Sample records for total combined heat

  1. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

  2. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

  3. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  4. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  5. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  6. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  7. Combined Heat and Power

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1. FeedstockCLEANSprings Gets anColoring andCombined Heat

  8. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California, Berkeley; Wei, Max; Lipman, Timothy; Mayyas, Ahmad; Chien, Joshua; Chan, Shuk Han; Gosselin, David; Breunig, Hanna; Stadler, Michael; McKone, Thomas; Beattie, Paul; Chong, Patricia; Colella, Whitney; James, Brian

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A total cost of ownership model is described for low temperature proton exchange membrane stationary fuel cell systems for combined heat and power (CHP) applications from 1-250kW and backup power applications from 1-50kW. System designs and functional specifications for these two applications were developed across the range of system power levels. Bottom-up cost estimates were made for balance of plant costs, and detailed direct cost estimates for key fuel cell stack components were derived using design-for-manufacturing-and-assembly techniques. The development of high throughput, automated processes achieving high yield are projected to reduce the cost for fuel cell stacks to the $300/kW level at an annual production volume of 100 MW. Several promising combinations of building types and geographical location in the U.S. were identified for installation of fuel cell CHP systems based on the LBNL modelling tool DER CAM. Life-cycle modelling and externality assessment were done for hotels and hospitals. Reduced electricity demand charges, heating credits and carbon credits can reduce the effective cost of electricity ($/kWhe) by 26-44percent in locations such as Minneapolis, where high carbon intensity electricity from the grid is displaces by a fuel cell system operating on reformate fuel. This project extends the scope of existing cost studies to include externalities and ancillary financial benefits and thus provides a more comprehensive picture of fuel cell system benefits, consistent with a policy and incentive environment that increasingly values these ancillary benefits. The project provides a critical, new modelling capacity and should aid a broad range of policy makers in assessing the integrated costs and benefits of fuel cell systems versus other distributed generation technologies.

  9. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Zhe

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  10. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feng, Zhe

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  11. Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat & Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Information about the Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program and its Combined Heat and Power program.

  12. Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 #12;Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating Søren Østergaard Jensen

  13. Combined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    Combined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine Steam Turbine Chiller Campus Heat Load Steam (recovered waste heat) Gas Turbine University Substation High Pressure Natural Gas Campus Electric Load Southern Generator Heat Recovery Alternative Uses: 1. Campus heating load 2. Steam turbine chiller to campus cooling

  14. Midwest Region Combined Heat and Power Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships (CHP TAPs) have compiled a select number of combined heat and power (CHP) project profiles, which are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs. 

  15. Northwest Region Combined Heat and Power Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's Regional CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships (CHP TAPs) have compiled a select number of combined heat and power (CHP) project profiles, which are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs.

  16. Pacific Region Combined Heat and Power Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's Regional CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships (CHP TAPs) have compiled a select number of combined heat and power (CHP) project profiles, which are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs.

  17. Northeast Region Combined Heat and Power Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's Regional CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships (CHP TAPs) have compiled a select number of combined heat and power (CHP) project profiles, which are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs.

  18. Combined Heat and Power, Waste Heat, and District Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Fall 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—covers combined heat and power (CHP) technologies and their applications.

  19. Engine Driven Combined Heat and Power: Arrow Linen Supply, December...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Driven Combined Heat and Power: Arrow Linen Supply, December 2008 Engine Driven Combined Heat and Power: Arrow Linen Supply, December 2008 This paper describes the Arrow...

  20. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Integrated with Burners for Packaged...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers Providing Clean, Low-Cost,...

  1. Novel Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) Systems - Fact Sheet, 2011 Novel Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power...

  2. Survey of Emissions Models for Distributed Combined Heat and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Survey of Emissions Models for Distributed Combined Heat and Power Systems, 2007 Survey of Emissions Models for Distributed Combined Heat and Power Systems, 2007 The models...

  3. Correlation Of Surface Heat Loss And Total Energy Production...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Correlation Of Surface Heat Loss And Total Energy Production For Geothermal Systems Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Correlation...

  4. GUIDELINES FOR CERTIFICATION OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION GUIDELINES FOR CERTIFICATION OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEMS for Certification of Combined Heat and Power Systems Pursuant to the Waste Heat and Carbon Emissions Reduction Act Heat and Power System Pursuant to the Waste Heat and Carbon Emissions Reduction Act, Public Utilities

  5. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    goals chpaccomplishmentsbooklet.pdf More Documents & Publications High Efficiency Microturbine with Integral Heat Recovery - Fact Sheet, 2014 Combined Heat and Power - A Decade...

  6. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentation by FuelCell Energy, June 2011 Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentation by FuelCell Energy, June...

  7. Combined Heat & Power Technology Overview and Federal Sector...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    electricity) from a single fuelenergy source Defining Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Steam Electricity Fuel Prime Mover & Generator Heat Recovery Steam Boiler Conventional CHP...

  8. National CHP Roadmap: Doubling Combined Heat and Power Capacity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CHP Roadmap: Doubling Combined Heat and Power Capacity in the United States by 2010, March 2001 National CHP Roadmap: Doubling Combined Heat and Power Capacity in the United States...

  9. Alaska Gateway School District Adopts Combined Heat and Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alaska Gateway School District Adopts Combined Heat and Power Alaska Gateway School District Adopts Combined Heat and Power May 7, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis In Tok, Alaska, the...

  10. FINAL STAFF PAPER A New Generation of Combined Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , distributed generation #12;iv #12;v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Acknowledgements FINAL STAFF PAPER A New Generation of Combined Heat and Power: Policy Planning. Neff , Bryan. A New Generation of Combined Heat and Power: Policy Planning for 2030. 2012. California

  11. Combined Heat and Power Systems (CHP): Capabilities (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D&MT Capabilities fact sheet that describes the NREL capabilities related to combined heat and power (CHP).

  12. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    combined heat and power systems. ASME Conference Proceedingsfor combined heat and power applications. ASME ConferenceRankine combined heat and power technology. ASME Conference

  13. Development of an Advanced Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    calcination in a fluidized bed with an advanced CHP system using the off-gases and the waste heat from the calcined coke. The total amount of recycled heat from the newly...

  14. Understanding Emissions from Combined Heat and Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shipley, A. M.; Greene, N.; Carter, S.; Elliott, R. N.

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is more energy efficient than separate generation of electricity and thermal energy. In CHP, heat that is normally wasted in conventional power generation is recovered as useful energy for satisfying an existing thermal...

  15. National Association of Counties Webinar - Combined Heat and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    November 19, 2014 2:00PM to 3:15PM EST Combined heat and power (CHP), also known as cogeneration, is a method whereby energy is produced, and excess heat from the production...

  16. Thermodynamic Analysis of Combined Cycle District Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suresh, S.; Gopalakrishnan, H.; Kosanovic, D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of the University of Massachusetts' Combined Heat and Power (CHP) District Heating System. Energy and exergy analyses are performed based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics for power...

  17. ITP Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power Market Assessment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Governor COMBINED HEAT AND POWER MARKET ASSESSMENT Prepared For: California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research Program Prepared By: ICF International,...

  18. Energy Portfolio Standards and the Promotion of Combined Heat...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2009 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Partnership paper covers Energy Portfolio Standards (EPS) which are becoming a widely applied method...

  19. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    opportunity fuel(s) for distributed energy resources and combined heat and power (DERCHP) applications, examine the DERCHP technologies that can use them, and assess the...

  20. Mid-Atlantic Region Combined Heat and Power Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships (CHP TAPs) have compiled a select number of combined heat and power (CHP) project profiles, which are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs.

  1. Combined Heat and Power with Your Local Utility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Fall 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—covers combined heat and power (CHP) and its uses, configurations, considerations, and more.

  2. Southwest Gas Corporation- Combined Heat and Power Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Southwest Gas Corporation (SWG) offers incentives to qualifying commercial and industrial facilities who install efficient Combined Heat and Power systems (CHP). CHP systems produce localized, on...

  3. Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Power Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Capstone Turbine Corporation, in collaboration with the University of California-Irvine, Packer...

  4. The Market and Technical Potential for Combined Heat and Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Administration in determining the potential for cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) in the commercialinstitutional market. As part of this effort, in this report, OSEC...

  5. Combined Heat and Power (CHP): Essential for a Cost Effective...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for a Cost Effective Clean Energy Standard, April 2011 Combined Heat and Power (CHP): Essential for a Cost Effective Clean Energy Standard, April 2011 In March 2011, a...

  6. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Resource Guide for Hospital Applications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resource Guide for Hospital Applications, 2007 Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Resource Guide for Hospital Applications, 2007 The objective of this 2007 guidebook is to provide a...

  7. Guide to Using Combined Heat and Power for Enhancing Reliability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    after Hurricane Sandy, combined heat and power (CHP) enabled a number of critical infrastructure and other facilities to continue their operations when the electric grid went...

  8. Energy Department Actions to Deploy Combined Heat and Power,...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Department Actions to Deploy Combined Heat and Power, Boost Industrial Efficiency Wind Farm Brings Clean, Affordable Energy to Alaskan Cooperative U.S. Department of Energy...

  9. Combined Heat and Power Research and Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    system performance e.g., effect of low-temperature combustion strategies, improved turbo-machinery, etc on process heat production and system efficiency Fuel flexibility...

  10. Combined Flue Gas Heat Recovery and Pollution Control Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zbikowski, T.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the field of heat recovery now make it possible to recover a portion of the wasted heat and improve the working conditions of the air purification equipment. Proper design and selection of heat recovery and pollution control equipment as a combination...

  11. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Technology Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    sector - Directed toward 1 - 10 MW systems including combined modes, e.g. solid oxide fuel cell plus turbine. Materials development and characterization Investigating...

  12. CHP: It's Time for Combined Heat and Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herweck, R.

    of use Electricity Electricity Heat Heat Combined Heat and Power Conventional Generation Building Load Power Plant fuel (66 units of remote energy) Boiler fuel (34 units of on-site energy) CHP fuel (x units of on-site energy) Losses Losses 20 29 20... to 90% CHP DE can cut fuel consumption per unit of output to half or a third of conventional usage… especially natural gas supplies now in heavy demand Economic Development: Combined Heat and Power #0;9 Reduces the cost of new electricity T...

  13. Radiative component and combined heat transfer in the thermal calculation of finned tube banks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stehlik, P. [Technical Univ. of Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Process Engineering] [Technical Univ. of Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Process Engineering

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For more exact calculation of combined heat transfer in the case of finned tube banks (e.g., in the convective section of a furnace), the radiative heat transfer cannot be neglected. A new method for relatively simple calculation of total heat flux (convection + radiation + conduction in fins) is fully compatible with that for bare tube banks/bundles developed earlier. It is based on the method of radiative coefficients. However, the resulting value of heat flux must be corrected due to fin thickness and especially due to the fin radiative influence. For this purpose the so-called multiplicator of heat flux was introduced. The applicability of this methods has been demonstrated on a tubular fired heater convective section. A developed computer program based on the method has also been used for an analysis of the influence of selected parameters to show the share of radiation on the total heat flux.

  14. A state, characteristics, and perspectives of the Czech combined heating and power (CHP) systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadrnozka, J. [Technical Univ. of Brno (Czech Republic)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The combined production of electricity and heat is a significant method for saving primary energy sources like fossil fuels, as well as reducing the production of CO{sub 2} and its emission to the atmosphere. The paper discusses the total efficiency of combined heat and power generation (CHP), comparing various types of CHP plants. The paper then describes the situation in the Czech Republic with regard to their centralized heat supply. The author concludes that there is no simple way to rebuild the Czech CHP systems, and that it would be better to start construction on more modern plants. He lists several starting principles to follow in the planning and design stage.

  15. Corrosion Investigations at Masned Combined Heat and Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corrosion Investigations at Masnedø Combined Heat and Power Plant Part VI Melanie Montgomery Company Ole Hede Larsen Elsam ­ Fynsværket Fælleskemikerne February 2001. #12;CORROSION INVESTIGATIONS.................................................................................................. 16 3.1. Measured corrosion attack

  16. A Ranking of State Combined Heat and Power Policies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chittum, A.; Kaufman, N.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) has been identified as a significant opportunity for greater energy efficiency and decreased environmental impacts of energy consumption. Despite this, the regulatory and policy landscape for CHP is often quite...

  17. combined heat power | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron4 Self-Scrubbing:,, , ., ..., ,+ . :,2013 NETL CO2Development ofCombined

  18. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  19. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power Systemcombined heat and power systems . . . . . . . Verificationmyth eight – worldwide power systems are economically and

  20. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power Systemfor Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Powerin parabolic trough solar power technology. Journal of Solar

  1. Encouraging Combined Heat and Power in California Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's research priorities include an additional 6.5 GW of combined heat and power (CHP) by 2030. As of 2009, roughly 0.25 GW of small natural gas and biogas fired CHP is documented by the Self-Generation Incentive on the development of 20 GW of renewable energy will influence the CHP adoption. Thus, an integrated optimization

  2. Corrosion Investigations at Masned Combined Heat and Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corrosion Investigations at Masnedø Combined Heat and Power Plant Part VII Melanie Montgomery Ole Hede Larsen Elsam ­ Fynsværket Fælleskemikerne December 2002. #12;CORROSION INVESTIGATIONS.................................................................................................... 6 3.1. Measured corrosion attack on the fireside

  3. Benefits of Combined Heat and Power | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergyDepartmentWind SitingVerificationCombined Heat & Power

  4. Thermal Energy Corporation Combined Heat and Power Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Bruce Turner; Tim Brown; Ed Mardiat

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To meet the planned heating and cooling load growth at the Texas Medical Center (TMC), Thermal Energy Corporation (TECO) implemented Phase 1 of a Master Plan to install an additional 32,000 tons of chilled water capacity, a 75,000 ton-hour (8.8 million gallon) Thermal Energy Storage (TES) tank, and a 48 MW Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system. The Department of Energy selected TMC for a $10 million grant award as part of the Financial Assistance Funding Opportunity Announcement, U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology, Recovery Act: Deployment of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems, District Energy Systems, Waste Energy Recovery Systems, and Efficiency Industrial Equipment Funding Opportunity Number: DE-FOA-0000044 to support the installation of a new 48 MW CHP system at the TMC located just outside downtown Houston. As the largest medical center in the world, TMC is home to many of the nationâ??s best hospitals, physicians, researchers, educational institutions, and health care providers. TMC provides care to approximately six million patients each year, and medical instruction to over 71,000 students. A medical center the size of TMC has enormous electricity and thermal energy demands to help it carry out its mission. Reliable, high-quality steam and chilled water are of utmost importance to the operations of its many facilities. For example, advanced medical equipment, laboratories, laundry facilities, space heating and cooling all rely on the generation of heat and power. As result of this project TECO provides this mission critical heating and cooling to TMC utilizing a system that is both energy-efficient and reliable since it provides the capability to run on power independent of the already strained regional electric grid. This allows the medical center to focus on its primary mission â?? providing top quality medical care and instruction â?? without worrying about excessive energy costs or the loss of heating and cooling due to the risk of power outages. TECOâ??s operation is the largest Chilled Water District Energy System in the United States. The company used DOEâ??s funding to help install a new high efficiency CHP system consisting of a Combustion Turbine and a Heat Recovery Steam Generator. This CHP installation was just part of a larger project undertaken by TECO to ensure that it can continue to meet TMCâ??s growing needs. The complete efficiency overhaul that TECO undertook supported more than 1,000 direct and indirect jobs in manufacturing, engineering, and construction, with approximately 400 of those being jobs directly associated with construction of the combined heat and power plant. This showcase industrial scale CHP project, serving a critical component of the nationâ??s healthcare infrastructure, directly and immediately supported the energy efficiency and job creation goals established by ARRA and DOE. It also provided an unsurpassed model of a district energy CHP application that can be replicated within other energy intensive applications in the industrial, institutional and commercial sectors.

  5. WORKING PARK-FUEL CELL COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allan Jones

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers the aims and objectives of the project which was to design, install and operate a fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) system in Woking Park, the first fuel cell CHP system in the United Kingdom. The report also covers the benefits that were expected to accrue from the work in an understanding of the full technology procurement process (including planning, design, installation, operation and maintenance), the economic and environmental performance in comparison with both conventional UK fuel supply and conventional CHP and the commercial viability of fuel cell CHP energy supply in the new deregulated energy markets.

  6. Standby Rates for Combined Heat and Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sedano, Richard [Regulatory Assistance Partnership; Selecky, James [Brubaker & Associates, Inc.; Iverson, Kathryn [Brubaker & Associates, Inc.; Al-Jabir, Ali [Brubaker & Associates, Inc.

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improvements in technology, low natural gas prices, and more flexible and positive attitudes in government and utilities are making distributed generation more viable. With more distributed generation, notably combined heat and power, comes an increase in the importance of standby rates, the cost of services utilities provide when customer generation is not operating or is insufficient to meet full load. This work looks at existing utility standby tariffs in five states. It uses these existing rates and terms to showcase practices that demonstrate a sound application of regulatory principles and ones that do not. The paper also addresses areas for improvement in standby rates.

  7. Combined Heat And Power Installation Market | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.png ElColumbia, North Carolina: EnergyCombined Heat And

  8. National Association of Counties Webinar- Combined Heat and Power: Resiliency Strategies for Critical Facilities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Combined heat and power (CHP), also known as cogeneration, is a method whereby energy is produced, and excess heat from the production process can be used for heating and cooling processes....

  9. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact Sheet, 2015 Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact Sheet, 2015 TDA Research...

  10. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden Central Office Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden Central Office This is a case study...

  11. 1-10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1-10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical Potential: Independent Review 1-10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical...

  12. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators, July 2004 Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators, July 2004 Many owners and...

  13. Combined Total Amount of Oil and Gas Recovered Daily from the...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    XLS Combined Total Amount of Oil and Gas Recovered Daily from the Top Hat and Choke Line oil recovery systems - XLS Updated through 12:00 AM on July 16, 2010. 52Item84Recovery...

  14. Combined Total Amount of Oil and Gas Recovered Daily from the...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ODS format Combined Total Amount of Oil and Gas Recovered Daily from the Top Hat and Choke Line oil recovery systems - ODS format Updated through 12:00 AM on July 16, 2010....

  15. A comparison of ground source heat pumps and micro-combined heat and power as residential greenhouse gas reduction strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guyer, Brittany (Brittany Leigh)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both ground source heat pumps operating on electricity and micro-combined heat and power systems operating on fossil fuels offer potential for the reduction of green house gas emissions in comparison to the conventional ...

  16. Effect of combined nanoparticle and polymeric dispersions on critical heat flux, nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficient, and coating adhesion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Bronwyn K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was performed to determine thermal performance and adhesion effects of a combined nanoparticle and polymeric dispersion coating. The critical heat flux (CHF) values and nucleate boiling heat transfer ...

  17. Encouraging Combined Heat and Power in California Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electricity supply and heat supply for a January and Julyelectricity supply and heat supply for a January and July

  18. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Promoting Combined Heat and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    residential applications the heat can be used for domestic hot water, space heating, absorption cooling, or dehumidifying at the building where it is produced. CHP systems consist...

  19. Novel Controls for Economic Dispatch of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The emergence of technologies that efficiently convert heat into cooling, such as absorption chillers, has opened up many new opportunities and markets for combined heat and power systems. These...

  20. Encouraging Combined Heat and Power in California Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cooling, heating, and power, CCHP, commercial buildings,bln $ CAA CAISO Cal/EPA CARB CCHP CEUS CHP CSI CPP DER DER-heating, and electric power (CCHP) adoption in California’s

  1. Opportunities for Combined Heat and Power at Wastewater Treatment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    into five different climate zones 29 based on cooling and heating degree days: Zone 1 - Cold climate with more than 7,000 heating degree days Zone 2 - Coldmoderate climate with...

  2. Combined Heat and Power - A Decade of Progress, A Vision for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Combined heat and power (CHP) technology holds enormous potential to improve the nation's energy security and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper describes DOE's...

