udo [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Douglas, Pamela S. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27715 (United States)] [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27715 (United States); Einstein, Andrew J., E-mail: andrew.einstein@columbia.edu [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York and Department of Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York (United States)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

140

Effect of window type, size and orientation on the total energy demand for a building in Indian climatic conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Windows in a building allow daylight to enter a building space but simultaneously they also result in heat gains and losses affecting energy balance. This requires an optimisation of window area from the point of view of total energy demand viz., for lighting and cooling/heating. This paper is devoted to this kind of study for Indian climatic conditions, which are characterised by six climatic zones varying from extreme cold to hot, dry and humid conditions. Different types of windows have been considered because the optimised size will also depend on the thermo-optical parameters like heat transfer coefficient (U-value), solar heat gain coefficient (g), visual (?), and total transmittance (T) of the glazing in the window. It is observed that in a non-insulated building, cooling/heating energy demand far exceeds lighting energy demand, making the optimisation of window area a futile exercise from the point of view of total energy demand. Only for buildings with U-value below 0.6 W/m²K can optimisation be achieved. The optimised window area and the corresponding specific energy consumption have been calculated for different climates in India, for different orientations, and for three different advanced window systems.

Inderjeet Singh; N.K. Bansal

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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141

Strategies for Online Organ Motion Correction for Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer: Prostate, Rectum, and Bladder Dose Effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To quantify and evaluate the accumulated prostate, rectum, and bladder dose for several strategies including rotational organ motion correction for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of prostate cancer using realistic organ motion data. Methods and Materials: Repeat computed tomography (CT) scans of 19 prostate patients were used. Per patient, two IMRT plans with different uniform margins were created. To quantify prostate and seminal vesicle motion, repeat CT clinical target volumes (CTVs) were matched onto the planning CTV using deformable registration. Four different strategies, from online setup to full motion correction, were simulated. Rotations were corrected for using gantry and collimator angle adjustments. Prostate, rectum, and bladder doses were accumulated for each patient, plan, and strategy. Minimum CTV dose (D{sub min}), rectum equivalent uniform dose (EUD, n = 0.13), and bladder surface receiving >=78 Gy (S78), were calculated. Results: With online CTV translation correction, a 7-mm margin was sufficient (i.e., D{sub min} >= 95% of the prescribed dose for all patients). A 4-mm margin required additional rotational correction. Margin reduction lowered the rectum EUD(n = 0.13) by approx2.6 Gy, and the bladder S78 by approx1.9%. Conclusions: With online correction of both translations and rotations, a 4-mm margin was sufficient for 15 of 19 patients, whereas the remaining four patients had an underdosed CTV volume <1%. Margin reduction combined with online corrections resulted in a similar or lower dose to the rectum and bladder. The more advanced the correction strategy, the better the planned and accumulated dose agreed.

Rijkhorst, Erik-Jan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Centre for Medical Image Computing, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Lakeman, Annemarie; Nijkamp, Jasper; Bois, Josien de; Herk, Marcel van; Lebesque, Joos V.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

Bioassay and dose measurement in UV disinfection.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...reactors. Bioassay and dose measurement in UV disinfection...determined as a function of UV dose to prepare a standard...Sewage Spores, Bacterial radiation effects Sterilization...Microbiology Bioassay and Dose Measurement in UV Disinfection...meth- ods of UV dose estimation used in previous studies...

R G Qualls; J D Johnson

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Effect of low-dose, low-LET γ-radiation and BaP injection on pulmonary  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

low-dose, low-LET γ-radiation and BaP injection on pulmonary low-dose, low-LET γ-radiation and BaP injection on pulmonary immunity in A/J mice K. Gott Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute Abstract Introduction: Low-dose, low-linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation (LDR; < 100 mGy) activates the immune response (Nowosielska et al., 2006), presumably via epigenetic pathways (Scott et al., 2009) and has been implicated as suppressing both alpha-radiation-induced and smoking-related lung cancer (Scott et al. 2009). One of the hypothesized adaptive-response mechanisms by which LDR does so is by activating immune cell function in the lung, which would then increase their anti-cancer surveillance function (Liu, 2007; Bogdandi et al., 2010). One measure of activated immune cell function is their expression of markers on their cell surface that are

144

21 briefing pages total  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

briefing pages total p. 1 briefing pages total p. 1 Reservist Differential Briefing U.S. Office of Personnel Management December 11, 2009 p. 2 Agenda - Introduction of Speakers - Background - References/Tools - Overview of Reservist Differential Authority - Qualifying Active Duty Service and Military Orders - Understanding Military Leave and Earnings Statements p. 3 Background 5 U.S.C. 5538 (Section 751 of the Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009, March 11, 2009) (Public Law 111-8) Law requires OPM to consult with DOD Law effective first day of first pay period on or after March 11, 2009 (March 15 for most executive branch employees) Number of affected employees unclear p. 4 Next Steps

145

An assessment of current and proposed methodologies for estimating effective dose equivalent from non-uniform external photon radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

voluntarily from various nuclear power plants throughout the United States were used. The data were analyzed with respect to the current practice of assigning the highest whole body multibadging dosimeter reading as the dose of record pursuant to 10 CFR (Code...

Hay, Michael Charles

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

146

Effects of Chronic Low-Dose Ultraviolet B Radiation on DNA Damage and Repair in Mouse Skin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of mammalian skin to solar UVB. We analyzed DNA...significantly less repair capacity than rapidly dividing...the loss of this repair capacity could partially contribute...in excision-repair capacity, and potentiation of...low-dose exposure to solar UVB may result in a significant...

David L. Mitchell; Rüdiger Greinert; Frank R. de Gruijl; Kees L. H. Guikers; Eckhard W. Breitbart; Michelle Byrom; Michelle M. Gallmeier; Megan G. Lowery; and Beate Volkmer

1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

147

The Estimation of Molecular and Cytogenetic Effects in Mice Exposed to Chronic Low Dose-Rate Gamma-Radiation  

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Molecular and cytogenetic parameters were estimated in male CBA/lac mice exposed to chronic low dose-rate ?-radiation (62 cGy/year) for 40, 80, 120, 210, and 365 days. After 40 days of exposure (6.7 cGy), sple...

A. N. Osipov; A. L. Elakov; P. V. Puchkov…

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

The Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: Data and dose assessments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests, especially from those conducted at the Pacific Proving Grounds between 1946 and 1958, contaminated areas of the Northern Marshall Islands. A radiological survey at some Northern Marshall Islands was conducted from September through November 1978 to evaluate the extent of residual radioactive contamination. The atolls included in the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey (NMIRS) were Likiep, Ailuk, Utirik, Wotho, Ujelang, Taka, Rongelap, Rongerik, Bikar, Ailinginae, and Mejit and Jemo Islands. The original test sites, Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, were also visited on the survey. An aerial survey was conducted to determine the external gamma exposure rate. Terrestrial (soil, food crops, animals, and native vegetation), cistern and well water samples, and marine (sediment, seawater, fish and clams) samples were collected to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in the atoll environment. Samples were processed and analyzed for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. The dose from the ingestion pathway was calculated using the radionuclide concentration data and a diet model for local food, marine, and water consumption. The ingestion pathway contributes 70% to 90% of the estimated dose. Approximately 95% of the dose is from {sup 137}Cs accounts for about 10% to 30% of the dose. {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am are the major contributors to dose via the inhalation pathway; however, inhalation accounts for only about 1% of the total estimated dose, based on surface soil levels and resuspension studies. All doses are computed for concentrations decay corrected to 1996. The maximum annual effective dose from manmade radionuclides at these atolls ranges from .02 mSv y{sup -1}. The background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 2.4 mSv y{sup -1} to 4.5 mSv y{sup -1}. The 50-y integral dose ranges from 0.5 to 65 mSv. 35 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.; Conrado, C.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Dose Reduction Techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

WAGGONER, L.O.

2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

150

The effects of total dissolved gas on chum salmon fry survival, growth, gas bubble disease, and seawater tolerance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta alevin developing in gravel habitats downstream of Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River are exposed to elevated levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) when water is spilled at the dam to move migrating salmon smolts downstream to the Pacific Ocean. Current water quality criteria for the management of dissolved gas in dam tailwaters were developed primarily to protect salmonid smolts and are assumed to be protective of alevin if adequate depth compensation is provided. We studied whether chum salmon alevin exposed to six levels of dissolved gas ranging from 100% to 130% TDG at three development periods between hatch and emergence (hereafter early, middle, and late stage) suffered differential mortality, growth, gas bubble disease, or seawater tolerance. Each life stage was exposed for 50 d (early stage), 29 d (middle stage), or 16 d (late stage) beginning at 13, 34, and 37 d post-hatch, respectively, through 50% emergence. The mortality for all stages from exposure to emergence was estimated to be 8% (95% confidence interval (CI) of 4% to 12%) when dissolved gas levels were between 100% and 117% TDG. Mortality significantly increased as dissolved gas levels rose above 117% TDG,; with the lethal concentration that produced 50% mortality (LC50 ) was estimated to be 128.7% TDG (95% CI of 127.2% to 130.2% TDG) in the early and middle stages. By contrast, there was no evidence that dissolved gas level significantly affected growth in any life stage except that the mean wet weight at emergence of early stage fish exposed to 130% TDG was significantly less than the modeled growth of unexposed fish. The proportion of fish afflicted with gas bubble disease increased with increasing gas concentrations and occurred most commonly in the nares and gastrointestinal tract. Early stage fish exhibited higher ratios of filament to lamellar gill chloride cells than late stage fish, and these ratios increased and decreased for early and late stage fish, respectively, as gas levels increased; however, there were no significant differences in mortality between life stages after 96 h in seawater. The study results suggest that current water quality guidelines for the management of dissolved gas appear to offer a conservative level of protection to chum salmon alevin incubating in gravel habitat downstream of Bonneville Dam.

Geist, David R.; Linley, Timothy J.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Deng, Zhiqun

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Barge Truck Total  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Barge Truck Total delivered cost per short ton Shipments with transportation rates over total shipments Total delivered cost per short ton Shipments with transportation rates over...

152

Internal Dose Estimates from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Appendix F Internal Dose Estimates from NTS Fallout F-1 #12;Radiation Dose to the Population;TABLE OF CONTENTS Page F- Part I. Estimates of Dose...........................................................................................40 Comparison to dose estimates from global fallout

153

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Glossary  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Glossary Glossary A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z We welcome updates to the glossary. Please send them to Low Dose. A α=β Ratio: A measure of the curvature of the cell survival curve and a measure of the sensitivity of a tissue or tumor to dose fractionation. The dose at which the linear and quadratic components of cell killing are equal. Abscopal Effect: The radiation response in tissue at a distance from the irradiated site invoked by local irradiation. Absorbed Dose Rate: Absorbed dose divided by the time it takes to deliver that dose. High dose rates are usually more damaging to humans and animals than low-dose rates. This is because repair of damage is more efficient when the dose rate is low. Absorbed Dose: The amount of energy deposited in any substance by ionizing

154

The effect of patient motion on dose uncertainty in charged particle irradiation for lesions encircling the brain stem or spinal cord  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A specialized charged?particle radiotherapy technique developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is applied to patients with lesions abutting or surrounding the spinal cord or brain stem. This technique divides the target into two parts one partially surrounding the critical structure (brain stem or spinal cord) and a second excluding the critical structure and abutting the first portion of the target. Compensators are used to conform the dose distribution to the distal surface of the target. This technique represents a novel approach in treating unresectable or residual tumors surrounding the spinal cord or brain stem. Since the placement of the patient with respect to beam?shaping devices is critical for divided?target treatments a method for calculating dose distributions reflecting random patient motion is proposed and the effects of random patient motion are studied for two divided?target patient examples. Dose?volume histograms and a normal?tissue complication probability model are used in this analysis. For the patients considered in this study the normal?tissue?complication probability model predicts that random patient motion less than or equal to 0.2 cm is tolerable in terms of spinal cord complications.

Inder Daftari; Paula L. Petti; John M. Collier; Joseph R. Castro; Samuel Pitluck

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Image Gallery  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Image Gallery Image Gallery These are images, photographs, and charts presented or developed for Low Dose Radiation Research Investigators’ Meetings. They may be used for presentations or reports. To save, right click on the picture, then choose "Save picture as." U.S. annual per-capita effective radiation dose from various sources for 1980. various sources 1980 Enlarge Image. U.S. annual per-capita effective radiation dose from various sources for 2006. various sources 2006 Enlarge Image. U.S. annual per-capita effective radiation dose from man-made sources in the United States for 2006. man-made 2006 Enlarge Image. Ionizing Radiation Dose Ranges showing the wide range of radiation doses that humans experience (Rem) Enlarge Image. Ionizing Radiation Dose Ranges showing the wide range of radiation doses that humans experience

156

Doses to patients from dental radiology in France  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In France, a national study was undertaken to estimate both dental radiology practices (equipment and activity) and the associated population collective dose. This study was done in two steps: A nationwide survey was conducted on the practitioner categories involved in dental radiology, and dosimetric measurements were performed on patients and on an anthropomorphic phantom by using conventional dental x-ray machines and pantomographic units. A total of 27.5 x 10(6) films were estimated to have been performed in 1984; 6% of them were pantomographic and 94% were conventional. Most of the organ doses measured for one intra-oral film were lower than 1 mGy (100 mrad); pantomogram dose values were generally higher than intra-oral ones. The collective effective dose equivalent figure was 2,000 person-Sv (2 x 10(5) person rem) leading to a per head dose equivalent of 0.037 mSv (3.7 mrem). The study allowed authors to identify ways to reduce the patient dose in France (e.g., implementing the use of long cone devices and controlling darkroom practices).

Benedittini, M.; Maccia, C.; Lefaure, C.; Fagnani, F. (Centre d'etude sur l'Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France))

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Alteration of cytokine profiles in mice exposed to chronic low-dose ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

While a high-dose of ionizing radiation is generally harmful and causes damage to living organisms, a low-dose of radiation has been shown to be beneficial in a variety of animal models. To understand the basis for the effect of low-dose radiation in vivo, we examined the cellular and immunological changes evoked in mice exposed to low-dose radiation at very low (0.7 mGy/h) and low (3.95 mGy/h) dose rate for the total dose of 0.2 and 2 Gy, respectively. Mice exposed to low-dose radiation, either at very low- or low-dose rate, demonstrated normal range of body weight and complete blood counts. Likewise, the number and percentage of peripheral lymphocyte populations, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, B, or NK cells, stayed unchanged following irradiation. Nonetheless, the sera from these mice exhibited elevated levels of IL-3, IL-4, leptin, MCP-1, MCP-5, MIP-1?, thrombopoietin, and VEGF along with slight reduction of IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, and IFN-?. This pattern of cytokine release suggests the stimulation of innate immunity facilitating myeloid differentiation and activation while suppressing pro-inflammatory responses and promoting differentiation of naïve T cells into T-helper 2, not T-helper 1, types. Collectively, our data highlight the subtle changes of cytokine milieu by chronic low-dose ?-radiation, which may be associated with the functional benefits observed in various experimental models.

Suk Chul Shin; Kyung-Mi Lee; Yu Mi Kang; Kwanghee Kim; Cha Soon Kim; Kwang Hee Yang; Young-Woo Jin; Chong Soon Kim; Hee Sun Kim

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Radiation Dose Estimates from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Summary: Radiation Dose Estimates from Hanford Radioactive Material Releases to the Air- tantly, what radiation dose people may have received. An independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP, additionalProjectworkcouldresultin revisions of these dose estimates. April 21, 1994 Companion

159

Dose dependent effects of exercise training and detraining ontotal and regional adiposity in 4,663 men and 1,743  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Objective: To determine if exercise reduces body weight andto examine the dose-response relationships between changes in exerciseand changes in total and regional adiposity. Methods and Results:Questionnaires on weekly running distance and adiposity from a largeprospective study of 3,973 men and 1,444 women who quit running(detraining), 270 men and 146 women who started running (training) and420 men and 153 women who remained sedentary during 7.4 years offollow-up. There were significant inverse relationships between change inthe amount of vigorous exercise (km/wk run) and changes in weight and BMIin men (slope+-SE:-0.039+-0.005 kg and -0.012+-0.002 kg/m2 per km/wk,respectively) and older women (-0.060+-0.018 kg and -0.022+-0.007 kg/m2per km/wk) who quit running, and in initially sedentary men(-0.098+-0.017 kg and -0.032+-0.005 kg/m2 per km/wk) and women(-0.062+-0.023 kg and -0.021+-0.008 kg/m2 per km/wk) who started running.Changes in waist circumference were also inversely related to changes inrunning distance in men who quit (-0.026+-0.005 cm per km/wk) or startedrunning (-0.078+-0.017 cm per km/wk). Conclusions. The initiation andcessation of vigorous exercise decrease and increase body weight andintra-abdominal fat, respectively, and these changes are proportional tothe change in exercise dose.

Williams, Paul T.; Thompson, Paul D.

2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

160

The $^4$He total photo-absorption cross section with two- plus three-nucleon interactions from chiral effective field theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The total photo-absorption cross section of $^4$He is evaluated microscopically using two- (NN) and three-nucleon (NNN) interactions based upon chiral effective field theory ($\\chi$EFT). The calculation is performed using the Lorentz integral transform method along with the {\\em ab initio} no-core shell model approach. An important feature of the present study is the consistency of the NN and NNN interactions and also, through the Siegert theorem, of the two- and three-body current operators. This is due to the application of the $\\chi$EFT framework. The inclusion of the NNN interaction produces a suppression of the low-energy peak and enhancement of the high-energy tail of the cross section. We compare to calculations obtained using other interactions and to representative experiments. The rather confused experimental situation in the giant resonance region prevents discrimination among different interaction models.

S. Quaglioni; P. Navratil

2007-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total effective dose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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161

Effects of Substerilization Doses of Co60 Gamma Radiation on the Cold-Storage Life Extension of Shucked Soft-Shelled Clams and Haddock Fillets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...000 rad of ionizing radiation. In the dose range from 200,000...000 rad of ionizing radiation. In the dose range from 200,000...000 rad of ionizing radiation. Nevertheless...indicate that in the dose range from 400,000...

E. B. Masurovsky; S. A. Goldblith; J. T. R. Nickerson

1963-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to development of the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postclosure nominal performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations concerned twenty-four radionuclides. This selection included sixteen radionuclides that may be significant nominal performance dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, five additional radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure, and three relatively short-lived radionuclides important for the human intrusion scenario. Consideration of radionuclide buildup in soil caused by previous irrigation with contaminated groundwater was taken into account in the BDCF development. The effect of climate evolution, from the current arid conditions to a wetter and cooler climate, on the BDCF values was evaluated. The analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. Calculations of nominal performance BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. BDCFs for the nominal performance, when combined with the concentrations of radionuclides in groundwater allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculated estimates of radionuclide concentration in groundwater result from the saturated zone modeling. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) to calculate doses to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

Wasiolek, Maryla A.

2000-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

163

Comparison of 50-year and 70-year internal-dose-conversion factors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 50-year inhalation and ingestion dose commitments associated with an acute intake (of a radionuclide) of 3.7 x 10/sup 4/ Bq (1 ..mu..Ci) in one day were compared with the corresponding dose commitments calculated for a 70-year integration period resulting from a chronic intake of the same amount at a rate of 101 Bq/d (0.00274 ..mu..Ci/d) for one year. These values, known as dose conversion factors, estimate the dose accumulated during a given period of time following a unit of intake of a radionuclide. It was demonstrated that the acute intake of 3.7 x 10/sup 4/ Bq in one day and the chronic intake of 101 Bq/d for one year (a total intake of 3.7 x 10/sup 4/ Bq) result in essentially the same dose commitment for a relatively long integration period. Therefore, the comparison of 50-year acute dose conversion factors and 70-year chronic dose conversion factors is essentially only a measure of the additional dose accumulated in the 50 to 70 year period. It was found that for radionuclides with atomic mass less than 200 the percent difference in the 70-year and 50-year dose conversion factors was essentially zero in most cases. Differences of approximately 5 to 50% were obtained for dose conversion factors for most alpha emitters with atomic masses of greater than 200. Comparisons were made on the basis of both organ dose equivalent and effective dose equivalent. The implications and significance of these results are discussed.

Ryan, M.T.; Dunning, D.E. Jr.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Effect of carbonate soil on transport and dose estimates from long-lived radionuclides at U. S. Pacific Test Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States conducted a series of nuclear tests from 1946 to 1958 at Bikini, a coral atoll, in the Marshall Islands (MI). The aquatic and terrestrial environments of the atoll are still contaminated with several long-lived radionuclides that were generated during testing. The four major radionuclides found in terrestrial plants and soils are Cesium-137 ({sup 137} Cs), Strontium-90 ({sup 90} Sr), Plutonium-239+ 240 ({sup 239+240}Pu) and Americium-241 ({sup 241}Am). {sup 137}Cs in the coral soils is more available for uptake by plants than {sup 137}Cs associated with continental soils of North America or Europe. Soil-to-plant {sup 137}Cs median concentration ratios (CR) (kBq kg{sup {minus}1} dry weight plant/kBq kg {sup {minus}1} dry weight soil) for tropical fruits and vegetables range between 0.8 and 36, much larger than the range of 0.005 to 0.5 reported for vegetation in temperate zones. Conversely, {sup 90}Sr median CRs range from 0.006 to 1.0 at the atoll versus a range from 0.02 to 3.0 for continental silica-based soils. Thus, the relative uptake of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr by plants in carbonate soils is reversed from that observed in silica-based soils. The CRs for {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am are very similar to those observed in continental soils. Values range from 10{sup {minus}6} to 10{sup {minus}4} for both {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. No significant difference is observed between the two in coral soil. The uptake of {sup 137}Cs by plants is enhanced because of the absence of mineral binding sites and the low concentration of potassium in the coral soil. {sup 137}Cs is bound to the organic fraction of the soil, whereas {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am are primarily bound to soil particles. Assessment of plant uptake for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr into locally grown food crops was a major contributing factor in (1) reliably predicting the radiological dose for returning residents, and (2) developing a strategy to limit the availability and uptake of {sup 137}Cs into locally g

Conrado, C.L.; Hamilton, T.F.; Robison, W.L.; Stoker, A.C.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Internal Dose Estimates from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Appendix H Internal Dose Estimates from Global Fallout H-1 #12;Radiation Dose to the Population. 263-MQ-008090 September 30, 2000 H-2 #12;Radiation Dose to the Population of the Continental United Site Part I. Estimates of Dose Lynn R. Anspaugh Lynn R. Anspaugh, Consulting Salt Lake City, UT Report

166

Variations of Total Domination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The study of locating–dominating sets in graphs was pioneered by Slater [186, 187...], and this concept was later extended to total domination in graphs. A locating–total dominating set, abbreviated LTD-set, in G

Michael A. Henning; Anders Yeo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Total Crude by Pipeline  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Total Crude by All Transport Methods Domestic Crude by All Transport Methods Foreign Crude by All Transport Methods Total Crude by Pipeline Domestic Crude by Pipeline Foreign Crude by Pipeline Total Crude by Tanker Domestic Crude by Tanker Foreign Crude by Tanker Total Crude by Barge Domestic Crude by Barge Foreign Crude by Barge Total Crude by Tank Cars (Rail) Domestic Crude by Tank Cars (Rail) Foreign Crude by Tank Cars (Rail) Total Crude by Trucks Domestic Crude by Trucks Foreign Crude by Trucks Period: Product: Total Crude by All Transport Methods Domestic Crude by All Transport Methods Foreign Crude by All Transport Methods Total Crude by Pipeline Domestic Crude by Pipeline Foreign Crude by Pipeline Total Crude by Tanker Domestic Crude by Tanker Foreign Crude by Tanker Total Crude by Barge Domestic Crude by Barge Foreign Crude by Barge Total Crude by Tank Cars (Rail) Domestic Crude by Tank Cars (Rail) Foreign Crude by Tank Cars (Rail) Total Crude by Trucks Domestic Crude by Trucks Foreign Crude by Trucks Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View

168

Contribution of nano-scale effects to the total efficiency of converters of thermal neutrons on the basis of gadolinium foils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the influence of nano-scale layers of converters made from natural gadolinium and its 157 isotope into the total efficiency of registration of thermal neutrons. Our estimations show that contribution of low-energy Auger electrons with the runs about nanometers in gadolinium, to the total efficiency of neutron converters in this case is essential and results in growth of the total efficiency of converters. The received results are in good consent to the experimental data.

D. A. Abdushukurov; D. V. Bondarenko; Kh. Kh. Muminov; D. Yu. Chistyakov

2008-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

169

Improved assessment of population doses and risk factors for a nuclear power plant under accident conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the surfaces of the earth, buildings, and paved areas is very difficult to model. Factors which influence the behavior of the nuclides include external forces which cause weathering effects (soil erosion and penetration of the soil), chemical and physical... of the radionuclides into the soil is not disturbed by man (no soil cultivation). 5. Radionuclides with half-lives less than eight days need not be considered. 6. Radionuclides not having significant gamma emissions are not effective contributors to the total dose...

Meyer, Christopher Martin

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

The effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides on the male rats? reproductive system and spermatogenic cell apoptosis exposed to low-dose ionizing irradiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Ethnopharmacological relevance: Lycium barbarum, a Solanaceous defoliated shrubbery, has been used as a kind of traditional Chinese herbal medicines for thousands of years. Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) is the main bioactive component of Lycium barbarum. The aim of this study was to investigate the radioresistant effect of LBP on the damage of male rats’ reproductive system and spermatogenic cells caused by low-dose 60Co-? irradiation. Materials and methods: Male rats were randomly divided into 7 groups and treated with irradiation and/or LBP: normal control group, irradiation control group 1, irradiation control group 2, irradiation control group 3, LBP + irradiation group 1, LBP + irradiation group 2, and LBP + irradiation group 3. Results: It is found that mating function and testis organ coefficient in LBP + irradiation groups were significantly better than that of the corresponding irradiation control groups. LBP significantly up-regulates the expression of Bcl-2 while down-regulating the expression of Bax. And LBP also plays an important role in prevention mitochondrial membrane potential decrease. In addition, LBP can significantly reduce spermatogenic cells apoptosis. Conclusion: LBP has obvious protective effect on the male rats’ reproductive function and spermatogenic dysfunction induced by irradiation.

