Sample records for tools current greenhouse

  1. Interagency Pilot of Greenhouse Gas Accounting Tools: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Kandt, A.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) and Tongass National Forest (Tongass) partnered with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct a pilot study of three greenhouse gas (GHG) inventorying tools.

  2. A current density distribution tool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jagush, Frederic A.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . I. INTRODUCTION Current density distribution is an important consideration for those involved in electrochemical systems and electroplating in particular. In the printed wiring board (PWB) business, great emphasis is placed on the study of current... exist. Numerical techniques on the other hand, are usually easy to implement and are easily applicable to microcomputers. Their disadvantage as with any approximation technique is that the exactness of the results with This document follows the style...

  3. ESTABoues, a decision tool to assess greenhouse gases of sewage sludge treatment and di

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORBIT2012 G ESTABoues, a decision tool to assess greenhouse gases of sewage sludge treatment and di-laure.reverdy@irstea.fr EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Sewage sludge production increases continuously reaching almost 20% (946 700 t 1 118 795% was incinerated (with or without household wastes) or landfilled. Nowadays, sludge reduction is a major concern

  4. Eddy current inspection tool. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petrini, R.R.; Van Lue, D.F.

    1980-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A miniaturized inspection tool, for testing and inspection of metal objects in locations with difficult accessibility, which comprises eddy current sensing equipment with a probe coil, and associated coaxial coil cable, oil energizing means, and circuit means responsive to impedance changes in the coil as effected by induced eddy currents in a test object to produce a data output signal proportional to such changes. The coil and cable are slideably received in the utility channel of the flexible insertion tube of a fiberoptic scope. The scope is provided with light transmitting and receiving fiberoptics for viewing through the flexible tube, and articulation means for articulating the distal end of the tube and permitting close control of coil placement relative to a test object. The eddy current sensing equipment includes a tone generator for generating audible signals responsive to the data output signal. In one selected mode of operation, the tone generator responsive to the output signal above a selected level generates a constant single frequency tone for signalling detection of a discontinuity and, in a second selected mode, generates a tone whose frequency is proportional to the difference between the output signal and a predetermined selected threshold level.

  5. Eddy current NDE performance demonstrations using simulation tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maurice, L. [EDF - CEIDRE, 2 rue Ampere, 93206 Saint-Denis Cedex 1 (France); Costan, V.; Guillot, E.; Thomas, P. [EDF - R and D, THEMIS, 1, avenue du General de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart (France)

    2013-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    To carry out performance demonstrations of the Eddy-Current NDE processes applied on French nuclear power plants, EDF studies the possibility of using simulation tools as an alternative to measurements on steam generator tube mocks-up. This paper focuses on the strategy led by EDF to assess and use code{sub C}armel3D and Civa, on the case of Eddy-Current NDE on wears problem which may appear in the U-shape region of steam generator tubes due to the rubbing of anti-vibration bars.

  6. Resources on Greenhouse Gas | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    resources for reporting annual greenhouse gas activities. FedCenter Greenhouse Gas Inventory Reporting Website: Features additional information, training, and tools to assist...

  7. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary Combustion Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative:...

  8. Navigating the Numbers: Greenhouse Gas Data and International...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Numbers: Greenhouse Gas Data and International Climate Policy Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Navigating the Numbers: Greenhouse Gas Data and...

  9. Combined heat and power has the potential to significantly increase energy production efficiency and thus reduce greenhouse gas emissions, however current market penetration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    1 Combined heat and power has the potential to significantly increase energy production efficiency and thus reduce greenhouse gas emissions, however current market penetration analyses suggest that California will not reach the targets for combined heat and power set for it by the Air Resources Board (ARB

  10. Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods to Support International...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods to Support International Climate Agreements Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods...

  11. Systematic errors in current quantum state tomography tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Schwemmer; Lukas Knips; Daniel Richart; Tobias Moroder; Matthias Kleinmann; Otfried Gühne; Harald Weinfurter

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Common tools for obtaining physical density matrices in experimental quantum state tomography are shown here to cause systematic errors. For example, using maximum likelihood or least squares optimization for state reconstruction, we observe a systematic underestimation of the fidelity and an overestimation of entanglement. A solution for this problem can be achieved by a linear evaluation of the data yielding reliable and computational simple bounds including error bars.

  12. Greenhouse Gases

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Federal agencies are required to inventory and manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate change.

  13. MOS: A critical tool for current and future radio surveys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Daniel J B

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since radio continuum observations are not affected by dust obscuration, they are of immense potential diagnostic power as cosmological probes and for studying galaxy formation and evolution out to high redshifts. However, the power-law nature of radio frequency spectra ensures that ancillary spectroscopic information remains critical for studying the properties of the faint radio sources being detected in rapidly-increasing numbers on the pathway to the Square Kilometre Array. In this contribution, I present some of the key scientific motivations for exploiting the immense synergies between radio continuum observations and multi-object spectroscopic surveys. I review some of the ongoing efforts to obtain the spectra necessary to harness the huge numbers of star-forming galaxies and AGN that current and future radio surveys will detect. I also touch on the WEAVE-LOFAR survey, which will use the WEAVE spectrograph currently being built for the William Herschel Telescope to target hundreds of thousands of low f...

  14. Angular approach combined to mechanical model for tool breakage detection by eddy current sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Angular approach combined to mechanical model for tool breakage detection by eddy current sensors solution is proposed for the estimate of cutting force using eddy current sensors implemented close eccentricity obtained during the machining from the eddy current sensors signals. Efficiency and reliability

  15. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Liberalizing Trade in Environmenta...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Liberalizing Trade in Environmental Goods Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Liberalizing Trade in Environmental Goods...

  16. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    calculation-toolsall-tools Cost: Free The Greenhouse Gas Protocol tool for mobile combustion is a free Excel spreadsheet calculator designed to calculate GHG emissions...

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potentials and Policies Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine...

  18. Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve Fuel Economy for Cars and Trucks Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Finalize...

  19. NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model AgencyCompany Organization: National Energy Technology...

  20. Greenhouse Gas Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Greenhouse gases are trace gases in the lower atmosphere that trap heat through a natural process called the "greenhouse effect."

  1. Developing Low-Conductance Window Frames: Capabilities and Limitations of Current Window Heat Transfer Design Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Curcija, Charlie; Kohler, Christian

    2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    While window frames typically represent 20-30% of the overall window area, their impact on the total window heat transfer rates may be much larger. This effect is even greater in low-conductance (highly insulating) windows that incorporate very low-conductance glazing. Developing low-conductance window frames requires accurate simulation tools for product research and development. Based on a literature review and an evaluation of current methods of modeling heat transfer through window frames, we conclude that current procedures specified in ISO standards are not sufficiently adequate for accurately evaluating heat transfer through the low-conductance frames. We conclude that the near-term priorities for improving the modeling of heat transfer through low-conductance frames are: (1) Add 2D view-factor radiation to standard modeling and examine the current practice of averaging surface emissivity based on area weighting and the process of making an equivalent rectangular frame cavity. (2) Asses 3D radiation effects in frame cavities and develop recommendation for inclusion into the design fenestration tools. (3) Assess existing correlations for convection in vertical cavities using CFD. (4) Study 2D and 3D natural convection heat transfer in frame cavities for cavities that are proven to be deficient from item 3 above. Recommend improved correlations or full CFD modeling into ISO standards and design fenestration tools, if appropriate. (5) Study 3D hardware short-circuits and propose methods to ensure that these effects are incorporated into ratings. (6) Study the heat transfer effects of ventilated frame cavities and propose updated correlations.

  2. Developing Low-Conductance Window Frames: Capabilities and Limitations of Current Window Heat Transfer Design Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transfer Design Tools Arild Gustavsen1,* , Dariush Arasteh2 , Bjørn Petter Jelle3,4 , Charlie Curcija5-conductance window frames requires accurate simulation tools for product research and development. Based and develop recommendation for inclusion into the design fenestration tools. 3. Assess existing correlations

  3. Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gases Executive Order 13514 requires Federal agencies to inventory and manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate...

  4. Chapter 22 Greenhouse Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    water vapor (the most abundant GHG) accounts for the largest percentage of the greenhouse effect. However, water vapor concentrations fluctuate regionally, and human activity...

  5. Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Anderson, Diana

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas ? one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

  6. Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Diana

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas — one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

  7. Current status of MCNP6 as a simulation tool useful for space and accelerator applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mashnik, Stepan G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bull, Jeffrey S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hughes, H. Grady [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prael, Richard E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sierk, Arnold J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    For the past several years, a major effort has been undertaken at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to develop the transport code MCNP6, the latest LANL Monte-Carlo transport code representing a merger and improvement of MCNP5 and MCNPX. We emphasize a description of the latest developments of MCNP6 at higher energies to improve its reliability in calculating rare-isotope production, high-energy cumulative particle production, and a gamut of reactions important for space-radiation shielding, cosmic-ray propagation, and accelerator applications. We present several examples of validation and verification of MCNP6 compared to a wide variety of intermediate- and high-energy experimental data on reactions induced by photons, mesons, nucleons, and nuclei at energies from tens of MeV to about 1 TeV/nucleon, and compare to results from other modern simulation tools.

  8. Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute sets goals for the reduction of statewide greenhouse gas emissions by at least 15 percent by 2015, 30 percent by 2025, and 80 percent by 2050, calculated relative to 2005 levels. These...

  9. Eddy current inspection tool which is selectively operable in a discontinuity detection mode and a discontinuity magnitude mode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petrini, Richard R. (Livermore, CA); Van Lue, Dorin F. (Livermore, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A miniaturized inspection tool, for testing and inspection of metal objects in locations with difficult accessibility, which comprises eddy current sensing equipment (12) with a probe coil (11), and associated coaxial coil cable (13), coil energizing means (21), and circuit means (21, 12) responsive to impedance changes in the coil as effected by induced eddy currents in a test object to produce a data output signal proportional to such changes. The coil and cable are slideably received in the utility channel of the flexible insertion tube 17 of fiberoptic scope 10. The scope 10 is provided with light transmitting and receiving fiberoptics for viewing through the flexible tube, and articulation means (19, 20) for articulating the distal end of the tube and permitting close control of coil placement relative to a test object. The eddy current sensing equipment includes a tone generator 30 for generating audibly signals responsive to the data output signal. In one selected mode of operation, the tone generator responsive to the output signal above a selected level generates a constant single frequency tone for signalling detection of a discontinuity and, in a second selected mode, generates a tone whose frequency is proportional to the difference between the output signal and a predetermined selected threshold level.

  10. Eddy current inspection tool which is selectively operable in a discontinuity detection mode and a discontinuity magnitude mode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petrini, R.R.; Van Lue, D.F.

    1983-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A miniaturized inspection tool, for testing and inspection of metal objects in locations with difficult accessibility, which comprises eddy current sensing equipment with a probe coil, and associated coaxial coil cable, coil energizing means, and circuit means responsive to impedance changes in the coil as effected by induced eddy currents in a test object to produce a data output signal proportional to such changes. The coil and cable are slideably received in the utility channel of the flexible insertion tube of fiberoptic scope. The scope is provided with light transmitting and receiving fiberoptics for viewing through the flexible tube, and articulation means for articulating the distal end of the tube and permitting close control of coil placement relative to a test object. The eddy current sensing equipment includes a tone generator 30 for generating audibly signals responsive to the data output signal. In one selected mode of operation, the tone generator responsive to the output signal above a selected level generates a constant single frequency tone for signaling detection of a discontinuity and, in a second selected mode, generates a tone whose frequency is proportional to the difference between the output signal and a predetermined selected threshold level. 5 figs.

  11. The Greenhouse Effect without Feedbacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Greenhouse Effect without Feedbacks #12;Three Pillars Behind Climate Change! #12;1. Global. Greenhouse Gases have been on the increase. #12;3. The Greenhouse effect is a powerful theory that explains! natural greenhouse effect! · an empirical introduction #12;Moral of the story: The doubling of CO2 causes

  12. Fiscal Year 2007 Greenhouse Gas Inventory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escher, Christine

    Fiscal Year 2007 Greenhouse Gas Inventory Greg Smith Brandon Trelstad OSU Facilities Services June #12;#12;Acknowledgments Due to the broad scope of this inventory, a large number of people from many, geothermal, tidal or sea currents etc. (7) "OUS Method" refers to the inventory for FY07 that is similar

  13. Greenhouse gas budgets of crop production current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Ran

    production and distribution 16 2.7.2 Emissions associated with other agrochemicals 17 2.7.3 On-farm energy

  14. Current:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling Corp -KWatertowni5W 95.5x-L* d!Qwner contacted n

  15. Current:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling Corp -KWatertowni5W 95.5x-L* d!Qwner contacted

  16. Animated simulation of greenhouse internal transport using Siman/Cinema

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, W.; Ting, K.C.; Giacomelli, G.A. (Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA). Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on an animated computer model developed using a simulation language Sinman/Cinema to simulate greenhouse internal transport systems. The model can be used as a tool to study the performance of materials handling operations within a greenhouse. The potential bottleneck of a transport system can be visually detected on the computer monitor. Statistical analyses on the system parameters, such as the status and utilization of machines, workers and waiting lines, and throughput time of an operation, are performed during the simulation. From these data, the interaction between machines and workers within a greenhouse system can be studied.

  17. The Greenhouse Effect Temperature Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Frederick M.

    The Greenhouse Effect #12;Temperature Equilibrium The Earth is in equilibrium with the Sun temperature is about 14C, or 287K. The 40K difference is due to the greenhouse effect. Essentially all

  18. The Greenhouse Culture Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scholz, Jared; Sipp, Kalah; Stratton, Emily

    2013-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Oral history interview with Jared Scholz and Kalah Sipp conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on June 26, 2013. Jared Scholz is the founder and Senior Pastor of The Greenhouse Culture; Kalah Sipp is The Greenhouse ...

  19. Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a Solar + Earth Spectrum IR Absorbers Grey Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect #12;Radiation: Solar and Earth Surface B"(T) Planck Ideal Emission Integrate at the carbon cycle #12;However, #12;Greenhouse Effect is Complex #12;PLANETARY ENERGY BALANCE G+W fig 3-5

  20. 2, 289337, 2002 Greenhouse effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 2, 289­337, 2002 Greenhouse effect and climate stability V. G. Gorshkov and A. M. Makarieva water vapour concentration, dependence of the planetary greenhouse effect on atmospheric water content to dynamic singularities in the physical temperature-dependent behaviour of the greenhouse effect. We

  1. GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz September 22, 2004 http://www.ecd.bnl.gov/steve/schwartz.html #12;#12;THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;GLOBAL does anything about it. ­ Mark Twain­ Mark Twain Now with the greenhouse effect, we ARE doing something

  2. GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;GLOBAL ENERGY BALANCE Global and annual average energy fluxes in watts per square meter about it.But nobody does anything about it. ­ Mark Twain­ Mark Twain Now with the greenhouse effect, we

  3. Built Environment Analysis Tool: April 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, C.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This documentation describes the tool development. It was created to evaluate the effects of built environment scenarios on transportation energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This documentation also provides guidance on how to apply the tool.

  4. Greenhouse Gas Guidance and Reporting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Federal agencies are required to inventory and manage their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate change.

  5. Greenhouse Gas Management Program Overview (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Program fact sheet highlighting federal requirements for GHG emissions management, FEMP services to help agencies reduce emissions, and additional resources. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) assists Federal agencies with managing their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG management entails measuring emissions and understanding their sources, setting a goal for reducing emissions, developing a plan to meet this goal, and implementing the plan to achieve reductions in emissions. FEMP provides the following services to help Federal agencies meet the requirements of inventorying and reducing their GHG emissions: (1) FEMP offers one-on-one technical assistance to help agencies understand and implement the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance and fulfill their inventory reporting requirements. (2) FEMP provides training, tools, and resources on FedCenter to help agencies complete their annual inventories. (3) FEMP serves a leadership role in the interagency Federal Working Group on Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting that develops recommendations to the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance. (4) As the focus continues to shift from measuring emissions (completing inventories) to mitigating emissions (achieving reductions), FEMP is developing a strategic planning framework and resources for agencies to prioritize among a variety of options for mitigating their GHG emissions, so that they achieve their reduction goals in the most cost-effective manner. These resources will help agencies analyze their high-quality inventories to make strategic decisions about where to use limited resources to have the greatest impact on reducing emissions. Greenhouse gases trap heat in the lower atmosphere, warming the earth's surface temperature in a natural process known as the 'greenhouse effect.' GHGs include carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Human activities have caused a rapid increase in GHG concentrations. This rising level contributes to global climate change, which contributes to environmental and public health problems.

  6. Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program was suspended May 2011. It was a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., could report to the Energy Information Administration, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

  7. greenhouse gas inve green developmen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    greenhouse gas inve green developmen energy conservation transportation carbon offs student facult;greenhouse gas inventory green development energy conservation transportation carbon offsets student faculty. Changi natural gas as a primary fuel allowed us to find cleaner and more effici university. Both in 1988

  8. Geothermal carbon dioxide for use in greenhouses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunstall, M.G. [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand); Graeber, G. [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geothermal fluids often contain carbon dioxide, which is a very effective growth stimulant for plants in greenhouses. Studies have shown that as CO{sub 2} concentration is increased from a normal level of 300 ppm (mmol/kmol) to levels of approximately 1000 ppm crop yields may increase by up to 15% (Ullmann`s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 1989). It is suggested that geothermal greenhouse heating offers a further opportunity for utilization of the carbon dioxide present in the fluid. The main difficulty is that plants react adversely to hydrogen sulphide which is invariably mixed, at some concentration, with the CO{sub 2} from geothermal fluids. Even very low H{sub 2}S concentrations of 0.03 mg/kg can have negative effects on the growth of plants (National Research Council, 1979). Therefore, an appropriate purification process for the CO{sub 2} must be used to avoid elevated H{sub 2}S levels in the greenhouses. The use of adsorption and absorption processes is proposed. Two purification processes have been modelled using the ASOEN PLUS software package, using the Geothermal Greenhouses Ltd. Operation Kawerau New Zealand and an example. A greenhouse area of 8,000 m{sup 2}, which would create a demand for approximately 20 kg CO{sub 2} per hour, was chosen based on a proposed expansion at Kawerau. The Kawerau operation currently takes geothermal steam (and gas) from a high temperature 2-phase well to heat an area of 1650 m{sup 2}. Bottled carbon dioxide is utilized at a rate of about 50 kg per day, to provide CO{sub 2} levels of 800 mg/kg when the greenhouse is closed and 300 to 350 mg/kg whilst venting. In England and the Netherlands, CO{sub 2} levels of 1000 mg/kg are often used (Ullmann`s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 1989) and similar concentrations are desired at Kawerau, but current costs of 0.60 NZ$/kg for bottled CO{sub 2} are too high (Foster, 1995).

  9. Federal Greenhouse Gas Inventories and Performance | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Federal Agency Progress Toward Reduction Targets Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Greenhouse Gas Inventory: Government Totals FY 2011 Greenhouse Gas Inventory: Government Totals FY 2010...

  10. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  11. RESEARCH ROADMAP FOR GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RESEARCH ROADMAP FOR GREENHOUSE GAS INVENTORY METHODS Prepared For: California Energy Commission.........................................................................................................................1 Roadmap Organization

  12. Ahimsa Media -For Educators -The Greenhouse Effect The Greenhouse Effect: Extension Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Ahimsa Media - For Educators - The Greenhouse Effect The Greenhouse Effect: Extension Activity. Clean up and restore a natural habitat. http://www.ahimsamedia.com/lessonGreenhouseEffect.htm (1 of 5

  13. The Greenhouse Effect Does Exist!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ebel, Jochen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In particular, without the greenhouse effect, essential features of the atmospheric temperature profile as a function of height cannot be described, i.e., the existence of the tropopause above which we see an almost isothermal temperature curve, whereas beneath it the temperature curve is nearly adiabatic. The relationship between the greenhouse effect and observed temperature curve is explained and the paper by Gerlich and Tscheuschner [arXiv:0707.1161] critically analyzed. Gerlich and Tscheuschner called for this discussion in their paper.

  14. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Article Correction to “Carbon sequestration and greenhouseCor- rection to “Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas1 ] In the paper “Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas

  15. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS: ASSESSING TRANSPORTATION AND ELECTRICITY GENERATION TECHNOLOGIES AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    power generation, energy policy, fuel economy ABSTRACT Prioritizing the numerous technology and policy Publications for book titled "Energy Consumption: Impacts of Human Activity, Current and Future Challenges, Environmental and Ecological Effects," August 2013. KEY WORDS: Greenhouse gases, transportation energy, electric

  16. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation as a Structural Change and Policies that Offset Its Depressing Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babiker, Mustafa H.M.

    The current economic modeling of emissions limitations does not embody economic features that are likely to be particularly important in the short term, yet the politics of limiting greenhouse gas emissions are often ...

  17. Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Archer, Steven R.

    Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect Second edition Rattan Lal & Ronald F. Follett. Printed in the United States of America. #12;181 Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect, 2nd

  18. Federal Greenhouse Gas Inventories and Performance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program provides performance data illustrating federal agency progress in meeting the greenhouse gas reduction targets established under Executive Order (E.O.) 13514, as well as the comprehensive greenhouse gas inventories as reported by federal agencies.

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Act (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Act requires the Department of the Environment to publish and update an inventory of statewide greenhouse gas emissions for calendar year 2006 and requires...

  20. Greenhouse Gas Program Overview (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Overview of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Greenhouse Gas program, including Federal requirements, FEMP services, and contacts.

