National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for total dissolved solids

  1. PREDICTION OF TOTAL DISSOLVED GAS EXCHANGE AT HYDROPOWER DAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadjerioua, Boualem; Pasha, MD Fayzul K; Stewart, Kevin M; Bender, Merlynn; Schneider, Michael L.

    2012-07-01

    Total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in waters released at hydropower dams can cause gas bubble trauma in fisheries resulting in physical injuries and eyeball protrusion that can lead to mortality. Elevated TDG pressures in hydropower releases are generally caused by the entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin. The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. These dam operations are constrained by state and federal water quality standards for TDG saturation which balance the benefits of spillway operations designed for Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed fisheries versus the degradation to water quality as defined by TDG saturation. In the 1970s, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), under the federal Clean Water Act (Section 303(d)), established a criterion not to exceed the TDG saturation level of 110% in order to protect freshwater and marine aquatic life. The states of Washington and Oregon have adopted special water quality standards for TDG saturation in the tailrace and forebays of hydropower facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers where spillway operations support fish passage objectives. The physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been studied throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and routine water quality monitoring programs. These data have been used to quantify the relationship between project operations, structural properties, and TDG exchange. These data have also been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange to support real-time TDG management decisions. These empirically based predictive models have been developed for specific projects and account for both the fate of spillway and powerhouse flows in the tailrace channel and resultant exchange in route to the next downstream dam. Currently, there exists a need to summarize the general finding from operational and structural TDG abatement programs conducted throughout the CRB and for the development of a generalized prediction model that pools data collected at multiple projects with similar structural attributes. A generalized TDG exchange model can be tuned to specific projects and coupled with water regulation models to allow the formulation of optimal daily water regulation schedules subject to water quality constraints for TDG supersaturation. A generalized TDG exchange model can also be applied to other hydropower dams that affect TDG pressures in tailraces and can be used to develop alternative operational and structural measures to minimize TDG generation. It is proposed to develop a methodology for predicting TDG levels downstream of hydropower facilities with similar structural properties as a function of a set of variables that affect TDG exchange; such as tailwater depth, spill discharge and pattern, project head, and entrainment of powerhouse releases. TDG data from hydropower facilities located throughout the northwest region of the United States will be used to identify relationships between TDG exchange and relevant dependent variables. Data analysis and regression techniques will be used to develop predictive TDG exchange expressions for various structural categories.

  2. Total Dissolved Gas Monitoring in Chum Salmon Spawning Gravels Below Bonneville Dam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Geist, David R.; Panther, Jennifer L.; Dawley, Earl

    2007-01-30

    At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Portland District), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted research to determine whether total dissolved gas concentrations are elevated in chum salmon redds during spring spill operations at Bonneville Dam. The study involved monitoring the total dissolved gas levels at egg pocket depth and in the river at two chum salmon spawning locations downstream from Bonneville Dam. Dissolved atmospheric gas supersaturation generated by spill from Bonneville Dam may diminish survival of chum (Oncorhynchus keta) salmon when sac fry are still present in the gravel downstream from Bonneville Dam. However, no previous work has been conducted to determine whether total dissolved gas (TDG) levels are elevated during spring spill operations within incubation habitats. The guidance used by hydropower system managers to provide protection for pre-emergent chum salmon fry has been to limit TDG to 105% after allowing for depth compensation. A previous literature review completed in early 2006 shows that TDG levels as low as 103% have been documented to cause mortality in sac fry. Our study measured TDG in the incubation environment to evaluate whether these levels were exceeded during spring spill operations. Total dissolved gas levels were measured within chum salmon spawning areas near Ives Island and Multnomah Falls on the Columbia River. Water quality sensors screened at egg pocket depth and to the river were installed at both sites. At each location, we also measured dissolved oxygen, temperature, specific conductance, and water depth to assist with the interpretation of TDG results. Total dissolved gas was depth-compensated to determine when levels were high enough to potentially affect sac fry. This report provides detailed descriptions of the two study sites downstream of Bonneville Dam, as well as the equipment and procedures employed to monitor the TDG levels at the study sites. Results of the monitoring at both sites are then presented in both text and graphics. The findings and recommendations for further research are discussed, followed by a listing of the references cited in the report.

  3. Turbidity and Total Suspended Solid Concentration Dynamics in Streamflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and sediment transport in California oak woodland watersheds. Introduction California's oak woodland watershedsTurbidity and Total Suspended Solid Concentration Dynamics in Streamflow from California Oak experimental watersheds in the northern Sierra foothills and north coast oak woodlands of California. Rating

  4. Total Dissolved Gas Effects on Incubating Chum Salmon Below Bonneville Dam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Hand, Kristine D.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Geist, David R.; Murray, Katherine J.; Dawley, Earl M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Elston, Ralph A.; Vavrinec, John

    2009-01-29

    At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE; Portland District), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook a project in 2006 to look further into issues of total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in the lower Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. In FY 2008, the third year of the project, PNNL conducted field monitoring and laboratory toxicity testing to both verify results from 2007 and answer some additional questions about how salmonid sac fry respond to elevated TDG in the field and the laboratory. For FY 2008, three objectives were 1) to repeat the 2006-2007 field effort to collect empirical data on TDG from the Ives Island and Multnomah Falls study sites; 2) to repeat the static laboratory toxicity tests on hatchery chum salmon fry to verify 2007 results and to expose wild chum salmon fry to incremental increases in TDG, above those of the static test, until external symptoms of gas bubble disease were clearly present; and 3) to assess physiological responses to TDG levels in wild chum salmon sac fry incubating below Bonneville Dam during spill operations. This report summarizes the tasks conducted and results obtained in pursuit of the three objectives. Chapter 1 discusses the field monitoring, Chapter 2 reports the findings of the laboratory toxicity tests, and Chapter 3 describes the field-sampling task. Each chapter contains an objective-specific introduction, description of the study site and methods, results of research, and discussion of findings. Literature cited throughout this report is listed in Chapter 4. Additional details on the monitoring methodology and results are provided in Appendices A and B included on the compact disc bound inside the back cover of the printed version of this report.

  5. The effects of total dissolved gas on chum salmon fry survival, growth, gas bubble disease, and seawater tolerance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geist, David R.; Linley, Timothy J.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2013-02-01

    Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta alevin developing in gravel habitats downstream of Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River are exposed to elevated levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) when water is spilled at the dam to move migrating salmon smolts downstream to the Pacific Ocean. Current water quality criteria for the management of dissolved gas in dam tailwaters were developed primarily to protect salmonid smolts and are assumed to be protective of alevin if adequate depth compensation is provided. We studied whether chum salmon alevin exposed to six levels of dissolved gas ranging from 100% to 130% TDG at three development periods between hatch and emergence (hereafter early, middle, and late stage) suffered differential mortality, growth, gas bubble disease, or seawater tolerance. Each life stage was exposed for 50 d (early stage), 29 d (middle stage), or 16 d (late stage) beginning at 13, 34, and 37 d post-hatch, respectively, through 50% emergence. The mortality for all stages from exposure to emergence was estimated to be 8% (95% confidence interval (CI) of 4% to 12%) when dissolved gas levels were between 100% and 117% TDG. Mortality significantly increased as dissolved gas levels rose above 117% TDG,; with the lethal concentration that produced 50% mortality (LC50 ) was estimated to be 128.7% TDG (95% CI of 127.2% to 130.2% TDG) in the early and middle stages. By contrast, there was no evidence that dissolved gas level significantly affected growth in any life stage except that the mean wet weight at emergence of early stage fish exposed to 130% TDG was significantly less than the modeled growth of unexposed fish. The proportion of fish afflicted with gas bubble disease increased with increasing gas concentrations and occurred most commonly in the nares and gastrointestinal tract. Early stage fish exhibited higher ratios of filament to lamellar gill chloride cells than late stage fish, and these ratios increased and decreased for early and late stage fish, respectively, as gas levels increased; however, there were no significant differences in mortality between life stages after 96 h in seawater. The study results suggest that current water quality guidelines for the management of dissolved gas appear to offer a conservative level of protection to chum salmon alevin incubating in gravel habitat downstream of Bonneville Dam.

  6. Determination of Total Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Wychen, S.; Laurens, L. M. L.

    2013-12-01

    This procedure describes the methods used to determine the amount of moisture or total solids present in a freeze-dried algal biomass sample, as well as the ash content. A traditional convection oven drying procedure is covered for total solids content, and a dry oxidation method at 575?C is covered for ash content.

  7. J.Org. Chem. 1989,54, 1157-1161 1157 nitrogen. The residual solid was then dissolved in 1mL of 0.2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J.Org. Chem. 1989,54, 1157-1161 1157 nitrogen. The residual solid was then dissolved in 1mL of 0.34; N, 13.43; F, 6.4. Acylation of Desleucyllysobactin with N-Carboxy An- hydrides. General Method

  8. Process for separating dissolved solids from a liquid using an anti-solvent and multiple effect evaporators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniels, E.J.; Jody, B.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.

    1994-07-19

    A process and system are disclosed for treating aluminum salt cake containing water soluble halide salts by contacting the salt cake with water to dissolve water soluble halide salts forming a saturated brine solution. Transporting a portion of about 25% of the saturated brine solution to a reactor and introducing into the saturated brine solution at least an equal volume of a water-miscible low-boiling organic material such as acetone to precipitate a portion of the dissolved halide salts forming a three-phase mixture of an aqueous-organic-salt solution phase and a precipitated salt phase and an organic rich phase. The precipitated salt phase is separated from the other phases and the organic rich phase is recycled to the reactor. The remainder of the saturated brine solution is sent to a multiple effect evaporator having a plurality of stages with the last stage thereof producing low grade steam which is used to boil off the organic portion of the solution which is recycled. 3 figs.

  9. Process for separating dissolved solids from a liquid using an anti-solvent and multiple effect evaporators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL); Jody, Bassam J. (Chicago, IL); Bonsignore, Patrick V. (Channahon, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A process and system for treating aluminum salt cake containing water soluble halide salts by contacting the salt cake with water to dissolve water soluble halide salts forming a saturated brine solution. Transporting a portion of about 25% of the saturated brine solution to a reactor and introducing into the saturated brine solution at least an equal volume of a water-miscible low-boiling organic material such as acetone to precipitate a portion of the dissolved halide salts forming a three-phase mixture of an aqueous-organic-salt solution phase and a precipitated salt phase and an organic rich phase. The precipitated salt phase is separated from the other phases and the organic rich phase is recycled to the reactor. The remainder of the saturated brine solution is sent to a multiple effect evaporator having a plurality of stages with the last stage thereof producing low grade steam which is used to boil off the organic portion of the solution which is recycled.

  10. Effects of K-Reactor pre-operational cold flow testing on total suspended solids in Pen Branch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilde, E.W.

    1991-12-01

    Total suspended solids (TSS) levels were monitored by SRL Environmental Sciences personnel at two locations in the Pen Branch Creek system in conjunction with K Reactor cold flow (pump) testing required as part of the reactor restart effort. The TSS data were compared with flow and rainfall data collected simultaneously in an effort to obtain insight on the suspension and movement for particulate material in the Pen Branch system in response to natural and operational causes. Pump testing clearly caused higher TSS levels at the two sampling locations. The artificially elevated TSS levels were more pronounced at a sampling location near the reactor than at a sampling location farther downstream. Although the environmental data provided by this study were obtained and used exclusively for process control and research purposes, rather than for formal regulatory compliance (i.e. NPDES monitoring), the TSS levels determined by the comprehensive testing were compared with NPDES limits required at various SRS outfalls. TSS values in Pen Branch were seldom in excess of these limits. Because of the relatively few times that TSS values at the two sampling locations exceeded typical'' NPDES limits, and the fact that occasional relatively high TSS values could clearly be solely attributed to rainfall, it was concluded that no major adverse environmental impacts were caused to the Pen Branch system as a result of the K-Reactor pre-operational pump testing.

  11. Effects of K-Reactor pre-operational cold flow testing on total suspended solids in Pen Branch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilde, E.W.

    1991-12-01

    Total suspended solids (TSS) levels were monitored by SRL Environmental Sciences personnel at two locations in the Pen Branch Creek system in conjunction with K Reactor cold flow (pump) testing required as part of the reactor restart effort. The TSS data were compared with flow and rainfall data collected simultaneously in an effort to obtain insight on the suspension and movement for particulate material in the Pen Branch system in response to natural and operational causes. Pump testing clearly caused higher TSS levels at the two sampling locations. The artificially elevated TSS levels were more pronounced at a sampling location near the reactor than at a sampling location farther downstream. Although the environmental data provided by this study were obtained and used exclusively for process control and research purposes, rather than for formal regulatory compliance (i.e. NPDES monitoring), the TSS levels determined by the comprehensive testing were compared with NPDES limits required at various SRS outfalls. TSS values in Pen Branch were seldom in excess of these limits. Because of the relatively few times that TSS values at the two sampling locations exceeded ``typical`` NPDES limits, and the fact that occasional relatively high TSS values could clearly be solely attributed to rainfall, it was concluded that no major adverse environmental impacts were caused to the Pen Branch system as a result of the K-Reactor pre-operational pump testing.

  12. Process for coal liquefaction in staged dissolvers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA)

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved liquefaction process by which coal is converted to a low ash and low sulfur carbonaceous material that can be used as a fuel in an environmentally acceptable manner without costly gas scrubbing equipment. In the process, coal is slurried with a pasting oil, passed through a preheater and at least two dissolvers in series in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures. Solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. In accordance with the improved process, the first dissolver is operated at a higher temperature than the second dissolver. This temperature sequence produces improved product selectivity and permits the incorporation of sufficient hydrogen in the solvent for adequate recycle operations.

  13. Determination of total chlorine and bromine in solid wastes by sintering and inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osterlund, Helene Rodushkin, Ilia; Ylinenjaervi, Karin; Baxter, Douglas C.

    2009-04-15

    A sample preparation method based on sintering, followed by analysis by inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) for the simultaneous determination of chloride and bromide in diverse and mixed solid wastes, has been evaluated. Samples and reference materials of known composition were mixed with a sintering agent containing Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and ZnO and placed in an oven at 560 deg. C for 1 h. After cooling, the residues were leached with water prior to a cation-exchange assisted clean-up. Alternatively, a simple microwave-assisted digestion using only nitric acid was applied for comparison. Thereafter the samples were prepared for quantitative analysis by ICP-SFMS. The sintering method was evaluated by analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs) and by comparison with US EPA Method 5050 and ion chromatography with good agreement. Median RSDs for the sintering method were determined to 10% for both chlorine and bromine, and median recovery to 96% and 97%, respectively. Limits of detection (LODs) were 200 mg/kg for chlorine and 20 mg/kg for bromine. It was concluded that the sintering method is suitable for chlorine and bromine determination in several matrices like sewage sludge, plastics, and edible waste, as well as for waste mixtures. The sintering method was also applied for determination of other elements present in anionic forms, such as sulfur, arsenic, selenium and iodine.

  14. Unsteady-state material balance model for a continuous rotary dissolver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, B.E.

    1984-09-01

    The unsteady-state continuous rotary dissolver material balance code (USSCRD) is a useful tool with which to study the performance of the rotary dissolver under a wide variety of operating conditions. The code does stepwise continuous material balance calculations around each dissolver stage and the digester tanks. Output from the code consists of plots and tabular information on the stagewise concentration profiles of UO{sub 2}, PuO{sub 2}, fission products, Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}, UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, fission product nitrates, HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O, stainless steel, total particulate, and total fuel in pins. Other information about material transfers, stagewise liquid volume, material inventory, and dissolution performance is also provided. This report describes the development of the code, its limitations, key operating parameters, usage procedures, and the results of the analysis of several sets of operating conditions. Of primary importance in this work was the estimation of the steady-state heavy metal inventory in a 0.5-t/d dissolver drum. Values ranging from {similar_to}12 to >150 kg of U + Pu were obtained for a variety of operating conditions. Realistically, inventories are expected to be near the lower end of this range. Study of the variation of operating parameters showed significant effects on dissolver product composition from intermittent solids feed. Other observations indicated that the cycle times for the digesters and shear feed should be closely coupled in order to avoid potential problems with off-specification product. 19 references, 14 tables.

  15. Impact of circulation on export production, dissolved organic matter, and dissolved oxygen in the ocean: Results from Phase II of the Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Follows, Mick

    Impact of circulation on export production, dissolved organic matter, and dissolved oxygen; published 8 August 2007. [1] Results are presented of export production, dissolved organic matter (DOM ± 6 Pg C yrÀ1 . Model means of globally averaged particle export, the fraction of total export

  16. Process for coal liquefaction by separation of entrained gases from slurry exiting staged dissolvers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Ying, David H. S. (Macungie, PA)

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved liquefaction process by which coal is converted to a low ash and low sulfur carbonaceous material that can be used as a fuel in an environmentally acceptable manner without costly gas scrubbing equipment. In the process, coal is slurried with a solvent, passed through a preheater and at least two dissolvers in series in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures. Solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals are separated from the condensed dissolver effluent. In accordance with the improved process, fresh hydrogen is fed to each dissolver and the entrained gas from each dissolver is separated from the slurry phase and removed from the reactor system before the condensed phase is passed to the next dissolver in the series. In accordance with another process, the feeds to the dissolvers are such that the top of each downstream dissolver is used as a gas-liquid separator.

  17. The work presented in this thesis studied the synthesis and characterization of a totally solid state polymer electrolyte that is applicable to solid state zinc-air batteries. An

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    state polymer electrolyte that is applicable to solid state zinc-air batteries. An overview of zinc-air batteries is briefly covered followed by a detailed discussion of the chemical synthesis. The majority that must be known and optimized for the successful design of a zinc-air battery cell. This thesis

  18. Group of Microbes Change Dissolved

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    is found in all water, even seawater, the use of these microbes to harvest gold does not make economic microbes are able to change dissolved gold into a more metallic form, using them to harvest gold isn't likely to be cost-effective. Photography by Araldo de Luca/CORBIS Ten years ago Derek Lovley

  19. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NA

    2004-11-22

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) important to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log (line integral) CO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for all of the actinides. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  20. Oceanography June 200450 Colored Dissolved Organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    . Sunlight striking the ocean surface penetrates into the water column and interacts with the dissolvedOceanography June 200450 Colored Dissolved Organic in the Coastal Ocean A N O P T I C A L TO O L F usage that all three words are individu- ally synonymous for "ocean." Poems, song titles, and movies

  1. Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, S.K.; Hames, B.R.; Myers, M.D.

    1998-03-24

    A method is described for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

  2. Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, Stuart K. (Denver, CO); Hames, Bonnie R. (Westminster, CO); Myers, Michele D. (Dacono, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A method for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

  3. Total Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight Paths30,2,8,Product: Total Crude

  4. VARIATIONS IN THE DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONTENT OF INTRAGRAVEL WATER IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ^402: VARIATIONS IN THE DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONTENT OF INTRAGRAVEL WATER IN FOUR SPAWNING STREAMS IN THE DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONTENT OF INTRAGRAVEL WATER IN FOUR SPAWNING STREAMS OF SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA by William J Introduction 1 Sampling intragravel water for dissolved oxygen content 2 Obtaining water samples from

  5. Install an Automatic Blowdown-Control System, Energy Tips: STEAM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System Background To reduce the levels of suspended and total dissolved solids in a boiler, water is periodically discharged or blown down. High dissolved solids concentrations...

  6. Canadian Journal of Analytical Sciences and Spectroscopy Determination of Total Mercury in Porewater of Lake Sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belzile, Nelson

    in Porewater of Lake Sediments: Control of Interference from Dissolved Organic Carbon and Sul- phide Chun vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry was developed to determine total dissolved Hg in lake sediment are intense. Sediments and associated porewaters are the site of several reactions that can have an effect

  7. New Mexico Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Reserves in Nonproducing...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs, Wet (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs, Wet (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade...

  8. ,"New Mexico Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease...

  9. ,"Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Texas Associated-Dissolved...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease...

  10. The Minnesota Filter: A Tool for Capturing Stormwater Dissolved Phosphorus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    (inorganic, organic) · Nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, etc.) · Metals (copper, cadmium, zinc, etc exchange, etc. to capture dissolved pollutants · Biodegradation: bacteria conversion of nitrates

  11. Method for dissolving delta-phase plutonium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karraker, David G. (1600 Sherwood Pl., SE., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1992-01-01

    A process for dissolving plutonium, and in particular, delta-phase plutonium. The process includes heating a mixture of nitric acid, hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) and potassium fluoride to a temperature between 40.degree. and 70.degree. C., then immersing the metal in the mixture. Preferably, the nitric acid has a concentration of not more than 2M, the HAN approximately 0.66M, and the potassium fluoride 0.1M. Additionally, a small amount of sulfamic acid, such as 0.1M can be added to assure stability of the HAN in the presence of nitric acid. The oxide layer that forms on plutonium metal may be removed with a non-oxidizing acid as a pre-treatment step.

  12. Solid electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA)

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  13. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  14. Use of iron salts to control dissolved sulfide in trunk sewers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padival, N.A.; Kimbell, W.A. [County Sanitation District of Los Angeles County, Whittier, CA (United States); Redner, J.A. [County Sanitation District of Los Angeles County, Compton, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Sewer headspace H{sub 2}S reduction by precipitating dissolved sulfide in wastewater was investigated using iron salt (FeCl{sub 3} and FeCl{sub 2}). Full-scale experiments were conducted in a 40-km (25 mi) sewer with an average flow of 8.7 m{sup 3}/s (200 mgd). Results were sensitive to total Fe dosages and Fe(III)/Fe(II) blend ratios injected. A concentration of 16 mg/L total Fe and a blend ratio of 1.9:1 [Fe(III):Fe(II)] reduced dissolved sulfide levels by 97%. Total sulfide and headspace H{sub 2}S were reduced by 63% and 79%, respectively. Liquid and gas-phase sulfide reductions were largely due to the effective precipitation of sulfide with Fe(III) and Fe(II) and the limited volatilization of H{sub 2}S, respectively. Oxidation of sulfide in the presence of Fe(II) and minute amounts of O{sub 2} may have occurred. A combination of Fe(III) and Fe(II) proved more effective than either salt alone. By using excess Fe(III), dissolved sulfide can be reduced to undetectable levels. No specific relation between the concentration of Fe or Fe(III)/Fe(II) blend ratio and sewer crown pH was inferred. Iron salts may retard crown corrosion rates by precipitating free sulfide and reducing its release to the sewer headspace as H{sub 2}S. A mechanism to inhibit certain responsible bacteria was not established in the 40-km (25 mi) sewer.

  15. The marine biogeochemistry of dissolved and colloidal iron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzsimmons, Jessica Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Iron is a redox active trace metal micronutrient essential for primary production and nitrogen acquisition in the open ocean. Dissolved iron (dFe) has extremely low concentrations in marine waters that can drive phytoplankton ...

  16. The effects of dissolved methane upon liquid argon scintillation light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, T

    In this paper we report on measurements of the effects of dissolved methane upon argon scintillation light. We monitor the light yield from an alpha source held 20 cm from a cryogenic photomultiplier tube (PMT) assembly ...

  17. Microbial production and consumption of marine dissolved organic matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Jamie William

    2013-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are the principal producers of oceanic dissolved organic matter (DOM), the organic substrate responsible for secondary production by heterotrophic microbes in the sea. Despite the importance of DOM in ...

  18. Hidden cycle of dissolved organic carbon in the deep ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Repeta, Daniel J.

    Marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a large (660 Pg C) reactive carbon reservoir that mediates the oceanic microbial food web and interacts with climate on both short and long timescales. Carbon isotopic content ...

  19. Neptunium estimation in dissolver and high-level-waste solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pathak, P.N.; Prabhu, D.R.; Kanekar, A.S.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2008-07-01

    This papers deals with the optimization of the experimental conditions for the estimation of {sup 237}Np in spent-fuel dissolver/high-level waste solutions using thenoyltrifluoroacetone as the extractant. (authors)

  20. Photochemical and microbial degradation of dissolved lignin phenols: Implications for the fate of terrigenous dissolved organic matter in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernes, Peter J.