Qiong Luo; Jingjing Li; Xiaoyan Cui; Jun Yan; Qihan Zhao; Chunyan Xiang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Functional proteomic pattern identification under low dose ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Objective: High dose radiation has been well known for increasing the risk of carcinogenesis. However, the understanding of biological effects of low dose radiation is limited. Low dose radiation is reported to affect several signaling pathways including ... Keywords: Feature selection, Jumping emerging identification, Low dose radiation, Proteomic signaling patterns

Young Bun Kim; Chin-Rang Yang; Jean Gao

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

TECHNICAL NOTE Measurement of radiotherapy superficial X-ray dose  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-rays; Dosimetry; Radiochromic film; Radiation; Surface dose Abstract Accurate measurement and knowledge of dose mm of depth. Baker et al. [3] produced empirical models to estimate absorbed dose be- hind eye shields. This theory produces a simple yet effective tool for estimation of dose under an eye shield

Yu, K.N.

173

Total Space Heat-  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

174

RADIATION DOSE FROM CIGARETTE TOBACCO  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece before cigarette production was studied in order to estimate the effective dose from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides such as 226 Ra and 210 Pb of the uranium series and 228 Ra of the thorium series and/or man?made produced radionuclides such as 137 Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma?ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for 226 Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6?? Sv ? y ?1 (average 79.7?? Sv ? y ?1 ) while for 228 Ra from 19.3 to 116.0?? Sv ? y ?1 (average 67.1?? Sv ? y ?1 ) and for 210 Pb from 47.0 to 134.9?? Sv ? y ?1 (average 104.7?? Sv ? y ?1 ) that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective dose of the three natural radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3?? Sv ? y ?1 (average 251.5?? Sv ? y ?1 ). The annual effective dose from 137 Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4? nSv ? y ?1 (average 199.3? nSv ? y ?1 ).

C. Papastefanou

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Low Dose Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ancient Salt Beds Ancient Salt Beds Repository Science Renewable Energy The WIPP Underground may be ideal to study effects of Very Low Dose Rates on Biological Systems Low Background Radiation Experiment We're all bathing in it. It's in the food we eat, the water we drink, the soil we tread and even the air we breathe. It's background radiation, it's everywhere and we can't get away from it. But what would happen if you somehow "pulled the plug" on natural background radiation? Would organisms suffer or thrive if they grew up without their constant exposure to background radiation? That's what a consortium of scientists conducting an experiment at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant aim to find out. Despite being an underground repository for transuranic radioactive waste,

176

Effects of prenatal exposure to a low dose atrazine metabolite mixture on pubertal timing and prostate development of male Long-Evans rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present study examines the postnatal reproductive development of male rats following prenatal exposure to an atrazine metabolite mixture (AMM) consisting of the herbicide atrazine and its environmental metabolites diaminochlorotriazine, hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were treated by gavage with 0.09, 0.87, or 8.73 mg AMM/kg body weight (BW), vehicle, or 100 mg ATR/kg BW positive control, on gestation days 15 19. Preputial separation was significantly delayed in 0.87 mg and 8.73 mg AMM-exposed males. AMM-exposed males demonstrated a significant treatment-related increase in incidence and severity of inflammation in the prostate on postnatal day (PND) 120. A dose-dependent increase in epididymal fat masses and prostate foci were grossly visible in AMM-exposed offspring. These results indicate that a short, late prenatal exposure to mixture of chlorotriazine metabolites can cause chronic prostatitis in male LE rats. The mode of action for these effects is presently unclear.

Stanko, Jason [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); Enoch, Rolondo [North Carolina Central University, Durham; Rayner, Jennifer L [ORNL; Davis, Christine [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Wolf, Douglas [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Malarkey, David [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Fenton, Suzanne [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

A dose assessment for a U.S. nuclear test site -- Bikini Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On March 1, 1954, a nuclear weapon test, code-named BRAVO, conducted at Bikini Atoll in the northern Marshall Islands contaminated the major residence island. Here the authors provide a radiological dose assessment for the main residence island, Bikini, using extensive radionuclide concentration data derived from analysis of food crops, ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, animals, air, and soil collected at Bikini Island. The unique composition of coral soil greatly alters the relative contribution of cesium-137 and strontium-90 to the total estimated dose relative to expectations based on North American and European soils. Cesium-137 produces 96% of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake from the soil to terrestrial food crops but also from external gamma exposure. The estimated maximum annual effective dose is 4.4 mSv y{sup {minus}1} when imported foods, which are now an established part of the diet, are available. The 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 10 cSv, 14 cSv, and 16 cSv, respectively. An analysis of interindividual variability in 0- to 30-y expected integral dose indicates that 95% of Bikini residents would have expected doses within a factor of 3.4 above and 4.8 below the population-average value. A corresponding uncertainty analysis showed that after about 5 y of residence, the 95% confidence limits on population-average dose would be {+-}35% of its expected value. The authors have evaluated various countermeasures to reduce {sup 137}Cs in food crops. Treatment with potassium reduces the uptake of {sup 137}Cs into food crops, and therefore the ingestion dose, to less than 10% of pretreatment levels and has essentially no negative environmental consequences.

Robison, W.L.; Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

An updated dose assessment for a U.S. Nuclear Test Site - Bikini Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On March 1, 1954, a nuclear weapon test, code-named BRAVO, conducted at Bikini Atoll in the northern Marshall Islands contaminated the major residence island. There has been a continuing effort since 1977 to refine dose assessments for resettlement options at Bikini Atoll. Here we provide a radiological dose assessment for the main residence island, Bikini, using extensive radionuclide concentration data derived from analysis of food crops, ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, animals, air, and soil collected at Bikini Island as part of our continuing research and monitoring program that began in 1975. The unique composition of coral soil greatly alters the relative contribution of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr) to the total estimated dose relative to expectations based on North American and European soils. Without counter measures, cesium-137 produces 96% of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake from the soil to terrestrial food crops but also from external gamma exposure. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1999. The estimated maximum annual effective dose for current island conditions is 4.0 mSv when imported foods, which are now an established part of the diet, are available. The corresponding 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 9.1 cSv, 13 cSv, and 15 cSv, respectively. A corresponding uncertainty analysis showed that after about 5 y of residence, the 95% confidence limits on population-average dose would be {plus_minus}35% of its expected value. We have evaluated various countermeasures to reduce {sup 137}Cs in food crops. Treatment with potassium reduces the uptake of {sup 137}Cs into food crops, and therefore the ingestion dose, to about 5% of pretreatment levels and has essentially no negative environmental consequences.

Robison, W.L.; Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Measurement of radiation dose in dental radiology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......product to effective dose and energy imparted to the patient. Phys...C. A. and Persliden, J. Energy imparted to the patient in diagnostic...factors for determining the energy imparted from measurements of...dental radiology. | Patient dose audit is an important tool for quality......

Ebba Helmrot; Gudrun Alm Carlsson

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

An updated dose assesment for resettlement options at Bikini atoll - A US nuclear test site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There has been a continuing effort since 1977 to refine dose assessments for resettlement options at Bikini Atoll. Here we provide a radiological dose assessment for the main residence island, Bikini, using extensive radio nuclide concentration data derived from analysis of food crops, ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, animals, air, and soil collected at Bikini Island as part of our continuing research and monitoring program that began in 1978. The unique composition of coral soil greatly alters the relative contribution of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr to the total estimated dose relative to expectations based on North American and European soils. Without counter measures, {sup 137}Cs produces 96% of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake from the soil to terrestrial food crops but also from external gamma exposure. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1999. The estimated maximum annual effective dose for current island conditions is 4.0 mSv when imported foods, which are now an established part of the diet, are available. The 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 91 mSv, 130 mSv, and 150 mSv, respectively. A detailed uncertainty analysis for these dose estimates is presented in a companion paper in this issue. We have evaluated various countermeasures to reduce {sup 137}Cs in food crops. Treatment with potassium reduces the uptake of {sup 137}Cs into food crops, and therefore the ingestion dose, to about 5 % of pretreatment levels and has essentially no negative environmental consequences. We have calculated the dose for the rehabilitation scenario where the top 40 cm of soil is removed in the housing and village area, and the rest of the island is treated with potassium fertilizer; the maximum annual effective dose is 0.41 mSv and the 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 9.8 mSv, 14 mSv, and 16 mSv, respectively. 44 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

Robison, W.L.; Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total effective dose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

E-Print Network 3.0 - antithymocyte globulin total-body Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

November, 2010 Neil Blumberg MD Page 1 CURRICULUM VITAE Summary: transfused patients with sickle cell disease and thalassemia after low-dose total body irradiation... ,...

182

Neutron dose equivalent meter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A neutron dose equivalent detector for measuring neutron dose capable of accurately responding to neutron energies according to published fluence to dose curves. The neutron dose equivalent meter has an inner sphere of polyethylene, with a middle shell overlying the inner sphere, the middle shell comprising RTV.RTM. silicone (organosiloxane) loaded with boron. An outer shell overlies the middle shell and comprises polyethylene loaded with tungsten. The neutron dose equivalent meter defines a channel through the outer shell, the middle shell, and the inner sphere for accepting a neutron counter tube. The outer shell is loaded with tungsten to provide neutron generation, increasing the neutron dose equivalent meter's response sensitivity above 8 MeV.

Olsher, Richard H. (Los Alamos, NM); Hsu, Hsiao-Hua (Los Alamos, NM); Casson, William H. (Los Alamos, NM); Vasilik, Dennis G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kleck, Jeffrey H. (Menlo Park, CA); Beverding, Anthony (Foster City, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Toward Dose Optimization for Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Acoustic Neuromas: Comparison of Two Dose Cohorts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To describe our initial experience of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy dose reduction comparing two dose cohorts with examination of tumor control rates and serviceable hearing preservation rates. Methods and Materials: After institutional review board approval, we initiated a retrospective chart review to study the hearing outcomes and tumor control rates. All data were entered into a JMP, version 7.01, statistical spreadsheet for analysis. Results: A total of 89 patients with serviceable hearing had complete serial audiometric data available for analysis. The higher dose cohort included 43 patients treated to 50.4 Gy with a median follow-up (latest audiogram) of 53 weeks and the lower dose cohort included 46 patients treated to 46.8 Gy with a median follow-up of 65 weeks. The tumor control rate was 100% in both cohorts, and the pure tone average was significantly improved in the low-dose cohort (33 dB vs. 40 dB, p = 0.023, chi-square). When the patient data were analyzed at comparable follow-up points, the actuarial hearing preservation rate was significantly longer for the low-dose cohort than for the high-dose cohort (165 weeks vs. 79 weeks, p = .0318, log-rank). Multivariate analysis revealed the dose cohort (p = 0.0282) and pretreatment Gardner-Robertson class (p = 0.0215) to be highly significant variables affecting the hearing outcome. Conclusion: A lower total dose at 46.8 Gy was associated with a 100% local control tumor rate and a greater hearing preservation rate. An additional dose reduction is justified to achieve the optimal dose that will yield the greatest hearing preservation rate without compromising tumor control for these patients.

Andrews, David W. [Department of Neurologic Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University (United States)], E-mail: david.andrews@jefferson.edu; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Den, Robert B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University (United States); Paek, Sun Ha [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Downes-Phillips, Beverly [Department of Neurologic Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University (United States); Willcox, Thomas O. [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University (United States); Bednarz, Greg; Maltenfort, Mitchel; Evans, James J. [Department of Neurologic Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University (United States); Curran, Walter J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University (United States)

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

A 20% service charge and 7% sales tax will be added to the total bill. Prices are effective through December 31, 2012, but may be subject to change should economic conditions require.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

·Threehoursofsetuptimeandfour hours of reception time. Food Service concludes at the end of the second hour. Bar ServiceA 20% service charge and 7% sales tax will be added to the total bill. Prices are effective through,whitemattesatinfloor- length specialty linens for all guest tables, food and beverage tables, and other reception tables

Arnold, Jonathan

185

Barge Truck Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Barge Barge Truck Total delivered cost per short ton Shipments with transportation rates over total shipments Total delivered cost per short ton Shipments with transportation rates over total shipments Year (nominal) (real) (real) (percent) (nominal) (real) (real) (percent) 2008 $6.26 $5.77 $36.50 15.8% 42.3% $6.12 $5.64 $36.36 15.5% 22.2% 2009 $6.23 $5.67 $52.71 10.8% 94.8% $4.90 $4.46 $33.18 13.5% 25.1% 2010 $6.41 $5.77 $50.83 11.4% 96.8% $6.20 $5.59 $36.26 15.4% 38.9% Annual Percent Change First to Last Year 1.2% 0.0% 18.0% - - 0.7% -0.4% -0.1% - - Latest 2 Years 2.9% 1.7% -3.6% - - 26.6% 25.2% 9.3% - - - = No data reported or value not applicable STB Data Source: The Surface Transportation Board's 900-Byte Carload Waybill Sample EIA Data Source: Form EIA-923 Power Plant Operations Report

186

Summary Max Total Units  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Max Total Units Max Total Units *If All Splits, No Rack Units **If Only FW, AC Splits 1000 52 28 28 2000 87 59 35 3000 61 33 15 4000 61 33 15 Totals 261 153 93 ***Costs $1,957,500.00 $1,147,500.00 $697,500.00 Notes: added several refrigerants removed bins from analysis removed R-22 from list 1000lb, no Glycol, CO2 or ammonia Seawater R-404A only * includes seawater units ** no seawater units included *** Costs = (total units) X (estimate of $7500 per unit) 1000lb, air cooled split systems, fresh water Refrig Voltage Cond Unit IF-CU Combos 2 4 5 28 References Refrig Voltage C-U type Compressor HP R-404A 208/1/60 Hermetic SA 2.5 R-507 230/1/60 Hermetic MA 2.5 208/3/60 SemiHerm SA 1.5 230/3/60 SemiHerm MA 1.5 SemiHerm HA 1.5 1000lb, remote rack systems, fresh water Refrig/system Voltage Combos 12 2 24 References Refrig/system Voltage IF only

187

Total Precipitable Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The simulation was performed on 64K cores of Intrepid, running at 0.25 simulated-years-per-day and taking 25 million core-hours. This is the first simulation using both the CAM5 physics and the highly scalable spectral element dynamical core. The animation of Total Precipitable Water clearly shows hurricanes developing in the Atlantic and Pacific.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Total Sustainability Humber College  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Total Sustainability Management Humber College November, 2012 SUSTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM Green An Impending Global Disaster #12;3 Sustainability is NOT Climate Remediation #12;Our Premises "We cannot, you cannot improve it" (Lord Kelvin) "First rule of sustainability is to align with natural forces

Thompson, Michael

189

External Dose Estimates from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Appendix G External Dose Estimates from Global Fallout G-1 #12;External Radiation Exposure-MQ-003539 March 15, 2000 G-2 #12;Abstract This report provides estimates of the external radiation-62. Estimates are given on a county by county basis for each month from 1953-1972. The average population dose

190

External Dose Estimates from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Appendix E External Dose Estimates from NTS Fallout E-1 #12;External Radiation Exposure. 1, 1999) E-2 #12;Abstract This report provides estimates of the external radiation exposure of this report to: "Prepare crude estimates of the doses from external irradiation received by the American

191

Estimation of Rectal Dose Using Daily Megavoltage Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Deformable Image Registration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The actual dose delivered to critical organs will differ from the simulated dose because of interfractional organ motion and deformation. Here, we developed a method to estimate the rectal dose in prostate intensity modulated radiation therapy with consideration to interfractional organ motion using daily megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MVCBCT). Methods and Materials: Under exemption status from our institutional review board, we retrospectively reviewed 231 series of MVCBCT of 8 patients with prostate cancer. On both planning CT (pCT) and MVCBCT images, the rectal contours were delineated and the CT value within the contours was replaced by the mean CT value within the pelvis, with the addition of 100 Hounsfield units. MVCBCT images were rigidly registered to pCT and then nonrigidly registered using B-Spline deformable image registration (DIR) with Velocity AI software. The concordance between the rectal contours on MVCBCT and pCT was evaluated using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). The dose distributions normalized for 1 fraction were also deformed and summed to estimate the actual total dose. Results: The DSC of all treatment fractions of 8 patients was improved from 0.75±0.04 (mean ±SD) to 0.90 ±0.02 by DIR. Six patients showed a decrease of the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) from total dose compared with treatment plans. Although the rectal volume of each treatment fraction did not show any correlation with the change in gEUD (R{sup 2}=0.18±0.13), the displacement of the center of gravity of rectal contours in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction showed an intermediate relationship (R{sup 2}=0.61±0.16). Conclusion: We developed a method for evaluation of rectal dose using DIR and MVCBCT images and showed the necessity of DIR for the evaluation of total dose. Displacement of the rectum in the AP direction showed a greater effect on the change in rectal dose compared with the rectal volume.

Akino, Yuichi, E-mail: akino@radonc.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Yoshioka, Yasuo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Fukuda, Shoichi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka General Medical Center, Osaka (Japan); Maruoka, Shintaroh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Takahashi, Yutaka [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Yagi, Masashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Mizuno, Hirokazu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Isohashi, Fumiaki [Oncology Center, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Ogawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Effect of low-dose, low-LET γ-radiation and BaP injection on pulmonary immunity in A/J mice  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

low-dose, low-LET γ-radiation and BaP injection on pulmonary immunity in A/J mice low-dose, low-LET γ-radiation and BaP injection on pulmonary immunity in A/J mice K. Gott, V. Gonzales, M. Makvandi, N. Kikendall, A. Monier, E. Maloy, C. Rietz, B. Scott and J. Wilder. Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM Introduction: Low-dose, low-linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation (LDR; < 100 mGy) activates the immune response (Nowosielska et al., 2006), presumably via epigenetic pathways (Scott et al., 2009) and has been implicated as suppressing both alpha-radiation-induced and smoking-related lung cancer (Scott et al. 2009). One of the hypothesized adaptive-response mechanisms by which LDR does so is by activating immune cell function in the lung, which would then increase their anti-cancer surveillance

193

Radiation dose from cigarette tobacco  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece before cigarette production was studied in order to estimate the effective dose from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, such as {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb of the uranium series and {sup 228}Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made produced radionuclides, such as {sup 137}Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for {sup 226}Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 79.7 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}), while for {sup 228}Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 67.1 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}) and for {sup 210}Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 104.7 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}), that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective dose of the three natural radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 251.5 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}). The annual effective dose from {sup 137}Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv y{sup -1} (average 199.3 nSv y{sup -1})

Papastefanou, C. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Atomic and Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)

2008-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

194

Radiation doses from some common paediatric X-ray examinations in Sudan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......and Technical Papers Radiation doses from some common...suliman@gmail.com Radiation Safety Institute, Sudan Atomic...3001, Khartoum, Sudan Radiation doses to patients from...settings using DosCal software. Totally, 459 patients......

I. I. Suliman; E. H. A. Elshiekh

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

An updated dose assessment for Rongelap Island  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have updated the radiological dose assessment for Rongelap Island at Rongelap Atoll using data generated from field trips to the atoll during 1986 through 1993. The data base used for this dose assessment is ten fold greater than that available for the 1982 assessment. Details of each data base are presented along with details about the methods used to calculate the dose from each exposure pathway. The doses are calculated for a resettlement date of January 1, 1995. The maximum annual effective dose is 0.26 mSv y{sup {minus}1} (26 mrem y{sup {minus}1}). The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 0.0059 Sv (0.59 rem), 0.0082 Sv (0.82 rem), and 0.0097 Sv (0.97 rem), respectively. More than 95% of these estimated doses are due to 137-Cesium ({sup 137}Cs). About 1.5% of the estimated dose is contributed by 90-Strontium ({sup 90}Sr), and about the same amount each by 239+240-Plutonium ({sup 239+240}PU), and 241-Americium ({sup 241}Am).

Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

A Mathematical Study to Select Fractionation Regimen Based on Physical Dose Distribution and the Linear-Quadratic Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Hypofractionated irradiation is often used in precise radiotherapy instead of conventional multifractionated irradiation. We propose a novel mathematical method for selecting a hypofractionated or multifractionated irradiation regimen based on physical dose distribution adding to biologic consideration. Methods and Materials: The linear-quadratic model was used for the radiation effects on tumor and normal tissues, especially organs at risk (OARs). On the basis of the assumption that the OAR receives a fraction of the dose intended for the tumor, the minimization problem for the damage effect on the OAR was treated under the constraint that the radiation effect on the tumor is fixed. Results: For an N-time fractionated irradiation regimen, the constraint of tumor lethality was described by an N-dimensional hypersphere. The total dose of the fractionated irradiations was considered for minimizing the damage effect on the OAR under the hypersphere condition. It was found that the advantage of hypofractionated or multifractionated irradiation therapies depends on the magnitude of the ratio of {alpha}/{beta} parameters for the OAR and tumor in the linear-quadratic model and the ratio of the dose for the OAR and tumor. Conclusions: Our mathematical method shows that multifractionated irradiation with a constant dose is better if the ratio of {alpha}/{beta} for the OAR and tumor is less than the ratio of the dose for the OAR and tumor, whereas hypofractionated irradiation is better otherwise.

Mizuta, Masahiro [Laboratory of Advanced Data Science, Information Initiative Center, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Laboratory of Advanced Data Science, Information Initiative Center, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Takao, Seishin [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Date, Hiroyuki, E-mail: date@hs.hokudai.ac.jp [Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kishimoto, Naoki [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Sutherland, Kenneth L.; Onimaru, Rikiya; Shirato, Hiroki [Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)] [Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Dose to the Developing Dentition During Therapeutic Irradiation: Organ at Risk Determination and Clinical Implications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Irradiation of pediatric facial structures can cause severe impairment of permanent teeth later in life. We therefore focused on primary and permanent teeth as organs at risk, investigating the ability to identify individual teeth in children and infants and to correlate dose distributions with subsequent dental toxicity. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 14 pediatric patients who received a maximum dose >20 Gy(relative biological effectiveness, RBE) to 1 or more primary or permanent teeth between 2003 and 2009. The patients (aged 1-16 years) received spot-scanning proton therapy with 46 to 66 Gy(RBE) in 23 to 33 daily fractions for a variety of tumors, including rhabdomyosarcoma (n=10), sarcoma (n=2), teratoma (n=1), and carcinoma (n=1). Individual teeth were contoured on axial slices from planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Dose-volume histogram data were retrospectively obtained from total calculated delivered treatments. Dental follow-up information was obtained from external care providers. Results: All primary teeth and permanent incisors, canines, premolars, and first and second molars were identifiable on CT scans in all patients as early as 1 year of age. Dose-volume histogram analysis showed wide dose variability, with a median 37 Gy(RBE) per tooth dose range across all individuals, and a median 50 Gy(RBE) intraindividual dose range across all teeth. Dental follow-up revealed absence of significant toxicity in 7 of 10 patients but severe localized toxicity in teeth receiving >20 Gy(RBE) among 3 patients who were all treated at <4 years of age. Conclusions: CT-based assessment of dose distribution to individual teeth is feasible, although delayed calcification may complicate tooth identification in the youngest patients. Patterns of dental dose exposure vary markedly within and among patients, corresponding to rapid dose falloff with protons. Severe localized dental toxicity was observed in a few patients receiving the largest doses of radiation at the youngest ages; however, multiple factors including concurrent chemotherapy confounded the dose-effect relationship. Further studies with larger cohorts and appropriate controls will be required.

Thompson, Reid F., E-mail: Reid.Thompson@uphs.upenn.edu [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Schneider, Ralf A., E-mail: ralf.schneider@psi.ch [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Albertini, Francesca; Lomax, Antony J.; Ares, Carmen; Goitein, Gudrun [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)] [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Hug, Eugen B. [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland) [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); ProCure Therapy Centers, New York, New York (United States)

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Total isomerization gains flexibility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isomerization extends refinery flexibility to meet changing markets. TIP (Total Isomerization Process) allows conversion of paraffin fractions in the gasoline boiling region including straight run naptha, light reformate, aromatic unit raffinate, and hydrocrackate. The hysomer isomerization is compared to catalytic reforming. Isomerization routes are graphed. Cost estimates and suggestions on the use of other feedstocks are given. TIP can maximize gas production, reduce crude runs, and complement cat reforming. In four examples, TIP reduces reformer severity and increases reformer yield.

Symoniak, M.F.; Holcombe, T.C.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: National Laboratories  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

National Laboratories National Laboratories The Low Dose Radiation Program funding encompasses several Scientific Focus Areas (SFAs). The SFAs fund merit-reviewed research at DOE national laboratories. This management approach was created in 2008 by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Science. PNNL's Low Dose Radiation Research Program Scientific Focus Area Linear and Nonlinear Tissue-Signaling Mechanisms in Response to Low Dose and Low Dose-Rate Radiation This program is funded as a U.S. Department of Energy Scientific Focus Area (SFA), and is an integrated cooperative program to understand low dose radiation effects in a complex model system. Coordinating Multidisciplinary Expertise The SFAs are designed to take advantage of the multidisciplinary,

200

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Universities  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Universities Universities | Duke University | Loma Linda University | Northwestern University | University of Chicago | University of California Davis | Northwestern University University of Chicago University of California Davis Effects of Low Dose Irradiation on NF-κB Signaling Networks and Mitochondria Principal Investigator: Dr. Gayle Woloschak DOE Low Dose Research Program Projects Low dose-low dose rate irradiation leads to long term changes in numbers of mitochondria and mitochondrial genomes - Principal Investigator: Gayle Woloschak, Professor, Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA NF-κB-mediated pro-survival network in low dose radiation-induced adaptive protection - Principal Investigator: Jian Jian Li, Professor, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis, Davis,

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201

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: About  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

About About Background. Extensive research on the health effects of radiation using standard epidemiological and toxicological approaches has been done for decades to characterize responses of populations and individuals to high radiation doses, and to set exposure standards to protect both the public and the workforce. These standards were set using models that extrapolated from the cancers observed following exposure to high doses of radiation to predicted, but not measurable, changes in cancer frequency at low radiation doses. The use of models was necessary because of our inability to detect changes in cancer incidence following low doses of radiation. Historically, the predominant approach has been the Linear-no-Threshold model (see Wikipedia entry) and collective dose concept that assumes each unit of radiation, no

202

Effects of different enzyme treatments in extraction of total folate from infant formula, baby foods and other food products prior to microbiological assay and radioassay  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Four different enzyme treatments-conjugase alone, conjugase and alpha-amylase, conjugase and Pronase{reg sign} and a triple enzyme combination of conjugase, Pronase {reg sign} and alpha-amylase were applied in the extraction of total folate from infant formula, baby foods and various other foods by microbiological and radioassay methods. Significant increases (P < 0.05) in measurable folate were obtained using the triple enzyme system in spinach, Camembert cheese, soy-based infant formula and cereal-based, meat-based and fruit-based infant foods over the use of conjugase alone by the microbiological method. Increases were also observed in many of the same foods using Pronase{reg sign} or alpha-amylase in addition to conjugase alone. Increases obtained by microbiological assay were confirmed by radioassay in a number of foods studied.