  1. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Stephen E. Schwartz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Stephen E. Schwartz Atmospheric Sciences Division CSSP Lecture July 27, 2005 http://www.ecd.bnl.gov/steve/schwartz.html #12;#12;THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;GLOBAL ENERGY BALANCE Twain­ Mark Twain Now with the greenhouse effect, we ARE doing something about it. What are we doing

  2. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Stephen E. Schwartz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Stephen E. Schwartz Science Honor Society Center Moriches High School Center about how this drug affects brain chemistry. #12;#12;THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;Everybody talks about about it. ­ Mark Twain­ Mark Twain Now with the greenhouse effect, we ARE doing something about it. What

  3. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Sector Specific Tools | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with formSoutheasternInformationPolicy |EnvironmentalInformation The

  4. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Stephen E. Schwartz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Stephen E. Schwartz Atmospheric Sciences Division CSSP Lecture July 30, 2002 . . . IS TO PUT TWO PEOPLE IN IT! #12;YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 CO2 of carbon a year in the form of carbon dioxide. #12;YOUR CONTRIBUTION TO THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT At half

  5. Greenhouse Gas Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in the lower atmosphere that trap heat through a natural process called the "greenhouse effect." This process keeps the planet habitable. International research has linked...

  6. Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Geothermal Greenhouse Information...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greenhouse Information Package Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us HomeBasic Search About Publications Advanced Search New Hot Docs News...

  7. Greenhouse gas mitigation by agricultural intensification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burney, J. A; Davis, S. J; Lobell, D. B

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    et al. (2007) Agriculture. Climate Change 2007: Mitigationagriculture’s future contributions to climate change,agriculture greenhouse gas emissions mitigation carbon price | land use change | climate

  8. HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Greenhouse gases andGreenhouse gases and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    in gas turbinecombustion in gas turbine HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Effect of COEffect-depleting gases ·· COCO22 removal for gas purificationremoval for gas purification ·· COCO22 removal for greenhouse gas emissions reductionremoval for greenhouse gas emissions reduction ·· Other greenhouse gases

  9. Understanding the carbon and greenhouse gas balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Understanding the carbon and greenhouse gas balance of forests in Britain Research Report #12;#12;Research Report Understanding the carbon and greenhouse gas balance of forests in Britain Forestry forest soil survey 29 3.5.2 Carbon storage in the main British forest soil types 30 3.5.3 Changes in soil

  10. Montenegro Greenhouse Ornamental Production Workshop October 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieth, J. Heinrich

    Montenegro Greenhouse Ornamental Production Workshop October 2007 Heiner Lieth Plant Sciences of Montenegro is promotion of the their greenhouse flower production industry. At the time when the program was planned it was unknown what level of interest and expertise would be available on-site in Montenegro. Thus

  11. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.] [eds.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2988 the Congress requested DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. This report presents the results of that study. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity), and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiactively important gases. Topics discussed include: energy and environmental technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy production and electricity generation technologies, nuclear energy technology, renewable energy technologies, energy storage, transmission, and distribution technology, transportation, technology, industrial technology, residential and commercial building technology, greenhouse gas removal technology, approaches to restructuring the demand for energy.

  12. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Fischer, Marc

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  13. Greenhouse gases and agriculture. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, R.B.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Agriculture ranks third in its contribution to Earth's anthropogenically enhanced greenhouse effect. (Energy use and production and chlorofluorocarbons are ranked first and second, respectively.) Specifically, greenhouse gas sources and sinks are increased, and sinks are decreased, by conversion of land to agricultural use, using fertilizers, cultivating paddy rice, producing other plant and animal crops, and by creating and managing animal and plant wastes. However, some of these same activities increase greenhouse gas sinks and decrease greenhouse gas sources so the net effects are not obvious. The paper identifies the agricultural inputs, outputs, and wastes that alter atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxides, and discusses agriculture's net impact on greenhouse gas fluxes.

  14. Wednesday, January 30, 2013 Infrared Trapping the "Greenhouse Effect"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Wednesday, January 30, 2013 Infrared Trapping ­ the "Greenhouse Effect" Goals ­ to look is the same as a 1.8 degree F change. #12;Last time - Greenhouse effect demo Selective absorption. Greenhouse

  15. Greenhouse gases accounting and reporting for waste management - A South African perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.z [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates how greenhouse gases are accounted and reported in the waste sector in South Africa. Developing countries (including South Africa) do not have binding emission reduction targets, but many of them publish different greenhouse gas emissions data which have been accounted and reported in different ways. Results show that for South Africa, inventories at national and municipal level are the most important tools in the process of accounting and reporting greenhouse gases from waste. For the development of these inventories international initiatives were important catalysts at national and municipal levels, and assisted in developing local expertise, resulting in increased output quality. However, discrepancies in the methodology used to account greenhouse gases from waste between inventories still remain a concern. This is a challenging issue for developing countries, especially African ones, since higher accuracy methods are more data intensive. Analysis of the South African inventories shows that results from the recent inventories can not be compared with older ones due to the use of different accounting methodologies. More recently the use of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) procedures in Africa, geared towards direct measurements of greenhouse gases from landfill sites, has increased and resulted in an improvement of the quality of greenhouse gas inventories at municipal level.

  16. Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Asia Jump to: navigation, search Name Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Asia...

  17. Greenhouse Gas Guidance and Reporting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Reporting Greenhouse Gas Guidance and Reporting Federal agencies are required to inventory and manage their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate...

  18. DOE Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Deployment of Advanced Technology DOE Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions through...

  19. atmospheric greenhouse effect: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Surface. This process is the natural greenhouse effect. The earths surface receives solar energy and energy reradiated 9 Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse...

  20. Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases Mission The team establishes an energy conservation program, as deemed appropriate for LM operations...

  1. Energy Department Releases New Greenhouse Gas Reporting Guidance...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New Greenhouse Gas Reporting Guidance, Seeks Public Comment Energy Department Releases New Greenhouse Gas Reporting Guidance, Seeks Public Comment March 22, 2005 - 10:54am Addthis...

  2. White House Announces New Executive Order To Reduce Greenhouse...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    White House Announces New Executive Order To Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Federal Government White House Announces New Executive Order To Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions...

  3. Federal Register Notice for Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Federal Register Notice for Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United States Federal Register Notice for Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas...

  4. Greenhouse Gas Inventory and Registry (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Iowa Department of Natural Resources is required to establish a method for collecting emissions estimates from producers of greenhouse gases. Reporting is mandatory for some entities, and the...

  5. Integrated Energy and Greenhouse Gas Management System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spates, C. N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With Climate Change legislation on the horizon, the need to integrate energy reduction initiatives with greenhouse gas reduction efforts is critical to manufactures competitiveness and financial strength going forward. MPC has developed...

  6. Integrated Energy and Greenhouse Gas Management System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spates, C. N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With Climate Change legislation on the horizon, the need to integrate energy reduction initiatives with greenhouse gas reduction efforts is critical to manufactures competitiveness and financial strength going forward. MPC ...

  7. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  8. The Wicked Problem of Oil & Gas Development in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas: Current Permitting and Evaluation of Marine Spatial Planning as a Potential Management Tool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johannes, Emilie Ann

    2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    of Natural Resources ANWR Alaska National Wildlife Refuge AOOS Alaska Ocean Observing System ASRC Arctic Slope Regional Corporation BOEM Bureau of Ocean Energy Management BSEE Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement CAA Clean Air Act CE Categorical... that solution (Conklin, 2001). Wicked problems, however, require approaches that are more innovative and flexible than this linear model, using multiple tools or techniques that engage stakeholders by facilitating and structuring the debate of the wicked...

  9. Bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tompkins, M.M.; Mintz, M.M.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies has been compiled to assist the Climate change Action Plan Task Force in their consideration of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from personal motor vehicles. The document contains a summary of the literature, including it major directions and implications; and annotated listing of 32 recent pertinent documents; and a listing of a larger group of related reports.

  10. The Runaway Greenhouse: implications for future climate change, geoengineering and planetary atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldblatt, Colin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultimate climate emergency is a "runaway greenhouse": a hot and water vapour rich atmosphere limits the emission of thermal radiation to space, causing runaway warming. Warming ceases only once the surface reaches ~1400K and emits radiation in the near-infrared, where water is not a good greenhouse gas. This would evaporate the entire ocean and exterminate all planetary life. Venus experienced a runaway greenhouse in the past, and we expect that Earth will in around 2 billion years as solar luminosity increases. But could we bring on such a catastrophe prematurely, by our current climate-altering activities? Here we review what is known about the runaway greenhouse to answer this question, describing the various limits on outgoing radiation and how climate will evolve between these. The good news is that almost all lines of evidence lead us to believe that is unlikely to be possible, even in principle, to trigger full a runaway greenhouse by addition of non-condensible greenhouse gases such as carbon diox...

  11. Solar greenhouses and sunspaces: lessons learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The experiences of the DOE Appropriate Technology grantees provide valuable information for others to use in building and operating better sunspaces and greenhouses. Their experiences are the basis for Solar Greenhouses and Sunspaces: Lessons Learned. This publication is divided into six major categories: design; construction tips; management, maintenance, and safety; horticulture; greenhouse construction workshops; and information sources. Each chapter presents basic background material on the topic and relevant information from selected project reports. A question and answer format is used to present information on ways greenhouses and sunspaces can be improved. This publication has been developed as a supplement to the existing literature to help prospective sunspace/greenhouse owner/builders get started in the right direction. It is not a text book, and is not a substitute for any of the good ''how-to'' greenhouse books available. Its purpose is to identify common mistakes in design, construction and/or operation that affect performance, and provide useful advice to help consumers avoid these mistakes.

  12. Smart tool holder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Day, Robert Dean (Los Alamos, NM); Foreman, Larry R. (Los Alamos, NM); Hatch, Douglas J. (Los Alamos, NM); Meadows, Mark S. (Boston, MA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided an apparatus for machining surfaces to accuracies within the nanometer range by use of electrical current flow through the contact of the cutting tool with the workpiece as a feedback signal to control depth of cut.

  13. The Wicked Problem of Oil & Gas Development in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas: Current Permitting and Evaluation of Marine Spatial Planning as a Potential Management Tool 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johannes, Emilie Ann

    2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    ....................................................................................... 28 Figure 8. International borders in the Arctic Ocean ......................................................... 41 Figure 9. Current Arctic Alaska OCS lease blocks by owners ........................................ 59 Figure 10. BOEM oil... collaboration among stakeholders with conflicting views and values with the goal of reaching consensus before projects move forward. The Arctic Council The Arctic countries of Canada, Denmark (through its autonomous province of Greenland), Norway, Russia...

  14. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

  15. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1988, Congress requested that DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity) and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiatively important gases. Topics discussed include: state of the science in estimating atmosphere/climate change relationships, the potential consequences of atmosphere/climate change, us greenhouse emissions past and present, an approach to analyzing the technical potential and cost of reducing US energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, current policy base and National Energy Strategy actions, fiscal instruments, regulatory instruments, combined strategies and instruments, macroeconomic impacts, carbon taxation and international trade, a comparison to other studies.

  16. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  17. Greenhouse of the future. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavin, B. III

    1998-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This greenhouse of the future is located at the Center for Regenerative Studies (CRS) at Cal Poly Pomona. The building design was driven by desired environmental conditions. The primary objective was to keep the interior space warm during winter for the breeding of fish and other greenhouse activities, especially in the winter. To do this, a highly insulating envelope was needed. Straw bales provide excellent insulation with an R-value of approximately 50 and also help solve the environmental problems associated with this agricultural waste product. A summary of the construction progress, construction costs and operating costs are included.

  18. Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions inventories for agricultural burning using satellite observations of active fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jin, Yufang; Giglio, Louis; Foley, Jonathan A; Randerson, James T

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    27–29 in T. Wirth, editor. Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gasfor national greenhouse gas inventories. Volume 2.National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme Task Force

  19. 2 Key Achievements 7 Greenhouse Gas Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton University Reports Contents 2 Key Achievements 7 Greenhouse Gas Reduction Campus Energy was established in 2008, the University has invested $5.3 million in energy-savings projects, resulting in annual of a 5.2-megawatt solar collector field. · Audit the remaining 20 of the top 50 energy- consuming

  20. Greenhouse gas balances of biomass energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schlamadinger, B. [Institute for Energy Research, Joanneum Research, Graz, (Austria)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A full energy-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions of biomass energy systems requires analysis well beyond the energy sector. For example, production of biomass fuels impacts on the global carbon cycle by altering the amount of carbon stored in the biosphere and often by producing a stream of by-products or co-products which substitute for other energy-intensive products like cement, steel, concrete or, in case of ethanol from corn, animal feed. It is necessary to distinguish between greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy product as opposed to those associated with other products. Production of biomass fuels also has an opportunity cost because it uses large land areas which could have been used otherwise. Accounting for the greenhouse gas emissions from biomass fuels in an environment of credits and debits creates additional challenges because there are large nonlinearities in the carbon flows over time. This paper presents some of the technical challenges of comprehensive greenhouse gas accounting and distinguishes between technical and public policy issues.

  1. Proof of the Atmospheric Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Arthur P

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A recently advanced argument against the atmospheric greenhouse effect is refuted. A planet without an infrared absorbing atmosphere is mathematically constrained to have an average temperature less than or equal to the effective radiating temperature. Observed parameters for Earth prove that without infrared absorption by the atmosphere, the average temperature of Earth's surface would be at least 33 K lower than what is observed.

  2. [Page Intentionally Left Blank] Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reuter, Martin

    ..........................................................................11 4.2 Conventional Jet Fuel from Crude Oil2 June #12;[Page Intentionally Left Blank] #12;Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Alternative .......................................5 3.1 Life cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions

  3. RESEARCH ARTICLE Environmental impact of greenhouse tomato production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Environmental impact of greenhouse tomato production in France Thierry Boulard Abstract The environmental impact of greenhouse pro- duction in France is poorly documented. Environmental production under polytunnel. Environmental impacts where assessed by life cycle analysis. Analyses were

  4. Delaware Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Grant Program (Delaware)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Delaware Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Grant Program is funded by the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Fund, established by the Act to Amend Title 7 of the Delaware Code Relating to a...

  5. Satellite measurements of the clear-sky greenhouse effect from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waliser, Duane E.

    LETTERS Satellite measurements of the clear-sky greenhouse effect from tropospheric ozone HELEN M of 0.48±0.14 W m-2 between 45 S and 45 N. This estimate of the clear-sky greenhouse effect from

  6. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz The GREENS MENS Assistant Secretary for Foreign Affairs #12;#12;THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION Energy per

  7. alleviating greenhouse effects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integrate at the carbon cycle 12;However, 12;Greenhouse Effect is Complex 12;PLANETARY ENERGY BALANCE G+W fig 3-5 Johnson, Robert E. 5 2, 289337, 2002 Greenhouse effect Physics...

  8. Energy and Greenhouse Impacts of Biofuels: A Framework for Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Farrell, Alexander E.; Plevin, Richard J.; Jones, Andrew D.; Nemet, Gregory F.; Delucchi, Mark A.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuels Wang, M. (2001) "Energy & Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuels Fuels and MotorLifecycle Analysis of Biofuels." Report UCD-ITS-RR-06-08.

  9. Improving UK greenhouse gas emission estimates using tall tower observations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howie, James Edward

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere play an important role in regulating surface temperatures. The UK is signatory to international agreements that legally commit the UK to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, and ...

  10. Carbon Emissions Primer Symposium on Greenhouse Gas andSymposium on Greenhouse Gas and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    6/5/2013 1 Carbon Emissions Primer Symposium on Greenhouse Gas andSymposium on Greenhouse Gas Council June 4, 2013 Portland, OR 1 CO2 Chemistry 1 molecule of CO 1 atom carbon1 molecule of CO2 = 1 atom carbon + 2 atoms oxygen 2 #12;6/5/2013 2 CO2 Chemistry 1 mole of carbon = 6 02 x 1023 carbon atoms 1

  11. Built Environment Energy Analysis Tool Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, C.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation provides an overview of the Built Environment Energy Analysis Tool, which is designed to assess impacts of future land use/built environment patterns on transportation-related energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The tool can be used to evaluate a range of population distribution and urban design scenarios for 2030 and 2050. This tool was produced as part of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  12. Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Learned, John

    Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects Within The Frame Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3 Contents Abstract 2 1 Introduction 6 1.1 Problem background

  13. 1. Introduction The atmospheric greenhouse effect is the basic mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1. Introduction The atmospheric greenhouse effect is the basic mechanism whereby absorbed solar system of the Earth is endowed with a moderately strong greenhouse effect that is characterized by non CO2. There is a strong feedback contribution to the greenhouse effect by water vapor and clouds

  14. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz Rotary Club of Patchogue November 9, 2005 http://www.ecd.bnl.gov/steve/schwartz.html #12;#12;THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12 Now with the greenhouse effect, we ARE doing something about it. What are we doing? #12;370 360 350

  15. Urban Options Solar Greenhouse Demonstration Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cipparone, L.

    1980-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The following are included: the design process, construction, thermal performance, horticulture, educational activities, and future plans. Included in appendices are: greenhouse blueprints, insulating curtain details, workshop schedules, sample data forms, summary of performance calculations on the Urban Options Solar Greenhouse, data on vegetable production, publications, news articles on th Solar Greenhouse Project, and the financial statement. (MHR)

  16. Lesson Summary Students will examine six different greenhouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    . Cloud cover also affects greenhouse warming by both reducing the amount of solar radiation reaching of the greenhouse effect AAAS Science Benchmarks The Nature of Science Scientific Inquiry The Physical Setting - 52. Background The earth's atmospheric "greenhouse effect" is much more complex than the simple

  17. Percussion tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Teddy R.

    2006-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A percussion tool is described and which includes a housing mounting a tool bit; a reciprocally moveable hammer borne by the housing and which is operable to repeatedly strike the tool bit; and a reciprocally moveable piston enclosed within the hammer and which imparts reciprocal movement to the reciprocally moveable hammer.

  18. LEDs for Energy Efficient Greenhouse Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Devesh; Meinhardt-Wollweber, Merve; Roth, Bernhard

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Light energy is an important factor for plant growth. In regions where the natural light source, i.e. solar radiation, is not sufficient for growth optimization, additional light sources are being used. Traditional light sources such as high pressure sodium lamps and other metal halide lamps are not very efficient and generate high radiant heat. Therefore, new sustainable solutions should be developed for energy efficient greenhouse lighting. Recent developments in the field of light source technologies have opened up new perspectives for sustainable and highly efficient light sources in the form of light-emitting diodes, i.e. LEDs, for greenhouse lighting. This review focuses on the potential of LEDs to replace traditional light sources in the greenhouse. In a comparative economic analysis of traditional vs. LED lighting, we show that the introduction of LEDs allows reduction of the production cost of vegetables in the long-run of several years, due to the high energy efficiency, low maintenance cost and lon...

  19. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992: General Guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, Congress authorized a voluntary program for the public to report achievements in reducing those gases. This document offers guidance on recording historic and current greenhouse gas emissions, emissions reductions, and carbon sequestration. Under the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) reporters will have the opportunity to highlight specific achievements. If you have taken actions to lessen the greenhouse gas effect, either by decreasing greenhouse gas emissions or by sequestering carbon, the Department of Energy (DOE) encourages you to report your achievements under this program. The program has two related, but distinct parts. First, the program offers you an opportunity to report your annual emissions of greenhouse gases. Second, the program records your specific projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Although participants in the program are strongly encouraged to submit reports on both, reports on either annual emissions or emissions reductions and carbon sequestration projects will be accepted. These guidelines and the supporting technical documents outline the rationale for the program and approaches to analyzing emissions and emissions reduction projects. Your annual emissions and emissions reductions achievements will be reported.

  20. Smart tool holder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Day, R.D.; Foreman, L.R.; Hatch, D.J.; Meadows, M.S.

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided an apparatus for machining surfaces to accuracies within the nanometer range by use of electrical current flow through the contact of the cutting tool with the workpiece as a feedback signal to control depth of cut. 3 figs.

  1. Equity and equality in the greenhouse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streets, D.G.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses some ideas of how to balance equity and equality in negotiating action on greenhouse gases. Some parallels are drawn with previous agreements to combat another regional air pollution problem, acid rain. The ease with which formulations come into the mind should not mislead the reader into thinking the process will be easy. Setting international environmental policy is a tortuous process. Many attractive regulatory concepts, such as efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and benefits of control, are sacrificed on the negotiating table. But when the parties at the table represent such a broad cross-section of the human condition, some fundamental rethinking of cooperation and coordination is necessary. 8 refs.

  2. ARM - Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006Datastreamstwrcam40m DocumentationJanuary 9, 2009 [Events, FeatureListGeneral Changes inListGreenhouse Effect

  3. NREL: Sustainable NREL - Greenhouse Gas Reduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: Grid Integration NRELCost of6DataEnergy SystemsGreenhouse Gas

  4. Industrial Geospatial Analysis Tool for Energy Evaluation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alkadi, N.; Starke, M.; Ma, O.; Nimbalkar, S.; Cox, D.; Dowling, K.; Johnson, B.; Khan, S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The tool applies statistical modeling to multiple datasets and provides information at the geospatial resolution of zip code using bottom up approaches. Within each zip code, the current version of the tool estimates electrical energy consumption...

  5. Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Agency...

  6. Lightning Dock KGRA, New Mexico's Largest Geothermal Greenhouse...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (0) Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLightningDockKGRA,NewMexico%27sLargestGeothermalGreenhouse,LargestAquacultureFacility,andFirstBinaryE...

  7. Fact #589: September 21, 2009 Proposed Fuel Economy and Greenhouse...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    national standards for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE). The standards would apply to model year 2012 - 2016 passenger cars and light...

  8. DOE Technical Assistance on Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    state, local, tribal and regional planning efforts related to reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the electric power sector. DOE is ready to support state, local, and tribal...