  3. The CO2 Reduction Potential of Combined Heat and Power in California's Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Darrow, K et al. (2009), “CHP Market Assessment” Integratedwith combined heat and power (CHP) capability deployment ingas emissions (GHG) reductions. CHP applications at large

  4. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Improving Desulfurization to Enable Fuel Cell Utilization of Digester Gases This project will develop a new,...

  5. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the Department of Energy to improve steam system performance. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators (July 2004) More Documents & Publications...

  6. Anaerobic Digestion and Combined Heat and Power Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank J. Hartz; Rob Taylor; Grant Davies

    2011-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the underlying objectives of this study is to recover the untapped energy in wastewater biomass. Some national statistics worth considering include: (1) 5% of the electrical energy demand in the US is used to treat municipal wastewater; (2) This carbon rich wastewater is an untapped energy resource; (3) Only 10% of wastewater treatment plants (>5mgd) recover energy; (4) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to produce > 575 MW of energy nationwide; and (5) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to capture an additional 175 MW of energy from waste Fats, Oils and Grease. The WSSC conducted this study to determine the feasibility of utilizing anaerobic digestion and combined heat and power (AD/CHP) and/or biosolids gasification and drying facilities to produce and utilize renewable digester biogas. Digester gas is considered a renewable energy source and can be used in place of fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The project focus includes: (1) Converting wastewater Biomass to Electricity; (2) Using innovative technologies to Maximize Energy Recovery; and (3) Enhancing the Environment by reducing nutrient load to waterways (Chesapeake Bay), Sanitary Sewer Overflows (by reducing FOG in sewers) and Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The study consisted of these four tasks: (1) Technology screening and alternative shortlisting, answering the question 'what are the most viable and cost effective technical approaches by which to recover and reuse energy from biosolids while reducing disposal volume?'; (2) Energy recovery and disposal reduction potential verification, answering the question 'how much energy can be recovered from biosolids?'; (3) Economic environmental and community benefit analysis, answering the question 'what are the potential economic, environmental and community benefits/impacts of each approach?'; and (4) Recommend the best plan and develop a concept design.

  7. GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PRIME MOVERS - ASME 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, Scott [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Bunce, Michael [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pending or recently enacted greenhouse gas regulations and mandates are leading to the need for current and feasible GHG reduction solutions including combined heat and power (CHP). Distributed generation using advanced reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines and fuel cells has been shown to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) compared to the U.S. electrical generation mix due to the use of natural gas and high electrical generation efficiencies of these prime movers. Many of these prime movers are also well suited for use in CHP systems which recover heat generated during combustion or energy conversion. CHP increases the total efficiency of the prime mover by recovering waste heat for generating electricity, replacing process steam, hot water for buildings or even cooling via absorption chilling. The increased efficiency of CHP systems further reduces GHG emissions compared to systems which do not recover waste thermal energy. Current GHG mandates within the U.S Federal sector and looming GHG legislation for states puts an emphasis on understanding the GHG reduction potential of such systems. This study compares the GHG savings from various state-of-the- art prime movers. GHG reductions from commercially available prime movers in the 1-5 MW class including, various industrial fuel cells, large and small gas turbines, micro turbines and reciprocating gas engines with and without CHP are compared to centralized electricity generation including the U.S. mix and the best available technology with natural gas combined cycle power plants. The findings show significant GHG saving potential with the use of CHP. Also provided is an exploration of the accounting methodology for GHG reductions with CHP and the sensitivity of such analyses to electrical generation efficiency, emissions factors and most importantly recoverable heat and thermal recovery efficiency from the CHP system.

  8. EA-1922: Combined Power and Biomass Heating System, Fort Yukon, Alaska

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE (lead agency), Denali Commission (cooperating agency) and USDA Rural Utilities Services (cooperating agency) are proposing to provide funding to support the final design and construction of a biomass combined heat and power plant and associated district heating system to the Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments and the Gwitchyaa Zhee Corporation. The proposed biomass district heating system would be located in Fort Yukon Alaska.

  9. Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  10. Opportunities for Combined Heat and Power in Data Centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darrow, Ken [ICF International; Hedman, Bruce [ICF International

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data centers represent a rapidly growing and very energy intensive activity in commercial, educational, and government facilities. In the last five years the growth of this sector was the electric power equivalent to seven new coal-fired power plants. Data centers consume 1.5% of the total power in the U.S. Growth over the next five to ten years is expected to require a similar increase in power generation. This energy consumption is concentrated in buildings that are 10-40 times more energy intensive than a typical office building. The sheer size of the market, the concentrated energy consumption per facility, and the tendency of facilities to cluster in 'high-tech' centers all contribute to a potential power infrastructure crisis for the industry. Meeting the energy needs of data centers is a moving target. Computing power is advancing rapidly, which reduces the energy requirements for data centers. A lot of work is going into improving the computing power of servers and other processing equipment. However, this increase in computing power is increasing the power densities of this equipment. While fewer pieces of equipment may be needed to meet a given data processing load, the energy density of a facility designed to house this higher efficiency equipment will be as high as or higher than it is today. In other words, while the data center of the future may have the IT power of ten data centers of today, it is also going to have higher power requirements and higher power densities. This report analyzes the opportunities for CHP technologies to assist primary power in making the data center more cost-effective and energy efficient. Broader application of CHP will lower the demand for electricity from central stations and reduce the pressure on electric transmission and distribution infrastructure. This report is organized into the following sections: (1) Data Center Market Segmentation--the description of the overall size of the market, the size and types of facilities involved, and the geographic distribution. (2) Data Center Energy Use Trends--a discussion of energy use and expected energy growth and the typical energy consumption and uses in data centers. (3) CHP Applicability--Potential configurations, CHP case studies, applicable equipment, heat recovery opportunities (cooling), cost and performance benchmarks, and power reliability benefits (4) CHP Drivers and Hurdles--evaluation of user benefits, social benefits, market structural issues and attitudes toward CHP, and regulatory hurdles. (5) CHP Paths to Market--Discussion of technical needs, education, strategic partnerships needed to promote CHP in the IT community.

  11. FACT SHEET: Energy Department Actions to Deploy Combined Heat...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    reuses excess heat to warm Frito-Lay's chip fryer oil - cutting costs and reduce harmful air pollution. The Department is also supporting new CHP technologies that are cleaner,...

  12. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat & Power (CHP...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    City OpYear Prime Mover Capacity (kW) Fuel Class 1 Sparks Regional Medical Center AR Fort Smith 1986 ERENG 8,500 NG 2 Tucson Medical Center Heating & Cooling AZ Tucson 1989 CT 750...

  13. Combined permeable pavement and ground source heat pump systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grabowiecki, Piotr

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The PhD thesis focuses on the performance assessment of permeable pavement systems incorporating ground source heat pumps (GSHP). The relatively high variability of temperature in these systems allows for the survival of pathogenic organisms within...

  14. Combined heat and mass transfer device for improving separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tran, Thanh Nhon (Flossmoor, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-phase small channel heat exchange matrix simultaneously provides for heat transfer and mass transfer between the liquid and vapor phases of a multi-component mixture at a single, predetermined location within a separation column, significantly improving the thermodynamic efficiency of the separation process. The small channel heat exchange matrix is composed of a series of channels having a hydraulic diameter no greater than 5.0 millimeters for conducting a two-phase coolant. In operation, the matrix provides the liquid-vapor contacting surfaces within the separation column, such that heat and mass are transferred simultaneously between the liquid and vapor phases. The two-phase coolant allows for a uniform heat transfer coefficient to be maintained along the length of the channels and across the surface of the matrix. Preferably, a perforated, concave sheet connects each channel to an adjacent channel to facilitate the flow of the liquid and vapor phases within the column and to increase the liquid-vapor contacting surface area.

  15. Combined heat and mass transfer device for improving separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tran, T.N.

    1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-phase small channel heat exchange matrix simultaneously provides for heat transfer and mass transfer between the liquid and vapor phases of a multi-component mixture at a single, predetermined location within a separation column, significantly improving the thermodynamic efficiency of the separation process. The small channel heat exchange matrix is composed of a series of channels having a hydraulic diameter no greater than 5.0 millimeters for conducting a two-phase coolant. In operation, the matrix provides the liquid-vapor contacting surfaces within the separation column, such that heat and mass are transferred simultaneously between the liquid and vapor phases. The two-phase coolant allows for a uniform heat transfer coefficient to be maintained along the length of the channels and across the surface of the matrix. Preferably, a perforated, concave sheet connects each channel to an adjacent channel to facilitate the flow of the liquid and vapor phases within the column and to increase the liquid-vapor contacting surface area. 12 figs.

  16. Using and Measuring the Combined Heat and Power Advantage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, T.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    compared to other power generation systems. Fuel Charged to Power (FCP) is the fuel, net of credit for thermal output, required to produce a kilowatt-hour of electricity. This provides a metric that is used for comparison to the heat rate of other types...

  17. Thermodynamic Analysis of Combined Cycle District Heating System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suresh, S.; Gopalakrishnan, H.; Kosanovic, D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    generation systems that include a 10 MW Solar combustion gas turbine, a 4-MW steam turbine, a 100,000 pph heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), three 125,000 pph package boilers, and auxiliary equipment. In the analysis, actual system data is used to assess...

  18. Renewable Energy and Combined Heat and Power Resources in the UK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    .......................................................................................................30 4. Combined Heat and Power (CHP)...................................................................................32 4.1 Current CHP Capacity and Short-term Projections ...................................................32 4.2 The Long-term Potential for CHP in the UK

  19. THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and to consider the impact of those laws on the development of combined heat and power ("CHP") facilities, as well as to determine whether a change in those laws would impact...

  20. Combined Heat and Power: A Vision for the Future of CHP in the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vision for the Future of CHP in the United States in 2020, June 1999 Combined Heat and Power: A Vision for the Future of CHP in the United States in 2020, June 1999 The U.S....

  1. A Preliminary Study on Designing Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System for the University Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozman, T. A.; Reynolds, C. M.; Lee, J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined heat and power (CHP) systems are an evolving technology that is at the front of the energy conservation movement. With the reduction in energy consumption and green house gas emissions, CHP systems are improving the efficiency of power...

  2. Efficiency and Air Quality Implications of Distributed Generation and Combined Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efficiency and Air Quality Implications of Distributed Generation and Combined Heat and Power potentially increase exposure to air pollutants. When distributed generation is efficiently deployed to determine accurately the efficiencies and emissions of various applications of distributed generation

  3. Novel Direct Steelmaking by Combining Microwave, Electric Arc, and Exothermal Heating Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a project to develop direct steelmaking through the combination of microwave, electric arc, and exothermal heating, a process which is meant to eliminate traditional, intermediate steelmaking steps.

  4. Combined Heat & Power (CHP) -A Clean Energy Solution for Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parks, H.; Hoffman, P.; Kurtovich, M.

    From the late 1970's to the early 1990's cogeneration or CHP saw enormous growth, especially in the process industries. By 1994, CHP provided 42 GW of electricity generation capacity -about 6 percent of the U.S. total. Three manufacturing industries...

  5. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat & Power Multifamily Performance Program-- Sea Park East 150 kW CHP System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overview of Sea Park East 150 kilowatt (kW) Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System in Brooklyn, New York

  6. Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is alwaysISOSource Heat 1PowerofSystems |AsApril 1,

  7. 7-111 A Carnot heat engine is used to drive a Carnot refrigerator. The maximum rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space and the total rate of heat rejection to the ambient air are to be determined.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    7-42 7-111 A Carnot heat engine is used to drive a Carnot refrigerator. The maximum rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space and the total rate of heat rejection to the ambient air are to be determined. Assumptions The heat engine and the refrigerator operate steadily. Analysis (a) The highest

  8. 09/01/12 13:01:401 Quantifying the effects of heating temperature, and combined effects of heating medium2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    09/01/12 13:01:401 Quantifying the effects of heating temperature, and combined effects of heating medium2 pH and recovery medium pH on the heat resistance of Salmonella typhimurium3 4 I. Leguérinel1 *, I +33 02 98 90 85 4410 E mail address: guerinel@univ-brest.fr11 Abstract12 The influence of heating

  9. "Potential for Combined Heat and Power and District Heating and Cooling from Waste-to-Energy Facilities in the U.S. Learning from the Danish Experience"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shepard, Kenneth

    "Potential for Combined Heat and Power and District Heating and Cooling from Waste- to Engineering Center and the Henry Krumb School of Mines May 2007 #12;1 Executive Summary In District Heating is used for the generation of electricity. The advantages of district heating using WTE plants are

  10. Combined heat and power (CHP or cogeneration) for saving energy and carbon in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaarsberg, T.; Fiskum, R.; Romm, J.; Rosenfeld, A.; Koomey, J.; Teagan, W.P.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems simultaneously deliver electric, thermal and mechanical energy services and thus use fuel very efficiently. Today's small-scale CHP systems already provide heat, cooling and electricity at nearly twice the fuel efficiency of heat and power based on power remote plants and onsite hot water and space heating. In this paper, the authors have refined and extended the assessments of small-scale building CHP previously done by the authors. They estimate the energy and carbon savings for existing small-scale CHP technology such as reciprocating engines and two promising new CHP technologies--microturbines and fuel cells--for commercial buildings. In 2010 the authors estimate that small-scale CHP will emit 14--65% less carbon than separate heat and power (SHP) depending on the technologies compared. They estimate that these technologies in commercial buildings could save nearly two-thirds of a quadrillion Btu's of energy and 23 million tonnes of carbon.

  11. QUANTIFYING THE COMBINED EFFECTS OF THE HEATING TIME,1 THE TEMPERATURE AND THE RECOVERY MEDIUM PH ON THE2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    QUANTIFYING THE COMBINED EFFECTS OF THE HEATING TIME,1 THE TEMPERATURE AND THE RECOVERY MEDIUM PH of the conditions of the heat treatment: temperature, duration15 and pH of the recovery medium. For a given heating Keywords: Bacillus cereus, heat treatment, lag time, recovery.29 30 1. Introduction31 32 Bacillus cereus

  12. The CO2 Reduction Potential of Combined Heat and Power in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Lipman, Tim; Megel, Olivier; Ganguly, Srirupa; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the potential role of commercial sector distributed generation (DG) with combined heat and power (CHP) capability deployment in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reductions. CHP applications at large industrial sites are well known, and a large share of their potential has already been harvested. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the potential of medium-sized commercial buildings, i.e., ones with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how this sector might implement DG with CHP in cost minimizing microgrids that are able to adopt and operate various energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), on-site thermal generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We apply a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that minimizes a site's annual energy costs as its objective. Using 138 representative mid-sized commercial sites in California (CA), existing tariffs of three major electricity distribution ultilities plus a natural gas company, and performance data of available technology in 2020, we find the GHG reduction potential for this CA commercial sector segment, which represents about 35percent of total statewide commercial sector sales. Under the assumptions made, in a reference case, this segment is estimated to be capable of economically installing 1.4 GW of CHP, 35percent of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) statewide 4 GW goal for total incremental CHP deployment by 2020. However, because CARB's assumed utilization is far higherthan is found by the MILP, the adopted CHP only contributes 19percent of the CO2 target. Several sensitivity runs were completed. One applies a simple feed-in tariff similar to net metering, and another includes a generous self-generation incentive program (SGIP) subsidy for fuel cells. The feed-in tariff proves ineffective at stimulating CHP deployment, while the SGIP buy down is more powerful. The attractiveness of CHP varies widely by climate zone and service territory, but in general, hotter inland areas and San Diego are the more attractive regions because high cooling loads achieve higher equipment utilization. Additionally, large office buildings are surprisingly good hosts for CHP, so large office buildings in San Diego and hotter urban centers emerge as promising target hosts. Overall the effect on CO2 emissions is limited, never exceeding 27percent of the CARB target. Nonetheless, results suggest that the CO2 emissions abatement potential of CHP in mid-sized CA buildings is significant, and much more promising than is typically assumed.

  13. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

  14. Combined Heat and Power (CHP), also known as cogeneration, is the concurrent production of electricity or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    About CHP Combined Heat and Power (CHP), also known as cogeneration, is the concurrent production of energy. CHP is a type of distributed generation, which, unlike central station generation, is located fuel in a furnace or boiler to produce thermal energy, consumers use CHP to provide these energy

  15. REFORMING PROCESSES FOR MICRO COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM BASED ON SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    REFORMING PROCESSES FOR MICRO COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM BASED ON SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL University Denmark ABSTRACT Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising technology for decentralized power performance parameters will be identified. Keywords: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, Micro CHP System INTRODUCTION

  16. EA-1741: Seattle Steam Company Combined Heat and Power at Post Street in Downtown Seattle, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to provide an American Recovery Act and Reinvestment Act of 2009 financial assistance grant to Seattle Steam Company to facilitate the installation of a combined heat and power plant in downtown Seattle, Washington. NOTE: This Project has been cancelled.

  17. Mapping the energy saving potential of passive heating combined with conservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A procedure is presented for estimating the energy savings potential of combining conservation and passive solar strategies to reduce building heating. General scaling laws are used for costs and the resulting continuous equations are evaluated to find the least life-cycle cost strategy. Results are mapped for the US.

  18. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System Callaway Spring 2011 #12;Abstract A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar a leading choice for DCS-CHP systems, if operation on steam is successful and reliability issues can

  19. Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    cells as a heat and electrical power source for residential combined heat and power (CHP characterization provided data to assess the CHP potential of the Nexa and validate the model used ambient temperature. #12;iv To improve performance as a CHP heat engine, the Nexa and other air-cooled PEM

  20. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    selection of on-site power generation with combined heat andTotal Electricity Generation Figure 13. Small MercantileWeekday Total Electricity Generation (No Storage Adoption

  1. Title COMBINATION OF THERMAL SOLAR COLLECTORS, HEAT PUMP AND THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR DWELLINGS IN BELGIUM.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Contact Raf; De Herdt; Roel De Coninck; Filip Van Den Schoor; Lieve Helsen

    The amount of available solar energy in Belgium is more than sufficient to meet local heat demand for space heating and domestic hot water in a dwelling. However, the timing of both the availability of solar energy and the need for thermal energy, match only to a limited extent. Therefore, compact storage of the surplus of thermal energy is a critical issue. Depending on the temperature at which this energy is available, directly from the sun or indirectly through the storage, different combinations with a heat pump can be considered. By combining solar energy with a heat pump one may benefit on both sides since the fraction of solar energy increases as well as the performance of the heat pump. The aim of this thesis is to select the best out of three configurations that combine thermal solar collectors, heat pump and thermal energy storage for heating purposes in dwellings in Belgium, based on model simulations. Energetic, exergetic and economic criteria are used to evaluate the different configurations, while thermal comfort and domestic hot water tap profiles should be met. One (or more) performance index (indices) is (are) defined enabling an objective comparison between different systems. Today several systems are already commercially available on the international market [4]. Since these systems consist of different components, the system design is a crucial issue. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the sizing of the individual components, the interaction of the components within the global system, and the strategy for operational control. To study the interaction with the building, three types of buildings (already defined in a previous project) are considered.