    Photochemical and microbial degradation of dissolved lignin phenols: Implications for the fate phenols. A 10-day incubation experiment with plume water indicated rates of microbial degradation the impact of various removal mechanisms (photooxidation, microbial degradation, and flocculation

  1. Observations on the measurement of total antimony and antimony species in algae, plant and animal tissuesw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canberra, University of

    Observations on the measurement of total antimony and antimony species in algae, plant and animal of total antimony and antimony speciation in algae, plant and animal tissues. Digestion with nitric acid.g. some plants and algae, the addition of tetrafluorboric acid is required to dissolve silica as some

  2. Part 5

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    carbon (TOC) Total dissolved solids (TDS) Total suspended solids (TSS) Specific Gravity Calcium Magnesium Potassium Chloride Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste...

  3. Simulation Analysis for HB-Line Dissolver Mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S

    2006-03-22

    In support of the HB-Line Engineering agitator mixing project, flow pattern calculations have been made for a 90{sup o} apart and helical pitch agitator submerged in a flat tank containing dissolver baskets. The work is intended to determine maximum agitator speed to keep the dissolver baskets from contacting the agitator for the nominal tank liquid level. The analysis model was based on one dissolver basket located on the bottom surface of the flat tank for a conservative estimate. The modeling results will help determine acceptable agitator speeds and tank liquid levels to ensure that the dissolver basket is kept from contacting the agitator blade during HB-Line dissolver tank operations. The numerical modeling and calculations have been performed using a computational fluid dynamics approach. Three-dimensional steady-state momentum and continuity equations were used as the basic equations to estimate fluid motion driven by an agitator with four 90{sup o} pitched blades or three flat blades. Hydraulic conditions were fully turbulent (Reynolds number about 1 x 10{sup 5}). A standard two-equation turbulence model ({kappa},{var_epsilon}), was used to capture turbulent eddy motion. The commercial finite volume code, Fluent [5], was used to create a prototypic geometry file with a non-orthogonal mesh. Hybrid meshing was used to fill the computational region between the round-edged tank bottom and agitator regions. The nominal calculations and a series of sensitivity runs were made to investigate the impact of flow patterns on the lifting behavior of the dissolver basket. At high rotational speeds and low tank levels, local turbulent flow reaches the critical condition for the dissolver basket to be picked up from the tank floor and to touch the agitator blades during the tank mixing operations. This is not desirable in terms of mixing performance. The modeling results demonstrate that the flow patterns driven by the agitators considered here are not strong enough to lift up the dissolver basket for the agitator speeds up to 2500 rpm. The results also show that local velocity magnitudes for the three-blade flat plate agitator are at maximum three times smaller than the helical fourblade one. Table 5 and Table 6 summarize the results.

  4. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  5. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM MCU SOLIDS OUTAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Oji, L.; Coleman, C.; Poirier, M.

    2014-09-22

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has received several solid and liquid samples from MCU in an effort to understand and recover from the system outage starting on April 6, 2014. SRNL concludes that the presence of solids in the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) is the likely root cause for the outage, based upon the following discoveries ? A solids sample from the extraction contactor #1 proved to be mostly sodium oxalate ? A solids sample from the scrub contactor#1 proved to be mostly sodium oxalate ? A solids sample from the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) proved to be mostly sodium oxalate ? An archived sample from Tank 49H taken last year was shown to contain a fine precipitate of sodium oxalate ? A solids sample from the extraction contactor #1 drain pipe from extraction contactor#1 proved to be mostly sodium aluminosilicate ? A liquid sample from the SSFT was shown to have elevated levels of oxalate anion compared to the expected concentration in the feed Visual inspection of the SSFT indicated the presence of precipitated or transferred solids, which were likely also in the Salt Solution Receipt Tank (SSRT). The presence of the solids coupled with agitation performed to maintain feed temperature resulted in oxalate solids migration through the MCU system and caused hydraulic issues that resulted in unplanned phase carryover from the extraction into the scrub, and ultimately the strip contactors. Not only did this carryover result in the Strip Effluent (SE) being pushed out of waste acceptance specification, but it resulted in the deposition of solids into several of the contactors. At the same time, extensive deposits of aluminosilicates were found in the drain tube in the extraction contactor #1. However it is not known at this time how the aluminosilicate solids are related to the oxalate solids. The solids were successfully cleaned out of the MCU system. However, future consideration must be given to the exclusion of oxalate solids into the MCU system. There were 53 recommendations for improving operations recently identified. Some additional considerations or additional details are provided below as recommendations. ? From this point on, IC-Anions analyses of the DSSHT should be part of the monthly routine analysis in order to spot negative trends in the oxalate leaving the MCU system. Care must be taken to monitor the oxalate content to watch for sudden precipitation of oxalate salts in the system. ? Conduct a study to optimize the cleaning strategy at ARP-MCU through decreasing the concentration or entirely eliminating the oxalic acid. ? The contents of the SSFT should remain unagitated. Routine visual observation should be maintained to ensure there is not a large buildup of solids. As water with agitation provided sufficient removal of the solids in the feed tank, it should be considered as a good means for dissolving oxalate solids if they are found in the future. ? Conduct a study to improve prediction of oxalate solubility in salt batch feed materials. As titanium and mercury have been found in various solids in this report, evaluate if either element plays a role in oxalate solubility during processing. ? Salt batch characterization focuses primarily on characterization and testing of unaltered Tank 21H material; however, non-typical feeds are developed through cleaning, washing, and/or sump transfers. As these solutions are processed through MCU, they may precipitate solids or reduce performance. Salt batch characterization and testing should be expanded to encompass a broader range of feeds that may be processed through ARPMCU.

  6. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

  7. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings*...

  8. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per...

  9. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  10. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region, 1999" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per Square Foot"...

  11. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per...

  12. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  13. Nature and Transformation of Dissolved Organic Matter in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    assimilated and produced; however, little is known about the chemical nature and fate of DOM in treatment degradation of specific components of the DOM (6). Free water surface treatment wetlands consist of semiNature and Transformation of Dissolved Organic Matter in Treatment Wetlands L A R R Y B . B A R B E

  14. Dissolved organic carbon export with North Pacific Intermediate Water formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansell, Dennis

    Dissolved organic carbon export with North Pacific Intermediate Water formation Dennis A. Hansell 2002. [1] An evaluation of DOC export with the formation of North Pacific Intermediate Water east of Japan. The new intermediate water, formed at a rate of 2­5 Sv, exports DOC at 13 ± 6 Tg DOC yr

  15. GEOC: Division of Geochemistry 163 -Ternary complexation of dissolved organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    -Fe(III)-organic acid systems: An EXAFS spectroscopic study Author Block: Jianjun Yang1 , Donald Sparks2 , Nanthi Bolan3 of aqueous Fe(III). In this study, two common soil containing dissolved organic acids (DOA, malic and citric acids) were selected to represent DOM, and synchrotron-based Fe K-edge EXAFS was applied to characterize

  16. Solids fluidizer-injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bulicz, Tytus R. (Hickory Hills, IL)

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and process for fluidizing solid particles by causing rotary motion of the solid particles in a fluidizing chamber by a plurality of rotating projections extending from a rotatable cylinder end wall interacting with a plurality of fixed projections extending from an opposite fixed end wall and passing the solid particles through a radial feed orifice open to the solids fluidizing chamber on one side and a solid particle utilization device on the other side. The apparatus and process are particularly suited for obtaining intermittent feeding with continual solids supply to the fluidizing chamber. The apparatus and process are suitable for injecting solid particles, such as coal, to an internal combustion engine.

  17. Refining of solid ferrous scrap intermingled with copper by using molten aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwase, M. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Energy Science and Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A new approach for the removal of copper from solid ferrous scrap has been proposed by the present authors. With this process, solid ferrous scrap intermingled with pure copper is brought into contact with molten aluminum, which dissolved copper preferentially, and is recovered as {l_brace}Al + Cu{r_brace} alloys. After a duration of 30 minutes at temperatures between 963 K and 1,223 K, steel scrap is removed from the bath, resulting in being free of copper contamination.

  18. Solids mass flow determination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Macko, Joseph E. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining the mass flow rate of solids mixed with a transport fluid to form a flowing mixture. A temperature differential is established between the solids and fluid. The temperature of the transport fluid prior to mixing, the temperature of the solids prior to mixing, and the equilibrium temperature of the mixture are monitored and correlated in a heat balance with the heat capacities of the solids and fluid to determine the solids mass flow rate.

  19. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other...

  20. Total Synthesis of (?)-Himandrine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Movassaghi, Mohammad

    We describe the first total synthesis of (?)-himandrine, a member of the class II galbulimima alkaloids. Noteworthy features of this chemistry include a diastereoselective Diels?Alder reaction in the rapid synthesis of the ...

  1. Rapid extraction of dissolved inorganic carbon from seawater and groundwater samples for radiocarbon dating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gospodinova, Kalina Doneva

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is the design and development of a system for rapid extraction of dissolved inorganic carbon from seawater and groundwater samples for radiocarbon dating. The Rapid Extraction of Dissolved Inorganic ...

  2. Effect of dissolved CO2 on a shallow groundwater system: A controlled...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Effect of dissolved CO2 on a shallow groundwater system: A controlled release experiment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of dissolved CO2 on a...

  3. The dual influences of dissolved organic carbon on hypolimnetic metabolism: organic substrate and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Jonathan J.

    The dual influences of dissolved organic carbon on hypolimnetic metabolism: organic substrate investigated the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on hypolimnetic metabolism (accumulation of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and methane (CH4)) in 21 lakes across a gradient of DOC concentrations (308 to 1540

  4. Sequestration of Dissolved CO2 in the Oriskany Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilmore, R.M.; Allen, D.E. (Salem State College, Salem, MA); McCarthy-Jones, J.R.; Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee

    2008-04-15

    Experiments were conducted to determine the solubility of CO2 in a natural brine solution of the Oriskany formation under elevated temperature and pressure conditions. These data were collected at temperatures of 22 and 75 °C and pressures between 100 and 450 bar. Experimentally determined data were compared with CO2 solubility predictions using a model developed by Duan and Sun (Chem. Geol. 2003, 193, 257-271). Model results compare well with Oriskany brine CO2 solubility data collected experimentally, suggesting that the Duan and Sun model is a reliable tool for estimating solution CO2 capacity in high salinity aquifers in the temperature and pressure range evaluated. The capacity for the Oriskany formation to sequester dissolved CO2 was calculated using results of the solubility models, estimation of the density of CO2 saturated brine, and available geographic information system (GIS) information on the formation depth and thickness. Results indicate that the Oriskany formation can hold approximately 0.36 gigatonnes of dissolved CO2 if the full basin is considered. When only the region where supercritical CO2 can exist (temperatures greater than 31° C and pressures greater than 74 bar) is considered, the capacity of the Oriskany formation to sequester dissolved CO2 is 0.31 gigatonnes. The capacity estimate considering the potential to sequester free-phase supercritical CO2 if brine were displaced from formation pore space is 8.8 gigatonnes in the Oriskany formation.

  5. Rotary bulk solids divider

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maronde, Carl P. (McMurray, PA); Killmeyer, Jr., Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

  6. Laser cooling of solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, Richard I; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  7. Solid aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1992-03-17

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration is disclosed. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  8. Improved solid aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1988-07-19

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  9. Solid State Division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  10. TOTAL ANNUAL Rent / Mortgage $

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snider, Barry B.

    etc.) $ Child Care Expenses $ Educational Loans taken out in parent's name $ Other (itemize below): $ $ RESOURCES TOTAL ANNUAL AMOUNT Parent 1 Wages $ Parent 2 Wages $ Interest and/or Dividend Income $ Net Income $ Contributions to tax deferred plans(401K) $ Non Educational Veterans' Benefits $ Unemployment Compensation

  11. Total Sustainability Humber College

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael

    1 Total Sustainability Management Humber College November, 2012 SUSTAINABILITY SYMPOSIUM Green An Impending Global Disaster #12;3 Sustainability is NOT Climate Remediation #12;Our Premises "We cannot, you cannot improve it" (Lord Kelvin) "First rule of sustainability is to align with natural forces

  12. Dissolved gas supersaturation associated with the thermal effluent of an electric generating station and some effects on fishes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciesluk, Alexander Frank

    1974-01-01

    canal and discharge pond, Big Brown Steam Electric Station, 7-8 December 1973, plant AT = 10. 9-11. 1 C, and 19-20 January 1974, plant AT = 10. 4-11. 0 C 51 13 Diel pattern of percent saturation of dissolved oxygen, nitrogen, and total gas.... 77 LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) FIGURE PAGE 18 Gas bubbles and extensive hemorrhaging in the gili of a bluegill sunfish afflicted with gas-bubble disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 l9 The solubility of oxygen and nitrogen in water at various...

  13. Solids fluidizer-injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bulicz, T.R.

    1990-04-17

    An apparatus and process are described for fluidizing solid particles by causing rotary motion of the solid particles in a fluidizing chamber by a plurality of rotating projections extending from a rotatable cylinder end wall interacting with a plurality of fixed projections extending from an opposite fixed end wall and passing the solid particles through a radial feed orifice open to the solids fluidizing chamber on one side and a solid particle utilization device on the other side. The apparatus and process are particularly suited for obtaining intermittent feeding with continual solids supply to the fluidizing chamber. The apparatus and process are suitable for injecting solid particles, such as coal, to an internal combustion engine. 3 figs.

  14. Version 3.0 SOP 2 --Total dissolved inorganic carbon October 12, 2007 Page 1 of 14

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    carbon Version 3.0 Page 2 of 14 The hydroxide ions used are generated at the cathode by electrolyzing

  15. Estimates of New and Total Productivity in Central Long Island Sound from In Situ Measurements of Nitrate and Dissolved Oxygen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raymond, Peter A.

    Biogeochemical cycles in estuaries are regulated by a diverse set of physical and biological variables that operate over a variety of time scales. Using in situ optical sensors, we conducted a high-frequency time-series ...

  16. Total Crude by Pipeline

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYearbyWithdrawalsHome6,672(MillionFeet)Product: Total

  17. Yucca Mountain Area Saturated Zone Dissolved Organic Carbon Isotopic Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, James; Decker, David; Patterson, Gary; Peterman, Zell; Mihevc, Todd; Larsen, Jessica; Hershey, Ronald

    2007-06-25

    Groundwater samples in the Yucca Mountain area were collected for chemical and isotopic analyses and measurements of water temperature, pH, specific conductivity, and alkalinity were obtained at the well or spring at the time of sampling. For this project, groundwater samples were analyzed for major-ion chemistry, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) performed all the fieldwork on this project including measurement of water chemistry field parameters and sample collection. The major ions dissolved in the groundwater, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were analyzed by the USGS. All preparation and processing of samples for DOC carbon isotopic analyses and geochemical modeling were performed by the Desert Research Institute (DRI). Analysis of the DOC carbon dioxide gas produced at DRI to obtain carbon-13 and carbon-14 values was conducted at the University of Arizona Accelerator Facility (a NSHE Yucca Mountain project QA qualified contract facility). The major-ion chemistry, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of DIC were used in geochemical modeling (NETPATH) to determine groundwater sources, flow paths, mixing, and ages. The carbon isotopes of DOC were used to calculate groundwater ages that are independent of DIC model corrected carbon-14 ages. The DIC model corrected carbon-14 calculated ages were used to evaluate groundwater travel times for mixtures of water including water beneath Yucca Mountain. When possible, groundwater travel times were calculated for groundwater flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient sample sites. DOC carbon-14 groundwater ages were also calculated for groundwaters in the Yucca Mountain area. When possible, groundwater travel times were estimated for groundwater flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient groundwater sample sites using the DOC calculated groundwater ages. The DIC calculated groundwater ages were compared with DOC calculated groundwater ages and both of these ages were compared to travel times developed in ground-water flow and transport models. If nuclear waste is stored in Yucca Mountain, the saturated zone is the final barrier against the release of radionuclides to the environment. The most recent rendition of the TSPA takes little credit for the presence of the saturated zone and is a testament to the inadequate understanding of this important barrier. If radionuclides reach the saturated zone beneath Yucca Mountain, then there is a travel time before they would leave the Yucca Mountain area and flow down gradient to the Amargosa Valley area. Knowing how long it takes groundwater in the saturated zone to flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient areas is critical information for potential radionuclide transport. Radionuclide transport in groundwater may be the quickest pathway for radionuclides in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository to reach land surface by way of groundwater pumped in Amargosa Valley. An alternative approach to ground-water flow and transport models to determine the travel time of radionuclides from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient areas in the saturated zone is by carbon-14 dating of both inorganic and organic carbon dissolved in the groundwater. A standard method of determining ground-water ages is to measure the carbon-13 and carbon-14 of DIC in the groundwater and then correct the measured carbon-14 along a flow path for geochemical reactions that involve carbon containing phases. These geochemical reactions are constrained by carbon-13 and isotopic fractionations. Without correcting for geochemical reactions, the ground-water ages calculated from only the differences in carbon-14 measured along a flow path (assuming the decrease in carbon-14 is due strictly to radioactive decay) could be tens of thousands of years too old. The computer program NETPATH, developed by the USGS, is the best geochemical program for correcting carbon-14 activities for geochemical r

  18. Solid Waste Management (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The state supports the implementation of source reduction, recycling, and other alternative solid waste management practices over incineration and land disposal. The Indiana Department of...

  19. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magno, Scott (Dublin, CA); Wang, Ruiping (Fremont, CA); Derouane, Eric (Liverpool, GB)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  20. www.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications and Marketing, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    of compounds including minerals, salts, and organic com- pounds. The concentration of "total dissolved solids. Natural sources of dissolved solids in groundwater include bedrock and salt deposits; any soluble min gas drilling. Problems Associated With Total Dissolved Solids Because TDS is a measure of all

  1. Examining the coupling of carbon and nitrogen cycles in Southern Appalachian streams: Understanding the role of dissolved organic nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, Brian D [Duke University; Bernhardt, Emily [Duke University; Roberts, Brian [Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Although regional and global models of nitrogen (N) cycling typically focus on nitrate, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is the dominant form of nitrogen export from many watersheds and thus the dominant form of dissolved N in many streams. Our understanding of the processes controlling DON export from temperate forests is poor. In pristine systems, where biological N limitation is common, N contained in recalcitrant organic matter (OM) can dominate watershed N losses. This recalcitrant OM often has moderately constrained carbon:nitrogen (C:N) molar ratios ({approx}25-55) and therefore, greater DON losses should be observed in sites where there is greater total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loss. In regions where anthropogenic N pollution is high, it has been suggested that increased inorganic N availability can reduce biological demand for organic N and therefore increase watershed DON losses. This would result in a positive correlation between inorganic and organic N concentrations across sites with varying N availability. In four repeated synoptic surveys of stream water chemistry from forested watersheds along an N loading gradient in the southern Appalachians, we found surprisingly little correlation between DON and DOC concentrations. Further, we found that DON concentrations were always significantly correlated with watershed N loading and stream water [NO{sub 3}{sup -}] but that the direction of this relationship was negative in three of the four surveys. The C:N molar ratio of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in streams draining watersheds with high N deposition was very high relative to other freshwaters. This finding, together with results from bioavailability assays in which we directly manipulated C and N availabilities, suggests that heterotrophic demand for labile C can increase as a result of dissolved inorganic N (DIN) loading, and that heterotrophs can preferentially remove N-rich molecules from DOM. These results are inconsistent with the two prevailing hypotheses that dominate interpretations of watershed DON loss. Therefore, we propose a new hypothesis, the indirect carbon control hypothesis, which recognizes that heterotrophic demand for N-rich DOM can keep stream water DON concentrations low when N is not limiting and heterotrophic demand for labile C is high.

  2. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO); Grohmann, Karel (Littleton, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO); Richard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO)

    1993-01-01

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  3. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-03-02

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  4. Managing America's solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, J. A.

    1998-09-15

    This report presents an historical overview of the federal role in municipal solid waste management from 1965 to approximately 1995. Attention is focuses on the federal role in safeguarding public health, protecting the environment, and wisely using material and energy resources. It is hoped that this report will provide important background for future municipal solid waste research and development initiatives.

  5. Capacity-to-Act in India's Solid Waste Management and Waste-to-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    1 Capacity-to-Act in India's Solid Waste Management and Waste-to- Energy Industries Perinaz Bhada% of the total solid waste management budget. [28] Ironically, NGO and community groups are opposed and disposal of garbage, or municipal solid waste, compounded by increasing consumption levels. Another serious

  6. Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Using Total Carbon Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    2002-05-10

    Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon(TM)-extraction method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content. For reasons of cost, sensitivity, precision, or simplicity, none of the replacement methods are feasible for analysis of radioactive samples at our facility. We have developed a method to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon content in aqueous sample matrixes using total organic carbon (total carbon) determination. The total carbon content (TC1) of the sample is measured using a total organic carbon analyzer. The sample is then contacted with a small volume of non-pokar solvent to extract the total petroleum hydrocarbons. The total carbon content of the resultant aqueous phase of the extracted sample (TC2) is measured. Total petroleum hydrocarbon content is calculated (TPH = TC1-TC2). The resultant data are consistent with results obtained using Freon(TM) extraction followed by infrared absorbance.

  7. Management of Solid Waste (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solid Waste Management Division of the Department of Environmental Quality regulates solid waste disposal or any person who generates, collects, transports, processes, and/or disposes of solid...

  8. Solid Waste Management (North Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solid Waste Program regulates safe management of solid waste through guidance, technical assistance, regulations, permitting, environmental monitoring, compliance evaluation and enforcement....

  9. Impact of Benthic Algae on Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in a Temperate, Coastal Lagoon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Deborah

    Impact of Benthic Algae on Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in a Temperate, Coastal Lagoon Anna Christina-released to the water column on short time scales (minutes-hours). Benthic algae thus clearly influence benthic Introduction: Impact of benthic algae on dissolved organic nitrogen dynamics in temperate, coastal lagoons

  10. NOTES ON THE DISSOLVED CONTENT OF WATER IN ITS EFFECT UPON FISHES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .. NOTES ON THE DISSOLVED CONTENT OF WATER IN ITS EFFECT UPON FISHES· JJ. By M. C. Marsh United at Washington. U. S. A.· September 22 to 26. 1908 #12;CONTENTS. Page. Natural impurities in water u n u _ _ u gas content- u u u u u 898 Dissolved air content of water from a driven weILuuu u______________ 898

  11. The potential source of dissolved aluminum from resuspended sediments to the North Atlantic deep water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moran, S.B.; Moore, R.M. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada))

    1991-10-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted to investigate the significance of resuspended sediments as a source of dissolved Al to the deep northwest Atlantic. Sediment resuspension experiments demonstrate the effect on dissolved Al concentration (initially 11 nM) of adding natural suspended sediments (ca. 0.1-10 mg/L) to seawater. The concentration of dissolved Al increased by the resuspension of sediments; for example, addition of 0.15 mg/L sediments caused dissolved Al to increase by 10 nM. Distributions of dissolved and leachable particulate Al off the tail of the Grand Banks, near the high-energy western boundary current, show elevated levels in the near-bottom waters. The authors suggest that resuspended sediments associated with nepheloid layers along the western boundary of the North Atlantic are a source of dissolved Al. Strong western boundary currents provide the energy to resuspend and maintain intense nepheloid layers of sediments. Continued resuspension and deposition of sediments within the nepheloid layer promotes the release of Al from sediments to the overlying water. The Al-rich terrigenous sediments that predominate along the deep boundary of the Denmark Strait, Labrador Sea, Newfoundland and off Nova Scotia constitute a potentially significant source of dissolved Al. Release of Al from resuspended sediments associated with nepheloid layers at a more northern location (e.g., Denmark Strait) may contribute to the near-linear increase in dissolved Al with depth observed in the deep northwest Atlantic.

  12. Preferential Solvent Partitioning within Asphaltenic Aggregates Dissolved in Binary Solvent Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    Preferential Solvent Partitioning within Asphaltenic Aggregates Dissolved in Binary Solvent on asphaltenes from Hondo crude oil dissolved in binary solvent mixtures of toluene with n-heptane, decalin, or 1 data, and subsequent calculations of minimum error were performed to ascertain the entrained solvent

  13. Metal partitioning between colloidal and dissolved phases and its relation with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Laodong

    Metal partitioning between colloidal and dissolved phases and its relation with bioavailability December 2001 Abstract Kinetics and the extent of metal partitioning between colloidal and dissolved phases and coagulation of metals associated with colloids were examined to determine their effects on the bioavailability

  14. Solid Waste Management (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This act aims to establish and maintain a cooperative state and local program of planning and technical and financial assistance for comprehensive solid waste management. No person shall construct,...