  9. Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    how Federal departments and agencies should consider the effects of greenhouse gas emissions and climate change in their National Environmental Policy Act reviews. The revised...

  10. CEQ Issues Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    revised draft guidance on consideration of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the effects of climate change in National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) reviews on December 18,...

  11. aqueous greenhouse species: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GASES BACKGROUND CiteSeer Summary: The Earths climate depends on the amount of solar radiation received and the atmospheric abundance of clouds and greenhouse gases. The...

  12. Analysis of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Tax Proposals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metcalf, Gilbert E.

    The U.S. Congress is considering a set of bills designed to limit the nation’s greenhouse gas (GHG)

  13. atmospheric greenhouse gases: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GASES BACKGROUND CiteSeer Summary: The Earths climate depends on the amount of solar radiation received and the atmospheric abundance of clouds and greenhouse gases. The...

  14. attached greenhouses: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GASES BACKGROUND CiteSeer Summary: The Earths climate depends on the amount of solar radiation received and the atmospheric abundance of clouds and greenhouse gases. The...

  15. Costa Rica-Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Avoided...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Value Areas Jump to: navigation, search Name Costa Rica-Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Avoided Deforestation of Tropical Rainforests on Privately-owned Lands in...

  16. annual greenhouse gas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as a transportation mode. Federal government initiatives on the US 34 Nuclear Power PROS -No' greenhouse gas emissions Geosciences Websites Summary: Nuclear Power PROS -No'...

  17. agroecosystem greenhouse gas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences Websites Summary: Determining Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Hydrogen Infrastructure and Fuel Cell engine (ICE) vehicles has been proposed as a strategy to...

  18. Queer Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

    2007-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Broadcast Transcript: Chindogu. Did someone say "Bless you?" No need. This is a Japanese word that means "queer tools" and it was coined to describe the Japanese penchant for unusual inventions. From toilet paper rolls that attach to the head...

  19. Workflow Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at NERSC go here. Galaxy - Galaxy is a web based workflow tool that is use by the genomics community. It allows you to define job dependencies via a web based workflow engine....

  20. Tools | JCESR

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tools JCESR Logos Logos are available for download in jpg format. To view the full-size logo file, click the description under the version of the logo you are interested in. When...

  1. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  2. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions* Francis O, monitor and verify greenhouse gas emissions and climatic impacts. This reprint is one of a series intended Environ. Res. Lett. 7 (2012) 044030 (6pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044030 Shale gas production: potential

  3. An Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions-Weighted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Economic Analysis ­ Greenhouse Gas Emissions Prepared by Hawai`i Natural Energy Institute School of OceanAn Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions-Weighted Clean Energy Standards Prepared for the U Hawai`i Distributed Energy Resource Technologies for Energy Security Subtask 12.3 Second Deliverable

  4. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations during ancient greenhouse climates were similar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations during ancient greenhouse climates were similar to those predicted atmospheric CO2 concentrations (½CO2atm) during Earth's ancient greenhouse episodes is essential for accurately predicting the response of future climate to elevated CO2 levels. Empirical estimates of ½CO2atm

  5. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. CO2 emissions sources. U.S. CO2 transportation emissions sources by mode. #12;Center% of the carbon dioxide we produce. As such it is a leading candidate for greenhouse gas ((GHG) (CO2, NH4, HFCsTransportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation Oak Ridge

  6. Can biofuels justify current transport policies?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Can biofuels justify current transport policies? Jérémie Mercier IARU Climate Congress - Copenhagen is growing 2) Today biofuels bring little or no greenhouse gas benefits 3) We need to change #12;IARU Climate;IARU Climate Congress, Copenhagen, 11th March 2009 - Jérémie Mercier 4 Biofuels consumption growing

  7. New Evidence of an Enhanced Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benestad, Rasmus E

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The state of earth's climate is constrained by well-known physical principles such as energy balance and the conservation of energy. Increased greenhouse gas concentrations affect the atmospheric optical depth, and physical consistency implies that changes in the energy transfer in terms of infra-red light must be compensated by other means of energy flow. Here, a simple heuristic and comprehensive model is used to interpret new aspects of real-world data. It is shown that trends in tropospheric overturning activity and the estimated altitude where earth's bulk heat loss should place are two independent indicators of climate change. There has been increased vertical overturning in the middle and upper parts of the troposphere since 1995 on a global scale. Greater overturning compensates for reduced radiative energy transfer associated with increased optical depth. An increased optical depth is also expected to raise the altitude from where planetary bulk heat loss takes place according to the heuristic model,...

  8. Workflow Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfires may contribute more to &83 3.3 Table3WorkToolsTools

  9. Electric Currents Electric Current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Jaehoon

    ;Problem 3: At $0.095/kWh, what does it cost to leave a 25W porch light on day and night for a year = 219000 Watt- hour = 219kWh. So, total cost = 219 x$0.095 = $20.8 #12;Problem 4: A 100 W light bulb has of charge per unit time: = . Unit of current: Ampere (A). The purpose of a battery is to produce

  10. Painter Greenhouse Guidelines Contact: All emails regarding facilities, facilities equipment, supplies at facilities, or watering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , supplies at facilities, or watering concerns to both the greenhouse manager, Shane Merrell Greenhouses is supplemented by heating and cooling from the main Painter Building. The smaller Painter

  11. First Direct Observation of CO2's Greenhouse Effect at the Earth...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Direct Observation of Carbon Dioxide's Increasing Greenhouse Effect at Earth's Surface First Direct Observation of Carbon Dioxide's Increasing Greenhouse Effect at Earth's...

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels, Improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels, Improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into account local.......................................................................................................................................................14 Chapter 1 Biofuels, greenhouse gases and climate change 1 Introduction

  13. Fact #879: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs forEmployer...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fact 879: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs for Employer-Subsidized Commuting Options Fact 879: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs for Employer-Subsidized...

  14. Fact #879: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs forEmployer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact 879: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs for Employer-Subsidized Commuting Options - Dataset Fact 879: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs for...

  15. U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis, November 2012 U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis, November 2012 The report ranks...

  16. U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis thumbenergyuselossemissionslg.gif How...

  17. Downhole tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Muradov, Andrei; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott Steven; Briscoe, Michael A.

    2007-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A double shouldered downhole tool connection comprises box and pin connections having mating threads intermediate mating primary and secondary shoulders. The connection further comprises a secondary shoulder component retained in the box connection intermediate a floating component and the primary shoulders. The secondary shoulder component and the pin connection cooperate to transfer a portion of makeup load to the box connection. The downhole tool may be selected from the group consisting of drill pipe, drill collars, production pipe, and reamers. The floating component may be selected from the group consisting of electronics modules, generators, gyroscopes, power sources, and stators. The secondary shoulder component may comprises an interface to the box connection selected from the group consisting of radial grooves, axial grooves, tapered grooves, radial protrusions, axial protrusions, tapered protrusions, shoulders, and threads.

  18. An Application of Phase Change Technology in a Greenhouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Y.; Chen, C.; Guo, H.; Yue, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials and Solar Cells, 1998,51: 401?411 [2] Yang Chun, Ge Xinshi, Cheng Shuxia. A theoretical and experimental study of the heat transfer problems in the greenhouse. Acta Energiae Solaris ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Envelope Technologies... Energiae Solaris Sinica, 2003,24,6(12): 789-794. (In Chinese) [4] J.G.Pieters, J.M.Deltour. Modelling solar energy input in greenhouses. Solar Energy,1999,67: 119?130 [5] Mathala J. Gupta, Pitam Chandra. Effect of greenhouse design parameters...

  19. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V. [Inst. of Ecology, Tallinn (Estonia); Martins, A.; Pesur, A. [Inst. of Energy Research, Tallinn (Estonia); Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H. [Estonian Agricultural Univ., Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from contrasting beef production systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricci, Patricia

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Agriculture has been reported to contribute a significant amount of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere among other anthropogenic activities. With still more than 870 million people in the world suffering from under-nutrition ...

  1. Fiscal Year 2012 Greenhouse Gas Inventory: Government Totals

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel spreadsheet shows scope 1, 2, and 3 greenhouse gas inventories reported by federal agencies in fiscal year 2012. It includes emissions from sources not subject to the reduction targets.

  2. Greenhouse Gas Programs, Energy Efficiency, and the Industrial Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, A.; Tutterow, V.; Harris, J.

    The United States has made significant progress in reducing total energy use through energy efficiency improvements over the past decade, yet the United States still ranks as the highest absolute greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter in the world with 23...

  3. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) INVENTORY REPORT 20102011 Dalhousie Office of Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    ..................................... 30 Appendix E: Canadian Default Factors for Calculating CO2 Emissions from Combustion of Natural Gas GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) INVENTORY REPORT 20102011 Dalhousie Office of Sustainability ......................................................... 34 Appendix K: Fleet Vehicles on Campus .............

  4. Energy Department Assisting Launch of Low Greenhouse Gas-Emitting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to a jet fuel with lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions less than or equal to conventional petroleum-based jet fuel production, while remaining cost-competitive. To fuel the search,...

  5. Deep cuts in household greenhouse gas emissions Andrew Blakers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deep cuts in household greenhouse gas emissions Andrew Blakers Director, Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems Australian National University Ph 61 2 6125 5905 Andrew.blakers@anu.edu.au Web: http

  6. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O’Sullivan, Francis Martin

    Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

  7. Secretary of Energy Memorandum on DOE Greenhouse Gas Emission...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to a low-carbon economy. We must also lead by example in reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with our own operations and facilities. On October 5,2009, the President...

  8. Impacts of greenhouse gas mitigation policies on agricultural land

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiaodong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are widely acknowledged to be responsible for much of the global warming in the past century. A number of approaches have been proposed to mitigate GHG emissions. Since the burning of ...

  9. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to inform its decisions regarding the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of U.S. LNG exports for use in electric power generation. The LCA GHG Report compares life cycle...

  10. Biochar amendment and greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Case, Sean Daniel Charles

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar amendment on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects. I investigated the suppression of soil carbon dioxide ...

  11. Detection of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigley, T.M.L.; Jones, P.D.

    1992-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The aims of the US Department of Energy's Carbon Dioxide Research Program are to improve assessments of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and to define and reduce uncertainties through selected research. This project will address: The regional and seasonal details of the expected climatic changes; how rapidly will these changes occur; how and when will the climatic effects of CO[sub 2] and other greenhouse gases be first detected; and the relationships between greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and changes caused by other external and internal factors. The present project addresses all of these questions. Many of the diverse facets of greenhouse-gas-related climate research can be grouped under three interlinked subject areas: modeling, first detection and supporting data. This project will include the analysis of climate forcing factors, the development and refinement of transient response climate models, and the use of instrumental data in validating General Circulation Models (GCMs).

  12. Comparing the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckaus, Richard S.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Policies dealing with global warming require a measure of the effects of the emissions of greenhouse gases that create different magnitudes of instantaneous radiative forcing and have different lifetimes. The Global Warming ...

  13. Cogeneration Leads to Major Aquaculture and Greenhouse Development in Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mercer, J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilizing waste heat from thermal electric or hydro-electric power stations offers substantial energy and cost savings to both the salmon aquaculture and greenhouse industries in Canada. Projects successfully demonstrating this technology have led...

  14. Workflow Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfires may contribute more to &83 3.3 Table3WorkTools

  15. Tools for Authentication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, G

    2008-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Many recent Non-proliferation and Arms Control software projects include a software authentication component. In this context, 'authentication' is defined as determining that a software package performs only its intended purpose and performs that purpose correctly and reliably over many years. In addition to visual inspection by knowledgeable computer scientists, automated tools are needed to highlight suspicious code constructs both to aid the visual inspection and to guide program development. While many commercial tools are available for portions of the authentication task, they are proprietary, and have limited extensibility. An open-source, extensible tool can be customized to the unique needs of each project (projects can have both common and custom rules to detect flaws and security holes). Any such extensible tool must be based on a complete language compiler infrastructure, that is, one that can parse and digest the full language through its standard grammar. ROSE is precisely such a compiler infrastructure developed within DOE. ROSE is a robust source-to-source analysis and optimization infrastructure currently addressing large, million-line DOE applications in C, C++, and FORTRAN. This year, it has been extended to support the automated analysis of binaries. We continue to extend ROSE to address a number of security-specific requirements and apply it to software authentication for Non-proliferation and Arms Control projects. We will give an update on the status of our work.

  16. Algal functional annotation tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, D. [UCLA; Casero, D. [UCLA; Cokus, S. J. [UCLA; Merchant, S. S. [UCLA; Pellegrini, M. [UCLA

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Algal Functional Annotation Tool is a web-based comprehensive analysis suite integrating annotation data from several pathway, ontology, and protein family databases. The current version provides annotation for the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in the future will include additional genomes. The site allows users to interpret large gene lists by identifying associated functional terms, and their enrichment. Additionally, expression data for several experimental conditions were compiled and analyzed to provide an expression-based enrichment search. A tool to search for functionally-related genes based on gene expression across these conditions is also provided. Other features include dynamic visualization of genes on KEGG pathway maps and batch gene identifier conversion.

  17. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology feasibility and options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These technology pathways (which are described in greater detail in Appendix B, Technology Pathways) address three areas: energy efficiency, clean energy, and carbon sequestration (removing carbon from emissions and enhancing carbon storage). Based on an assessment of each of these technology pathways over a 30-year planning horizon, the directors of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) national laboratories conclude that success will require pursuit of multiple technology pathways to provide choices and flexibility for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Advances in science and technology are necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the United States while sustaining economic growth and providing collateral benefits to the nation.

  18. Tools | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Tools Tools logofemp.png The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) offers links to tools that can help agencies reduce energy use and meet federal laws and requirements. Tools...

  19. Induced Currents, Eddy Currents and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobar, Michael

    Lecture 11 Induced Currents, Eddy Currents and Maxwell's Equations 1 Faraday Disk Dynamo F = q Eddy Currents We have learnt that changing magnetic fields can induce electric fields in conductors 108 ms-1 16 #12;In this lecture and the next Eddy Currents: We have covered Sect. 29

  20. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The remaining task to be completed is to test the biofilter prior to operation, which is currently anticipated to begin in January 2004. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  1. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

  2. Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Maroto-Valer, M.M.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This editorial introduces readers and contributors to a new online journal. Through the publication of articles ranging from peer-reviewed research papers and short communications, to editorials and interviews on greenhouse gas emissions science and technology, this journal will disseminate research results and information that address the global crisis of anthropogenic climate change. The scope of the journal includes the full spectrum of research areas from capture and separation of greenhouse gases from flue gases and ambient air, to beneficial utilization, and to sequestration in deep geologic formations and terrestrial (plant and soil) systems, as well as policy and technoeconomic analyses of these approaches.

  3. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Measurement and Estimation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in conjunction with other WRI tools (e.g., the GHG Protocol tools for stationary combustion and purchased electricity), or in conjunction with other non-WRI tools that a...

  4. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Allocation of Emissions...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    plant. The user should also input the assumed efficiency of steam and electricity combustion (defaults are provided in the tool). Outputs include: The tool outputs the emissions...

  5. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption contribution to the debate on environmental policy in Denmark. #12;3 Contents 1 SUMMARY 5 1.1 OZONE OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES 19 3.1 IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 19 3.1.1 CFCs 19 3.1.2 Tetrachloromethane 19 3

  6. The Agricultural Sector and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Model (ASMGHG)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    ...................................................................................37 3.5.1.1 Direct Carbon Emissions Through Fossil Fuel Use.....................38 3.5.1.2 Indirect.5.2.2 Production of Fossil Fuel Substitutes...........................................49 3.5.2.3 Conversion Taxes and Sequestration Subsidies...............................66 3.8.2.4 Special Greenhouse Gas

  7. 2011 & 2012 Queen's University Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2011 & 2012 Queen's University Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventory Summary Queen's University completes annual GHG inventories as part of the ongoing commitment to reduce GHG emissions and address climate in 2010. This is the fourth inventory report. This inventory report accounts for GHG emissions from

  8. Technology options and effective policies to reduce greenhouse gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technology options and effective policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve security); DNE21+ model. · National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan); AIM model. · Natural Resources both the climate problem and security of supply, and thus provide synergies, while others represent

  9. U.S. Agriculture's Role Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    U.S. Agriculture's Role in a Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation World: An Economic Perspective and Research Associate, respectively, Department of Agricultural Economics, Texas A&M University. Seniority of Authorship is shared. This research was supported by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station through

  10. CO2 levels during the greenhouse of the Paleocene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shull, Kenneth R.

    CO2 levels during the greenhouse of the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) Francesca A. Mc, Boulder #12;Estimating paleopCO2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Meter Level, start of CIE=0 pCO2 pCO2 values using different calculation methods Bulk nalk For the past 250 years human

  11. Land Use Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Conventional Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turetsky, Merritt

    emissions of California crude and in situ oil sands production (crude refineryLand Use Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Conventional Oil Production and Oil Sands S O N I A Y E H and Alberta as examples for conventional oil production as well as oil sands production in Alberta

  12. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . A facility with solar fraction less than 1 is a hybrid operating plant that combusts naturLife Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power Over the last thirty years, more-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. These LCAs have yielded wide-ranging results. Variation could

  13. Soil science Disinfection of drain water in greenhouses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Soil science Disinfection of drain water in greenhouses using a wet condensation heater C Steinberg November 1994) Summary — A wet condensation heater has been modified to disinfect drain water were introduced into the disinfection circuit above the heater. Water was checked downstream

  14. Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    when the need is discovered, but a good preventive maintenance program will reduce the number. This fact sheet will emphasize corrective and preventive maintenance procedures for ventilation, evaporativeAE26 Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1 D. E

  15. Determining Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    Determining Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Hydrogen Infrastructure and Fuel Cell of hydrogen infrastructure and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) to replace gasoline internal combustion) to characterize the pollutant and GHG emissions associated with a comprehensive hydrogen supply infrastructure

  16. II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    15 II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17 The previous chapter analysed biofuels production. GHG policies18 that create a carbon price either through an emissions trading system or directly by taxing GHG emissions also generate increased demand for biofuels. They do so by raising

  17. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics Over the last thirty years, hundreds and utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. These LCAs have yielded wide-ranging results. Variation of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. ~40 g CO2

  18. Type of Space Bulb Type #/House Fixture Style Greenhouse #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Type of Space Bulb Type #/House Fixture Style Greenhouse # 1 Lu 430/Lu 400 24 White box style 2 Lu No bulbs 0 N/A Seed harvest room F32 T8/TL 841 90 bulbs VIGS Room F032 /741/ECO 60 bulbs Chamber Model Bulb

  19. PG&E's Renewable Portfolio Standard & Greenhouse Gas Compliance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electric Transportation Natural Gas Capped at 334 MMT 80 MMT #12;(MMT CO2e Business as Usual ­ 2020 507 Electric and Natural Gas Sectors Energy Efficiency 12 Renewables 11 Other 2 Transportation Low Carbon FuelPG&E's Renewable Portfolio Standard & Greenhouse Gas Compliance Fong Wan Senior Vice President

  20. ANALYSIS OF MEASURES FOR REDUCING TRANSPORTATION SECTOR GREENHOUSE GAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (CO2) emission reduction estimates were obtained for each of the measures. The package of measures the problem of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Canadian transportation sector. Reductions-makers will require estimates of both the potential emission reductions and the costs or benefits associated

  1. Retrofitting a Greenhouse for Energy Conservation Bruce L. Parker, Margaret Skinner, Cheryl F. Sullivan & Donald Tobi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    1 Retrofitting a Greenhouse for Energy Conservation Bruce L. Parker, Margaret Skinner, Cheryl F in the greenhouse to keep air circulating properly (Fig. 12). It is good for energy conservation and disease

  2. U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    is energy used in U.S. manufacturing? How much greenhouse gas (GHG) is emitted from combustion in manufacturing operations? The U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas...

  3. Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-In Hybrid Electric...

  4. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuels: A Framework for Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Farrell, Alexander E; Plevin, Richard J; Jones, Andrew; Nemet, Gregory F; Delucchi, Mark

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuels Wang, M. (2001) "Energy & Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuels Fuels and MotorLifecycle Analysis of Biofuels." Report UCD-ITS-RR-06-08.

  5. Real-World Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck Traveling Across the Continental United States Real-World Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck Traveling Across...

  6. Current Rusume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Research Interest Rough paths theory, Stochastic differential equations, ... I am currently working on a problem about stochastic analysis on Riemannian folia-.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Dissonance: The History of EPA's Regulations and the Incongruity of Recent Legal Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreno, Robert B.; Zalzal, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    forty percent of all U.S. oil consumption"). GREENHOUSE GAStroleum consumption." I" 4 Importing foreign oil is widely

  8. Implications of ethanol-based fuels for greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); DeLuchi, M.A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies; Wyman, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Environmental Protection Agency has proposed a rule which would mandate that 30% of the oxygen content of reformulated gasoline be provided by renewable oxygenates. The rule would essentially require that biomass-based ethanol, or ETBE derived from ethanol, be used to supply 30% of the oxygen in reformulated gasoline. This short statement addresses the very narrow question, ``Would this rule result in a net decrease in greenhouse gas emissions?`` The challenge then is to determine how much greenhouse gas is emitted during the ethanol fuel cycle, a fuel cycle that is much less mature and less well documented than the petroleum fuel cycle. In the petroleum fuel cycle, most of the greenhouse gas emissions come from fuel combustion. In the ethanol fuel cycle most of the greenhouse gas emissions come from the fuel production processes. Details of corn productivity, fertilizer use, process efficiency, fuel source, etc. become very important. It is also important that the ethanol fuel cycle produces additional products and the greenhouse gas emissions have somehow to be allocated among the respective products. With so many variables in the ethanol fuel cycle, the concern is actually with ethanol-based additives which will be produced in response to the proposed rule, and not necessarily with the average of ethanol which is being produced now. A first important observation is that the difference between standard gasoline and reformulated gasoline is very small so that when differences are drawn against alternative fuels, it makes little difference whether the contrast is against standard or reformulated gasoline. A second observation is that for this base case comparison, emissions of CO{sub 2} alone are roughly 13% less for the ethanol fuel cycle than for the reformulated gasoline cycle.