  2. A Novel Absorption Cycle for Combined Water Heating, Dehumidification, and Evaporative Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHUGH, Devesh [University of Florida, Gainesville; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Moghaddam, Saeed [University of Florida, Gainesville

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, development of a novel system for combined water heating, dehumidification, and space evaporative cooling is discussed. Ambient water vapor is used as a working fluid in an open system. First, water vapor is absorbed from an air stream into an absorbent solution. The latent heat of absorption is transferred into the process water that cools the absorber. The solution is then regenerated in the desorber, where it is heated by a heating fluid. The water vapor generated in the desorber is condensed and its heat of phase change is transferred to the process water in the condenser. The condensed water can then be used in an evaporative cooling process to cool the dehumidified air exiting the absorber, or it can be drained if primarily dehumidification is desired. Essentially, this open absorption cycle collects space heat and transfers it to process water. This technology is enabled by a membrane-based absorption/desorption process in which the absorbent is constrained by hydrophobic vapor-permeable membranes. Constraining the absorbent film has enabled fabrication of the absorber and desorber in a plate-and-frame configuration. An air stream can flow against the membrane at high speed without entraining the absorbent, which is a challenge in conventional dehumidifiers. Furthermore, the absorption and desorption rates of an absorbent constrained by a membrane are greatly enhanced. Isfahani and Moghaddam (Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 2013) demonstrated absorption rates of up to 0.008 kg/m2s in a membrane-based absorber and Isfahani et al. (Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 2013) have reported a desorption rate of 0.01 kg/m2s in a membrane-based desorber. The membrane-based architecture also enables economical small-scale systems, novel cycle configurations, and high efficiencies. The absorber, solution heat exchanger, and desorber are fabricated on a single metal sheet. In addition to the open arrangement and membrane-based architecture, another novel feature of the cycle is recovery of the solution heat energy exiting the desorber by process water (a process-solution heat exchanger ) rather than the absorber exiting solution (the conventional solution heat exchanger ). This approach has enabled heating the process water from an inlet temperature of 15 C to 57 C (conforming to the DOE water heater test standard) and interfacing the process water with absorbent on the opposite side of a single metal sheet encompassing the absorber, process-solution heat exchanger, and desorber. The system under development has a 3.2 kW water heating capacity and a target thermal coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.6.

  3. The CO2 Reduction Potential of Combined Heat and Power in California's Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chillers that use waste heat for cooling (see also Stadlerfired natural gas chillers, waste heat or solar heat; •with HX can utilize waste heat for heating or cooling

  4. Effects of a carbon tax on microgrid combined heat and power adoption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Firestone, Ryan M.; Ghosh, Srijay; Stadler, Michael

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the economically optimal adoption and operation of distributed energy resources (DER) by a hypothetical California microgrid consisting of a group of commercial buildings over an historic test year, 1999. The optimization is conducted using a customer adoption model (DER-CAM) developed at Berkeley Lab and implemented in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). A microgrid is a semiautonomous grouping of electricity and heat loads interconnected to the existing utility grid (macrogrid) but able to island from it. The microgrid minimizes the cost of meeting its energy requirements (consisting of both electricity and heat loads) by optimizing the installation and operation of DER technologies while purchasing residual energy from the local combined natural gas and electricity utility. The available DER technologies are small-scale generators (< 500 kW), such as reciprocating engines, microturbines, and fuel cells, with or without combined heat and power (CHP) equipment, such as water and space heating and/or absorption cooling. By introducing a tax on carbon emissions, it is shown that if the microgrid is allowed to install CHP-enabled DER technologies, its carbon emissions are mitigated more than without CHP, demonstrating the potential benefits of small-scale CHP technology for climate change mitigation. Reciprocating engines with heat recovery and/or absorption cooling tend to be attractive technologies for the mild southern California climate, but the carbon mitigation tends to be modest compared to purchasing utility electricity because of the predominance of relatively clean central station generation in California.

  5. Technical Analysis of Installed Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Cell System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe

    2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a technical analysis of 5 kWe CHP-FCSs installed in different locations in the U.S. At some sites as many as five 5 kWe system is used to provide up to 25kWe of power. Systems in this power range are considered “micro”-CHP-FCS. To better assess performance of micro-CHP-FCS and understand their benefits, the U.S. Department of Energy worked with ClearEdge Power to install fifteen 5-kWe PBI high temperature PEM fuel cells (CE5 models) in the commercial markets of California and Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated these systems in terms of their economics, operations, and technical performance. These units were monitored from September 2011 until June 2013. During this time, about 190,000 hours of data were collected and more than 17 billion data points were analyzed. Beginning in July 2013, ten of these systems were gradually replaced with ungraded systems (M5 models) containing phosphoric acid fuel cell technology. The new units were monitored until June 2014 until they went offline because ClearEdge was bought by Doosan at the time and the new manufacturer did not continue to support data collection and maintenance of these units. During these two phases, data was collected at once per second and data analysis techniques were applied to understand behavior of these systems. The results of this analysis indicate that systems installed in the second phase of this demonstration performed much better in terms of availability, consistency in generation, and reliability. The average net electrical power output increased from 4.1 to 4.9 kWe, net heat recovery from 4.7 to 5.4 kWth, and system availability improved from 94% to 95%. The average net system electric efficiency, average net heat recovery efficiency, and overall net efficiency of the system increased respectively from 33% to 36%, from 38% to 41%, and from 71% to 76%. The temperature of water sent to sit however reduced by about 16% from 51?C to 43 ?C. This was a control strategy and the temperature can be controlled depending on building heat demands. More importantly, the number of shutdowns and maintenance events required to keep the systems running at the manufacturer’s rated performance specifications were substantially reduced by about 76% (for 8 to 10 units running over a one-year period). From July 2012 to June 2013, there were eight CE5 units in operation and a total of 134 scheduled and unscheduled shutdowns took place. From July 2013 to June 2014, between two to ten units were in operation and only 32 shutdowns were reported (all unscheduled). In summary, the number of shutdowns reduced from 10 shutdowns per month on average for eight CE5units to an average of 2.7 shutdowns per month for M5 units (between two to ten units).

  6. Understanding the Impact of Large-Scale Penetration of Micro Combined Heat & Power Technologies within Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    of Micro Combined Heat & Power Technologies within Energy Systems by Karen de los Ángeles Tapia-based electricity generation technologies are considered, by energy experts and also policymakers, to be essentialUnderstanding the Impact of Large-Scale Penetration of Micro Combined Heat & Power Technologies

  7. Optimal selection of on-site generation with combined heat andpower applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Bailey, Owen; HamachiLaCommare, Kristina

    2004-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    While demand for electricity continues to grow, expansion of the traditional electricity supply system, or macrogrid, is constrained and is unlikely to keep pace with the growing thirst western economies have for electricity. Furthermore, no compelling case has been made that perpetual improvement in the overall power quality and reliability (PQR)delivered is technically possible or economically desirable. An alternative path to providing high PQR for sensitive loads would generate close to them in microgrids, such as the Consortium for Electricity Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Microgrid. Distributed generation would alleviate the pressure for endless improvement in macrogrid PQR and might allow the establishment of a sounder economically based level of universal grid service. Energy conversion from available fuels to electricity close to loads can also provide combined heat and power (CHP) opportunities that can significantly improve the economics of small-scale on-site power generation, especially in hot climates when the waste heat serves absorption cycle cooling equipment that displaces expensive on-peak electricity. An optimization model, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), developed at Berkeley Lab identifies the energy bill minimizing combination of on-site generation and heat recovery equipment for sites, given their electricity and heat requirements, the tariffs they face, and a menu of available equipment. DER-CAM is used to conduct a systemic energy analysis of a southern California naval base building and demonstrates atypical current economic on-site power opportunity. Results achieve cost reductions of about 15 percent with DER, depending on the tariff.Furthermore, almost all of the energy is provided on-site, indicating that modest cost savings can be achieved when the microgrid is free to select distributed generation and heat recovery equipment in order to minimize its over all costs.

  8. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oland, CB

    2004-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined heat and power (CHP) or cogeneration is the sequential production of two forms of useful energy from a single fuel source. In most CHP applications, chemical energy in fuel is converted to both mechanical and thermal energy. The mechanical energy is generally used to generate electricity, while the thermal energy or heat is used to produce steam, hot water, or hot air. Depending on the application, CHP is referred to by various names including Building Cooling, Heating, and Power (BCHP); Cooling, Heating, and Power for Buildings (CHPB); Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power (CCHP); Integrated Energy Systems (IES), or Distributed Energy Resources (DER). The principal technical advantage of a CHP system is its ability to extract more useful energy from fuel compared to traditional energy systems such as conventional power plants that only generate electricity and industrial boiler systems that only produce steam or hot water for process applications. By using fuel energy for both power and heat production, CHP systems can be very energy efficient and have the potential to produce electricity below the price charged by the local power provider. Another important incentive for applying cogeneration technology is to reduce or eliminate dependency on the electrical grid. For some industrial processes, the consequences of losing power for even a short period of time are unacceptable. The primary objective of the guide is to present information needed to evaluate the viability of cogeneration for new or existing industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boiler installations and to make informed CHP equipment selection decisions. Information presented is meant to help boiler owners and operators understand the potential benefits derived from implementing a CHP project and recognize opportunities for successful application of cogeneration technology. Topics covered in the guide follow: (1) an overview of cogeneration technology with discussions about benefits of applying cogeneration technology and barriers to implementing cogeneration technology; (2) applicable federal regulations and permitting issues; (3) descriptions of prime movers commonly used in CHP applications, including discussions about design characteristics, heat-recovery options and equipment, fuels and emissions, efficiency, maintenance, availability, and capital cost; (4) electrical generators and electrical interconnection equipment; (5) cooling and dehumidification equipment; (6) thermodynamic cycle options and configurations; (7) steps for evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of applying cogeneration technology; and (8) information sources.

  9. The use of combined heat and power (CHP) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asrael, J.; Milmoe, P.H.; Haydel, J.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cogeneration or Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is the sequential production of electric power and thermal energy. It is a more efficient way of providing electricity and process heat than producing them independently. Average overall efficiencies can range from 70% to more than 80%. CHP decisions often present an opportunity to switch to a cleaner fuel. CHP systems are an attractive opportunity to save money, increase overall efficiency, reduce net emissions, and improve environmental performance. Climate Wise, a US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) program helping industrial Partners turn energy efficiency and pollution prevention into a corporate asset, has increased awareness of CHP by providing implementation and savings information, providing peer exchange opportunities for its Partners, and recognizing the achievements of Partners that have implemented CHP at their facilities. This paper profiles Climate Wise Partners that have invested in CHP systems, including describing how CHP is used in their facilities and the resulting cost and emission reductions.

  10. Preliminary Estimates of Combined Heat and Power Greenhouse GasAbatement Potential for California in 2020

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, Ryan; Ling, Frank; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi LaCommare,Kristina

    2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this scoping project is to help the California Energy Commission's (CEC) Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program determine where it should make investments in research to support combined heat and power (CHP) deployment. Specifically, this project will: {sm_bullet} Determine what impact CHP might have in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, {sm_bullet} Determine which CHP strategies might encourage the most attractive early adoption, {sm_bullet} Identify the regulatory and technological barriers to the most attractive CHP strategies, and {sm_bullet} Make recommendations to the PIER program as to research that is needed to support the most attractive CHP strategies.

  11. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1. FeedstockCLEANSprings Gets anColoring andCombined Heat|

  12. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels, August 2004

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1. FeedstockCLEANSprings Gets anColoring andCombined Heat||

  13. Combined Heat and Power: Expanding CHP in Your State | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platformBuildingCoal Combustion Products CoalEnergyColumbusCombined Heat and

  14. Combined Heat and Power: Is It Right For Your Facility? | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platformBuildingCoal Combustion Products CoalEnergyColumbusCombined Heat

  15. Combined Heat And Power Installation Market Size | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.png ElColumbia, North Carolina: EnergyCombined Heat And Power

  16. Combined Heat And Power Installation Market Trends | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.png ElColumbia, North Carolina: EnergyCombined Heat And

  17. CHP in ESPC: Implementing Combined Heat and Power Technologies Using Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPCs): Webinar Transcript

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kurmit Rockwell:Welcome.  I'm Kurmit Rockwell, the ESPC Program Manager for DOE's Federal Energy Management Program.  In this presentation we will introduce you to the basics of combined heat and...

  18. Table A52. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generatio

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, SourcesType"A50. Total2. Total

  19. ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM"PREMIUM POWER" APPLICATIONS IN CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norwood, Zack; Lipman, Timothy; Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effectiveness of combined heat and power (CHP) systems for power interruption intolerant,"premium power," facilities is the focus of this study. Through three real-world case studies and economic cost minimization modeling, the economic and environmental performance of"premium power" CHP is analyzed. The results of the analysis for a brewery, data center, and hospital lead to some interesting conclusions about CHP limited to the specific CHP technologies installed at those sites. Firstly, facilities with high heating loads prove to be the most appropriate for CHP installations from a purely economic standpoint. Secondly, waste heat driven thermal cooling systems are only economically attractive if the technology for these chillers can increase above the current best system efficiency. Thirdly, if the reliability of CHP systems proves to be as high as diesel generators they could replace these generators at little or no additional cost if the thermal to electric (relative) load of those facilities was already high enough to economically justify a CHP system. Lastly, in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, the modeled CHP systems provide some degree of decreased emissions, estimated at approximately 10percent for the hospital, the application with the highest relative thermal load in this case

  20. Final Report: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    facility can produce electricty and heat for the brewery andfacility can produce electricty and heat for the brewery and

  1. ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM "PREMIUM POWER" APPLICATIONS IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    standpoint. Secondly, waste heat driven thermal coolingin the summer, when waste heat could be used for cooling,

  2. Effects of a carbon tax on combined heat and power adoption by a microgrid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Firestone, Ryan M.; Ghosh, Srijay; Siddidqui, Afzal S.; Stadler, Michael

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the economically optimal adoption and operation of distributed energy resources (DER) by a hypothetical California microgrid ((mu)Grid) consisting of a group of commercial buildings over an historic test year, 1999. The optimization is conducted using a customer adoption model (DER-CAM) developed at Berkeley Lab and implemented in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). A (mu)Grid is a semiautonomous grouping of electricity and heat loads interconnected to the existing utility grid (macrogrid) but able to island from it. The (mu)Grid minimizes the cost of meeting its energy requirements (consisting of both electricity and heat loads) by optimizing the installation and operation of DER technologies while purchasing residual energy from the local combined natural gas and electricity utility. The available DER technologies are small-scale generators (< 500 kW), such as reciprocating engines, microturbines, and fuel cells, with or without CHP equipment, such as water- and space-heating and/or absorption cooling. By introducing a tax on carbon emissions, it is shown that if the (mu)Grid is allowed to install CHP-enabled DER technologies, its carbon emissions are mitigated more than without CHP, demonstrating the potential benefits of small-scale CHP technology for climate change mitigation. Reciprocating engines with heat recovery and/or absorption cooling tend to be attractive technologies for the mild southern California climate, but the carbon mitigation tends to be modest compared to purchasing utility electricity because of the predominance of relatively clean generation in California.

  3. Table A50. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generatio

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, SourcesType"A50. Total Inputs

  4. Table A54. Number of Establishments by Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Powe

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, SourcesType"A50. Total2.

  5. Table A55. Number of Establishments by Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Powe

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, SourcesType"A50. Total2.Number

  6. Table A15. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota" ,"FullWest Virginia"1 "2"4.Total

  7. Table A31. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota" ,"FullWestQuantity of Electricity SoldTotal

  8. Table A34. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota" ,"FullWestQuantity of ElectricityPrimaryTotal

  9. Table A45. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota" ,"FullWestQuantity of2" "Total Inputs

  10. Table A10. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generatio

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources &7,0171" "

  11. Table A11. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generatio

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources &7,0171"

  12. Table A36. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, SourcesType" " and

  13. Table A36. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, SourcesType" " and "

  14. Table A37. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, SourcesType" " and

  15. Table A41. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, SourcesType"

  16. Table A56. Number of Establishments by Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Powe

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, SourcesType"A50.

  17. Effects of a shortened depreciation schedule on the investment costs for combined heat and power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kranz, Nicole; Worrell, Ernst

    2001-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate and compare several generic depreciation methods to assess the effectiveness of possible policy measures with respect to the depreciation schedules for investments in combined heat and power plants in the United States. We assess the different depreciation methods for CHP projects of various sizes (ranging from 1 MW to 100 MW). We evaluate the impact of different depreciation schedules on the tax shield, and the resulting tax savings to potential investors. We show that a shorter depreciation cycle could have a substantial impact on the cost of producing power, making cogeneration more attractive. The savings amount to approximately 6-7 percent of capital and fixed operation and maintenance costs, when changing from the current system to a 7 year depreciation scheme with switchover from declining balance to straight line depreciation. Suggestions for further research to improve the analysis are given.

  18. Distributed energy resources customer adoption modeling with combined heat and power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Firestone, Ryan M.; Ghosh, Srijay; Stadler, Michael; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, an economic model of customer adoption of distributed energy resources (DER) is developed. It covers progress on the DER project for the California Energy Commission (CEC) at Berkeley Lab during the period July 2001 through Dec 2002 in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Distributed Energy Resources Integration (DERI) project. CERTS has developed a specific paradigm of distributed energy deployment, the CERTS Microgrid (as described in Lasseter et al. 2002). The primary goal of CERTS distributed generation research is to solve the technical problems required to make the CERTS Microgrid a viable technology, and Berkeley Lab's contribution is to direct the technical research proceeding at CERTS partner sites towards the most productive engineering problems. The work reported herein is somewhat more widely applicable, so it will be described within the context of a generic microgrid (mGrid). Current work focuses on the implementation of combined heat and power (CHP) capability. A mGrid as generically defined for this work is a semiautonomous grouping of generating sources and end-use electrical loads and heat sinks that share heat and power. Equipment is clustered and operated for the benefit of its owners. Although it can function independently of the traditional power system, or macrogrid, the mGrid is usually interconnected and exchanges energy and possibly ancillary services with the macrogrid. In contrast to the traditional centralized paradigm, the design, implementation, operation, and expansion of the mGrid is meant to optimize the overall energy system requirements of participating customers rather than the objectives and requirements of the macrogrid.

  19. Real-Time Combined Heat and Power Operational Strategy Using a Hierarchical Optimization Algorithm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Kyung Tae; Cho, Heejin; Luck, Rogelio; Mago, Pedro J.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Existing attempts to optimize the operation of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems for building applications have two major limitations: the electrical and thermal loads are obtained from historical weather profiles; and the CHP system models ignore transient responses by using constant equipment efficiencies. This paper considers the transient response of a building combined with a hierarchical CHP optimal control algorithm to obtain a real-time integrated system that uses the most recent weather and electric load information. This is accomplished by running concurrent simulations of two transient building models. The first transient building model uses current as well as forecast input information to obtain short term predictions of the thermal and electric building loads. The predictions are then used by an optimization algorithm, i.e., a hierarchical controller, that decides the amount of fuel and of electrical energy to be allocated at the current time step. In a simulation, the actual physical building is not available and, hence, to simulate a real-time environment, a second, building model with similar but not identical input loads are used to represent the actual building. A state-variable feedback loop is completed at the beginning of each time step by copying, i.e., measuring, the state variable from the actual building and restarting the predictive model using these ?measured? values as initial conditions. The simulation environment presented in this paper features nonlinear effects such as the dependence of the heat exchanger effectiveness on their operating conditions. The results indicate that the CHP engine operation dictated by the proposed hierarchical controller with uncertain weather conditions have the potential to yield significant savings when compared to conventional systems using current values of electricity and fuel prices.

  20. Final Report: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    natural gas generator with waste heat recovery at a facilityCCHP locations that are using waste heat for cooling alsouse some of the waste heat directly for water or space

  1. TWO WELL STORAGE SYSTEMS FOR COMBINED HEATING AND AIRCONDITIONING BY GROUNDWATER HEATPUMPS IN SHALLOW AQUIFERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pelka, Walter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In warmer climates air source heat pumps have gained widestadvantages over air source heat pumps. For example, theair conditioning is required, water is pumped from the cold water well to the heat pump.

  2. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar energy to provide the heat input to a Rankine cycle tosystem. This value, the heat input to the solar collector,generated. The heat and work inputs and outputs to the

  3. Table A10. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generatio

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources &7,0171" "0.