De Souza, S.C.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Effects of local microbial bioaugmentation and biostimulation on the bioremediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in crude oil contaminated soil based on laboratory and field observations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study investigated factors enhancing the performance of the bioremediation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) in crude oil-contaminated soil in laboratory and field observations. The bioaugmentation process used local microbial consortia (MC1, MC2 and MC3) combined with the biostimulation processes of nutrient addition (mineral–salt medium, MSM and NPK) and enhanced air stimulation (air supply and Oxygen Releasing Compound (ORC™)). The microcosm tests were conducted in tank and soil column setups, whereas the field test was performed in test plots inside an oil and gas facility in Malaysia. In the microcosm tank experiment, the combination of bioaugmentation (10% inoculum size of MC3) and MSM biostimulation yielded the highest TPH degradation of 79% of the total. In the column experiments, the degradation of \\{TPHs\\} in the top soil was highest in columns combining bioaugmentation and nutrient addition, whereas in the bottom soil, the degradation of \\{TPHs\\} was highest in columns combining bioaugmentation with the addition of both nutrients and ORCs. In the field demonstration, 97% of the \\{TPHs\\} were degraded in the top soil (0–1 m) when bioaugmented with MC2. The kinetic analysis study of the microcosm tank showed that a combination of both biostimulation and bioaugmentation in the soil column achieved the fastest rate constant of 0.0390 day?1. The field test also demonstrated a comparable rate constant of 0.0339 day?1. The kinetic rate constants in both the laboratory and field indicated that the best treatment method for the contaminated site is a combination of MC3 bioaugmentation and nutrient biostimulation.

Fatihah Suja; Fazli Rahim; Mohd Raihan Taha; Nuraini Hambali; M. Rizal Razali; Alia Khalid; Ainon Hamzah

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Molecular signatures of low dose radiation exposure in human subjects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Molecular signatures of low dose radiation exposure in human subjects...Volume 46, 2005] 3096 Low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) in the 1-10 cGy range has largely unknown biological...the effect and risk at low dose by extrapolation from measured...

Zelanna Goldberg; Chad W. Schwietert; Maggie Isbell; Joerg Lehmann; Robin Stern; Christine Hartmann Siantar; and David M. Rocke

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Low Dose Suppression of Neoplastic Transformation in Vitro  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This grant was to study the low dose suppression of neoplastic transformation in vitro and the shape of the dose-response curve at low doses and dose-rates of ionizing radiation. Previous findings had indicated a suppression of transformation at dose <10cGy of low-LET radiation when delivered at high dose-rate. The present study indicates that such suppression extends out to doses in excess of 100cGy when the dose (from I-125 photons) is delivered at dose-rates as low as 0.2 mGy/min and out to in excess of {approx}25cGy the highest dose studied at the very low dose-rate of 0.5 mGy/day. We also examined dose-rate effects for high energy protons (which are a low-LET radiation) and suppression was evident below {approx}10cGy for high dose-rate delivery and at least out to 50cGy for low dose-rate (20cGy/h) delivery. Finally, we also examined the effect of low doses of 1 GeV/n iron ions (a high-LET radiation) delivered at high dose-rate on transformation at low doses and found a suppression below {approx}10cGy that could be attributable to an adaptive response in bystander cells induced by the associated low-LET delta rays. These results have implications for cancer risk assessment at low doses.

John Leslie Redpath

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Total Sales of Kerosene  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Farm All Other Period: End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Farm All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History U.S. 492,702 218,736 269,010 305,508 187,656 81,102 1984-2012 East Coast (PADD 1) 353,765 159,323 198,762 237,397 142,189 63,075 1984-2012 New England (PADD 1A) 94,635 42,570 56,661 53,363 38,448 15,983 1984-2012 Connecticut 13,006 6,710 8,800 7,437 7,087 2,143 1984-2012 Maine 46,431 19,923 25,158 24,281 17,396 7,394 1984-2012 Massachusetts 7,913 3,510 5,332 6,300 2,866 1,291 1984-2012 New Hampshire 14,454 6,675 8,353 7,435 5,472 1,977 1984-2012

207

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Bruce E. Lehnert  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

E. Lehnert E. Lehnert Los Alamos National Laboratory Past Project Low Dose Ionizing Radiation-Induced Effects in Irradiated and Unirradiated Cells: Pathways Analysis in Support of Risk Assessment. Technical Abstracts 2002 Workshop: Low Dose Ionizing Radiation-Induced Effects in Irradiated and Unirradiated cells: Pathways Analysis in Support of Risk Assessment. Lehnert, B.E., Cary, R., Gadbois, D. and Gupta G. 2001 Workshop: Low Dose, Low Dose Rate Effects of Ionizing Radiation in Irradiated and Unirradiated Cells. Lehnert, B.E. 1999 Workshop: Low Dose, Low Dose Rate Effects of Ionizing Radiation in Irradiated and Unirradiated Cells. Lehnert, B.E. Publications Lehnert, B.E., Radiation bystander effects. U.S.Department of Energy Research News (March 6 issue) Goldberg, Z. and Lehnert, B.E. (2002). Radiation-induced effects in

208

Determination of Total Solids in Biomass and Total Dissolved...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Total Solids in Biomass and Total Dissolved Solids in Liquid Process Samples Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: 3312008 A. Sluiter, B. Hames, D. Hyman, C. Payne,...

209

Human In vivo Dose-Response to Controlled, Low-Dose Low Linear Energy Transfer Ionizing Radiation Exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...biotinylated nucleotide analogue/ribonucleotide mix. The biotinylated cRNA targets were then...dose-response to controlled, low-dose low linear energy transfer ionizing radiation exposure. | The effect of low doses of low-linear energy transfer (photon) ionizing radiation...

Zelanna Goldberg; David M. Rocke; Chad Schwietert; Susanne R. Berglund; Alison Santana; Angela Jones; Jörg Lehmann; Robin Stern; Ruixiao Lu; and Christine Hartmann Siantar

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

210

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbed dose optimization Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

than 50 c... -Lambert principle 15 for increased total optical density change per unit absorbed dose. From previous work 4... -880, Jun. 2002. 11 International Atomic...

211

PHITS simulations of the Protective curtain experiment onboard the Service module of ISS: Comparison with absorbed doses measured with \\{TLDs\\}  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract “Protective curtain” was the physical experiment onboard the International Space Station (ISS) aimed on radiation measurement of the dose – reducing effect of the additional shielding made of hygienic water-soaked wipes and towels placed on the wall in the crew cabin of the Service module Zvezda. The measurements were performed with 12 detector packages composed of thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) and plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) placed at the Protective curtain, so that they created pairs of shielded and unshielded detectors. We simulated the experiment by the general purpose 3D Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS), as 10 cm-thick water-filled panels housed in a model of the Zvezda module. External radiation environment was modeled using the AP8MIN and ISO-15390 standard models for the trapped proton (TP) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) spectra, respectively. The absorbed doses were calculated for all detector packages used in the experiment. Comparison of calculated results with experimental data (TLDs) showed good agreement for the total (TP+GCR) absorbed doses. Further, we analyzed the systematic uncertainty introduced by differences in the detector thicknesses used in the simulations from the ones used in the measurements. The reducing effect of the Protective curtain was studied by comparing the calculated absorbed doses in shielded and unshielded detectors separately for the \\{TPs\\} and GCRs. In case of TPs, the reducing effect was larger than 60% and 40% for pairs of detectors located at aluminum wall and at crew cabin window, respectively. In case of GCRs, small shielding effect was observed for detectors located behind the window but for those located behind the aluminum wall, the effect was even opposite: the absorbed doses in the unshielded detectors were about 10% lower than in the shielded ones. This result was confirmed by the depth-dose analysis using rectangular source emitting broad parallel incident particles impinging on the simple geometry composed of aluminum/glass box and water box of variable thickness simulating the spacecraft wall/window and Protective curtain, respectively. The additional dose in the shielded detectors is related to the secondary fragments known as the “wall effect”. However, since GCR contributes by about 30% and 15% only to the total dose in water in shielded and unshielded detectors, respectively, the total shielding effect is high and the Protective curtain is very efficient when it is applied on a spacecraft at low-Earth orbits.

Ond?ej Ploc; Lembit Sihver; Dmitry Kartashov; Vyacheslav Shurshakov; Raisa Tolochek

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Effects of an acute dose of gamma radiation exposure on stem diameter growth, carbon gain, and biomass partitioning in Helianthus annuus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nineteen-day-old dwarf sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus, variety NK894) received a variable dose (0-40 Gy) from a cobalt-60 gamma source. A very sensitive stem monitoring device, developed at Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, Washington was used to measure real-time changes in stem diameter. Exposure of plants caused a significant reduction in stem growth and root biomass. Doses as low as 5 Gy resulted in a significant increase in leaf density, suggesting that nonreversible morphological growth changes could be induced by very low doses of radiation. Carbohydrate analysis of 40-Gy irradiated plants demonstrated significantly more starch content in leaves and significantly less starch content in stems 18 days after exposure than did control plants. In contrast, the carbohydrate content in roots of 40-Gy irradiated plants were not significantly different from unirradiated plants 18 days after exposure. These results indicate that radiation either decreased phloem transport or reduced the availability of sugar reducing enzymes in irradiated plants. 44 refs., 12 figs.

Thiede, M.E.

1988-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

213

Total Marketed Production ..............  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

billion cubic feet per day) billion cubic feet per day) Total Marketed Production .............. 68.95 69.77 70.45 71.64 71.91 71.70 71.46 71.57 72.61 72.68 72.41 72.62 70.21 71.66 72.58 Alaska ......................................... 1.04 0.91 0.79 0.96 1.00 0.85 0.77 0.93 0.97 0.83 0.75 0.91 0.93 0.88 0.87 Federal GOM (a) ......................... 3.93 3.64 3.44 3.82 3.83 3.77 3.73 3.50 3.71 3.67 3.63 3.46 3.71 3.70 3.62 Lower 48 States (excl GOM) ...... 63.97 65.21 66.21 66.86 67.08 67.08 66.96 67.14 67.92 68.18 68.02 68.24 65.58 67.07 68.09 Total Dry Gas Production .............. 65.46 66.21 66.69 67.79 68.03 67.83 67.61 67.71 68.69 68.76 68.50 68.70 66.55 67.79 68.66 Gross Imports ................................ 8.48 7.60 7.80 7.95 8.27 7.59 7.96 7.91 7.89 7.17 7.61 7.73 7.96 7.93 7.60 Pipeline ........................................

214

ORISE: Dose modeling and assessments  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

have participated include: Derivation of DCGLs for the Curtis Bay and Hammond depots Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station dose assessment study Radium timepiece dose modeling...

215

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: William F. Morgan  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

William F. Morgan William F. Morgan Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PO Box 999 Richland, Washington About this Project Projects Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory, and Societal Impact of the DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program A Mechanistic Study of the Radiation Quality Dependence of Bystander Effects in Human Cells. Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation Mechanisms of Adaptive Responses and Genomic Instability Induced by Low Dose/ Low Dose Rate Radiation Technical Abstracts 2006 Workshop: Using a Low-LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation Sowa, M.B., Goetz, W., Baulch, J., and Morgan, W.F. Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation

216

Estimation of radiation doses from 137Cs to frogs in a wetland ecosystem  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Currently, there is no established methodology to estimate radiation doses to non-human biota. Therefore, in this study, various dose models were used to estimate radiation doses to moor frogs (Rana arvalis) in a wetland ecosystem contaminated with 137Cs. External dose estimations were based on activity concentrations of 137Cs in soil and water, considering changes in habitat over a life-cycle. Internal doses were calculated from the activity concentrations of 137Cs measured in moor frogs. Depending on the dose model used, the results varied substantially. External dose rates ranged from 21 to 160 mGy/y, and internal dose rates varied between 1 and 14 mGy/y. Maximum total dose rates to frogs were below the expected safe level for terrestrial populations, but close to the suggested critical dose rate for amphibians. The results show that realistic assumptions in dose models are particularly important at high levels of contamination.

K. Stark; R. Avila; P. Wallberg

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

76Radiation Dose and Dose Rate Radiation is measured in two  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Seiverts per year. Hasty reports about the devastating Japan 2011 nuclear power plant radiation leakages have by Concorde, what are the total radiation doses for a passenger in each case? Problem 3 - The Japan 2011 earthquake damaged several nuclear reactors, causing radiation leakage across northern Japan. On March 22

218

Total Space Heat-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings* ........................... 3,037 115 397 384 52 1,143 22 354 64 148 357 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ........................... 386 19 43 18 11 93 7 137 8 12 38 5,001 to 10,000 .......................... 262 12 35 17 5 83 4 56 6 9 35 10,001 to 25,000 ........................ 407 20 46 44 8 151 3 53 9 19 54 25,001 to 50,000 ........................ 350 15 55 50 9 121 2 34 7 16 42 50,001 to 100,000 ...................... 405 16 57 65 7 158 2 29 6 18 45 100,001 to 200,000 .................... 483 16 62 80 5 195 1 24 Q 31 56 200,001 to 500,000 .................... 361 8 51 54 5 162 1 9 8 19 43 Over 500,000 ............................. 383 8 47 56 3 181 2 12 8 23 43 Principal Building Activity

219

Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Using Total Carbon Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon(TM)-extraction method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content. For reasons of cost, sensitivity, precision, or simplicity, none of the replacement methods are feasible for analysis of radioactive samples at our facility. We have developed a method to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon content in aqueous sample matrixes using total organic carbon (total carbon) determination. The total carbon content (TC1) of the sample is measured using a total organic carbon analyzer. The sample is then contacted with a small volume of non-pokar solvent to extract the total petroleum hydrocarbons. The total carbon content of the resultant aqueous phase of the extracted sample (TC2) is measured. Total petroleum hydrocarbon content is calculated (TPH = TC1-TC2). The resultant data are consistent with results obtained using Freon(TM) extraction followed by infrared absorbance.

Ekechukwu, A.A.

2002-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

220

Total Space Heat-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Revised: December, 2008 Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings ............................. 91.0 33.0 7.2 6.1 7.0 18.7 2.7 5.3 1.0 2.2 7.9 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ........................... 99.0 30.7 6.7 2.7 7.1 13.9 7.1 19.9 1.1 1.7 8.2 5,001 to 10,000 .......................... 80.0 30.1 5.5 2.6 6.1 13.6 5.2 8.2 0.8 1.4 6.6 10,001 to 25,000 ........................ 71.0 28.2 4.5 4.1 4.1 14.5 2.3 4.5 0.8 1.6 6.5 25,001 to 50,000 ........................ 79.0 29.9 6.8 5.9 6.3 14.9 1.7 3.9 0.8 1.8 7.1 50,001 to 100,000 ...................... 88.7 31.6 7.6 7.6 6.5 19.6 1.7 3.4 0.7 2.0 8.1 100,001 to 200,000 .................... 104.2 39.1 8.2 8.9 7.9 22.9 1.1 2.9 Q 3.2 8.7 200,001 to 500,000 ....................

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total effective dose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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221

Total Space Heat-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Revised: December, 2008 Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings ............................. 91.0 33.0 7.2 6.1 7.0 18.7 2.7 5.3 1.0 2.2 7.9 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ........................... 99.0 30.7 6.7 2.7 7.1 13.9 7.1 19.9 1.1 1.7 8.2 5,001 to 10,000 .......................... 80.0 30.1 5.5 2.6 6.1 13.6 5.2 8.2 0.8 1.4 6.6 10,001 to 25,000 ........................ 71.0 28.2 4.5 4.1 4.1 14.5 2.3 4.5 0.8 1.6 6.5 25,001 to 50,000 ........................ 79.0 29.9 6.8 5.9 6.3 14.9 1.7 3.9 0.8 1.8 7.1 50,001 to 100,000 ...................... 88.7 31.6 7.6 7.6 6.5 19.6 1.7 3.4 0.7 2.0 8.1 100,001 to 200,000 .................... 104.2 39.1 8.2 8.9 7.9 22.9 1.1 2.9 Q 3.2 8.7 200,001 to 500,000 ....................

222

U.S. Total Exports  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Babb, MT Havre, MT Port of Morgan, MT Pittsburg, NH Grand Island, NY Massena, NY Niagara Falls, NY Waddington, NY Sumas, WA Sweetgrass, MT Total to Chile Sabine Pass, LA Total to China Kenai, AK Sabine Pass, LA Total to India Freeport, TX Sabine Pass, LA Total to Japan Cameron, LA Kenai, AK Sabine Pass, LA Total to Mexico Douglas, AZ Nogales, AZ Calexico, CA Ogilby Mesa, CA Otay Mesa, CA Alamo, TX Clint, TX Del Rio, TX Eagle Pass, TX El Paso, TX Hidalgo, TX McAllen, TX Penitas, TX Rio Bravo, TX Roma, TX Total to Portugal Sabine Pass, LA Total to Russia Total to South Korea Freeport, TX Sabine Pass, LA Total to Spain Cameron, LA Sabine Pass, LA Total to United Kingdom Sabine Pass, LA Period: Monthly Annual

223

Treatment Outcome of Medium-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: Comparison With Low-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of medium-dose-rate (MDR) and low-dose-rate (LDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) for uterine cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We evaluated 419 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix who were treated by radical radiotherapy with curative intent at Tokyo Women's Medical University from 1969 to 1999. LDR was used from 1969 to 1986, and MDR has been used since July 1987. When compared with LDR, fraction dose was decreased and fraction size was increased (1 or 2 fractions) for MDR to make the total dose of MDR equal to that of LDR. In general, the patients received a total dose of 60 to 70 Gy at Point A with external beam radiotherapy combined with brachytherapy according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage. In the LDR group, 32 patients had Stage I disease, 81 had Stage II, 182 had Stage III, and 29 had Stage IVA; in the MDR group, 9 patients had Stage I disease, 19 had Stage II, 55 had Stage III, and 12 had Stage IVA. Results: The 5-year overall survival rates for Stages I, II, III, and IVA in the LDR group were 78%, 72%, 55%, and 34%, respectively. In the MDR group, the 5-year overall survival rates were 100%, 68%, 52%, and 42%, respectively. No significant statistical differences were seen between the two groups. The actuarial rates of late complications Grade 2 or greater at 5 years for the rectum, bladder, and small intestine in the LDR group were 11.1%, 5.8%, and 2.0%, respectively. The rates for the MDR group were 11.7%, 4.2%, and 2.6%, respectively, all of which were without statistical differences. Conclusion: These data suggest that MDR ICBT is effective, useful, and equally as good as LDR ICBT in daytime (about 5 hours) treatments of patients with cervical cancer.

Kaneyasu, Yuko, E-mail: kaneyasu@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Kita, Midori [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Clinical Radiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Tama Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Okawa, Tomohiko [Evaluation and Promotion Center, Utsunomiya Memorial Hospital, Tochigi (Japan)] [Evaluation and Promotion Center, Utsunomiya Memorial Hospital, Tochigi (Japan); Maebayashi, Katsuya [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Kohno, Mari [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Sonoda, Tatsuo; Hirabayashi, Hisae [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Nagata, Yasushi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Mitsuhashi, Norio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Radiation dose-rate meter using an energy-sensitive counter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation dose-rate meter is provided which uses an energy-sensitive detector and combines charge quantization and pulse-rate measurement to monitor radiation dose rates. The charge from each detected photon is quantized by level-sensitive comparators so that the resulting total output pulse rate is proportional to the dose-rate.

Kopp, Manfred K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Original Research Program Plan  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Original Research Program Plan Original Research Program Plan Biological Effects of Low Dose and Dose Rate Radiation Prepared for the Office of Biological and Environmental Research by The Low Dose Radiation Research Program Plan Subcommittee of the Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee. II. Table of Contents Face Page Table of Contents Executive Summary Introduction Program Outline Low Dose Radiation vs. Endogenous Oxidative Damage - The Same or Different? Key Question Description Decision Making Value Recommendations and Costs Understanding Biological Responses to Radiation And Endogenous Damage Key Question Description Decision Making Value Recommendations and Costs Thresholds for Low Dose Radiation - Fact or Fiction? Key Question Description Decision Making Value Recommendations and Costs

226

Relation between total quanta and total energy for aquatic ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Jan 22, 1974 ... havior of the ratio of total quanta to total energy (Q : W) within the spectral region of photosynthetic ..... For blue-green waters, where hRmax lies.

2000-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

227

Experimental evaluation of actual delivered dose using mega-voltage cone-beam CT and direct point dose measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radiation therapy in patients is planned by using computed tomography (CT) images acquired before start of the treatment course. Here, tumor shrinkage or weight loss or both, which are common during the treatment course for patients with head-and-neck (H and N) cancer, causes unexpected differences from the plan, as well as dose uncertainty with the daily positional error of patients. For accurate clinical evaluation, it is essential to identify these anatomical changes and daily positional errors, as well as consequent dosimetric changes. To evaluate the actual delivered dose, the authors proposed direct dose measurement and dose calculation with mega-voltage cone-beam CT (MVCBCT). The purpose of the present study was to experimentally evaluate dose calculation by MVCBCT. Furthermore, actual delivered dose was evaluated directly with accurate phantom setup. Because MVCBCT has CT-number variation, even when the analyzed object has a uniform density, a specific and simple CT-number correction method was developed and applied for the H and N site of a RANDO phantom. Dose distributions were calculated with the corrected MVCBCT images of a cylindrical polymethyl methacrylate phantom. Treatment processes from planning to beam delivery were performed for the H and N site of the RANDO phantom. The image-guided radiation therapy procedure was utilized for the phantom setup to improve measurement reliability. The calculated dose in the RANDO phantom was compared to the measured dose obtained by metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor detectors. In the polymethyl methacrylate phantom, the calculated and measured doses agreed within about +3%. In the RANDO phantom, the dose difference was less than +5%. The calculated dose based on simulation-CT agreed with the measured dose within±3%, even in the region with a high dose gradient. The actual delivered dose was successfully determined by dose calculation with MVCBCT, and the point dose measurement with the image-guided radiation therapy procedure.

Matsubara, Kana, E-mail: matsubara-kana@hs.tmu.ac.jp [Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Arakawa-ku Tokyo (Japan); Kohno, Ryosuke [National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba (Japan); National Cancer Center Research Institute, Chiba (Japan); Nishioka, Shie; Shibuya, Toshiyuki; Ariji, Takaki; Akimoto, Tetsuo [National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba (Japan); Saitoh, Hidetoshi [Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Arakawa-ku Tokyo (Japan)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Total OECD Oil Stocks*  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The most recent data show OECD inventories remaining at very low The most recent data show OECD inventories remaining at very low levels. EIA expects inventories to remain low through the coming year. This increases the potential for price volatility through the winter, and even extending to the next gasoline season. Inventories are a good measure of the supply/demand balance that effects prices. A large over-supply (production greater than demand) will put downward pressure on prices, while under-supply will push prices upward. As global oil production changed relative to demand, the world moved from a period of over-supply in 1998 to one of under-supply in 1999 and 2000. OECD inventories illustrate the changes in the world petroleum balance. OECD inventories rose to high levels during 1997 and 1998 when production exceeded demand and prices dropped to around $10 per barrel in

229

Total OECD Oil Stocks*  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 Notes: The most recent data show OECD inventories remaining at very low levels. EIA expects inventories to remain low through the coming year. This increases the potential for price volatility through the winter, and even extending to the next gasoline season. Inventories are a good measure of the supply/demand balance that effects prices. A large over-supply (production greater than demand) will put downward pressure on prices, while under-supply will push prices upward. As global oil production changed relative to demand, the world moved from a period of over-supply in 1998 to one of under-supply in 1999 and 2000. OECD inventories illustrate the changes in the world petroleum balance. OECD inventories rose to high levels during 1997 and 1998 when production exceeded demand and prices dropped to around $10 per barrel in

230

Field-size dependence of doses of therapeutic carbon beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To estimate the physical dose at the center of spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBP) for various conditions of the irradiation system, a semiempirical approach was applied. The dose at the center of the SOBP depends on the field size because of large-angle scattering particles in the water phantom. For a small field of 5x5 cm{sup 2}, the dose was reduced to 99.2%, 97.5%, and 96.5% of the dose used for the open field in the case of 290, 350, and 400 MeV/n carbon beams, respectively. Based on the three-Gaussian form of the lateral dose distributions of the carbon pencil beam, which has previously been shown to be effective for describing scattered carbon beams, we reconstructed the dose distributions of the SOBP beam. The reconstructed lateral dose distribution reproduced the measured lateral dose distributions very well. The field-size dependencies calculated using the reconstructed lateral dose distribution of the therapeutic carbon beam agreed with the measured dose dependency very well. The reconstructed beam was also used for irregularly shaped fields. The resultant dose distribution agreed with the measured dose distribution. The reconstructed beams were found to be applicable to the treatment-planning system.