  9. TNA Data Collection Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The TNA Data Collection Tool Instructions provides guidance on how to complete the TNA Data Collection Tool. The TNA Data Collection Tool is an Excel spreadsheet that the organization's designating training POC will use to populate their organizations training needs.

  10. The power tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HAYFIELD, J.P.

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    POWER Tool--Planning, Optimization, Waste Estimating and Resourcing tool, a hand-held field estimating unit and relational database software tool for optimizing disassembly and final waste form of contaminated systems and equipment.

  11. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5 acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the blower station and biofilter remaining. Waste placement and instrumentation installation is ongoing in the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  12. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and construction of the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell is nearly complete with only the liquid addition system remaining. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  13. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and is scheduled to be complete by the end of August 2003. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  14. Full Scale Bioreactor Landfill for Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Emission Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Kathy Sananikone; Don Augenstein

    2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works constructed a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective was to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entailed the construction of a 12-acre module that contained a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells were highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  15. Combined surface solar brightening and increasing greenhouse effect support recent intensification of the global land-based hydrological cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    Combined surface solar brightening and increasing greenhouse effect support recent intensification. Scha¨r (2008), Combined surface solar brightening and increasing greenhouse effect support recent

  16. Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITYCO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITY

  17. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Intensity and the Global Climate Change Initiative (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Administrations Global Climate Change Initiative. A key goal of the Climate Change Initiative is to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas intensity by 18% over the 2002 to 2012 time frame. For the purposes of the initiative, greenhouse gas intensity is defined as the ratio of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions to economic output.

  18. mARUS37, 207--213 (1979) Ammonia Photolysisand the Greenhouse Effect in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atreya, Sushil

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mARUS37, 207--213 (1979) Ammonia Photolysisand the Greenhouse Effect in the Primordial Atmosphere mixing ratio of am- monia of 10-5 or greater would provide a sufficient greenhouse effect to keep of longwave radiation NH3 could pro- duce a substantial "greenhouse effect" and maintain a surface temperature

  19. Attribution of the presentday total greenhouse effect Gavin A. Schmidt,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attribution of the presentday total greenhouse effect Gavin A. Schmidt,1 Reto A. Ruedy,1 Ron L to the presentday global greenhouse effect are among the most misquoted statistics in public discussions of climate though the magnitude of the total greenhouse effect is significantly larger than the initial radiative

  20. Teaching Energy Balance using Round Numbers: A Quantitative Approach to the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blais, Brian

    Teaching Energy Balance using Round Numbers: A Quantitative Approach to the Greenhouse Effect, 2003 Abstract The idea of energy balance used to explain the greenhouse effect and global warming and astronomy curricula. The idea of energy balance is used to explain the greenhouse effect and global warming

  1. On the scattering-greenhouse effect of CO2 ice clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    On the scattering-greenhouse effect of CO2 ice clouds R. T. Pierrehumbert C. Erlick Department in J. Atmos. Sci. #12;Scattering Greenhouse Effect on Early Mars Page 2 Abstract We offer some remarks on the greenhouse effect due to high clouds which reflect thermal infrared radiation, but do not absorb or emit it

  2. BULLETIN OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETY / De-cember 2001Byrne et al. / THE POSTMODERN GREENHOUSE The Postmodern Greenhouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    The Postmodern Greenhouse: Creating Virtual Carbon Reductions From Business-as-Usual Energy Politics John Byrne commons, and (c) the substitution of car- bon sequestration for meaningful reductions in energy use linked to a legacy of carbon dioxide releases to the atmosphere1 that results in the increased atmo

  3. Software tools for developing parallel applications. Part 2: Interactive control and performance tuning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Geist, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.; Pancake, C. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Rover, D. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper continues the discussion of parallel tool support with an overview of the current state of tools for runtime control and performance tuning. Each is discussed in terms of the programmer needs addressed, the extent to which representative current tools meet those needs, and what new levels of tool support are important if parallel computing is to become more widespread.

  4. Testimony to the US Senate on the greenhouse effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigley, T.M.L.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This testimony was presented on January 28, 1987 at the hearing on ''The Greenhouse Effect, Climate Change and Ozone Depletion,'' United States Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, Subcommittee on Environmental Protection and Subcommittee on Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Substances. The testimony concerns the observed global warming that has occurred over the past 100 years. How this temperature record was obtained is summarized and the details of the record described, with particular reference to the most recent decades and to the differences between the records for Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The record is compared with the predicted warming over the same period due to the effects of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The projected warming over the next 70 years is compared with global temperature changes that have occurred over the past few million years. (ACR)

  5. Idaho National Laboratory FY12 Greenhouse Gas Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimberly Frerichs

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho.

  6. Idaho National Laboratory's FY11 Greenhouse Gas Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimberly Frerichs

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho.

  7. Research on Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlesinger, M. E.

    2001-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    During the 5 years of NSF grant ATM 95-22681 (Research on Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change, $1,605,000, 9/15/1995 to 8/31/2000) we have performed work which we are described in this report under three topics: (1) Development and Application of Atmosphere, Ocean, Photochemical-Transport, and Coupled Models; (2) Analysis Methods and Estimation; and (3) Climate-Change Scenarios, Impacts and Policy.

  8. Simple model of photo acoustic system for greenhouse effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fukuhara, Akiko; Ogawa, Naohisa

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The simple theoretical basis for photo acoustic (PA) system for studying infrared absorption properties of greenhouse gases is constructed. The amplitude of sound observed in PA depends on the modulation frequency of light pulse. Its dependence can be explained by our simple model. According to this model, sound signal has higher harmonics. The theory and experiment are compared in third and fifth harmonics by spectrum analysis. The theory has the analogy with electric circuits. This analogy helps students for understanding the PA system.

  9. The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs Danish consumption and emissions, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption and emissions, 2007 Tomas Sander Poulsen AND EMISSION OF F-GASES 7 1.1.1 Consumption 7 1.1.2 Emission 7 1.1.3 Trends in total GWP contribution from F 21 4 EMISSION OF F-GASES 23 4.1.1 Emissions of HFCs from refrigerants 23 4.1.2 Emissions of HFCs from

  10. GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PRIME MOVERS - ASME 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, Scott [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Bunce, Michael [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pending or recently enacted greenhouse gas regulations and mandates are leading to the need for current and feasible GHG reduction solutions including combined heat and power (CHP). Distributed generation using advanced reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines and fuel cells has been shown to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) compared to the U.S. electrical generation mix due to the use of natural gas and high electrical generation efficiencies of these prime movers. Many of these prime movers are also well suited for use in CHP systems which recover heat generated during combustion or energy conversion. CHP increases the total efficiency of the prime mover by recovering waste heat for generating electricity, replacing process steam, hot water for buildings or even cooling via absorption chilling. The increased efficiency of CHP systems further reduces GHG emissions compared to systems which do not recover waste thermal energy. Current GHG mandates within the U.S Federal sector and looming GHG legislation for states puts an emphasis on understanding the GHG reduction potential of such systems. This study compares the GHG savings from various state-of-the- art prime movers. GHG reductions from commercially available prime movers in the 1-5 MW class including, various industrial fuel cells, large and small gas turbines, micro turbines and reciprocating gas engines with and without CHP are compared to centralized electricity generation including the U.S. mix and the best available technology with natural gas combined cycle power plants. The findings show significant GHG saving potential with the use of CHP. Also provided is an exploration of the accounting methodology for GHG reductions with CHP and the sensitivity of such analyses to electrical generation efficiency, emissions factors and most importantly recoverable heat and thermal recovery efficiency from the CHP system.

  11. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report is the fifth annual update, covering national emissions over the period 1989--1995, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1996. The estimates contained in this report have been revised from those in last year`s report. Emissions estimates for carbon dioxide are reported in metric tons of carbon; estimates for other gases are reported in metric tons of gas. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapter 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Five appendixes are included with this report. 216 refs., 11 figs., 38 tabs.

  12. Objective: Determine the energy use of two greenhouse insulation technologies (a bubble insulation system and an energy/shade screen) retrofitted into plastic covered greenhouses, and compare the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    Objective: Determine the energy use of two greenhouse insulation technologies (a bubble insulation structures. 1. Unimproved standard double-layer poly inflated greenhouse (control) 2. Bubble insulation is around 1-2, compared to an estimated 30 for the bubble system. What did we learn? The bubble insulation

  13. Current Titles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Various

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  14. Applications (Grid Tools)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buyya, Rajkumar

    Grid Fabric Software Grid Applications Core Grid Middleware User-Level Middleware (Grid Tools) !"# $ %& ' ( ) * #& + '& ' , - . / # ) ) 0 # * 1 PDB CDB Grid Fabric Hardware &+ '' + ) , '1 '1 ' % - * # ( Grid Fabric Software Grid Applications Core Grid Middleware User-Level Middleware (Grid Tools) !"# $ %& ' ( ) * #& + '& ' , - . / # ) ) 0

  15. OOTW COST TOOLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

  16. Adjustable cutting tool holder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinhour, William Lee III; West, Drew; Honeycutt, Steve; Frank, Steven; Krishnamurthy, Kallutla

    2000-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent application describes a device for varying the geometry of a cutting tool for use in machining operations.

  17. Plant water use in a greenhouse: theory and measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaer, Yacoub Adib

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature, and the storage tank temperature if applicable. The external transport coefficient for water vapor between crop and air was considered constant in the SG79 model, equivalent to a -1 resistance of 250 s m . The leaf resistance is made to vary... with the predicted water use by the SG79 model. A description of this test follows. The Lysimeters Four lysimeters of about 0. 02 m , made from plastic pots were 2 installed in the turf growing in the test greenhouse and were weighed every two hours during...

  18. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report serves as the technology basis of a needed national climate change technology strategy, with the confidence that a strong technology R&D program will deliver a portfolio of technologies with the potential to provide very substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions along with continued economic growth. Much more is needed to define such a strategy, including identification of complementary deployment policies and analysis to support the seeping and prioritization of R&D programs. A national strategy must be based upon governmental, industrial, and academic partnerships.

  19. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin:DeploymentSite Name: Email: Terminal2,7,7,of Greenhouse Gases

  20. Melozi Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant JumpMarysville, Ohio: Energy8429°,Meeteetse, Wyoming:Information Greenhouse Low

  1. Indonesia Greenhouse Gas Abatement Cost Curve | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup | OpenHunan Runhua NewSmallholder SystemsIndo Norwegian SolarGreenhouse

  2. Statement from U.S. Energy Secretary Moniz on Mexico's Greenhouse...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Government of Mexico on new greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets. The commitment Mexico has made today sends a strong signal of Mexico's determination to do its share in...

  3. 2005 Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Ascribable to the University of Washington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaminsky, Werner

    2005 Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Ascribable to the University of Washington October 2007....................................................................................................................4 Corporate vs. Geographic Inventories...........................................................................4 Inventory Protocol

  4. Transitional strategies for the reduction of "greenhouse gas" emission in the United States electric power sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monroe, Burt L.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental issues have become increasingly important in the political arena, particularly with growing concern over the "greenhouse effect," a potential global climatic warming caused by increases in anthropogenic ...

  5. Investigation of greenhouse gas reduction strategies by industries : an enterprise systems architecting approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanthullu Athmaram, Kumaresh Babu

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores an enterprise systems architecting approach to investigate the greenhouse gas reduction strategies followed by industries, especially for automotive industry and Information Technology industry. The ...

  6. Greenhouse Monitoring with Wireless Sensor Network Teemu Ahonen, Reino Virrankoski and Mohammed Elmusrati

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virrankoski, Reino

    simple without opportunities to control locally heating, lights, ventilation or some other activity provide several options to make local adjustments to the lights, ventilation, heating and other greenhouse

  7. City Profile: Los Angeles A part of the study entitled: Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through local

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    City Profile: Los Angeles A part of the study entitled: Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through, with its functions distributed across other city departments. Where possible, this profile references

  8. Lead Section Grower Four Star Greenhouse has been producing high quality garden products since

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    products since 1977 and is the largest partner/supplier of the nationally recognized Greenhouse's Mission Statement in all job related functions. Minimum Qualifications: 1

  9. aggressive city greenhouse-gas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Natural Gas) (Scope 2) ... 17 2.9.5 Steam Consumption 28 Nuclear Power PROS -No' greenhouse gas emissions Geosciences Websites Summary: Nuclear Power PROS -No'...

  10. anthropogenic greenhouse-gas forcings: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences Websites Summary: Determining Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Hydrogen Infrastructure and Fuel Cell engine (ICE) vehicles has been proposed as a strategy to...

  11. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Model (GREET Fleet) An easy-to-use tool that allows quick comparison of a variety of vehicle, fuel, and technology choices. Overview Measures the petroleum displacement and...

  12. Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model AgencyCompany Organization: Argonne National Laboratory Focus Area: GHG Inventory Development Topics: Analysis Tools...

  13. Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a powerful tool52] EIO-LCA, “Economic input-output life cycle assessment,”

  14. Wachs Cutter Tooling Station (4495)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    purchase, build and install Wachs cutter tooling. The Wachs Cutter Tooling Station is similar to previously operated facility tooling and will utilize an existing hydraulic unit....

  15. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

  16. Prospects of and requirements for nuclear power as a contributor toward managing greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassberger, J.A., Schock, R.N.; Isaacs, T.H.

    1997-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The world`s population, energy demand, and rate of carbon emissions are increasing, but the rates of increase are uncertain. Even modest growth rates present significant challenges to existing and developing technologies for reducing carbon and greenhouse gas emissions while meeting growing energy demands. Nuclear power is currently the most developed alternative to fossil fuel combustion and is one of the options for meeting these challenges. However, there remain significant technical, economic and institutional barriers inhibiting growth of nuclear capacity in the U.S. and slowing implementation worldwide. In the near-term, the major barriers to nuclear power, especially in the U.S., appear to be economic and institutional, with the risks such as safety, waste management and proliferation having reasonably acceptable limits considering the current installed capacity. Future growth of nuclear power, however, may well hinge on continuous evolutionary and perhaps revolutionary reduction of these risks such that the overall risk of nuclear power, aggregated over the entire installed capacity, remains at or below today`s risks.

  17. Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    decision support tool for landfill gas-to energy projects,”component of landfills to 100% HGWP gases a. HFC phase-out:

  18. Boosted top: experimental tools overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emanuele Usai; for the ATLAS; CMS Collaborations

    2015-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview of tools and methods for the reconstruction of high-boost top quark decays at the LHC is given in this report. The focus is on hadronic decays, in particular an overview of the current status of top quark taggers in physics analyses is presented. The most widely used jet substructure techniques, normally used in combination with top quark taggers, are reviewed. Special techniques to treat pileup in large cone jets are described, along with a comparison of the performance of several boosted top quark reconstruction techniques.

  19. Machine tool locator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanlon, John A. (Los Alamos, NM); Gill, Timothy J. (Stanley, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Machine tools can be accurately measured and positioned on manufacturing machines within very small tolerances by use of an autocollimator on a 3-axis mount on a manufacturing machine and positioned so as to focus on a reference tooling ball or a machine tool, a digital camera connected to the viewing end of the autocollimator, and a marker and measure generator for receiving digital images from the camera, then displaying or measuring distances between the projection reticle and the reference reticle on the monitoring screen, and relating the distances to the actual position of the autocollimator relative to the reference tooling ball. The images and measurements are used to set the position of the machine tool and to measure the size and shape of the machine tool tip, and examine cutting edge wear. patent

  20. Certification Status Search Tool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Certification Status Search Tool (SB/DVBE) Illustrated User Manual #12;2 Certification Status Search Tool (SB/DVBE) Rev. 5/14/09 Copyright © 2008 RFP Depot, LLC dba BidSync All Rights Reserved://www.bidsync.com #12;3 Certification Status Search Tool (SB/DVBE) Rev. 5/14/09 Introduction BidSync is a powerful e

  1. Wireline logging tool catalog

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verdier, M.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book provides discussions on wireline logging tools. The contents are resistivity, radioactivity, acoustic, formation dip and borehold geometry, formation sampling, and auxiliary services.

  2. Economic Potential of Biomass Based Fuels for Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    Words): Use of biofuels diminishes fossil fuel combustion thereby also reducing net greenhouse gasEconomic Potential of Biomass Based Fuels for Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Uwe A. Schneider emissions. However, subsidies are needed to make agricultural biofuel production economically feasible

  3. Should a vehicle fuel economy standard be combined with an economy-wide greenhouse gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Should a vehicle fuel economy standard be combined with an economy-wide greenhouse gas emissions: globalchange@mit.edu Website: http://globalchange.mit.edu/ #12;Should a vehicle fuel economy standard be combined with an economy-wide greenhouse gas emissions constraint? Implications for energy and climate

  4. RESEARCH ARTICLE Greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from several

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from several perialpine and alpine hydropower reservoirs by diffusion and loss in turbines T. Diem · S. Koch · S. Schwarzenbach · B. Wehrli · C investigated greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from reservoirs located across an altitude gradient

  5. Kolstad: EKC Dec 2005 Interpreting Estimated Environmental Kuznets Curves for Greenhouse Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolstad, Charles

    Kolstad: EKC Dec 2005 Interpreting Estimated Environmental Kuznets Curves for Greenhouse Gases to interpret a relationship between income and carbon emissions in a country (the environmental Kuznets curve), it was primarily concerned with Environmental Kuznets Curves (EKC) for greenhouse gas emissions. The EKC literature

  6. Modeling impacts of carbon sequestration on net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling impacts of carbon sequestration on net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils impacts of carbon sequestration on net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils in China, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 23, GB1007, doi:10.1029/2008GB003180. 1. Introduction [2] Carbon (C) sequestration has

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions and the surface transport of freight in Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenhouse gas emissions and the surface transport of freight in Canada Paul Steenhof a,*, Clarence committed to reducing its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 6% below 1990 levels between 2008 and 2012's emissions of 740 million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide (mmTCO2e), and 41% of the CO2e emitted from

  8. Truck Stop Electrification as a Strategy To Reduce Greenhouse Gases, Fuel Consumption and Pollutant Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truck Stop Electrification as a Strategy To Reduce Greenhouse Gases, Fuel Consumption and Pollutant, Schneider, Lee, Bubbosh 2 ABSTRACT Extended truck idling is a very large source of fuel wastage, greenhouse, most long-haul truck drivers idle their vehicles for close to 10 hours per day to operate heating

  9. Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere of anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere such as CO2, CH4, N2O and CFCs. The CO2 emissions to reflect, adsorb and emit the solar energy. However, the continuous emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere

  10. Advancing Development and Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Vietnam's Wind Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilello, D.; Katz, J.; Esterly, S.; Ogonowski, M.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clean energy development is a key component of Vietnam's Green Growth Strategy, which establishes a target to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from domestic energy activities by 20-30 percent by 2030 relative to a business-as-usual scenario. Vietnam has significant wind energy resources, which, if developed, could help the country reach this target while providing ancillary economic, social, and environmental benefits. Given Vietnam's ambitious clean energy goals and the relatively nascent state of wind energy development in the country, this paper seeks to fulfill two primary objectives: to distill timely and useful information to provincial-level planners, analysts, and project developers as they evaluate opportunities to develop local wind resources; and, to provide insights to policymakers on how coordinated efforts may help advance large-scale wind development, deliver near-term GHG emission reductions, and promote national objectives in the context of a low emission development framework.

  11. Modelization of helio-thermal converters : application to the greenhouse effect P. Gallet, F. Papini and A. Ropke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    169 Modelization of helio-thermal converters : application to the greenhouse effect P. Gallet, F surface - greenhouse effect association is discussed as an example. Revue Phys. Appl. 18 (1983) 169

  12. Institute on Climate and Planets http://icp.giss.nasa.gov/ The Role of the Atmosphere and Greenhouse Effect in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    http://icp.giss.nasa.gov/ The Role of the Atmosphere and Greenhouse Effect in Determining the Surface. This process is the natural greenhouse effect. The earths surface receives solar energy and energy reradiated

  13. Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EMISSIONS OF NON-CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITYEMISSIONS OF NON-CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITY

  14. Fluid sampling tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnston, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Garcia, Anthony R. E. (Espanola, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    2001-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention includes a rotatable tool for collecting fluid through the wall of a container. The tool includes a fluid collection section with a cylindrical shank having an end portion for drilling a hole in the container wall when the tool is rotated, and a threaded portion for tapping the hole in the container wall. A passageway in the shank in communication with at least one radial inlet hole in the drilling end and an opening at the end of the shank is adapted to receive fluid from the container. The tool also includes a cylindrical chamber affixed to the end of the shank opposite to the drilling portion thereof for receiving and storing fluid passing through the passageway. The tool also includes a flexible, deformable gasket that provides a fluid-tight chamber to confine kerf generated during the drilling and tapping of the hole. The invention also includes a fluid extractor section for extracting fluid samples from the fluid collecting section.

  15. OOTW Force Design Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  16. Global Solar Opportunity Tool: A Tool for Policy Makers and Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Solar Opportunity Tool: A Tool for Policy Makers and Energy Analysts Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Global Solar Opportunity Tool: A Tool for...