  4. Table A11. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generatio

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources &7,0171"2"

  5. Table A37. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, SourcesType" " and2"

  6. Table A13. Total Consumption of Offsite-Produced Energy for Heat, Power, and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota" ,"FullWest Virginia"1 "2"

  7. Table A32. Total Consumption of Offsite-Produced Energy for Heat, Power, and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota" ,"FullWestQuantity of Electricity

  8. Table A4. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota" ,"FullWestQuantity of

  9. Table A4. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota" ,"FullWestQuantity of2" " (Estimates

  10. Table A4. Total Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota" ,"FullWestQuantity of2" " (Estimates

  11. The CO2 Reduction Potential of Combined Heat and Power in California's Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorptioncells; • photovoltaics (PV) and solar thermal collectors; •for application of solar thermal and recovered heat to end-

  12. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    working fluid to power a remote heat engine, as the fluidCHP options. Having a remote heat engine has many advantages

  13. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heating a high temperature working fluid to power a remoteand heating for a significant portion of the developed and developing world, including those in remote

  14. Final Report: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norwood, Zack; Lipman, Tim; Marnay, Chris; Kammen, Dan

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report analyzes the current economic and environmental performance of combined heat and power (CHP) systems in power interruption intolerant commercial facilities. Through a series of three case studies, key trade-offs are analyzed with regard to the provision of black-out ridethrough capability with the CHP systems and the resutling ability to avoid the need for at least some diesel backup generator capacity located at the case study sites. Each of the selected sites currently have a CHP or combined heating, cooling, and power (CCHP) system in addition to diesel backup generators. In all cases the CHP/CCHP system have a small fraction of the electrical capacity of the diesel generators. Although none of the selected sites currently have the ability to run the CHP systems as emergency backup power, all could be retrofitted to provide this blackout ride-through capability, and new CHP systems can be installed with this capability. The following three sites/systems were used for this analysis: (1) Sierra Nevada Brewery - Using 1MW of installed Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells operating on a combination of digestor gas (from the beer brewing process) and natural gas, this facility can produce electricty and heat for the brewery and attached bottling plant. The major thermal load on-site is to keep the brewing tanks at appropriate temperatures. (2) NetApp Data Center - Using 1.125 MW of Hess Microgen natural gas fired reciprocating engine-generators, with exhaust gas and jacket water heat recovery attached to over 300 tons of of adsorption chillers, this combined cooling and power system provides electricity and cooling to a data center with a 1,200 kW peak electrical load. (3) Kaiser Permanente Hayward Hospital - With 180kW of Tecogen natural gas fired reciprocating engine-generators this CHP system generates steam for space heating, and hot water for a city hospital. For all sites, similar assumptions are made about the economic and technological constraints of the power generation system. Using the Distributed Energy Resource Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we model three representative scenarios and find the optimal operation scheduling, yearly energy cost, and energy technology investments for each scenario below: Scenario 1 - Diesel generators and CHP/CCHP equipment as installed in the current facility. Scenario 1 represents a baseline forced investment in currently installed energy equipment. Scenario 2 - Existing CHP equipment installed with blackout ride-through capability to replace approximately the same capacity of diesel generators. In Scenario 2 the cost of the replaced diesel units is saved, however additional capital cost for the controls and switchgear for blackout ride-through capability is necessary. Scenario 3 - Fully optimized site analysis, allowing DER-CAM to specify the number of diesel and CHP/CCHP units (with blackout ride-through capability) that should be installed ignoring any constraints on backup generation. Scenario 3 allows DER-CAM to optimize scheduling and number of generation units from the currently available technologies at a particular site. The results of this analysis, using real data to model the optimal schedulding of hypothetical and actual CHP systems for a brewery, data center, and hospital, lead to some interesting conclusions. First, facilities with high heating loads will typically prove to be the most appropriate for CHP installation from a purely economic standpoint. Second, absorption/adsorption cooling systems may only be economically feasible if the technology for these chillers can increase above current best system efficiency. At a coefficient of performance (COP) of 0.8, for instance, an adsorption chiller paired with a natural gas generator with waste heat recovery at a facility with large cooling loads, like a data center, will cost no less on a yearly basis than purchasing electricity and natural gas directly from a utility. Third, at marginal additional cost, if the reliability of CHP systems proves to be at

  15. Novel Direct Steelmaking by Combining Microwave, Electric Arc, and Exothermal Heating Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Xiaodi Huang; Dr. J. Y. Hwang

    2005-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Steel is a basic material broadly used by perhaps every industry and individual. It is critical to our nation's economy and national security. Unfortunately, the American steel industry is losing competitiveness in the world steel production field. There is an urgent need to develop the next generation of steelmaking technology for the American steel industry. Direct steelmaking through the combination of microwave, electric arc, and exothermal heating is a revolutionary change from current steelmaking technology. This technology can produce molten steel directly from a shippable agglomerate, consisting of iron oxide fines, powdered coal, and ground limestone. This technology is projected to eliminate many current intermediate steelmaking steps including coking, pellet sintering, blast furnace (BF) ironmaking, and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking. This technology has the potential to (a) save up to 45% of the energy consumed by conventional steelmaking; (b) dramatically reduce the emission of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, VOCs, fine particulates, and air toxics; (c) substantially reduce waste and emission control costs; (d) greatly lower capital cost; and (e) considerably reduce steel production costs. This technology is based on the unique capability of microwaves to rapidly heat steelmaking raw materials to elevated temperature, then rapidly reduce iron oxides to metal by volumetric heating. Microwave heating, augmented with electric arc and exothermal reactions, is capable of producing molten steel. This technology has the components necessary to establish the ''future'' domestic steel industry as a technology leader with a strong economically competitive position in world markets. The project goals were to assess the utilization of a new steelmaking technology for its potential to achieve better overall energy efficiency, minimize pollutants and wastes, lower capital and operating costs, and increase the competitiveness of the U.S. steel industry. The objectives associated with this goal were to (a) generate a solid base of technical, marketing, economic, and policy data, (b) develop energy, environmental, and economic targets, (c) more definitively assess opportunities and barriers, (d) accumulate knowledge and experience for defining direction for the next phase of development, and (e) promote learning and training of students.

  16. Two well storage systems for combined heating and airconditioning by groundwater heatpumps in shallow aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pelka, W.

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of soil and ground water as an energy source and heat storage systems for heat pumps in order to conserve energy in heating and air conditioning buildings is discussed. Information is included on heat pump operation and performance, aquifer characteristics, soil and ground water temperatures, and cooling and heating demands. Mathematical models are used to calculate flow and temperature fields in the aquifer. It is concluded that two well storage systems with ground water heat pumps are desirable, particularly in northern climates. (LCL)

  17. Combined heat and power: How much carbon and energy can it save for manufacturers?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaarsberg, T.M.; Roop, J.M.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of a September 1997 National Laboratory study for the US Department of Energy, the authors estimated the potential for reducing industrial energy consumption and carbon emissions using advanced technologies for combined heat and power (CHP) for the year 2010. In this paper the authors re-analyze the potential for CHP in manufacturing only. The authors also refine the assessment by more accurately estimating the average efficiency of industrial boilers most likely to be replaced by CHP. The authors do this with recent GRI estimates of the age distribution of industrial boilers and standard age-efficiency equations. The previous estimate was based on use of the best CHP technology available, such as the about-to-be commercialized industrial advanced turbine system (ATS). This estimate assumes the use of existing off-the-shelf CHP technologies. Data is now available with which to develop a more realistic suite of penetration rates for existing and new CHP technologies. However, potential variation in actions of state and federal electricity and environmental regulators introduces uncertainties in the use of existing and potential new CHP far greater than those in previous technology penetration estimates. This is, thus, the maximum cost-effective technical potential for the frozen technology case. The authors find that if manufacturers in 1994 had generated all their steam and electric needs with existing CHP technologies, they could have reduced carbon equivalent (carbon dioxide) emissions by up to 30 million metric tons of carbon equivalent (MtC) or nearly 20%. This result is consistent with carbon and energy savings found in other studies. For example, the aforementioned laboratory study found that just three CHP technologies, fuel cells, advanced turbines, and integrated combined cycle technologies, accounted for nearly 10% of the study's projected carbon savings of 400 MtC by 2010--enough to reduce projected US 2010 emissions to 1990 levels.

  18. Proposal for the Award of a Contract for the Supply and Installation of a gas Turbine for Combined Generation of Electricity and Heat in the Heating Plant on the Meyrin Site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the Award of a Contract for the Supply and Installation of a gas Turbine for Combined Generation of Electricity and Heat in the Heating Plant on the Meyrin Site

  19. Combined iterative reconstruction and image-domain decomposition for dual energy CT using total-variation regularization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Xue; Niu, Tianye; Zhu, Lei, E-mail: leizhu@gatech.edu [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)] [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Dual-energy CT (DECT) is being increasingly used for its capability of material decomposition and energy-selective imaging. A generic problem of DECT, however, is that the decomposition process is unstable in the sense that the relative magnitude of decomposed signals is reduced due to signal cancellation while the image noise is accumulating from the two CT images of independent scans. Direct image decomposition, therefore, leads to severe degradation of signal-to-noise ratio on the resultant images. Existing noise suppression techniques are typically implemented in DECT with the procedures of reconstruction and decomposition performed independently, which do not explore the statistical properties of decomposed images during the reconstruction for noise reduction. In this work, the authors propose an iterative approach that combines the reconstruction and the signal decomposition procedures to minimize the DECT image noise without noticeable loss of resolution. Methods: The proposed algorithm is formulated as an optimization problem, which balances the data fidelity and total variation of decomposed images in one framework, and the decomposition step is carried out iteratively together with reconstruction. The noise in the CT images from the proposed algorithm becomes well correlated even though the noise of the raw projections is independent on the two CT scans. Due to this feature, the proposed algorithm avoids noise accumulation during the decomposition process. The authors evaluate the method performance on noise suppression and spatial resolution using phantom studies and compare the algorithm with conventional denoising approaches as well as combined iterative reconstruction methods with different forms of regularization. Results: On the Catphan©600 phantom, the proposed method outperforms the existing denoising methods on preserving spatial resolution at the same level of noise suppression, i.e., a reduction of noise standard deviation by one order of magnitude. This improvement is mainly attributed to the high noise correlation in the CT images reconstructed by the proposed algorithm. Iterative reconstruction using different regularization, including quadratic orq-generalized Gaussian Markov random field regularization, achieves similar noise suppression from high noise correlation. However, the proposed TV regularization obtains a better edge preserving performance. Studies of electron density measurement also show that our method reduces the average estimation error from 9.5% to 7.1%. On the anthropomorphic head phantom, the proposed method suppresses the noise standard deviation of the decomposed images by a factor of ?14 without blurring the fine structures in the sinus area. Conclusions: The authors propose a practical method for DECT imaging reconstruction, which combines the image reconstruction and material decomposition into one optimization framework. Compared to the existing approaches, our method achieves a superior performance on DECT imaging with respect to decomposition accuracy, noise reduction, and spatial resolution.

  20. Combined Operation of Solar Energy Source Heat Pump, Low-vale Electricity and Floor Radiant System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, G.; Guo, Z.; Hu, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar energy, low-vale electricity as heat sources in a floor radiant system are analyzed. This paper presents a new heat pump system and discusses its operational modes in winter....

  1. ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM "PREMIUM POWER" APPLICATIONS IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling Heat and Power (CCHP) systems are being installed atand heating loads. These CCHP systems can also act as backupgenerators. In all cases the CCHP systems are rated at a

  2. Combined Operation of Solar Energy Source Heat Pump, Low-vale Electricity and Floor Radiant System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, G.; Guo, Z.; Hu, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar energy, low-vale electricity as heat sources in a floor radiant system are analyzed. This paper presents a new heat pump system and discusses its operational modes in winter....

  3. Tracking Progress Last updated 10/7/2013 Combined Heat and Power 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    treatment facilities are ideal for developing CHP systems as they use the waste heat onsite to warm of developing CHP at such sites depends on a large and constant need for waste heat throughout the year. DG

  4. Federal strategies to increase the implementation of combined heat and power technologies in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laitner, J.; Parks, W.; Schilling, J.; Scheer, R.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent interest in combined heat and power (CHP) is providing momentum to efforts aimed at increasing the capacity of this highly-efficient technology. Factors driving this increase in interest include the need to increase the efficiency of the nation's electricity generation infrastructure, DOE Assistant Secretary Dan Reicher's challenge to double the capacity of CHP by 2010, the success of DOE's Advanced Turbine Systems Program in supporting ultra-efficient CHP technologies, and the necessity of finding cost-effective solutions to address climate change and air quality issues. The federal government is committed to increasing the penetration of CHP technologies in the US. The ultimate goal is to build a competitive market for CHP in which policies and regulations support the implementation of a full suite of technologies for multiple applications. Specific actions underway at the federal level include technology strategies to improve CHP data collection and assessment and work with industry to encourage the development of advanced CHP technologies. Policy strategies include changes to federal environmental permitting procedures including CHP-friendly strategies in federal restructuring legislation, supporting tax credits and changes to depreciation requirements as economic incentives to CHP, working with industry to leverage resources in the development of advanced CHP technologies, educating state officials about the things they can do to encourage CHP, and increasing awareness about the benefits of CHP and the barriers limiting its increased implementation.

  5. Final Report: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Load Profile for a Typical Day in Each Month Electricity-only (week) Electricity-only (weekend) Heating (week) Heating (weekend) Power (Load Profile for a Typical Day in Each Month Electricity-only (week) Electricity-only (weekend) Cooling (week) Cooling (weekend) Power (Load Profile for a Typical Day in Each Month Electricity-only (week) Electricity-only (weekend) Heating (week) Heating (weekend) Power (

  6. 1?10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical Potential: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maru, H. C.; Singhal, S. C.; Stone, C.; Wheeler, D.

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This independent review examines the status and technical potential of 1-10 kW stationary combined heat and power fuel cell systems and analyzes the achievability of the DOE cost, efficiency, and durability targets for 2012, 2015, and 2020.

  7. Op%mal Scheduling of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Plants1 under Time-sensi%ve Electricity Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 Op%mal Scheduling of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Plants1 under Time-sensi%ve Electricity Prices Summary In this case study, a CHP plant increases its profit%ons with the power grid 4 Power Grid CHP plant Typically mul%ple boilers and turbines

  8. Dynamics, Optimization and Control of a Fuel Cell Based Combined Heat Power (CHP) System for Shipboard Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Dynamics, Optimization and Control of a Fuel Cell Based Combined Heat Power (CHP) System, a natural gas fuel processor system (FPS), a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM-FC) and a catalytic) systems based on fuel cells and fuel processing technologies have great potential for future shipboard

  9. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    64.9 1.4 7.9 9.5 0.5 30.6 0.3 2.1 1.4 3.9 7.3 Principal Building Activity Education ... 37.6 1.5 7.5 8.4 1.1 11.5 0.2 1.6 0.4 3.3 2.1...

  10. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    4 2 Q 14 1 35 1 1 3 Food Service ... 63 3 8 7 3 12 4 20 (*) 1 4 Health Care ... 73 2 10 12 1 31 (*) 2 1 3 11 Inpatient...

  11. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    101.2 38.0 7.8 7.2 7.8 20.0 2.5 5.6 1.2 2.8 8.4 Energy Management and Control System (EMCS) For Lighting ... 112.6 37.8 11.5 9.1 6.2 26.1 1.9...

  12. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 119 2 2 10 Food Service ... 217 10 28 24 10 42 13 70 2 2 15 Health Care ... 248 6 34 42 2 105 1 8 4 10 36 Inpatient...

  13. Total Space Heat-

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... 258.3 43.1 17.4 14.8 40.4 25.4 63.5 42.1 1.0 1.0 9.5 Health Care ... 187.7 70.4 14.1 13.3 30.2 33.1 3.5 2.6 1.2 3.2...

  14. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil and

  15. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil andRevised:

  16. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil

  17. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil

  18. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil

  19. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil89.8 34.0

  20. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil89.8

  1. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil89.8

  2. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil89.8

  3. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil89.848.0 1.8

  4. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil89.848.0

  5. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100 Oil89.848.0890

  6. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100

  7. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100

  8. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100

  9. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop 100Released:

  10. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop

  11. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTop

  12. Business Case for a Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System in Commercial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Anderson, David M.; Amaya, Jodi P.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Srivastava, Viraj; Upton, Jaki F.

    2013-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a business case for CHP-FCSs in the range of 5 to 50 kWe. Systems in this power range are considered micro-CHP-FCS. For this particular business case, commercial applications rather than residential or industrial are targeted. To understand the benefits of implementing a micro-CHP-FCS, the characteristics that determine their competitive advantage must first be identified. Locations with high electricity prices and low natural gas prices are ideal locations for micro-CHP-FCSs. Fortunately, these high spark spread locations are generally in the northeastern area of the United States and California where government incentives are already in place to offset the current high cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs. As a result of the inherently high efficiency of a fuel cell and their ability to use the waste heat that is generated as a CHP, they have higher efficiency. This results in lower fuel costs than comparable alternative small-scale power systems (e.g., microturbines and reciprocating engines). A variety of markets should consider micro-CHP-FCSs including those that require both heat and baseload electricity throughout the year. In addition, the reliable power of micro-CHP-FCSs could be beneficial to markets where electrical outages are especially frequent or costly. Greenhouse gas emission levels from micro-CHP-FCSs are 69 percent lower, and the human health costs are 99.9 percent lower, than those attributed to conventional coal-fired power plants. As a result, FCSs can allow a company to advertise as environmentally conscious and provide a bottom-line sales advantage. As a new technology in the early stages of adoption, micro-CHP-FCSs are currently more expensive than alternative technologies. As the technology gains a foothold in its target markets and demand increases, the costs will decline in response to improved manufacturing efficiencies, similar to trends seen with other technologies. Transparency Market Research forecasts suggest that the CHP-FCS market will grow at a compound annual growth rate of greater than 27 percent over the next 5 years. These production level increases, coupled with the expected low price of natural gas, indicate the economic payback period will move to less than 5 years over the course of the next 5 years. To better understand the benefits of micro-CHP-FCSs, The U.S. Department of Energy worked with ClearEdge Power to install fifteen 5-kWe fuel cells in the commercial markets of California and Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is evaluating these systems in terms of economics, operations, and their environmental impact in real-world applications. As expected, the economic analysis has indicated that the high capital cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs results in a longer payback period than typically is acceptable for all but early-adopter market segments. However, a payback period of less than 3 years may be expected as increased production brings system cost down, and CHP incentives are maintained or improved.

  13. Use of Time-Aggregated Data in Economic Screening Analyses of Combined Heat and Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudson II, Carl Randy [ORNL

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined heat and power (CHP) projects (also known as cogeneration projects) usually undergo a series of assessments and viability checks before any commitment is made. A screening analysis, with electrical and thermal loads characterized on an annual basis, may be performed initially to quickly determine the economic viability of the proposed project. Screening analyses using time-aggregated data do not reflect several critical cost influences, however. Seasonal and diurnal variations in electrical and thermal loads, as well as time-of-use utility pricing structures, can have a dramatic impact on the economics. A more accurate economic assessment requires additional detailed data on electrical and thermal demand (e.g., hourly load data), which may not be readily available for the specific facility under study. Recent developments in CHP evaluation tools, however, can generate the needed hourly data through the use of historical data libraries and building simulation. This article utilizes model-generated hourly load data for four potential CHP applications and compares the calculated cost savings of a CHP system when evaluated on a time-aggregated (i.e., annual) basis to the savings when evaluated on an hour-by-hour basis. It is observed that the simple, aggregated analysis forecasts much greater savings (i.e., greater economic viability) than the more detailed hourly analysis. The findings confirm that the simpler tool produces results with a much more optimistic outlook, which, if taken by itself, might lead to erroneous project decisions. The more rigorous approach, being more reflective of actual requirements and conditions, presents a more accurate economic comparison of the alternatives, which, in turn, leads to better decision risk management.