Kusano, Yohsuke; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Yonai, Shunsuke; Komori, Masataka; Ikeda, Noritoshi; Tachikawa, Yuji; Ito, Atsushi; Uchida, Hirohisa [Tokai University Unified Graduate School, Graduate School of Science and Technology, 1117 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1207, Japan and Accelerator Engineering Co., 2-13-1 Konakadai, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan); Department of Accelerator Physics and Medical Physics, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Medical Physics Research Group, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Accelerator Physics and Medical Physics, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Accelerator Engineering Co., 2-13-1 Konakadai, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan); Department of Energy Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokai University, 1117 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low Dose Response of Respiratory Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low Dose Response of Respiratory Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low Dose Response of Respiratory Cells in Intact Tissues and Reconstituted Tissue Constructs Authors: John Ford, Amy Maslowski, Alex Redd and Les Braby Institutions: Texas A&M University, College Station, TX We are developing a model of respiratory tissue using a perfusion culture system. We are using this system to quantify the effects of normal tissue architecture, and the interaction of epithelial cells with other cell types, on radiation-induced bystander effects. Tracheal tissue taken from young adult Fischer 344 rats is imbedded in a growth factor enriched agarose matrix. The chamber is designed to allow growth medium to periodically wash the epithelial surface of the tracheal lumen while maintaining the air-interface that is necessary for the normal

232

Radiological Dose Assessment 8 2013 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT8-1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The effective dose equivalent (EDE) from air emissions in 2013 was estimated as 3.65E-01 mrem (3.6 Sv dose limit of 10 mrem (100 Sv). In addition, the dose from the ingestion pathway was estimated as 2 the natural background radiation. The average annual external dose from on-site ambient sources was 66 � 8

233

Evaluation of Three Somatic Genetic Biomarkers as Indicators of Low Dose Radiation Effects in Clean-up Workers of the Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor Accident  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Radiation Effects in Clean-up Workers of the Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor Accident I. M. Jones J. D. Tucker R. G. Langlois...radiation effects in clean-up workers of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. | The goals of this study were to assess......

I. M. Jones; J. D. Tucker; R. G. Langlois; M. L. Mendelsohn; P. Pleshanov; D. O. Nelson

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch coronary angiography with third-generation dual-source CT at 70 kVp tube voltage: Feasibility, image quality, radiation dose, and effect of iterative reconstruction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractBackground Low tube voltage reduces radiation exposure in coronary CT angiography (CTA). Using 70 kVp tube potential has so far not been possible because CT systems were unable to provide sufficiently high tube current with low voltage. Objective We evaluated feasibility, image quality (IQ), and radiation dose of coronary CTA using a third-generation dual-source CT system capable of producing 450 mAs tube current at 70 kVp tube voltage. Methods Coronary CTA was performed in 26 consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease, selected for body weight pitch spiral acquisition was used. Filtered back projection (FBP) and iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms were applied. IQ was assessed using a 4-point rating scale (1 = excellent, 4 = nondiagnostic) and objective parameters. Results Mean age was 62 ± 9 years (46% males; mean body mass index, 27.7 ± 3.8 kg/m2; mean heart rate, 54 ± 5 beats/min). Mean dose-length product was 20.6 ± 1.9 mGy × cm; mean estimated effective radiation dose was 0.3 ± 0.03 mSv. Diagnostic IQ was found in 365 of 367 (FBP) and 366 of 367 (IR) segments (P nonsignificant). IQ was rated “excellent” in 53% (FBP) and 86% (IR) segments (P = .001) and “nondiagnostic” in 2 (FBP) and 1 segment (IR) (P nonsignificant). Mean IQ score was lesser in FBP vs IR (1.5 ± 0.4 vs 1.1 ± 0.2; P pitch spiral acquisition and 70 kVp tube voltage is feasible and provides both robust IQ and very low radiation exposure.

Michaela M. Hell; Daniel Bittner; Annika Schuhbaeck; Gerd Muschiol; Michael Brand; Michael Lell; Michael Uder; Stephan Achenbach; Mohamed Marwan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Mujeres Hombres Total Hombres Total 16 5 21 0 10  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Julio de 2011 Tipo de Discapacidad Sexo CENTRO 5-Distribución del estudiantado con discapacidad por centro, tipo de discapacidad, sexo y totales. #12;

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

236

Relation between total quanta and total energy for aquatic ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Jan 22, 1974 ... ment of the total energy and vice versa. From a measurement of spectral irradi- ance ... unit energy (for the wavelength region specified).

2000-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

237

Assessment of individual organ doses in a realistic human phantom from neutron and gamma stimulated spectroscopy of the breast and liver  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Understanding the radiation dose to a patient is essential when considering the use of an ionizing diagnostic imaging test for clinical diagnosis and screening. Using Monte Carlo simulations, the authors estimated the three-dimensional organ-dose distribution from neutron and gamma irradiation of the male liver, female liver, and female breasts for neutron- and gamma-stimulated spectroscopic imaging. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations were developed using the Geant4 GATE application and a voxelized XCAT human phantom. A male and a female whole body XCAT phantom was voxelized into 256 × 256 × 600 voxels (3.125 × 3.125 × 3.125 mm{sup 3}). A monoenergetic rectangular beam of 5.0 MeV neutrons or 7.0 MeV photons was made incident on a 2 cm thick slice of the phantom. The beam was rotated at eight different angles around the phantom ranging from 0° to 180°. Absorbed dose was calculated for each individual organ in the body and dose volume histograms were computed to analyze the absolute and relative doses in each organ. Results: The neutron irradiations of the liver showed the highest organ dose absorption in the liver, with appreciably lower doses in other proximal organs. The dose distribution within the irradiated slice exhibited substantial attenuation with increasing depth along the beam path, attenuating to ?15% of the maximum value at the beam exit side. The gamma irradiation of the liver imparted the highest organ dose to the stomach wall. The dose distribution from the gammas showed a region of dose buildup at the beam entrance, followed by a relatively uniform dose distribution to all of the deep tissue structures, attenuating to ?75% of the maximum value at the beam exit side. For the breast scans, both the neutron and gamma irradiation registered maximum organ doses in the breasts, with all other organs receiving less than 1% of the breast dose. Effective doses ranged from 0.22 to 0.37 mSv for the neutron scans and 41 to 66 mSv for the gamma scans. Conclusions: Neutron and gamma irradiation of a primary target organ was found to impart the majority of the total dose to the primary target organ (and other large organs) within the beam plane and considerably lower dose to proximal organs outside of the beam. These results also indicate that despite the use of a highly scattering particle such as a neutron, the dose from neutron stimulated emission computed tomography scans is on par with other clinical imaging techniques such as x-ray computed tomography (x-ray CT). Given the high nonuniformity in the dose across an organ during the neutron scan, care must be taken when computing average doses from neutron irradiations. The effective doses from neutron scanning were found to be comparable to x-ray CT. Further technique modifications are needed to reduce the effective dose levels from the gamma scans.

Belley, Matthew D. [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham 27705, North Carolina (United States)] [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham 27705, North Carolina (United States); Segars, William Paul; Kapadia, Anuj J., E-mail: anuj.kapadia@duke.edu [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina and Department of Radiology, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham 27710, North Carolina (United States)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

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49.2 49.2 15.1 15.6 11.1 7.0 5.2 8.0 Have Cooling Equipment............................... 93.3 31.3 15.1 15.6 11.1 7.0 5.2 8.0 Use Cooling Equipment................................ 91.4 30.4 14.6 15.4 11.1 6.9 5.2 7.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............... 1.9 1.0 0.5 Q Q Q Q Q Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................... 17.8 17.8 N N N N N N Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System............................................. 65.9 3.9 15.1 15.6 11.1 7.0 5.2 8.0 Without a Heat Pump................................ 53.5 3.5 12.9 12.7 8.6 5.5 4.2 6.2 With a Heat Pump..................................... 12.3 0.4 2.2 2.9 2.5 1.5 1.0 1.8 Window/Wall Units........................................ 28.9 27.5 0.5 Q 0.3 Q Q Q 1 Unit......................................................... 14.5 13.5 0.3 Q Q Q N Q 2 Units.......................................................

239

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7.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q Q 0.2 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 7.1 6.8 7.9 11.9 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 7.1 6.6 7.9 11.4 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N Q N 0.5 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 3.8 0.4 3.8 8.4 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 1.8 Q 3.1 6.0 For One Housing Unit................................... 42.9 1.5 Q 3.1 6.0 For Two Housing Units................................. 1.8 Q N Q Q Steam or Hot Water System............................. 8.2 1.9 Q Q 0.2 For One Housing Unit................................... 5.1 0.8 Q N Q For Two Housing Units.................................

240

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5.6 5.6 17.7 7.9 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q N Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 25.6 17.7 7.9 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 25.6 17.7 7.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 18.4 13.1 5.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 16.2 11.6 4.7 For One Housing Unit................................... 42.9 15.5 11.0 4.5 For Two Housing Units................................. 1.8 0.7 0.6 Q Steam or Hot Water System............................. 8.2 1.6 1.2 0.4 For One Housing Unit................................... 5.1 1.1 0.9 Q For Two Housing Units.................................

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total effective dose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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241

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4.2 4.2 7.6 16.6 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................. 17.8 10.3 3.1 7.3 Have Cooling Equipment.......................................... 93.3 13.9 4.5 9.4 Use Cooling Equipment........................................... 91.4 12.9 4.3 8.5 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it.......................... 1.9 1.0 Q 0.8 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 10.5 3.9 6.5 Without a Heat Pump........................................... 53.5 8.7 3.2 5.5 With a Heat Pump............................................... 12.3 1.7 0.7 1.0 Window/Wall Units.................................................. 28.9 3.6 0.6 3.0 1 Unit................................................................... 14.5 2.9 0.5 2.4 2 Units.................................................................

242

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Q Q Million U.S. Housing Units Renter- Occupied Housing Units (millions) Type of Renter-Occupied Housing Unit U.S. Housing Units (millions Single-Family Units Apartments in Buildings With-- Living Space Characteristics Detached Attached Table HC4.2 Living Space Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Units, 2005 2 to 4 Units 5 or More Units Mobile Homes Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Million U.S. Housing Units Renter- Occupied Housing Units (millions) Type of Renter-Occupied Housing Unit U.S. Housing Units (millions Single-Family Units Apartments in Buildings With-- Living Space Characteristics Detached Attached Table HC4.2 Living Space Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Units, 2005

243

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Personal Computers Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 14.2 7.2 2.8 4.2 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 26.6 14.5 4.1 7.9 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 20.5 11.0 3.4 6.1 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 6.1 3.5 0.7 1.9 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2 Hours..................................................... 13.6 5.0 2.6 1.0 1.3 2 to 15 Hours............................................................. 29.1 10.3 5.9 1.6 2.9 16 to 40 Hours........................................................... 13.5 4.1 2.3 0.6 1.2 41 to 167 Hours.........................................................

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,171 ,171 1,618 1,031 845 630 401 Census Region and Division Northeast................................................... 20.6 2,334 1,664 562 911 649 220 New England.......................................... 5.5 2,472 1,680 265 1,057 719 113 Middle Atlantic........................................ 15.1 2,284 1,658 670 864 627 254 Midwest...................................................... 25.6 2,421 1,927 1,360 981 781 551 East North Central.................................. 17.7 2,483 1,926 1,269 999 775 510 West North Central................................. 7.9 2,281 1,930 1,566 940 796 646 South.......................................................... 40.7 2,161 1,551 1,295 856 615 513 South Atlantic......................................... 21.7 2,243 1,607 1,359 896 642 543 East South Central.................................

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..... ..... 111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer...................................... 35.5 3.0 2.0 2.7 3.1 Use a Personal Computer.................................................. 75.6 4.2 5.0 5.3 9.0 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model............................................................. 58.6 3.2 3.9 4.0 6.7 Laptop Model................................................................. 16.9 1.0 1.1 1.3 2.4 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2 Hours......................................................... 13.6 0.7 0.9 0.9 1.4 2 to 15 Hours................................................................. 29.1 1.7 2.1 1.9 3.4 16 to 40 Hours............................................................... 13.5 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.8 41 to 167 Hours.............................................................

246

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Cooking Appliances Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day......................................... 8.2 2.6 0.7 1.9 2 Times A Day...................................................... 24.6 6.6 2.0 4.6 Once a Day........................................................... 42.3 8.8 2.9 5.8 A Few Times Each Week...................................... 27.2 4.7 1.5 3.1 About Once a Week.............................................. 3.9 0.7 Q 0.6 Less Than Once a Week....................................... 4.1 0.7 0.3 0.4 No Hot Meals Cooked........................................... 0.9 0.2 Q Q Conventional Oven Use an Oven......................................................... 109.6 23.7 7.5 16.2 More Than Once a Day..................................... 8.9 1.7 0.4 1.3 Once a Day.......................................................

247

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0.7 0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................................ 17.8 1.4 0.8 0.2 0.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................. 93.3 39.3 20.9 6.7 11.8 Use Cooling Equipment.............................................. 91.4 38.9 20.7 6.6 11.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................. 1.9 0.5 Q Q Q Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................... 65.9 32.1 17.6 5.2 9.3 Without a Heat Pump.............................................. 53.5 23.2 10.9 3.8 8.4 With a Heat Pump................................................... 12.3 9.0 6.7 1.4 0.9 Window/Wall Units..................................................... 28.9 8.0 3.4 1.7 2.9 1 Unit......................................................................

248

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14.7 14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Household Size 1 Person.......................................................... 30.0 4.6 2.5 3.7 3.2 5.4 5.5 3.7 1.6 2 Persons......................................................... 34.8 4.3 1.9 4.4 4.1 5.9 5.3 5.5 3.4 3 Persons......................................................... 18.4 2.5 1.3 1.7 1.9 2.9 3.5 2.8 1.6 4 Persons......................................................... 15.9 1.9 0.8 1.5 1.6 3.0 2.5 3.1 1.4 5 Persons......................................................... 7.9 0.8 0.4 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.5 0.9 6 or More Persons........................................... 4.1 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.4 2005 Annual Household Income Category Less than $9,999............................................. 9.9 1.9 1.1 1.3 0.9 1.7 1.3 1.1 0.5 $10,000 to $14,999..........................................

249

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25.6 25.6 40.7 24.2 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 6.9 8.1 14.2 6.4 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 13.7 17.5 26.6 17.8 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 10.4 14.1 20.5 13.7 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 3.3 3.4 6.1 4.1 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2 Hours..................................................... 13.6 2.4 3.4 5.0 2.9 2 to 15 Hours............................................................. 29.1 5.2 7.0 10.3 6.6 16 to 40 Hours........................................................... 13.5 3.1 2.8 4.1 3.4 41 to 167 Hours.........................................................

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4.2 4.2 7.6 16.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 6.4 2.2 4.2 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 17.8 5.3 12.5 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 13.7 4.2 9.5 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 4.1 1.1 3.0 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2 Hours..................................................... 13.6 2.9 0.9 2.0 2 to 15 Hours............................................................. 29.1 6.6 2.0 4.6 16 to 40 Hours........................................................... 13.5 3.4 0.9 2.5 41 to 167 Hours......................................................... 6.3

251

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33.0 33.0 8.0 3.4 5.9 14.4 1.2 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment..................... 17.8 6.5 1.6 0.9 1.3 2.4 0.2 Have Cooling Equipment................................. 93.3 26.5 6.5 2.5 4.6 12.0 1.0 Use Cooling Equipment.................................. 91.4 25.7 6.3 2.5 4.4 11.7 0.8 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it................. 1.9 0.8 Q Q 0.2 0.3 Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.............................................. 65.9 14.1 3.6 1.5 2.1 6.4 0.6 Without a Heat Pump.................................. 53.5 12.4 3.1 1.3 1.8 5.7 0.6 With a Heat Pump....................................... 12.3 1.7 0.6 Q 0.3 0.6 Q Window/Wall Units....................................... 28.9 12.4 2.9 1.0 2.5 5.6 0.4 1 Unit.......................................................... 14.5 7.3 1.2 0.5 1.4 3.9 0.2 2 Units.........................................................

252

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Cooking Appliances Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day................................................. 8.2 3.7 1.6 1.4 1.5 2 Times A Day.............................................................. 24.6 10.8 4.1 4.3 5.5 Once a Day................................................................... 42.3 17.0 7.2 8.7 9.3 A Few Times Each Week............................................. 27.2 11.4 4.7 6.4 4.8 About Once a Week..................................................... 3.9 1.7 0.6 0.9 0.8 Less Than Once a Week.............................................. 4.1 2.2 0.6 0.8 0.5 No Hot Meals Cooked................................................... 0.9 0.4 Q Q Q Conventional Oven Use an Oven................................................................. 109.6 46.2 18.8

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Single-Family Units Single-Family Units Detached Type of Housing Unit Table HC2.7 Air Conditioning Usage Indicators by Type of Housing Unit, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Air Conditioning Usage Indicators Attached 2 to 4 Units 5 or More Units Mobile Homes Apartments in Buildings With-- Housing Units (millions) Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Single-Family Units Detached Type of Housing Unit Table HC2.7 Air Conditioning Usage Indicators by Type of Housing Unit, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Air Conditioning Usage Indicators Attached 2 to 4 Units 5 or More Units Mobile Homes Apartments in Buildings With-- Housing Units (millions) At Home Behavior Home Used for Business

254

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Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 2.1 1.8 0.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 23.5 16.0 7.5 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 23.4 15.9 7.5 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 Q Q Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 17.3 11.3 6.0 Without a Heat Pump............................................. 53.5 16.2 10.6 5.6 With a Heat Pump................................................. 12.3 1.1 0.8 0.4 Window/Wall Units.................................................. 28.9 6.6 4.9 1.7 1 Unit..................................................................... 14.5 4.1 2.9 1.2 2 Units...................................................................

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20.6 20.6 25.6 40.7 24.2 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................................ 17.8 4.0 2.1 1.4 10.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................. 93.3 16.5 23.5 39.3 13.9 Use Cooling Equipment.............................................. 91.4 16.3 23.4 38.9 12.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................. 1.9 0.3 Q 0.5 1.0 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................... 65.9 6.0 17.3 32.1 10.5 Without a Heat Pump.............................................. 53.5 5.5 16.2 23.2 8.7 With a Heat Pump................................................... 12.3 0.5 1.1 9.0 1.7 Window/Wall Units..................................................... 28.9 10.7 6.6 8.0 3.6 1 Unit......................................................................

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5.6 5.6 17.7 7.9 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 8.1 5.6 2.5 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 17.5 12.1 5.4 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 14.1 10.0 4.0 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 3.4 2.1 1.3 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2 Hours..................................................... 13.6 3.4 2.5 0.9 2 to 15 Hours............................................................. 29.1 7.0 4.8 2.3 16 to 40 Hours........................................................... 13.5 2.8 2.1 0.7 41 to 167 Hours......................................................... 6.3

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15.2 15.2 7.8 1.0 1.2 3.3 1.9 For Two Housing Units............................. 0.9 Q N Q 0.6 N Heat Pump.................................................. 9.2 7.4 0.3 Q 0.7 0.5 Portable Electric Heater............................... 1.6 0.8 Q Q Q 0.3 Other Equipment......................................... 1.9 0.7 Q Q 0.7 Q Fuel Oil........................................................... 7.7 5.5 0.4 0.8 0.9 0.2 Steam or Hot Water System........................ 4.7 2.9 Q 0.7 0.8 N For One Housing Unit.............................. 3.3 2.9 Q Q Q N For Two Housing Units............................. 1.4 Q Q 0.5 0.8 N Central Warm-Air Furnace........................... 2.8 2.4 Q Q Q 0.2 Other Equipment......................................... 0.3 0.2 Q N Q N Wood..............................................................

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Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................. Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................. 17.8 5.3 4.7 2.8 1.9 3.1 3.6 7.5 Have Cooling Equipment.............................. 93.3 21.5 24.1 17.8 11.2 18.8 13.0 31.1 Use Cooling Equipment............................... 91.4 21.0 23.5 17.4 11.0 18.6 12.6 30.3 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............. 1.9 0.5 0.6 0.4 Q Q 0.5 0.8 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System............................................ 65.9 11.0 16.5 13.5 8.7 16.1 6.4 17.2 Without a Heat Pump.............................. 53.5 9.4 13.6 10.7 7.1 12.7 5.4 14.5 With a Heat Pump................................... 12.3 1.7 2.8 2.8 1.6 3.4 1.0 2.7 Window/Wall Units...................................... 28.9 10.5 8.1 4.5 2.7 3.1 6.7 14.1 1 Unit....................................................... 14.5 5.8 4.3 2.0 1.1 1.3 3.4 7.4 2 Units.....................................................

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Cooking Appliances Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day......................................... 8.2 1.4 1.0 0.4 2 Times A Day...................................................... 24.6 5.8 3.5 2.3 Once a Day........................................................... 42.3 10.7 7.8 2.9 A Few Times Each Week...................................... 27.2 5.6 4.0 1.6 About Once a Week.............................................. 3.9 0.9 0.6 0.3 Less Than Once a Week....................................... 4.1 1.1 0.7 0.4 No Hot Meals Cooked........................................... 0.9 Q Q N Conventional Oven Use an Oven......................................................... 109.6 25.3 17.6 7.7 More Than Once a Day..................................... 8.9 1.3 0.8 0.5 Once a Day.......................................................

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26.7 26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 17.1 10.8 4.2 1.8 1.6 10.3 20.6 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 9.6 18.0 16.4 11.3 20.3 6.4 17.9 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 8.3 14.2 11.4 7.2 9.2 5.3 14.2 2.......................................................... 16.2 0.9 2.6 3.7 2.9 6.2 0.8 2.6 3 or More............................................. 9.0 0.4 1.2 1.3 1.2 5.0 0.3 1.1 Number of Laptop PCs 1.......................................................... 22.5 2.2 4.6 4.5 2.9 8.3 1.4 4.0 2.......................................................... 4.0 Q 0.4 0.6 0.4 2.4 Q 0.5 3 or More............................................. 0.7 Q Q Q Q 0.4 Q Q Type of Monitor Used on Most-Used PC Desk-top

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total effective dose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

20.6 20.6 25.6 40.7 24.2 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 6.9 8.1 14.2 6.4 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 13.7 17.5 26.6 17.8 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 9.3 11.9 18.2 11.0 2.......................................................... 16.2 2.9 3.5 5.5 4.4 3 or More............................................. 9.0 1.5 2.1 2.9 2.5 Number of Laptop PCs 1.......................................................... 22.5 4.7 4.6 7.7 5.4 2.......................................................... 4.0 0.6 0.9 1.5 1.1 3 or More............................................. 0.7 Q Q Q 0.3 Type of Monitor Used on Most-Used PC Desk-top CRT (Standard Monitor)................... 45.0 7.9 11.4 15.4 10.2 Flat-panel LCD.................................

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111.1 26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment....... 1.2 0.5 0.3 0.2 Q 0.2 0.3 0.6 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.......... 109.8 26.2 28.5 20.4 13.0 21.8 16.3 37.9 Use Main Space Heating Equipment............ 109.1 25.9 28.1 20.3 12.9 21.8 16.0 37.3 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It.............. 0.8 0.3 0.3 Q Q N 0.4 0.6 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.................................................. 58.2 12.2 14.4 11.3 7.1 13.2 7.6 18.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace........................ 44.7 7.5 10.8 9.3 5.6 11.4 4.6 12.0 For One Housing Unit........................... 42.9 6.9 10.3 9.1 5.4 11.3 4.1 11.0 For Two Housing Units......................... 1.8 0.6 0.6 Q Q Q 0.4 0.9 Steam or Hot Water System..................... 8.2 2.4 2.5 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.5 3.6 For One Housing Unit...........................

263

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Q Q Table HC3.2 Living Space Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Units, 2005 2 to 4 Units 5 or More Units Mobile Homes Million U.S. Housing Units Owner- Occupied Housing Units (millions) Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit Housing Units (millions) Single-Family Units Apartments in Buildings With-- Living Space Characteristics Detached Attached Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Table HC3.2 Living Space Characteristics by Owner-Occupied Housing Units, 2005 2 to 4 Units 5 or More Units Mobile Homes Million U.S. Housing Units Owner- Occupied Housing Units (millions) Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit Housing Units (millions)

264

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25.6 25.6 40.7 24.2 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q Q 0.7 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 20.5 25.6 40.3 23.4 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 20.5 25.6 40.1 22.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N N Q 0.6 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 11.4 18.4 13.6 14.7 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 6.1 16.2 11.0 11.4 For One Housing Unit................................... 42.9 5.6 15.5 10.7 11.1 For Two Housing Units................................. 1.8 0.5 0.7 Q 0.3 Steam or Hot Water System............................. 8.2 4.9 1.6 1.0 0.6 For One Housing Unit................................... 5.1 3.2 1.1 0.4

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0.6 0.6 15.1 5.5 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................. 17.8 4.0 2.4 1.7 Have Cooling Equipment.......................................... 93.3 16.5 12.8 3.8 Use Cooling Equipment........................................... 91.4 16.3 12.6 3.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it.......................... 1.9 0.3 Q Q Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 6.0 5.2 0.8 Without a Heat Pump........................................... 53.5 5.5 4.8 0.7 With a Heat Pump............................................... 12.3 0.5 0.4 Q Window/Wall Units.................................................. 28.9 10.7 7.6 3.1 1 Unit................................................................... 14.5 4.3 2.9 1.4 2 Units.................................................................

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4.2 4.2 7.6 16.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ................... 35.5 6.4 2.2 4.2 Use a Personal Computer................................ 75.6 17.8 5.3 12.5 Number of Desktop PCs 1.................................................................. 50.3 11.0 3.4 7.6 2.................................................................. 16.2 4.4 1.3 3.1 3 or More..................................................... 9.0 2.5 0.7 1.8 Number of Laptop PCs 1.................................................................. 22.5 5.4 1.5 3.9 2.................................................................. 4.0 1.1 0.3 0.8 3 or More..................................................... 0.7 0.3 Q Q Type of Monitor Used on Most-Used PC Desk-top CRT (Standard Monitor)...........................

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Total....................................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

111.1 47.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 16.9 6.5 4.6 7.6 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 30.3 12.5 18.1 14.7 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 22.9 9.8 14.1 11.9 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 7.4 2.7 4.0 2.9 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2 Hours..................................................... 13.6 5.7 1.8 2.9 3.2 2 to 15 Hours............................................................. 29.1 11.9 5.1 6.5 5.7 16 to 40 Hours........................................................... 13.5 5.5 2.5 3.3 2.2 41 to 167 Hours.........................................................

268

Total........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7.1 7.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 0.7 Q 0.2 Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 46.3 18.9 22.5 22.1 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 45.6 18.8 22.5 22.1 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 0.7 Q N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 27.0 11.9 14.9 4.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 19.8 8.6 12.8 3.6 For One Housing Unit................................... 42.9 18.8 8.3 12.3 3.5 For Two Housing Units................................. 1.8 1.0 0.3 0.4 Q Steam or Hot Water System............................. 8.2 4.4 2.1 1.4 0.3 For One Housing Unit................................... 5.1 2.1 1.6 1.0

269

Total........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

15.1 15.1 5.5 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 20.5 15.1 5.4 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 20.5 15.1 5.4 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 11.4 9.1 2.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 6.1 5.3 0.8 For One Housing Unit................................... 42.9 5.6 4.9 0.7 For Two Housing Units................................. 1.8 0.5 0.4 Q Steam or Hot Water System............................. 8.2 4.9 3.6 1.3 For One Housing Unit................................... 5.1 3.2 2.2 1.0 For Two Housing Units.................................