  17. Climate Insights 101 Questions and Discussion Points Module 1, Lesson 1: CO2 and the Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    Effect 1 Climate Insights 101 Questions and Discussion Points Module 1, Lesson 1: CO2 and the Greenhouse Effect Available at http://pics.uvic.ca/education/climate-insights-101 1. CO2 and the Greenhouse Effect Questions: How did the term "greenhouse effect" originate? Why did it stick in the public imagination? Why

  18. A. Gershunov R. Roca Coupling of latent heat flux and the greenhouse effect by large-scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Gershunov Æ R. Roca Coupling of latent heat flux and the greenhouse effect by large Abstract Coupled variability of the greenhouse effect (GH) and latent heat flux (LHF) over the tropical of convection) form regions of strong greenhouse effect in tropical convergence zones while subtropical high

  19. CHAPTER 7. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT We examine in this chapter the role played by atmospheric gases in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    113 CHAPTER 7. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT We examine in this chapter the role played by atmospheric of the surface known as the greenhouse effect. As we will see, trapping of terrestrial radiation by naturally accumulated in the atmosphere over the past decades and added to the greenhouse effect (Figure 7-1). Figure 7

  20. AMPLIFIED GREENHOUSE EFFECT SHAPING NORTH INTO SOUTH A new study published in Nature Climate Change reports decreasing temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myneni, Ranga B.

    AMPLIFIED GREENHOUSE EFFECT SHAPING NORTH INTO SOUTH A new study published in Nature Climate Change. A greenhouse effect initiated by increased atmospheric concentration of heat-trapping gasses, such as water greenhouse effect. This amplified warming in the North, roughly above the border between Canada and the USA

  1. A fuel cycle framework for evaluating greenhouse gas emission reduction technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashton, W.B.; Barns, D.W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Bradley, R.A. (USDOE Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis, Washington, DC (USA). Office of Environmental Analysis)

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions arise from a number of fossil fuels, processes and equipment types throughout the full cycle from primary fuel production to end-use. Many technology alternatives are available for reducing emissions based on efficiency improvements, fuel switching to low-emission fuels, GHG removal, and changes in end-use demand. To conduct systematic analysis of how new technologies can be used to alter current emission levels, a conceptual framework helps develop a comprehensive picture of both the primary and secondary impacts of a new technology. This paper describes a broad generic fuel cycle framework which is useful for this purpose. The framework is used for cataloging emission source technologies and for evaluating technology solutions to reduce GHG emissions. It is important to evaluate fuel mix tradeoffs when investigating various technology strategies for emission reductions. For instance, while substituting natural gas for coal or oil in end-use applications to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, natural gas emissions of methane in the production phase of the fuel cycle may increase. Example uses of the framework are given.

  2. The impact of municipal solid waste treatment methods on greenhouse gas emissions in Lahore, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batool, Syeda Adila [Department of Space Science, Punjab University, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan)], E-mail: aadila_batool@yahoo.com; Chuadhry, Muhammad Nawaz [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)], E-mail: muhammadnawazchaudhry@yahoo.com

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The contribution of existing municipal solid waste management to emission of greenhouse gases and the alternative scenarios to reduce emissions were analyzed for Data Ganj Bukhsh Town (DGBT) in Lahore, Pakistan using the life cycle assessment methodology. DGBT has a population of 1,624,169 people living in 232,024 dwellings. Total waste generated is 500,000 tons per year with an average per capita rate of 0.84 kg per day. Alternative scenarios were developed and evaluated according to the environmental, economic, and social atmosphere of the study area. Solid waste management options considered include the collection and transportation of waste, collection of recyclables with single and mixed material bank container systems (SMBCS, MMBCS), material recovery facilities (MRF), composting, biogasification and landfilling. A life cycle inventory (LCI) of the six scenarios along with the baseline scenario was completed; this helped to quantify the CO{sub 2} equivalents, emitted and avoided, for energy consumption, production, fuel consumption, and methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions. LCI results showed that the contribution of the baseline scenario to the global warming potential as CO{sub 2} equivalents was a maximum of 838,116 tons. The sixth scenario had a maximum reduction of GHG emissions in terms of CO{sub 2} equivalents of -33,773 tons, but the most workable scenario for the current situation in the study area is scenario 5. It saves 25% in CO{sub 2} equivalents compared to the baseline scenario.

  3. Non-Kyoto Radiative Forcing in Long-Run Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Steven K.; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Riahi, Keywan; Stefler, Jessica; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2014-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate policies designed to achieve climate change objectives must consider radiative forcing from the Kyoto greenhouse gas, as well as other forcing constituents, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone. Net positive forcing leads to global average temperature increases. Modeling of non-Kyoto forcing is a relatively new component of climate management scenarios. Five of the nineteen models in the EMF-27 Study model both Kyoto and non-Kyoto forcing. This paper describes and assesses current non-Kyoto radiative forcing modeling within these integrated assessment models. The study finds negative forcing from aerosols masking significant positive forcing in reference non-climate policy projections. There are however large differences across models in projected non-Kyoto emissions and forcing, with differences stemming from differences in relationships between Kyoto and non-Kyoto emissions and fundamental differences in modeling structure and assumptions. Air pollution and non-Kyoto forcing decline in the climate policy scenarios. However, non-Kyoto forcing appears to be influencing mitigation results, including allowable carbon dioxide emissions, and further evaluation is merited. Overall, there is substantial uncertainty related to non-Kyoto forcing that must be considered.

  4. Data Center IT Equipment Energy Assessment Tools Current State of Commercial Tools, Proposal for a Future Set of Assessment Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radhakrishnan, Ben D.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    http://www.osisoft.com     8. Wonderware  -­?  http://in data center market) 2. Wonderware (Industrial process and

  5. Minds, Brains and Tools 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Andy

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The selected texts for this discussion were two recent pieces by Dennett (“Things About Things” and “Making Tools for Thinking” – henceforth TAT and MTT respectively) and one oldie-but-goodie (“Styles of Mental Representation”, ...

  6. Friction stir welding tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tolle, Charles R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Clark, Denis E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Barnes, Timothy A. (Ammon, ID)

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A friction stir welding tool is described and which includes a shank portion; a shoulder portion which is releasably engageable with the shank portion; and a pin which is releasably engageable with the shoulder portion.

  7. Sandia Modeling Tool Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the Energy Department and Western Area Power Administration, this webinar will show attendees about what collaborative, stakeholder-driven modeling is and how the modeling tools and process developed by Sandia can be used in Indian Country.

  8. UNIX Public Tools

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    SATAN, the System Administrator Tool for Analyzing Networks, is a network security analyzer designed by Dan Farmer and Wietse Venema. SATAN scans systems connected to the network noting the...

  9. PPA Tools and Update

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PPA Tools & Update Chandra Shah chandra.shah@nel.gov October 21, 2010 2 | FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT PROGRAM femp.energy.gov * PPA (15 minutes) - Resources - Discussion * URESC (15...

  10. Modeling of Tool Wear and Tool Fracture in Micromilling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shiosaki, Dominic

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    of aluminum and titanium. Finite element analysis and tool modeling compliment experimental data. Cumulative tool wear based on Taylor model shows decreasing tool life with increasing feed rate and increasing cutting speed on aluminum. Inconsistent results...

  11. Interactive Energy Management Tool (IEMT) for Arkansas Companies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pidugu, S. B.; Menhart, S.; Midturi, S.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To benefit small and medium industries located in Arkansas, the Engineering Technology Department at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) is currently developing an Interactive Energy Management Tool (IEMT) for Arkansas Companies...

  12. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid-peak hours and not only by PV during sunny on-peak hours.

  13. Demonstration Results From Greenhouse Heating with Liquified Wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, Philip; Parish, Don; Cooper, Jerome

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A boiler fuel known as Lignocellulosic Boiler Fuel (LBF) was developed at the Department of Forest Products, Mississippi State University for potential application for heating agricultural buildings. LBF was field tested to heat green houses in cooperation with Natchez Trace Greenhouses (NTG) located in Kosciusko, Mississippi. MSU modified an idled natural gas boiler located at NTG to combust the LBF. Thirty gallons of bio-oil were produced at the MSU Bio-oil Research Laboratory. The bio-oil was produced from the fast-pyrolysis of southern pine (15 gal) and white oak (15 gal) feedstocks and subsequently upgraded by a proprietary process. Preliminary field testing was conducted at (NTG). The LBF was produced from each wood species was tested separately and co-fed with diesel fuel to yield three fuel formulations: (1) 100% diesel; (2) 87.5% LBF from southern pine bio-oil co-fed with 12.5% diesel and (3) 87.5% LBF from white oak co-fed with 12.5% diesel fuel formulations. Each fuel formulation was combusted in a retrofit NTG boiler. Fuel consumption and water temperature were measured periodically. Flue gas from the boiler was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The 100% diesel fuel increased water temperature at a rate of 4 ���°F per min. for 35 min. to achieve the target 140 ���°F water temperature increase. The 87.5% pine LBF fuel cofed with 12.5%) diesel attained the 140 ���°F water temperature increase in 62 min. at a rate of 2.3 ���°F per min. The 87.5% white oak LBF fuel co-fed with 12.5% diesel reached the 140 ���°F water temperature increase in 85 min. at a rate of 1.6 ���°F per min. Fuel that contained 87.5% pine LBF co-fed with 12.5% diesel yielded nitrogen and oxygen at a ratio of 5.3 and carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide at a ratio of 22.2. Fuel formulations that contained 87.5% white oak LBF co-fed with 12.5% diesel yielded nitrogen and oxygen at a ratio of 4.9 and carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide at a ratio of 16.4. Neither the pine LBF nor the white oak LBF fuel showed any measureable methane emissions from the NTG boiler flue gas. These results indicate a viable potential for mildly upgraded bio-oil to become an alternative fuel source for greenhouse operations.

  14. The role of heat storage in the soil in the energy balance of a greenhouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadler, Edward John

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Oepartvient y I'a/Tiber I l'lay 1978 ABSTRACT THE ROLE OF HEPT STORAGE IN THE SOIi IN THE ENERGY BALANCE OF A GREENHOUSE. (Hay 1978) Edward John Sadler, B. S. , University of Hissouri Chairman of Advisory Committee: Or. C . H . ii. van Bavel A number o... f simulation models of greenhouses have been developed, but the authors differ in their opinion of the significance of the heat, storaae and its effects on the physical environment ins. ide the greenhouse. These opinions are reflected...

  15. Federal, state and utility roles in reducing new building greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.A.; Shankle, D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Boulin, J. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper will explore the role of implementation of building energy codes and standards in reducing US greenhouse gas emissions. It will discuss the role of utilities in supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency in improving the efficiency of new buildings. The paper will summarize Federal policies and programs that improve code compliance and increase overall greenhouse gas emission reductions. Finally, the paper will discuss the role of code compliance and the energy and greenhouse gas emission reductions that have been realized from various Federal, State and utility programs that enhance compliance.

  16. Loran Coverage Availability Simulation Tool Sherman C. Lo, Stanford University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    of research and development by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Loran technical evaluation team The Loran coverage availability simulation tool (LCAST) was initially created for the 2004 Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Loran technical evaluation report. The tool incorporated the then current models, algorithms

  17. Visualization Tools for Lattice QCD - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massimo Di Pierro

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Our research project is about the development of visualization tools for Lattice QCD. We developed various tools by extending existing libraries, adding new algorithms, exposing new APIs, and creating web interfaces (including the new NERSC gauge connection web site). Our tools cover the full stack of operations from automating download of data, to generating VTK #12;files (topological charge, plaquette, Polyakov lines, quark and meson propagators, currents), to turning the VTK #12;files into images, movies, and web pages. Some of the tools have their own web interfaces. Some Lattice QCD visualization have been created in the past but, to our knowledge, our tools are the only ones of their kind since they are general purpose, customizable, and relatively easy to use. We believe they will be valuable to physicists working in the #12;field. They can be used to better teach Lattice QCD concepts to new graduate students; they can be used to observe the changes in topological charge density and detect possible sources of bias in computations; they can be used to observe the convergence of the algorithms at a local level and determine possible problems; they can be used to probe heavy-light mesons with currents and determine their spatial distribution; they can be used to detect corrupted gauge configurations. There are some indirect results of this grant that will benefit a broader audience than Lattice QCD physicists.

  18. Introduction: Integrative Approaches for Estimating Current and Future Feedstock Availability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Tristram O.

    2010-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass that is used to generate energy, through conversion processes or direct combustion, is referred to as a bioenergy feedstock. Establishment of bioenergy feedstocks as an agricultural commodity has the potential to alter land management, carbon stocks, water quality, and greenhouse gas emissions over large geographic areas. Estimation of current and future feedstock availability is an essential step in assessing potential environmental and economic impacts of feedstock production. The purpose of this special issue is to communicate integrative approaches that combine data and modeling capabilities for estimation of current and future feedstock availability.

  19. Data Mining Tools Irfan Altas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turlach, Berwin A.

    Data Mining Tools Irfan Altas School of Information Studies, Charles Sturt University Wagga Wagga discuss several scalable and parallel discovery and predictive data mining tools. They successfully Data mining tools, thin plate splines, BMARS, revolver, regression, smoothing, addi­ tive models

  20. In-Situ Microbial Conversion of Sequestered Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, M; Balin, D F

    2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the project are to use microbiological in situ bioconversion technology to convert sequestered or naturally-occurring greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, into methane and other useful organic compounds. The key factors affecting coal bioconversion identified in this research include (1) coal properties, (2) thermal maturation and coalification process, (3) microbial population dynamics, (4) hydrodynamics (5) reservoir conditions, and (6) the methodology of getting the nutrients into the coal seams. While nearly all cultures produced methane, we were unable to confirm sustained methane production from the enrichments. We believe that the methane generation may have been derived from readily metabolized organic matter in the coal samples and/or biosoluble organic material in the coal formation water. This raises the intriguing possibility that pretreatment of the coal in the subsurface to bioactivate the coal prior to the injection of microbes and nutrients might be possible. We determined that it would be more cost effective to inject nutrients into coal seams to stimulate indigenous microbes in the coal seams, than to grow microbes in fermentation vats and transport them to the well site. If the coal bioconversion process can be developed on a larger scale, then the cost to generate methane could be less than $1 per Mcf

  1. Idaho National Laboratory's FY13 Greenhouse Gas Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimberly Frerichs

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. This report details the methods behind quantifying INL’s GHG inventory and discusses lessons learned on better practices by which information important to tracking GHGs can be tracked and recorded. It is important to note that because this report differentiates between those portions of INL that are managed and operated by Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) and those managed by other contractors, it includes only the large proportion of Laboratory activities overseen by BEA. It is assumed that other contractors will provide similar reporting for those activities they manage, where appropriate.

  2. Estimating the potential of greenhouse gas mitigation in Kazakhstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monacrovich, E.; Pilifosova, O.; Danchuck, D. [Kazakh Scientific-Research Hydrometeorlogical Institute, Almaty (Kazakhstan)] [and others

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the studies related to the obligations of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Republic of Kazakhstan started activities to inventory greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and assess of GHG mitigation options, The objective of this paper is to present an estimate of the possibility of mitigating GHG emissions and determine the mitigation priorities. It presents a compilation of the possible options and their assessment in terms of major criteria and implementation feasibility. Taking into account the structure of GHG emissions in Kazakhstan in 1990, preliminary estimates of the potential for mitigation are presented for eight options for the energy sector and agriculture and forestry sector. The reference scenario prepared by expert assessments assumes a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions in 1996-1998 by about 26% from the 1990 level due to general economic decline, but then emissions increase. It is estimated that the total potential for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions for the year 2000 is 3% of the CO{sub 2} emissions in the reference scenario. The annual reduction in methane emissions due to the estimated options can amount to 5%-6% of the 1990 level. 10 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  3. Assessment of basic research needs for greenhouse gas control technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, S.M.; Chandler, W.; Edmonds, J.; Houghton, J.; Levine, M.; Bates, L.; Chum, H.; Dooley, J.; Grether, D.; Logan, J.; Wiltsee, G.; Wright, L.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is an outgrowth of an effort undertaken by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research to assess the fundamental research needs to support a national program in carbon management. Five topics were identified as areas where carbon management strategies and technologies might be developed: (1) capture of carbon dioxide, decarbonization strategies, and carbon dioxide disposal and utilization; (2) hydrogen development and fuel cells; (3) enhancement of the natural carbon cycle; (4) biomass production and utilization; and (5) improvement of the efficiency of energy production, conversion, and utilization. Within each of these general areas, experts came together to identify targets of opportunity for fundamental research likely to lead to the development of mid- to long-term solutions for stabilizing or decreasing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Basic research to support the options outlined above are far reaching-from understanding natural global processes such as the ocean and terrestrial carbon cycles to development of new materials and concepts for chemical separation. Examples of fundamental research needs are described in this paper.

  4. AFBC - operation of small scale demonstration for greenhouse heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashworth, R.A.; Plessinger, D.A.; Webner, R.L.; Machamer, T.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A 2.2 million Btu/hr unit prototype AFBC system was installed in 1995 at Cedar Lane Farms, a commercial nursery in Ohio. The AFBC is in operation and is heating hot water for greenhouse temperature control. A team consisting of the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation, the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center of Ohio State University and the Will-Burt Company developed this technology with funding support from the Ohio Coal Development Office and the U.S. Department of Energy. The system is fully automated with little operator attention being required. Operating experience at Cedar Lane Farms has shown that only 2 hours per day of operation attention is required for the system. The system includes flyash/sorbent reinjection and underbed coal/limestone feed. These features provide for good limestone utilization; a Ca/S (in coal) ratio of 2.5 will maintain an SO{sub 2} emissions level of 1.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu when burning high sulfur (3.2%) Ohio coal. A baghouse is used to control particulate emissions. Based on the success of the prototype unit, a design has been recently completed for a commercial size 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr capacity range. Multiple AFBC units can be used to provide larger heat outputs. Potential coal-fired AFBC users include institutions (schools, hospitals, prisons, government), light industry (agricultural, food processing), commercial users (shopping centers), and large residential users (apartment complexes). 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Technology and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: An IntegratedScenario Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koomey, J.G.; Latiner, S.; Markel, R.J.; Marnay, C.; Richey, R.C.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes an analysis of possible technology-based scenarios for the U.S. energy system that would result in both carbon savings and net economic benefits. We use a modified version of the Energy Information Administration's National Energy Modeling System (LBNL-NEMS) to assess the potential energy, carbon, and bill savings from a portfolio of carbon saving options. This analysis is based on technology resource potentials estimated in previous bottom-up studies, but it uses the integrated LBNL-NEMS framework to assess interactions and synergies among these options. The analysis in this paper builds on previous estimates of possible "technology paths" to investigate four major components of an aggressive greenhouse gas reduction strategy: (1) the large scale implementation of demand-side efficiency, comparable in scale to that presented in two recent policy studies on this topic; (2) a variety of "alternative" electricity supply-side options, including biomass cofiring, extension of the renewable production tax credit for wind, increased industrial cogeneration, and hydropower refurbishment. (3) the economic retirement of older and less efficient existing fossil-find power plants; and (4) a permit charge of $23 per metric ton of carbon (1996 $/t),l assuming that carbon trading is implemented in the US, and that the carbon permit charge equilibrates at this level. This level of carbon permit charge, as discussed later in the report, is in the likely range for the Clinton Administration's position on this topic.

  6. Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

    2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas (GHG) and regional criteria pollutant emissions. The model included representations of all GHG- emitting sectors of the California economy (including those outside the energy sector, such as high global warming potential gases, waste treatment, agriculture and forestry) in varying degrees of detail, and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources. Starting from basic drivers such as population, numbers of households, gross state product, numbers of vehicles, etc., the model calculated energy demands by type (various types of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three criteria pollutants: reactive organic gases (ROG), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine (2.5 ?m) particulate matter (PM2.5). Calculations were generally statewide, but in some sectors, criteria pollutants were also calculated for two regional air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Three scenarios were developed that attempt to model: (1) all committed policies, (2) additional, uncommitted policy targets and (3) potential technology and market futures. Each scenario received extensive input from state energy planning agencies, in particular the California Air Resources Board. Results indicate that all three scenarios are able to meet the 2020 statewide GHG targets, and by 2030, statewide GHG emissions range from between 208 and 396 MtCO2/yr. However, none of the scenarios are able to meet the 2050 GHG target of 85 MtCO2/yr, with emissions ranging from 188 to 444 MtCO2/yr, so additional policies will need to be developed for California to meet this stringent future target. A full sensitivity study of major scenario assumptions was also performed. In terms of criteria pollutants, targets were less well-defined, but while all three scenarios were able to make significant reductions in ROG, NOx and PM2.5 both statewide and in the two regional air basins, they may nonetheless fall short of what will be required by future federal standards. Specifically, in Scenario 1, regional NOx emissions are approximately three times the estimated targets for both 2023 and 2032, and in Scenarios 2 and 3, NOx emissions are approximately twice the estimated targets. Further work is required in this area, including detailed regional air quality modeling, in order to determine likely pathways for attaining these stringent targets.

  7. Deep cuts in household greenhouse gas emissions Andrew Blakers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) of carbon dioxide (CO2) by a coal fired power station. ActewAGL currently charges 13 cents for each k

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office: Transportation System Analysis Tools...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    fuel technologies. GREET1, the fuel cycle model, allows users to estimate well-to-wheels energy consumption, fossil fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and criteria air...

  9. Improving Energy Efficiency and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in BPs PTA Manufacturing Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, F.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving Energy Efficiency and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in BPs PTA Manufacturing Plants Fred Clark Energy/GHG Advisor BP Aromatics & Acetyls Naperville, Illinois BP is the world?s leading producer of purified terephthalic acid...

  10. Air Emmissions Trading Program/Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (New Hampshire)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Hampshire Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative is a carbon dioxide emissions budget trading program. The program includes a statewide annual CO2 budget allowance of 8,620,460 tons between...