  15. Solid State Lighting Reliability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solid State Lighting Reliability 2015Building Technologies Office Peer Review Lynn Davis, PhD RTI International ldavis@rti.org --- 919-316-3325 Project Summary Timeline: Start...

  16. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were scanned after tank supernatant was removed. 4. Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds. This sampler was designed and built to remove small sections of the mounds to evaluate concentrations of the stainless steel solids at different special locations. 5. Computer driven positioner that placed the laser rangefinders and the core sampler in appropriate locations over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank where mixing is poor. These devices and techniques were effective to estimate the movement, location, and concentrations of the solids representing heavier particles and could perform well at a larger scale The experiment contained two campaigns with each comprised of ten cycles to fill and empty the scaled staging tank. The tank was filled without mixing, but emptied, while mixing, in seven batches; the first six were of equal volumes of 13.1 gallons each to represent the planned fullscale batches of 145,000 gallons, and the last, partial, batch of 6.9 gallons represented a full-scale partial batch of 76,000 gallons that will leave a 72-inch heel in the staging tank for the next cycle. The sole difference between the two campaigns was the energy to mix the scaled staging tank, i.e., the nozzle velocity and jet rotational speed of the two jet pumps. Campaign 1 used 22.9 ft/s, at 1.54 rpm based on past testing and Campaign 2 used 23.9 ft/s at 1.75 rpm, based on visual observation of minimum velocity that allowed fast settling solids, i.e., sand and stainless steel, to accumulate on the scaled tank bottom.

  17. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, K.M.; Alamgir, M.; Choe, H.S.

    1995-12-12

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li{sup +}) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}, LiAsF{sub 6}, and LiClO{sub 4}. 2 figs.

  18. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Choe, Hyoun S. (Waltham, MA)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  19. U.S. Total Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total to Spain Cameron, LA Sabine Pass, LA Total to United Kingdom Sabine Pass, LA LNG Exports from Babb, MT LNG Exports from Buffalo, NY LNG Exports from Kenai, AK LNG Exports...

  20. Process automation using combinations of process and machine control technologies with application to a continuous dissolver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, B.B.: Yarbro, O.O.

    1991-01-01

    Operation of a continuous rotary dissolver, designed to leach uranium-plutonium fuel from chopped sections of reactor fuel cladding using nitric acid, has been automated. The dissolver is a partly continuous, partly batch process that interfaces at both ends with batchwise processes, thereby requiring synchronization of certain operations. Liquid acid is fed and flows through the dissolver continuously, whereas chopped fuel elements are fed to the dissolver in small batches and move through the compartments of the dissolver stagewise. Sequential logic (or machine control) techniques are used to control discrete activities such as the sequencing of isolation valves. Feedback control is used to control acid flowrates and temperatures. Expert systems technology is used for on-line material balances and diagnostics of process operation. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  1. UCN transport simulation in solid deuterium crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. N. Pokotilovski

    2012-03-04

    The extraction efficiency of ultracold neutrons from cryogenic moderators depends critically on the neutron transparency of the moderator material. The Monte Carlo simulation of the probability of the UCN going out from non-ideal (disordered) solid deuterium crystals has been performed. It was based on the use of the correlation function describing the density fluctuations in a disordered material, the latter being inferred from the measured very low neutron energy total cross sections for this material.

  2. Towards standardizing the measurement of electrochemical properties of solid state electrolytes in lithium batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dees, D. W.; Henriksen, G. L.

    1999-05-06

    The purpose of this paper is to stimulate thought and discussion in the technical community on standardization of the experimental determination of the pertinent electrochemical properties of solid electrolytes in lithium batteries. This standardization is needed for comparison and modeling of solid electrolytes in a practical lithium battery. The appropriate electrochemical properties include transport, thermodynamic, and physical parameters that generally depend on concentration and temperature. While it is beyond the scope of this work to put forward definitive measurement techniques for all types of solid electrolytes, it is hoped that comparisons between various techniques to examine a dissolved binary lithium salt in a dry polymer solvent will lead to improved understanding and methodology for examining solid electrolytes.

  3. Results of Characterization and Retrieval Testing on Tank 241-C-109 Heel Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callaway, William S.

    2013-09-26

    Eight samples of heel solids from tank 241-C-109 were delivered to the 222-S Laboratory for characterization and dissolution testing. After being drained thoroughly, one-half to two-thirds of the solids were off-white to tan solids that, visually, were fairly evenly graded in size from coarse silt (30-60 μm) to medium pebbles (8-16 mm). The remaining solids were mostly strongly cemented aggregates ranging from coarse pebbles (16-32 mm) to fine cobbles (6-15 cm) in size. Solid phase characterization and chemical analysis indicated that the air-dry heel solids contained ≈58 wt% gibbsite [Al(OH){sub 3}] and ≈37 wt% natrophosphate [Na{sub 7}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}?19H{sub 2}O]. The strongly cemented aggregates were mostly fine-grained gibbsite cemented with additional gibbsite. Dissolution testing was performed on two test samples. One set of tests was performed on large pieces of aggregate solids removed from the heel solids samples. The other set of dissolution tests was performed on a composite sample prepared from well-drained, air-dry heel solids that were crushed to pass a ?-in. sieve. The bulk density of the composite sample was 2.04 g/mL. The dissolution tests included water dissolution followed by caustic dissolution testing. In each step of the three-step water dissolution tests, a volume of water approximately equal to 3 times the initial volume of the test solids was added. In each step, the test samples were gently but thoroughly mixed for approximately 2 days at an average ambient temperature of 25 ?C. The caustic dissolution tests began with the addition of sufficient 49.6 wt% NaOH to the water dissolution residues to provide ≈3.1 moles of OH for each mole of Al estimated to have been present in the starting composite sample and ≈2.6 moles of OH for each mole of Al potentially present in the starting aggregate sample. Metathesis of gibbsite to sodium aluminate was then allowed to proceed over 10 days of gentle mixing of the test samples at temperatures ranging from 26-30 ?C. The metathesized sodium aluminate was then dissolved by addition of volumes of water approximately equal to 1.3 times the volumes of caustic added to the test slurries. Aluminate dissolution was allowed to proceed for 2 days at ambient temperatures of ≈29 ?C. Overall, the sequential water and caustic dissolution tests dissolved and removed 80.0 wt% of the tank 241-C-109 crushed heel solids composite test sample. The 20 wt% of solids remaining after the dissolution tests were 85-88 wt% gibbsite. If the density of the residual solids was approximately equal to that of gibbsite, they represented ≈17 vol% of the initial crushed solids composite test sample. In the water dissolution tests, addition of a volume of water ≈6.9 times the initial volume of the crushed solids composite was sufficient to dissolve and recover essentially all of the natrophosphate present. The ratio of the weight of water required to dissolve the natrophosphate solids to the estimated weight of natrophosphate present was 8.51. The Environmental Simulation Program (OLI Systems, Inc., Morris Plains, New Jersey) predicts that an 8.36 w/w ratio would be required to dissolve the estimated weight of natrophosphate present in the absence of other components of the heel solids. Only minor amounts of Al-bearing solids were removed from the composite solids in the water dissolution tests. The caustic metathesis/aluminate dissolution test sequence, executed at temperatures ranging from 27-30 ?C, dissolved and recovered ≈69 wt% of the gibbsite estimated to have been present in the initial crushed heel solids composite. This level of gibbsite recovery is consistent with that measured in previous scoping tests on the dissolution of gibbsite in strong caustic solutions. Overall, the sequential water and caustic dissolution tests dissolved and removed 80.3 wt% of the tank 241-C-109 aggregate solids test sample. The residual solids were 92-95 wt% gibbsite. Only a minor portion (≈4.

  4. Role of structural Fe in nontronite NAu-1 and dissolved Fe(II) in redox transformations of arsenic and antimony

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilgen, Anastasia G.; Foster, Andrea L.; Trainor, Thomas P. (Alaska Fairbanks); (USGS)

    2012-11-01

    Oxidation state is a major factor affecting the mobility of arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) in soil and aquatic systems. Metal (hydr)oxides and clay minerals are effective sorbents, and may also promote redox reactions on their surfaces via direct or indirect facilitation of electron transfer. Iron substituted for Al in the octahedral sites of aluminosilicate clay minerals has the potential to be in variable oxidation states and is a key constituent of electron transfer reactions in clay minerals. This experimental work was conducted to determine whether structural Fe in clays can affect the oxidation state of As and Sb adsorbed at the clay surface. Another goal of our study was to compare the reactivity of clay structural Fe(II) with systems containing Fe(II) present in dissolved/adsorbed forms. The experimental systems included batch reactors with various concentrations of As(III), Sb(III), As(V), or Sb(V) equilibrated with oxidized (NAu-1) or partially reduced (NAu-1-Red) nontronite, hydrous aluminum oxide (HAO) and kaolinite (KGa-1b) suspensions under oxic and anoxic conditions. The reaction times ranged from 0.5 to 720 h, and pH was constrained at 5.5 (for As) and at 5.5 or 8.0 (for Sb). The oxidation state of As and Sb in the liquid phase was determined by liquid chromatography in line with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, and in the solid phase by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Our findings show that structural Fe(II) in NAu-1-Red was not able to reduce As(V)/Sb(V) under the conditions examined, but reduction was seen when aqueous Fe(II) was present in the systems with kaolinite (KGa-1b) and nontronite (NAu-1). The ability of the structural Fe in nontronite clay NAu-1 to promote oxidation of As(III)/Sb(III) was greatly affected by its oxidation state: if all structural Fe was in the oxidized Fe(III) form, no oxidation was observed; however, when the clay was partially reduced ({approx}20% of structural Fe was reduced to Fe(II)), NAu-1-Red promoted the most extensive oxidation under both oxic and anoxic conditions. Electron balance considerations suggest that structural Fe(III) in the NAu-1-Red was the sole oxidant in the anoxic setup, while dissolved O{sub 2} also contributes in oxic conditions. Long-term batch experiments revealed the complex dynamics of As aqueous speciation in anoxic and oxic systems when reduced arsenic was initially added: rapid disappearance of As(III) was observed due to oxidation to As(V) followed by a slow increase of aqueous As(III). This behavior is explained by two reactions: fast initial oxidation of As(III) by structural Fe(III) (anoxic) or Fe(III) and dissolved O2 (oxic) followed by the slow reduction of As(V) by dissolved Fe(II). The resulting re-mobilization of As due to As(V) reduction by aqueous Fe(II) occurs on time scales on the order of days. These reactions are likely significant in a natural soil or aquifer environment with seasonal cycling or slightly reducing conditions with an abundance of clay minerals and dissolved Fe(II).

  5. Evaluating the origins and transformations of organic matter and dissolved inorganic nitrogen in two contrasting North Sea estuaries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahad, Jason Michael Elias

    In order to delineate the potential sources and to understand the main controls on the biogeochemical cycling of dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM, POM) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) during estuarine ...

  6. Microbial dissolved organic phosphorus utilization in the Hudson River Estuary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, J.W. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (United States)); Angel, D.L. (City College of New York, NY (United States))

    1990-01-09

    The Hudson River Estuary has large inputs of phosphorus and other nutrients from sewage discharge. Concentrations of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) reach at least 4 uM during the summer low-flow period. Biological utilization of phosphorus and other nutrients is usually minimal because of the high turbidity and short residence time of the water. Therefore SRP is normally a conservative tracer of salinity, with maximum concentrations found off Manhattan and decreasing to the north. Despite this abundance of SRP, some components of the dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) appear to be rapidly cycled by microbes. The objective of this study was to measure this DIP cycling during both the high- and low-flow periods. We measured the concentrations of SRP and DOP, the SRP turnover rate, algal and bacterial biomass, and the substrate turnover rates of two microbial cell-surface phosphatases, alkaline phosphatase (AP) and 5[prime] - nucleotidase (5PN). SRP concentrations ranged from about 0.5-4 uM, DOP was usually less than 1 uM. SRP and AP turnover were slow (generally < 5%/h), but 5PN substrate turnover was high with a median rate of 100%/h. Furthermore, over 30% of the phosphate hydrolyzed by 5PN was immediately taken up. If the nucleotide-P concentration is conservatively assumed to be 5 nM, than the rate of phosphate utilization from DOP is nearly equal to that from SRP. That is paradoxical considering the large SRP concentration, but suggests that much of this SRP may be biologically unavailable due to complexation with iron or other processes.

  7. Regulatory approaches for addressing dissolved oxygen concerns at hydropower facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Mark J.; Cada, Glenn F.; Sale, Michael J.; Eddlemon, Gerald K.

    2003-03-01

    Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are a common water quality problem downstream of hydropower facilities. At some facilities, structural improvements (e.g. installation of weir dams or aerating turbines) or operational changes (e.g., spilling water over the dam) can be made to improve DO levels. In other cases, structural and operational approaches are too costly for the project to implement or are likely to be of limited effectiveness. Despite improvements in overall water quality below dams in recent years, many hydropower projects are unable to meet state water quality standards for DO. Regulatory agencies in the U.S. are considering or implementing dramatic changes in their approach to protecting the quality of the Nation’s waters. New policies and initiatives have emphasized flexibility, increased collaboration and shared responsibility among all parties, and market-based, economic incentives. The use of new regulatory approaches may now be a viable option for addressing the DO problem at some hydropower facilities. This report summarizes some of the regulatory-related options available to hydropower projects, including negotiation of site-specific water quality criteria, use of biological monitoring, watershed-based strategies for the management of water quality, and watershed-based trading. Key decision points center on the health of the local biological communities and whether there are contributing impacts (i.e., other sources of low DO effluents) in the watershed. If the biological communities downstream of the hydropower project are healthy, negotiation for site-specific water quality standards or biocriteria (discharge performance criteria based on characteristics of the aquatic biota) might be pursued. If there are other effluent dischargers in the watershed that contribute to low DO problems, watershed-scale strategies and effluent trading may be effective. This report examines the value of regulatory approaches by reviewing their use in other

  8. Molecular simulation of a model of dissolved organic matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, Rebecca; Sposito, Garrison; Diallo, Mamadou S.; Schulten,Hans-Rolf

    2004-11-08

    A series of atomistic simulations was performed to assess the ability of the Schulten dissolved organic matter (DOM) molecule, a well-established model humic molecule, to reproduce the physical and chemical behavior of natural humic substances. The unhydrated DOM molecule had a bulk density value appropriate to humic matter, but its Hildebrand solubility parameter was lower than the range of current experimental estimates. Under hydrated conditions, the DOM molecule went through conformational adjustments that resulted in disruption of intramolecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds), although few water molecules penetrated the organic interior. The radius of gyration of the hydrated DOM molecule was similar to those measured for aquatic humic substances. To simulate humic materials under aqueous conditions with varying pH levels, carboxyl groups were deprotonated, and hydrated Na{sup +} or Ca{sup 2+} were added to balance the resulting negative charge. Because of intrusion of the cation hydrates, the model metal- humic structures were more porous, had greater solvent-accessible surface areas, and formed more H-bonds with water than the protonated, hydrated DOM molecule. Relative to Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} was both more strongly bound to carboxylate groups and more fully hydrated. This difference was attributed to the higher charge of the divalent cation. The Ca-DOM hydrate, however, featured fewer H-bonds than the Na-DOM hydrate, perhaps because of the reduced orientational freedom of organic moieties and water molecules imposed by Ca{sup 2+}. The present work is, to our knowledge, the first rigorous computational exploration regarding the behavior of a model humic molecule under a range of physical conditions typical of soil and water systems.

  9. MUJERES TOTAL BIOLOGIA 21 32

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    CIENCIAS ECONĂ?MICAS Y EMPRESARIALES TOTAL DERECHO NÂș de tesis leĂ­das y aprobadas por centro y departamento en el año 2014 CENTRO DEPARTAMENTO NÂș DE TESIS CIENCIAS MEDICINA TOTAL MEDICINA #12;MUJERES TOTAL NÂș de tesis leĂ­das y aprobadas por centro y departamento en el año 2014 CENTRO DEPARTAMENTO NÂș DE TESIS

  10. Solid state switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

    1994-07-19

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.

  11. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1.4 0.4 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.4 2.1 1.3 Table HC5.2 Living Space Characteristics by Year of Construction, 2005 Living Space Characteristics 1970 to 1979 1980 to 1989 1990 to 1999 2000 to...

  12. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table HC7.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Household Income, 2005 Below Poverty Line Eligible for Federal Assistance 1 2005 Household Income Housing Units (millions)...

  13. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 65.9 3.9 15.1 15.6 11.1 7.0 5.2 8.0 Without a Heat Pump... 53.5 3.5 12.9 12.7 8.6 5.5 4.2 6.2 With a Heat...

  14. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    em... 65.9 51.7 43.9 2.5 0.7 1.6 3.1 Without a Heat Pump... 53.5 41.1 34.8 2.1 0.5 1.2 2.6 With a Heat...

  15. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 65.9 11.0 16.5 13.5 8.7 16.1 6.4 17.2 Without a Heat Pump... 53.5 9.4 13.6 10.7 7.1 12.7 5.4 14.5 With a Heat...

  16. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1.5 2.3 3.0 6.0 For Two Housing Units... 0.9 0.3 0.4 Q Q N Q 0.4 Heat Pump... 9.2 1.2 2.2 2.0 1.3 2.4 0.6 1.9...

  17. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 65.9 3.7 2.6 6.1 6.8 11.2 13.2 13.9 8.2 Without a Heat Pump... 53.5 3.6 2.3 5.5 5.8 9.5 10.1 10.3 6.4 With a...

  18. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    tem... 65.9 14.1 3.6 1.5 2.1 6.4 0.6 Without a Heat Pump... 53.5 12.4 3.1 1.3 1.8 5.7 0.6 With a Heat...

  19. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    75.6 9.6 18.0 16.4 11.3 20.3 6.4 17.9 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model... 58.6 7.6 14.2 13.1 9.2 14.6 5.0 14.5 Laptop...

  20. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    75.6 30.3 12.5 18.1 14.7 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model... 58.6 22.9 9.8 14.1 11.9...

  1. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 75.6 17.5 12.1 5.4 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model... 58.6 14.1 10.0 4.0...

  2. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    75.6 13.7 17.5 26.6 17.8 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model... 58.6 10.4 14.1 20.5 13.7...

  3. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 75.6 26.6 14.5 4.1 7.9 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model... 58.6 20.5 11.0 3.4 6.1...

  4. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 0.7 Q Q Q Type of Monitor Used on Most-Used PC Desk-top CRT (Standard Monitor)... 45.0 11.4 8.1 3.3 Flat-panel...

  5. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 0.7 Q Q Q 0.3 Type of Monitor Used on Most-Used PC Desk-top CRT (Standard Monitor)... 45.0 7.9 11.4 15.4 10.2 Flat-panel...

  6. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 0.7 Q Q Q Q Type of Monitor Used on Most-Used PC Desk-top CRT (Standard Monitor)... 45.0 2.3 2.5 3.1 4.8...

  7. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 0.7 Q Q Q Type of Monitor Used on Most-Used PC Desk-top CRT (Standard Monitor)... 45.0 7.9 5.6 2.4 Flat-panel...

  8. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... 0.7 Q Q Q Q Type of Monitor Used on Most-Used PC Desk-top CRT (Standard Monitor)... 45.0 15.4 7.9 2.8 4.8 Flat-panel...

  9. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 0.7 0.3 Q Q Q Type of Monitor Used on Most-Used PC Desk-top CRT (Standard Monitor)... 45.0 17.7 7.5 10.2 9.6 Flat-panel...

  10. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 75.6 17.8 5.3 12.5 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model... 58.6 13.7 4.2 9.5 Laptop...

  11. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... 0.7 0.3 Q Q Type of Monitor Used on Most-Used PC Desk-top CRT (Standard Monitor)... 45.0 10.2 3.2 7.0 Flat-panel...

  12. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... 75.6 4.2 5.0 5.3 9.0 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model... 58.6 3.2 3.9 4.0 6.7...

  13. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1.2 0.5 0.9 3 or More... 0.6 Q Q Q Q Q N Q Plasma Television Sets... 3.6 0.6 0.8 0.5 0.6 1.2 0.3 0.9...

  14. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Q 0.4 3 or More Units... 5.4 0.3 Q Q Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  15. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 1.9 1.1 Q Q 0.3 Q Do Not Use Central Air-Conditioning... 45.2 24.6 3.6 5.0 8.8 3.2 Use a Programmable...

  16. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3.3 2.9 Q Q Q N For Two Housing Units... 1.4 Q Q 0.5 0.8 N Central Warm-Air Furnace... 2.8 2.4 Q Q Q 0.2 Other...

  17. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 or More Units... 5.4 2.4 1.4 0.7 0.9 Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  18. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    s... 58.2 9.2 4.9 7.8 7.1 8.8 8.4 7.8 4.2 Central Warm-Air Furnace... 44.7 5.2 3.1 5.6 5.2 7.1 7.4 7.3 3.9 For...

  19. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 or More Units... 5.4 2.3 1.7 0.6 Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  20. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 or More Units... 5.4 2.1 0.9 0.2 1.0 Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  1. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    38.9 12.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it... 1.9 0.3 Q 0.5 1.0 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System......

  2. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0.3 3 or More Units... 5.4 0.7 0.5 Q Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  3. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 or More Units... 5.4 2.3 0.7 2.1 0.3 Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  4. Total..............................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.4 12.55.6 111.1 86.6

  5. Total................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.4 12.55.6 111.1

  6. Total........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.4 12.55.6 111.1 111.1

  7. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.4 12.55.6 111.1

  8. Total...........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.4 12.55.6 111.1Q

  9. Total...........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.4 12.55.6 111.1QQ

  10. Total...........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.4 12.55.6 111.1QQ14.7

  11. Total...........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.4 12.55.6

  12. Total............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.4

  13. Total............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.4

  14. Total.............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8 20.6 13.1

  15. Total..............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8 20.6

  16. Total..............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8 20.6Do Not

  17. Total...............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8 20.6Do

  18. Total...............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8 20.6Do0.7

  19. Total...............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8

  20. Total...............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8Do Not Have

  1. Total...............................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8Do Not

  2. Total................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8Do Not

  3. Total.................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8Do Not49.2

  4. Total.................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8Do

  5. Total.................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8Do26.7 28.8

  6. Total..................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8Do26.7

  7. Total..................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8Do26.733.0

  8. Total..................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7 28.8Do26.733.0.

  9. Total...................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.7

  10. Total...................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.715.2 7.8 1.0 1.2

  11. Total...................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.715.2 7.8 1.0

  12. Total...................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.715.2 7.8 1.0Type

  13. Total...................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.715.2 7.8

  14. Total....................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.715.2 7.814.7 7.4

  15. Total.......................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.715.2 7.814.7

  16. Total.......................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.715.2 7.814.75.6

  17. Total.......................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.715.2

  18. Total........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.715.225.6 40.7

  19. Total........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.715.225.6

  20. Total........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.715.225.65.6 17.7

  1. Total........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.715.225.65.6

  2. Total........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7 7.426.715.225.65.64.2

  3. Total........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.7

  4. Total........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Do

  5. Total.........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0 22.7 22.3

  6. Total..........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0 22.7 22.325.6

  7. Total..........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0 22.7 22.325.6.

  8. Total..........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0 22.7

  9. Total..........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0 22.70.7 21.7

  10. Total..........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0 22.70.7 21.74.2

  11. Total..........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0 22.70.7

  12. Total..........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0 22.70.77.1 19.0

  13. Total...........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0 22.70.77.1

  14. Total...........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0 22.70.77.15.6

  15. Total...........................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0

  16. Total.............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0Do Not Have

  17. Total.............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0Do Not

  18. Total.............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0Do NotCooking

  19. Total.............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0Do NotCookingDo

  20. Total.............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0Do

  1. Total.............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0DoCooking

  2. Total.............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0DoCookingDo Not

  3. Total.............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0DoCookingDo

  4. Total..............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 19.0DoCookingDo20.6

  5. Total..............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1

  6. Total..............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0

  7. Total..............................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 111.1 7.1 7.0 8.07.1

  8. Total.................................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 111.1 7.1 7.0

  9. Total.................................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 111.1 7.1 7.07.1 7.0

  10. Total....................................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 111.1 7.1 7.07.1

  11. Total....................................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 111.1 7.1 7.07.15.6

  12. Total....................................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 111.1 7.1

  13. Total....................................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 111.1 7.1Personal

  14. Total....................................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 111.1 7.1Personal4.2

  15. Total....................................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 111.1

  16. Total....................................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 111.1 111.1 47.1

  17. Total.........................................................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1 14.77.1 111.1 111.1

  18. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYearbyWithdrawalsHome6,672(MillionFeet) Oil4)5,Product:

  19. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYearbyWithdrawalsHome6,672(MillionFeet)

  20. Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-03-30

    The article discusses solid state lighting technologies. This topic was covered in two previous ASHRAE Journal columns (2010). This article covers advancements in technologies and the associated efficacies. The life-cycle, energy savings and market potential of these technologies are addressed as well.