270

Total..........................................................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

... 2.8 0.7 0.5 0.2 Million U.S. Housing Units Home Electronics Usage Indicators Table HC12.12 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by Midwest Census Region,...

271

Total..........................................................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

... 13.2 1.8 1.2 0.5 Table HC11.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Northeast Census Region, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Home Appliances...

272

Total..........................................................  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

... 2.8 1.1 0.7 Q 0.4 Million U.S. Housing Units Home Electronics Usage Indicators Table HC13.12 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by South Census Region,...

273

Total..........................................................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

... 13.2 3.1 1.0 2.2 Table HC14.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by West Census Region, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Home Appliances...

274

Total..........................................................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

States New York Florida Texas California Million U.S. Housing Units Home Electronics Usage Indicators Table HC15.12 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated...

275

Total..........................................................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

... 13.2 2.7 3.5 2.2 1.3 3.5 1.3 3.8 Table HC7.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Household Income, 2005 Below Poverty Line Eligible for Federal...

276

Total..........................................................  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

... 13.2 3.4 2.0 1.4 Table HC12.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Midwest Census Region, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Home Appliances...

277

Total..........................................................  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Census Region Northeast Midwest South West Million U.S. Housing Units Home Electronics Usage Indicators Table HC10.12 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by U.S. Census Region, 2005...

278

Total..........................................................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

(as Self-Reported) City Town Suburbs Rural Million U.S. Housing Units Home Electronics Usage Indicators Table HC8.12 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by UrbanRural Location,...

279

Total..........................................................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

... 13.2 4.4 2.5 3.0 3.4 Table HC8.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by UrbanRural Location, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units UrbanRural...

280

Total..........................................................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

... 2.8 0.6 Q 0.5 Million U.S. Housing Units Home Electronics Usage Indicators Table HC14.12 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by West Census Region, 2005...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total effective dose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Total..........................................................  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

... 13.2 4.9 2.3 1.1 1.5 Table HC13.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by South Census Region, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units South Census Region...

282

Total..........................................................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

... 51.9 7.0 4.8 2.2 Not Asked (Mobile Homes or Apartment in Buildings with 5 or More Units)... 23.7...

283

Total..........................................................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Housing Units Living Space Characteristics Attached 2 to 4 Units 5 or More Units Mobile Homes Apartments in Buildings With-- Housing Units (millions) Single-Family Units Detached...

284

Total..........................................................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment... 1.2 Q Q N Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment... 109.8 40.3 21.4 6.9 12.0 Use Main Space Heating...

285

Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Normal ButaneButylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Gasoline Blending...

286

Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Normal ButaneButylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Gasoline Blending...

287

Total.............................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Cooking Appliances Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day......................................... 8.2 1.2 1.0 0.2 2 Times A Day...................................................... 24.6 4.0 2.7 1.2 Once a Day........................................................... 42.3 7.9 5.4 2.5 A Few Times Each Week...................................... 27.2 6.0 4.8 1.2 About Once a Week.............................................. 3.9 0.6 0.5 Q Less Than Once a Week....................................... 4.1 0.6 0.4 Q No Hot Meals Cooked........................................... 0.9 0.3 Q Q Conventional Oven Use an Oven......................................................... 109.6 20.3 14.9 5.4 More Than Once a Day..................................... 8.9 1.4 1.2 0.3 Once a Day.......................................................

288

Total...............................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

47.1 47.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 16.9 6.5 4.6 7.6 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 30.3 12.5 18.1 14.7 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 21.1 8.3 10.7 10.1 2.......................................................... 16.2 6.2 2.8 4.1 3.0 3 or More............................................. 9.0 2.9 1.4 3.2 1.6 Number of Laptop PCs 1.......................................................... 22.5 9.1 3.6 6.0 3.8 2.......................................................... 4.0 1.5 0.6 1.3 0.7 3 or More............................................. 0.7 0.3 Q Q Q Type of Monitor Used on Most-Used PC Desk-top CRT (Standard Monitor)................... 45.0 17.7 7.5 10.2 9.6 Flat-panel LCD.................................

289

Total........................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

111.1 24.5 1,090 902 341 872 780 441 Census Region and Division Northeast............................................. 20.6 6.7 1,247 1,032 Q 811 788 147 New England.................................... 5.5 1.9 1,365 1,127 Q 814 748 107 Middle Atlantic.................................. 15.1 4.8 1,182 978 Q 810 800 159 Midwest................................................ 25.6 4.6 1,349 1,133 506 895 810 346 East North Central............................ 17.7 3.2 1,483 1,239 560 968 842 351 West North Central........................... 7.9 1.4 913 789 329 751 745 337 South................................................... 40.7 7.8 881 752 572 942 873 797 South Atlantic................................... 21.7 4.9 875 707 522 1,035 934 926 East South Central........................... 6.9 0.7 Q Q Q 852 826 432 West South Central..........................

290

Total...............................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0.7 0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 14.2 7.2 2.8 4.2 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 26.6 14.5 4.1 7.9 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 18.2 10.0 2.9 5.3 2.......................................................... 16.2 5.5 3.0 0.7 1.8 3 or More............................................. 9.0 2.9 1.5 0.5 0.8 Number of Laptop PCs 1.......................................................... 22.5 7.7 4.3 1.1 2.4 2.......................................................... 4.0 1.5 0.9 Q 0.4 3 or More............................................. 0.7 Q Q Q Q Type of Monitor Used on Most-Used PC Desk-top CRT (Standard Monitor)................... 45.0 15.4 7.9 2.8 4.8 Flat-panel LCD.................................

291

Total.................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

26.7 26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day.............................. 8.2 2.9 2.5 1.3 0.5 1.0 2.4 4.6 2 Times A Day........................................... 24.6 6.5 7.0 4.3 3.2 3.6 4.8 10.3 Once a Day................................................ 42.3 8.8 9.8 8.7 5.1 10.0 5.0 12.9 A Few Times Each Week........................... 27.2 5.6 7.2 4.7 3.3 6.3 3.2 7.5 About Once a Week................................... 3.9 1.1 1.1 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.4 1.4 Less Than Once a Week............................ 4.1 1.3 1.0 0.9 0.5 0.4 0.7 1.4 No Hot Meals Cooked................................ 0.9 0.5 Q Q Q Q 0.2 0.5 Conventional Oven Use an Oven.............................................. 109.6 26.1 28.5 20.2 12.9 21.8 16.3 37.8 More Than Once a Day..........................

292

Total..................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

. . 111.1 14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment..................... 17.8 3.9 1.8 2.2 2.1 3.1 2.6 1.7 0.4 Have Cooling Equipment................................. 93.3 10.8 5.6 10.3 10.4 15.8 16.0 15.6 8.8 Use Cooling Equipment.................................. 91.4 10.6 5.5 10.3 10.3 15.3 15.7 15.3 8.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it................. 1.9 Q Q Q Q 0.6 0.4 0.3 Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.............................................. 65.9 3.7 2.6 6.1 6.8 11.2 13.2 13.9 8.2 Without a Heat Pump.................................. 53.5 3.6 2.3 5.5 5.8 9.5 10.1 10.3 6.4 With a Heat Pump....................................... 12.3 Q 0.3 0.6 1.0 1.7 3.1 3.6 1.7 Window/Wall Units....................................... 28.9 7.3 3.2 4.5 3.7 4.8 3.0 1.9 0.7 1 Unit..........................................................

293

Total..............................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

111.1 86.6 2,720 1,970 1,310 1,941 1,475 821 1,059 944 554 Census Region and Division Northeast.................................... 20.6 13.9 3,224 2,173 836 2,219 1,619 583 903 830 Q New England.......................... 5.5 3.6 3,365 2,154 313 2,634 1,826 Q 951 940 Q Middle Atlantic........................ 15.1 10.3 3,167 2,181 1,049 2,188 1,603 582 Q Q Q Midwest...................................... 25.6 21.0 2,823 2,239 1,624 2,356 1,669 1,336 1,081 961 778 East North Central.................. 17.7 14.5 2,864 2,217 1,490 2,514 1,715 1,408 907 839 553 West North Central................. 7.9 6.4 2,729 2,289 1,924 1,806 1,510 1,085 1,299 1,113 1,059 South.......................................... 40.7 33.0 2,707 1,849 1,563 1,605 1,350 954 1,064 970 685 South Atlantic......................... 21.7 16.8 2,945 1,996 1,695 1,573 1,359 909 1,044 955

294

Total.................................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

... ... 111.1 20.6 15.1 5.5 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................................. 17.8 4.0 2.4 1.7 Have Cooling Equipment............................................. 93.3 16.5 12.8 3.8 Use Cooling Equipment............................................... 91.4 16.3 12.6 3.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................. 1.9 0.3 Q Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.......................................................... 65.9 6.0 5.2 0.8 Without a Heat Pump.............................................. 53.5 5.5 4.8 0.7 With a Heat Pump................................................... 12.3 0.5 0.4 Q Window/Wall Units.................................................... 28.9 10.7 7.6 3.1 1 Unit.......................................................................

295

Total.............................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 8.5 2.7 2.6 4.0 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 38.6 16.2 20.1 18.4 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 37.8 15.9 19.8 18.0 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 0.9 0.3 0.3 0.4 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 25.8 10.9 16.6 12.5 Without a Heat Pump............................................. 53.5 21.2 9.7 13.7 8.9 With a Heat Pump................................................. 12.3 4.6 1.2 2.8 3.6 Window/Wall Units.................................................. 28.9 13.4 5.6 3.9 6.1 1 Unit.....................................................................

296

Total.............................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 10.3 3.1 7.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 13.9 4.5 9.4 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 12.9 4.3 8.5 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 1.0 Q 0.8 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 10.5 3.9 6.5 Without a Heat Pump............................................. 53.5 8.7 3.2 5.5 With a Heat Pump................................................. 12.3 1.7 0.7 1.0 Window/Wall Units.................................................. 28.9 3.6 0.6 3.0 1 Unit..................................................................... 14.5 2.9 0.5 2.4 2 Units...................................................................

297

Total..................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

78.1 78.1 64.1 4.2 1.8 2.3 5.7 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment..................... 17.8 11.3 9.3 0.6 Q 0.4 0.9 Have Cooling Equipment................................. 93.3 66.8 54.7 3.6 1.7 1.9 4.8 Use Cooling Equipment.................................. 91.4 65.8 54.0 3.6 1.7 1.9 4.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it................. 1.9 1.1 0.8 Q N Q Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.............................................. 65.9 51.7 43.9 2.5 0.7 1.6 3.1 Without a Heat Pump.................................. 53.5 41.1 34.8 2.1 0.5 1.2 2.6 With a Heat Pump....................................... 12.3 10.6 9.1 0.4 Q 0.3 0.6 Window/Wall Units....................................... 28.9 16.5 12.0 1.3 1.0 0.4 1.7 1 Unit.......................................................... 14.5 7.2 5.4 0.5 0.2 Q 0.9 2 Units.........................................................

298

Total.............................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 1.4 0.8 0.2 0.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 39.3 20.9 6.7 11.8 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 38.9 20.7 6.6 11.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 0.5 Q Q Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 32.1 17.6 5.2 9.3 Without a Heat Pump............................................. 53.5 23.2 10.9 3.8 8.4 With a Heat Pump................................................. 12.3 9.0 6.7 1.4 0.9 Window/Wall Units.................................................. 28.9 8.0 3.4 1.7 2.9 1 Unit.....................................................................

299

Total........................................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4.2 4.2 7.6 16.6 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 0.7 Q 0.7 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 23.4 7.5 16.0 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 22.9 7.4 15.4 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 0.6 Q 0.5 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 14.7 4.6 10.1 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 11.4 4.0 7.4 For One Housing Unit................................... 42.9 11.1 3.8 7.3 For Two Housing Units................................. 1.8 0.3 Q Q Steam or Hot Water System............................. 8.2 0.6 0.3 0.3 For One Housing Unit................................... 5.1 0.4 0.2 0.1 For Two Housing Units.................................

300

Total..............................................................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................ Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................ 17.8 5.3 4.7 2.8 1.9 3.1 3.6 7.5 Have Cooling Equipment............................. 93.3 21.5 24.1 17.8 11.2 18.8 13.0 31.1 Use Cooling Equipment.............................. 91.4 21.0 23.5 17.4 11.0 18.6 12.6 30.3 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............. 1.9 0.5 0.6 0.4 Q Q 0.5 0.8 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.......................................... 65.9 11.0 16.5 13.5 8.7 16.1 6.4 17.2 Without a Heat Pump.............................. 53.5 9.4 13.6 10.7 7.1 12.7 5.4 14.5 With a Heat Pump................................... 12.3 1.7 2.8 2.8 1.6 3.4 1.0 2.7 Window/Wall Units................................... 28.9 10.5 8.1 4.5 2.7 3.1 6.7 14.1 1 Unit...................................................... 14.5 5.8 4.3 2.0 1.1 1.3 3.4 7.4 2 Units....................................................

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total effective dose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

The effect of graded doses of corticosteroids on regional body calcium in the cebus monkey: an analysis with in vivo neutron activation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Utrecht Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Leon H. Russell I Eight adult Cebus ~a ella/Cebus albifrons were studied to determine the effects of an 11-week graded dosage treatment with cortisone acetate followed by a 5-week treatment... of Utrecht Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Leon H. Russell I Eight adult Cebus ~a ella/Cebus albifrons were studied to determine the effects of an 11-week graded dosage treatment with cortisone acetate followed by a 5-week treatment...

Loeffler, Scott Howard

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

302

Idle Operating Total Stream Day  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 3 Idle Operating Total Stream Day Barrels per Idle Operating Total Calendar Day Barrels per Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity Idle Operating Total Operable Refineries Number of State and PAD District a b b 11 10 1 1,293,200 1,265,200 28,000 1,361,700 1,329,700 32,000 ............................................................................................................................................... PAD District I 1 1 0 182,200 182,200 0 190,200 190,200 0 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Delaware......................................

303

Low Dose Radiation Stimulates Antioxidant Capacity in the Brain and Lessens  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Stimulates Antioxidant Capacity in the Brain and Lessens Stimulates Antioxidant Capacity in the Brain and Lessens Behavioral Symptoms in a 6-OHDA-Induced Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease Mohan Doss Fox Chase Cancer Center Abstract Background: Progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta results in motor deficits in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. Oxidative damage to the nigral dopaminergic neurons has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Our hypothesis is that low dose radiation induces the production of antioxidants in the brain, which could provide protection to the dopaminergic neurons, potentially leading to prevention or stabilization of PD. The purpose of the study is (1) to determine the effect of low dose radiation on the total antioxidant capacity in SN in

304

Factors for converting dose measured in polystyrene phantoms to dose reported in water phantoms for incident proton beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Previous dosimetry protocols allowed calibrations of proton beamline dose monitors to be performed in plastic phantoms. Nevertheless, dose determinations were referenced to absorbed dose-to-muscle or absorbed dose-to-water. The IAEA Code of Practice TRS 398 recommended that dose calibrations be performed with ionization chambers only in water phantoms because plastic-to-water dose conversion factors were not available with sufficient accuracy at the time of its writing. These factors are necessary, however, to evaluate the difference in doses delivered to patients if switching from calibration in plastic to a protocol that only allows calibration in water. Methods: This work measured polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors for this purpose. Uncertainties in the results due to temperature, geometry, and chamber effects were minimized by using special experimental set-up procedures. The measurements were validated by Monte Carlo simulations. Results: At the peak of non-range-modulated beams, measured polystyrene-to-water factors ranged from 1.015 to 1.024 for beams with ranges from 36 to 315 mm. For beams with the same ranges and medium sized modulations, the factors ranged from 1.005 to 1.019. The measured results were used to generate tables of polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors. Conclusions: The dose conversion factors can be used at clinical proton facilities to support beamline and patient specific dose per monitor unit calibrations performed in polystyrene phantoms.

Moyers, M. F.; Vatnitsky, A. S.; Vatnitsky, S. M. [Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California 92354 (United States); Guthrie Clinic/Robert Packard Hospital, Sayre, Pennsylvania 18840 (United States); EBG MedAustron, Wiener Neustadt, Austria A2700 (Austria)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

305

Dose reduction for snubber inspection and testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that Health physics staff members at Grand Gulf Nuclear Station have implemented several dose reduction methods for snubber inspection, testing and changeout. These methods include construction maps to permit easy location of snubbers in the drywell, painting azimuth numbers on the inside drywell wall and biological shield wall to coincide with the maps, requiring pre-job briefings for quality inspectors and craft support personnel, using job history files for work planning, using experienced inspectors and craft personnel whenever possible, designating certain craft personnel solely for snubber work, and cutting out stuck snubber pins rather than attempting intact removal. The total dose for snubber-related tasks has been significantly reduced using these methods.

Morrison, G.M.; Cotton, S.R. (Entergy Operations, Inc. (US))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Total Solar Irradiance Satellite Composites and their  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 12 Total Solar Irradiance Satellite Composites and their Phenomenological Effect on Climate. Phenomenological solar signature on climate 310 9. Conclusion 312 1. INTRODUCTION A contiguoustotal solar from each other, in particular about whether the TSI minimum during solar Cycles 22e23 (1995

Scafetta, Nicola

307

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low Dose Ionizing Radiation-Induced  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Low Dose Ionizing Radiation-Induced Effects in Irradiated and Low Dose Ionizing Radiation-Induced Effects in Irradiated and Unirradiated cells: Pathways Analysis in Support of Risk Assessment. Authors: B.E. Lehnert, R. Cary, D. Gadbois, and G. Gupta. Institutions: Bioscience Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory. The scientific literature presents a confusing picture concerning health risks due to low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR), e.g., <1-10 cGy. Some effects of LDIR such as enhanced rates of cell proliferation and the induction of radioadaptation may be benign under some circumstances. Other evidence suggests LDIR can be hazardous and that a threshold for potentially detrimental responses, e.g., increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), increases in sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), alterations in gene or protein expression profiles, and increased

308

total energy | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

total energy total energy Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 1, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses quadrillion BTUs, and quantifies the energy prices using U.S. dollars. The data is broken down into total production, imports, exports, consumption, and prices for energy types. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO consumption EIA export import production reference case total energy Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Total Energy Supply, Disposition, and Price Summary - Reference Case (xls, 112.8 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed

309

Standardized radiological dose evaluations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Following the end of the Cold War, the mission of Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site changed from production of nuclear weapons to cleanup. Authorization baseis documents for the facilities, primarily the Final Safety Analysis Reports, are being replaced with new ones in which accident scenarios are sorted into coarse bins of consequence and frequency, similar to the approach of DOE-STD-3011-94. Because this binning does not require high precision, a standardized approach for radiological dose evaluations is taken for all the facilities at the site. This is done through a standard calculation ``template`` for use by all safety analysts preparing the new documents. This report describes this template and its use.

Peterson, V.L.; Stahlnecker, E.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

EFFECTS OF AN ANTIDEPRESSANT DOSE OF KETAMINE ON PREFRONTAL ASPARTATE, GLUTAMINE AND GABA LEVELS IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS: ASSESSING THE POST-INFUSION INTERVAL WITH 1H-MRS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS: ASSESSING THE POST-INFUSION INTERVAL WITH 1H-MRS Milan Scheidegger1,2 , Alexander Fuchs1 at investigating the neurometabolic changes in the 3-4 hour post-infusion interval when the antidepressant effect by a continuous infusion of 0.25 mg/kg/h over 40 minutes. Single voxel 1 H MRS data were acquired from a volume

311

Human In vivo Dose-Response to Controlled, Low-Dose Low Linear Energy Transfer Ionizing Radiation Exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...effects of low-dose low-linear energy transfer ionizing radiation (LDIR) in humans...direct evidence that doses in the range of 1 to 10 cGy...the intentional radiation of healthy tissue...the response to ionizing radiation. Attempts...

Zelanna Goldberg; David M. Rocke; Chad Schwietert; Susanne R. Berglund; Alison Santana; Angela Jones; Jörg Lehmann; Robin Stern; Ruixiao Lu; and Christine Hartmann Siantar

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

312

A real-time in vivo dosimetric verification method for high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: A real-time in vivo dosimetric verification method using metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters has been developed for patient dosimetry in high-dose rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: The necessary calibration and correction factors for MOSFET measurements in {sup 192}Iridium source were determined in a water phantom. With the detector placed inside a custom-made nasopharyngeal applicator, the actual dose delivered to the tumor was measured in vivo and compared to the calculated values using a commercial brachytherapy planning system. Results: Five MOSFETs were independently calibrated with the HDR source, yielding calibration factors of 0.48 {+-} 0.007 cGy/mV. The maximum sensitivity variation was no more than 7% in the clinically relevant distance range of 1-5 cm from the source. A total of 70 in vivo measurements in 11 NPC patients demonstrated good agreement with the treatment planning. The mean differences between the planned and the actually delivered dose within a single treatment fraction were -0.1%{+-} 3.8% and -0.1%{+-} 3.7%, respectively, for right and left side assessments. The maximum dose deviation was less than 8.5%. Conclusions: In vivo measurement using the real-time MOSFET dosimetry system is possible to evaluate the actual dose to the tumor received by the patient during a treatment fraction and thus can offer another line of security to detect and prevent large errors.

Qi Zhenyu; Deng Xiaowu; Cao Xinping; Huang Shaomin; Lerch, Michael; Rosenfeld, Anatoly [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou 510060 (China) and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou 510060 (China); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

313

Adaptive Responses to Low Dose/Low Dose-Rate γ-Rays in Normal Human Fibroblasts:  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Responses to Low Dose/Low Dose-Rate γ-Rays in Normal Human Fibroblasts: Responses to Low Dose/Low Dose-Rate γ-Rays in Normal Human Fibroblasts: The Role of Oxidative Metabolism Edouard I. Azzam 1 , Sonia M. de Toledo 1 , Badri N. Pandey 1 , Perumal Venkatachalam 1 , Manuela Buoannano 1 , Zhi Yang 1 , Ling Li 3 , Donna M. Gordon 2 , Roger W. Howell 1 , Debkumar Pain 2 and Douglas R. Spitz 3 1 Department of Radiology, 2 Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 3 Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA To investigate low dose/low dose-rate effects of low linear energy transfer ionizing radiation, we used γ-irradiated cells adapted to grow in three-dimensional architecture that mimics cell growth in vivo. We determined cellular, molecular and biochemical changes in these

314

Total Sky Imager (TSI) Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The total sky imager (TSI) provides time series of hemispheric sky images during daylight hours and retrievals of fractional sky cover for periods when the solar elevation is greater than 10 degrees.

Morris, VR

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

extremely low-dose ionizing radiation upregulates CXC chemokines in normal human fibroblasts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...2006 Abstract Tumor Biology 32: Radiation Biology 2 Proc Amer Assoc Cancer...Volume 47, 2006 extremely low-dose ionizing radiation upregulates CXC chemokines in...biological effects of this low dose range have not been established. We...

Akira Fujimori; Katsutoshi Suetomi; Keiji Kinoshita; Ayako Kojima; Yaqun Fang; Ayako Egusa; and Ryuichi Okayasu

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

316

Radiation Dose Estimation from the Analysis of Radionuclides in Marine Fish of the Bay of Bengal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Radiation Protection Dosimetry Article Radiation Dose Estimation from the Analysis of Radionuclides in Marine Fish of the Bay of Bengal S. Ghose M.N. Alam M.N...respectively. The annual effective doses due to ingestion of radionuclides......

S. Ghose; M.N. Alam; M.N. Islam

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Genetic Factors Affecting  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation William F. Morgan Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Why This Project The short-term effects of high doses of ionizing radiation on cellular responses are relatively well understood. Less clear are the long-term consequences of exposure to low dose/low dose-rate radiation and the effects of radiation exposure on the progeny of surviving cells. If a cell survives radiation, it is generally thought to have repaired all the radiation-induced insults and be capable of a "normal healthy life". At a certain frequency, however, we have found that some cells surviving radiation grow normally, but will rearrange their genetic material during time in culture. We call this radiation-induced genomic instability. Many

318

Low Dose Radiation Program: 2010 Low Dose Radiation Research Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Low Dose Radiation Research Program Investigators' Workshop Low Dose Radiation Research Program Investigators' Workshop »» Event Slide Show More than 150 people attended this year's workshop, held April 12-14 at the Renaissance M Street Hotel in Washington, D.C. In addition to 34 plenary talks and more than 70 poster presentations made by the program investigators, participants heard guest speakers from the National Cancer Institute and from sister low-dose programs in Europe and Japan. Remarks from DOE Dr. Anna Palmisano, Associate Director, Office of Science, Director for Biological and Environmental Research (BER), welcomed the meeting participants, thanked Low Dose Radiation Research Program Manager Dr. Noelle Metting for her leadership, and acknowledged the importance of the Low Dose Program to DOE because of its unique focus and important role. She

319

SU-FF-T-390: In-Vivo Prostate Brachytherapy Absorbed Dose Measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: In-vivo prostate brachytherapy absorbed dosimetrydetector using scintillating fibers. Method and Materials: Five pairs of 85.5 {+-} 0.05 cm long blue shifted scintillating fibers (model BCF-10) with 1 mm{sup 2} cross sectional area were placed in a mixture of gelatin (368.6 {+-} 0.5 grams) and water (3.78 {+-} 0.025 liters) to measured the absorbed dose delivered by a 12 Ci {sup 192}Ir HDR source. The fibers were held by a 7 x 7 cm{sup 2} template grid and optically connected to a 16-channel multianode photomultiplier tube (Hamamatsu, model H6568). Each pair consisted of one fiber 4 mm shorter than the other one to extract the dose by the subtraction method. A dose atlas was used for radiation delivered to the phantom. The plans followed delivered 5 and 7 Gy to a point located 2.0 centimeters away from the central dwelling positions. A total of 32 data points were acquired in a plan to assess the linearity and reproducibility of the measurements.Results: Reproducibility of the data was found to be within 5% and the overall accuracy of the system estimated to be {+-}5.5%. The linearity of the data for all 7 measureddose values (ranging from 0.6 to 7 Gy), gives a slope of 312 counts/Gy with a 1.4% relative deviation. Conclusion: This work indicates the possibility of measuring in real-time the dose effectively delivered to a biological system during prostate brachytherapy treatments. The availability of commercially thin (150 {micro}m) scintillating fibers opens the capability of using such system during clinical treatments (by embedding the fibers within the catheters) with the advantage of performing real-time adjustment of the dose delivery.