  14. Combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis of cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agu, R.C.; Amadife, A.E.; Ude, C.M.; Onyia, A.; Ogu, E.O. [Enugu State Univ. of Science and Technology (Nigeria). Faculty of Applied Natural Sciences] [Enugu State Univ. of Science and Technology (Nigeria). Faculty of Applied Natural Sciences; Okafor, M.; Ezejiofor, E. [Nnamdi Azikiwe Univ., Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Applied Microbiology] [Nnamdi Azikiwe Univ., Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Applied Microbiology

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis (various concentrations) on cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production was investigated. At high concentrations of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (1--5 M), hydrolysis of the CGW biomass was achieved but with excessive charring or dehydration reaction. At lower acid concentrations, hydrolysis of CGW biomass was also achieved with 0.3--0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, while partial hydrolysis was obtained below 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (the lowest acid concentration that hydrolyzed CGW biomass) at 120 C and 1 atm pressure for 30 min. A 60% process efficiency was achieved with 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in hydrolyzing the cellulose and lignin materials present in the CGW biomass. High acid concentration is therefore not required for CGW biomass hydrolysis. The low acid concentration required for CGW biomass hydrolysis, as well as the minimal cost required for detoxification of CGW biomass because of low hydrogen cyanide content of CGW biomass would seem to make this process very economical. From three liters of the CGW biomass hydrolysate obtained from hydrolysis with 0.3M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, ethanol yield was 3.5 (v/v%) after yeast fermentation. However, although the process resulted in gainful utilization of CGW biomass, additional costs would be required to effectively dispose new by-products generated from CGW biomass processing.

  15. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, John W. (Sag Harbor, NY)

    1983-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A water heater or system which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  16. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, J.W.

    1980-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A water heater or system is described which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  17. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with CombinedHeat and Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of solar thermal and heat storage systems can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems, e.g. fuel cells with or without combined heat and power (CHP) and contribute to enhanced CO2 reduction. However, the interactions between solar thermal collection and storage systems and CHP systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of solar thermal and heat storage on CO2 emissions and annual energy costs, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program. The objective is minimization of annual energy costs. This paper focuses on analysis of the optimal interaction of solar thermal systems, which can be used for domestic hot water, space heating and/or cooling, and micro-CHP systems in the California service territory of San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). Contrary to typical expectations, our results indicate that despite the high solar radiation in southern California, fossil based CHP units are dominant, even with forecast 2020 technology and costs. A CO2 pricing scheme would be needed to incent installation of combined solar thermal absorption chiller systems, and no heat storage systems are adopted. This research also shows that photovoltaic (PV) arrays are favored by CO2 pricing more than solar thermal adoption.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM "PREMIUM POWER" APPLICATIONS IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CCP system provides electricity and cooling to a data centersystem with a high cooling load and no heating load (such as a data center)

  19. Numerical Modelling of Combined Heat Transfers in a Double Skin Faade -Full Scale Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , thermal comfort, visual comfort or energy gain [1]. In the current context of global warming, depletion heat transfers are also taken into account to obtain a global coupling between the different phenomena on two levels: during the winter period, the solar energy is used to heat the air in the façade [2], and

  20. A Partial Load Model for a Local Combined Heat and Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the so- called economic dispatch (the task of dispatching the entire system at least cost given a certain also possess a heat storage facility (typ- ically a large hot water tank) and/or a purely heat, and thus disregarding ramp rates in the model is not unreasonable. The unit commitment problem in energy

  1. Investigation of combined heat and mass transfer from a wet heat exchanger. Part 2. Experimental results and operational characteristics of heat exchangers in dry/wet operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, S.G.; Kreid, D.K.; Johnson, B.M.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This second part of a two-part paper summarizes the experimental evaluation of a plate finned heat exchanger both with and without the surface wetted by a flowing film of water. The results indicate an increase in heat transfer during wet operation of two to five times over that of dry operation for the same meteorological conditions. The deluge model is shown to accurately predict the wet performance using an experimentally determined deluge film coefficient and the dry performance characteristics.

  2. Combined heat and power has the potential to significantly increase energy production efficiency and thus reduce greenhouse gas emissions, however current market penetration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    1 Combined heat and power has the potential to significantly increase energy production efficiency and thus reduce greenhouse gas emissions, however current market penetration analyses suggest that California will not reach the targets for combined heat and power set for it by the Air Resources Board (ARB

  3. ‘Back to the drawing board!’ Can failed technological innovations for sustainability play a role in socio-technical transitions? The case of Combined Heat and Power and District Heating in Edinburgh. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott-Mearns, Naomi

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation regards Combined Heat and Power (CHP) and District Heating (DH) technology (CHP-DH) as a technological innovation for sustainability which is currently under-utilized in the UK as DH meets less than 2% of heat demand (Delta Energy...

  4. Combined Heat and Power: Effective Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shipley, Ms. Anna [Sentech, Inc.; Hampson, Anne [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., an ICF Company; Hedman, Mr. Bruce [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., an ICF Company; Garland, Patricia W [ORNL; Bautista, Paul [Sentech, Inc.

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) solutions represent a proven and effective near-term energy option to help the United States enhance energy efficiency, ensure environmental quality, promote economic growth, and foster a robust energy infrastructure. Using CHP today, the United States already avoids more than 1.9 Quadrillion British thermal units (Quads) of fuel consumption and 248 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions annually compared to traditional separate production of electricity and thermal energy. This CO{sub 2} reduction is the equivalent of removing more than 45 million cars from the road. In addition, CHP is one of the few options in the portfolio of energy alternatives that combines environmental effectiveness with economic viability and improved competitiveness. This report describes in detail the four key areas where CHP has proven its effectiveness and holds promise for the future as an: (1) Environmental Solution: Significantly reducing CO{sub 2} emissions through greater energy efficiency; (2) Competitive Business Solution: Increasing efficiency, reducing business costs, and creating green-collar jobs; (3) Local Energy Solution: Deployable throughout the US; and (4) Infrastructure Modernization Solution: Relieving grid congestion and improving energy security. CHP should be one of the first technologies deployed for near-term carbon reductions. The cost-effectiveness and near-term viability of widespread CHP deployment place the technology at the forefront of practical alternative energy solutions such as wind, solar, clean coal, biofuels, and nuclear power. Clear synergies exist between CHP and most other technologies that dominate the energy and environmental policy dialogue in the country today. As the Nation transforms how it produces, transports, and uses the many forms of energy, it must seize the clear opportunity afforded by CHP in terms of climate change, economic competitiveness, energy security, and infrastructure modernization. The energy efficiency benefits of CHP offer significant, realistic solutions to near- and long-term energy issues facing the Nation. With growing demand for energy, tight supply options, and increasing environmental constraints, extracting the maximum output from primary fuel sources through efficiency is critical to sustained economic development and environmental stewardship. Investment in CHP would stimulate the creation of new 'green-collar' jobs, modernize aging energy infrastructure, and protect and enhance the competitiveness of US manufacturing industries. The complementary roles of energy efficiency, renewable energy, and responsible use of traditional energy supplies must be recognized. CHP's proven performance and potential for wider use are evidence of its near-term applicability and, with technological improvements and further elimination of market barriers, of its longer term promise to address the country's most important energy and environmental needs. A strategic approach is needed to encourage CHP where it can be applied today and address the regulatory and technical challenges preventing its long-term viability. Experience in the United States and other countries shows that a balanced set of policies, incentives, business models, and investments can stimulate sustained CHP growth and allow all stakeholders to reap its many well-documented benefits.

  5. Final Report: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heating, cooling, and power (CCHP) system in addition toIn all cases the CHP/CCHP system have a small fraction of1 Diesel generators and CHP/CCHP equipment as installed in

  6. Final Report: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cooling and power system provides electricity and cooling to a data centercooling and power system provides electricity and cooling to a data centersystem with a high cooling load and no heating load (such as a data center)

  7. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar CHP system supplying arbitrary heat and power outputs.e Electrical power output of system Q Solar CHP to PV yearlysolar Rankine CHP system, sized equally in terms of peak power output,

  8. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With their clean and quiet operation, fuel cells represent a promising means of implementing small-scale distributed power generation in the future. Waste heat from the fuel cell can be harnessed...

  9. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads with the following key findings: 1) The tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system. 2) The tankless combo system consistently achieved better daily efficiencies (i.e. 84%-93%) than the storage combo system (i.e. 81%- 91%) when the air handler was sized adequately and adjusted properly to achieve significant condensing operation. When condensing operation was not achieved, both systems performed with lower (i.e. 75%-88%), but similar efficiencies. 3) Air handlers currently packaged with combo systems are not designed to optimize condensing operation. More research is needed to develop air handlers specifically designed for condensing water heaters. 4) System efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved only on days where continual and steady space heating loads were required with significant condensing operation. For days where heating was more intermittent, the system efficiencies fell below 90%.

  10. The NASA Aura satellite houses four instruments to study atmospheric ozone. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the satellite provides global total column ozone (TCO) and in combination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Anne

    iii ABSTRACT The NASA Aura satellite houses four instruments to study atmospheric ozone. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the satellite provides global total column ozone (TCO) and in combination with other instruments tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) can be derived. In this study, the trajectory

  11. Preliminary Estimates of Combined Heat and Power Greenhouse Gas Abatement Potential for California in 2020

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Ling, Frank; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007- CEC, 2007b “California Power Plants Database” http://power to California are a mix of high efficiency combined cycle plants

  12. COMBINING PARTICLE ACCELERATION AND CORONAL HEATING VIA DATA-CONSTRAINED CALCULATIONS OF NANOFLARES IN CORONAL LOOPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gontikakis, C.; Efthymiopoulos, C.; Georgoulis, M. K. [Research Center for Astronomy and Applied Mathematics, Academy of Athens, Soranou Efessiou 4, 11528 Athens (Greece); Patsourakos, S. [Section of Astro-Geophysics, Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Anastasiadis, A., E-mail: cgontik@academyofathens.gr [National Observatory of Athens, Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, GR-15236, Palaia Penteli (Greece)

    2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We model nanoflare heating of extrapolated active-region coronal loops via the acceleration of electrons and protons in Harris-type current sheets. The kinetic energy of the accelerated particles is estimated using semi-analytical and test-particle-tracing approaches. Vector magnetograms and photospheric Doppler velocity maps of NOAA active region 09114, recorded by the Imaging Vector Magnetograph, were used for this analysis. A current-free field extrapolation of the active-region corona was first constructed. The corresponding Poynting fluxes at the footpoints of 5000 extrapolated coronal loops were then calculated. Assuming that reconnecting current sheets develop along these loops, we utilized previous results to estimate the kinetic energy gain of the accelerated particles. We related this energy to nanoflare heating and macroscopic loop characteristics. Kinetic energies of 0.1-8 keV (for electrons) and 0.3-470 keV (for protons) were found to cause heating rates ranging from 10{sup -6} to 1 erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -3}. Hydrodynamic simulations show that such heating rates can sustain plasma in coronal conditions inside the loops and generate plasma thermal distributions that are consistent with active-region observations. We concluded the analysis by computing the form of X-ray spectra generated by the accelerated electrons using the thick-target approach. These spectra were found to be in agreement with observed X-ray spectra, thus supporting the plausibility of our nanoflare-heating scenario.

  13. Analysis of combined hydrogen, heat, and power as a bridge to a hydrogen transition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahalik, M.; Stephan, C. (Decision and Information Sciences)

    2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined hydrogen, heat, and power (CHHP) technology is envisioned as a means to providing heat and electricity, generated on-site, to large end users, such as hospitals, hotels, and distribution centers, while simultaneously producing hydrogen as a by-product. The hydrogen can be stored for later conversion to electricity, used on-site (e.g., in forklifts), or dispensed to hydrogen-powered vehicles. Argonne has developed a complex-adaptive-system model, H2CAS, to simulate how vehicles and infrastructure can evolve in a transition to hydrogen. This study applies the H2CAS model to examine how CHHP technology can be used to aid the transition to hydrogen. It does not attempt to predict the future or provide one forecast of system development. Rather, the purpose of the model is to understand how the system works. The model uses a 50- by 100-mile rectangular grid of 1-square-mile cells centered on the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The major expressways are incorporated into the model, and local streets are considered to be ubiquitous, except where there are natural barriers. The model has two types of agents. Driver agents are characterized by a number of parameters: home and job locations, income, various types of 'personalities' reflective of marketing distinctions (e.g., innovators, early adopters), willingness to spend extra money on 'green' vehicles, etc. At the beginning of the simulations, almost all driver agents own conventional vehicles. They drive around the metropolitan area, commuting to and from work and traveling to various other destinations. As they do so, they observe the presence or absence of facilities selling hydrogen. If they find such facilities conveniently located along their routes, they are motivated to purchase a hydrogen-powered vehicle when it becomes time to replace their present vehicle. Conversely, if they find that they would be inconvenienced by having to purchase hydrogen earlier than necessary or if they become worried that they would run out of fuel before encountering a facility, their motivation to purchase a hydrogen-powered vehicle decreases. At vehicle purchase time, they weigh this experience, as well as other factors such as social influence by their peers, fuel cost, and capital cost of a hydrogen vehicle. Investor agents build full-service hydrogen fueling stations (HFSs) at different locations along the highway network. They base their decision to build or not build a station on their (imperfect) estimates of the sales the station would immediately generate (based on hydrogen-powered vehicle traffic past the location and other factors), as well as the growth in hydrogen sales they could expect throughout their investment horizon. The interaction between driver and investor agents provides the basis for growth in both the number of hydrogen vehicles and number of hydrogen stations. For the present report, we have added to this mix smaller, 'bare-bones' hydrogen dispensing facilities (HDFs) of the type that owners of CHHP facilities could provide to the public. The locations of these stations were chosen to match existing facilities that might reasonably incorporate CHHP plants in the future. Unlike the larger commercial stations, these facilities are built according to exogenously supplied timetables, and no attempt has been made to model the financial basis for the facilities. Rather, our objective is to understand how the presence of these additional stations might facilitate the petroleum-to-hydrogen transition. We discuss a base case in which the HDFs are not present, and then investigate the effects of introducing HDFs in various numbers; according to different timetables; with various production capacities; and with hydrogen selling at prices above, equal to, and below the commercial stations selling price. We conclude that HDFs can indeed be helpful in accelerating a petroleum-to-hydrogen transition. Placed in areas where investors might not be willing to install large for-profit HFSs, HDFs can serve as a bridge until demand for hydrogen increases to the point where l

  14. Subcontract Report: Modular Combined Heat & Power System for Utica College: Design Specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rouse, Greg [Gas Technology Institute

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utica College, located in Utica New York, intends to install an on-site power/cogeneration facility. The energy facility is to be factory pre-assembled, or pre- assembled in modules, to the fullest extent possible, and ready to install and interconnect at the College with minimal time and engineering needs. External connections will be limited to fuel supply, electrical output, potable makeup water as required and cooling and heat recovery systems. The proposed facility will consist of 4 self-contained, modular Cummins 330kW engine generators with heat recovery systems and the only external connections will be fuel supply, electrical outputs and cooling and heat recovery systems. This project was eventually cancelled due to changing DOE budget priorities, but the project engineers produced this system design specification in hopes that it may be useful in future endeavors.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM "PREMIUM POWER" APPLICATIONS IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    substituting for diesel generation with a nearly equivalentreplacing existing diesel generation with CCHP systems withdiesel and CCHP units (with blackout ride-through capability) to minimize the total cost function ignoring any constraints on backup generation.

  16. Two (2) 175 Ton (350 Tons total) Chiller Geothermal Heat Pumps for recently commissioned LEED Platinum Building

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project will operate; collect data; and market the energy savings and capital costs of a recently commissioned chiller geothermal heat pump project to promote the wide-spread adoption of this mature technology.

  17. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM...

  18. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with Combined Heat and Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chiller is supplied by waste heat from CHP units as well aswith HX can utilize waste heat for heating or cooling

  19. Preliminary Estimates of Combined Heat and Power Greenhouse Gas Abatement Potential for California in 2020

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Ling, Frank; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    generation: 50% of electricity from central grid natural gas plantsgeneration: 100% of electricity from central grid natural gas plantselectricity comes from central station natural-gas- fired combined cycle generation, and the other half comes from natural-gas-fired single cycle plants. •

  20. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGENDDepartmentSeptember 20092009 The U.S.Heat and

  1. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power: Effective Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGENDDepartmentSeptember 20092009 The U.S.Heat

  2. An engineering-economic analysis of combined heat and power technologies in a (mu)grid application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, Owen; Ouaglal, Boubekeur; Bartholomew, Emily; Marnay, Chris; Bourassa, Norman

    2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes an investigation at Ernesto Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) of the potential for coupling combined heat and power (CHP) with on-site electricity generation to provide power and heating, and cooling services to customers. This research into distributed energy resources (DER) builds on the concept of the microgrid (mGrid), a semiautonomous grouping of power-generating sources that are placed and operated by and for the benefit of its members. For this investigation, a hypothetical small shopping mall (''Microgrid Oaks'') was developed and analyzed for the cost effectiveness of installing CHP to provide the mGrid's energy needs. A mGrid consists of groups of customers pooling energy loads and installing a combination of generation resources that meets the particular mGrid's goals. This study assumes the mGrid is seeking to minimize energy costs. mGrids could operate independently of the macrogrid (the wider power network), but they are usually assumed to be connected, through power electronics, to the macrogrid. The mGrid in this study is assumed to be interconnected to the macrogrid, and can purchase some energy and ancillary services from utility providers.

  3. Combined Heating and Power Using Microturbines in a Major Urban Hotel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweetser, Richard [Exergy Partners Corp.] [Exergy Partners Corp.; Wagner, Timothy [United Technologies Research Center (UTRC)] [United Technologies Research Center (UTRC); Leslie, Neil [Gas Technology Institute] [Gas Technology Institute; Stovall, Therese K [ORNL] [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results of a cooperative effort to install and operate a Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) System at a major hotel in San Francisco, CA. The packaged CHP System integrated four microturbines, a double-effect absorption chiller, two fuel gas boosters, and the control hardware and software to ensure that the system operated predictably, reliably, and safely. The chiller was directly energized by the recycled hot exhaust from the microturbines, and could be configured to provide either chilled or hot water. As installed, the system was capable of providing up to 227 kW of net electrical power and 142 Refrigeration Tons (RT) of chilled water at a 59oF (15oC) ambient temperature. For the year, the CHP efficiency was 54 percent. Significant lessons learned from this test and verification project are discussed as well as measured performance and economic considerations.

  4. Combined refrigeration system with a liquid pre-cooling heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaul, Christopher J.

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compressor-pump unit for use in a vapor-compression refrigeration system is provided. The compressor-pump unit comprises a driving device including a rotatable shaft. A compressor is coupled with a first portion of the shaft for compressing gaseous refrigerant within the vapor-compression refrigeration system. A liquid pump is coupled with a second portion of the shaft for receiving liquid refrigerant having a first pressure and for discharging the received liquid refrigerant at a second pressure with the second pressure being higher than the first pressure by a predetermined amount such that the discharged liquid refrigerant is subcooled. A pre-cooling circuit is connected to the liquid pump with the pre-cooling circuit being exposed to the gaseous refrigerant whereby the gaseous refrigerant absorbs heat from the liquid refrigerant, prior to the liquid refrigerant entering the liquid pump.

  5. Combined Heat and Power System Achieves Millions in Cost Savings at Large

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1. FeedstockCLEANSprings Gets anColoring andCombined

  6. Combined Heat and Power System Enables 100% Reliability at Leading Medical

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1. FeedstockCLEANSprings Gets anColoring andCombinedCampus

  7. An integrated assessment of the energy savings and emissions-reduction potential of combined heat and power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaarsberg, T.M.; Elliott, R.N.; Spurr, M.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems, or cogeneration systems, generated electrical/mechanical and thermal energy simultaneously, recovering much of the energy normally lost in separate generation. This recovered energy can be used for heating or cooling purposes, eliminating the need for a separate boiler. Significant reductions in energy, criteria pollutants, and carbon emissions can be achieved from the improved efficiency of fuel use. Generating electricity on or near the point of use also avoids transmission and distribution losses and defers expansion of the electricity transmission grid. Several recent developments make dramatic expansion of CHP a cost-effective possibility over the next decade. First, advances in technologies such as combustion turbines, steam turbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells. and heat-recovery equipment have decreased the cost and improved the performance of CHP systems. Second, a significant portion of the nation's boiler stock will need to be replaced in the next decade, creating an opportunity to upgrade this equipment with clean and efficient CHP systems. Third, environmental policies, including addressing concerns about greenhouse gas emissions, have created pressures to find cleaner and more efficient means of using energy. Finally, electric power market restructuring is creating new opportunities for innovations in power generation and smaller-scale distributed systems such as CHP. The integrated analysis suggests that there is enormous potential for the installation of cost-effective CHP in the industrial, district energy, and buildings sectors. The projected additional capacity by 2010 is 73 GW with corresponding energy savings of 2.6 quadrillion Btus, carbon emissions reductions of 74 million metric tons, 1.4 million tons of avoided SO{sub 2} emissions, and 0.6 million tons of avoided NO{sub x} emissions. The authors estimate that this new CHP would require cumulative capital investments of roughly $47 billion over ten years.