  11. Quantifying emissions of greenhouse gases from South Asia through a targeted measurement campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganesan, Anita Lakshmi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N20) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) are powerful greenhouse gases with global budgets that are well-known but regional distributions that are not adequately constrained for the purposes of ...

  12. o meet the challenges of global climate change, greenhouse-gas emissions must

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    . Emissions from fossil fuels are the largest contributor to the anthropo- genic greenhouse effect, so . In my view, it is therefore an attractive target for energy subsidies and for inclusion in the global

  13. Modeling & learning from the design recommendations for California's Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandes, Chester, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate Change has become a Major issue beginning with our generation. Governments the world over are now recognizing that industry cannot continue to pollute in a business-as-usual manner. Emitting Greenhouse gases has a ...

  14. Estimating the benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction from agricultural policy reform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adger, W.N. (Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment); Moran, D.C. (Univ. College, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment)

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Land use and agricultural activities contribute directly to the increased concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Economic support in industrialized countries generally increases agriculture's contribution to global greenhouse gas concentrations through fluxes associated with land use change and other sources. Changes in economic support offers opportunities to reduce net emissions, through this so far has gone unaccounted. Estimates are presented here of emissions of methane from livestock in the UK and show that, in monetary terms, when compared to the costs of reducing support, greenhouse gases are a significant factor. As signatory parties to the Climate Change Convection are required to stabilize emissions of all greenhouse gases, options for reduction of emissions of methane and other trace gases from the agricultural sector should form part of these strategies.

  15. Field Guide to the Insects, Mites and Mollusks of Nursery, Floral and Greenhouse Crops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gouge, Dawn H.; Smith, Kirk A.; Wilkerson, Don

    2000-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This field guide provides excellent photo identification keys for numerous pests and beneficials found in nursery, greenhouse and floral crops. The text includes a physical description, examples of damage and information on the life cycle of each...

  16. The Impact of Biofuel and Greenhouse Gas Policies on Land Management, Agricultural Production, and Environmental Quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Justin Scott

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation explores the combined effects of biofuel mandates and terrestrial greenhouse gas GHG mitigation incentives on land use, management intensity, commodity markets, welfare, and the full costs of GHG abatement through conceptual...

  17. Incentive-based approaches for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions : issues and prospects for India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Shreekant.

    As a consequence of the flexibility mechanisms incorporated in the Kyoto Protocol, incentive-based policies such as emissions trading and the clean development mechanism are being widely discussed in the context of greenhouse ...

  18. Carbon Prices and Automobile Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Extensive and Intensive Margins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knittel, Christopher Roland

    The transportation sector accounts for nearly one third of the United States' greenhouse gas emissions. While over the past number of decades, policy makers have avoided directly pricing the externalities from vehicles, ...

  19. GLOBAL HYDRLOGIC PERSPECTIVES ON THE MID-CRETACEOUS GREENHOUSE CLIMATE (APTIAN-ALBIAN)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suarez, Marina B.

    2009-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation examines the mid-Cretaceous greenhouse climate in the Aptian-Albian through the perspective of the global hydrologic cycle. Stable isotopic compositions of pedogenic and exposure surface carbonates presented ...

  20. A Strategy for a Global Observing System for Verification of National Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    With the risks of climate change becoming increasingly evident, there is growing discussion regarding international treaties and national regulations to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Enforcement of such agreements ...

  1. Paradox Farm cold climate greenhouse Photo: Sue Wika Section I: Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Netoff, Theoden

    survey of greenhouse growers and sustainable agriculture organizations for their time and input. Joe their hearts and energy to growing vegetables during the winter; something that most people believe

  2. What are greenhouse gases? Many chemical compounds in the atmosphere act as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Michigan State University, 2 Michigan State University Extension Climate Change and Agriculture Fact Sheet greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide over the past 2000 years. Data are from ice core

  3. The Impact of Biofuel and Greenhouse Gas Policies on Land Management, Agricultural Production, and Environmental Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Justin Scott

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation explores the combined effects of biofuel mandates and terrestrial greenhouse gas GHG mitigation incentives on land use, management intensity, commodity markets, welfare, and the full costs of GHG abatement through conceptual...

  4. Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas and Energy Analyses of Algae Biofuels Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas and Energy Analyses of Algae Biofuels Production Transportation Energy The Issue Algae biofuels directly address the Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research fuels more carbonintensive than conventional biofuels. Critics of this study argue that alternative

  5. Greenhouse space allocation in the ornamental foliage industry in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krafka, Brenda Dea Lang

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GREENHOUSE SPACE ALLOCATION IN THE ORNAMENTAL FOLIAGE INDUSTRY IN THE RIO GRANDE VALLEY OF TEXAS A Thesis by BRENDA DEA LANG KRAFKA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1986 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics GREENHOUSE SPACE ALLOCATION IN THE ORNAMENTAL FOLIAGE INDUSTRY IN THE RIO GRANDE VALLEY OF TEXAS A Thesis by BRENDA DEA LANG KRAFKA Approved as to style and content by...

  6. Figure 2 Analysis Tool Interface Level-1 / PBBT Analysis Tool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figure 2 ­ Analysis Tool Interface Level-1 / PBBT Analysis Tool Introduction The Level-1/PBBT Analysis Tool (LPAT) was designed to assist in the analysis of North American Standard Level-1 Inspection. The data incorporated into the tool includes the results of Level-1 inspections with accompanying PBBT test

  7. Drum lid removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pella, Bernard M. (Martinez, GA); Smith, Philip D. (North Augusta, SC)

    2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A tool for removing the lid of a metal drum wherein the lid is clamped over the drum rim without protruding edges, the tool having an elongated handle with a blade carried by an angularly positioned holder affixed to the midsection of the handle, the blade being of selected width to slice between lid lip and the drum rim and, when the blade is so positioned, upward motion of the blade handle will cause the blade to pry the lip from the rim and allow the lid to be removed.

  8. Tools | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssuesEnergy SolarRadioactiveI Disposal Sites25, 2015ToolkitTools Tools

  9. Tools | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic|Industrial Sector,DepartmentFebruary 19, 2015TonyTools for theTools

  10. Mexico joins the venture: Joint Implementation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imaz, M.; Gay, C.; Friedmann, R.; Goldberg, B.

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Joint Implementation (JI) and its pilot phase of Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) are envisioned as an economic way of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper draws upon the Mexican experience with AIJ to identify Mexican concerns with AIJ/JI and proposed solutions to these. Three approved Mexican AIJ projects (Ilumex, Scolel Te, and Salicornia) are described in detail. The Ilurnex project promotes the use of compact fluorescent lamps in Mexican homes of the States of Jalisco and Nuevo Leon, to reduce electric demand. Scolel Te is a sustainable forest management project in Chiapas. Salicornia examines the potential for carbon sequestration with a Halophyte-based crop irrigated with saline waters in Sonora. These three projects are reviewed to clarify the issues and concerns that Mexico has with AIJ and JI and propose measures to deal with them. These initial Mexican AIJ projects show that there is a need for creation of standard project evaluation procedures, and criteria and institutions to oversee project design, selection, and implementation. Further JI development will be facilitated by national and international clarification of key issues such as additionality criteria, carbon-credit sharing, and valuation of non-GHG environmental and/or social benefits and impacts for AIJ projects. Mexico is concerned that JI funding could negatively impact official development assistance or that OECD countries will use JI to avoid taking significant GHG mitigation actions in their own countries. The lack of carbon credit trading in the AIJ stage must be removed to provide useful experience on how to share carbon credits. National or international guidelines are needed to ensure that a portion of the carbon credits is allocated to Mexico.

  11. Uncertainties in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Advanced

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kara G. Cafferty; Erin M. Searcy; Long Nguyen; Sabrina Spatari

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To meet Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) cellulosic biofuel mandates, the United States will require an annual domestic supply of about 242 million Mg of biomass by 2022. To improve the feedstock logistics of lignocellulosic biofuels and access available biomass resources from areas with varying yields, commodity systems have been proposed and designed to deliver on-spec biomass feedstocks at preprocessing “depots”, which densify and stabilize the biomass prior to long-distance transport and delivery to centralized biorefineries. The harvesting, preprocessing, and logistics (HPL) of biomass commodity supply chains thus could introduce spatially variable environmental impacts into the biofuel life cycle due to needing to harvest, move, and preprocess biomass from multiple distances that have variable spatial density. This study examines the uncertainty in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn stover logisticsHPL within a bio-ethanol supply chain in the state of Kansas, where sustainable biomass supply varies spatially. Two scenarios were evaluated each having a different number of depots of varying capacity and location within Kansas relative to a central commodity-receiving biorefinery to test GHG emissions uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the spatial uncertainty in the HPL gate-to-gate sequence. The results show that the transport of densified biomass introduces the highest variability and contribution to the carbon footprint of the logistics HPL supply chain (0.2-13 g CO2e/MJ). Moreover, depending upon the biomass availability and its spatial density and surrounding transportation infrastructure (road and rail), logistics HPL processes can increase the variability in life cycle environmental impacts for lignocellulosic biofuels. Within Kansas, life cycle GHG emissions could range from 24 to 41 g CO2e/MJ depending upon the location, size and number of preprocessing depots constructed. However, this range can be minimized through optimizing the siting of preprocessing depots where ample rail infrastructure exists to supply biomass commodity to a regional biorefinery supply system

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions from Scottish arable agriculture and the potential for biochar to be used as an agricultural greenhouse gas mitigation option 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winning, Nicola Jane

    2015-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas (GHG) which has a global warming potential 296 times greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO2). Agriculture is a major source of N2O and in the UK approximately 71 % of ...

  13. An Economic Exploration of Biofuel basedAn Economic Exploration of Biofuel based Greenhouse Gas Emission MitigationGreenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    An Economic Exploration of Biofuel basedAn Economic Exploration of Biofuel based Greenhouse Gas Afforestation, Forest management, Biofuels, Ag soil, Animals, Fertilization, Rice, Grassland expansion, Manure of Biofuel strategies Examine the dynamics of mitigation strategies #12;PolicyPolicy ContextContext U

  14. Electrically powered hand tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myers, Kurt S.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically powered hand tool is described and which includes a three phase electrical motor having a plurality of poles; an electrical motor drive electrically coupled with the three phase electrical motor; and a source of electrical power which is converted to greater than about 208 volts three-phase and which is electrically coupled with the electrical motor drive.

  15. California's Greenhouse Gas Policies: Local Solutions to a Global Problem?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushnell, Jim B; Peterman, Carla Joy; Wolfram, Catherine D

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    useful if it displaces coal generation in Canada, than if itbeyond discarding all coal generation and the current RPS2,000(coal/trash/wood))*fuel BTU]/ net generation MWh. For

  16. Tools for event generator tuning and validation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andy Buckley

    2008-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    I describe the current status of MCnet tools for validating the performance of event generator simulations against data, and for tuning their phenomenological free parameters. For validation, the Rivet toolkit is now a mature and complete system, with a large library of prominent benchmark analyses. For tuning, the Professor system has recently completed its first tunes of Pythia 6, with substantial improvements on the existing default tune and potential to greatly aid the setup of new generators for LHC studies.

  17. Fluid blade disablement tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos (Albuquerque, NM); Hughs, Chance G. (Albuquerque, NM); Todd, Steven N. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluid blade disablement (FBD) tool that forms both a focused fluid projectile that resembles a blade, which can provide precision penetration of a barrier wall, and a broad fluid projectile that functions substantially like a hammer, which can produce general disruption of structures behind the barrier wall. Embodiments of the FBD tool comprise a container capable of holding fluid, an explosive assembly which is positioned within the container and which comprises an explosive holder and explosive, and a means for detonating. The container has a concavity on the side adjacent to the exposed surface of the explosive. The position of the concavity relative to the explosive and its construction of materials with thicknesses that facilitate inversion and/or rupture of the concavity wall enable the formation of a sharp and coherent blade of fluid advancing ahead of the detonation gases.

  18. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuhaus, J.E.

    1992-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw. 3 figs.

  19. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuhaus, John E. (Newport News, VA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw.

  20. Utah Roses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga,planning methodologies and tools |UC 54-2Full ProofR850-27

  1. Java Vertexing Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strube, Jan; /Oregon U.; Graf, Norman; /SLAC

    2006-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the implementation of the topological vertex finding algorithm ZVTOP within the org.lcsim reconstruction and analysis framework. At the present date, Java vertexing tools allow users to perform topological vertexing on tracks that have been obtained from a Fast MC simulation. An implementation that will be able to handle fully reconstructed events is being designed from the ground up for longevity and maintainability.

  2. Frequency Response Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etingov, Pavel V.; Kosterev, Dmitry; Dai, T.

    2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Frequency response has received a lot of attention in recent years at the national level, which culminated in the development and approval of North American Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) BAL-003-1 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting Reliability Standard. This report is prepared to describe the details of the work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration and Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Joint Synchronized Information Subcommittee (JSIS) to develop a frequency response analysis tool (FRAT). The document provides the details on the methodology and main features of the FRAT. The tool manages the database of under-frequency events and calculates the frequency response baseline. Frequency response calculations are consistent with frequency response measure (FRM) in NERC BAL-003-1 for an interconnection and balancing authority. The FRAT can use both phasor measurement unit (PMU) data, where available, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data. The tool is also capable of automatically generating NERC Frequency Response Survey (FRS) forms required by BAL-003-1 Standard.

  3. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1987--1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1992, with annual updates thereafter. This is the third annual update report,covering national emissions over the period 1987--1993, with preliminary estimates of US carbon dioxide and halocarbon emissions for 1994. Calculating national aggregate emissions(or ``national inventories``) of greenhouse gases is a recently developed form of intellectual endeavor. Greenhouse gas emissions are rarely measured directly or reported to statistical agencies. Thus, to prepare emissions inventories usually requires inferring emissions indirectly from information collected for other purposes. Both the available information and the inferences drawn may be of varying reliability. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapters 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes.

  4. Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagan, Colin R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inherently, natural gas combustion produces significantlygas turbines were fuel gas combustion devices and that theyof greenhouse gas emissions released during combustion. 5 0

  5. Identifying Options for Deep Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from California Transportation: Meeting an 80% Reduction Goal in 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse GasesGHG Emissions from Biofuels . in STEPS Research Symposium .NRDC, Growing Energy: How Biofuels Can Help End America's

  6. Chapter Four Assessing the Air Pollution, Greenhouse Gas, Air Quality, and Health Benefits of Clean Energy Initiatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Many states and localities are exploring or implementing clean energy policies to achieve greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria air pollutant1 emission reductions. Document map • Chapter one

  7. Greenhouse gas performance standards: From each according to his emission intensity or from each according to his emissions?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2009. Stephen P Holland. Emissions taxes versus intensityindustry’s greenhouse gas emissions. Environmental Research2008. John CV Pezzey. Emission taxes and tradeable permits a

  8. Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagan, Colin R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    estimates shown here for Marcellus gas are similar toGreenhouse Gas Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas, ENvr_.research- ers acknowledge, "Marcellus shale gas production

  9. Strategies for the Commercialization and Deployment of Greenhouse Gas Intensity-Reducing Technologies and Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration (CCCSTI)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New technologies will be a critical component--perhaps the critical component--of our efforts to tackle the related challenges of energy security, climate change, and air pollution, all the while maintaining a strong economy. But just developing new technologies is not enough. Our ability to accelerate the market penetration of clean energy, enabling, and other climate-related technologies will have a determining impact on our ability to slow, stop, and reverse the growth in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Title XVI, Subtitle A, of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005) directs the Administration to report on its strategy to promote the commercialization and deployment (C&D) of GHG intensity-reducing technologies and practices. The Act also requests the Administration to prepare an inventory of climate-friendly technologies suitable for deployment and to identify the barriers and commercial risks facing advanced technologies. Because these issues are related, they are integrated here within a single report that we, representing the Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration (CCCSTI), are pleased to provide the President, the Congress, and the public. Over the past eight years, the Administration of President George W. Bush has pursued a series of policies and measures aimed at encouraging the development and deployment of advanced technologies to reduce GHG emissions. This report highlights these policies and measures, discusses the barriers to each, and integrates them within a larger body of other extant policy. Taken together, more than 300 policies and measures described in this document may be viewed in conjunction with the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program's (CCTP's) Strategic Plan, published in September 2006, which focuses primarily on the role of advanced technology and associated research and development (R&D) for mitigating GHG emissions. The CCTP, a multi-agency technology planning and coordination program, initiated by President Bush, and subsequently authorized in EPAct2005, is responsible for preparing this report on behalf CCCSTI. This report systematically examines the market readiness of key technologies important to meeting climate change mitigation goals. It assesses the barriers and business risks impeding their progress and greater market application. Importantly, by documenting the hundreds of Federal policies, programs, regulations, incentives, and other activities that are in effect and operating today to address these barriers, it provides a broad context for evaluating the adequacy of current policy and the potential need, if any, for additional measures that might be undertaken by government or industry. Finally, it draws conclusions about the current situation, identifies gaps and opportunities, and suggests analytical principles that should be applied to assess and formulate policies and measures to accelerate the commercialization and deployment of these technologies.

  10. Current measurement apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umans, Stephen D. (Belmont, MA)

    2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  11. Commissioning Tools for Heating/Cooling System in Residence - Verification of Floor Heating System and Room Air Conditioning System Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miura, H.; Hokoi, S.; Iwamae, A.; Umeno, T.; Kondo, S.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tools of evaluating the performance of floor heating and room air conditioner are examined as a commissioning tool. Simple method is needed to check these performance while in use by residents, because evaluation currently requires significant time...

  12. Commissioning Tools for Heating/Cooling System in Residence - Verification of Floor Heating System and Room Air Conditioning System Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miura, H.; Hokoi, S.; Iwamae, A.; Umeno, T.; Kondo, S.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tools of evaluating the performance of floor heating and room air conditioner are examined as a commissioning tool. Simple method is needed to check these performance while in use by residents, because evaluation currently requires significant time...

  13. Idaho National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gas FY08 Baseline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic attempt to account for the production and release of certain gasses generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gasses of interest are those which have become identified by climate science as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during fiscal year (FY) 2008 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. Concern about the environmental impact of GHGs has grown in recent years. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of a baseline estimate of total GHGs generated at INL. Additionally, INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federal agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions in the future, and such documentation will require knowledge of a baseline against which reductions can be measured. INL's FY08 GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in federal GHG guidance documents using operational control boundaries. It measures emissions generated in three Scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL's organizational boundaries but are a consequence of INL's activities). This inventory found that INL generated a total of 113,049 MT of CO2-equivalent emissions during FY08. The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL's baseline GHG inventory: (1) Electricity (including the associated transmission and distribution losses) is the largest contributor to INL's GHG inventory, with over 50% of the CO2e emissions; (2) Other sources with high emissions were stationary combustion (facility fuels), waste disposal (including fugitive emissions from the onsite landfill and contracted disposal), mobile combustion (fleet fuels), employee commuting, and business air travel; and (3) Sources with low emissions were wastewater treatment (onsite and contracted), fugitive emissions from refrigerants, and business ground travel (in personal and rental vehicles). This report details the methods behind quantifying INL's GHG inventory and discusses lessons learned on better practices by which information important to tracking GHGs can be tracked and recorded. It is important to note that because this report differentiates between those portions of INL that are managed and operated by the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) and those managed by other contractors, it includes only that large proportion of Laboratory activities overseen by BEA. It is assumed that other contractors will provide similar reporting for those activities they manage, where appropriate.

  14. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gasemissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell, Ernst; Zhou, Nan; Sathaye, Jayant; Levine, Mark

    2006-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2000, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published a new set of baseline greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) (Nakicenovic et al., 2000). The SRES team defined four narrative storylines (A1, A2, B1 and B2) describing the relationships between the forces driving GHG and aerosol emissions and their evolution during the 21st century. The SRES reports emissions for each of these storylines by type of GHG and by fuel type to 2100 globally and for four world regions (OECD countries as of 1990, countries undergoing economic reform, developing countries in Asia, rest of world). Specific assumptions about the quantification of scenario drivers, such as population and economic growth, technological change, resource availability, land-use changes, and local and regional environmental policies, are also provided. End-use sector-level results for buildings, industry, or transportation or information regarding adoption of particular technologies and policies are not provided in the SRES. The goal of this report is to provide more detailed information on the SRES scenarios at the end use level including historical time series data and a decomposition of energy consumption to understand the forecast implications in terms of end use efficiency to 2030. This report focuses on the A1 (A1B) and B2 marker scenarios since they represent distinctly contrasting futures. The A1 storyline describes a future of very rapid economic growth, low population growth, and the rapid introduction of new and more efficient technologies. Major underlying themes are convergence among regions, capacity building, and increased cultural and social interactions, with a substantial reduction in regional differences in per capita income. The B2 storyline describes a world with an emphasis on economic, social, and environmental sustainability, especially at the local and regional levels. It is a world with moderate population growth, intermediate levels of economic development, and less rapid and more diverse technological change (Nakicenovic et al., 2000). Data were obtained from the SRES modeling teams that provide more detail than that reported in the SRES. For the A1 marker scenario, the modeling team provided final energy demand and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by fuel for industry, buildings, and transportation for nine world regions. Final energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions for three sectors (industry, transport, buildings) for the four SRES world regions were provided for the B2 marker scenario. This report describes the results of a disaggregation of the SRES projected energy use and energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions for the industrial, transport, and buildings sectors for 10 world regions (see Appendix 1) to 2030. An example of further disaggregation of the two SRES scenarios for the residential buildings sector in China is provided, illustrating how such aggregate scenarios can be interpreted at the end use level.