Gueye, Paul; Velasco, Carlos; Keppel, Cynthia; Murphy, B.; Sinesi, C.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Visualization of a changing dose field.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To help visualize the results of dose modeling for nuclear materials processing opcrations, we have developed an integrated model that uses a simple dosc calculation tool to obtain estimates of the dose field in a complex geomctry and then post-process the data to produce a video of the now time-dependent data. We generate two-dimensional radiation fields within an existing physical cnvironment and then analyze them using three-dimensional visualization techniques. The radiation fields are generated for both neutrons and photons. Standard monoenergetic diffusion theory is used to estimate the neutron dosc fields. The photon dose is estimated using a point-kernel formalism, with photon shielding effects and buildup taken into account. The radiation field dynamics are analyzed by interleaving individual 3D graphic 'snapshots' into a smoothed, lime dependent, video-based display. In-the-room workers are 'seen' in the radiation fields via a graphical, 3D fly-through rendering of the room. Worker dose levels can reveal surprising dependencies on operational source placement, source types, worker alignment, shielding alignments, and indirect operations from external workers.

Helm, T. M (Terry M.); Kornreich, D. E. (Drew E.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total effective dose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low-Dose Dose-Response of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Low-Dose Dose-Response of Proliferating Human Cells Exposed to Low Low-Dose Dose-Response of Proliferating Human Cells Exposed to Low Dose Rate g-Radiation. Authors: Louise Enns,1 Michael Weinfeld,1 Albert Murtha,1 and Kenneth Bogen2 Institutions: 1Cross Cancer Institute and 2Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Clinical and environmental exposure to ionizing radiation rarely exceeds 200 cGy. To examine cell proliferation at early times (up to 5 days) post-irradiation, we are utilizing an assay in which single cells encapsulated within ~30- to 70-µm-diameter agarose gel microdrops (GMDs) are exposed and cultured for 4 days at 37°C, then analyzed by flow cytometry (FC). Clonogenic proliferation is measured as the fraction of occupied GMDs containing multicellular microcolonies after 4 days in culture. This assay was applied to human A549 lung cells exposed to gamma

322

Extremely Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation Causes Activation of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway and Enhances Proliferation of Normal Human Diploid Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...stimulative effect of low-dose irradiation. These results indicate that a limited range of low-dose ionizing radiation differentially activates...indicate that a limited range of low-dose ionizing radiation differentially activates...

Keiji Suzuki; Seiji Kodama; and Masami Watanabe

2001-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

323

Dose-shaping using targeted sparse optimization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Dose volume histograms (DVHs) are common tools in radiation therapy treatment planning to characterize plan quality. As statistical metrics, DVHs provide a compact summary of the underlying plan at the cost of losing spatial information: the same or similar dose-volume histograms can arise from substantially different spatial dose maps. This is exactly the reason why physicians and physicists scrutinize dose maps even after they satisfy all DVH endpoints numerically. However, up to this point, little has been done to control spatial phenomena, such as the spatial distribution of hot spots, which has significant clinical implications. To this end, the authors propose a novel objective function that enables a more direct tradeoff between target coverage, organ-sparing, and planning target volume (PTV) homogeneity, and presents our findings from four prostate cases, a pancreas case, and a head-and-neck case to illustrate the advantages and general applicability of our method.Methods: In designing the energy minimization objective (E{sub tot}{sup sparse}), the authors utilized the following robust cost functions: (1) an asymmetric linear well function to allow differential penalties for underdose, relaxation of prescription dose, and overdose in the PTV; (2) a two-piece linear function to heavily penalize high dose and mildly penalize low and intermediate dose in organs-at risk (OARs); and (3) a total variation energy, i.e., the L{sub 1} norm applied to the first-order approximation of the dose gradient in the PTV. By minimizing a weighted sum of these robust costs, general conformity to dose prescription and dose-gradient prescription is achieved while encouraging prescription violations to follow a Laplace distribution. In contrast, conventional quadratic objectives are associated with a Gaussian distribution of violations, which is less forgiving to large violations of prescription than the Laplace distribution. As a result, the proposed objective E{sub tot}{sup sparse} improves tradeoff between planning goals by 'sacrificing' voxels that have already been violated to improve PTV coverage, PTV homogeneity, and/or OAR-sparing. In doing so, overall plan quality is increased since these large violations only arise if a net reduction in E{sub tot}{sup sparse} occurs as a result. For example, large violations to dose prescription in the PTV in E{sub tot}{sup sparse}-optimized plans will naturally localize to voxels in and around PTV-OAR overlaps where OAR-sparing may be increased without compromising target coverage. The authors compared the results of our method and the corresponding clinical plans using analyses of DVH plots, dose maps, and two quantitative metrics that quantify PTV homogeneity and overdose. These metrics do not penalize underdose since E{sub tot}{sup sparse}-optimized plans were planned such that their target coverage was similar or better than that of the clinical plans. Finally, plan deliverability was assessed with the 2D modulation index.Results: The proposed method was implemented using IBM's CPLEX optimization package (ILOG CPLEX, Sunnyvale, CA) and required 1-4 min to solve with a 12-core Intel i7 processor. In the testing procedure, the authors optimized for several points on the Pareto surface of four 7-field 6MV prostate cases that were optimized for different levels of PTV homogeneity and OAR-sparing. The generated results were compared against each other and the clinical plan by analyzing their DVH plots and dose maps. After developing intuition by planning the four prostate cases, which had relatively few tradeoffs, the authors applied our method to a 7-field 6 MV pancreas case and a 9-field 6MV head-and-neck case to test the potential impact of our method on more challenging cases. The authors found that our formulation: (1) provided excellent flexibility for balancing OAR-sparing with PTV homogeneity; and (2) permitted the dose planner more control over the evolution of the PTV's spatial dose distribution than conventional objective functions. In particular, E{sub tot}{sup sparse}-op

Sayre, George A.; Ruan, Dan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California - Los Angeles School of Medicine, 200 Medical Plaza, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

PROTRACTED LOW DOSE PHOTON AND SIMULATED SOLAR FLARE  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

PROTRACTED LOW DOSE PHOTON AND SIMULATED SOLAR FLARE PROTRACTED LOW DOSE PHOTON AND SIMULATED SOLAR FLARE PROTON EFFECTS ON CYTOKINE/CHEMOKINE EXPRESSION AFTER WHOLE-BODY IRRADIATION Asma Rizvi 2 , George Coutrakon 1 , James M. Slater 1 , Michael J. Pecaut 1,2 and Daila S. Gridley 1,2 Departments. of 1 Radiation Medicine and 2 Biochemistry & Microbiology Loma Linda University & Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA 92354 Astronauts are exposed to low dose/low dose rate radiation (LDR) and may also be acutely irradiated during a solar particle event (SPE). The biological effects of LDR alone and when combined with a solar particle event, are not yet clearly understood. Previous studies have shown that irradiation can have adverse effects on T cells. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are produced as a result of radiation can alter or damage the

325

HEALTH EFFECTS OF THE NUCLEAR ACCIDENT AT THREE MILE ISLAND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

radiation at dose levels helow in rads lack reliable data bases and dose- effect information to derive quantitative estimation

Fabrikant, J.I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Radioactivity of 210Pb in Japanese cigarettes and radiation dose from smoking inhalation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1550 Kamisaibara...cigarettes a day. The average doses from 210Pb...nine samples were home-grown tobaccos...N is the daily consumption of cigarettes...respectively. The average effective doses were...cigarettes a day. The average doses from (210......

A. Sakoda; K. Fukao; A. Kawabe; T. Kataoka; K. Hanamoto; K. Yamaoka

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Performance Period Total Fee Paid  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Period Period Total Fee Paid 4/29/2012 - 9/30/2012 $418,348 10/1/2012 - 9/30/2013 $0 10/1/2013 - 9/30/2014 $0 10/1/2014 - 9/30/2015 $0 10/1/2015 - 9/30/2016 $0 Cumulative Fee Paid $418,348 Contract Type: Cost Plus Award Fee Contract Period: $116,769,139 November 2011 - September 2016 $475,395 $0 Fee Information Total Estimated Contract Cost $1,141,623 $1,140,948 $1,140,948 $5,039,862 $1,140,948 Maximum Fee $5,039,862 Minimum Fee Fee Available Portage, Inc. DE-DT0002936 EM Contractor Fee Site: MOAB Uranium Mill Tailings - MOAB, UT Contract Name: MOAB Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Contract September 2013 Contractor: Contract Number:

328

Buildings","Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

L1. Floorspace Lit by Lighting Type for Non-Mall Buildings, 1995" L1. Floorspace Lit by Lighting Type for Non-Mall Buildings, 1995" ,"Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"Total (Lit or Unlit) in All Buildings","Total (Lit or Unlit) in Buildings With Any Lighting","Lighted Area Only","Area Lit by Each Type of Light" ,,,,"Incan- descent","Standard Fluor-escent","Compact Fluor- escent","High Intensity Discharge","Halogen" "All Buildings*",54068,51570,45773,6746,34910,1161,3725,779 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000",6272,5718,4824,986,3767,50,22,54 "5,001 to 10,000",7299,6667,5728,1240,4341,61,169,45 "10,001 to 25,000",10829,10350,8544,1495,6442,154,553,"Q"

329

ARM - Measurement - Total cloud water  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

cloud water cloud water ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Total cloud water The total concentration (mass/vol) of ice and liquid water particles in a cloud; this includes condensed water content (CWC). Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. External Instruments NCEPGFS : National Centers for Environment Prediction Global Forecast System Field Campaign Instruments CSI : Cloud Spectrometer and Impactor PDI : Phase Doppler Interferometer

330

Buildings","Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

L2. Floorspace Lit by Lighting Types (Non-Mall Buildings), 1999" L2. Floorspace Lit by Lighting Types (Non-Mall Buildings), 1999" ,"Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"Total (Lit or Unlit) in All Buildings","Total (Lit or Unlit) in Buildings With Any Lighting","Lighted Area Only","Area Lit by Each Type of Light" ,,,,"Incan- descent","Standard Fluor-escent","Compact Fluor- escent","High Intensity Discharge","Halogen" "All Buildings* ...............",61707,58693,49779,6496,37150,3058,5343,1913 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6750,5836,4878,757,3838,231,109,162 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",7940,7166,5369,1044,4073,288,160,109 "10,001 to 25,000 .............",10534,9773,7783,1312,5712,358,633,232

331

Buildings","Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

L3. Floorspace Lit by Lighting Type (Non-Mall Buildings), 2003" L3. Floorspace Lit by Lighting Type (Non-Mall Buildings), 2003" ,"Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"Total (Lit or Unlit) in All Buildings","Total (Lit or Unlit) in Buildings With Any Lighting","Lighted Area Only","Area Lit by Each Type of Light" ,,,,"Incan- descent","Standard Fluor-escent","Compact Fluor- escent","High Intensity Discharge","Halogen" "All Buildings* ...............",64783,62060,51342,5556,37918,4004,4950,2403 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",6789,6038,4826,678,3932,206,76,124 "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",6585,6090,4974,739,3829,192,238,248 "10,001 to 25,000 .............",11535,11229,8618,1197,6525,454,506,289

332

Colour and lipid oxidation changes in dry-cured loins from free-range reared and intensively reared pigs as affected by ionizing radiation dose level  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of irradiation (0, 5 and 10 kGy) of vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured loin slices from pigs fed on concentrate (CON) or free-range reared (FRG) was studied in relation to colour changes, TBA-RS and hexanal content. Both, ionizing radiation and type of loin had a significant effect on the instrumental colour parameters of the samples. Irradiation resulted in significantly higher a*-values in both sets of loins, indicating a redder colour. Numerically calculated total colour difference (?E) changes were significantly less intense in CON vacuum-packaged dry-cured loin slices than in FRG samples and changed significantly at 10 kGy dose levels in both types of samples. TBA-RS numbers were significantly affected by irradiation dose and type of loin and increased linearly with dose in both types of slices. Increments in TBA-RS numbers in FRG loin slices was dose-dependent and was closely related to the type of dry-cured loin. Irradiation of dry-cured loin slices significantly increased hexanal contents in both groups of loins and the increases were dose-dependent and greater in FRG samples than in CON samples. Differences in the characteristics of the raw material and initial lipid oxidation level could play an important role in the irradiation-induced changes in vacuum-packaged dry-cured loin slices.

A. Carrasco; R. Tárrega; M.R. Ramírez; F.J. Mingoarranz; R. Cava

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Potential dose distributions at proposed surface radioactvity clearance levels resulting from occupational scenarios.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to evaluate the potential dose distribution resulting from surface radioactivity, using occupational radiation exposure scenarios. The surface radioactivity clearance values considered in this analysis may ultimately replace those currently specified in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements and guidance for radiological protection of workers, the public and the environment. The surface contamination values apply to radioactive contamination deposited on a surface (i.e., not incorporated into the interior of the material). For these calculations, the dose coefficients for intake of radionuclides were taken from ICRP Publication 68 (ICRP 1994), and external exposure dose coefficients were taken from the compact disc (CD) that accompanied Federal Guidance Report (FGR) 13 (Eckerman et al. 1999). The ICRP Publication 68 dose coefficients were based on ICRP Publication 60 (ICRP 1990) and were used specifically for worker dose calculations. The calculated dose in this analysis is the 'effective dose' (ED), rather than the 'effective dose equivalent' (EDE).

Kamboj, S.; Yu, C.; Rabovsky, J. (Environmental Science Division); (USDOE)

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

334

Quantitative estimation of UV light dose concomitant to irradiation with ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A simple mathematical model for biological estimation of UV light dose concomitant to ionizing radiation was suggested. This approach was applied to determine the dependency of equivalent UV light dose accompanied by 100 Gy of ionizing radiation on energy of sparsely ionizing radiation and on volume of the exposed cell suspension. It was revealed that the relative excitation contribution to the total lethal effect and the value of UV dose was greatly increased with an increase in energy of ionizing radiation and volume of irradiated suspensions. It is concluded that these observations are in agreement with the supposition that ?erenkov emission is responsible for the production of UV light damage and the phenomenon of photoreactivation observed after ionizing exposure of bacterial and yeast cells hypersensitive to UV light. A possible synergistic interaction of the damages produced by ionizations and excitations as well as a probable participation of UV component of ionizing radiation in the mechanism of hormesis and adaptive response observed after ionizing radiation exposure is discussed.

Vladislav G. Petin; Ivan I. Morozov; Jin Kyu Kim; Maria A. Semkina

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Tissue Heterogeneity in IMRT Dose Calculation for Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in accuracy of dose calculation between 3 commonly used algorithms, the Pencil Beam algorithm (PB), the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA), and the Collapsed Cone Convolution Superposition (CCCS) for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The 2D dose distributions obtained with the 3 algorithms were compared on each CT slice pixel by pixel, using the MATLAB code (The MathWorks, Natick, MA) and the agreement was assessed with the {gamma} function. The effect of the differences on dose-volume histograms (DVHs), tumor control, and normal tissue complication probability (TCP and NTCP) were also evaluated, and its significance was quantified by using a nonparametric test. In general PB generates regions of over-dosage both in the lung and in the tumor area. These differences are not always in DVH of the lung, although the Wilcoxon test indicated significant differences in 2 of 4 patients. Disagreement in the lung region was also found when the {Gamma} analysis was performed. The effect on TCP is less important than for NTCP because of the slope of the curve at the level of the dose of interest. The effect of dose calculation inaccuracy is patient-dependent and strongly related to beam geometry and to the localization of the tumor. When multiple intensity-modulated beams are used, the effect of the presence of the heterogeneity on dose distribution may not always be easily predictable.

Pasciuti, Katia, E-mail: ka.pasciuti@libero.i [Laboratory of Medical Physics, Istituto Regina Elena, Roma (Italy); Iaccarino, Giuseppe; Strigari, Lidia [Laboratory of Medical Physics, Istituto Regina Elena, Roma (Italy); Malatesta, Tiziana [Medical Physics Department, S. Giovanni Calibita, Fatebenefratelli Hospital, Roma (Italy); Benassi, Marcello; Di Nallo, Anna Maria [Laboratory of Medical Physics, Istituto Regina Elena, Roma (Italy); Mirri, Alessandra; Pinzi, Valentina [Division of Radiotherapy, Istituto Regina Elena, Roma (Italy); Landoni, Valeria [Laboratory of Medical Physics, Istituto Regina Elena, Roma (Italy)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Exposure to Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation from Medical Imaging Procedures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...did not use measures of radiation dose that are specific to the subjects we studied but instead relied on estimates of effective doses, which are neither precisely measured nor subject-specific. The effective dose is a calculated estimate designed to provide a sex-averaged dose for a reference subject... Experimental and epidemiologic evidence has linked exposure to low-dose, ionizing radiation with the development of solid cancers and leukemia.1 As a result, persons at risk for repeated radiation exposure, such as workers in health care and the nuclear ...

Fazel R.; Krumholz H.M.; Wang Y.

2009-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

337

The Dose Rate Conversion Factors for Nuclear Fallout  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a previous paper, the composite exposure rate conversion factor (ECF) for nuclear fallout was calculated using a simple theoretical photon-transport model. The theoretical model was used to fill in the gaps in the FGR-12 table generated by ORNL. The FGR-12 table contains the individual conversion factors for approximate 1000 radionuclides. However, in order to calculate the exposure rate during the first 30 minutes following a nuclear detonation, the conversion factors for approximately 2000 radionuclides are needed. From a human-effects standpoint, it is also necessary to have the dose rate conversion factors (DCFs) for all 2000 radionuclides. The DCFs are used to predict the whole-body dose rates that would occur if a human were standing in a radiation field of known exposure rate. As calculated by ORNL, the whole-body dose rate (rem/hr) is approximately 70% of the exposure rate (R/hr) at one meter above the surface. Hence, the individual DCFs could be estimated by multiplying the individual ECFs by 0.7. Although this is a handy rule-of-thumb, a more consistent (and perhaps, more accurate) method of estimating the individual DCFs for the missing radionuclides in the FGR-12 table is to use the linear relationship between DCF and total gamma energy released per decay. This relationship is shown in Figure 1. The DCFs for individual organs in the body can also be estimated from the estimated whole-body DCF. Using the DCFs given FGR-12, the ratio of the organ-specific DCFs to the whole-body DCF were plotted as a function of the whole-body DCF. From these plots, the asymptotic ratios were obtained (see Table 1). Using these asymptotic ratios, the organ-specific DCFs can be estimated using the estimated whole-body DCF for each of the missing radionuclides in the FGR-12 table. Although this procedure for estimating the organ-specific DCFs may over-estimate the value for some low gamma-energy emitters, having a finite value for the organ-specific DCFs in the table is probably better than having no value at all. A summary of the complete ECF and DCF values are given in Table 2.

Spriggs, G D

2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

338

Models for source term, flow, transport and dose assessment in NRC`s Iterative Performance Assessment, Phase 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The core consequence modules for the recently completed Phase 2 Iterative Performance Assessment (IPA) of the Yucca Mountain repository for high-level nuclear waste depend on models for releases from the engineered barrier system (source term), flow of liquid and gas, transport of radionuclides in the geosphere and assessment of dose to target populations. The source term model includes temperature and moisture phenomena in the near-field environment, general, pitting and crevice corrosion, contact of the waste form by water, dissolution and oxidation of the waste form, and transport of dissolved and gaseous radionuclides from the waste package by advection and diffusion. The liquid flow and transport models describe water flow through fractures and matrix in both the unsaturated and saturated zones. Models for flow of gas and transport of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} released from the engineered barrier system to the atmosphere take into account repository heat and the geothermal gradient. The dose assessment model calculates doses to a regional population and a farm family for an assumed reference biosphere in the vicinity of the repository. The Phase 2 IPA led to a number of suggestions for model improvement: (1) improve the ability of the models to include spatial and temporal variability in the parameters; (2) improve the coupling among processes, especially the effects of changing environments in the waste packages; (3) develop more mechanistic models, but abstracted for use in total system performance assessment; and (4) use more site specific parameters, especially for the dose assessments.

McCartin, T.; Codell, R.; Neel, R.; Ford, W.; Wescott, R.; Bradbury, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Sagar, B.; Walton, J. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

339

Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standard. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs for the groundwater exposure scenario for the three climate states considered in the TSPA-LA as well as conversion factors for evaluating compliance with the groundwater protection standard. The BDCFs will be used in performance assessment for calculating all-pathway annual doses for a given concentration of radionuclides in groundwater. The conversion factors will be used for calculating gross alpha particle activity in groundwater and the annual dose from drinking water for beta- and photon-emitting radionuclides. Another objective of this analysis was to re-qualify the output of the previous revision (BSC 2003 [DIRS 164403]).

M. Wasiolek

2004-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

340

E-Print Network 3.0 - antigen dose dependent Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a significant dose-dependent effect on infection success: the higher the ... Source: Poulin, Robert - Department of Zoology, University of Otago Collection: Biology and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total effective dose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Total Adjusted Sales of Kerosene  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Farm All Other Period: End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Farm All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History U.S. 492,702 218,736 269,010 305,508 187,656 81,102 1984-2012 East Coast (PADD 1) 353,765 159,323 198,762 237,397 142,189 63,075 1984-2012 New England (PADD 1A) 94,635 42,570 56,661 53,363 38,448 15,983 1984-2012 Connecticut 13,006 6,710 8,800 7,437 7,087 2,143 1984-2012 Maine 46,431 19,923 25,158 24,281 17,396 7,394 1984-2012 Massachusetts 7,913 3,510 5,332 6,300 2,866 1,291 1984-2012 New Hampshire 14,454 6,675 8,353 7,435 5,472 1,977 1984-2012

342

Solar total energy project Shenandoah  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents the description of the final design for the Solar Total Energy System (STES) to be installed at the Shenandoah, Georgia, site for utilization by the Bleyle knitwear plant. The system is a fully cascaded total energy system design featuring high temperature paraboloidal dish solar collectors with a 235 concentration ratio, a steam Rankine cycle power conversion system capable of supplying 100 to 400 kW(e) output with an intermediate process steam take-off point, and a back pressure condenser for heating and cooling. The design also includes an integrated control system employing the supervisory control concept to allow maximum experimental flexibility. The system design criteria and requirements are presented including the performance criteria and operating requirements, environmental conditions of operation; interface requirements with the Bleyle plant and the Georgia Power Company lines; maintenance, reliability, and testing requirements; health and safety requirements; and other applicable ordinances and codes. The major subsystems of the STES are described including the Solar Collection Subysystem (SCS), the Power Conversion Subsystem (PCS), the Thermal Utilization Subsystem (TUS), the Control and Instrumentation Subsystem (CAIS), and the Electrical Subsystem (ES). Each of these sections include design criteria and operational requirements specific to the subsystem, including interface requirements with the other subsystems, maintenance and reliability requirements, and testing and acceptance criteria. (WHK)

None

1980-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

343

Grantee Total Number of Homes  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Grantee Grantee Total Number of Homes Weatherized through November 2011 [Recovery Act] Total Number of Homes Weatherized through November 2011 (Calendar Year 2009 - November 2011) [Recovery Act + Annual Program Funding] Alabama 6,704 7,867 1 Alaska 443 2,363 American Samoa 304 410 Arizona 6,354 7,518 Arkansas 5,231 6,949 California 41,649 50,002 Colorado 12,782 19,210 Connecticut 8,940 10,009 2 Delaware** 54 54 District of Columbia 962 1,399 Florida 18,953 20,075 Georgia 13,449 14,739 Guam 574 589 Hawaii 604 1,083 Idaho** 4,470 6,614 Illinois 35,530 44,493 Indiana** 18,768 21,689 Iowa 8,794 10,202 Kansas 6,339 7,638 Kentucky 7,639 10,902 Louisiana 4,698 6,946 Maine 5,130 6,664 Maryland 8,108 9,015 Massachusetts 17,687 21,645 Michigan 29,293 37,137 Minnesota 18,224 22,711 Mississippi 5,937 6,888 Missouri 17,334 20,319 Montana 3,310 6,860 Navajo Nation

344

Neutron Total Cross Sections at 20 Mev  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With the T(d, n)He4 reaction as a monoenergetic source of neutrons of about 20 Mev, the total cross sections of 13 elements have been measured by a transmission experiment. These cross sections vary approximately as A23 as is to be expected from the continuum theory of nuclear reactions. The cross section for hydrogen at 19.93 Mev is 0.504±0.01 barn. This result, together with other results at lower energies, seems to require a Yukawa potential in both the singlet and triplet n-p states and a singlet effective range that is lower than that obtained from p-p scattering data.

Robert B. Day and Richard L. Henkel

1953-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

345

Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1982. Volume 4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1982. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 51 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 30 person-rem to a low of 0.007 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 130 person-rem for the 100 million people considered at risk. The average individual dose commitment from all pathways on a site basis ranged from a low of 6 x 10/sup -7/ mrem to a high of 0.06 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the volcanic ash exposure scenario, and the development of dose factors for calculating inhalation dose during volcanic eruption. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the Biosphere Model Report in Figure 1-1, contain detailed descriptions of the model input parameters, their development and the relationship between the parameters and specific features, events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the volcanic ash exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and from the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169671]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; and BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis''. The objective of this analysis was to develop the BDCFs for the volcanic ash exposure scenario and the dose factors for calculating inhalation doses during volcanic eruption (eruption phase of the volcanic event). For the volcanic ash exposure scenario, the mode of radionuclide release into the biosphere is a volcanic eruption through the repository with the resulting entrainment of contaminated waste in the tephra and the subsequent atmospheric transport and dispersion of contaminated material in the biosphere. The biosphere process model for this scenario uses the surface deposition of contaminated ash as the source of radionuclides in the biosphere. The initial atmospheric transport and dispersion of the ash as well as its subsequent redistribution by fluvial and aeolian processes are not addressed within the biosphere model. These processes influence the value of the source term that is calculated elsewhere and then combined with the BDCFs in the TSPA model to calculate expected dose to the receptor. Another objective of this analysis was to re-qualify the output of the previous revision (BSC 2003 [DIRS 163958]).