  1. Solid polymer electrolyte compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garbe, James E. (Stillwater, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Hamrock, Steven J. (St. Paul, MN); Le, Dinh Ba (St. Paul, MN)

    2001-01-01

    An electrolyte composition is featured that includes a solid, ionically conductive polymer, organically modified oxide particles that include organic groups covalently bonded to the oxide particles, and an alkali metal salt. The electrolyte composition is free of lithiated zeolite. The invention also features cells that incorporate the electrolyte composition.

  2. MUJERES ( * ) TOTAL BIOLOGA 16 22

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    13 INGENIERÍA INFORMÁTICA 2 11 TOTAL ESCUELA POLITÉCNICA SUPERIOR 2 11 ANTROPOLOGÍA SOCIAL Y TEORÍA DEL ARTE 1 1 LINGÜISTICA 4 7 MÚSICA 1 3 PREHISTORIA Y ARQUEOLOGÍA 0 1 TOTAL FILOSOFÍA Y LETRAS 22 Y EMPRESARIALES Fuente: Centro de Estudios de Posgrado, a 9 de Julio del 2010 DERECHO ESCUELA

  3. An assessment of remote sensing algorithms for colored dissolved organic matter in complex freshwater environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Qian

    An assessment of remote sensing algorithms for colored dissolved organic matter in complex October 2013 Accepted 12 October 2013 Available online xxxx Keywords: CDOM Algorithm Freshwater environments Saginaw River Lake Huron This study evaluated fifteen algorithms representing four major

  4. Dissolved organic carbon dynamics in anaerobic sediments of the Santa Monica Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    C. (1996) Biogenic matter diagenesis on the sea ?oor: aQuanti?cation of early diagenesis: dissolved constituents inR. A. (1990) Early diagenesis and recycling of biogenic

  5. Closely related phytoplankton species produce similar suites of dissolved organic matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Jamie William

    Production of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by marine phytoplankton supplies the majority of organic substrate consumed by heterotrophic bacterioplankton in the sea. This production and subsequent consumption converts a ...

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon in soil and shallow groundwater, Konza Prairie LTER Site, NE Kanas, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsypin, Mikhail

    2011-12-31

    Sources and seasonal trends of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in a shallow limestone aquifer were studied for 1 year at the Konza Prairie LTER (Long-Term Ecological Research) Site in northeastern Kansas, from spring 2010 to spring 2011. Annual...

  7. Direct and indirect photoreactions of chromophoric dissolved organic matter : roles of reactive oxygen species and iron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstone, Jared Verrill, 1971-

    2002-01-01

    Photochemical transformations of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) are one of the principal processes controlling its fate in coastal waters. The photochemical decomposition of CDOM leads to the formation of a ...

  8. Chemical characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in seawater : structure, cycling, and the role of biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quan, Tracy M. (Tracy Michelle), 1977-

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate three different areas relating to the characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM): further determination of the chemical compounds present in high molecular weight DOM ...

  9. Distal transport of dissolved hydrothermal iron in the deep South Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzsimmons, Jessica N.

    Until recently, hydrothermal vents were not considered to be an important source to the marine dissolved Fe (dFe) inventory because hydrothermal Fe was believed to precipitate quantitatively near the vent site. Based on ...

  10. Solid Phase Characterization of Solids Recovered from Failed Sluicer Arm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, Gary A.

    2015-03-09

    The Enclosure to this memo discusses the solid phase characterization of a solid sample that was retrieved from the single-shell Tank 241-C-111 extended reach sluicer #2. This sluicer, removed from riser #3 on September 25, 2014, was found to have approximately 0.4 gallons of solid tank waste adhering to the nozzle area.

  11. DISCOLORATION OF THE WETTED SURFACE IN THE 6.1D DISSOLVER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T.; Mickalonis, J.; Crapse, K.

    2013-12-18

    During a camera inspection of a failed coil in the 6.1D dissolver, an orange discoloration was observed on a portion of the dissolver wall and coils. At the request of H-Canyon Engineering, the inspection video of the dissolver was reviewed by SRNL to assess if the observed condition (a non-uniform, orange-colored substance on internal surfaces) was a result of corrosion. Although the dissolver vessel and coil corrode during dissolution operations, the high acid conditions are not consistent with the formation of ferrous oxides (i.e., orange/rust-colored corrosion products). In a subsequent investigation, SRNL performed dissolution experiments to determine if residues from the nylon bags used for Pu containment could have generated the orange discoloration following dissolution. When small pieces of a nylon bag were placed in boiling 8 M nitric acid solutions containing other components representative of the H-Canyon process, complete dissolution occurred almost immediately. No residues were obtained even when a nylon mass to volume ratio greater than 100 times the 6.1D dissolver value was used. Degradation products from the dissolution of nylon bags are not responsible for the discoloration observed in the dissolver.

  12. Interface Engineering of Garnet Solid Electrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    A commercial lithium ion battery uses solid electrodes withsolution in the lithium ion battery with a solid electrolytesolid-state lithium ion conductors for solid-state battery

  13. TRANSPORT NUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2014-01-01

    NUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION LutgardNUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION LutgardNUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION Lutgard

  14. TRANSPORT NUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2012-01-01

    NUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION LutgardNUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION LutgardNUMBER GRADIENTS AND SOLID ELECTROLYTE DEGRADATION Lutgard

  15. Heat Recovery From Solid Waste 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Underwood, O. W.

    1981-01-01

    areas of evaluation, including the cost of fuel, cost of solid waste disposal, plant energy requirements, available technology, etc....

  16. Solid state electrochemical current source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potanin, Alexander Arkadyevich (Sarov, RU); Vedeneev, Nikolai Ivanovich (Sarov, RU)

    2002-04-30

    A cathode and a solid state electrochemical cell comprising said cathode, a solid anode and solid fluoride ion conducting electrolyte. The cathode comprises a metal oxide and a compound fluoride containing at least two metals with different valences. Representative compound fluorides include solid solutions of bismuth fluoride and potassium fluoride; and lead fluoride and potassium fluoride. Representative metal oxides include copper oxide, lead oxide, manganese oxide, vanadium oxide and silver oxide.

  17. Long cycle life solid-state solid polymer electrolyte cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1988-02-02

    This patent describes a rechargeable solid-state lithium conducting solid polymer electrolyte electrochemical cell comprising: a lithium intercalation compound negative electrode selected from the group consisting of: MoO/sub 2/; RuO/sub 2/; WO; OsO/sub 2/; IrO/sub 2/; and Mo1/2V1/2O/sub 2/; a lithium ion conducting solid polymer electrolyte comprising a lithium ion conducting supporting electrolyte complexed with a solid polymer contacting the negative electrode on one side; and a lithium intercalation compound positive electrode contacting the opposite side of the solid polymer electrolyte.

  18. U.S. Total Exports

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Cameron, LA Sabine Pass, LA Total to United Kingdom Freeport, TX Sabine Pass, LA LNG Exports from Cameron, LA LNG Exports from Kenai, AK LNG Exports from Freeport, TX LNG Exports...

  19. MUJERES ( * ) TOTAL BIOLOGA 18 22

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    DE PROFESORADO Y EDUCACIĂ?N CIENCIAS ECONĂ?MICAS Y EMPRESARIALES NÂș de tesis leĂ­das y aprobadas por centro y departamento en el año 2010 CENTRO DEPARTAMENTO NÂș TESIS CIENCIAS #12;ANATOMÍA PATOLĂ?GICA 0 1 Y DE LA EDUCACIĂ?N 0 2 PSICOLOGÍA SOCIAL Y METODOLOGÍA 3 8 TOTAL PSICOLOGÍA 11 26 TOTAL TESIS LEIDAS

  20. Solid waste handling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-31

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  1. Solid phase extraction membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Kurt C [Nashville, TN; Langer, Roger L [Hudson, WI

    2002-11-05

    A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.

  2. Solid State Lighting Reliability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4EnergySolid State Lighting Reliability 2014 Building

  3. Solar solids reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yudow, B.D.

    1986-02-24

    A solar powered kiln is provided, that is of relatively simple design and which efficiently uses solar energy. The kiln or solids reactor includes a stationary chamber with a rearward end which receives solid material to be reacted and a forward end through which reacted material is disposed of, and a screw conveyor extending along the bottom of the chamber for slowly advancing the material between the chamber ends. Concentrated solar energy is directed to an aperture at the forward end of the chamber to heat the solid material moving along the bottom of the chamber. The solar energy can be reflected from a mirror facing at an upward incline, through the aperture and against a heat-absorbing material near the top of the chamber, which moves towards the rear of the chamber to distribute heat throughout the chamber. Pumps at the forward and rearward ends of the chamber pump heated sweep gas through the length of the chamber, while minimizing the flow of gas through an open aperture through which concentrated sunlight is received.

  4. Solar solids reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yudow, Bernard D. (Chicago, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A solar powered kiln is provided, that is of relatively simple design and which efficiently uses solar energy. The kiln or solids reactor includes a stationary chamber with a rearward end which receives solid material to be reacted and a forward end through which reacted material is disposed of, and a screw conveyor extending along the bottom of the chamber for slowly advancing the material between the chamber ends. Concentrated solar energy is directed to an aperture at the forward end of the chamber to heat the solid material moving along the bottom of the chamber. The solar energy can be reflected from a mirror facing at an upward incline, through the aperture and against a heat-absorbing material near the top of the chamber, which moves towards the rear of the chamber to distribute heat throughout the chamber. Pumps at the forward and rearward ends of the chamber pump heated sweep gas through the length of the chamber, while minimizing the flow of gas through an open aperture through which concentrated sunlight is received.

  5. Total transmission and total reflection by zero index materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viet Cuong Nguyen; Lang Chen

    2010-07-01

    In this report, we achieved total transmission and reflection in a slab of zero index materials with defect(s). By controlling the defect's radius and dielectric constant, we can obtain total transmission and reflection of EM wave. The zero index materials, in this report, stand for materials with permittivity and permeability which are simultaneously equal to zero or so called matched impedance zero index materials. Along with theoretical calculations and simulation demonstrations, we also discuss about some possible applications for the proposed structure such as shielding or cloaking an object without restricting its view. We also suggest a way to control total transmission and reflection actively by using tunable refractive index materials such as liquid crystal and BST. The physics behind those phenomena is attributed to intrinsic properties of zero index materials: constant field inside zero index slab.

  6. Miscellaneous Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr 2012DecadeTotal19 15 (MillionYearFeet)

  7. Mississippi Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr 2012DecadeTotal19 1522 35 42 44 46 287 5 7 12 9Lease

  8. Packaging of solid state devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.

    2006-01-03

    A package for one or more solid state devices in a single module that allows for operation at high voltage, high current, or both high voltage and high current. Low thermal resistance between the solid state devices and an exterior of the package and matched coefficient of thermal expansion between the solid state devices and the materials used in packaging enables high power operation. The solid state devices are soldered between two layers of ceramic with metal traces that interconnect the devices and external contacts. This approach provides a simple method for assembling and encapsulating high power solid state devices.

  9. Cloud Seeding What is it.... "It is a science that can be used to control winds, suppress hail, dissolve fog or create

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    , dissolve fog or create rain."...."assisting nature"...."Cloud seeding essentially helps that process along

  10. Low Energy Electrodynamics in Solids (LEES) 2012

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Energy Electrodynamics in Solids (LEES) 2012 Low Energy Electrodynamics in Solids (LEES) 2012 July 22-27, 2012; Napa...

  11. X-ray characterization of solid small molecule organic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Billinge, Simon; Shankland, Kenneth; Shankland, Norman; Florence, Alastair

    2014-06-10

    The present invention provides, inter alia, methods of characterizing a small molecule organic material, e.g., a drug or a drug product. This method includes subjecting the solid small molecule organic material to x-ray total scattering analysis at a short wavelength, collecting data generated thereby, and mathematically transforming the data to provide a refined set of data.

  12. Advances in total scattering analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Proffen, Thomas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Hyunjeong [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the analysis of the total scattering pattern has become an invaluable tool to study disordered crystalline and nanocrystalline materials. Traditional crystallographic structure determination is based on Bragg intensities and yields the long range average atomic structure. By including diffuse scattering into the analysis, the local and medium range atomic structure can be unravelled. Here we give an overview of recent experimental advances, using X-rays as well as neutron scattering as well as current trends in modelling of total scattering data.

  13. SOLIDS PRECIPITATION EVENT IN MCU CAUSAL ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FROM SOLIDS RECOVERY TEAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, A.; Aponte, C.

    2014-08-15

    A process upset occurred in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) facility on April 6th, 2014. During recovery efforts, a significant amount of solids were found in the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT), Salt Solution Receipt Tanks (SSRTs), two extraction contactors, and scrub contactors. The solids were identified by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) as primarily sodium oxalate and sodium alumina silicate (NAS) with the presence of some aluminum hydroxide. NAS solids have been present in the SSFT since simulant runs during cold chemical startup of MCU in 2007, and have not hindered operations since that time. During the process upset in April 2014, the oxalate solids partially blocked the aqueous outlet of the extraction contactors, causing salt solution to exit through the contactor organic outlet to the scrub contactors with the organic phase. This salt solution overwhelmed the scrub contactors and passed with the organic phase to the strip section of MCU. The partially reversed flow of salt solution resulted in a Strip Effluent (SE) stream that was high in Isopar™ L, pH and sodium. The primary cause of the excessive solids accumulation in the SSRTs and SSFT at MCU is attributed to an increase in the frequency of oxalic acid cleaning of the 512-S primary filter. Agitation in the SSRTs at MCU in response to cold weather likely provided the primary mechanism to transfer the solids to the contactors. Sources of the sodium oxalate solids are attributed to the oxalic acid cleaning solution used to clean the primary filter at the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) filtration at 512-S, as well as precipitation from the salt batch feed, which is at or near oxalate saturation. The Solids Recovery Team was formed to determine the cause of the solids formation and develop recommendations to prevent or mitigate this event in the future. A total of 53 recommendations were generated. These recommendations were organized into 4 focus areas: • Improve understanding of oxalate equilibrium and kinetics in salt solutions • Reduction/elimination of oxalic acid cleaning in 512-S • Flowsheet optimization • Improving diagnostic capability The recommendations implemented prior to resumption of MCU operations provide a risk mitigation or detection function through additional sampling and observation. The longer term recommendations provide a framework to increase the basic process knowledge of both oxalate chemistry and filtration behavior and then facilitate decisions that improve the salt flowsheet as a system.

  14. Chemical Protein Synthesis by Solid Phase Ligation of Unprotected Peptide Segments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennis, Edward A.

    Chemical Protein Synthesis by Solid Phase Ligation of Unprotected Peptide Segments Lynne E. Canne, 1998 Abstract: In this paper we describe "solid phase chemical ligation" (SPCL), the application for the total chemical synthesis of proteins. In this method, each building block used is an unprotected peptide

  15. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, F.H.; Chung, B.W.; Raistrick, I.D.; Brosha, E.L.

    1996-08-06

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer. 4 figs.

  16. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, Fernando H. (Sante Fe, NM); Chung, Brandon W. (Los Alamos, NM); Raistrick, Ian D. (Los Alamos, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

  17. Solid state thermal engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayman, C.M.

    1981-01-27

    An improved solid state thermal engine utilizes as a drive member a braided belt fabricated from a memory alloy such as nickel-titanium and nickel-titanium ternary alloys, copper-zinc and copper-zinc ternary alloys, and the like. The braided belt is mounted on a set of pulleys to provide passage through a hot zone where the belt contracts and develops tension, and through a cold zone where it relaxes and stretches. Since more energy is delivered by contraction than is required for relaxation, positive work output results with an efficiency of between onefifth and one-third of the carnot cycle.

  18. TOWARDS ESTIMATING TOTAL ECONOMIC VALUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Ian J.

    TOWARDS ESTIMATING TOTAL ECONOMIC VALUE OF FORESTS IN MEXICO by Neil Adger Katrina Brown Raffaello OF FORESTS IN MEXICO by Neil Adger Katrina Brown Raffaello Cervigni Dominic Moran Centre for Social and SEDESOL for their assistance whilst in Mexico, and David Pearce and Kerry Turner for comments on earlier

  19. Cruise Report Regional Monitoring Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    trace elements (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, silver, and zinc) and ancillary measurements (salinity, total suspended solids, dissolved organic carbon, chlorophyll a, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite of salinity, total suspended solids, chlorophyll a, nutrients (ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, orthophosphate

  20. On-line fast response device and method for measuring dissolved gas in a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tutu, Narinder Kumar (Manorville, NY)

    2011-01-11

    A method and device for the measurement of dissolved gas within a fluid. The fluid, substantially a liquid, is pumped into a pipe. The flow of the fluid is temporally restricted, creating one or more low pressure regions. A measurement indicative of trapped air is taken before and after the restriction. The amount of dissolved air is calculated from the difference between the first and second measurements. Preferably measurements indicative of trapped air is obtained from one or more pressure transducers, capacitance transducers, or combinations thereof. In the alternative, other methods such as those utilizing x-rays or gamma rays may also be used to detect trapped air. Preferably, the fluid is a hydraulic fluid, whereby dissolved air in the fluid is detected.

  1. Solid state heat engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cory, J.S.

    1981-12-15

    A compact solid state turbine heat engine can be devised by pairing the nitinol elements. Each element is characterized by being in thermal contact with at least one hot water and one cold water bath and mechanically coupled to at least one driven pulley and driver pulley. A second nitinol element is similarly configured with a driver pulley, driven pulley, hot and cold water bath. The driver pulley associated with the first nitinol element is mechanically coupled to the driven pulley of the second nitinol element. Similarly, the driver pulley of the second nitinol element is mechanically coupled to the driven pulley of the first nitinol element. The paired nitinol elements form a compound solid state turbine engine wherein each nitinol element lies in a single plane and wherein the engine may be combined with a plurality of such pairs for increased power output. The nitinol elements may also incorporate a snubber to limit the strain on the element and the engine may further incorporate a variable radius pulley to increase the efficiency of mechanical conversion.

  2. Cruise Report Regional Monitoring Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    trace elements (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, silver, and zinc) and ancillary measurements (salinity, total suspended solids, dissolved organic carbon, chlorophyll a, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, nutrients (ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, orthophosphate, silicate), and dissolved organic carbon. 4. Collect

  3. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  4. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA)

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  5. Solid Waste Management Act (Pennsylvania)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act provides for the planning and regulation of solid waste storage, collection, transportation, processing, treatment, and disposal. It requires that municipalities submit plans for municipal...

  6. Solid Waste Management (South Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute contains provisions for solid waste management systems, groundwater monitoring, liability for pollution, permitting, inspections, and provisions for waste reduction and recycling...

  7. MUJERES ( * ) TOTAL BIOLOGA 10 19

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    mujeres que han leĂ­do tesis en la UAM en el año 2007 Fuente: Centro de Posgrado de la UAM, a 31 de Diciembre de 2007 FILOSOFÍA Y LETRAS MEDICINA PSICOLOGÍA TOTAL TESIS LEIDAS Y APROBADAS EN EL AĂ?O 2007 EN LA UAM CIENCIAS CIENCIAS ECONĂ?MICAS Y EMPRESARIALES DERECHO ESCUELA POLITĂ?CNICA SUPERIOR NÂș de tesis

  8. Total Energy Outcome City Pilot

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsState ofSavings forTitle XVIIof EnergyofTotal Energy

  9. Solid state rapid thermocycling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2014-05-13

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A solid state heat exchanger with a first well and second well is coupled to a power module. A thermoelectric element is coupled to the first well, the second well, and the power module, is configured to transfer thermal energy from the first well to the second well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a first direction, and is configured to transfer thermal energy from the second well to the first well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a second direction. A controller may be coupled to the thermoelectric elements, and may switch the direction of current flowing through the thermoelectric element in response to a determination by sensors coupled to the wells that the amount of thermal energy in the wells falls below or exceeds a pre-determined threshold.

  10. Sources and Fates of Dissolved Organic Carbon in Rural and Urban Watersheds in Brazos County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cioce, Danielle

    2012-10-19

    The Bryan/College Station (B/CS) region has been reported to have elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface water. Increased DOC concentrations are worrisome as DOC has been shown to be an energy source for the recovery...

  11. Wastewater Discharge, Nutrient Loading, and Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics in a Shallow Texas Bay 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroer, Lee Allen

    2014-05-07

    In Oso Bay, a wastewater treatment plant acts as a source of eutrophication and may have measureable impact on the health of the bay. The objectives of this study were to create a model for modeling dissolved oxygen concentrations over time...

  12. Whole-stream metabolism: strategies for measuring and modeling diel trends of dissolved oxygen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dodds, Walter

    are estimated from changes in dissolved O2 concentration in the stream over time. An upstream­downstream O2], and use of temperature-corrected metabolic rates) is needed. We measured O2 upstream and downstream method is based on measurements at an upstream and a downstream point. Two-station methods are useful

  13. A simple method for the removal of dissolved organic matter and N analysis of NO3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    ,11] or by the stepwise reduction of nitrate to nitrous oxide gas (N2O) by bacteria[12,13] or by using cadmium or sodium in nitrate (NO3 ­ ) are frequently used to identify nitrate sources and to study nitrogen (N) transformation, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) can interfere with the d15 N signature of nitrate. We therefore have

  14. Did BP's oil-dissolving chemical make the spill By Kate Spinner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Did BP's oil-dissolving chemical make the spill worse? By Kate Spinner Published: Monday, May 30, 2011 at 8:47 p.m. BP succeeded in sinking the oil from its blown well out of sight -- and keeping much chemicals. But the impact on the ecosystem as a whole may have been more damaging than the oil alone

  15. The Effects of Dissolved Halide Anions on Hydrogen Bonding in Liquid Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geissler, Phillip

    that the statistics of hydrogen-bond strengths are only weakly modified beyond this first solvation shell infrared pump-probe measurements appear to indicate that dissolved ions only significantly affect connections between experimental observables and the statistics of HB geometries. In this contribution we

  16. MEMS Needle-type Sensor Array for in Situ Measurements of Dissolved

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papautsky, Ian

    a multisensor device (1, 5, 16-18). Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies permit the integrationMEMS Needle-type Sensor Array for in Situ Measurements of Dissolved Oxygen and Redox Potential J I systems (MEMS) technologies. The MEA exhibits fast response times for both DO and ORP measurements

  17. Tracks of dissolved minerals Pictures from Opportunity's panoramic camera and microscopic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tracks of dissolved minerals Pictures from Opportunity's panoramic camera and microscopic imager is familiar to geologists as the sites where crystals of salt minerals form within rocks that sit in briny minerals. On the front: Scraping up clues Spirit's stuck right front wheel scraped a trench in the Mars

  18. Effects of applied voltages and dissolved oxygen on sustained power generation by microbial fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of applied voltages and dissolved oxygen on sustained power generation by microbial fuel to 0.3 mg/L during MFC operation was not found to adversely affect power generation over subsequent for up to 10 days and 10 hrs also did not affect power generation, as power rapidly returned to previous

  19. Biogeochemical and hydrographic controls on chromophoric dissolved organic matter distribution in the Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, David A.

    in the Pacific Ocean Chantal M. Swan a,Ă, David A. Siegel a,b , Norman B. Nelson a , Craig A. Carlson c , Elora Available online 19 September 2009 Keywords: CDOM AOU Pacific Water masses Hydrography Bio-optical a b s t r a c t Recent in situ observations of chromophoric dissolved organic material (CDOM) in the Pacific

  20. Variation in the availability and utilization of dissolved organic nitrogen by the smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Deborah

    Variation in the availability and utilization of dissolved organic nitrogen by the smooth cordgrass to be an important source of nitrogen (N) for S. alterniflora, however, little is known about the availability in the availability and utilization of DON, (2) investigate seasonal variation in DON availability, (3) determine

  1. Effect of dissolved oxygen on stomach evacuation rate of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becerra Illingworth, Jorge Alberto

    1998-01-01

    Juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) weighing 19,7[]2.5 g, and acclimated to 10 ppt salinity and 25[]1[]C, were subjected to one of three dissolved oxygen (DO) regimes-- 7.5, 4.5, and 2.7[]0.5 mg O? 1?č -- after consuming pelleted feed...