  8. A methodology for understanding the impacts of large-scale penetration of micro-combined heat and power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tapia-Ahumada, K. [MIT Energy Initiative, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Pérez-Arriaga, I. J. [Institute for Research in Technology, Comillas Pontifical University (Spain); Moniz, Ernest J. [MIT Energy Initiative, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Co-generation at small kW-e scale has been stimulated in recent years by governments and energy regulators as one way to increasing energy efficiency and reducing CO2emissions. If a widespread adoption should be realized, their effects from a system's point of view are crucial to understand the contributions of this technology. Based on a methodology that uses long-term capacity planning expansion, this paper explores some of the implications for an electric power system of having a large number of micro-CHPs. Results show that fuel cells-based micro-CHPs have the best and most consistent performance for different residential demands from the customer and system's perspectives. As the penetration increases at important levels, gas-based technologies - particularly combined cycle units - are displaced in capacity and production, which impacts the operation of the electric system during summer peak hours. Other results suggest that the tariff design impacts the economic efficiency of the system and the operation of micro-CHPs under a price-based strategy. Finally, policies aimed at micro-CHPs should consider the suitability of the technology (in size and heat-to-power ratio) to meet individual demands, the operational complexities of a large penetration, and the adequacy of the economic signals to incentivize an efficient and sustainable operation. Highlights: Capacity displacements and daily operation of an electric power system are explored; Benefits depend on energy mix, prices, and micro-CHP technology and control scheme; Benefits are observed mostly in winter when micro-CHP heat and power are fully used; Micro-CHPs mostly displace installed capacity from natural gas combined cycle units; and, Tariff design impacts economic efficiency of the system and operation of micro-CHPs.

  9. Optimizal design and control strategies for novel Combined Heat and Power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part II of II, case study results.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Innovative energy system optimization models are deployed to evaluate novel fuel cell system (FCS) operating strategies, not typically pursued by commercial industry. Most FCS today are installed according to a 'business-as-usual' approach: (1) stand-alone (unconnected to district heating networks and low-voltage electricity distribution lines), (2) not load following (not producing output equivalent to the instantaneous electrical or thermal demand of surrounding buildings), (3) employing a fairly fixed heat-to-power ratio (producing heat and electricity in a relatively constant ratio to each other), and (4) producing only electricity and no recoverable heat. By contrast, models discussed here consider novel approaches as well. Novel approaches include (1) networking (connecting FCSs to electrical and/or thermal networks), (2) load following (having FCSs produce only the instantaneous electricity or heat demanded by surrounding buildings), (3) employing a variable heat-to-power ratio (such that FCS can vary the ratio of heat and electricity they produce), (4) co-generation (combining the production of electricity and recoverable heat), (5) permutations of these together, and (6) permutations of these combined with more 'business-as-usual' approaches.

  10. Optimal design and control strategies for novel combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part II of II, case study results.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Innovative energy system optimization models are deployed to evaluate novel fuel cell system (FCS) operating strategies, not typically pursued by commercial industry. Most FCS today are installed according to a 'business-as-usual' approach: (1) stand-alone (unconnected to district heating networks and low-voltage electricity distribution lines), (2) not load following (not producing output equivalent to the instantaneous electrical or thermal demand of surrounding buildings), (3) employing a fairly fixed heat-to-power ratio (producing heat and electricity in a relatively constant ratio to each other), and (4) producing only electricity and no recoverable heat. By contrast, models discussed here consider novel approaches as well. Novel approaches include (1) networking (connecting FCSs to electrical and/or thermal networks), (2) load following (having FCSs produce only the instantaneous electricity or heat demanded by surrounding buildings), (3) employing a variable heat-to-power ratio (such that FCS can vary the ratio of heat and electricity they produce), (4) co-generation (combining the production of electricity and recoverable heat), (5) permutations of these together, and (6) permutations of these combined with more 'business-as-usual' approaches. The detailed assumptions and methods behind these models are described in Part I of this article pair.

  11. COMBINED ACTIVE/PASSIVE DECAY HEAT REMOVAL APPROACH FOR THE 24 MWt GAS-COOLED FAST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHENG,L.Y.; LUDEWIG, H.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Decay heat removal at depressurized shutdown conditions has been regarded as one of the key areas where significant improvement in passive response was targeted for the GEN IV GFR over the GCFR designs of thirty years ago. It has been recognized that the poor heat transfer characteristics of gas coolant at lower pressures needed to be accommodated in the GEN IV design. The design envelope has therefore been extended to include a station blackout sequence simultaneous with a small break/leak. After an exploratory phase of scoping analysis in this project, together with CEA of France, it was decided that natural convection would be selected as the passive decay heat removal approach of preference. Furthermore, a double vessel/containment option, similar to the double vessel/guard vessel approach of the SFR, was selected as the means of design implementation to reduce the PRA risks of the depressurization accident. However additional calculations in conjunction with CEA showed that there was an economic penalty in terms of decay heat removal system heat exchanger size, elevation heights for thermal centers, and most of all in guard containment back pressure for complete reliance on natural convection only. The back pressure ranges complicated the design requirements for the guard containment. Recognizing that the definition of a loss-of-coolant-accident in the GFR is a misnomer, since gas coolant will always be present, and the availability of some driven blower would reduce fuel temperature transients significantly; it was decided instead to aim for a hybrid active/passive combination approach to the selected BDBA. Complete natural convection only would still be relied on for decay heat removal but only after the first twenty four hours after the initiation of the accident. During the first twenty four hour period an actively powered blower would be relied on to provide the emergency decay power removal. However the power requirements of the active blower/circulators would be kept low by maintaining a pressurized system coolant back pressure of {approx}7-8 bars through the design of the guard containment for such a design pressure. This approach is termed the medium pressure approach by both CEA and the US. Such a containment design pressure is in the range of the LWR experience, both PWRs and BWRs. Both metal containments and concrete guard containments are possible in this pressure range. This approach is then a time-at-risk approach as the power requirements should be low enough that battery/fuel cell banks without diesel generator start-up failure rate issues should be capable of providing the necessary power. Compressed gas sources are another possibility. A companion PRA study is being conducted to survey the reliability of such systems.

  12. "Table B29. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Total Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal"1" "Shell Storage1.2.5.6.7.9.

  13. Combined Heat & Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    & Power (CHP) Michael Ellis Director AGL Energy Services Federal Utility Partnership Working Group May 7 - 8, 2014 Virginia Beach, VA "CHP is the most efficient way of generating...

  14. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with Combined Heat and Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar thermal and heat storage on CO 2 emissions and annual energyenergy costs, heat storage does not directly support solar thermal /energy costs. This paper focuses on analysis of the optimal interaction of solar thermal

  15. Assessment of the Current Level of Automation in the Manufacture of Fuel Cell Systems for Combined Heat and Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulsh, M.; Wheeler, D.; Protopappas, P.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in supporting manufacturing research and development (R&D) for fuel cell systems in the 10-1,000 kilowatt (kW) power range relevant to stationary and distributed combined heat and power applications, with the intent to reduce manufacturing costs and increase production throughput. To assist in future decision-making, DOE requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide a baseline understanding of the current levels of adoption of automation in manufacturing processes and flow, as well as of continuous processes. NREL identified and visited or interviewed key manufacturers, universities, and laboratories relevant to the study using a standard questionnaire. The questionnaire covered the current level of vertical integration, the importance of quality control developments for automation, the current level of automation and source of automation design, critical balance of plant issues, potential for continuous cell manufacturing, key manufacturing steps or processes that would benefit from DOE support for manufacturing R&D, the potential for cell or stack design changes to support automation, and the relationship between production volume and decisions on automation.

  16. The Confusing Allure of Combined Heat and Power: The Financial Attraction and Management Challenge of Reducing Energy Spend and Resulting Carbon Emissions Through Onsite Power Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, R.

    —from the perspective of reducing energy spending and energy-related carbon emissions—is combined heat and power ("CHP"), sometimes referred to as cogeneration. However, the results of CHP deployment to date have been mixed—largely because companies do not fully...

  17. Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2014739 Published as: Amir Nosrat and Joshua M. Pearce, "Dispatch Strategy and Model for Hybrid Photovoltaic and Combined Heating,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    work on solar photovoltaic and thermal (PV/T) systems have combined PV with some form of waste heat recovery from the panels themselves [1-6]. Although this is an efficient use of energy and can even improve unit electricity [7]. First generation PV+CHP hybrids where the PV simply decreased some small fraction

  18. Cornell's conversion of a coal fired heating plant to natural Gas -BACKGROUND: In December 2009, the Combined Heat and Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    Cornell's conversion of a coal fired heating plant to natural Gas University began operating with natural gas, instead of the coal-fired generators of the coal that had been stockpiled, the Plant is running completely on natural gas

  19. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with Combined Heat and Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in MicrogridsEnvironmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgridsa) ABSTRACT The addition of solar thermal and heat storage

  20. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Food Service ... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Health Care ... 11 6 2 Q 2 5.6 3.3 0.8 Q 1.3 Inpatient...

  1. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased: September,

  2. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased:

  3. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased:Released:

  4. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased:Released:28

  5. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased:Released:28

  6. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased:Released:28

  7. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

  8. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

  9. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

  10. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun602 1,397 125 Q 69 0.11 0.09 0.01

  11. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun602 1,397 125 Q 69 0.11 0.09

  12. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun602 1,397 125 Q 69 0.11 0.09634

  13. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun602 1,397 125 Q 69 0.11 0.09634636

  14. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LBNL-6772E A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications Max Wei, Timothy Lipman 1 , Ahmad Mayyas 1 ,...

  15. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with Combined Heat and Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems inEconomic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems insolar thermal and heat storage systems can improve the economic, as well as environmental

  16. Development of an Advanced Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System Utilizing Off-Gas from Coke Calcination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Coke calcination is a process that involves the heating of green petroleum coke in order to remove volatile material and purify the coke for further processing. Calcined coke is vital to the...

  17. Combined Heat and Power: Connecting the Gap Between Markets and Utility Interconnection and Tariff Practices (Part 1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brooks, S.; Elswick, B.; Elliott, R. N.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , integrated system (Elliott and Spurr 1999). CHP is not a technology, but an approach to applying technologies. CHP is more energy efficient than separate generation of electricity and thermal energy. Heat that is normally wasted in conventional power... installations are considered DER—only large central generation CHP that focuses on wholesale power generation is not included. Because this report focuses on smaller CHP, we can consider the barriers for these installations to be largely the same...

  18. Combining nanocalorimetry and dynamic transmission electron microscopy for in situ characterization of materials processes under rapid heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grapes, Michael D., E-mail: mgrapes1@jhu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Materials Measurement Science Division, Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); LaGrange, Thomas; Reed, Bryan W.; Campbell, Geoffrey H. [Condensed Matter and Materials Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Friedman, Lawrence H.; LaVan, David A., E-mail: david.lavan@nist.gov [Materials Measurement Science Division, Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Weihs, Timothy P., E-mail: weihs@jhu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanocalorimetry is a chip-based thermal analysis technique capable of analyzing endothermic and exothermic reactions at very high heating and cooling rates. Here, we couple a nanocalorimeter with an extremely fast in situ microstructural characterization tool to identify the physical origin of rapid enthalpic signals. More specifically, we describe the development of a system to enable in situ nanocalorimetry experiments in the dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM), a time-resolved TEM capable of generating images and electron diffraction patterns with exposure times of 30 ns–500 ns. The full experimental system consists of a modified nanocalorimeter sensor, a custom-built in situ nanocalorimetry holder, a data acquisition system, and the DTEM itself, and is capable of thermodynamic and microstructural characterization of reactions over a range of heating rates (10{sup 2} K/s–10{sup 5} K/s) accessible by conventional (DC) nanocalorimetry. To establish its ability to capture synchronized calorimetric and microstructural data during rapid transformations, this work describes measurements on the melting of an aluminum thin film. We were able to identify the phase transformation in both the nanocalorimetry traces and in electron diffraction patterns taken by the DTEM. Potential applications for the newly developed system are described and future system improvements are discussed.

  19. Optimal design and control strategies for novel combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part I of II, datum design conditions and approach.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy network optimization (ENO) models identify new strategies for designing, installing, and controlling stationary combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems (FCSs) with the goals of (1) minimizing electricity and heating costs for building owners and (2) reducing emissions of the primary greenhouse gas (GHG) - carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). A goal of this work is to employ relatively inexpensive simulation studies to discover more financially and environmentally effective approaches for installing CHP FCSs. ENO models quantify the impact of different choices made by power generation operators, FCS manufacturers, building owners, and governments with respect to two primary goals - energy cost savings for building owners and CO{sub 2} emission reductions. These types of models are crucial for identifying cost and CO{sub 2} optima for particular installations. Optimal strategies change with varying economic and environmental conditions, FCS performance, the characteristics of building demand for electricity and heat, and many other factors. ENO models evaluate both 'business-as-usual' and novel FCS operating strategies. For the scenarios examined here, relative to a base case of no FCSs installed, model results indicate that novel strategies could reduce building energy costs by 25% and CO{sub 2} emissions by 80%. Part I of II articles discusses model assumptions and methodology. Part II of II articles illustrates model results for a university campus town and generalizes these results for diverse communities.

  20. National Account Energy Alliance Final Report for the Ritz Carlton, San Francisco Combined Heat and Power Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosfjord, Thomas J [UTC Power

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under collaboration between DOE and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), UTC Power partnered with Host Hotels and Resorts to install and operate a PureComfort 240M Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) System at the Ritz-Carlton, San Francisco. This packaged CHP system integrated four microturbines, a double-effect absorption chiller, two fuel gas boosters, and the control hardware and software to ensure that the system operated predictably, reliably, and safely. The chiller, directly energized by the recycled hot exhaust from the microturbines, could be configured to provide either chilled or hot water. As installed, the system was capable of providing up to 227 kW of net electrical power and 142 RT of chilled water at a 59F ambient temperature.

  1. Portland Community College Celebrates Commissioning of Combined...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Portland Community College Celebrates Commissioning of Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System Portland Community College Celebrates Commissioning of Combined Heat and Power Fuel...

  2. Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) with CO2 as heat transmission fluid--A scheme for combining recovery of renewable energy with geologic storage of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    effects on heat extraction rates and the water content ofof heat extraction for CO 2 and water- based systems, we hadover water-based systems, including larger heat extraction

  3. Measurements of the Total and Differential Higgs Boson Production Cross Sections Combining the $H \\rightarrow \\gamma \\gamma$ and $H \\rightarrow ZZ ^{*}\\rightarrow 4\\ell$ Decay Channels at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV with the ATLAS Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; ?lvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of the total and differential cross sections of Higgs boson production are performed using 20.3~fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV and recorded by the ATLAS detector. Cross sections are obtained from measured $H \\rightarrow \\gamma \\gamma$ and $H \\rightarrow ZZ ^{*}\\rightarrow 4\\ell$ event yields, which are combined accounting for detector efficiencies, fiducial acceptances and branching fractions. Differential cross sections are reported as a function of Higgs boson transverse momentum, Higgs boson rapidity, number of jets in the event, and transverse momentum of the leading jet. The total production cross section is determined to be $\\sigma_{pp \\to H} = 33.0 \\pm 5.3 \\, ({\\rm stat}) \\pm 1.6 \\, ({\\rm sys}) \\mathrm{pb}$. The measurements are compared to state-of-the-art predictions.

  4. Radiative Heat Transfer in Enhanced Hydrogen Outgassing of Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitamura, Rei; Pilon, Laurent

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    slabs. Moreover, the total heat input during furnace heatingperformed for the same heat input. The optical propertiesheating for the same total heat input. Similarly, Figure 7

  5. Analysis of radial fin assembly heat transfer with dehumidification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosario, L.; Rahman, M.M. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this paper is the analysis of heat transfer in a radial fin assembly during the process of dehumidification. An individual finned tube geometry is a reasonable representation of heat exchangers used in air conditioning. The condensation process involves both heat and mass transfer and the cooling takes place by the removal of sensible as well as latent heat. The ratio of sensible to total heat is an important quantity that defines the heat transfer process during a dehumidifier operation. A one-dimensional model for heat transfer in the fin and the heat exchanger block is developed to study the effects of condensation on the fin surface. The combined heat and mass transfer process is modeled by incorporating the ratio of sensible to total heat in the formulation. The augmentation of heat transfer due to fin was established by comparing heat transfer rate with and without fins under the same operating conditions. Numerical calculations were carried out to study the effects of relative humidity and dry bulb temperature of the incoming air, and cold fluid temperature inside the coil on the performance of the heat exchanger. Results were compared to those published for rectangular fin under humid condition showed excellent agreement when the present model was used to compute that limiting condition. It was found that the heat transfer rate increased with increment in both dry bulb temperature and relative humidity of the air. The augmentation factor, however, decreased with increment in relative humidity and the dry bulb temperature.

  6. Accelerating Combined Heat & Power Deployment

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Reduced electric grid congestion Pollution reduction Most institutionalregulatorybusiness models do not incentivize CHP deployment in a manner that helps optimize energy...

  7. Combined Heat and Power Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships (CHP TAPs) have compiled a select number of CHP project profiles.

  8. Collaborative National Program for the Development and Performance Testing of Distributed Power Technologies with Emphasis on Combined Heat and Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soinski, Arthur; Hanson, Mark

    2006-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A current barrier to public acceptance of distributed generation (DG) and combined heat and power (CHP) technologies is the lack of credible and uniform information regarding system performance. Under a cooperative agreement, the Association of State Energy Research and Technology Transfer Institutions (ASERTTI) and the U.S. Department of Energy have developed four performance testing protocols to provide a uniform basis for comparison of systems. The protocols are for laboratory testing, field testing, long-term monitoring and case studies. They have been reviewed by a Stakeholder Advisory Committee made up of industry, public interest, end-user, and research community representatives. The types of systems covered include small turbines, reciprocating engines (including Stirling Cycle), and microturbines. The protocols are available for public use and the resulting data is publicly available in an online national database and two linked databases with further data from New York State. The protocols are interim pending comments and other feedback from users. Final protocols will be available in 2007. The interim protocols and the national database of operating systems can be accessed at www.dgdata.org. The project has entered Phase 2 in which protocols for fuel cell applications will be developed and the national and New York databases will continue to be maintained and populated.

  9. Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) with CO2 as heat transmission fluid--A scheme for combining recovery of renewable energy with geologic storage of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Approach for Generating Renewable Energy with SimultaneousCombining Recovery of Renewable Energy with Geologic Storage

  10. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  11. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  12. aortic dissection combined: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Encouraging Combined Heat andgrid to assess the CO 2 mitigate potential of CHP and CCHP and other DER Collected Data Memorandum Encouraging Combined Heat and Stadler, Michael...

  13. anesthetics combined: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Encouraging Combined Heat andgrid to assess the CO 2 mitigate potential of CHP and CCHP and other DER Collected Data Memorandum Encouraging Combined Heat and Stadler, Michael...

  14. acetylcysteine mannitol combination: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Encouraging Combined Heat andgrid to assess the CO 2 mitigate potential of CHP and CCHP and other DER Collected Data Memorandum Encouraging Combined Heat and Stadler, Michael...