  15. Idaho National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gas FY08 Baseline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic attempt to account for the production and release of certain gasses generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gasses of interest are those which have become identified by climate science as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during fiscal year (FY) 2008 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. Concern about the environmental impact of GHGs has grown in recent years. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of a baseline estimate of total GHGs generated at the INL. Additionally, the INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE-sponsored national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federally-sponsored agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions in the future, and such documentation will require knowledge of a baseline against which reductions can be measured. INL’s FY08 GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in Federal recommendations and an as-yet-unpublished Technical and Support Document (TSD) using operational control boundary. It measures emissions generated in three Scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL’s organizational boundaries but are a consequence of INL’s activities). This inventory found that INL generated a total of 114,256 MT of CO2-equivalent emissions during fiscal year 2008 (FY08). The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL’s baseline GHG inventory: • Electricity is the largest contributor to INL’s GHG inventory, with over 50% of the net anthropogenic CO2e emissions • Other sources with high emissions were stationary combustion, fugitive emissions from the onsite landfill, mobile combustion (fleet fuels) and the employee commute • Sources with low emissions were contracted waste disposal, wastewater treatment (onsite and contracted) and fugitive emissions from refrigerants. This report details the methods behind quantifying INL’s GHG inventory and discusses lessons learned on better practices by which information important to tracking GHGs can be tracked and recorded. It is important to stress that the methodology behind this inventory followed guidelines that have not yet been formally adopted. Thus, some modification of the conclusions may be necessary as additional guidance is received. Further, because this report differentiates between those portions of the INL that are managed and operated by the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) and those managed by other contractors, it includes only that large proportion of Laboratory activities overseen by BEA. It is assumed that other contractors will provide similar reporting for those activities they manage, where appropriate.

  16. Development Tools at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract Management FermiDavid Turner David3DepthDetectingNERSC Helps3Tools

  17. 5, 12291261, 2012 diagnostic tool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gettelman, Andrew

    GMDD 5, 1229­1261, 2012 Community diagnostic tool A. Gettelman et al. Title Page Abstract to the corresponding final paper in GMD if available. A community diagnostic tool for Chemistry Climate Model Community diagnostic tool A. Gettelman et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables

  18. Command Line Tools Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    Command Line Tools Cloud Computing #12;Everybody (or nearly everybody) loves GUI. AWS Command Line of advanced features. After surviving the cloud computing class till now, Your are almost a command line guru! You need AWS command line tools, ec2-api-tools, to maximize the power of AWS cloud computing. Plugging

  19. Science and Technology Development to Integrate Energy Production and Greenhouse Gas Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pendergast, D.

    2004-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the carbon cycle from the point of view of past and present human influence. Potential future human input to the cycle through science and technology to manage atmospheric greenhouse gas are considered. The review suggests that humans will need to ingeniously exploit even more energy to integrate its use with control of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Continuing development and application of energy is essential if the development of human society is to be sustained through the coming centuries. The continuing development of nuclear energy seems an essential energy supply component.

  20. A Retrofit Tool for Improving Energy Efficiency of Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, Mark; Feng, Wei; Ke, Jing; Hong, Tianzhen; Zhou, Nan

    2013-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Existing buildings will dominate energy use in commercial buildings in the United States for three decades or longer and even in China for the about two decades. Retrofitting these buildings to improve energy efficiency and reduce energy use is thus critical to achieving the target of reducing energy use in the buildings sector. However there are few evaluation tools that can quickly identify and evaluate energy savings and cost effectiveness of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for retrofits, especially for buildings in China. This paper discusses methods used to develop such a tool and demonstrates an application of the tool for a retrofit analysis. The tool builds on a building performance database with pre-calculated energy consumption of ECMs for selected commercial prototype buildings using the EnergyPlus program. The tool allows users to evaluate individual ECMs or a package of ECMs. It covers building envelope, lighting and daylighting, HVAC, plug loads, service hot water, and renewable energy. The prototype building can be customized to represent an actual building with some limitations. Energy consumption from utility bills can be entered into the tool to compare and calibrate the energy use of the prototype building. The tool currently can evaluate energy savings and payback of ECMs for shopping malls in China. We have used the tool to assess energy and cost savings for retrofit of the prototype shopping mall in Shanghai. Future work on the tool will simplify its use and expand it to cover other commercial building types and other countries.

  1. Comparison of emerging diagnostic tools for large commercial HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann

    2001-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Diagnostic software tools for large commercial buildings are being developed to help detect and diagnose energy and other performance problems with building operations. These software applications utilize energy management control system (EMCS) trend log data. Due to the recent development of diagnostic tools, there has been little detailed comparison among the tools and a limited awareness of tool capabilities by potential users. Today, these diagnostic tools focus mainly on air handlers, but the opportunity exists for broadening the scope of the tools to include all major parts of heating, cooling, and ventilation systems in more detail. This paper compares several tools in the following areas: (1) Scope, intent, and background; (2) Data acquisition, pre-processing, and management; (3) Problems detected; (4) Raw data visualization; (5) Manual and automated diagnostic methods and (6) Level of automation. This comparison is intended to provide practitioners and researchers with a picture of the current state of diagnostic tools. There is tremendous potential for these tools to help improve commercial building energy and non-energy performance.

  2. Butt Joint Tool Commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martovetsky, N N

    2007-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    ITER Central Solenoid uses butt joints for connecting the pancakes in the CS module. The principles of the butt joining of the CICC were developed by the JAPT during CSMC project. The difference between the CSMC butt joint and the CS butt joint is that the CS butt joint is an in-line joint, while the CSMC is a double joint through a hairpin jumper. The CS butt joint has to carry the hoop load. The straight length of the joint is only 320 mm, and the vacuum chamber around the joint has to have a split in the clamp shell. These requirements are challenging. Fig.1 presents a CSMC joint, and Fig.2 shows a CS butt joint. The butt joint procedure was verified and demonstrated. The tool is capable of achieving all specified parameters. The vacuum in the end was a little higher than the target, which is not critical and readily correctable. We consider, tentatively that the procedure is established. Unexpectedly, we discover significant temperature nonuniformity in the joint cross section, which is not formally a violation of the specs, but is a point of concern. All testing parameters are recorded for QA purposes. We plan to modify the butt joining tool to improve its convenience of operation and provide all features necessary for production of butt joints by qualified personnel.

  3. Electrical Analysis Tool Suite for Inductrial Energy Audits 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morelli, F.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    20-23, 2014 AGENDA Current Available Tools Analysis Tools Demand Visualization Weather Disaggregation Demand Aberrations Photovoltaic Optimization Demand Scheduling Automatic Report Generation Demonstration ESL-IE-14-05-39 Proceedings of the Thrity... Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 Photovoltaic Optimization Solar Tracking TMY3 Surface Radiation Data Radiative Power Model Cost Optimization Photovoltaic Array Size PV Array Cost Expected Power Savings Payback Period ESL-IE-14-05-39 Proceedings...

  4. Electrical Analysis Tool Suite for Inductrial Energy Audits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morelli, F.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    20-23, 2014 AGENDA Current Available Tools Analysis Tools Demand Visualization Weather Disaggregation Demand Aberrations Photovoltaic Optimization Demand Scheduling Automatic Report Generation Demonstration ESL-IE-14-05-39 Proceedings of the Thrity... Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 Photovoltaic Optimization Solar Tracking TMY3 Surface Radiation Data Radiative Power Model Cost Optimization Photovoltaic Array Size PV Array Cost Expected Power Savings Payback Period ESL-IE-14-05-39 Proceedings...

  5. Monthly Highlights from Rutgers New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station April 2009 Sustainable Greenhouse Practices begin with Energy Audits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Robert M.

    Greenhouse Practices begin with Energy Audits A.J. Both, Ph.D., Extension Specialist in Bioresource? The first step is conducting a thorough audit, including a compre- hensive energy audit. Measure. Assess where things stand. Farm and greenhouse energy audits are highly specialized compared to those usually

  6. Response of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets to Multi-Millennial Greenhouse Warming in the Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goelzer, Heiko

    Response of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets to Multi-Millennial Greenhouse Warming of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to sustained multi-millennial greenhouse warming. Use was made of fully polar regions. This leads to an almost complete disintegration of the Greenland ice sheet after 3

  7. Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European determinants of life cycle emissions of greenhouse gases linked to the life cycle of biodiesel from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans. For biodiesel from European rapeseed and for biodiesel from Brazilian

  8. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into the Viability of a Waste Heat Powered Greenhouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    into the Viability of a Waste Heat Powered Greenhouse Do Youl Bae, Calvin Ng, Joseph Pateman University of British Investigation into the Viability of a Waste Heat Powered Greenhouse Do Youl Bae Calvin Ng Joseph Pateman March a microbrewery. In order to assess the viability of any potential structures to use this waste heat energy

  9. Downhole tool adapted for telemetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Provo, UT)

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A cycleable downhole tool such as a Jar, a hydraulic hammer, and a shock absorber adapted for telemetry. This invention applies to other tools where the active components of the tool are displaced when the tool is rotationally or translationally cycled. The invention consists of inductive or contact transmission rings that are connected by an extensible conductor. The extensible conductor permits the transmission of the signal before, after, and during the cycling of the tool. The signal may be continuous or intermittent during cycling. The invention also applies to downhole tools that do not cycle, but in operation are under such stress that an extensible conductor is beneficial. The extensible conductor may also consist of an extensible portion and a fixed portion. The extensible conductor also features clamps that maintain the conductor under stresses greater than that seen by the tool, and seals that are capable of protecting against downhole pressure and contamination.

  10. Tube cutter tool and method of use for coupon removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY); Etten, Jr., Marvin P. (Ballston Lake, NY); Kurowski, Paul A. (Scotia, NY)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tube cutter tool is insertable into a tube for cutting a coupon from a damaged site on the exterior of the tube. Prior to using the tool, the damaged site is first located from the interior of the tube using a multi-coil pancake eddy current test probe. The damaged site is then marked. A fiber optic probe is used to monitor the subsequent cutting procedure which is performed using a hole saw mounted on the tube cutter tool. Prior to completion of the cutting procedure, a drill in the center of the hole saw is drilled into the coupon to hold it in place.

  11. Tube cutter tool and method of use for coupon removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nachbar, H.D.; Etten, M.P. Jr.; Kurowski, P.A.

    1997-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A tube cutter tool is insertable into a tube for cutting a coupon from a damaged site on the exterior of the tube. Prior to using the tool, the damaged site is first located from the interior of the tube using a multi-coil pancake eddy current test probe. The damaged site is then marked. A fiber optic probe is used to monitor the subsequent cutting procedure which is performed using a hole saw mounted on the tube cutter tool. Prior to completion of the cutting procedure, a drill in the center of the hole saw is drilled into the coupon to hold it in place. 4 figs.

  12. Online Analysis of Wind and Solar Part I: Ramping Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Makarov, Yuri V.; Subbarao, Krishnappa

    2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To facilitate wider penetration of renewable resources without compromising system reliability concerns arising from the lack of predictability of intermittent renewable resources, a tool for use by California Independent System Operator (CAISO) power grid operators was developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in conjunction with CAISO with funding from California Energy Commission. This tool predicts and displays additional capacity and ramping requirements caused by uncertainties in forecasts of loads and renewable generation. The tool is currently operational in the CAISO operations center. This is one of two final reports on the project.

  13. Electronic authoring tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurford, J.M.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More than a decade ago, word processing software revolutionized the way documents were prepared, and productivity was increased. But the editing and formatting capabilities of most word processors did very little to prevent errors in spelling, typing, grammar, diction, style, or organization from slipping through to the final documents. In the past few years, the number of software tools that aid the author has increased substantially. They now vary in scope from simple spelling checkers to sophisticated diction analyzers and idea processors. Moreover, writing-aid-software described in this report is now available for many types of computing systems, including personal computers, scientific workstations, and mainframes. The various pieces of software can be used in interactive or non-interactive (batch) modes.

  14. Steam System Tool Suite Introduction Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Steam System Tool Suite Introduction Guide Alternate Text Narratives and Graphic.............................................................................................................................6 Modules Steam System Scoping Tool (SSST)........................................................................................8 Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT

  15. Sandia Energy - Smart Grid Tools and Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Smart Grid Tools and Technology Home Stationary Power Grid Modernization Renewable Energy Integration Smart Grid Tools and Technology Smart Grid Tools and TechnologyTara...

  16. Economic Implications of International Participation Alternatives for Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    of International Participation Alternatives for Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Abstract The world of biofuels. However, such options can be competitive with domestic food production. In a free trade arena of effects that would be observed due to the simplifying cost assumptions, indicate compliance causes supply

  17. Hybrid modeling of industrial energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions with an application to Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    implemented in Canada, what would be the response of the industrial sector in terms of energy consumptionHybrid modeling of industrial energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions with an application for modeling industrial energy consumption, among them a series of environmental and security externalities

  18. The Future of Coal in a Greenhouse Gas Constrained World Howard Herzog1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 The Future of Coal in a Greenhouse Gas Constrained World Howard Herzog1 , James Katzer1 1 M coal can make to the growing world energy demand during a period of increasing concern about global pursue in the short-term so that we can utilize coal in the longer-term and reduce its associated CO2

  19. Scaling Behavior of the Life Cycle Energy of Residential Buildings and Impacts on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Scaling Behavior of the Life Cycle Energy of Residential Buildings and Impacts on Greenhouse Gas required for building the structure; and 2) the operational energy required for habitation energy used for space heating and cooling during the life of the building. Similar ratios are found

  20. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption contribution to the debate on environmental policy in Denmark. #12;3 Contents 1 SUMMARY 5 1.1 OZONE OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES 18 3.1 IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 18 3.1.1 CFCs 18 3.1.2 Tetrachloromethane 19 3

  1. 8 Prospects for Biological Carbon Sinks in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    8 Prospects for Biological Carbon Sinks in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Systems John Reilly1. With emissions trading, emitters who found they could cheaply reduce their emissions might have allowances- ing Australia, Canada, Japan and Russia. This group also pushed strongly for inter- national emissions

  2. Driving and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Evidence Base and How to Learn More

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Driving and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Evidence Base and How to Learn;SB 375 GHG Reduc2on Targets · SCAG (greater Los Angeles) ­ 189 ci2es and 6 as underlying data, rela2onships, and calibra2on. 2. Policies and Prac2ces a) Models

  3. Tax-versus-trading and efficient revenue recycling as issues for greenhouse gas abatement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pezzey, Jack

    Tax-versus-trading and efficient revenue recycling as issues for greenhouse gas abatement Final://people.anu.edu.au/jack.pezzey (J.C.V. Pezzey) Keywords: emission pricing, tax-versus-trading, uncertainties, revenue recycling, and revenue recycling. Including multiple, independent parties greatly reduces the welfare advantage

  4. A graphical technique for explaining the relationship between energy security and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    ERG/200806 A graphical technique for explaining the relationship between energy security the relationship between energy security and greenhouse gas emissions Larry Hughes and Nikita Sheth Abstract for explaining this relationship, based upon jurisdiction-specific data on energy supply, infrastructure

  5. GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Donna

    GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion),2 China, Russia, Japan, India and Canada--accounted for more than 70 percent of energy-related CO2. Figure 1 Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1850­2030 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940

  6. Assessing the fuel Use and greenhouse gas emissions of future light-duty vehicles in Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nishimura, Eriko

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is of great concern in Japan, as well as elsewhere, such as in the U.S. and EU. More than 20% of GHG emissions in Japan come from the transportation sector, and a more than 70% ...

  7. Greenhouse Gas Pollution in the Stratosphere Due to Increasing Airplane Traffic, Effects On the Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murty, Katta G.

    Greenhouse Gas Pollution in the Stratosphere Due to Increasing Airplane Traffic, Effects On the Environment Katta G. Murty Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering University of Michigan, Ann to tremendous increases in the construction of huge airport facilities, the development of large jumbo

  8. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in bioenergy ecosystems: 2. Potential greenhouse gas emissions and global

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in bioenergy ecosystems: 2. Potential greenhouse gas emissions) from bioenergy ecosystems with a biogeochemical model AgTEM, assuming maize (Zea mays L.), switchgrass haÃ?1 yrÃ?1 . Among all three bioenergy crops, Miscanthus is the most biofuel productive and the least

  9. Energy, environmental and greenhouse gas effects of using alternative fuels in cement production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    1 Energy, environmental and greenhouse gas effects of using alternative fuels in cement to an increase of AF use from 8.7% to 20.9% of the total energy consumption. 2. One of the alternative fuels used cement industry produces about 3.3 billion tonnes of cement annually. Cement production is energy

  10. Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 6C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imamoglu, Atac

    LETTERS Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 6C Malte Meinshausen1. Frame6,7 & Myles R. Allen7 More than 100 countries have adopted a global warming limit of 2 6C or below levels in 2050 are robust indicators of the probability that twenty-first century warming will not exceed

  11. The hydrogen energy economy: its long-term role in greenhouse gas reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    The hydrogen energy economy: its long-term role in greenhouse gas reduction Geoff Dutton, Abigail for Climate Change Research Technical Report 18 #12;The Hydrogen Energy Economy: its long term role 2005 This is the final report from Tyndall research project IT1.26 (The Hydrogen energy economy: its

  12. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Intensity and the Global Climate Change Initiative (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Administrations Global Climate Change Initiative. A key goal of the Climate Change Initiative is to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity-defined as the ratio of total U.S. GHG emissions to economic output-by 18% over the 2002 to 2012 time frame.

  13. A. Bringing Plants Into BTI The Greenhouse Manager must be given reasonable, advance notice before

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    10 8.0 PLANTS A. Bringing Plants Into BTI The Greenhouse Manager must be given reasonable, advance notice before plants are brought into the growth facility. Incoming plants will be inspected for pests and diseases. Pest control measures or quarantine may be required before moving plants into the assigned

  14. Effects of Biochar and Basalt Additions on Carbon Sequestration and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases in Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Effects of Biochar and Basalt Additions on Carbon Sequestration and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases Emissions--Carbon Dioxide Emissions--Sequestration and Storage--Biochar--Basalt--Organic Fertilizers, this investigation focuses on the range of potential of different soil additives to enhance sequestration and storage

  15. Identification of optimum potassium nutrition of greenhouse plants grown in recirculating subirrigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blessington, Trisha R.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of this research was to determine the optimum potassium nutrition of greenhouse plants grown in recirculating subirrigation. New Guinea impatiens 'Ovation Salmon Pink Swirl' were grown in recirculating subirrigation trays using 0 -12 mM K, with constant 1.5 mM P...

  16. Uncertainty in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from United States Coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    and transport, to compare its environmental impact with other fuels. Until recent years, LCA studies environmental impacts between two competing fuels/products are small. This study builds upon an existingUncertainty in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from United States Coal Aranya Venkatesh

  17. Post Doctoral Research Fellowship Simulating the greenhouse gas emission from boreal region reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of greenhouse gases from northern boreal reservoirs as part of a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research modified the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model to simulate the exchange of CO2 between boreal by the creation of reservoirs for the production of hydro-electricity. We have recently developed a water column

  18. Lecture 3 week 2/3 2012: Solar radiation, the greenhouse, global heat engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ....cycles of cold and warm climate. Averaged over the globe, sunlight falling on Earth in July (aphelion) is indeedLecture 3 week 2/3 2012: H 222c Solar radiation, the greenhouse, global heat engine http://en.wikipedia.org/ #12;#12;The 3 streams of this course (see syllabus) 1.Energy forms of energy concentrated, dilute

  19. Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse Gas on recycled paper #12;1 Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production. Melillo*, John M. Reilly§ , and Sergey Paltsev§ Abstract The production of cellulosic biofuels may have

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative futures of deforestation and agricultural management in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative futures of deforestation and agricultural management climate. We examine scenarios of deforestation and postclearing land use to estimate the future (2006.8 to 15.9 Pg CO2-equivalents (CO2-e) from 2006 to 2050. Deforestation is the largest source of green

  1. TECHNICAL REPORTS The greenhouse gas (GHG) impact of composting a range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    TECHNICAL REPORTS 1396 The greenhouse gas (GHG) impact of composting a range of potential by composting and GHG emissions during composting. The primary carbon credits associated with composting are through CH4 avoidance when feedstocks are composted instead of landfilled (municipal solid waste

  2. Potential for Biofuel-based Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation: Rationale and Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    1 Potential for Biofuel-based Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation: Rationale and Potential By Bruce biofuel usage. Biofuel feedstocks are a source of raw material that can be transformed into petroleum for coal. In the USA, liquid fuel biofuel production has not proven to be broadly economically feasible

  3. SMARTTool Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report Reporting Entity: University of Northern British Columbia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Reporting Year: Calendar Year 2010 Greenhouse Gases in Tonnes Measure Quantity CO2 CH4 N2O tCO2e1 Scope 1.30 Emissions from Biomass Total Biomass Emissions 0.83 0.00 0.00 0.83 Total Emissions, Calendar Year 2010 5

  4. Economic Potential of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions: Comparative Role for Soil Sequestration in Agriculture and Forestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    for presentation at DOE First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, May 14-17, 2001, Washington D.C. #12 sequestration generally refers to the absorption of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through photosyntheticEconomic Potential of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions: Comparative Role for Soil Sequestration

  5. 2007-No54-BoilingPoint Health and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biomass and Fossil Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2007-No54-BoilingPoint Theme Health and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biomass and Fossil Fuel Energy of fossil-fuel energy systems. These scenarios are analysed for various environmental and health impacts from fossil fuels and other energy sources reported by IEA []. In all of these countries except Kenya

  6. Integrated Chemical Complex and Cogeneration Analysis System: Energy Conservation and Greenhouse Gas Management Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Ralph W.