  2. SOLID MECHANICS James R. Rice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 SOLID MECHANICS James R. Rice School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, and Department of Earth: February 2010 Downloadable at: http://esag.harvard.edu/rice/e0_Solid_Mechanics_94_10.pdf TABLE OF CONTENTS provided on last three pages, pp. 87-89 INTRODUCTION The application of the principles of mechanics to bulk

  3. TotalView Training 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired Solar FuelTechnologyTel:FebruaryEIA's Today8Topo II: AnUsersTotalView

  4. Total Adjusted Sales of Kerosene

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight Paths30,2,8, 2015End Use: Total

  5. Total Imports of Residual Fuel

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight Paths30,2,8,Product: Total CrudeMay-15

  6. Valve for controlling solids flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staiger, M.D.

    1982-09-29

    A valve for controlling the flow of solids comprises a vessel having an overflow point, an inlet line for discharging solids into the vessel positioned within the vessel such that the inlet line's discharge point is lower than the vessel's overflow point, and means for introducing a fluidizing fluid into the vessel. The fluidizing fluid fluidizes the solids within the vessel so that they overflow at the vessel's overflow point. For the removal of nuclear waste product the vessel may be placed within a sealed container having a bottom connected transport line for transporting the solids to storage or other sites. The rate of solids flow is controlled by the flow rate of the fluidizing fluid and by V-notch weirs of different sizes spaced about the top of the vessel.

  7. STUDIES ON THE USE OF CARBON DIOXIDE DISSOLVED IN REFRIGERATED BRINE FOR THE PRESERVATION OF WHOLE FISH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STUDIES ON THE USE OF CARBON DIOXIDE DISSOLVED IN REFRIGERATED BRINE FOR THE PRESERVATION OF WHOLE in rockfish and chum salmon of dissolving carbon dioxide in brine. Storing the fish in the refrigerated brine treated with carbon dioxide inhibited the growth of the bacteria, retarded the rate at which the fish

  8. Global distribution and sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen export to the coastal zone: Results from a spatially explicit, global model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seitzinger, Sybil

    Global distribution and sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen export to the coastal zone: Results dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export by rivers to coastal waters (NEWS-DIN). NEWS-DIN was developed as part of an internally consistent suite of global nutrient export models. Modeled and measured DIN

  9. Large fluctuations of dissolved oxygen in the Indian and Pacific oceans during Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations caused by variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    Large fluctuations of dissolved oxygen in the Indian and Pacific oceans during Dansgaard glacial Indian and Pacific oceans sediments document millennial-scale fluctuations of subsurface dissolved Hemisphere of the Indian and Pacific oceans, consistent with the paleoclimate records. Cold periods

  10. A comparison of observables for solid-solid phase transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smilowitz, Laura B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Henson, Bryan F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romero, Jerry J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The study of solid-solid phase transformations is hindered by the difficulty of finding a volumetric probe to use as a progress variable. Solids are typically optically opaque and heterogeneous. Over the past several years, second harmonic generation (SHG) has been used as a kinetic probe for a solid-solid phase transition in which the initial and final phases have different symmetries. Bulk generation of SHG is allowed by symmetry only in noncentrosymmetric crystallographic space groups. For the organic energetic nitramine octahydro-1,3 ,5,7 -tetranitro-1,3 ,5,7 -tatrazocine (HMX), the beta phase is centro symmetric (space group P2{sub 1}/c) and the delta phase iS noncentrosymmetric (space group P6{sub 1}22) making SHG an extremely sensitive, essentially zero background probe of the phase change progress. We have used SHG as a tool to follow the progress of the transformation from beta to delta phase during the solid-solid transformation. However, kinetic models of the transformation derived using different observables from several other groups have differed, showing later onset for the phase change and faster progression to completion. In this work, we have intercompared several techniques to understand these differences. The three techniques discussed are second harmonic generation, Raman spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The progress of the beta to delta phase transition in HMX observed with each of these different probes will be discussed and advantages and disadvantages of each technique described. This paper compares several different observables for use in measuring the kinetics of solid-solid phase transitions. Relative advantages and disadvantages for each technique are described and a direct comparison of results is made for the beta to delta polymorphic phase transition of the energetic nitramine, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tatrazocine.

  11. Approaches to mitigate the impact of dissolved organic matter on the adsorption of synthetic organic contaminants by porous carbonaceous sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanping Guo; Abhishek Yadav; Tanju Karanfil [Clemson University, Anderson, SC (United States). Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences

    2007-11-15

    Adsorption of trichloroethylene (TCE) and atrazine, two synthetic organic contaminants (SOCs) having different optimum adsorption pore regions, by four activated carbons and an activated carbon fiber (ACF) was examined. Adsorbents included two coconut-shell based granular activated carbons (GACs), two coal-based GACs (F400 and HD4000) and a phenol formaldehyde-based activated carbon fiber. The selected adsorbents had a wide range of pore size distributions but similar surface acidity and hydrophobicity. Single solute and preloading (with a dissolved organic matter (DOM)) isotherms were performed. Single solute adsorption results showed that (i) the adsorbents having higher amounts of pores with sizes about the dimensions of the adsorbate molecules exhibited higher uptakes, (ii) there were some pore structure characteristics, which were not completely captured by pore size distribution analysis, that also affected the adsorption, and (iii) the BET surface area and total pore volume were not the primary factors controlling the adsorption of SOCs. The preloading isotherm results showed that for TCE adsorbing primarily in pores <10 {angstrom}, the highly microporous ACF and GACs, acting like molecular sieves, exhibited the highest uptakes. For atrazine with an optimum adsorption pore region of 10-20 {angstrom}, which overlaps with the adsorption region of some DOM components, the GACs with a broad pore size distribution and high pore volumes in the 10-20 {angstrom} region had the least impact of DOM on the adsorption. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Solid Xenon Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balakishiyeva, Durdana N.; Saab, Tarek [University of Florida (United States); Mahapatra, Rupak [Texas A and M University (United States); Yoo, Jonghee [FNAL (United States)

    2010-08-30

    Crystals like Germanium and Silicon need to be grown in specialized facilities which is time and money costly. It takes many runs to test the detector once it's manufactured and mishaps are very probable. It is of a great challenge to grow big germanium crystals and that's why stacking them up in a tower is the only way at the moment to increase testing mass. Liquid Noble gas experiments experiencing contamination problems, their predicted energy resolution at 10 keV and lower energy range is not as good as predicted. Every experiment is targeting one specific purpose, looking for one thing. Why not to design an experiment that is diverse and build a detector that can search for Dark Matter, Solar Axions, Neutrinoless Double Beta decay, etc. Solid Xenon detector is such detector. We designed a simple Xenon crystal growing chamber that was put together at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The first phase of this experiment was to demonstrate that a good, crack free Xenon crystal can be grown (regardless of many failed attempts by various groups) and our first goal, 1 kg crystal, was successful.

  13. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  14. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  15. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  16. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  17. Webtrends Archives by Fiscal Year — EERE Totals

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Historical EERE office total reports include only Webtrends archives by fiscal year. EERE total reports dating after FY11 can be accessed in EERE's Google Analytics account.

  18. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 636 580 46 1 Q 114.0...

  19. Total quality management implementation guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    These Guidelines were designed by the Energy Quality Council to help managers and supervisors in the Department of Energy Complex bring Total Quality Management to their organizations. Because the Department is composed of a rich mixture of diverse organizations, each with its own distinctive culture and quality history, these Guidelines are intended to be adapted by users to meet the particular needs of their organizations. For example, for organizations that are well along on their quality journeys and may already have achieved quality results, these Guidelines will provide a consistent methodology and terminology reference to foster their alignment with the overall Energy quality initiative. For organizations that are just beginning their quality journeys, these Guidelines will serve as a startup manual on quality principles applied in the Energy context.

  20. Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert W. Style; Rostislav Boltyanskiy; Benjamin Allen; Katharine E. Jensen; Henry P. Foote; John S. Wettlaufer; Eric R. Dufresne

    2014-07-24

    From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and engineering materials. Eshelby's inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite's bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby's theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet's deformation is strongly size-dependent with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straight-forward extension of Eshelby's theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive effect of liquid-stiffening of solids is expected whenever droplet radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young's modulus of the solid matrix.

  1. Tribological Characterization of Carbon Based Solid Lubricants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchez, Carlos Joel

    2012-10-19

    High performance machines such as gas turbine engines demand efficient solid lubricants at high temperature and in vacuum. The current conventional solid lubricants need to be further improved. This research evaluates carbon based solid lubricants...

  2. THE INSTITUTE FOR SOLID STATE PHYSICS 2006 THE INSTITUTE FOR SOLID STATE PHYSICS 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katsumoto, Shingo

    #12;#12;#12;2 THE INSTITUTE FOR SOLID STATE PHYSICS 2006 #12;3 THE INSTITUTE FOR SOLID STATE PHYSICS 2006 #12;4 THE INSTITUTE FOR SOLID STATE PHYSICS 2006 #12;5 THE INSTITUTE FOR SOLID STATE PHYSICS 2006 #12;6 THE INSTITUTE FOR SOLID STATE PHYSICS 2006 #12;7 THE INSTITUTE FOR SOLID STATE PHYSICS 2006

  3. BPA and Fish Passage Center study effects of changing total dissolved gas standards As renewable energy expands in the Northwest, BPA and its fellow operators of the Columbia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    transmission limits), powering down thermal generation and spilling water to keep the power grid in balance redispatch, a measure where as a last resort BPA would limit generation of wind power and replace with regional parties to avoid temporary imbalances in power supply and demand that could affect endangered fish

  4. Solid flexible electrochemical supercapacitor using Tobacco mosaic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Solid flexible electrochemical supercapacitor using Tobacco mosaic virus nanostructures and ALD ruthenium oxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solid flexible...

  5. Solid Waste Management Act (West Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In addition to establishing a comprehensive program of controlling all phases of solid waste management and assigning responsibilities for solid waste management to the Secretary of Department of...

  6. Solid Solution Lithium Alloy Cermet Anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Thomas J.; Chen, Guoying

    2006-01-01

    Solid Solution Lithium Alloy Cermet Anodes Thomas J.94720 USA Abstract Lithium-magnesium solid solution alloysHeating mixtures of lithium nitride and magnesium provides a

  7. Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing methods Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer...

  8. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Formato, Richard M. (Shrewsbury, MA); Kovar, Robert F. (Wrentham, MA); Osenar, Paul (Watertown, MA); Landrau, Nelson (Marlborough, MA); Rubin, Leslie S. (Newton, MA)

    2001-06-19

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  9. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Formato, Richard M.; Kovar, Robert F.; Osenar, Paul; Landrau, Nelson; Rubin, Leslie S.

    2006-05-30

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  10. Cogeneration/Cogeneration - Solid Waste 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pyle, F. B.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reviews the rationale for cogeneration and basic turbine types available. Special considerations for cogeneration in conjunction with solid waste firing are outlined. Optimum throttle conditions for cogeneration are significantly...

  11. Total termination of term rewriting is undecidable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Total termination of term rewriting is undecidable Hans Zantema Utrecht University, Department Usually termination of term rewriting systems (TRS's) is proved by means of a monotonic well­founded order. If this order is total on ground terms, the TRS is called totally terminating. In this paper we prove that total

  12. Total-derivative supersymmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Uekusa, Nobuhiro

    2010-05-15

    On an interval compactification in supersymmetric theory, boundary conditions for bulk fields must be treated carefully. If they are taken arbitrarily following the requirement that a theory is supersymmetric, the conditions could give redundant constraints on the theory. We construct a supersymmetric action integral on an interval by introducing brane interactions with which total-derivative terms under the supersymmetry transformation become zero due to a cancellation. The variational principle leads equations of motion and also boundary conditions for bulk fields, which determine boundary values of bulk fields. By estimating mass spectrum, spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in this simple setup can be realized in a new framework. This supersymmetry breaking does not induce a massless R axion, which is favorable for phenomenology. It is worth noting that fermions in hyper-multiplet, gauge bosons, and the fifth-dimensional component of gauge bosons can have zero-modes (while the other components are all massive as Kaluza-Klein modes), which fits the gauge-Higgs unification scenarios.

  13. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  14. FLOWSHEET EVALUATION FOR THE DISSOLVING AND NEUTRALIZATION OF SODIUM REACTOR EXPERIMENT USED NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, W. E.; Hansen, E. K.; Shehee, T. C.

    2012-10-30

    This report includes the literature review, hydrogen off-gas calculations, and hydrogen generation tests to determine that H-Canyon can safely dissolve the Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE; thorium fuel), Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR; aluminum alloy fuel), and Denmark Reactor (DR-3; silicide fuel, aluminum alloy fuel, and aluminum oxide fuel) assemblies in the L-Bundles with respect to the hydrogen levels in the projected peak off-gas rates. This is provided that the number of L-Bundles charged to the dissolver is controlled. Examination of SRE dissolution for potential issues has aided in predicting the optimal batching scenario. The calculations detailed in this report demonstrate that the FNR, SRE, and DR-3 used nuclear fuel (UNF) are bounded by MURR UNF and may be charged using the controls outlined for MURR dissolution in a prior report.

  15. Municipal Solid Waste in The United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    ...................................................................................................................... 17 The Solid Waste Management Hierarchy2007 Facts and Figures Municipal Solid Waste in The United States #12;United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste (5306P) EPA530-R-08-010 November 2008 www.epa.gov #12;MUNICIPAL SOLID

  16. Municipal Solid Waste in The United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barlaz, Morton A.

    ...................................................................................................................18 The Solid Waste Management Hierarchy2011 Facts and Figures Municipal Solid Waste in The United States #12;United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste (5306P) EPA530-R-13-001 May 2013 www.epa.gov #12;MUNICIPAL SOLID

  17. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, E.

    1995-05-23

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon. 5 Figs.

  18. ARTICLE IN PRESS Solid State Communications ( )

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raychaudhuri, Pratap

    400005, India b Solid State Laser Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 425013

  19. A measurement of the absorption of liquid argon scintillation light by dissolved nitrogen at the part-per-million level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Benjamin James Poyner

    We report on a measurement of the absorption length of scintillation light in liquid argon due to dissolved nitrogen at the part-per-million (ppm) level. We inject controlled quantities of nitrogen into a high purity volume ...

  20. Constraining the propagation of bomb-radiocarbon through the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool in the northeast Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaupré, Steven R; Druffel, Ellen R.M.

    2009-01-01

    dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool in the northeast Paci?c14 C has penetrated the DOC pool to depths of Z450 m, thoughDIC) suggest that the DOC pool in the CNP contains bomb- 14

  1. Microbial community transcriptomes reveal microbes and metabolic pathways associated with dissolved organic matter turnover in the sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarren, Jay

    Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) contains as much carbon as the Earth's atmosphere, and represents a critical component of the global carbon cycle. To better define microbial processes and activities associated with ...

  2. Determining Sources of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Nutrients in an Urban Basin Using Novel and Traditional Methods 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Govil, Krittika

    2014-01-03

    Water quality in urban ecosystems is sensitive to localized disturbances potentially affecting those mechanisms which influence nutrient cycles. The Carters Creek Basin has been reported to have elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon...

  3. COMPARISON OF THE FATE OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN TWO COASTAL SYSTEMS: HOG ISLAND BAY, VA (USA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Deborah

    COMPARISON OF THE FATE OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN TWO COASTAL SYSTEMS: HOG ISLAND BAY, VA (USA) AND PLUM ISLAND SOUND, MA (USA) A Thesis Presented to The Faculty of the School of Marine Science............................... 55 DISCUSSION ................................................................... 57 Plum Island

  4. Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Neal P.; Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J.; Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J.

    2010-09-01

    Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

  5. Total cost model for making sourcing decisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morita, Mark, M.B.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    This thesis develops a total cost model based on the work done during a six month internship with ABB. In order to help ABB better focus on low cost country sourcing, a total cost model was developed for sourcing decisions. ...

  6. Total System Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Peer Review Panel for predicting the performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain.

  7. 8, 31433162, 2008 Total ozone over

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 8, 3143­3162, 2008 Total ozone over oceanic regions M. C. R. Kalapureddy et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Total column ozone variations over oceanic region around Indian sub­3162, 2008 Total ozone over oceanic regions M. C. R. Kalapureddy et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  8. 5, 1133111375, 2005 NH total ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 11331­11375, 2005 NH total ozone increase S. Dhomse et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction On the possible causes of recent increases in NH total ozone from a statistical analysis of satellite data from License. 11331 #12;ACPD 5, 11331­11375, 2005 NH total ozone increase S. Dhomse et al. Title Page Abstract

  9. 6, 39133943, 2006 Svalbard total ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 3913­3943, 2006 Svalbard total ozone C. Vogler et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussions Re-evaluation of the 1950­1962 total ozone record from Longyearbyen, Svalbard C. Vogler 1 , S. Br total ozone C. Vogler et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures Back

  10. Total Algorithms \\Lambda Gerard Tel y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Total Algorithms \\Lambda Gerard Tel y Department of Computer Science, University of Utrecht, P and February 1993 Abstract We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a ``decision'' is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all

  11. Seasonal persistence of midlatitude total ozone anomalies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Seasonal persistence of midlatitude total ozone anomalies Article Published Version Fioletov, V. E. and Shepherd, T. G. (2003) Seasonal persistence of midlatitude total ozone anomalies. Geophysical Research persistence of midlatitude total ozone anomalies Vitali E. Fioletov Meteorological Service of Canada, Toronto

  12. Solid-state lithium battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  13. Solid evacuated microspheres of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turnbull, Robert J. (Urbana, IL); Foster, Christopher A. (Champaign, IL); Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A method is provided for producing solid, evacuated microspheres comprised of hydrogen. The spheres are produced by forming a jet of liquid hydrogen and exciting mechanical waves on the jet of appropriate frequency so that the jet breaks up into drops with a bubble formed in each drop by cavitation. The drops are exposed to a pressure less than the vapor pressure of the liquid hydrogen so that the bubble which is formed within each drop expands. The drops which contain bubbles are exposed to an environment having a pressure just below the triple point of liquid hydrogen and they thereby freeze giving solid, evacuated spheres of hydrogen.

  14. Solid-Liquid Interfacial Premelting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yang; Asta, Mark; Laird, Brian Bostian

    2013-02-28

    liquid-liquid miscibility gap, negligible solubility of Pb in the Al solid phase, and a large melting point separa- tion (600 K for Pb and 933 K for Al). We have previously reported results from MD simulations on this system at 625 K, a temperature just... undergoes a roughening transition about 100 K below the melting point of Al. Simulation details.—In our simulations of the Al-Pb solid-liquid interface, we employ a classical many-body potential developed by Landa et al. [42] to model the inter- atomic...

  15. TRANSITION PATH SAMPLING STUDIES OF SOLID-SOLID TRANSFORMATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruenwald, Michael

    isomerizations, or transport processes in solids, are characterized by widely disparate timescales. While. Many processes occurring in nature and technology such as the folding of a protein or the transport the freezing point, can remain in this supercooled state for hours or even days. Thus, the time scale

  16. Cruise Report Regional Monitoring Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    trace elements (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, silver, and zinc) and ancillary measurements (salinity, total suspended solids, dissolved organic carbon, chlorophyll a, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite suspended solids, chlorophyll a, nutrients (ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, orthophosphate, silicate

  17. Variable C : N : P stoichiometry of dissolved organic matter cycling in the Community Earth System Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Letscher, R. T.; Moore, J. K.; Teng, Y. -C.; Primeau, F.

    2015-01-12

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in the ocean's biological carbon pump by providing an advective/mixing pathway for ~ 20% of export production. DOM is known to have a stoichiometry depleted in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) compared to the particulate organic matter pool, a fact that is often omitted from biogeochemical ocean general circulation models. However the variable C : N : P stoichiometry of DOM becomes important when quantifying carbon export from the upper ocean and linking the nutrient cycles of N and P with that of carbon. Here we utilize recent advances in DOM observationalmore »data coverage and offline tracer-modeling techniques to objectively constrain the variable production and remineralization rates of the DOM C : N : P pools in a simple biogeochemical-ocean model of DOM cycling. The optimized DOM cycling parameters are then incorporated within the Biogeochemical Elemental Cycling (BEC) component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and validated against the compilation of marine DOM observations. The optimized BEC simulation including variable DOM C : N : P cycling was found to better reproduce the observed DOM spatial gradients than simulations that used the canonical Redfield ratio. Global annual average export of dissolved organic C, N, and P below 100 m was found to be 2.28 Pg C yr-1 (143 Tmol C yr-1, 16.4 Tmol N yr-1, and 1 Tmol P yr-1, respectively, with an average export C : N : P stoichiometry of 225 : 19 : 1 for the semilabile (degradable) DOM pool. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export contributed ~ 25% of the combined organic C export to depths greater than 100 m.« less

  18. Development of a SREX flowsheet for the separation of strontium from dissolved INEEL zirconium calcine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, J.D.; Wood, D.J.; Todd, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory experimentation has indicated that the SREX process is effective for partitioning {sup 90}Sr from acidic radioactive waste solutions located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. These laboratory results were used to develop a flowsheet for countercurrent testing of the SREX process with dissolved pilot plant calcine. Testing was performed using 24 stages of 2-cm diameter centrifugal contactors which are installed in the Remote Analytical Laboratory hot cell. Dissolved Run No.64 pilot plant calcine spiked with {sup 85}Sr was used as feed solution for the testing. The flowsheet tested consisted of an extraction section (0.15 M 4{prime},4{prime}(5{prime})-di-(tert-butylcyclohexo)-18-crown-6 and 1.5 M TBP in Isopar-L.), a 1.0 M NaNO{sub 3} scrub section to remove extracted K from the SREX solvent, a 0.01 M HNO{sub 3} strip section for the removal of Sr from the SREX solvent, a 0.25 M Na2CO{sub 3} wash section to remove degradation products from the solvent, and a 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} rinse section. The behavior of {sup 85}Sr, Na, K, Al, B, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zr was evaluated. The described flowsheet successfully extracted {sup 85}Sr from the dissolved pilot plant calcine with a removal efficiency of 99.6%. Distribution coefficients for {sup 85}Sr ranged from 3.6 to 4.5 in the extraction section. With these distribution coefficients a removal efficiency of approximately >99.99% was expected. It was determined that the lower than expected removal efficiency can be attributed to a stage efficiency of only 60% in the extraction section. Extracted K was effectively scrubbed from the SREX solvent with the 1.0 M NaNO{sub 3} resulting in only 6.4% of the K in the HLW strip product. Sodium was not extracted from the dissolved calcine by the SREX solvent; however, the use of a 1.0 M NaNO{sub 3} scrub solution resulted in a Na concentration of 70 mg/L (12.3% of the feed concentration) in the HLW strip product. Al, B, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zr were determined to be essentially inextractable.