  15. agrotis ipsilon combined: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Encouraging Combined Heat andgrid to assess the CO 2 mitigate potential of CHP and CCHP and other DER Collected Data Memorandum Encouraging Combined Heat and Stadler, Michael...

  16. atacama combining bioarchaeology: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Encouraging Combined Heat andgrid to assess the CO 2 mitigate potential of CHP and CCHP and other DER Collected Data Memorandum Encouraging Combined Heat and Stadler, Michael...

  17. abdominal hyperthermia combined: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Encouraging Combined Heat andgrid to assess the CO 2 mitigate potential of CHP and CCHP and other DER Collected Data Memorandum Encouraging Combined Heat and Stadler, Michael...

  18. artemisinin-based antimalarial combination: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Encouraging Combined Heat andgrid to assess the CO 2 mitigate potential of CHP and CCHP and other DER Collected Data Memorandum Encouraging Combined Heat and Stadler, Michael...

  19. arteriovenous malformation combined: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Encouraging Combined Heat andgrid to assess the CO 2 mitigate potential of CHP and CCHP and other DER Collected Data Memorandum Encouraging Combined Heat and Stadler, Michael...

  20. anthracycline-based combination chemotherapy: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Encouraging Combined Heat andgrid to assess the CO 2 mitigate potential of CHP and CCHP and other DER Collected Data Memorandum Encouraging Combined Heat and Stadler, Michael...

  1. AMO Announces Successful Completion of Industrial-Scale Combined...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Announces Successful Completion of Industrial-Scale Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System AMO Announces Successful Completion of Industrial-Scale Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and...

  2. Optimization of Heat Exchanger Cleaning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegell, J. H.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of heat integration systems is quantified in terms of the amount of heat that is recovered. This decreases with time due to increased fouling of the heat exchange surface. Using the "Total Fouling Related Expenses (TFRE)" approach...

  3. Total Building Air Management: When Dehumidification Counts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chilton, R. L.; White, C. L.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to heat rejection to contain the size of the ground loop. In areas where seasonal heating is required, but cooling remains the dominant load, a hybrid heat rejection system can be specified. A hybrid system consists of a ground loop sized for total...

  4. TOTAL M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total M F Total Spring 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, Jane E.

    202 51 *total new freshmen 684: 636 Lexington campus, 48 Paducah campus MS Total 216 12 5 17 2 0 2 40 248 247 648 45 210 14 *total new freshmen 647: 595 Lexington campus, 52 Paducah campus MS Total 192 14

  5. Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) with CO2 as heat transmission fluid--A scheme for combining recovery of renewable energy with geologic storage of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Could Sequestration of CO2 be Combined with the DevelopmentTOUGH2 Code for Studies of CO2 Storage in Saline Aquifers,and J. Ennis- King. CO2-H2O Mixtures in the Geological

  6. advanced low-temperature heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The solar low-temperature hot water floor radiant heating system combines solar energy heating with floor radiant heating. This kind of environmental heating way not only...

  7. Experimental investigation of nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanisms for cylinders in water and FC-72

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, C.N.; You, S.M.; Hong, Y.S. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A recently developed photographic method is used to quantify vapor volumetric flow rate above a boiling wire. The volumetric flow rate is combined with additional analyses to determine the overall contributions to the total heat flux from four nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanisms (latent heat, natural convection, Marangoni flow, and micro-convection). This technique is used to quantify the boiling heat transfer mechanisms versus heat flux for a 510-{micro}m wire immersed in saturated water and in water with a small amount of liquid soap added. These data are compared with similar data taken for a 75-{micro}m wire boiling in saturated FC-72. For all cases, latent heat is the dominant heat transfer mechanism in the fully developed nucleate boiling regime. In addition, the latent heat component is significantly increased by the addition of small amounts of soap (surfactant).

  8. A study of the minimum meniscus radius as a function of vapor temperature using heat pipes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sonnier, Ronald James

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    /sec 2 latent heat of vaporization, BTU/lb m wick permeability, ft 2 length, ft molecular weight, ibm water parameter, hf pfof/uf fgff f pressure, lbf/ft 2 desorption pressure, lbf/ft 2 saturation pressure, lbf/ft 2 heat transfer rate, BTU... into Cosgrove's equation, assuming the temperature is uni- form inside the heat pipe, replacing the sum of the section lengths by the total length of the heat pipe, and combining the fluid prop- erties into one var1able there is obtained N = hf pfof/uf...

  9. INTEGRATED CO2 HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS FOR SPACE HEATING AND HOT WATER HEATING IN LOW-ENERGY HOUSES AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Stene

    designed as stand-alone systems, i.e. a heat pump water heater (HPWH) in combination with separate units

  10. Total Building Air Management: When Dehumidification Counts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chilton, R. L.; White, C. L.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , total air management of sensible and latent heat, filtration and zone pressure was brought about through the implementation of non-integrated, composite systems. Composite systems typically are built up of multi-vendor equipment each of which perform...

  11. artemisinin-based combination treatments: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Encouraging Combined Heat andgrid to assess the CO 2 mitigate potential of CHP and CCHP and other DER Collected Data Memorandum Encouraging Combined Heat and Stadler, Michael...

  12. adenovirus zd55-il-24 combined: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Encouraging Combined Heat andgrid to assess the CO 2 mitigate potential of CHP and CCHP and other DER Collected Data Memorandum Encouraging Combined Heat and Stadler, Michael...

  13. Design of Heat Exchanger for Heat Recovery in CHP Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozman, T. A.; Kaur, B.; Lee, J.

    with a heat exchanger to work as a Combined Heat and Power system for the University which will supplement the chilled water supply and electricity. The design constraints of the heat recovery unit are the specifications of the turbine and the chiller...

  14. Heat rejection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Gregory C. (Richland, WA); Tokarz, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Parry, Jr., Harvey L. (Richland, WA); Braun, Daniel J. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooling system for rejecting waste heat consists of a cooling tower incorporating a plurality of coolant tubes provided with cooling fins and each having a plurality of cooling channels therein, means for directing a heat exchange fluid from the power plant through less than the total number of cooling channels to cool the heat exchange fluid under normal ambient temperature conditions, means for directing water through the remaining cooling channels whenever the ambient temperature rises above the temperature at which dry cooling of the heat exchange fluid is sufficient and means for cooling the water.

  15. Thermal Solar Energy Systems for Space Heating of Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomri, R.; Boulkamh, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    combined with heat pump improve the thermal performance of the heat pump and the global system. The performances of the heating system combining heat pump and solar collectors are higher than that of solar heating system with solar collectors and storage...

  16. Chemical heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2750-C Segerstrom Ave., Santa Ana, CA 92704)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  17. CONSULTANT REPORT COMBINED HEAT AND POWER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and power to the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases as required by the California Global Warming Neff Project Manager Ivin Rhyne Office Manager Electricity Analysis Office Sylvia Bender Deputy Director Electricity Supply Analysis Division Robert Oglesby Executive Director DISCLAIMER This report

  18. CONSULTANT REPORT COMBINED HEAT AND POWER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions as required by the California Global Warming Solutions Act, Assembly Neff Project Manager Ivin Rhyne Office Manager Electricity Analysis Office Sylvia Bender Deputy Director Electricity Supply Analysis Division Robert Oglesby Executive Director DISCLAIMER This report

  19. Renewable Combined Heat and Power Dairy Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    horsepower Guascor model SFGLD-560 biogas-fired lean burn internal combustion (IC) engine and generator set bacteria to remove hydrogen sulfide presented in the biogas. Source: Fiscalini Farms Term: March 2011

  20. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Technology Development

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for June 30 Results: High Efficiency through Advanced Thermodynamics High-performance computing model operational for advanced combustion reciprocating engine ...

  1. Combined Heat and Power Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CHP technologies are eligible for either a grant, loan or power purchase incentive under the initial round of solicitations for new renewable energy generating equipment  up to five megawatts at ...

  2. Combined Heat and Power Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CHP technologies are eligible for either a grant, loan or power purchase incentive under the initial round of solicitations for new renewable energy generating equipment  up to five megawatts at ...

  3. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Technology Development

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO OverviewAttachments4 Chairs Meeting - AprilEventsConcentratingAgreement |Combi Systems for

  4. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Technology Development

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO OverviewAttachments4 Chairs Meeting - AprilEventsConcentratingAgreement |Combi Systems

  5. Combined Heat and Power | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO OverviewAttachments4 Chairs Meeting - AprilEventsConcentratingAgreement |CombiResearch

  6. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Zawacki, Thomas S. (St. Joseph, MI)

    1996-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium. A combination of weak and rich liquor working solution is used as the heat transfer medium.

  7. Power combiner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Mobius; Ives, Robert Lawrence

    2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A power combiner for the combining of symmetric and asymmetric traveling wave energy comprises a feed waveguide having an input port and a launching port, a reflector for reflecting launched wave energy, and a final waveguide for the collection and transport of launched wave energy. The power combiner has a launching port for symmetrical waves which comprises a cylindrical section coaxial to the feed waveguide, and a launching port for asymmetric waves which comprises a sawtooth rotated about a central axis.

  8. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 17 JULY 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1205 Partial radiogenic heat model for Earth revealed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piepke, Andreas G.

    half of Earth's total heat flux. We therefore conclude that Earth's primordial heat supply has not yet

  9. Integrating preconcentrator heat controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bouchier, Francis A. (Albuquerque, NM); Arakaki, Lester H. (Edgewood, NM); Varley, Eric S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for controlling the electric resistance heating of a metallic chemical preconcentrator screen, for example, used in portable trace explosives detectors. The length of the heating time-period is automatically adjusted to compensate for any changes in the voltage driving the heating current across the screen, for example, due to gradual discharge or aging of a battery. The total deposited energy in the screen is proportional to the integral over time of the square of the voltage drop across the screen. Since the net temperature rise, .DELTA.T.sub.s, of the screen, from beginning to end of the heating pulse, is proportional to the total amount of heat energy deposited in the screen during the heating pulse, then this integral can be calculated in real-time and used to terminate the heating current when a pre-set target value has been reached; thereby providing a consistent and reliable screen temperature rise, .DELTA.T.sub.s, from pulse-to-pulse.

  10. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  11. 1 CO2 Heat Pump System for Space Heating and Hot Water Heating in Low-Energy Houses and Passive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Stene

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    designed as a stand-alone system, i.e. a heat pump water heater in combination with a separate unit for

  12. IEA Annex 26: Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, VAN

    2003-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    With increased concern about the impact of refrigerant leakage on global warming, a number of new supermarket refrigeration system configurations requiring significantly less refrigerant charge are being considered. In order to help promote the development of advanced systems and expand the knowledge base for energy-efficient supermarket technology, the International Energy Agency (IEA) established IEA Annex 26 (Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems) under the ''IEA Implementing Agreement on Heat Pumping Technologies''. Annex 26 focuses on demonstrating and documenting the energy saving and environmental benefits of advanced systems design for food refrigeration and space heating and cooling for supermarkets. Advanced in this context means systems that use less energy, require less refrigerant and produce lower refrigerant emissions. Stated another way, the goal is to identify supermarket refrigeration and HVAC technology options that reduce the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of supermarkets by reducing both system energy use (increasing efficiency) and reducing total refrigerant charge. The Annex has five participating countries: Canada, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The working program of the Annex has involved analytical and experimental investigation of several candidate system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption. Advanced refrigeration system types investigated include the following: distributed compressor systems--small parallel compressor racks are located in close proximity to the food display cases they serve thus significantly shortening the connecting refrigerant line lengths; secondary loop systems--one or more central chillers are used to refrigerate a secondary coolant (e.g. brine, ice slurry, or CO2) that is pumped to the food display cases on the sales floor; self-contained display cases--each food display case has its own refrigeration unit; low-charge direct expansion--similar to conventional multiplex refrigeration systems but with improved controls to limit charge. Means to integrate store HVAC systems for space heating/cooling with the refrigeration system have been investigated as well. One approach is to use heat pumps to recover refrigeration waste heat and raise it to a sufficient level to provide for store heating needs. Another involves use of combined heating and power (CHP) or combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) systems to integrate the refrigeration, HVAC, and power services in stores. Other methods including direct recovery of refrigeration reject heat for space and water heating have also been examined.

  13. Commissioning : The Total Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kettler, G. J.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, most new buildings have been equipped with increasingly sophisticated heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, energy conservation equipment, lighting systems, security systems, and environmental control devices...

  14. Heat Plan DenmarkHeat Plan Denmark Anders Dyrelundy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the supply and the demand side · An eye-opener for the Danish politicians · Could be a model for otherHeat Plan DenmarkHeat Plan Denmark Anders Dyrelundy Market Manager for Energy and Climate Rambøll Möller · The first study in Denmark, really to integrate the energy and building sectors ­ to combine

  15. Design and Experiments of a Solar Low-temperature Hot Water Floor Radiant Heating System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Z.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar low-temperature hot water floor radiant heating system combines solar energy heating with floor radiant heating. This kind of environmental heating way not only saves fossil resources and reduces pollution, but also makes people feel more...

  16. Design and Experiments of a Solar Low-temperature Hot Water Floor Radiant Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Z.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar low-temperature hot water floor radiant heating system combines solar energy heating with floor radiant heating. This kind of environmental heating way not only saves fossil resources and reduces pollution, but also makes people feel more...

  17. Total Light Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers total light management, and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

  18. " "," ",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or Fluidized Bed Boilers",,,"Conventional Combusion Turbines with Heat Recovery",,,"Combined-Cycle Combusion Turbines",,,"Internal Combusion Engines with Heat Recovery",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Heat Recovered from High-Temperature Processes",,,," "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances byA49. Total Inputs of12.1.S4.1.45.1"4..53

  19. Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

  20. Heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishman, P.J.

    1983-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating system utilizing solar panels and buried ground conduits to collect and store heat which is delivered to a heatpump heat exchanger. A heat-distribution fluid continuously circulates through a ground circuit to transfer heat from the ground to the heat exchanger. The ground circuit includes a length of buried ground conduit, a pump, a check valve and the heat exchanger. A solar circuit, including a solar panel and a second pump, is connected in parallel with the check valve so that the distribution fluid transfers solar heat to the heat exchanger for utilization and to the ground conduit for storage when the second pump is energized. A thermostatically instrumented control system energizes the second pump only when the temperature differential between the solar panel inlet and outlet temperatures exceeds a predetermined value and the ground temperature is less than a predetermined value. Consequently, the distribution fluid flows through the solar panel only when the panel is capable of supplying significant heat to the remainder of the system without causing excessive drying of the ground.

  1. Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

  2. FACULTY OF TECHNOLOGY Heat Engineering Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    FACULTY OF TECHNOLOGY Heat Engineering Laboratory Combined thermal treatment of CCA-wood waste Report 2007-1 #12;- i - Report 2007-1 Combined thermal treatment of CCA-wood waste and municipal sewage sludge for arsenic emissions control Johan Sipilä1 , Maria Zevenhoven2 and Ron Zevenhoven1 1 Heat

  3. Total Synthesis of (?)-Himandrine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Movassaghi, Mohammad

    We describe the first total synthesis of (?)-himandrine, a member of the class II galbulimima alkaloids. Noteworthy features of this chemistry include a diastereoselective Diels?Alder reaction in the rapid synthesis of the ...

  4. Demonstration of Combined Zero-Valent Iron and Electrical Resistance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and M Oostrom.2011."Demonstration of Combined Zero-Valent Iron and Electrical Resistance Heating for In Situ Trichloroethene Remediation."Environmental Science & Technology...

  5. advanced combined cycle: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine Background Primary Components Gas-fired combustion turbine (s) Heat recovery steam generator (s) - HRSG with or without duct firing Natural gas...

  6. Total Energy Monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, S

    2008-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The total energy monitor (TE) is a thermal sensor that determines the total energy of each FEL pulse based on the temperature rise induced in a silicon wafer upon absorption of the FEL. The TE provides a destructive measurement of the FEL pulse energy in real-time on a pulse-by-pulse basis. As a thermal detector, the TE is expected to suffer least from ultra-fast non-linear effects and to be easy to calibrate. It will therefore primarily be used to cross-calibrate other detectors such as the Gas Detector or the Direct Imager during LCLS commissioning. This document describes the design of the TE and summarizes the considerations and calculations that have led to it. This document summarizes the physics behind the operation of the Total Energy Monitor at LCLS and derives associated engineering specifications.

  7. Total Precipitable Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The simulation was performed on 64K cores of Intrepid, running at 0.25 simulated-years-per-day and taking 25 million core-hours. This is the first simulation using both the CAM5 physics and the highly scalable spectral element dynamical core. The animation of Total Precipitable Water clearly shows hurricanes developing in the Atlantic and Pacific.

  8. Total Synthesis of Jiadifenolide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paterson, Ian; Xuan, Mengyang; Dalby, Stephen M.

    2014-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    then smoothly delivered allylic acetate 11 in readiness for an Ireland–Claisen rearrangement to install the key C13 quater- nary stereocenter.[11] In the event, heating the corresponding TBS ketene acetal (LDA, TBSCl) in anhydrous benzene led Scheme 1... reduction of cyclopentenone 6 (Scheme 2).[8] The ensuing allylic alcohol then underwent hydroxy-directed epoxidation with m-CPBA and TBS protection to deliver epoxide 7 in 65% yield over the three steps. The C2 methyl-bearing stereocenter...

  9. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  10. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    applications in stationary fuel cell systems. The analysis considers low temperature proton exchange membrane systems for use in combined heat and power applications from 1 to...

  11. Proceedings of HT2009 2009 ASME Summer Heat Transfer Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhixiong "James"

    -dependent radiation and conduction bio-heat transfer model. Ultrashort pulsed radiation transport in the cylindrical a combined transient heat transfer and Pennes bio-heat transfer model is developed to simulate the heat transfer models; and concluded that the Pennes model is still the most practical for fast prediction

  12. TotalView Training

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliances » Top InnovativeTopoisomeraseTotalView

  13. CCHP System with Interconnecting Cooling and Heating Network 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, L.; Geng, K.; Zheng, Z.; Jiang, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The consistency between building heating load, cooling load and power load are analyzed in this paper. The problem of energy waste and low equipment usage in a traditional CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system with generated electricity...

  14. Building America Webinar: New Construction Hybrid-Ductless Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as a hybrid "all-electric" heating system in new high-performance homes. In a DHPhybrid heating system, the DHP fan coil is located in the main living area in combination with...

  15. air heat exchanger: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre...

  16. air heat exchangers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Solar air heating system for combined DHW and space heating solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre...

  17. CCHP System with Interconnecting Cooling and Heating Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, L.; Geng, K.; Zheng, Z.; Jiang, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The consistency between building heating load, cooling load and power load are analyzed in this paper. The problem of energy waste and low equipment usage in a traditional CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system with generated electricity...

  18. Numerical investigation of the heating process inside an industrial furnace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolper, Pierre

    Numerical investigation of the heating process inside an industrial furnace Proposition: Combined furnace taking into account convective, conductive and radiative heat transfer. The model: Catalysis, Energy Materials, Performance Materials and Recycling. Each business area is divided into market

  19. Heating System Specification Specification of Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Day, Nancy

    Appendix A Heating System Specification /* Specification of Heating System (loosely based */ requestHeat : Room ­? bool; 306 #12; APPENDIX A. HEATING SYSTEM SPECIFICATION 307 /* user inputs */ livingPattern : Room ­? behaviour; setTemp : Room ­? num; heatSwitchOn, heatSwitchOff, userReset : simple

  20. Rheology and Convective Heat Transfer of Colloidal Gas Aphrons in Horizontal Minichannels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tseng, H.; Pilon, L.; Warrier, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    volumetric flow rates and heat input of 2.68×10 -6 m 3 /s attime for different heat input but identical pump setting.per channel, m 3 /s total heat input in the five channels, W

  1. Modeling near-field radiative heat transfer from sharp objects using a general 3d numerical scattering technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCauley, Alexander P; Krüger, Matthias; Johnson, Steven G

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the non-equilibrium radiative heat transfer between a plate and finite cylinders and cones, making the first accurate theoretical predictions for the total heat transfer and the spatial heat flux profile for three-dimensional compact objects including corners or tips. We find qualitatively different scaling laws for conical shapes at small separations, and in contrast to a flat/slightly-curved object, a sharp cone exhibits a local \\emph{minimum} in the spatially resolved heat flux directly below the tip. The method we develop, in which a scattering-theory formulation of thermal transfer is combined with a boundary-element method for computing scattering matrices, can be applied to three-dimensional objects of arbitrary shape.