M. Wasiolek

2004-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

347

Rangeland Resource Management for Texans: Total Resource Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Total Resource Management approach helps ranchers make strategic, tactical and operational decisions for the best, most cost-effective use of resources. This publication offers step-by-step directions for implementing TRM for a profitable...

Hanselka, C. Wayne; Fox, William E.; White, Larry D.

2004-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

348

Total Number of Operable Refineries  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Data Series: Total Number of Operable Refineries Number of Operating Refineries Number of Idle Refineries Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/SD) Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Total Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Delayed Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD Thermal Cracking Fluid Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Visbreaking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Other/Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Cracking Fresh Feed Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Cracking Recycle Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Residual Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Low Pressure Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming High Pressure Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating/Desulfurization Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Naphtha/Reformer Feed Charge Cap (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Gasoline Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Heavy Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Kerosene/Jet Fuel Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Diesel Fuel Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Other Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Residual/Other Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Residual Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Other Oils Charge Capacity (B/SD) Fuels Solvent Deasphalting Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Total Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Catalytic Cracking Fresh Feed Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Period:

349

Total quality management implementation guidelines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These Guidelines were designed by the Energy Quality Council to help managers and supervisors in the Department of Energy Complex bring Total Quality Management to their organizations. Because the Department is composed of a rich mixture of diverse organizations, each with its own distinctive culture and quality history, these Guidelines are intended to be adapted by users to meet the particular needs of their organizations. For example, for organizations that are well along on their quality journeys and may already have achieved quality results, these Guidelines will provide a consistent methodology and terminology reference to foster their alignment with the overall Energy quality initiative. For organizations that are just beginning their quality journeys, these Guidelines will serve as a startup manual on quality principles applied in the Energy context.

Not Available

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

GROUND-WATER CONTRIBUTION TO DOSE FROM PAST HANFORD OPERATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEOR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides originating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: 1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; 2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; 3) through wells that draw some or all of their water from the Columbia River (riparian wells); and 4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in the contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring. These four pathways make up the "ground-water pathway ," which is the subject of this study. The objective of the study was to assess the extent to which the groundwater pathway contributed to radiation doses that populations or individuals may have received from past operations at Hanford. The assessment presented in this report was performed by 1) reviewing the extensive ?literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and 2) performing simple calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations in ground water and the Columbia River resulting from ground-water discharge. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to this ground water and surface water were calculated. The study conclusion is that the ground-water pathways did not contribute significantly to dose. Compared with background radiation in the TriCities {300 mrem/yr), estimated doses are small: 0.02 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from discharge of contaminated ground water to the Columbia River; 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from Hanford Site wells; 11 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from riparian wells; and 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from the watershed. Because the estimated doses are so small, the recommendation is that further work on the ground-water pathway be limited to tracking ongoing ground-water studies at the Hanford Site.

Freshley, M. D.; Thorne, P. D.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standards. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172827]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis'' (Figure 1-1). The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs for the groundwater exposure scenario for the three climate states (present day, monsoon, and glacial transition) considered in the TSPA-LA, as well as conversion factors for compliance evaluation with the groundwater protection standards. The BDCFs will be used in performance assessment for calculating all-pathway annual doses for a given concentration of radionuclides in groundwater. The conversion factors will be used for calculating gross alpha particle activity in groundwater and the annual dose from drinking water for beta- and photon-emitting radionuclides.

M.A. Wasiolek

2005-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

352

Implications of Intercellular Signaling for Radiation Therapy: A Theoretical Dose-Planning Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Recent in vitro results have shown significant contributions to cell killing from signaling effects at doses that are typically used in radiation therapy. This study investigates whether these in vitro observations can be reconciled with in vivo knowledge and how signaling may have an impact on future developments in radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Prostate cancer treatment plans were generated for a series of 10 patients using 3-dimensional conformal therapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy techniques. These plans were evaluated using mathematical models of survival following modulated radiation exposures that were developed from in vitro observations and incorporate the effects of intercellular signaling. The impact on dose–volume histograms and mean doses were evaluated by converting these survival levels into “signaling-adjusted doses” for comparison. Results: Inclusion of intercellular communication leads to significant differences between the signalling-adjusted and physical doses across a large volume. Organs in low-dose regions near target volumes see the largest increases, with mean signaling-adjusted bladder doses increasing from 23 to 33 Gy in IMRT plans. By contrast, in high-dose regions, there is a small decrease in signaling-adjusted dose due to reduced contributions from neighboring cells, with planning target volume mean doses falling from 74 to 71 Gy in IMRT. Overall, however, the dose distributions remain broadly similar, and comparisons between the treatment modalities are largely unchanged whether physical or signaling-adjusted dose is compared. Conclusions: Although incorporating cellular signaling significantly affects cell killing in low-dose regions and suggests a different interpretation for many phenomena, their effect in high-dose regions for typical planning techniques is comparatively small. This indicates that the significant signaling effects observed in vitro are not contradicted by comparison with clinical observations. Future investigations are needed to validate these effects in vivo and to quantify their ranges and potential impact on more advanced radiation therapy techniques.

McMahon, Stephen J., E-mail: stephen.mcmahon@qub.ac.uk [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); McGarry, Conor K. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Radiotherapy Physics, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Butterworth, Karl T. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); O'Sullivan, Joe M. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Clinical Oncology, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Hounsell, Alan R. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Radiotherapy Physics, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Prise, Kevin M. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Total Heart Transplant: A Modern Overview  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

use of the total artificial heart. New England Journal ofJ. (1997). Artificial heart transplants. British medicala total artificial heart as a bridge to transplantation. New

Lingampalli, Nithya

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Reassessment of the potential radiological doses for residents resettling Enewetak Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to refine the dose predictions, subsequent to the cleanup effort, for alternate living patterns proposed for resettlement of Enewetak Atoll. The most recent data developed from projects at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls for concentration and uptake of Cs, Sr, Pu, and Am were used in conjunction with recent dietary information and current dose models to predict annual dose rates and 30- and 50-y integral doses (dose commitments). The terrestrial food chain in the most significant exposure pathway - it contributes more than 50% of the total dose - and external gamma exposure is the second most significant pathway. Other pathways evaluated are the marine food chain, drinking water, and inhalation.

Robison, W.L.; Phillips, W.A.; Mount, M.E.; Clegg, B.R.; Conrado, C.L.

1980-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

355

Effects of Low-Dose Alpha-Particle Irradiation in Human Cells: The Role of Induced Genes and the Bystander Effect. Final Technical Report (9/15/1998-5/31/2005)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This grant was designed to examine the cellular and molecular mechanisms for the bystander effect of radiation (initially described in this laboratory) whereby damage signals are passed from irradiated to non-irradiated cells in a population. These signals induce genetic effects including DNA damage, mutations and chromosomal aberrations in the nonirradiated cells. Experiments were carried out in cultured mammalian cells, primarily human diploid cells, irradiated with alpha particles. This research resulted in 17 publications in the refereed literature and is described in the Progress Report where it is keyed to the publication list. This project was initiated at the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) and continued in collaboration with students/fellows at Colorado State University (CSU) and the New Jersey Medical School (NJMS).

Little, John B.

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

356

Hypothesis regarding a membrane-associated mechanism of biological action due to low-dose ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel theory is proposed regarding the action of ionizing radiation in the range of very low doses. The basic premise of the theory presented is that the low-dose effect cannot be explained by direct damage ......

Lazar Kh. Eidus

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Microsoft PowerPoint - Powerpoint_Dose.ppt [Compatibility Mode]  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radiation Radiation Dose Dose Radiation Dose One of the most confusing things about One of the most confusing things about understanding radiation effects is visualizing "how much" radiation is involved. It is very difficult to keep the units which measure p radiation straight. A number describing the amount of radiation means nothing without amount of radiation means nothing without evaluating the units, but this is not easy. For example... ...try to match the letter with the amount of di ti i l d i h l radiation involved in each example * Amount of potassium 40 in the body A. Billions of becquerels * Dose to Atomic bomb survivors B. About 250 picocuries * You can safety hold this amount of alpha radiation C. 2-10,000 millirem D. 0-5 Gy * One coast to coast flight * A diagnostic X-ray

358

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Research Highlights - Health Physics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Health Physics Special Issue Features Contributions by Low Dose Health Physics Special Issue Features Contributions by Low Dose Investigators Health Physics The March 2011 special issue of Health Physics highlights the Victor Bond Workshop held May 2-5, 2010, in Richland, Wash. The workshop honored the late Dr. Victor (Vic) Bond for his lifetime achievement in the radiation sciences. Dr. Bond's research resulted in numerous influential scientific papers that contributed greatly to the understanding of radiation effects in biological systems. The workshop attracted internationally recognized experts in biophysics, experimental radiation biology, epidemiology, and risk assessment to discuss issues of low-dose risk. Participants included current and previously funded U.S. Department of Energy Low Dose Radiation Research

359

Total Imports of Residual Fuel  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 Oct-13 View May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 Oct-13 View History U.S. Total 5,752 5,180 7,707 9,056 6,880 6,008 1936-2013 PAD District 1 1,677 1,689 2,008 3,074 2,135 2,814 1981-2013 Connecticut 1995-2009 Delaware 1995-2012 Florida 359 410 439 392 704 824 1995-2013 Georgia 324 354 434 364 298 391 1995-2013 Maine 65 1995-2013 Maryland 1995-2013 Massachusetts 1995-2012 New Hampshire 1995-2010 New Jersey 903 756 948 1,148 1,008 1,206 1995-2013 New York 21 15 14 771 8 180 1995-2013 North Carolina 1995-2011 Pennsylvania 1995-2013 Rhode Island 1995-2013 South Carolina 150 137 194 209 1995-2013 Vermont 5 4 4 5 4 4 1995-2013 Virginia 32 200 113 1995-2013 PAD District 2 217 183 235 207 247 179 1981-2013 Illinois 1995-2013

360

U.S. Total Exports  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Noyes, MN Warroad, MN Babb, MT Port of Del Bonita, MT Port of Morgan, MT Sweetgrass, MT Whitlash, MT Portal, ND Sherwood, ND Pittsburg, NH Champlain, NY Grand Island, NY Massena, NY Niagara Falls, NY Waddington, NY Sumas, WA Highgate Springs, VT U.S. Pipeline Total from Mexico Ogilby, CA Otay Mesa, CA Galvan Ranch, TX LNG Imports from Algeria LNG Imports from Australia LNG Imports from Brunei LNG Imports from Canada Highgate Springs, VT LNG Imports from Egypt Cameron, LA Elba Island, GA Freeport, TX Gulf LNG, MS LNG Imports from Equatorial Guinea LNG Imports from Indonesia LNG Imports from Malaysia LNG Imports from Nigeria Cove Point, MD LNG Imports from Norway Cove Point, MD Freeport, TX Sabine Pass, LA LNG Imports from Oman LNG Imports from Peru Cameron, LA Freeport, TX LNG Imports from Qatar Elba Island, GA Golden Pass, TX Sabine Pass, LA LNG Imports from Trinidad/Tobago Cameron, LA Cove Point, MD Elba Island, GA Everett, MA Freeport, TX Gulf LNG, MS Lake Charles, LA Sabine Pass, LA LNG Imports from United Arab Emirates LNG Imports from Yemen Everett, MA Freeport, TX Sabine Pass, LA LNG Imports from Other Countries Period: Monthly Annual

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total effective dose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Natural Gas Total Liquids Extracted  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Thousand Barrels) Thousand Barrels) Data Series: Natural Gas Processed Total Liquids Extracted NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History U.S. 658,291 673,677 720,612 749,095 792,481 873,563 1983-2012 Alabama 13,381 11,753 11,667 13,065 1983-2010 Alaska 22,419 20,779 19,542 17,798 18,314 18,339 1983-2012 Arkansas 126 103 125 160 212 336 1983-2012 California 11,388 11,179 11,042 10,400 9,831 9,923 1983-2012 Colorado 27,447 37,804 47,705 57,924 1983-2010 Florida 103 16 1983-2008 Illinois 38 33 24 231 705 0 1983-2012

362

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Marianne B. Sowa  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Marianne B. Sowa Marianne B. Sowa PNNL - Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Funded Projects A Mechanistic Study of the Radiation Quality Dependence of Bystander Effects in Human Cells Technical Abstracts 2006 Workshop: Using a Low-LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Sowa, M.B., Goetz, W., Baulch, J., and Morgan, W.F. Morphological Changes in a 3D Mammary Model Following Exposure to Low Dose, Low-LET Radiation Opresko, L.K., Chrisler, W., Emory, K., Arthurs, B., and Sowa, M.B. 2005 Workshops: Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation Morgan, W.F. and Sowa, M.B. Publications Perrine, K.A., Lamarche, B.L., Hopkins, D.F., Budge, S.E., Opresko, L.K., Wiley, H.S., and Sowa, M.B. (2007). High speed method for in situ

363

Total Petroleum Systems and Assessment Units (AU)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) and Assessment Units (AU) Field type Surface water Groundwater X X X X X X X X AU 00000003 Oil/ Gas X X X X X X X X Total X X X X X X X Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) and Assessment Units (AU) Field type Total undiscovered petroleum (MMBO or BCFG) Water per oil

Torgersen, Christian

364

Locating and total dominating sets in trees  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A set S of vertices in a graph G = ( V , E ) is a total dominating set of G if every vertex of V is adjacent to a vertex in S. We consider total dominating sets of minimum cardinality which have the additional property that distinct vertices of V are totally dominated by distinct subsets of the total dominating set.

Teresa W. Haynes; Michael A. Henning; Jamie Howard

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction Project Summary Report; Reports of the Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction, Vol. 7  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel of individuals appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. The panel requested that the principal investigator for the project prepare the following report, ''Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction Project Summary Report,'' to serve the following purposes: (1) summarize in a single, less technical report, the methods and results of the various investigations that comprised the Phase II of the dose reconstruction; (2) describe the systematic searching of classified and unclassified historical records that was a vital component of the project; and (3) summarize the less detailed, screening-level assessments that were performed to evaluate the potential health significance of a number of materials, such a uranium, whose priority did not require a complete dose reconstruction effort. This report describes each major step of the dose reconstruction study: (1) the review of thousands of historical records to obtain information relating to past operations at each facility; (2) estimation of the quantity and timing of releases of radioiodines from X-10, of mercury from Y-12, of PCB's from all facilities, and of cesium-137 and other radionuclides from White Oak Creek; (3) evaluation of the routes taken by these contaminants through the environment to nearby populations; and (4) estimation of doses and health risks to exposed groups. Calculations found the highest excess cancer risks for a female born in 1952 who drank goat milk; the highest non-cancer health risk was for children in a farm family exposed to PCBs in and near East Fork Poplar Creek. More detailed dose and risk estimates, and associated uncertainties, are presented in several technical reports. One way to easily locate them in OSTI's Information Bridge is by searching the ''report number field'' for the number DOE/OR/21981*. The asterisk placed after the base number will enable the search to list all of the related reports in this series.

Thomas E. Widner; et. al.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

EXTRAPOLATING RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER RISKS FROM LOW DOSES TO VERY LOW DOSES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Brenner* Abstract--There is strong evidence that ionizing radiation increases cancer risks at high doses. There exists a range of high radiation doses which demonstra- bly increase cancer risks, and a lower dose rangePaper EXTRAPOLATING RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER RISKS FROM LOW DOSES TO VERY LOW DOSES David J

Brenner, David Jonathan

367

Locating-total domination in graphs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we continue the study of locating-total domination in graphs. A set S of vertices in a graph G is a total dominating set in G if every vertex of G is adjacent to a vertex in S . We consider total dominating sets S which have the additional property that distinct vertices in V ( G ) ? S are totally dominated by distinct subsets of the total dominating set. Such a set S is called a locating-total dominating set in G , and the locating-total domination number of G is the minimum cardinality of a locating-total dominating set in G . We obtain new lower and upper bounds on the locating-total domination number of a graph. Interpolation results are established, and the locating-total domination number in special families of graphs, including cubic graphs and grid graphs, is investigated.

Michael A. Henning; Nader Jafari Rad

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

U.S. Total Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

International Falls, MN Noyes, MN Warroad, MN Babb, MT Havre, MT Port of Del Bonita, MT Port of Morgan, MT Sweetgrass, MT Whitlash, MT Portal, ND Sherwood, ND Pittsburg, NH Champlain, NY Grand Island, NY Massena, NY Niagara Falls, NY Waddington, NY Sumas, WA Highgate Springs, VT North Troy, VT LNG Imports into Cameron, LA LNG Imports into Cove Point, MD LNG Imports into Elba Island, GA LNG Imports into Everett, MA LNG Imports into Freeport, TX LNG Imports into Golden Pass, TX LNG Imports into Gulf Gateway, LA LNG Imports into Gulf LNG, MS LNG Imports into Lake Charles, LA LNG Imports into Neptune Deepwater Port LNG Imports into Northeast Gateway LNG Imports into Sabine Pass, LA U.S. Pipeline Total from Mexico Ogilby, CA Otay Mesa, CA Alamo, TX El Paso, TX Galvan Ranch, TX Hidalgo, TX McAllen, TX Penitas, TX LNG Imports from Algeria Cove Point, MD Everett, MA Lake Charles, LA LNG Imports from Australia Everett, MA Lake Charles, LA LNG Imports from Brunei Lake Charles, LA LNG Imports from Canada Highgate Springs, VT LNG Imports from Egypt Cameron, LA Cove Point, MD Elba Island, GA Everett, MA Freeport, TX Gulf LNG, MS Lake Charles, LA Northeast Gateway Sabine Pass, LA LNG Imports from Equatorial Guinea Elba Island, GA Lake Charles, LA LNG Imports from Indonesia Lake Charles, LA LNG Imports from Malaysia Gulf Gateway, LA Lake Charles, LA LNG Imports from Nigeria Cove Point, MD Elba Island, GA Freeport, TX Gulf Gateway, LA Lake Charles, LA Sabine Pass, LA LNG Imports from Norway Cove Point, MD Sabine Pass, LA LNG Imports from Oman Lake Charles, LA LNG Imports from Peru Cameron, LA Freeport, TX Sabine Pass, LA LNG Imports from Qatar Cameron, LA Elba Island, GA Golden Pass, TX Gulf Gateway, LA Lake Charles, LA Northeast Gateway Sabine Pass, LA LNG Imports from Trinidad/Tobago Cameron, LA Cove Point, MD Elba Island, GA Everett, MA Freeport, TX Gulf Gateway, LA Gulf LNG, MS Lake Charles, LA Neptune Deepwater Port Northeast Gateway Sabine Pass, LA LNG Imports from United Arab Emirates Lake Charles, LA LNG Imports from Yemen Everett, MA Freeport, TX Neptune Deepwater Port Sabine Pass, LA LNG Imports from Other Countries Lake Charles, LA Period: Monthly Annual

369

Updated radiological dose assessment of Bikini and Eneu Islands at Bikini Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is part of a continuing effort to refine dose assessments for resettlement options at Bikini Atoll. Radionuclide concentration data developed at Bikini Atoll since 1977 have been used in conjunction with recent dietary information and current dose models to develop the annual dose rate and 30- and 50-y integral doses presented here for Bikini and Eneu Island living patterns. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant exposure pathway--it contributes more than 50% of the total dose--and external gamma exposure is the second most significant pathway. Other pathways evaluated are the marine food chain, drinking water, and inhalation. Cesium-137 produces more than 85% of the predicted dose; /sup 90/Sr is the second most significant radionuclide; /sup 60/Co contributes to the external gamma exposure in varying degrees, but is a small part of the total predicted dose; the transuranic radionuclides contribute a small portion of the total predicted lung and bone doses but do present a long-term source of exposure. Maximum annual dose rates for Bikini Island are about 1 rem/y for the whole body and bone marrow when imported foods are available and about 1.9 rem/y when imports are unavailable. Maximum annual dose rates for Eneu Island when imports are available are 130 mrem/y for the whole body and 136 mrem/y for bone marrow. Similar doses when imported foods are unavailable are 245 and 263 mrem/y, respectively. The 30-y integral doses for Bikini Island are about 23 rem for whole body and bone marrow when imported foods are available and more than 40 rem when imports are unavailable. The Eneu Island 30-y integral doses for whole body and bone marrow are about 3 rem when imports are available and 5.5 and 6.1 rem, respectively, when imports are unavailable. Doses from living patterns involving some combination of Bikini and Eneu Islands fall between the doses listed above for each island separately.

Robison, W.L.; Mount, M.E.; Phillips, W.A.; Stuart, M.L.; Thompson, S.E.; Conrado, C.L.; Stoker, A.C.

1982-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

370

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Online Literature  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Online Literature Online Literature Journals, Books and other Publications Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Chornobyl Center for Nuclear Safety Radioactive Waste and Radioecology "Insight" Magazine Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) News: Aiming at an information center on low dose radiation research Health Physics International Journal of Radiation Biology Iranian Journal of Radiation Research Journal of Radiological Protection National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Radiation Research U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge Reports Animal Cancer Tests and Human Cancer Risk Assessment: A Broad Perspective Effects of Ionizing Radiation: Atomic Bomb Survivors and Their Children (1945-1995) Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR

371

Radiation Leukaemongenesis at Low Doses  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Leukaemongenesis at Low Doses Leukaemongenesis at Low Doses Simon Bouffler Health Protection Agency Abstract Myeloid leukaemias feature prominently among the cancers associated with human exposures to ionising radiation. The CBA mouse model of radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) has been used extensively for both quantitative and mechanistic studies. Loss of genetic material from chromosome 2 (chr2) is known to be associated with most radiation-induced AMLs. AML develops in CBA mice exposed to X- or γ-radiation, after a mean latency period of 18 months, with a maximal incidence of approximately 25% at 3Gy. A strong candidate AML-suppressor gene located within the commonly deleted region of chr2 has been identified, Sƒpil/PU.1. This gene suffers hemizygous loss and specific

372

Dose dependence of the excision of ultraviolet-induced pyrimidine dimers from nuclear deoxyribonucleic acids of haploid and diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Culture Media DNA metabolism radiation effects Diploidy Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation Haploidy Pyrimidines metabolism...Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism radiation effects Sodium Chloride...Printed in U.S.A. Dose Dependence of the Excision...

R Waters; E Moustacchi

1975-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

The MIRD method of estimating absorbed dose  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The estimate of absorbed radiation dose from internal emitters provides the information required to assess the radiation risk associated with the administration of radiopharmaceuticals for medical applications. The MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) system of dose calculation provides a systematic approach to combining the biologic distribution data and clearance data of radiopharmaceuticals and the physical properties of radionuclides to obtain dose estimates. This tutorial presents a review of the MIRD schema, the derivation of the equations used to calculate absorbed dose, and shows how the MIRD schema can be applied to estimate dose from radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine.

Weber, D.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Evaluation of the Linear-Nonthreshold Dose-Response Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements MD: NCRP (2001) 287 pp, $50.00 Lively debate continues on the nature of the dose-response relationship for the excess risk of cancer following exposure to ionising radiation at low doses and/or low dose rates. Clearly, these are the exposure conditions of principal importance to radiological protection. Presently, for the purposes of radiological protection, the assumption is made that the underlying dose-response relationship is linear-quadratic with no threshold, and that in the low dose and/or low dose rate region this curve can be approximated by a straight line with a gradient half that of the linear relationship which (for cancers other than leukaemia) is appropriate for moderate to high doses received at high dose rates. This, in essence, is the `linear-nonthreshold (LNT) dose-response model' referred to in the title of NCRP Report No 136. The debate centres on whether this model is appropriate or not; but it is complicated by the marked polarisation of those that disagree with this model and with the vehemence that characterises the debate. At one extreme are those who argue for a supra-linear dose-response and claim that the assumption of linearity seriously underestimates the risks to health of low dose exposures. At the other extreme are those who argue for a threshold in the dose-response at some non-zero dose, or even for beneficial effects of irradiation at low doses (`radiation hormesis'). Understandably, the former viewpoint tends to be held by anti-nuclear activists whereas the latter tends to be adopted by pro-nuclear pressure groups, and this political backdrop does not assist a balanced discussion of this important issue. In the USA, considerable lobbying exists from the threshold/hormesis camp, and this can also be seen in France and Japan. Unfortunately, although there are reasonable scientific points to be made in favour of mechanisms that ameliorate the effects of radiation at low doses, the attitude struck by some in this camp is that support of the `LNT hypothesis' is quite unreasonable and flies in the face of the evidence. Obviously, this point of view brings into question the motivation of those who support the position presently adopted by, for example, the International Commission on Radiological Protection, and leads to acrimonious and unconstructive discussions. The same is true of the other extreme wing, where radiological protection is viewed as being disturbingly lax as a result of pressure being brought to bear by the `military-industrial complex', with scientists being complicit in this conspiracy. It is into this storm that NCRP has bravely marched in publishing its Report No 136. The re-evaluation of the scientific evidence reported in NCRP Report No 136 was carried out by Scientific Committee 1-6 of the NCRP which was charged to `reassess the weight of scientific evidence for and against the linear-nonthreshold dose-response model, without reference to associated policy implications'. In essence, the linear-nonthreshold dose-response model is based upon the assumption that biological damage which, if unrepaired, could lead to cancer is directly proportional to dose throughout the range of dose and dose rates of importance in routine radiological protection. Not only did NCRP Scientific Committee 1-6 deliberate amongst themselves, but the committee sought and obtained written and oral opinion from several scientists in the USA who held different views on the subject. The report begins by examining the way in which radiation energy is deposited in cells. It concludes that at low doses and low dose rates the relevant biological damage would be produced by a `single hit' because of the spatial and temporal sparseness of the events causing the damage. Since cancer is considered to be monoclonal (single cell) in origin, this suggests that the dose-response is linear at low doses with no threshold. However, it is possible that the whole organism may be more capable of repairing damage at low doses and low dose rates, which would m

375

Radiation Effects in the Space Telecommunications Environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Trapped protons and electrons in the Earth's radiation belts and cosmic rays present significant challenges for electronics that must operate reliably in the natural space environment. Single event effects (SEE) can lead to sudden device or system failure, and total dose effects can reduce the lifetime of a telecommmiications system with significant space assets. One of the greatest sources of uncertainty in developing radiation requirements for a space system is accounting for the small but finite probability that the system will be exposed to a massive solar particle event. Once specifications are decided, standard laboratory tests are available to predict the total dose response of MOS and bipolar components in space, but SEE testing of components can be more challenging. Prospects are discussed for device modeling and for the use of standard commercial electronics in space.

Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Winokur, Peter S.

1999-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

376

A Prospective Study of Plasma Total Cysteine and Risk of Breast Cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...processing, and storage, which limits...for a dose-response assessment...modulates immune responses as well as...and 1990 food frequency questionnaires...adjusted for total energy intake. Table...collection, storage and derivatization...Oxidant stress responses in premature...Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate...

Shumin M. Zhang; Walter C. Willett; Jacob Selhub; JoAnn E. Manson; Graham A. Colditz; and Susan E. Hankinson

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Current Funded Project Descriptions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Funded Project Descriptions Funded Project Descriptions Effects Of Low Doses of Radiation on DNA Repair Jointly funded by NASA and DOE Eric J Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA 99352 Dr. Ackerman will study the effect of low doses of ionizing radiation on the repair of different types of damage to DNA, including damage from ionizing radiation and that produced by the normal internal operation of the cell. Using a very sensitive technique called host cell reactivation assay (HCR), he will quantitatively measure the repair of each type of DNA damage and thereby measure if the cellular repair system itself has been damaged. He will also determine if unique forms of DNA repair system damage are induced by low doses of cosmic radiation exposure present during space

378

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Project Descriptions-Archive  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Project Descriptions-Archive Project Descriptions-Archive Effects Of Low Doses of Radiation on DNA Repair Eric J Ackerman (former PNNL) (Jointly funded by NASA and DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA Dr. Ackerman will study the effect of low doses of ionizing radiation on the repair of different types of damage to DNA, including damage from ionizing radiation and that produced by the normal internal operation of the cell. Using a very sensitive technique called host cell reactivation assay (HCR), he will quantitatively measure the repair of each type of DNA damage and thereby measure if the cellular repair system itself has been damaged. He will also determine if unique forms of DNA repair system damage are induced by low doses of cosmic radiation exposure present during space

379

Studies on Oximidine II - Total Synthesis by an Unprecedented Reductive Coupling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

studies revealed 4 small molecules as potential leads for further optimization. Dioxins are environmental pollutants that cause a range of biological effects in a dose-dependent manner. The exact mechanism of action for dioxins is not fully understood. 2...

Schneider, Christopher Mark

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

380

Dose and Time Relationships for Tumor Induction in the Liver and Esophagus of 4080 Inbred Rats by Chronic Ingestion of N-Nitrosodiethylamine or N-Nitrosodimethylamine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ingestion in the drinking water of 16 different doses...proportional to the fourth power of dose rate + 0.04...proportional to the sixth power of dose rate + 0.1 mg...dose-response experiment on the car cinogenic effects of NDEA3...chronically in the drink ing water of 4080 inbred Colworth...

Richard Peto; Richard Gray; Paul Brantom; and Paul Grasso

1991-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total effective dose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

EPA Air Docket A-98-49, Item II-B1-32; August 2014 Environmental Protection Agency's Confirmatory Dose Calculations of the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and updated dose conversion and utilization factors. The effective dose equivalents were lower using CAP88-PC Dose Calculations of the Department of Energy's Use of CAP88-PC for the February 2014 Radiological 2 Environmental Protection Agency's Confirmatory Dose Calculations of the Department of Energy's Use

382

Determination of Dose From Light Charged Ions Relevant to Hadron Therapy Using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport System (PHITS)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.3, and 34.1 percent for 1H, 4He, 7Li, 12C, 16O, and 20Ne, respectively. The percentage of dose within the tumor increased with increasing atomic number up to 12C, decreasing thereafter. The total dose distal from the tumor ranged from 0.1, 0.9, 2.8, 0.9, 0...

Butkus, Michael Patrick

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

383

Ionizing Radiation Effects on CMOS Imagers Manufactured in Deep Submicron Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, ionizing radiation, total dose, dark current, STI, hardening by design, RHDB 1. INTRODUCTION IonizingIonizing Radiation Effects on CMOS Imagers Manufactured in Deep Submicron Process Vincent Goiffona a large dynamic range. This can significantly impact the radiation hardness of "in-pixel" devices which

Mailhes, Corinne

384

X-ray radiation effects in multilayer epitaxial graphene Jeremy Hicks1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 X-ray radiation effects in multilayer epitaxial graphene Jeremy Hicks1 , Rajan Arora2 , Eleazar and after exposure to a total ionizing dose (TID) of 12 Mrad(SiO2) using a 10 keV X-ray source. While we are mostly unaffected by radiation exposure. Combined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data

385

Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Dose Painting to Treat Rhabdomyosarcoma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To examine local control and patterns of failure in rhabdomyosarcoma patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (RT) with dose painting (DP-IMRT). Patients and Methods: A total of 41 patients underwent DP-IMRT with chemotherapy for definitive treatment. Nineteen also underwent surgery with or without intraoperative RT. Fifty-six percent had alveolar histologic features. The median interval from beginning chemotherapy to RT was 17 weeks (range, 4-25). Very young children who underwent second-look procedures with or without intraoperative RT received reduced doses of 24-36 Gy in 1.4-1.8-Gy fractions. Young adults received 50.4 Gy to the primary tumor and lower doses of 36 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions to at-risk lymph node chains. Results: With 22 months of median follow-up, the actuarial local control rate was 90%. Patients aged {<=}7 years who received reduced overall and fractional doses had 100% local control, and young adults had 79% (P=.07) local control. Three local failures were identified in young adults whose primary target volumes had received 50.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions. Conclusions: DP-IMRT with lower fractional and cumulative doses is feasible for very young children after second-look procedures with or without intraoperative RT. DP-IMRT is also feasible in adolescents and young adults with aggressive disease who would benefit from prophylactic RT to high-risk lymph node chains, although dose escalation might be warranted for improved local control. With limited follow-up, it appears that DP-IMRT produces local control rates comparable to those of sequential IMRT in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma.

Yang, Joanna C.; Dharmarajan, Kavita V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wexler, Leonard H. [Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); La Quaglia, Michael P. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Happersett, Laura [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wolden, Suzanne L., E-mail: woldens@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Low-Dose Radiation Cataract and Genetic Determinants of Radiosensitivity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the body. Ocular ionizing radiation exposure results in characteristic, dose related, progressive lens changes leading to cataract formation. While initial, early stages of lens opacification may not cause visual disability, the severity of such changes progressively increases with dose until vision is impaired and cataract extraction surgery may be required. Because of the transparency of the eye, radiation induced lens changes can easily be followed non-invasively over time. Thus, the lens provides a unique model system in which to study the effects of low dose ionizing radiation exposure in a complex, highly organized tissue. Despite this observation, considerable uncertainties remain surrounding the relationship between dose and risk of developing radiation cataract. For example, a growing number of human epidemiological findings suggest significant risk among various groups of occupationally and accidentally exposed individuals and confidence intervals that include zero dose. Nevertheless, questions remain concerning the relationship between lens opacities, visual disability, clinical cataract, threshold dose and/or the role of genetics in determining radiosensitivity. Experimentally, the response of the rodent eye to radiation is quite similar to that in humans and thus animal studies are well suited to examine the relationship between radiation exposure, genetic determinants of radiosensitivity and cataractogenesis. The current work has expanded our knowledge of the low-dose effects of X-irradiation or high-LET heavy ion exposure on timing and progression of radiation cataract and has provided new information on the genetic, molecular, biochemical and cell biological features which contribute to this pathology. Furthermore, findings have indicated that single and/or multiple haploinsufficiency for various genes involved in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control, such as Atm, Brca1 or Rad9, influence cataract development and thus radiosensitivity. These observations have direct applicability to various human populations including accidentally exposed individuals, interventional medical workers, astronauts and nuclear plant workers.

Kleiman, Norman Jay [Columbia University] [Columbia University

2013-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

387

State Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

schedules 4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U) State Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total 2012 Total Electric Industry- Average Retail Price (centskWh) (Data from...

388

Total cost model for making sourcing decisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis develops a total cost model based on the work done during a six month internship with ABB. In order to help ABB better focus on low cost country sourcing, a total cost model was developed for sourcing decisions. ...

Morita, Mark, M.B.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Team Total Points Beta Theta Pi 2271  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bubbles 40 Upset City 30 Team Success 30 #12;Team Total Points Sly Tye 16 Barringer 15 Fire Stinespring 15

Buehrer, R. Michael

390

Estimated Ultraviolet Radiation Doses in Wetlands in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimated Ultraviolet Radiation Doses in Wetlands in Six National Parks Stephen A. Diamond,1 ABSTRACT Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280­320-nm wave- lengths) doses were estimated for 1024 wetlands of vegetative features, and quantification of DOC concentration and spectral absorbance. UV-B dose estimates

Knapp, Roland

391

Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1988. Volume 10  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1988. Fifty-year commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 71 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 16 person-rem to a low of 0.0011 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 1.1 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 75 person-rem for the 150 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} mrem to a high of 0.02 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites. However, licensee calculation of doses to the maximally exposed individual at some sites indicated values of up to approximately 100 times average individual doses (on the order of a few millirem per year).

Baker, D.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

PLUTONIUM/HIGH-LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE BDBE DOSE CALCULATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this calculation is to provide a dose consequence analysis of high-level waste (HLW) consisting of plutonium immobilized in vitrified HLW to be handled at the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain for a beyond design basis event (BDBE) under expected conditions using best estimate values for each calculation parameter. In addition to the dose calculation, a plutonium respirable particle size for dose calculation use is derived. The current concept for this waste form is plutonium disks enclosed in cans immobilized in canisters of vitrified HLW (i.e., glass). The plutonium inventory at risk used for this calculation is selected from Plutonium Immobilization Project Input for Yucca Mountain Total Systems Performance Assessment (Shaw 1999). The BDBE examined in this calculation is a nonmechanistic initiating event and the sequence of events that follow to cause a radiological release. This analysis will provide the radiological releases and dose consequences for a postulated BDBE. Results may be considered in other analyses to determine or modify the safety classification and quality assurance level of repository structures, systems, and components. This calculation uses best available technical information because the BDBE frequency is very low (i.e., less than 1.0E-6 events/year) and is not required for License Application for the Monitored Geologic Repository. The results of this calculation will not be used as part of a licensing or design basis.

J.A. Ziegler

2000-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

393

Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1983  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1983. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 52 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 45 person-rem to a low of 0.002 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 170 person-rem for the 100 million people considered at risk.

Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

38 38 Nevada - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S30. Summary statistics for natural gas - Nevada, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 4 4 4 3 4 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 4 4 4 3 4

395

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Idaho - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S14. Summary statistics for natural gas - Idaho, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0

396

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Washington - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S49. Summary statistics for natural gas - Washington, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0

397

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 Maine - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S21. Summary statistics for natural gas - Maine, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0 0

398

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 8 Minnesota - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S25. Summary statistics for natural gas - Minnesota, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0 0 0

399

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 South Carolina - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S42. Summary statistics for natural gas - South Carolina, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0

400

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 North Carolina - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S35. Summary statistics for natural gas - North Carolina, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total effective dose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 Iowa - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S17. Summary statistics for natural gas - Iowa, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0 0

402

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 4 Massachusetts - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S23. Summary statistics for natural gas - Massachusetts, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0

403

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Minnesota - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S25. Summary statistics for natural gas - Minnesota, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0 0 0

404

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 New Jersey - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S32. Summary statistics for natural gas - New Jersey, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0

405

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 Vermont - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S47. Summary statistics for natural gas - Vermont, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0 0 0

406

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 8 Wisconsin - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S51. Summary statistics for natural gas - Wisconsin, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0 0 0

407

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 8 North Carolina - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S35. Summary statistics for natural gas - North Carolina, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0

408

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 New Jersey - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S32. Summary statistics for natural gas - New Jersey, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0

409

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 Maryland - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S22. Summary statistics for natural gas - Maryland, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 7 7 7 7 8 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 35 28 43 43 34 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 35

410

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 New Hampshire - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S31. Summary statistics for natural gas - New Hampshire, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0

411

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 Maryland - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S22. Summary statistics for natural gas - Maryland, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 7 7 7 8 9 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 28 43 43 34 44 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 28

412

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 Missouri - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S27. Summary statistics for natural gas - Missouri, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 53 100 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0

413

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2 2 Massachusetts - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S23. Summary statistics for natural gas - Massachusetts, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0

414

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 South Carolina - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S42. Summary statistics for natural gas - South Carolina, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0

415

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 Rhode Island - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S41. Summary statistics for natural gas - Rhode Island, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0

416

Molecular dissection of the roles of the SOD genes in mammalian response to low dose irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been long recognized that a significant fraction of the radiation-induced genetic damage to cells are caused by secondary oxidative species. Internal cellular defense systems against oxidative stress play significant roles in countering genetic damage induced by ionizing radiation. The role of the detoxifying enzymes may be even more prominent in the case of low-dose, low-LET irradiation, as the majority of genetic damage may be caused by secondary oxidative species. In this study we have attempted to decipher the roles of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes, which are responsible for detoxifying the superoxide anions. We used adenovirus vectors to deliver RNA interference (RNAi or siRNA) technology to down-regulate the expression levels of the SOD genes. We have also over-expressed the SOD genes by use of recombinant adenovirus vectors. Cells infected with the vectors were then subjected to low dose ?-irradiation. Total RNA were extracted from the exposed cells and the expression of 9000 genes were profiled by use of cDNA microarrays. The result showed that low dose radiation had clear effects on gene expression in HCT116 cells. Both over-expression and down-regulation of the SOD1 gene can change the expression profiles of sub-groups of genes. Close to 200 of the 9000 genes examined showed over two-fold difference in expression under various conditions. Genes with changed expression pattern belong to many categories that include: early growth response, DNA-repair, ion transport, apoptosis, and cytokine response.

Eric Y. Chuang

2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

417

Compare All CBECS Activities: Total Energy Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Energy Use Total Energy Use Compare Activities by ... Total Energy Use Total Major Fuel Consumption by Building Type Commercial buildings in the U.S. used a total of approximately 5.7 quadrillion Btu of all major fuels (electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and district steam or hot water) in 1999. Office buildings used the most total energy of all the building types, which was not a surprise since they were the most common commercial building type and had an above average energy intensity. Figure showing total major fuel consumption by building type. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call 202-586-8800. Major Fuel Consumption per Building by Building Type Because there were relatively few inpatient health care buildings and they tend to be large, energy intensive buildings, their energy consumption per building was far above that of any other building type.

418

TotalView Parallel Debugger at NERSC  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Totalview Totalview Totalview Description TotalView from Rogue Wave Software is a parallel debugging tool that can be run with up to 512 processors. It provides both X Windows-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) and command line interface (CLI) environments for debugging. The performance of the GUI can be greatly improved if used in conjunction with free NX software. The TotalView documentation web page is a good resource for learning more about some of the advanced TotalView features. Accessing Totalview at NERSC To use TotalView at NERSC, first load the TotalView modulefile to set the correct environment settings with the following command: % module load totalview Compiling Code to Run with TotalView In order to use TotalView, code must be compiled with the -g option. We

419

Wildlife toxicity extrapolations: Dose metric  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ecotoxicological assessments must rely on the extrapolation of toxicity data from a few indicator species to many species of concern. Data are available from laboratory studies (e.g., quail, mallards, rainbow trout, fathead minnow) and some planned or serendipitous field studies of a broader, but by no means comprehensive, suite of species. Yet all ecological risk assessments begin with an estimate of risk based on information gleaned from the literature. One is then confronted with the necessity of extrapolating toxicity information from a limited number of indicator species to all organisms of interest. This is a particularly acute problem when trying to estimate hazards to wildlife in terrestrial systems as there is an extreme paucity of data for most chemicals in all but a handful of species. This section continues the debate by six panelists of the ``correct`` approach for determining wildlife toxicity thresholds by examining which dose metric to use for threshold determination and interspecific extrapolation, Since wild animals are exposed to environmental contaminants primarily through ingestion, should threshold values be expressed as amount of chemical in the diet (e.g., ppm) or as a body weight-adjusted dose (mg/kg/day)? Which of these two approaches is most relevant for ecological risk assessment decision making? Which is best for interspecific extrapolations? Converting from one metric to the other can compound uncertainty if the actual consumption rates of a species is unknown. How should this be dealt with? Is it of sufficient magnitude to be of concern?

Fairbrother, A. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Berg, M. van den [Univ. of Utrecht (Netherlands). Research Inst. of Toxicology

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

420

Biological equivalent dose studies for dose escalation in the stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy clinical trials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility ESRF . To estimate the possible risks, the doses receivedBiological equivalent dose studies for dose escalation in the stereotactic synchrotron radiation technique a radiation dose enhancement specific to the tumor is obtained. The tumor is loaded with a high

Boyer, Edmond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "total effective dose" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Patterns of Local Recurrence and Dose Fractionation of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy in 462 Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcoma of Extremity and Trunk Wall  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To study the impact of dose fractionation of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) on local recurrence (LR) and the relation of LR to radiation fields. Methods and Materials: LR rates were analyzed in 462 adult patients with soft tissue sarcoma who underwent surgical excision and adjuvant RT at five Scandinavian sarcoma centers from 1998 to 2009. Medical records were reviewed for dose fractionation parameters and to determine the location of the LR relative to the radiation portals. Results: Fifty-five of 462 patients developed a LR (11.9%). Negative prognostic factors included intralesional surgical margin (hazard ratio [HR]: 7.83, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.08-20.0), high malignancy grade (HR: 5.82, 95% CI: 1.31-25.8), age at diagnosis (HR per 10 years: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.03-1.56), and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor histological subtype (HR: 6.66, 95% CI: 2.56-17.3). RT dose was tailored to margin status. No correlation between RT dose and LR rate was found in multiple Cox regression analysis. The majority (65%) of LRs occurred within the primary RT volume. Conclusions: No significant dose–response effect of adjuvant RT was demonstrated. Interestingly, patients given 45-Gy accelerated RT (1.8 Gy twice daily/2.5 weeks) had the best local outcome. A total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions seemed adequate following wide margin surgery. The risk of LR was associated with histopathologic subtype, which should be included in the treatment algorithm of adjuvant RT in soft tissue sarcoma.

Jebsen, Nina L., E-mail: nina.louise.jebsen@helse-bergen.no [Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Department of Oncology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Engellau, Jacob [Department of Oncology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Engström, Katarina [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Bauer, Henrik C. [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Monge, Odd R. [Department of Oncology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Muren, Ludvig P. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Department of Medical Physics, Aarhus University and Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Eide, Geir E. [Centre for Clinical Research, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Trovik, Clement S. [Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Department of Oncology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Bruland, Øyvind S. [Department of Oncology, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Low dose radiation combines with the Src oncoprotein to transform  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

radiation combines with the Src oncoprotein to transform radiation combines with the Src oncoprotein to transform pre-malignant human breast cells Paul Yaswen Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Goal: Determine whether low dose radiation exerts persistent epigenetic effects that promote malignancy. Background and Significance: Some persistent carcinogenic effects of radiation may not be traceable to specific DNA sequence alterations and may not be linearly related to dose. Through the biochemical initiation of positive feedback loops, ionization-induced events may have heritable non-linear effects on cellular behavior. Inflammatory responses involving the transcription factor NFκB may be subject to such effects. Increased NFκB activity has been strongly linked to carcinogenesis in a number of published in vitro and in vivo studies (reviewed in [1]). Since radiation

423

New Computational Methods for Characterizing Systems Biology of Low Dose  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

New Computational Methods for Characterizing Systems Biology of Low Dose New Computational Methods for Characterizing Systems Biology of Low Dose and Adaptive Response Bahram Parvin Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract We present preliminary results on a new computational method for systems biology of adaptive response and low dose effect from transcript and phenotypic data. The underlying concept is that a small subset of genes is triggered for each treatment condition or a phenotypic index. The concept of a small subset of genes translates to the sparsity constraint, which is applied computationally. The main advantage of this technique over traditional statistical methods is (i) direct application of sparsity, (ii) incorporating multi-class and multidimensional phenotypic profiles in one framework, and (iii) hypothesizing interaction networks simultaneously. Our

424

RADIATION EFFECTS ON EPOXY/CARBON FIBER COMPOSITE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy Savannah River Site vitrifies nuclear waste incident to defense programs through its Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The piping in the DWPF seal pot jumper configuration must withstand the stresses during an unlikely but potential deflagration event, and maintain its safety function for a 20-year service life. Carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy composites (CFR) were proposed for protection and reinforcement of piping during such an event. The proposed CFR materials have been ASME-approved (Section XI, Code Case N-589-1) for post-construction maintenance and is DOT-compliant per 49CFR 192 and 195. The proposed carbon fiber/epoxy composite reinforcement system was originally developed for pipeline rehabilitation and post-construction maintenance in petrochemical, refineries, DOT applications and other industries. The effects of ionizing radiation on polymers and organic materials have been studied for many years. The majority of available data are based on traditional exposures to gamma irradiation at high dose rates ({approx}10,000 Gy/hr) allowing high total dose within reasonable test periods and general comparison of different materials exposed at such conditions. However, studies in recent years have shown that degradation of many polymers are sensitive to dose rate, with more severe degradation often observed at similar or even lower total doses when exposed to lower dose rates. This behavior has been primarily attributed to diffusion-limited oxidation which is minimized during very high dose rate exposures. Most test standards for accelerated aging and nuclear qualification of components acknowledge these limitations. The results of testing to determine the radiation resistance and microstructural effects of gamma irradiation exposure on a bisphenol-A based epoxy matrix composite reinforced with carbon fibers are presented. This work provides a foundation for a more extensive evaluation of dose rate effects on advanced epoxy reinforced composites.

Hoffman, E; Eric Skidmore, E

2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

425

A stochastic approach to estimate the uncertainty of dose mapping caused by uncertainties in b-spline registration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: In fractionated radiation therapy, image guidance with daily tomographic imaging becomes more and more clinical routine. In principle, this allows for daily computation of the delivered dose and for accumulation of these daily dose distributions to determine the actually delivered total dose to the patient. However, uncertainties in the mapping of the images can translate into errors of the accumulated total dose, depending on the dose gradient. In this work, an approach to estimate the uncertainty of mapping between medical images is proposed that identifies areas bearing a significant risk of inaccurate dose accumulation. Methods: This method accounts for the geometric uncertainty of image registration and the heterogeneity of the dose distribution, which is to be mapped. Its performance is demonstrated in context of dose mapping based on b-spline registration. It is based on evaluation of the sensitivity of dose mapping to variations of the b-spline coefficients combined with evaluation of the sensitivity of the registration metric with respect to the variations of the coefficients. It was evaluated based on patient data that was deformed based on a breathing model, where the ground truth of the deformation, and hence the actual true dose mapping error, is known. Results: The proposed approach has the potential to distinguish areas of the image where dose mapping is likely to be accurate from other areas of the same image, where a larger uncertainty must be expected. Conclusions: An approach to identify areas where dose mapping is likely to be inaccurate was developed and implemented. This method was tested for dose mapping, but it may be applied in context of other mapping tasks as well.

Hub, Martina; Thieke, Christian; Kessler, Marc L.; Karger, Christian P. [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Clinical Cooperation Unit Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany and Department of Radiation Oncology, University Clinic Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

426

RIS-M-2308 HIGH-LET DOSE-RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS DESCRIBED BY TRACK  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DOSEMETERS. CYANIDES, DOSE-RE- SPONSE RELATIONSHIPS, DYES, IONIZING RADIATIONS. LET. PARTICLE TRACKS by Katz and co- workers ascribes the effect of high-LET radiation to the highly inhomogeneous dose irradiation is used as a reference low-LET radiation, while high-LET radiation ranging from 16 MeV protons

427

Custom Device for Low-Dose Gamma Irradiation of Biological Samples  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the structural material is efficient to absorb most of the cosmic-ray energy and reduce the interior dose rate to below 1.2 mGy per day. However, the biological effects of prolonged exposure to low-dose radiation are not well understood. The purpose...

Bi, Ruoming

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

428

Multicriteria optimization of the spatial dose distribution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Treatment planning for radiation therapy involves trade-offs with respect to different clinical goals. Typically, the dose distribution is evaluated based on few statistics and dose–volume histograms. Particularly for stereotactic treatments, the spatial dose distribution represents further criteria, e.g., when considering the gradient between subregions of volumes of interest. The authors have studied how to consider the spatial dose distribution using a multicriteria optimization approach.Methods: The authors have extended a stepwise multicriteria optimization approach to include criteria with respect to the local dose distribution. Based on a three-dimensional visualization of the dose the authors use a software tool allowing interaction with the dose distribution to map objectives with respect to its shape to a constrained optimization problem. Similarly, conflicting criteria are highlighted and the planner decides if and where to relax the shape of the dose distribution.Results: To demonstrate the potential of spatial multicriteria optimization, the tool was applied to a prostate and meningioma case. For the prostate case, local sparing of the rectal wall and shaping of a boost volume are achieved through local relaxations and while maintaining the remaining dose distribution. For the meningioma, target coverage is improved by compromising low dose conformality toward noncritical structures. A comparison of dose–volume histograms illustrates the importance of spatial information for achieving the trade-offs.Conclusions: The results show that it is possible to consider the location of conflicting criteria during treatment planning. Particularly, it is possible to conserve already achieved goals with respect to the dose distribution, to visualize potential trade-offs, and to relax constraints locally. Hence, the proposed approach facilitates a systematic exploration of the optimal shape of the dose distribution.

Schlaefer, Alexander [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562, Germany and Institute of Medical Technology, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg 21073 (Germany)] [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562, Germany and Institute of Medical Technology, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg 21073 (Germany); Viulet, Tiberiu [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562 (Germany)] [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562 (Germany); Muacevic, Alexander; Fürweger, Christoph [European CyberKnife Center Munich, Munich 81377 (Germany)] [European CyberKnife Center Munich, Munich 81377 (Germany)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

429

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 6 Tennessee - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S44. Summary statistics for natural gas - Tennessee, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 285 310 230 210 212 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 4,700 5,478 5,144 4,851 5,825 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0

430

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 Connecticut - Natural Gas 2012 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S7. Summary statistics for natural gas - Connecticut, 2008-2012 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0

431

Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Oregon - Natural Gas 2011 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S39. Summary statistics for natural gas - Oregon, 2007-2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 18 21 24 26 24 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 409 778 821 1,407 1,344 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0