  19. Development of a SREX Flowsheet for the Separation of Strontium from Dissolved INEEL Zirconium Calcine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, Jack Douglas; Wood, David James; Todd, Terry Allen

    1999-02-01

    Laboratory experimentation has indicated that the SREX process is effective for partitioning 90 Sr from acidic radioactive waste solutions located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. These laboratory results were used to develop a flowsheet for countercurrent testing of the SREX process with dissolved pilot plant calcine. Testing was performed using 24 stages of 2-cm diameter centrifugal contactors which are installed in the Remote Analytical Laboratory hot cell. Dissolved Run #64 pilot plant calcine spiked with 85 Sr was used as feed solution for the testing. The flowsheet tested consisted of an extraction section (0.15 M 4',4'(5')-di-(tert-butylcyclohexo)-18-crown-6 and 1.5 M TBP in Isopar-L.), a 1.0 M NaNO3 scrub section to remove extracted K from the SREX solvent, a 0.01 M HNO3 strip section for the removal of Sr from the SREX solvent, a 0.25 M Na2CO3 wash section to remove degradation products from the solvent, and a 0.1 M HNO3 rinse section. The behavior of 85 Sr, Na, K, Al, B, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zr was evaluated. The described flowsheet successfully extracted 85 Sr from the dissolved pilot plant calcine with a removal efficiency of 99.6%. Distribution coefficients for 85 Sr ranged from 3.6 to 4.5 in the extraction section. With these distribution coefficients a removal efficiency of approximately >99.99% was expected. It was determined that the lower than expected removal efficiency can be attributed to a stage efficiency of only 60% in the extraction section. Extracted K was effectively scrubbed from the SREX solvent with the 1.0 M NaNO3 resulting in only 6.4% of the K in the HLW strip product. Sodium was not extracted from the dissolved calcine by the SREX solvent; however, the use of a 1.0 M NaNO3 scrub solution resulted in a Na concentration of 70 mg/L (12.3% of the feed concentration) in the HLW strip product. Al, B, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zr were determined to be essentially inextractable.

  20. Subsurface Monitor for Dissolved Inorganic Carbon at Geological Sequestration Site Phase 1 SBIR Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng Wu

    2012-08-03

    Phase I research of this SBIR contract has yielded anticipated results and enable us to develop a practical new instrument to measure the Dissolved Inorganic Carbons (DIC) as well as Supercritical (SC) CO2 in underground brine water at higher sensitivity, lower cost, higher frequency and longer period of time for the Monitoring, Verification & Accounting (MVA) of CO2 sequestration as well as Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). We show that reduced cost and improved performance are possible; both future and emerging market exist for the proposed new instrument.

  1. The effect of the use of plastic sampling containers on laboratory measurements of dissolved oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fehring, J.P.

    1990-10-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are often used to define the water quality of a stream or reservoir. In the Tennessee Valley, there is a commonly held belief that water quality in general, and DO in particular, is declining in TVA reservoirs. In 1980, TVA conducted a study of DO trends in the tailraces of Tennessee River Dams and found a downward trend in most reservoirs, with the greatest decrease in the downstream reservoirs. This report examines a change in sampling procedures which may have contributed to the perception of declining DO. 6 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Pressure and Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Turbine-Passed Fish

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neitzel, Duane A.

    2009-09-14

    Migratory and resident fish in the Columbia River Basin are exposed to stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including changes in pressure as they pass through turbines and dissolved gas supersaturation (resulting from the release of water from the spillway). To examine pressure changes as a source of turbine-passage injury and mortality, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists conducted specific tests using a hyperbaric chamber. Tests were designed to simulate Kaplan turbine passage conditions and to quantify the response of fish to rapid pressure changes, with and without the complication of fish being acclimated to gas-supersaturated water.

  3. Solid-state radioluminescent compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Gill, John T. (Miamisburg, OH); Hawkins, Daniel B. (Fairbanks, AK); Renschler, Clifford L. (Tijeras, NM); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Smith, Henry M. (Overland Park, KS)

    1991-01-01

    A solid state radioluminescent composition for light source comprises an optically clear polymer organic matrix containing tritiated organic materials and dyes capable of "red" shifting primary scintillation emissions from the polymer matrix. The tritiated organic materials are made by reducing, with tritium, an unsaturated organic compound that prior to reduction contains olefinic or alkynylic bonds.

  4. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  5. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Di Croce, A. Michael (Murrysville, PA); Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA)

    1993-11-02

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row.

  6. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Di Croce, A.M.; Draper, R.

    1993-11-02

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row. 5 figures.

  7. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  8. Quality Services: Solid Wastes, Part 360: Solid Waste Management Facilities (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations apply to all solid wastes with the exception of hazardous or radioactive waste. Proposed solid waste processing facilities are required to obtain permits prior to construction,...

  9. Photochemical Oxidation of Dissolved Elemental Mercury by Carbonate Radicals in Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Feng; Zhao, Wenrong; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

    2014-01-01

    Photochemical oxidation of dissolved elemental mercury [Hg(0)] affects mercury chemical speciation and its transfer at the water-air interface in the aquatic environment. The mechanisms and factors that control Hg(0) photooxidation, however, are not completely understood, especially in natural freshwaters containing dissolved organic matter (DOM) and carbonate. Here, we evaluate Hg(0) photooxidation rates affected by various reactive ionic species [e.g., DOM, HCO3-, NO3-] and free radicals in a creek water and a phosphate buffer solution (pH=8) under simulated solar irradiation. We report a high Hg(0) photooxidation rate (k = 1.44 h-1) in the presence of both HCO3- and NO3-, whereas HCO3-, NO3-, or DOM alone increased the oxidation rate slightly (k = 0.1 0.17 h-1). Using scavengers and enhancers for singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydroxyl (HO ) radicals, as well as electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identify that carbonate radicals (CO3 -) primarily drive the Hg(0) photooxidation, whereas addition of DOM resulted in a 2-fold decrease in Hg(0) oxidation. This study identifies an unrecognized pathway of Hg(0) photooxidation by CO3 - radicals and the inhibitory effect of DOM, which could be important in assessing Hg transformation and fate in water containing carbonate such as hard water and seawater.

  10. A three-phase free boundary problem with melting ice and dissolving gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maurizio Ceseri; John M. Stockie

    2014-11-05

    We develop a mathematical model for a three-phase free boundary problem in one dimension that involves the interactions between gas, water and ice. The dynamics are driven by melting of the ice layer, while the pressurized gas also dissolves within the meltwater. The model incorporates a Stefan condition at the water-ice interface along with Henry's law for dissolution of gas at the gas-water interface. We employ a quasi-steady approximation for the phase temperatures and then derive a series solution for the interface positions. A non-standard feature of the model is an integral free boundary condition that arises from mass conservation owing to changes in gas density at the gas-water interface, which makes the problem non-self-adjoint. We derive a two-scale asymptotic series solution for the dissolved gas concentration, which because of the non-self-adjointness gives rise to a Fourier series expansion in eigenfunctions that do not satisfy the usual orthogonality conditions. Numerical simulations of the original governing equations are used to validate the series approximations.

  11. Results of Characterization and Retrieval Testing on Tank 241-C-110 Heel Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callaway, William S.

    2013-09-30

    Nine samples of heel solids from tank 241-C-110 were delivered to the 222-S Laboratory for characterization and dissolution testing. After being drained thoroughly, the sample solids were primarily white to light-brown with minor dark-colored inclusions. The maximum dimension of the majority of the solids was <2 mm; however, numerous pieces of aggregate, microcrystalline, and crystalline solids with maximum dimensions ranging from 5-70 mm were observed. In general, the larger pieces of aggregate solids were strongly cemented. Natrophosphate [Na{sub 7}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}?19H{sub 2}O] was the dominant solid phase identified in the heel solids. Results of chemical analyses suggested that 85-87 wt% of the heel solids were the fluoridephosphate double salt. The average bulk density measured for the heel solids was 1.689 g/mL; the reference density of natrophosphate is 1.71 g/mL. Dissolution tests on composite samples indicate that 94 to 97 wt% of the tank 241-C-110 heel solids can be retrieved by dissolution in water. Dissolution and recovery of the soluble components in 1 kg (0.59 L) of the heel solids required the addition of ≈9.5 kg (9.5 L) of water at 15 ?C and ≈4.4 kg (4.45 L) of water at 45 ?C. Calculations performed using the Environmental Simulation Program indicate that dissolution of the ≈0.86 kg of natrophosphate in each kilogram of the tank 241-C-110 heel solids would require ≈9.45 kg of water at 15 ?C and ≈4.25 kg of water at 45 ?C. The slightly larger quantities of water determined to be required to retrieve the soluble components in 1 kg of the heel solids are consistent with that required for the dissolution of solids composed mainly of natrophosphate with a major portion of the balance consisting of highly soluble sodium salts. At least 98% of the structural water, soluble phosphate, sodium, fluoride, nitrate, carbonate, nitrite, sulfate, oxalate, and chloride in the test composites was dissolved and recovered in the dissolution tests. Most of the {sup 99}Tc and {sup 137}Cs present in the initial heel solids composites was removed in the water dissolution tests. The estimated activities/weights of {sup 129}I, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, and {sup 238}U in the dry residual solids were <25% of the weights/activities in the initial composite solids. Gibbsite and nordstrandite [both Al(OH){sub 3}] were the major solid phases identified in the solids remaining after completion of the dissolution tests. Chemical analysis indicated that the residual solids may have contained up to 62 wt% Al(OH){sub 3}. Significant quantities of unidentified phosphate-, iron-, bismuth-, silicon-, and strontium- bearing species were also present in the residual solids. The reference density of gibbsite (and nordstrandite) is 2.42 g/mL. The measured density of the residual solids, 2.65 g/mL, would be a reasonable value for solids containing gibbsite as the major component with minor quantities of other, higher density solids. Sieve analysis indicated that 22.2 wt% of the residual solids were discrete particles >710 μm in size, and 77.8 wt% were particulates <710 μm in size. Light-scattering measurements suggested that nearly all of the <710-μm particulates with diameters >12 μm were weakly bound aggregates of particles with diameters <2 μm. The <710-μm residual solids settled very slowly when dispersed in reagent water. The physical appearance of a suspension containing ≈0.4 vol% of the solids in pure water changed very little over a period of 46.5 hours. It should be noted that the distribution of particle sizes in the residual solids and the observed settling behavior were both strongly influenced by the procedures followed in the dissolution tests.

  12. SYNERGIA Forum Integrated Municipal Solid Waste Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    2nd SYNERGIA Forum «Integrated Municipal Solid Waste Management: Recycling and Energy Change and Solid Waste Management" Anthony Mavropoulos President, Scientific Technical Committee, Chairman, SYNERGIA "Where Greece stands on the Ladder of Sustainable Waste Management " *Nikolaos

  13. Gaines County Solid Waste Management Act (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act establishes the Gaines County Solid Waste Management District, a governmental body to develop and carry out a regional water quality protection program through solid waste management and...

  14. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturing Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturing Overview Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Manufacturing R Reserved. 3 The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrochemistry #12;Copyright © 2011 Versa Power Systems. All Rights

  15. Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

    2007-01-01

    post-Doping of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes,? P.h.D.and Technology of Ceramic Fuel Cells, p. 209, Elsevier, NewI. Birss, in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC IX), S. C. Singhal

  16. Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

    2007-01-01

    in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC IX), S. C. Singhal and J.create connected nanostructured SOFC electrodes is reviewed.of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently

  17. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2003 Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons) Fuel Oil Energy Intensity (gallonssquare foot) Energy Information Administration 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption...

  18. Generalized Gravitational Entropy from Total Derivative Action

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative terms in the gravitational action. Following the method of Lewkowycz and Maldacena, we find that the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivatives vanishes. We compare our results with the work of Astaneh, Patrushev, and Solodukhin. We find that if total derivatives produced nonzero entropy, the holographic and the field-theoretic universal terms of entanglement entropy would not match. Furthermore, the second law of thermodynamics could be violated if the entropy of total derivatives did not vanish.

  19. Design Storm for Total Retention.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    endorse the viewpoint of a publication or guarantee its technical correctness. Title: Design Storm for "Total Retention" under Individual Permit, Poster, Individual Permit for...

  20. OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER DURING A BLOOM ON THE WEST FLORIDA SHELF.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    to equivalents of quinine sulfate and expressed in parts per billion (ppb). The total fluorescence was determined

  1. Sandia Energy - (Lighting and) Solid-State Lighting: Science...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Lighting and) Solid-State Lighting: Science, Technology, Economic Perspectives Home Energy Research EFRCs Solid-State Lighting Science EFRC (Lighting and) Solid-State Lighting:...

  2. Sandia Energy - Brief History of Solid-State Lighting Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Brief History of Solid-State Lighting Technology Home Energy Research EFRCs Solid-State Lighting Science EFRC Overview Brief History of Solid-State Lighting Technology Brief...

  3. Something for Nothing: Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gururangan, Karthik

    2015-01-01

    would be using other solid electrolytes. (Steele, This valueanode, cathode, and electrolyte are solid and the rate ofBy choosing a solid oxide electrolyte, the much larger

  4. 2014 Solid-State Lighting Project Portfolio

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    White LED Light Engines ... A-23 Phosphor Systems for Illumination Quality Solid State Lighting Products ... A-24...

  5. Solid Waste Diversion Plan Fallen Star, 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluwihare, Lihini

    2012 Prepared by: Facilities Management #12;UC San Diego Solid Waste Diversion Plan Table of Contents Overview Location and Areas Covered Recycling and Solid Waste Management Contact Campus/Medical Center Campus Recycling and Solid Waste Management Contact The Facilities Management department is responsible

  6. Suspended Solids Profiler Shop Test Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-01-19

    The Suspended Solids Profiler (SSP) Instrument is planned to be installed in the AZ-101 tank to measure suspended solids concentrations during mixer pump testing. The SSP sensor uses a reflectance measurement principle to determine the suspended solids concentrations. The purpose of this test is to provide a documented means of verifying that the functional components of the SSP operate properly.

  7. Physics 480 Introduction to Solid State Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kioussis, Nicholas

    Physics 480 Introduction to Solid State Physics Spring 2012 Logistics Lecture Room: 1100 (Live Oak://www.csun.edu/~nkioussi Prerequisites Quantum Mechanics or Modern Physics at 375 level Textbook Introduction to Solid State Physics, Charles Kittel, Wiley, 8th Edition Reference: Neil W. Ashcroft and N. David Mermin, Solid State Physics

  8. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included. (PSB)

  9. Rechargeable solid polymer electrolyte battery cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terji (East Patchoque, NY)

    1985-01-01

    A rechargeable battery cell comprising first and second electrodes sandwiching a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a layer of a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said polymer blend and a layer of dry solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said layer of polymer blend and said second electrode.

  10. Solid Waste Management Plan. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-26

    The waste types discussed in this Solid Waste Management Plan are Municipal Solid Waste, Hazardous Waste, Low-Level Mixed Waste, Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Transuranic Waste. The plan describes for each type of solid waste, the existing waste management facilities, the issues, and the assumptions used to develop the current management plan.

  11. Perovskite solid electrolytes for SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1993-11-01

    We have synthesized a new series of brownmillerite solid electrolyte phases Ba{sub 2}GdIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 5} (x = 0,0.2,0.4) with the x = 0.2 phase exhibiting an unusually low E. relative to both the observed ionic conductivity in this phase and to E{sub a}s observed in similar compounds. We attribute measured ionic conductivities to a lack of available charge carriers in Ba{sub 2}GdIn{sub 0.8}Ga{sub 0.2}O{sub 5}. However, the low E{sub a} supports the premise that brownmillerite solid electrolyte structures are suitable for supporting high ionic conductivity. Current work is focusing on enhancing the amount of charge carriers in these materials by systematically introducing disorder into the brownmillerite lattice.

  12. Solid-state membrane module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, John Howard (Salt Lake City, UT); Taylor, Dale M. (Murray, UT)

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  13. Solid friction between soft filaments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew Ward; Feodor Hilitski; Walter Schwenger; David Welch; A. W. C. Lau; Vincenzo Vitelli; L. Mahadevan; Zvonimir Dogic

    2015-03-04

    Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments' overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes' drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filament's elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the properties of fibrous composite materials.

  14. Perovskite solid electrolytes for SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1992-09-01

    Selected perovskite solid electrolytes incorporated into research size fuel cells have shown stability for > 4000 hours at 600{degrees}C. Perovskite lattice requirements which favor low E{sub a} for ionic conduction include (i) that the perovskite lattice possess a moderate enthalpy of formation, (ii) perovskite lattice possess large free volumes, (iii) that the lattice minimally polarizes the mobile ion and (iv) that the crystallographic saddle point r{sub c} for ionic conduction is {approx_equal} 1.

  15. Perovskite solid electrolytes for SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    Selected perovskite solid electrolytes incorporated into research size fuel cells have shown stability for > 4000 hours at 600{degrees}C. Perovskite lattice requirements which favor low E{sub a} for ionic conduction include (i) that the perovskite lattice possess a moderate enthalpy of formation, (ii) perovskite lattice possess large free volumes, (iii) that the lattice minimally polarizes the mobile ion and (iv) that the crystallographic saddle point r{sub c} for ionic conduction is {approx equal} 1.

  16. Supercritical/Solid Catalyst (SSC)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    INL's patented, continuous-flow Supercritical/Solid Catalyst (SSC) produces the highest ASTM-quality B-100 biodiesel from waste fats, oils, and greases at the site of waste generation. SSC delivers low-cost transportation fuel, avoids significant landfill costs for municipalities, and reduces potent methane and other emissions produced in landfills from these wastes. You can learn more about INL's energy research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  17. MSME in Solid Mechanics Research is conducted in analytical, computational and experimental solid mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feeny, Brian

    MSME in Solid Mechanics Research is conducted in analytical, computational and experimental solid mechanics including theory of elasticity, fastening and joining, experimental mechanics and optical strain measurement, impact and crashworthiness. MS Track for Solid Mechanics The MSME degree program for solid

  18. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials.

  19. Real-time determination of lubricant concentrations dissolved in alternative refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavestri, R.C.; Schafer, W.R.

    1999-07-01

    A methodology was developed and used to measure both polyolester lubricant concentrations in solution with R-134a and R-407C and mineral oils in solution with R-123. This method is unaffected by changes in pressure, temperature, refrigerant type, and lubricant type. The concentration of dissolved lubricant was measured in three alternative refrigerants with two different synthetic polyolesters and two different mineral oils over a temperature range of 68 F (20 C) to 140 F (60 C) and a concentration range of 0 to 6% w/w. The evaluation methods included density, viscosity, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Measurements of viscosity and density were performed on an oscillating body viscometer. Lubricant concentrations determined by HPLC compared favorably with the ASHRAE Standard 41.1 method (ASHRAE 1984). Circulating lubricant, miscible and immiscible, concentration in identical R-407C operating systems was also measured to demonstrate the practical application of the test method.

  20. Standard practices for dissolving glass containing radioactive and mixed waste for chemical and radiochemical analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 These practices cover techniques suitable for dissolving glass samples that may contain nuclear wastes. These techniques used together or independently will produce solutions that can be analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), radiochemical methods and wet chemical techniques for major components, minor components and radionuclides. 1.2 One of the fusion practices and the microwave practice can be used in hot cells and shielded hoods after modification to meet local operational requirements. 1.3 The user of these practices must follow radiation protection guidelines in place for their specific laboratories. 1.4 Additional information relating to safety is included in the text. 1.5 The dissolution techniques described in these practices can be used for quality control of the feed materials and the product of plants vitrifying nuclear waste materials in glass. 1.6 These pr...

  1. Variable C : N : P stoichiometry of dissolved organic matter cycling in the Community Earth System Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Letscher, R. T.; Moore, J. K.; Teng, Y. -C.; Primeau, F.

    2014-06-16

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in the ocean's biological carbon pump by providing an advective/mixing pathway for ~ 20% of export production. DOM is known to have a stoichiometry depleted in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) compared to the particulate organic matter pool, a~fact that is often omitted from biogeochemical-ocean general circulation models. However the variable C : N : P stoichiometry of DOM becomes important when quantifying carbon export from the upper ocean and linking the nutrient cycles of N and P with that of carbon. Here we utilize recent advances in DOM observational data coveragemore »and offline tracer-modeling techniques to objectively constrain the variable production and remineralization rates of the DOM C / N / P pools in a simple biogeochemical-ocean model of DOM cycling. The optimized DOM cycling parameters are then incorporated within the Biogeochemical Elemental Cycling (BEC) component of the Community Earth System Model and validated against the compilation of marine DOM observations. The optimized BEC simulation including variable DOM C : N : P cycling was found to better reproduce the observed DOM spatial gradients than simulations that used the canonical Redfield ratio. Global annual average export of dissolved organic C, N, and P below 100 m was found to be 2.28 Pg C yr-1 (143 Tmol C yr-1), 16.4 Tmol N yr-1, and 1 Tmol P yr-1, respectively with an average export C : N : P stoichiometry of 225 : 19 : 1 for the semilabile (degradable) DOM pool. DOC export contributed ~ 25% of the combined organic C export to depths greater than 100 m.« less

  2. Iowa State Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    manure storage, before biosolids are land-applied, could be a contributing form to the presence lagoons and characterized for pH, total organic carbon, total dissolved solids, and ammonia. A key aspect

  3. Second international conference on computer simulation of radiation effects in solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Rubia, T.D.; Gilmer, G.H. [comps.

    1994-08-01

    A total of 102 abstracts are included, arranged under the following headings: interatomic potentials and theoretical methods, displacement cascades and radiation effects in metals, radiation effects in semiconductors, sputtering and surface processes, cluster-solid interactions, highly charged ions and inelastic effects, and posters (A and B).

  4. Method for the decontamination of soil containing solid organic explosives therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radtke, Corey W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Roberto, Francisco F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    An efficient method for decontaminating soil containing organic explosives ("TNT" and others) in the form of solid portions or chunks which are not ordinarily subject to effective bacterial degradation. The contaminated soil is treated by delivering an organic solvent to the soil which is capable of dissolving the explosives. This process makes the explosives more bioavailable to natural bacteria in the soil which can decompose the explosives. An organic nutrient composition is also preferably added to facilitate decomposition and yield a compost product. After dissolution, the explosives are allowed to remain in the soil until they are decomposed by the bacteria. Decomposition occurs directly in the soil which avoids the need to remove both the explosives and the solvents (which either evaporate or are decomposed by the bacteria). Decomposition is directly facilitated by the solvent pre-treatment process described above which enables rapid bacterial remediation of the soil.

  5. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (?)-Acylfulvene and (?)- Irofulven

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Movassaghi, Mohammad

    We report our full account of the enantioselective total synthesis of (?)-acylfulvene (1) and (?)-irofulven (2), which features metathesis reactions for the rapid assembly of the molecular framework of these antitumor ...

  6. Total synthesis of cyclotryptamine and diketopiperazine alkaloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Justin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    I. Total Synthesis of the (+)-12,12'-Dideoxyverticillin A The fungal metabolite (+)-12,12'-dideoxyverticillin A, a cytotoxic alkaloid isolated from a marine Penicillium sp., belongs to a fascinating family of densely ...

  7. TotalView Parallel Debugger at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The performance of the GUI can be greatly improved if used in conjunction with free NX software. The TotalView documentation web page is a good resource for learning more...

  8. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    as known volumes of natural gas that were the result of leaks, damage, accidents, migration, andor blow down. Notes: Totals may not add due to independent rounding. Prices are...

  9. Total Energy Management in General Motors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeKoker, N.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of General Motors' energy management program with special emphasis on energy conservation. Included is a description of the total program organization, plant guidelines, communication and motivation techniques...

  10. Total synthesis and study of myrmicarin alkaloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ondrus, Alison Evelynn, 1981-

    2009-01-01

    I. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Tricyclic Myrmicarin Alkaloids An enantioselective gram-scale synthesis of a key dihydroindolizine intermediate for the preparation of myrmicarin alkaloids is described. Key transformations ...

  11. Solid phase microextraction field kit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nunes, Peter J.; Andresen, Brian D.

    2005-08-16

    A field kit for the collection, isolation and concentration of trace amounts of high explosives (HE), biological weapons (BW) and chemical weapons (CW) residues in air, soil, vegetation, swipe, and liquid samples. The field kit includes a number of Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) fiber and syringe assemblies in a hermetically sealed transportation container or tubes which includes a sampling port, a number of extra SPME fiber and syringe assemblies, the fiber and syringe assemblies including a protective cap for the fiber, and an extractor for the protective cap, along with other items including spare parts, protective glove, and an instruction manual, all located in an airtight container.

  12. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, R.; George, R.A.; Shockling, L.A.

    1993-04-06

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

  13. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

  14. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cogan, S.F.; Rauh, R.D.

    1990-07-03

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counter electrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films. 4 figs.