  2. asme heat transfer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fundamental laws of heat transfer (conduction, convection and radiation) and give useful data specific to cryogenic conditions (thermal contact resistance, total emissivity of...

  3. Modelling the impact of user behaviour on heat energy consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combe, Nicola Miss; Harrison, David Professor; Way, Celia Miss

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    strategies impact on energy consumption in residentialBEHAVIOUR ON HEAT ENERGY CONSUMPTION Nicola Combe 1 ,2 ,nearly 60% of domestic energy consumption and 27% of total

  4. Developing a total replacement cost index for suburban office projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, David John, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the components of replacement costs for office developments, and how these components combine to create total development costs is essential for success in office real estate development. Surprisingly, the ...

  5. Radiative heat transfer in porous uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, S.L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to low thermal conductivity and high emissivity of UO{sub 2}, it has been suggested that radiative heat transfer may play a significant role in heat transfer through pores of UO{sub 2} fuel. This possibility was computationally investigated and contribution of radiative heat transfer within pores to overall heat transport in porous UO{sub 2} quantified. A repeating unit cell was developed to model approximately a porous UO{sub 2} fuel system, and the heat transfer through unit cells representing a wide variety of fuel conditions was calculated using a finite element computer program. Conduction through solid fuel matrix as wekk as pore gas, and radiative exchange at pore surface was incorporated. A variety of pore compositions were investigated: porosity, pore size, shape and orientation, temperature, and temperature gradient. Calculations were made in which pore surface radiation was both modeled and neglected. The difference between yielding the integral contribution of radiative heat transfer mechanism to overall heat transport. Results indicate that radiative component of heat transfer within pores is small for conditions representative of light water reactor fuel, typically less than 1% of total heat transport. It is much larger, however, for conditions present in liquid metal fast breeder reactor fuel; during restructuring of this fuel type early in life, the radiative heat transfer mode was shown to contribute as much as 10-20% of total heat transport in hottest regions of fuel.

  6. Industrial Heat Pumps: Where and When

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranade, S. M.; Chao, Y. T.

    because it precludes consideration of other more cost effective alternatives or combination of alternatives. Recent studies sponsored by EPRI and DOE (3,6) clearly support this claim. Recent studies conducted by TENSA Services for Hercules Chemicals..., Inc. 's Pextor process demonstrated a combination of heat integration and heat pumping to be more cost effective compared to either option alone (11). Several software packages are available to aid engineers in applying the technology. EPRI...

  7. Heat Transfer Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lefevre, M. R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    crossflow and counterflow plume. 3) COMBINATION OF HET AND DRY TOWERS When there is not enough water available to provide the makeup for a conventional wet cooling tower, the only solution is to use "DRY" cooling to dissipate part of the heat load. a... 11. The water is cooled first in the DRY section because DRY cooling is much more expensive than WET cooling and this arrangement leads to the smallest DRY tower. It must also be kept in mind that the DRY tower has a physical cooling limit equal...

  8. Heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, Paul F. (Cleveland, OH); Moore, Paul B. (Fedhaurn, FL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air heating and cooling system for a building includes an expansion-type refrigeration circuit and a heat engine. The refrigeration circuit includes two heat exchangers, one of which is communicated with a source of indoor air from the building and the other of which is communicated with a source of air from outside the building. The heat engine includes a heat rejection circuit having a source of rejected heat and a primary heat exchanger connected to the source of rejected heat. The heat rejection circuit also includes an evaporator in heat exchange relation with the primary heat exchanger, a heat engine indoor heat exchanger, and a heat engine outdoor heat exchanger. The indoor heat exchangers are disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine indoor heat exchanger being disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit indoor heat exchanger. The outdoor heat exchangers are also disposed in series air flow relationship, with the heat engine outdoor heat exchanger disposed downstream from the refrigeration circuit outdoor heat exchanger. A common fluid is used in both of the indoor heat exchanges and in both of the outdoor heat exchangers. In a first embodiment, the heat engine is a Rankine cycle engine. In a second embodiment, the heat engine is a non-Rankine cycle engine.

  9. Geothermal heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aureille, M.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of the study is to demonstrate the viability of geothermal heating projects in energy and economic terms and to provide nomograms from which an initial estimate may be made without having to use data-processing facilities. The effect of flow rate and temperature of the geothermal water on drilling and on the network, and the effect of climate on the type of housing are considered.

  10. Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, A. F.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...

  11. Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, A. F.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...

  12. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery Using Heat Pipes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruch, M. A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For almost a decade now, heat pipes with secondary finned surfaces have been utilized in counter flow heat exchangers to recover sensible energy from industrial exhaust gases. Over 3,000 such heat exchangers are now in service, recovering...

  13. AGN Heating through Cavities and Shocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. E. J. Nulsen; C. Jones; W. R. Forman; L. P. David; B. R. McNamara; D. A. Rafferty; L. Birzan; M. W. Wise

    2006-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Three comments are made on AGN heating of cooling flows. A simple physical argument is used to show that the enthalpy of a buoyant radio lobe is converted to heat in its wake. Thus, a significant part of ``cavity'' enthalpy is likely to end up as heat. Second, the properties of the repeated weak shocks in M87 are used to argue that they can plausibly prevent gas close to the AGN from cooling. As the most significant heating mechanism at work closest to the AGN, shock heating probably plays a critical role in the feedback mechanism. Third, results are presented from a survey of AGN heating rates in nearby giant elliptical galaxies. With inactive systems included, the overall AGN heating rate is reasonably well matched to the total cooling rate for the sample. Thus, intermittent AGN outbursts are energetically capable of preventing the hot atmospheres of these galaxies from cooling and forming stars.

  14. Enhanced heat transfer for thermionic power modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, D.C.

    1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermionic power module is capable of operating at very high heat fluxes, which in turn serve to reduce capital costs. The most efficient operation also requires uniform heat fluxes. The development of enhanced heat transfer systems is required to meet the demand for high heat fluxes (>20 w/cm/sup 2/) at high temperatures (>1500K) which advanced thermionic power modules place upon combustion systems. Energy transfer from the hot combustion gases may take place by convection, radiation, or a combination of radiation and convection. Enhanced convective heat transfer with a jet impingement system has been demonstrated in a thermionic converter. The recently-developed cellular ceramic radiative heat transfer system has also been applied to a thermionic converter. By comparing the jet impingement and cellular ceramic radiative heat transfer systems, an appropriate system may be selected for utilization in advanced thermionic power modules. Results are reported.

  15. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  16. MUJERES TOTAL BIOLOGIA 16 27

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    , PLASTICA Y VISUAL 2 2 EDUCACION FISICA, DEPORTE Y MOTRICIDAD HUMANA 1 1 6 11 TOTAL CIENCIAS Nº DE TESIS

  17. MUJERES ( * ) TOTAL BIOLOGA 16 22

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    , DEPORTE Y MOTRICIDAD HUMANA 0 4 TOTAL FORMACIÓN DE PROFESORADO Y EDUCACIÓN 0 6 ANATOMÍA PATOLÓGICA 2 5

  18. Determination of Total Solids in Biomass and Total Dissolved...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    o C, and an end point of less than 0.05% solids change in one minute. 10.2.2 Turn on the infrared heating elements and allow them to warm up for approximately 20 minutes. Run the...

  19. The Total RNA Story Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Steven A.

    The Total RNA Story Introduction Assessing RNA sample quality as a routine part of the gene about RNA sample quality. Data from a high quality total RNA preparation Although a wide variety RNA data interpretation and identify features from total RNA electropherograms that reveal information

  20. Building wall heat flux calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, J.E.; Kirkpatrick, J.R.; Tunstall, J.N.; Childs, K.W.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calculations of the heat transfer through the standard stud wall structure of a residential building are described. The wall cavity contains no insulation. Four of the five test cases represent progressively more complicated approximations to the heat transfer through and within a hollow wall structure. The fifth adds the model components necessary to severely inhibit the radiative energy transport across the empty cavity. Flow within the wall cavity is calculated from the Navier-Stokes equations and the energy conservation equation for an ideal gas using the Implicit Compressible Eulerian (ICE) algorithm. The fluid flow calculation is coupled to the radiation-conduction model for the solid portions of the system. Conduction through sill plates is about 4% of the total heat transferred through a composite wall. All of the other model elements (conduction through wall board, sheathing, and siding; convection from siding and wallboard to ambients; and radiation across the wall cavity) are required to accurately predict the heat transfer through a wall. Addition of a foil liner on one inner surface of the wall cavity reduces the total heat transferred by almost 50%.

  1. Dead heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oppenheimer, M.; Boyle, R.H.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the prospect of global warming. This paper proposes a workable solution, and a road map for getting there. The author explains how we became addicted to fossil fuels and evokes a bleak picture should this dependence continue. But the book also explores how industry can become a vehicle for solving, instead of precipitating, the global environmental crisis. The decoupling of energy from pollution can be accomplished without sacrificing prosperity by powering the economy with solar energy. Dead Heat takes us step by step to a greenhouse-friendly world fueled only by the sun.

  2. Heating 7. 2 user's manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, K.W.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATING is a general-purpose conduction heat transfer program written in Fortran 77. HEATING can solve steady-state and/or transient heat conduction problems in one-, two-, or three-dimensional Cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical coordinates. A model may include multiple materials, and the thermal conductivity, density, and specific heat of each material may be both time- and temperature-dependent. The thermal conductivity may also be anisotropic. Materials may undergo change of phase. Thermal properties of materials may be input or may be extracted from a material properties library. Heat-generation rates may be dependent on time, temperature, and position, and boundary temperatures may be time- and position-dependent. The boundary conditions, which may be surface-to-environment or surface-to-surface, may be specified temperatures or any combination of prescribed heat flux, forced convection, natural convection, and radiation. The boundary condition parameters may be time- and/or temperature-dependent. General gray-body radiation problems may be modeled with user-defined factors for radiant exchange. The mesh spacing may be variable along each axis. HEATING uses a runtime memory allocation scheme to avoid having to recompile to match memory requirements for each specific problem. HEATING utilizes free-form input. Three steady-state solution techniques are available: point-successive-overrelaxation iterative method with extrapolation, direct-solution, and conjugate gradient. Transient problems may be solved using any one of several finite-difference schemes: Crank-Nicolson implicit, Classical Implicit Procedure (CIP), Classical Explicit Procedure (CEP), or Levy explicit method. The solution of the system of equations arising from the implicit techniques is accomplished by point-successive-overrelaxation iteration and includes procedures to estimate the optimum acceleration parameter.

  3. Heat loss from an open cavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, C.G. [California State Polytechnic Univ., Pomona, CA (United States). Coll. of Engineering

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cavity type receivers are used extensively in concentrating solar thermal energy collecting systems. The Solar Total Energy Project (STEP) in Shenandoah, Georgia is a large scale field test for the collection of solar thermal energy. The STEP experiment consists of a large field array of solar collectors used to supplement the process steam, cooling and other electrical power requirements of an adjacent knitwear manufacturing facility. The purpose of the tests, conducted for this study, was to isolate and quantify the radiative, conductive, and convective components of total heat loss, and to determine the effects of operating temperature, receiver angle, and aperture size on cavity heat loss. An analytical model for radiative heat loss was developed and compared with two other methods used to determine radiative heat loss. A proposed convective heat loss correlation, including effects of aperture size, receiver operating temperature, and receiver angle is presented. The resulting data is a source to evaluate the STEP measurements.

  4. Exploratory Divertor Heat Load Studies for Compact Stellarator Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    of the divertor system is described in Sec. III, together with the plate heat load profile, and the conditions is power reaching the plate, AD is the total plate area, Wpk is the design peak heat load limitExploratory Divertor Heat Load Studies for Compact Stellarator Reactors T.K. Maua , H. Mc

  5. www.heatpumpcentre.org IEA HEAT PUMP PROGRAMME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    for buildings in cold climates Annex 40 - Heat pump concepts for near zero- energy buildings (Operating Agent boilers and gas boilers Annex 38 - Systems using solar thermal energy in combination with heat pumps (Operating Agent: CH) The aim is to analyse solar and heat pump configurations with respect to energy savings

  6. Dual source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX); Pietsch, Joseph A. (Dallas, TX)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  7. Segmented heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lafayette, IN); Willi, Martin Leo (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott Byron (Metamara, IL); Timmons, Kristine Ann (Chillicothe, IL)

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  8. Combined cycle power plant incorporating coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liljedahl, Gregory N. (Tariffville, CT); Moffat, Bruce K. (Simsbury, CT)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined cycle power plant incorporating a coal gasifier as the energy source. The gases leaving the coal gasifier pass through a liquid couplant heat exchanger before being used to drive a gas turbine. The exhaust gases of the gas turbine are used to generate both high pressure and low pressure steam for driving a steam turbine, before being exhausted to the atmosphere.

  9. Geothermal heat pumps for heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garg, S.C.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has been tasked by Naval Shore Facilities Energy Office to evaluate the NAS Patuxent River ground-source heat pump (GHP) installation. A large part of a building`s energy consumption consists of heating and air conditioning for occupant comfort. The space heating requirements are normally met by fossil-fuel-fired equipment or electric resistance heating. Cooling is provided by either air conditioners or heat pumps, both using electricity as an energy source.

  10. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Q 0.4 3 or More Units... 5.4 0.3 Q Q Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  11. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 1.9 1.1 Q Q 0.3 Q Do Not Use Central Air-Conditioning... 45.2 24.6 3.6 5.0 8.8 3.2 Use a Programmable...

  12. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Q 0.6 3 or More Units... 5.4 3.8 2.9 0.4 Q N 0.2 Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  13. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1.3 Q 3 or More Units... 5.4 1.6 0.8 Q 0.3 0.3 Q Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  14. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 or More Units... 5.4 2.4 1.4 0.7 0.9 Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  15. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 or More Units... 5.4 2.3 1.7 0.6 Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  16. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it... 1.9 Q Q Q Q 0.6 0.4 0.3 Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System......

  17. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 or More Units... 5.4 2.1 0.9 0.2 1.0 Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  18. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    30.3 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it... 1.9 0.5 0.6 0.4 Q Q 0.5 0.8 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System......

  19. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0.3 3 or More Units... 5.4 0.7 0.5 Q Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  20. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 or More Units... 5.4 2.3 0.7 2.1 0.3 Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  1. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    111.1 47.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer... 35.5 16.9 6.5 4.6 7.6 Use a Personal Computer......

  2. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer... 35.5 17.1 10.8 4.2 1.8 1.6 10.3 20.6 Use a Personal Computer......

  3. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer... 35.5 14.2 7.2 2.8 4.2 Use a Personal Computer... 75.6...

  4. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer... 35.5 8.1 5.6 2.5 Use a Personal Computer......

  5. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer... 35.5 6.4 2.2 4.2 Use a Personal Computer......

  6. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ..... 111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer... 35.5 3.0 2.0 2.7 3.1 Use a Personal Computer......

  7. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    25.6 40.7 24.2 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer... 35.5 6.9 8.1 14.2 6.4 Use a Personal Computer......

  8. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1.3 0.8 0.5 Once a Day... 19.2 4.6 3.0 1.6 Between Once a Day and Once a Week... 32.0 8.9 6.3 2.6 Once a...

  9. Total..........................................................

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AppliancesTools.... 56.2 11.6 3.3 8.2 Other Appliances Used Auto BlockEngineBattery Heater... 0.8 0.2 Q 0.1 Hot Tub or Spa......

  10. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Tools... 56.2 20.5 10.8 3.6 6.1 Other Appliances Used Auto BlockEngineBattery Heater... 0.8 N N N N Hot Tub or Spa......

  11. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Tools... 56.2 27.2 10.6 9.3 9.2 Other Appliances Used Auto BlockEngineBattery Heater... 0.8 Q Q Q 0.4 Hot Tub or Spa......

  12. Total..........................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AppliancesTools.... 56.2 12.2 9.4 2.8 Other Appliances Used Auto BlockEngineBattery Heater... 0.8 Q Q Q Hot Tub or Spa......

  13. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1.3 3.8 Table HC7.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Household Income, 2005 Below Poverty Line Eligible for Federal Assistance 1 40,000 to 59,999 60,000 to 79,999 80,000...

  14. Total..............................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6 2,720

  15. Total................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6 2,720..

  16. Total........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6 2,720..

  17. Total..........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6

  18. Total...........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6Q Table

  19. Total...........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6Q TableQ

  20. Total...........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6Q

  1. Total...........................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1 86.6Q26.7

  2. Total............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1

  3. Total............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.1

  4. Total.............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.7 28.8 20.6

  5. Total..............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.7 28.8

  6. Total..............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.7 28.8,171

  7. Total...............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.7

  8. Total...............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.70.7 21.7

  9. Total...............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.70.7

  10. Total...............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.70.747.1

  11. Total...............................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.70.747.1Do

  12. Total................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.126.70.747.1Do

  13. Total.................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.

  14. Total.................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5

  15. Total.................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4 12.5

  16. Total..................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4 12.578.1

  17. Total..................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4

  18. Total..................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4. 111.1 14.7

  19. Total...................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4. 111.1

  20. Total...................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4. 111.115.2

  1. Total...................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7 7.4.

  2. Total...................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.7

  3. Total...................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,033 1,618

  4. Total....................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,033 1,61814.7

  5. Total.......................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,033

  6. Total.......................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,0335.6 17.7

  7. Total.......................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,0335.6 17.74.2

  8. Total........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,0335.6

  9. Total........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,0335.615.1 5.5

  10. Total........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,0335.615.1

  11. Total........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline.14.72,0335.615.10.7

  12. Total........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:

  13. Total........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have

  14. Total........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have7.1

  15. Total.........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not

  16. Total..........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not25.6 40.7

  17. Total..........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not25.6

  18. Total..........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not25.65.6

  19. Total..........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do

  20. Total..........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.2 7.6 16.6

  1. Total..........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.2 7.6

  2. Total..........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.2 7.67.1

  3. Total...........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.2 7.67.10.6

  4. Total...........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.2

  5. Total...........................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.24.2 7.6

  6. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.24.2

  7. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do4.24.2Cooking

  8. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1

  9. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do Not Have

  10. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do Not HaveDo

  11. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do Not HaveDoDo

  12. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do Not

  13. Total.............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do NotDo Not

  14. Total..............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do NotDo Not

  15. Total..............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do NotDo Not20.6

  16. Total..............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do NotDo

  17. Total..............................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do NotDo7.1 19.0

  18. Total.................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do NotDo7.1

  19. Total.................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do NotDo7.1...

  20. Total....................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1Do

  1. Total....................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1DoCooking

  2. Total....................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1DoCooking25.6

  3. Total....................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1DoCooking25.65.6

  4. Total....................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.0

  5. Total....................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.04.2 7.6 16.6 Personal

  6. Total....................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.04.2 7.6 16.6 Personal

  7. Total.........................................................................................

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II:7.1 7.0 8.04.2 7.6 16.6

  8. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May(MillionFeet)July 23,

  9. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May(MillionFeet)July 23,Product:

  10. Total..............................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6 2,720 1,970

  11. Total................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6 2,720

  12. Total........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6 2,720 111.1

  13. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6 2,720

  14. Total...........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6 2,720Q Table

  15. Total...........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6 2,720Q

  16. Total...........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6 2,720Q14.7

  17. Total...........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1 86.6

  18. Total............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1

  19. Total............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.1

  20. Total.............................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17questionnairesU.S. Weekly70516,2,730,770 111.126.7 28.8 20.6