  15. Sandia Energy - Solid Fuels Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II)GeothermalFuel Magnetization and Laser(TSPEARSolar ResourceSolid Fuels

  16. Dissolved methane distributions and air-sea flux in the plume of a massive seep field, Coal Oil Point, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washburn, Libe

    Dissolved methane distributions and air-sea flux in the plume of a massive seep field, Coal Oil coastal ocean near Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara Channel, California. Methane was quantified in the down originating from Coal Oil Point enters the atmosphere within the study area. Most of it appears

  17. The sediment resuspension event scours dissolved phase contaminants from the water column. As a result, a short-term

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Episodic Events

    The sediment resuspension event scours dissolved phase contaminants from the water column loading estimates to the southern basin in the absence of sediment resuspension, respectively. In southern Lake Michigan, the impact of the sediment resuspension event is magnified because of heavy atmospheric

  18. The effect of surface irradiance on the absorption spectrum of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the global ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, David A.

    The effect of surface irradiance on the absorption spectrum of chromophoric dissolved organic 2012 Keywords: Marine CDOM Solar irradiation Surface Photobleaching Photoproduction a b s t r a c Oceans were irradiated over several days with full-spectrum light under a solar simulator at in situ

  19. Molecular weight and humification index as predictors of adsorption for plant-and manure-derived dissolved

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chorover, Jon

    -derived dissolved organic matter to goethite T. OHNO a , J. CHOROVER b , A. OMOIKE b & J. HUNT a a Department the sorption to goethite (a-FeOOH) of DOM extracted from: (i) above-ground biomass of wheat straw (Triticum with goethite. The multiple regression equation, based only on MWAP and HIX parameters, explained 76

  20. Dissolved organic carbon export and subsequent remineralization in the mesopelagic and bathypelagic realms of the North Atlantic basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khatiwala, Samar

    Dissolved organic carbon export and subsequent remineralization in the mesopelagic and bathypelagic December 2009 Available online 7 March 2010 Keywords: DOC CFC AOU Carbon export NADW a b s t r a c for the main thermocline and North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) indicate a net DOC export rate of 0.081 Pg C yrÀ1

  1. Bench Scale Application of the Hybridized Zero Valent Iron Process for the Removal of Dissolved Silica From Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morar, Nilesh Mohan

    2014-11-12

    is effective. A more robust and cost-effective dissolved silica removal technique is desirable. The hybridized zero-valent iron (hZVI) process, now commercially available as Pironox™, uses zero-valent iron (Fe^0 ) as its main reactive media developed to remove...

  2. PAPER www.rsc.org/pps | Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences Alteration of chromophoric dissolved organic matter by solar UV radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommaruga, Ruben

    dissolved organic matter by solar UV radiation causes rapid changes in bacterial community composition of the lagoon was exposed to different regions of the solar spectrum (full solar radiation, UV-A + PAR, PAR increases significantly after exposure of CDOM to solar radiation.4,9,10,11­13 This increase in bacterial

  3. Nanoscale Mixing of Soft Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Sangwoo; Soto, Haidy E.; Lodge, Timothy P.; Bates, Frank S. (UMM); (Texas)

    2013-03-07

    Assessing the state of mixing on the molecular scale in soft solids is challenging. Concentrated solutions of micelles formed by self-assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PS-PEP) diblock copolymers in squalane (C{sub 30}H{sub 62}) adopt a body-centered cubic (bcc) lattice, with glassy PS cores. Utilizing small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and isotopic labeling ({sup 1}H and {sup 2}H (D) polystyrene blocks) in a contrast-matching solvent (a mixture of squalane and perdeuterated squalane), we demonstrate quantitatively the remarkable fact that a commercial mixer can create completely random mixtures of micelles with either normal, PS(H), or deuterium-labeled, PS(D), cores on a well-defined bcc lattice. The resulting SANS intensity is quantitatively modeled by the form factor of a single spherical core. These results demonstrate both the possibility of achieving complete nanoscale mixing in a soft solid and the use of SANS to quantify the randomness.

  4. Solid Holography and Massive Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alberte, Lasma; Khmelnitsky, Andrei; Pujolas, Oriol

    2015-01-01

    Momentum dissipation is an important ingredient in condensed matter physics that requires a translation breaking sector. In the bottom-up gauge/gravity duality, this implies that the gravity dual is massive. We start here a systematic analysis of holographic massive gravity (HMG) theories, which admit field theory dual interpretations and which, therefore, might store interesting condensed matter applications. We show that there are many phases of HMG that are fully consistent effective field theories and which have been left overlooked in the literature. The most important distinction between the different HMG phases is that they can be clearly separated into solids and fluids. This can be done both at the level of the unbroken spacetime symmetries as well as concerning the elastic properties of the dual materials. We extract the modulus of rigidity of the solid HMG black brane solutions and show how it relates to the graviton mass term. We also consider the implications of the different HMGs on the electric...

  5. Contamination and solid state welds.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Bernice E.

    2007-05-01

    Since sensitivity to contamination is one of the verities of solid state joining, there is a need for assessing contamination of the part(s) to be joined, preferably nondestructively while it can be remedied. As the surfaces that are joined in pinch welds are inaccessible and thus provide a greater challenge, most of the discussion is of the search for the origin and effect of contamination on pinch welding and ways to detect and mitigate it. An example of contamination and the investigation and remediation of such a system is presented. Suggestions are made for techniques for nondestructive evaluation of contamination of surfaces for other solid state welds as well as for pinch welds. Surfaces that have good visual access are amenable to inspection by diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. Although other techniques are useful for specific classes of contaminants (such as hydrocarbons), DRIFT can be used most classes of contaminants. Surfaces such as the interior of open tubes or stems that are to be pinch welded can be inspected using infrared reflection spectroscopy. It must be demonstrated whether or not this tool can detect graphite based contamination, which has been seen in stems. For tubes with one closed end, the technique that should be investigated is emission infrared spectroscopy.

  6. Determining the release of radionuclides from tank waste residual solids. FY2015 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, William D.; Hobbs, David T.

    2015-09-11

    Methodology development for pore water leaching studies has been continued to support Savannah River Site High Level Waste tank closure efforts. For FY2015, the primary goal of this testing was the achievement of target pH and Eh values for pore water solutions representative of local groundwater in the presence of grout or grout-representative (CaCO3 or FeS) solids as well as waste surrogate solids representative of residual solids expected to be present in a closed tank. For oxidizing conditions representative of a closed tank after aging, a focus was placed on using solid phases believed to be controlling pH and Eh at equilibrium conditions. For three pore water conditions (shown below), the target pH values were achieved to within 0.5 pH units. Tank 18 residual surrogate solids leaching studies were conducted over an Eh range of approximately 630 mV. Significantly higher Eh values were achieved for the oxidizing conditions (ORII and ORIII) than were previously observed. For the ORII condition, the target Eh value was nearly achieved (within 50 mV). However, Eh values observed for the ORIII condition were approximately 160 mV less positive than the target. Eh values observed for the RRII condition were approximately 370 mV less negative than the target. Achievement of more positive and more negative Eh values is believed to require the addition of non-representative oxidants and reductants, respectively. Plutonium and uranium concentrations measured during Tank 18 residual surrogate solids leaching studies under these conditions (shown below) followed the general trends predicted for plutonium and uranium oxide phases, assuming equilibrium with dissolved oxygen. The highest plutonium and uranium concentrations were observed for the ORIII condition and the lowest concentrations were observed for the RRII condition. Based on these results, it is recommended that these test methodologies be used to conduct leaching studies with actual Tank 18 residual solids material. Actual waste testing will include leaching evaluations of technetium and neptunium, as well as plutonium and uranium.

  7. Dissolved and Particulate 230Th - 232Th Systematics in the Central Equatorial Pacific: Evidence for Far-Field Transport of the East Pacific Rise Hydrothermal Plume 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez, Grecia Ivonne

    2015-08-10

    2000 m to 3000 m, the dissolved 230Th concentrations exhibit little change, before linearly increasing once more from 3000 m to the bottom. At this site dissolved 230Th concentrations range from 1.1 fg/kg at 100 m to 55.2 fg/kg at 4600 m. At the equator...

  8. Deep-SeaResearch, 1974,Vol.21,pp. 481 to 488.PergamonPress.Printed in Great Britain. Dissolved hydrocarbons in the eastern Gulf of Mexico Loop Current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iliffe, Thomas M.

    hydrocarbons in the eastern Gulf of Mexico Loop Current and the Caribbean Sea THOMASM. ILIFFE*and JOHNA. CALDER---Concentrations of dissolved non-polar hydrocarbons extracted from waters taken at several stations and depths in the Gulf THEREhave been few studies of the dissolved hydrocarbons in seawater. BLU~R (1970) reported carbon numbers

  9. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. VI. Dissolved oxygen concentrations below operating dams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cada, G.F.; Kumar, K.D.; Solomon, J.A.; Hildebrand, S.G.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of an effort aimed at determining whether or not water quality degradation, as exemplified by dissolved oxygen concentrations, is a potentially significant issue affecting small-scale hydropower development in the US. The approach was to pair operating hydroelectric sites of all sizes with dissolved oxygen measurements from nearby downstream US Geological Survey water quality stations (acquired from the WATSTORE data base). The USGS data were used to calculate probabilities of non-compliance (PNCs), i.e., the probabilities that dissolved oxygen concentrations in the discharge waters of operating hydroelectric dams will drop below 5 mg/l. PNCs were estimated for each site, season (summer vs remaining months), and capacity category (less than or equal to 30 MW vs >30 MW). Because of the low numbers of usable sites in many states, much of the subsequent analysis was conducted on a regional basis. During the winter months (November through June) all regions had low mean PNCs regardless of capacity. Most regions had higher mean PNCs in summer than in winter, and summer PNCs were greater for large-scale than for small-scale sites. Among regions, the highest mean summer PNCs were found in the Great Basin, the Southeast, and the Ohio Valley. To obtain a more comprehensive picture of the effects of season and capacity on potential dissolved oxygen problems, cumulative probability distributions of PNC were developed for selected regions. This analysis indicates that low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the tailwaters below operating hydroelectric projects are a problem largely confined to large-scale facilities.

  10. Solid-oxide fuel cell electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bloom, Ira D. (Bolingbrook, IL); Hash, Mark C. (Joliet, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A solid-oxide electrolyte operable at between 600.degree. C. and 800.degree. C. and a method of producing the solid-oxide electrolyte are provided. The solid-oxide electrolyte comprises a combination of a compound having weak metal-oxygen interactions with a compound having stronger metal-oxygen interactions whereby the resulting combination has both strong and weak metal-oxygen interaction properties.

  11. Design of Nanocrystal Solids for Photoelectrochemical Synthesis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Design of Nanocrystal Solids for Photoelectrochemical Synthesis of Liquid Fuels The proposed research project seeks to exploit the unique size-, composition-, and surface-tunable...

  12. MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; SOLID STATE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Open problems in condensed matter physics, 1987 Falicov, L.M. 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; SOLID STATE PHYSICS; RESEARCH PROGRAMS;...

  13. Solid-State Lighting Technical Reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-12-16

    A page that contains links to technical reports of studies estimating the energy savings potential of solid-state lighting in numerous applications.

  14. Solid State Lighting Program (Falcon)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meeks, Steven

    2012-06-30

    Over the past two years, KLA-Tencor and partners successfully developed and deployed software and hardware tools that increase product yield for High Brightness LED (HBLED) manufacturing and reduce product development and factory ramp times. This report summarizes our development effort and details of how the results of the Solid State Light Program (Falcon) have started to help HBLED manufacturers optimize process control by enabling them to flag and correct identified killer defect conditions at any point of origin in the process manufacturing flow. This constitutes a quantum leap in yield management over current practice. Current practice consists of die dispositioning which is just rejection of bad die at end of process based upon probe tests, loosely assisted by optical in-line monitoring for gross process deficiencies. For the first time, and as a result of our Solid State Lighting Program, our LED manufacturing partners have obtained the software and hardware tools that optimize individual process steps to control killer defects at the point in the processes where they originate. Products developed during our two year program enable optimized inspection strategies for many product lines to minimize cost and maximize yield. The Solid State Lighting Program was structured in three phases: i) the development of advanced imaging modes that achieve clear separation between LED defect types, improves signal to noise and scan rates, and minimizes nuisance defects for both front end and back end inspection tools, ii) the creation of defect source analysis (DSA) software that connect the defect maps from back-end and front-end HBLED manufacturing tools to permit the automatic overlay and traceability of defects between tools and process steps, suppress nuisance defects, and identify the origin of killer defects with process step and conditions, and iii) working with partners (Philips Lumileds) on product wafers, obtain a detailed statistical correlation of automated defect and DSA map overlay to failed die identified using end product probe test results. Results from our two year effort have led to “automated end-to-end defect detection” with full defect traceability and the ability to unambiguously correlate device killer defects to optically detected features and their point of origin within the process. Success of the program can be measured by yield improvements at our partner’s facilities and new product orders.

  15. Scenario of solid waste reuse in Khulna city of Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bari, Quazi H.; Mahbub Hassan, K.; Haque, R.

    2012-12-15

    The reuse and recycling of waste materials are now sincerely considered to be an integral part of solid waste management in many parts of the world. In this context, a vast number of options ranging from small scale decentralized to larger scale centralized plants have been adopted. This study aimed at investigating the waste reuse schemes in Khulna city located in the southern part of Bangladesh and ranked third largest city in the country. The shops for reusable material (SRM) were mostly situated around railway, waterway, and truck station markets which provided easy transportation to further locations. For the reuses of waste materials and products, a chain system was found to collect reusable wastes under a total number of 310 identified SRM with 859 persons directly or indirectly involved in the scheme. This was a decentralized waste management system with self sufficient (autonomous) management. According to mass balance, about 38.52 tons d{sup -1} solid wastes were reused in Khulna city area, accounting for 7.65% of the total generated wastes. This study revealed that apparently a silent, systematic, smooth, and clean reuse chain has been established in Khulna city area under private initiatives, whose sustainability was confirmed over the years in the country without any official or formal funds. However, proper adjustment between the higher and lower chain in the materials flow path, as well as personal hygiene training for the workers, would further improve the achievements of the established reuse scheme.

  16. The $?^* ?^*$ total cross section in NLA BFKL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitry Yu. Ivanov; Beatrice Murdaca; Alessandro Papa

    2014-11-16

    We study the $\\gamma^* \\gamma^*$ total cross section in the NLA BFKL approach. We have extracted the NLO corrections to the photon impact factor from two recent papers of Balitsky and Chirilli and Chirilli and Kovchegov and used them to build several representations of the total cross section, equivalent within the NLA. We have combined these different representations with two among the most common methods for the optimization of a perturbative series, namely PMS and BLM, and compared their behavior with the energy with the only available experimental data, those from the LEP2 collider.

  17. Total Cross Sections for Neutron Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. R. Chinn; Ch. Elster; R. M. Thaler; S. P. Weppner

    1994-10-19

    Measurements of neutron total cross-sections are both extensive and extremely accurate. Although they place a strong constraint on theoretically constructed models, there are relatively few comparisons of predictions with experiment. The total cross-sections for neutron scattering from $^{16}$O and $^{40}$Ca are calculated as a function of energy from $50-700$~MeV laboratory energy with a microscopic first order optical potential derived within the framework of the Watson expansion. Although these results are already in qualitative agreement with the data, the inclusion of medium corrections to the propagator is essential to correctly predict the energy dependence given by the experiment.

  18. Mathematical Models and Numerical Solutions of Liquid-Solid and Solid-Liquid Phase Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surana, Karan S.; Joy, Aaron; Quiros, Luis; Reddy, JN

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations of liquid-solid and solid-liquid phase change processes using mathematical models in Lagrangian and Eulerian descriptions. The mathematical models are derived by assuming a smooth ...

  19. Methods for Increasing Sensitivity and Throughput of Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy of Pharmaceutical Solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schieber, Loren

    2010-01-22

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) spectroscopy has been demonstrated to be a powerful technique for investigating solid dosage formulations. SSNMR has the ability to determine physical form, molecular structure, ...

  20. Solid phase sequencing of biopolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantor, Charles (Del Mar, CA); Koster, Hubert (La Jolla, CA)

    2010-09-28

    This invention relates to methods for detecting and sequencing target nucleic acid sequences, to mass modified nucleic acid probes and arrays of probes useful in these methods, and to kits and systems which contain these probes. Useful methods involve hybridizing the nucleic acids or nucleic acids which represent complementary or homologous sequences of the target to an array of nucleic acid probes. These probes comprise a single-stranded portion, an optional double-stranded portion and a variable sequence within the single-stranded portion. The molecular weights of the hybridized nucleic acids of the set can be determined by mass spectroscopy, and the sequence of the target determined from the molecular weights of the fragments. Nucleic acids whose sequences can be determined include DNA or RNA in biological samples such as patient biopsies and environmental samples. Probes may be fixed to a solid support such as a hybridization chip to facilitate automated molecular weight analysis and identification of the target sequence.

  1. The effect of Sequoyah Nuclear Plant on dissolved oxygen in Chickamauga Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butkus, S.R.; Shiao, M.C.; Yeager, B.L.

    1990-09-01

    During the summer of 1985, the Tennessee Division of Water Pollution Control and the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency measured dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations downstream from the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant (SQN) discharge mixing zone that were below the state criterion for DO. The Tennessee General Water Quality Criteria'' specifies that DO should be a minimum of 5.0 mg/l measured at a depth of 5 feet for the protection of fish and aquatic life. The Tennessee Valley Authority developed the present study to answer general concerns about reservoir conditions and potential for adverse effects on aquatic biota. Four objectives were defined for this study: (1) to better define the extent and duration of the redistribution of DO in the reservoir, (2) to better understand DO dynamics within the mixing zone, (3) to determine whether DO is being lost (or added) as the condenser cooling water passes through the plant, and (4) to evaluate the potential for impact on aquatic life in the reservoir.

  2. Fiber-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janke, Christopher J; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

    2014-05-13

    A fiber-based adsorbent and a related method of manufacture are provided. The fiber-based adsorbent includes polymer fibers with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight over known fibers to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. The polymer fibers include a circular morphology in some embodiments, having a mean diameter of less than 15 microns, optionally less than about 1 micron. In other embodiments, the polymer fibers include a non-circular morphology, optionally defining multiple gear-shaped, winged-shaped or lobe-shaped projections along the length of the polymer fibers. A method for forming the fiber-based adsorbents includes irradiating high surface area polymer fibers, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting the grafted fibers with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. High surface area fiber-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

  3. Biochemical transformation of solid carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY)

    2001-09-25

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  4. Managing America`s solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1998-03-02

    This report presents an historical overview of the federal role in municipal solid waste management from 1965 to approximately 1995. Attention is focuses on the federal role in safeguarding public health, protecting the environment, and wisely using material and energy resources. It is hoped that this report will provide important background for future municipal solid waste research and development initiatives.

  5. Modeling Solid-Electrolyte-Electrode Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holzwarth, Natalie

    Modeling Solid-Electrolyte- Electrode Interfaces N. D. Lepley and N. A. W. Holzwarth Wake Forest University Supported by NSF grant DMR-1105485 #12;Motivation · Solid electrolyte/electrode interfaces more chemically stable · Enable Li anodes, S cathodes · Interested in characterizing interface ­ What interface

  6. ADSORPTION/DESORPTION STUDIES ON SOLID ACID ALKYLATION CATALYSTS USING A TAPERED ELEMENT OSCILLATING MICROBALANCE (TEOM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Kening

    2008-10-23

    2-1. Key Operating Parameters of the Reactors for Each Process 20 Table 2-2. Comparison of Material Balance, Raw Material Costs, and Product Sales Revenues for Sulfuric Acid Alkylation Process and Solid Acid/CO2 Alkylation Process 31 Table 2... effluent refrigeration alkylation process. 17 Figure 2-2. Proposed solid acid/CO2 alkylation process. 19 Figure 2-3. Sensitivity analysis of installed reactor cost, total capital investment, and utility and chemical costs to OSV (golefin/gcatalysth). 38...

  7. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  8. Frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kallman, Jeffrey S. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor which allows the acquisition of the acoustic field over an entire plane, all at once. The sensor finds use in acoustic holography and acoustic diffraction tomography. For example, the sensor may be produced by a transparent plate with transparent support members tall enough to support one or more flexible membranes at an appropriate height for frustrated total internal reflection to occur. An acoustic wave causes the membrane to deflect away from its quiescent position and thus changes the amount of light that tunnels through the gap formed by the support members and into the membrane, and so changes the amount of light reflected by the membrane. The sensor(s) is illuminated by a uniform tight field, and the reflection from the sensor yields acoustic wave amplitude and phase information which can be picked up electronically or otherwise.

  9. Successful Thrombolysis and Spasmolysis of Acute Leg Ischemia after Accidental Intra-arterial Injection of Dissolved Flunitrazepam Tablets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radeleff, B., E-mail: Boris_radeleff@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Stampfl, U.; Sommer, C.-M.; Bellemann, N. [University of Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Hyhlik-Duerr, A. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany); Weber, M.-A. [University of Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Boeckler, D. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany); Kauczor, H.-U. [University of Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    A 37-year-old man with known intravenous drug abuse presented in the surgical ambulatory care unit with acute leg ischemia after accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets into the right femoral artery. A combination of anticoagulation, vasodilatation, and local selective and superselective thrombolysis with urokinase was performed to salvage the leg. As a result of the severe ischemia-induced pain, the patient had to be monitored over the complete therapy period on the intensive care unit with permanent administration of intravenous fluid and analgetics. We describe the presenting symptoms and the interventional technique, and we discuss the recent literature regarding the management of accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets.

  10. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A solid state radiative heat pump (10, 50, 70) operable at room temperature (300.degree. K.) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of charge carriers as compared to thermal equilibrium. In one form of the invention (10, 70) an infrared semiconductor photodiode (21, 71) is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention (50), a homogeneous semiconductor (51) is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation through the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-reflection layer (19) is coated into the active surface (13) of the semiconductor (11), the anti-reflection layer (19) having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor (11). In the second method, a passive layer (75) is spaced from the active surface (73) of the semiconductor (71) by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler (91) with a paraboloid reflecting surface (92) is in contact with the active surface (13, 53) of the semiconductor (11, 51), the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  11. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1984-09-28

    A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  12. The genealogy of convex solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domokos, Gabor; Szabó, Timea

    2012-01-01

    The shape of homogeneous, smooth convex bodies as described by the Euclidean distance from the center of gravity represents a rather restricted class M_C of Morse-Smale functions on S^2. Here we show that even M_C exhibits the complexity known for general Morse-Smale functions on S^2 by exhausting all combinatorial possibilities: every 2-colored quadrangulation of the sphere is isomorphic to a suitably represented Morse-Smale complex associated with a function in M_C (and vice versa). We prove our claim by an inductive algorithm, starting from the path graph P_2 and generating convex bodies corresponding to quadrangulations with increasing number of vertices by performing each combinatorially possible vertex splitting by a convexity- preserving local manipulation of the surface. Since convex bodies carrying Morse-Smale complexes isomorphic to P_2 exist, this algorithm not only proves our claim but also defines a hierarchical order among convex solids and general- izes the known classification scheme in [35], ...

  13. Solid state safety jumper cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (353 Church Rd., Beech Island, SC 29841)

    1993-01-01

    Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the determination of the decoder. No connection will be made unless only one terminal of each battery has a higher voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "positive" terminals, and one has a lower voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "negative" terminals, and that, therefore, the two high voltage terminals may be connected and the two lower voltage terminals may be connected. Current flows once the appropriate relay device is closed. The relay device is preferably a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) combined with a series array of photodiodes that develop MOSFET gate-closing potential when the decoder output causes an LED to light.

  14. Spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties of molecular hydrogen dissolved in water at pressures up to 200 MPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borysow, Jacek Rosso, Leonardo del; Celli, Milva; Ulivi, Lorenzo; Moraldi, Massimo

    2014-04-28

    We have measured the Raman Q-branch of hydrogen in a solution with water at a temperature of about 280 K and at pressures from 20 to 200 MPa. From a least-mean-square fitting analysis of the broad Raman Q-branch, we isolated the contributions from the four lowest individual roto-vibrational lines. The vibrational lines were narrower than the pure rotational Raman lines of hydrogen dissolved in water measured previously, but significantly larger than in the gas. The separations between these lines were found to be significantly smaller than in gaseous hydrogen and their widths were slightly increasing with pressure. The lines were narrowing with increasing rotational quantum number. The Raman frequencies of all roto-vibrational lines were approaching the values of gas phase hydrogen with increasing pressure. Additionally, from the comparison of the integrated intensity signal of Q-branch of hydrogen to the integrated Raman signal of the water bending mode, we have obtained the concentration of hydrogen in a solution with water along the 280 K isotherm. Hydrogen solubility increases slowly with pressure, and no deviation from a smooth behaviour was observed, even reaching thermodynamic conditions very close to the transition to the stable hydrogen hydrate. The analysis of the relative hydrogen concentration in solution on the basis of a simple thermodynamic model has allowed us to obtain the molar volume for the hydrogen gas/water solution. Interestingly, the volume relative to one hydrogen molecule in solution does not decrease with pressure and, at high pressure, is larger than the volume pertinent to one molecule of water. This is in favour of the theory of hydrophobic solvation, for which a larger and more stable structure of the water molecules is expected around a solute molecule.

  15. Puget Sound Dissolved Oxygen Modeling Study: Development of an Intermediate Scale Water Quality Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khangaonkar, Tarang; Sackmann, Brandon S.; Long, Wen; Mohamedali, Teizeen; Roberts, Mindy

    2012-10-01

    The Salish Sea, including Puget Sound, is a large estuarine system bounded by over seven thousand miles of complex shorelines, consists of several subbasins and many large inlets with distinct properties of their own. Pacific Ocean water enters Puget Sound through the Strait of Juan de Fuca at depth over the Admiralty Inlet sill. Ocean water mixed with freshwater discharges from runoff, rivers, and wastewater outfalls exits Puget Sound through the brackish surface outflow layer. Nutrient pollution is considered one of the largest threats to Puget Sound. There is considerable interest in understanding the effect of nutrient loads on the water quality and ecological health of Puget Sound in particular and the Salish Sea as a whole. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a coupled hydrodynamic and water quality model. The water quality model simulates algae growth, dissolved oxygen, (DO) and nutrient dynamics in Puget Sound to inform potential Puget Sound-wide nutrient management strategies. Specifically, the project is expected to help determine 1) if current and potential future nitrogen loadings from point and non-point sources are significantly impairing water quality at a large scale and 2) what level of nutrient reductions are necessary to reduce or control human impacts to DO levels in the sensitive areas. The project did not include any additional data collection but instead relied on currently available information. This report describes model development effort conducted during the period 2009 to 2012 under a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cooperative agreement with PNNL, Ecology, and the University of Washington awarded under the National Estuary Program

  16. Washing of the AW-101 entrained solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GJ Lumetta

    2000-03-31

    BNFL Inc. (BNFL) is under contract with the US Department of Energy, River Protection Project (DOE-RPP) to design, construct, and operate facilities for treating wastes stored in the single-shell and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The DOE-BNFL RPP contract identifies two feeds to the waste treatment plant: (1) primarily liquid low-activity waste (LAW) consisting of less than 2 wt% entrained solids and (2) high-level waste (HLW) consisting of 10 to 200 g/L solids slurry. This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing on the composition of the entrained solids in the diluted AW-101 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. The objective of this work was to gather data on the solubility of the AW-101 entrained solids in 0.01 M NaOH, so that BNFL can evaluate whether these solids require caustic leaching. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-9, Rev. 0, LAW Entrained Solids Water Wash and Caustic Leach Testing. The test went according to plan, with no deviations from the test plan. Based on the results of the 0.01 M NaOH washing, a decision was made by BNFL to not proceed with the caustic leaching test. The composition of the washed solids was such that caustic leaching would not result in significant reduction in the immobilized HLW volume.

  17. Solid electrolytes for battery applications a theoretical perspective a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holzwarth, Natalie

    Solid electrolytes for battery applications ­ a theoretical perspective a Natalie Holzwarth, USA · Introduction and motivation for solid electrolytes · What can computation do for this project? · Specific examples ­ LiPON, thio phosphates, other solid electrolytes · Suggestions for collaboration

  18. THERMODYNAMICS OF SOLID AND LIQUID GROUP III-V ALLOYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    cell design using a CaF2 solid electrolyte cell.for the CaF2 solid electrolyte cell. Helium purificationzirconia as the solid electrolyte and a (CO + C0 2 ) gaseous

  19. 1993 Solid Waste Reference Forecast Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valero, O.J.; Blackburn, C.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Kaae, P.S.; Armacost, L.L.; Garrett, S.M.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report, which updates WHC-EP-0567, 1992 Solid Waste Reference Forecast Summary, (WHC 1992) forecasts the volumes of solid wastes to be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site during the 30-year period from FY 1993 through FY 2022. The data used in this document were collected from Westinghouse Hanford Company forecasts as well as from surveys of waste generators at other US Department of Energy sites who are now shipping or plan to ship solid wastes to the Hanford Site for disposal. These wastes include low-level and low-level mixed waste, transuranic and transuranic mixed waste, and nonradioactive hazardous waste.

  20. Passivation-free solid state battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Peramunage, Dharmasena (Norwood, MA)

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li.sub.4 Ti.sub.5 O.sub.12 anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4, LiCoO.sub.2, LiNiO.sub.2 and LiV.sub.2 O.sub.5 and their derivatives.

  1. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance Delphi SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Shaffer; Gary Blake; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; Karl Haltiner; Larry Chick; David Schumann; Jeff Weissman; Gail Geiger; Ralphi Dellarocco

    2006-12-31

    The following report details the results under the DOE SECA program for the period July 2006 through December 2006. Developments pertain to the development of a 3 to 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. This report details technical results of the work performed under the following tasks for the SOFC Power System: Task 1 SOFC System Development; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant Components; Task 5 Project Management; and Task 6 System Modeling & Cell Evaluation for High Efficiency Coal-Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Hybrid System.

  2. Energy Secretary Bodman Statement on Hanford Solid Waste Settlement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Statement on Hanford Solid Waste Settlement Agreement Energy Secretary Bodman Statement on Hanford Solid Waste Settlement Agreement January 9, 2006 - 9:43am Addthis Richland, WA -...

  3. Measurement of diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic stripper for comparison with Europe's PMP protocol Measurement of diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic...

  4. Nevada Industrial Solid Waste Disposal Site Permit Application...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada Industrial Solid Waste Disposal Site Permit Application Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Nevada Industrial Solid Waste Disposal Site...

  5. Georgia Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Act of 1990 (Georgia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Georgia Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Act (SWMA) of 1990 was implemented in order to improve solid waste management procedures, permitting processes and management throughout the state. ...

  6. The Kanatzidis - Chang Cell: dye sensitized all solid state solar...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Kanatzidis - Chang Cell: dye sensitized all solid state solar cell Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > The Kanatzidis - Chang Cell: dye sensitized all solid state...

  7. FEMP Outdoor Solid-State Lighting Intiative: Resources for Outdoor...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Outdoor Solid-State Lighting Intiative: Resources for Outdoor SSL Applications FEMP Outdoor Solid-State Lighting Intiative: Resources for Outdoor SSL Applications Fact sheet...

  8. Energy Department Announces $4 Million Solicitation for Solid...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Department Announces 4 Million Solicitation for Solid-State Lighting Research Energy Department Announces 4 Million Solicitation for Solid-State Lighting Research August...

  9. Federal Technology Deployment Pilot: Exterior Solid State Lighting...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Federal Technology Deployment Pilot: Exterior Solid State Lighting Federal Technology Deployment Pilot: Exterior Solid State Lighting Presentation-given at the Fall 2011 Federal...

  10. Solid-State Lighting Commercial Product Development Resulting...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Solid-State Lighting Commercial Product Development Resulting from DOE-Funded Projects Solid-State Lighting Commercial Product Development Resulting from DOE-Funded Projects...

  11. DOE Solid-State Lighting Program: Modest Investments, Extraordinary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modest Investments, Extraordinary Impacts DOE Solid-State Lighting Program Shaping the Future of Solid-State Lighting Today, LED (light-emitting diode) technologies illuminate...

  12. System Reliability Model for Solid-State Lighting Luminaires...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    System Reliability Model for Solid-State Lighting Luminaires System Reliability Model for Solid-State Lighting Luminaires Lead Performer: RTI International - Research Triangle...

  13. Technology assessment and market analysis of solid state ultracapacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Zibo

    2007-01-01

    This report provides quantitative analysis of Solid State Ultracapacitors (SSUs) from technological and financial perspectives. SSUs are Ultracapacitors with solid electrolytes predicted to have huge application potential ...

  14. Electrical Generation for More-Electric Aircraft using Solid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrical Generation for More-Electric Aircraft using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Electrical Generation for More-Electric Aircraft using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells This study, completed by...

  15. Geothermal Power Plants — Minimizing Solid Waste and Recovering Minerals

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Although many geothermal power plants generate no appreciable solid waste, the unique characteristics of some geothermal fluids require special attention to handle entrained solid byproducts.

  16. Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids, gases) Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids, gases) Energetic Materials for EGS Well...

  17. 2014 DOE SOLID-STATE LIGHTING MARKET DEVELOPMENT WORKSHOP | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE SOLID-STATE LIGHTING MARKET DEVELOPMENT WORKSHOP 2014 DOE SOLID-STATE LIGHTING MARKET DEVELOPMENT WORKSHOP DOE SSL Market Development Workshop Agenda.pdf More Documents &...

  18. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  19. National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Studies What does this project do? For more information on DOE's efforts to make solid oxide fuel cells an efficient and economically compelling...

  20. Something for Nothing: Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gururangan, Karthik

    2015-01-01

    A. (2001). Materials for fuel cell technologies. Nature,Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell in Hydrocarbon-Airin solid-oxide fuel cell. Letters to Nature,404. Retrieved

  1. Surgical navigation in canine total knee replacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Kaleigh M.; Hutter, Erin; Siston, Robert A.; Bertran, Judith

    2015-06-16

    of the cutting block provides a surrogate marker for final alignment of the 179 tibial component. A flat, thin-bladed tracking tool (Figure 2E) was placed on the top 180 surface of the tibial cutting block to record its orientation in the frontal and sagittal... ] Baker KM, Foutz TL, Johnson KJ, et al. Effects of tibial plateau angle and spacer 444 thickness applied during in vitro canine total knee replacement on three-dimensional 445 kinematics and collateral ligament strain. Am J Vet Res 2014; 75...

  2. Kojève and Levinas: Universality Without Totality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pepitone, Anthony J.

    2010-07-14

    as the End of History is generated from within history, history reserves the final judgment on the value and worth of individuals. Against this tragic conception of history, Levinas poses the eschatological as an anti-tragic order from which each individual...?s worth and singularity is preserved by judgments that have their basis in an infinite time that exceeds history and its tragic totalization. In Chapter IV, I address the question of how Levinasian ethics is consistent with the project of a...

  3. Cogeneration Plant is Designed for Total Energy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howell, H. D.; Vera, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-87-09-45.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 19371 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-87-09-45.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 COGENERATION PLANT... of a 200 MW combined cycle cogeneration plant located at Occidental Chemical Corporation's Battleground chlorine-caustic plant at La Porte, Texas. This successful application of a total energy management concept utilizing combined cycle...

  4. 2014 Retail Power Marketers Sales- Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers THURSDAY, APRILCustomersTotal (Data from

  5. 2014 Total Electric Industry- Revenue (Thousands Dollars)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers THURSDAY, APRILCustomersTotal (DataRevenue

  6. Compare All CBECS Activities: Total Energy Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep3,118,592Number ofByFuel OilByTotal

  7. Total Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight Paths30,2,8, 2015End Use: TotalEnd

  8. Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight Paths30,2,8,Product: Total CrudeMay-15

  9. 2014 Utility Bundled Retail Sales- Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n pTotal (Data

  10. Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYearbyWithdrawalsHome6,672(MillionFeet)Product: Total

  11. Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nearly 200 lighting industry leaders, chip makers, fixture and component manufacturers, and others gathered in Fairfax, Virginia, on April 21 and 22, 2009, for the first-ever DOE Solid-State...

  12. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2014-11-18

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  13. Montana Solid Waste Management Act (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It is the public policy of the state to control solid waste management systems to protect the public health and safety and to conserve natural resources whenever possible. The Department of...

  14. Solid Waste as an Energy Source 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erlandsson, K. I.

    1979-01-01

    The cost history of conventional fuels over the past several years has forced a hard search for alternate energy sources. One alternate energy source that has gained more and more acceptance is solid waste. This is the case particularly...

  15. AW-101 entrained solids - Solubility versus temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GJ Lumetta; RC Lettau; GF Piepel

    2000-03-31

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the solubility of the solids entrained in the diluted AW-101 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. BNFL requested Battelle to dilute the AW-1-1 sample using de-ionized water to mimic expected plant operating conditions. BNFL further requested Battelle to assess the solubility of the solids present in the diluted AW-101 sample versus temperature conditions of 30, 40, and 50 C. BNFL requested these tests to assess the composition of the LAW supernatant and solids versus expected plant-operating conditions. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-7, Rev. 0, Determination of the Solubility of LAW Entrained Solids. The test went according to plan, with no deviations from the test plan.

  16. Novel phosphors for solid state lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furman, Joshua D

    2010-11-16

    Solid state white light emitting diode lighting devices outperform conventional light sources in terms of lifetime, durability, and lumens per watt. However, the capital contribution is still to high to encourage widespread adoption. Furthermore...

  17. Experimental analysis of municipal solid waste samples 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendoza Sanchez, Itza

    2002-01-01

    In the analysis of municipal solid waste consolidation, large-scale devices are usually used to measure the compression and hydraulic conductivity parameters. The use of those devices is justified due to difficulties in probing undisturbed samples...

  18. Geothermal Direct-Use — Minimizing Solid Waste

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Aquaculture and horticulture businesses, and other industries that use geothermal direct-use systems typically don't generate any more solid waste than those that use other energy resources.

  19. Solid State AC Motor Drives - Conservation Perspectives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohan, N.; Ferraro, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Variable Frequency Solid-State Inverters: can control the speed of ac motors by producing adjustable frequency ac voltage, with an enormous potential for energy conservation in pumps and air handling systems. 3. Other Variable Frequency Drives: include...

  20. Modeling of solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Won Yong, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) model of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)s is developed to investigate the effect of various design and operating conditions on the cell performance and to examine the underlying ...

  1. Interfacial material for solid oxide fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baozhen, Li (Essex Junction, VT); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

    1999-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

  2. Experimental equilibrium structures of solids and gases 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reilly, Anthony M.

    In the past sixty years, X-ray, neutron and electron dffraction have emerged as the structural techniques of choice in the solid state. However, despite many advances in theory and instrumentation, these diffraction ...

  3. Solid-state diffusion in amorphous zirconolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, C.; Dove, M. T.; Trachenko, K.; Zarkadoula, E.; Todorov, I. T.; Geisler, T.; Brazhkin, V. V.

    2014-11-14

    We discuss how structural disorder and amorphization affect solid-state diffusion, and consider zirconolite as a currently important case study. By performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations, we disentangle the effects of amorphization and density, and show that a profound increase of solid-state diffusion takes place as a result of amorphization. Importantly, this can take place at the same density as in the crystal, representing an interesting general insight regarding solid-state diffusion. We find that decreasing the density in the amorphous system increases pre-factors of diffusion constants, but does not change the activation energy in the density range considered. We also find that atomic species in zirconolite are affected differently by amorphization and density change. Our microscopic insights are relevant for understanding how solid-state diffusion changes due to disorder and for building predictive models of operation of materials to be used to encapsulate nuclear waste.

  4. Solar Total Energy Project final test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, R.F.; Abney, L.O.; Towner, M.L. (Georgia Power Co., Shenandoah, GA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The Solar Total Energy Project (STEP), a cooperative effort between the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Georgia Power Company (GPC) located at Shenandoah, Georgia, has undergone several design modifications based on experience from previous operations and test programs. The experiences encountered were discussed in detail in the Solar Total Energy Project Summary Report'' completed in 1987 for DOE. Most of the proposed changes discussed in this report were installed and tested in 1987 as part of two 15-day test programs (SNL Contract No. 06-3049). However, several of the suggested changes were not completed before 1988. These plant modifications include a new distributed control system for the balance of plant (BOP), a fiber a optical communications ring for the field control system, and new control configuration reflecting the new operational procedures caused by the plant modifications. These modifications were tested during a non-consecutive day test, and a 60-day field test conducted during the autumn of 1989. These test were partially funded by SNL under Contract No. 42-4859, dated June 22, 1989. Results of these tests and preliminary analysis are presented in this test summary report. 9 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Solid waste management: a public policy study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayawant, Mandar Prabhatkumar

    1993-01-01

    . Floodplains, surface water, and groundwater: Facilities in floodplains must not restrict the flow of base floods, reduce the temporary water storage capacity of the floodplain, or result in washout of solid waste; dredge and fill material may...SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT: A PUBLIC POLICY STUDY A Thesis MANDAR PRABHATKUMAR JAYAWANT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993...

  6. Grating enhanced solid-state laser amplifiers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erlandson, Alvin C. (Livermore, CA); Britten, Jerald A. (Clayton, CA)

    2010-11-09

    A novel method and apparatus for suppressing ASE and parasitic oscillation modes in a high average power laser is introduced. Such an invention, as disclosed herein, uses diffraction gratings to increase gain, stored energy density, and pumping efficiency of solid-state laser gain media, such as, but not limited to rods, disks and slabs. By coupling predetermined gratings to solid-state gain media, such as crystal or ceramic laser gain media, ASE and parasitic oscillation modes can be effectively suppressed.

  7. Secondary calcium solid electrolyte high temperature battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.; Schumacher, B.

    1986-01-01

    The authors report on recent work directed towards determining the viability of polycrystalline Ca/sup 2 +/ conducting ..beta..''-alumina solid electrolytes as the basis for a new type of high temperature battery. In this battery system the negative electrode consisted of a calcium-silicon alloy whose redox electro-chemistry was mediated to the calcium conducting solid electrolyte via the use of the molten salt eutectic CaCl/sub 2/ (51.4/sup M//0), CaI/sub 2/ (mp 550/sup 0/C). Both the molten salt and the calcium-alloy negative active material were separated from the positive active material via the Ca/sup 2 +/ conducting polycrystalline solid electrolyte. The positive electrode consisted of a solid-state matrix having a somewhat related crystallographic structure to Ca/sup 2 +/ ..beta..''-alumina, but where a significant fraction of the A1/sup 3 +/ sites located within this solid electrolyte's spinel block were replaced by immobile transition metal species. These species were available for participating in solid-state redox electrochemistry upon electrochemical cell cycling.

  8. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue gas desulfurization solids. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1981-10-01

    The emissions of volatile, sulfur-containing compounds from the surfaces of 13 flue gas desulfurization (FGD) solids field storage sites have been characterized. The sulfur gas emissions from these storage surfaces were determined by measuring the sulfur gas enhancement of sulfur-free sweep air passing through a dynamic emission flux chamber placed over selected sampling areas. Samples of the enclosure sweep air were cryogenically concentrated in surface-deactivated Pyrex U traps. Analyses were conducted by wall-coated, open-tubular, capillary column, cryogenic, temperature-programmed gas chromatography using a sulfur-selective flame photometric detector. Several major variables associated with FGD sludge production processes were examined in relation to the measured range and variations in sulfur fluxes including: the sulfur dioxide scrubbing reagent used, sludge sulfite oxidation, unfixed or stabilized (fixed) FGD solids, and ponding or landfill storage. The composition and concentration of the measured sulfur gas emissions were found to vary with the type of solids, the effectiveness of rainwater drainage from the landfill surface, the method of impoundment, and the sulfate/sulfite ratio of the solids. The FGD solids emissions may contain hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide in varying concentrations and ratios. In addition, up to four unidentified organo-sulfur compounds were found in the emissions from four different FGD solids. The measured, total sulfur emissions ranged from less than 0.01 to nearly 0.3 kg of sulfur per day for an equivalent 40.5 hectare (100 acre) FGD solids impoundment surface.

  9. ,"Total District Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District Heat Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  10. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  11. NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review NREL: Building America Total Quality Management - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Stacey Rothgeb, NREL View the...

  12. Total synthesis of Class II and Class III Galbulimima Alkaloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tjandra, Meiliana

    2010-01-01

    I. Total Synthesis of All Class III Galbulimima Alkaloids We describe the total synthesis of (+)- and (-)-galbulimima alkaloid 13, (-)-himgaline anad (-)-himbadine. The absolute stereochemistry of natural (-)-galbulimima ...

  13. Enantioselective total syntheses of acylfulvene, irofulven, and the agelastatins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Dustin S. (Dustin Scott), 1980-

    2010-01-01

    I. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (-)-Acylfulvene, and (-)-Irofulven We report the enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-acylfulvene and (-)-irofulven, which features metathesis reactions for the rapid assembly of ...

  14. UPRE method for total variation parameter selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlberg, Brendt [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lin, Youzuo [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Total Variation (TV) Regularization is an important method for solving a wide variety of inverse problems in image processing. In order to optimize the reconstructed image, it is important to choose the optimal regularization parameter. The Unbiased Predictive Risk Estimator (UPRE) has been shown to give a very good estimate of this parameter for Tikhonov Regularization. In this paper we propose an approach to extend UPRE method to the TV problem. However, applying the extended UPRE is impractical in the case of inverse problems such as de blurring, due to the large scale of the associated linear problem. We also propose an approach to reducing the large scale problem to a small problem, significantly reducing computational requirements while providing a good approximation to the original problem.

  15. Influence of suspended solids on bioavailability of hexachlorobenzene and lindane to the deposit-feeding marine bivalve, Abra nitida (Mueller)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekelund, R.; Granmo, A.; Berggren, M.; Renberg, L.; Wahlberg, C.

    1987-03-01

    It is well-known that suspended solids in water adsorb hydrophobic pollutants, thereby decreasing the bioavailability of the compounds to aquatic organisms which do not use the particles as food. It is also known that hydrophobic pollutants deposited in sediments usually have a low bioavailability. The relative contribution of water and sediment respectively to bioaccumulation of hydrophobic pollutants has been discussed in many papers based on field data, but the conclusions are uncertain. However, very few studies have been performed under controlled conditions in the laboratory on how the bioaccumulation of such compounds dissolved in the water is changed by adsorption to particles when these particles are used as food by the organism. This has now been investigated using the deposit-feeding bivalve Abra nitida which was exposed to hexachlorobenzene and lindane by means of a new method for dosing of hydrophobic compounds to a continuous flow system in long term tests.

  16. Nonconventional tight-binding method for the calculation of the total energy and spectroscopic energies of atomic clusters: Transferable parameters for silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swihart, Mark T.

    electronic structure calculation methods, being rather close in efficiency to the former due to strong simplifications in the electronic structure calculations. In the last two decades much attention has been paid of solids has become a popular and convenient tool for total energy calculations and molecular dynamics

  17. Solid electrolyte-electrode system for an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuller, Harry L. (Wellesley, MA); Kramer, Steve A. (Somerville, MA); Spears, Marlene A. (Woburn, MA)

    1995-01-01

    An electrochemical device including a solid electrolyte and solid electrode composed of materials having different chemical compositions and characterized by different electrical properties but having the same crystalline phase is provided. A method for fabricating an electrochemical device having a solid electrode and solid electrolyte characterized by the same crystalline phase is also provided.

  18. Harmonic Volumetric Mapping for Solid Modeling Applications Xiaohu Guo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xin "Shane"

    Harmonic Volumetric Mapping for Solid Modeling Applications Xin Li SBU Xiaohu Guo UT Dallas Hongyu volumetric mapping from a solid polycube model(a) to the solid Buddha model(b). (c) is the color with corresponding cross-sections in (f) and (h), respectively. Abstract Harmonic volumetric mapping for two solid

  19. Solid electrolyte-electrode system for an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuller, H.L.; Kramer, S.A.; Spears, M.A.

    1995-04-04

    An electrochemical device including a solid electrolyte and solid electrode composed of materials having different chemical compositions and characterized by different electrical properties but having the same crystalline phase is provided. A method for fabricating an electrochemical device having a solid electrode and solid electrolyte characterized by the same crystalline phase is also provided. 17 figures.

  20. ,"Nebraska Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA -LiquidsAnnual",2014 ,"ReleaseAssociated-Dissolved Natural