    19f Integrated Chemical Complex and Cogeneration Analysis System: Energy Conservation and Cogeneration Analysis System is an advanced technology for energy conservation and pollution prevention, Beaumont, TX 77710, hopperjr@hal.lamar.edu, yawscl@hal.lamar.edu Key words; Energy Conservation, Greenhouse

  7. Weigel, Southworth, and Meyer 1 Calculators for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weigel, Southworth, and Meyer 1 Calculators for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Public-0171 Fax: (404) 894-2278 E-mail: frank.southworth@ce.gatech.edu Dr. Michael D. Meyer, P.E. Director-2278 E-mail: michael.meyer@ce.gatech.edu #12;Weigel, Southworth, and Meyer 2 Calculators for Estimating

  8. Greenhouse and Field Nursery Evaluation for Potato Common Scab Tolerance in a Tetraploid Population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douches, David S.

    Greenhouse and Field Nursery Evaluation for Potato Common Scab Tolerance in a Tetraploid Population January 2009 # Potato Association of America 2009 Abstract Potato common scab (Streptomyces scabies (Thaxt.) Waksman & Henrici) is a major disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), due to the unmarketability

  9. Greenhouse and Field Nursery Evaluation for Potato Common Scab Tolerance in a Tetraploid Population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douches, David S.

    Greenhouse and Field Nursery Evaluation for Potato Common Scab Tolerance in a Tetraploid Population J. Driscoll & J. Coombs & R. Hammerschmidt & W. Kirk & L. Wanner & D. Douches # Potato Association of America 2009 Abstract Potato common scab (Streptomyces scabies (Thaxt.) Waksman & Henrici) is a major

  10. arXiv:1311.0292v1[astro-ph.EP]1Nov2013 Runaway greenhouse effect on exomoons due to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnes, Rory

    arXiv:1311.0292v1[astro-ph.EP]1Nov2013 Runaway greenhouse effect on exomoons due to irradiation to experience a runaway greenhouse effect. Results. Planetary illumination from a 13-Jupiter-mass planet onto

  11. Anomalous - viscosity current drive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stix, Thomas H. (Princeton, NJ); Ono, Masayuki (Princeton Junction, NJ)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for maintaining a steady-state current in a toroidal magnetically confined plasma. An electric current is generated in an edge region at or near the outermost good magnetic surface of the toroidal plasma. The edge current is generated in a direction parallel to the flow of current in the main plasma and such that its current density is greater than the average density of the main plasma current. The current flow in the edge region is maintained in a direction parallel to the main current for a period of one or two of its characteristic decay times. Current from the edge region will penetrate radially into the plasma and augment the main plasma current through the mechanism of anomalous viscosity. In another aspect of the invention, current flow driven between a cathode and an anode is used to establish a start-up plasma current. The plasma-current channel is magnetically detached from the electrodes, leaving a plasma magnetically insulated from contact with any material obstructions including the cathode and anode.

  12. ADVANCED POWER SYSTEMS ANALYSIS TOOLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert R. Jensen; Steven A. Benson; Jason D. Laumb

    2001-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) modeling tools and improved analytical methods has provided key information in optimizing advanced power system design and operating conditions for efficiency, producing minimal air pollutant emissions and utilizing a wide range of fossil fuel properties. This project was divided into four tasks: the demonstration of the ash transformation model, upgrading spreadsheet tools, enhancements to analytical capabilities using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and improvements to the slag viscosity model. The ash transformation model, Atran, was used to predict the size and composition of ash particles, which has a major impact on the fate of the combustion system. To optimize Atran key factors such as mineral fragmentation and coalescence, the heterogeneous and homogeneous interaction of the organically associated elements must be considered as they are applied to the operating conditions. The resulting model's ash composition compares favorably to measured results. Enhancements to existing EERC spreadsheet application included upgrading interactive spreadsheets to calculate the thermodynamic properties for fuels, reactants, products, and steam with Newton Raphson algorithms to perform calculations on mass, energy, and elemental balances, isentropic expansion of steam, and gasifier equilibrium conditions. Derivative calculations can be performed to estimate fuel heating values, adiabatic flame temperatures, emission factors, comparative fuel costs, and per-unit carbon taxes from fuel analyses. Using state-of-the-art computer-controlled scanning electron microscopes and associated microanalysis systems, a method to determine viscosity using the incorporation of grey-scale binning acquired by the SEM image was developed. The image analysis capabilities of a backscattered electron image can be subdivided into various grey-scale ranges that can be analyzed separately. Since the grey scale's intensity is dependent on the chemistry of the particle, it is possible to map chemically similar areas which can also be related to the viscosity of that compound at temperature. A second method was also developed to determine the elements associated with the organic matrix of the coals, which is currently determined by chemical fractionation. Mineral compositions and mineral densities can be determined for both included and excluded minerals, as well as the fraction of the ash that will be represented by that mineral on a frame-by-frame basis. The slag viscosity model was improved to provide improved predictions of slag viscosity and temperature of critical viscosity for representative Powder River Basin subbituminous and lignite coals.

  13. Just tooling around: Experiences with arctools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuttle, M.A. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Sciences

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The three US Department of Energy (DOE) Installations on the Oak Ridge Reservation (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Y-12 and K-25) were established during World War II as part of the Manhattan Project to build ``the bomb.`` In later years, the work at these facilities involved nuclear energy research, defense-related activities, and uranium enrichment, resulting in the generation of radioactive material and other toxic by-products. Work is now in progress to identify and clean up the environmental contamination from these and other wastes. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., which manages the Oak Ridge sites as well as DOE installations at Portsmouth, Ohio and Paducah, Kentucky, has been charged with creating and maintaining a comprehensive environmental information system in order to comply with the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Oak Ridge Reservation and the State of Tennessee Oversight Agreement between the US Department of Energy and the State of Tennessee. As a result, the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS) was conceived and is currently being implemented. The tools chosen for the OREIS system are Oracle for the relational database, SAS for data analysis and graphical representation, and Arc/INFO and ArcView for the spatial analysis and display component. Within the broad scope of ESRI`s Arc/Info software, ArcTools was chosen as the graphic user interface for inclusion of Arc/Info into OREIS. The purpose of this paper is to examine in the advantages and disadvantages of incorporating ArcTools for the presentation of Arc/INFO in the OREIS system. The immediate and mid-term development goals of the OREIS system as they relate to ArcTools will be presented. A general discussion of our experiences with the ArcTools product is also included.

  14. What are the likely roles of fossil fuels in the next 15, 50, and 100 years, with or without active controls on greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, R.L. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (USA)); South, D.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the industrial revolution, the production and utilization of fossil fuels have been an engine driving economic and industrial development in many countries worldwide. However, future reliance on fossil fuels has been questioned due to emerging concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and its potential contribution to global climate change (GCC). While substantial uncertainties exist regarding the ability to accurately predict climate change and the role of various greenhouse gases, some scientists and policymakers have called for immediate action. As a result, there have been many proposals and worldwide initiatives to address the perceived problem. In many of these proposals, the premise is that CO{sub 2} emissions constitute the principal problem, and, correspondingly, that fossil-fuel combustion must be curtailed to resolve this problem. This paper demonstrates that the worldwide fossil fuel resource base and infrastructure are extensive and thus, will continue to be relied on in developed and developing countries. Furthermore, in the electric generating sector (the focus of this paper), numerous clean coal technologies (CCTs) are currently being demonstrated (or are under development) that have higher conversion efficiencies, and thus lower CO{sub 2} emission rates than conventional coal-based technologies. As these technologies are deployed in new power plant or repowering applications to meet electrical load growth, CO{sub 2} (and other GHG) emission levels per unit of electricity generated will be lower than that produced by conventional fossil-fuel technologies. 37 refs., 14 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of Marcellus shale gas This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of Marcellus shale gas This article has been downloaded from.1088/1748-9326/6/3/034014 Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of Marcellus shale gas Mohan Jiang1 , W Michael Griffin2,3 , Chris greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the production of Marcellus shale natural gas and compares its emissions

  16. Slide system for machine tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Douglass, S.S.; Green, W.L.

    1980-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a machine tool which permits the machining of nonaxisymmetric surfaces on a workpiece while rotating the workpiece about a central axis of rotation. The machine tool comprises a conventional two-slide system (X-Y) with one of these slides being provided with a relatively short travel high-speed auxiliary slide which carries the material-removing tool. The auxiliary slide is synchronized with the spindle speed and the position of the other two slides and provides a high-speed reciprocating motion required for the displacement of the cutting tool for generating a nonaxisymmetric surface at a selected location on the workpiece.

  17. Automated energy monitoring of machine tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vijayaraghavan, Athulan; Dornfeld, David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in manufacturing the tooling for many consumer products,process parameters, tooling, and cutting ?uid based on

  18. Information Technology Tools for Multifamily Building Programs...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Information Technology Tools for Multifamily Building Programs Information Technology Tools for Multifamily Building Programs Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multifamily ...

  19. Natural System Evaluation and Tool Development: International...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Natural System Evaluation and Tool Development: International Collaborations - FY'13 Progress Report Natural System Evaluation and Tool Development: International Collaborations -...

  20. Impact of Component Sizing in Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Energy Resource and Greenhouse Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Widespread use of alternative hybrid powertrains currently appears inevitable and many opportunities for substantial progress remain. The necessity for environmentally friendly vehicles, in conjunction with increasing concerns regarding U.S. dependency on foreign oil and climate change, has led to significant investment in enhancing the propulsion portfolio with new technologies. Recently, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have attracted considerable attention due to their potential to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector. PHEVs are especially appealing for short daily commutes with excessive stop-and-go driving. However, the high costs associated with their components, and in particular, with their energy storage systems have been significant barriers to extensive market penetration of PEVs. In the research reported here, we investigated the implications of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions in a medium duty PHEV. An optimization framework is proposed and applied to two different parallel powertrain configurations, pre-transmission and post-transmission, to derive the Pareto frontier with respect to motor/generator and battery size. The optimization and modeling approach adopted here facilitates better understanding of the potential benefits from proper selection of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions. This understanding can help us identify the appropriate sizing of these components and thus reducing the PHEV cost. Addressing optimal sizing of PHEV components could aim at an extensive market penetration of PHEVs.

  1. Impact of the renewable oxygenate standard for reformulated gasoline on ethanol demand, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stork, K.C.; Singh, M.K.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To assure a place for renewable oxygenates in the national reformulated gasoline (RFG) program, the US Environmental Protection Agency has promulgated the renewable oxygenate standard (ROS) for RFG. It is assumed that ethanol derived from corn will be the only broadly available renewable oxygenate during Phase I of the RFG program. This report analyzes the impact that the ROS could have on the supply of ethanol, its transported volume, and its displacement from existing markets. It also considers the energy and crude oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that could result from the production and use of various RFGs that could meet the ROS requirements. The report concludes that on the basis of current and projected near-term ethanol capacity, if ethanol is the only available renewable oxygenate used to meet the requirements of the ROS, diversion of ethanol from existing use as a fuel is likely to be necessary. Year-round use of ethanol and ETBE would eliminate the need for diversion by reducing winter demand for ethanol. On an RFG-program-wide basis, using ethanol and ETBE to satisfy the ROS can be expected to slightly reduce fossil energy use, increase crude oil use, and have essentially no effect on GHG emissions or total energy use relative to using RFG oxygenated only with MTBE.

  2. Mound's decommissioning experience, tooling, and techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Combs, A.B.; Davis, W.P.; Elswick, T.C.; Garner, J.M.; Geichman, J.R.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monsanto Research Corporation (MRC), which operates Mound for the Department of Energy (DOE), has been decommissioning radioactively contaminated facilities since 1949. We are currently decommissioning three plutonium-238 contaminated facilities (approximately 50,000 ft/sup 2/) that contained 1100 linear ft of gloveboxes; 900 linear ft of conveyor housing; 2650 linear ft of dual underground liquid waste lines; and associated contaminated piping, services, equipment, structures, and soil. As of June 1982, over 29,000 Ci of plutonium-238 have been removed in waste and scrap residues. As a result of the current and previous decommissioning projects, valuable experience has been gained in tooling and techniques. Special techniques have been developed in planning, exposure control, contamination control, equipment removal, structural decontamination, and waste packaging.

  3. Your UNIX Account Basic Unix Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Weigang

    Your UNIX Account 2 Basic Unix Tools 3 Unix Power Tools Weigang Qiu Introduction & UNIX Tutorial #12 & UNIX Tutorial #12;Your UNIX Account Basic Unix Tools Unix Power Tools UNIX Directory Structure FileYour UNIX Account Basic Unix Tools Unix Power Tools Introduction & UNIX Tutorial Weigang Qiu

  4. Resonant nuclear battery may aid in mitigating the greenhouse effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, P.M. (Peripheral Systems, Inc., Portland, OR (USA))

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new process for the direct conversion of radioactive decay energy directly into electricity of a usable form is currently being developed by Peripheral Systems, Inc. of Portland, Oregon. United States Patent 4,835,433 was issued May 30, 1989 to protect this Resonant Nuclear Power Supply. When developed, this system promises cheap, reliable power from a package small and light enough to be mobile and an energy density great enough for use as a space-based power supply. One of the potential domestic applications could be to power electric automobiles. Use in highly populated areas would have a tremendous beneficial effect on the ecology. The principle of operation for the resonant nuclear power supply is an LCR (inductance capacitance resistance) resonant tank circuit oscillating at its self-resonant frequency (at resonance, the inductive reactance and the capacitive reactance cancel to leave the ohmic resistance of the circuit as the only major loss of energy). A means for absorbing the natural radioactive decay energy emitted from an alpha or beta source is provided in the primary tank circuit and contributes an amount of energy, by means of the beta voltaic effect, in excess of the energy required to sustain the oscillation of the LCR primary tank. A transformer is impedance matched to this oscillating primary circuit for efficient energy transfer of the excess energy to a secondary output circuit, which yields net electrical power in a high-frequency usable form to drive a load.

  5. Induction Machine Bearing Failures Detection Using Stator Current Frequency Spectral Subtraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    processing tools for stator current post-processing in order to detect a characteristic fault frequenciesInduction Machine Bearing Failures Detection Using Stator Current Frequency Spectral Subtraction El; [.] Matrix transpose; [] Rotor current vector; [] Stator current vector; [] Rotor windings self and mutual

  6. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 2: Appendixes A--S

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLuchi, M.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains the appendices to the report on Emission of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity. Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and other greenhouse gases are discussed. Sources of emission including vehicles, natural gas operations, oil production, coal mines, and power plants are covered. The various energy industries are examined in terms of greenhouse gas production and emissions. Those industries include electricity generation, transport of goods via trains, trucks, ships and pipelines, coal, natural gas and natural gas liquids, petroleum, nuclear energy, and biofuels.

  7. Software tools for developing parallel applications. Part 1: Code development and debugging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Geist, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.; Pancake, C. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Rover, D. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Developing an application for parallel computers can be a lengthy and frustrating process making it a perfect candidate for software tool support. Yet application programmers are often the last to hear about new tools emerging from R and D efforts. This paper provides an overview of two focuses of tool support: code development and debugging. Each is discussed in terms of the programmer needs addressed, the extent to which representative current tools meet those needs, and what new levels of tool support are important if parallel computing is to become more widespread.

  8. Vehicle assisted harpoon breaching tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pacheco, James E. (Albuquerque, NM); Highland, Steven E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A harpoon breaching tool that allows security officers, SWAT teams, police, firemen, soldiers, or others to forcibly breach metal doors or walls very quickly (in a few seconds), without explosives. The harpoon breaching tool can be mounted to a vehicle's standard receiver hitch.

  9. Computational Tools for Supersymmetry Calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard Baer

    2009-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    I present a brief overview of a variety of computational tools for supersymmetry calculations, including: spectrum generators, cross section and branching fraction calculators, low energy constraints, general purpose event generators, matrix element event generators, SUSY dark matter codes, parameter extraction codes and Les Houches interface tools.

  10. Tools for charged Higgs bosons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oscar Stål

    2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the status of publicly available software tools applicable to charged Higgs physics. A selection of codes are highlighted in more detail, focusing on new developments that have taken place since the previous charged Higgs workshop in 2008. We conclude that phenomenologists now have the tools ready to face the LHC data. A new webpage collecting charged Higgs resources is presented.

  11. Greenhouse gas reduction by recovery and utilization of landfill methane and CO{sub 2} technical and market feasibility study, Boului Landfill, Bucharest, Romania. Final report, September 30, 1997--September 19, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, W.J.; Brown, W.R.; Siwajek, L. [Acrion Technologies, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Sanders, W.I. [Power Management Corp., Bellevue, WA (United States); Botgros, I. [Petrodesign, SA, Bucharest (Romania)

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project is a landfill gas to energy project rated at about 4 megawatts (electric) at startup, increasing to 8 megawatts over time. The project site is Boului Landfill, near Bucharest, Romania. The project improves regional air quality, reduces emission of greenhouse gases, controls and utilizes landfill methane, and supplies electric power to the local grid. The technical and economic feasibility of pre-treating Boului landfill gas with Acrion`s new landfill gas cleanup technology prior to combustion for power production us attractive. Acrion`s gas treatment provides several benefits to the currently structured electric generation project: (1) increase energy density of landfill gas from about 500 Btu/ft{sup 3} to about 750 Btu/ft{sup 3}; (2) remove contaminants from landfill gas to prolong engine life and reduce maintenance;; (3) recover carbon dioxide from landfill gas for Romanian markets; and (4) reduce emission of greenhouse gases methane and carbon dioxide. Greenhouse gas emissions reduction attributable to successful implementation of the landfill gas to electric project, with commercial liquid CO{sub 2} recovery, is estimated to be 53 million metric tons of CO{sub 2} equivalent of its 15 year life.

  12. Electric current locator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Paul E. (Corvallis, OR); Woodside, Charles Rigel (Corvallis, OR)

    2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  13. DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL FOR GAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL FOR GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING Carl D. Sorensen by the intense heat and light of the ·elding arc. To avoid these problems it is desirable to use the welding arc. The arc is treated as an electrical "black box" with the weld current as an input and the weld voltage

  14. Eco-efficiency for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation of municipal solid waste management: A case study of Tianjin, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Wei, E-mail: zhaowei.tju@gmail.com [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Liaoning University of Technology, 121000 Jinzhou (China); Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Huppes, Gjalt, E-mail: huppes@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Voet, Ester van der, E-mail: Voet@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The issue of municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been highlighted in China due to the continually increasing MSW volumes being generated and the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities. This article presents a quantitative eco-efficiency (E/E) analysis on MSW management in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. A methodology for E/E analysis has been proposed, with an emphasis on the consistent integration of life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC). The environmental and economic impacts derived from LCA and LCC have been normalized and defined as a quantitative E/E indicator. The proposed method was applied in a case study of Tianjin, China. The study assessed the current MSW management system, as well as a set of alternative scenarios, to investigate trade-offs between economy and GHG emissions mitigation. Additionally, contribution analysis was conducted on both LCA and LCC to identify key issues driving environmental and economic impacts. The results show that the current Tianjin's MSW management system emits the highest GHG and costs the least, whereas the situation reverses in the integrated scenario. The key issues identified by the contribution analysis show no linear relationship between the global warming impact and the cost impact in MSW management system. The landfill gas utilization scenario is indicated as a potential optimum scenario by the proposed E/E analysis, given the characteristics of MSW, technology levels, and chosen methodologies. The E/E analysis provides an attractive direction towards sustainable waste management, though some questions with respect to uncertainty need to be discussed further.

  15. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Winkelman; Tim Hargrave; Christine Vanderlan

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors conclude in this report that an upstream system would ensure complete regulatory coverage of transportation sector emissions in an efficient and feasible manner, and as such represents a key component of a national least-cost GHG emissions abatement strategy. The broad coverage provided by an upstream system recommends this approach over vehicle-maker based approaches, which would not cover emissions from heavy-duty vehicles and the aviation, marine and off-road sub-sectors. The on-road fleet approach unfairly and inefficiently burdens vehicle manufacturers with responsibility for emissions that they cannot control. A new vehicles approach would exclude emissions from vehicles on the road prior to program inception. The hybrid approach faces significant technical and political complications, and it is not clear that the approach would actually change behavior among vehicle makers and users, which is its main purpose. They also note that a trading system would fail to encourage many land use and infrastructure measures that affect VMT growth and GHG emissions. They recommend that this market failure be addressed by complementing the trading system with a program specifically targeting land use- and infrastructure-related activities. A key issue that must be addressed in designing a national GHG control strategy is whether or not it is necessary to guarantee GHG reductions from the transport sector. Neither an upstream system nor a downstream approach would do so, since both would direct capital to the least-cost abatement opportunities wherever they were found. They review two reasons why it may be desirable to force transportation sector reductions: first, that the long-term response to climate change will require reductions in all sectors; and second, the many ancillary benefits associated with transportation-related, and especially VMT-related, emissions reduction activities. If policy makers find it desirable to establish transportation-specific policies, they recommend (in addition to the land use policies mentioned above), that they combine an upstream trading system with a carbon efficiency standard similar to the current CAFE standard. Under this approach a fuel price signal would be complemented by incentives for manufacturers to produce more carbon efficient vehicles. To prevent vehicle manufacturers from being forced to pay more than other sectors for reducing GHG emissions, they recommend that the vehicle makers be allowed to pay a cash penalty equal to the market price of allowances in lieu of meeting carbon efficiency requirements.

  16. Lubrication and Tool-wear in the Turning of Hard Powdered Metals By: Edward Chow and Anastasia Linuwih

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Lubrication and Tool-wear in the Turning of Hard Powdered Metals By: Edward Chow and Anastasia Linuwih Background A current target and need in the auto industry is to achieve improved tool life in machining powered metal valve seats for an engine block. The tools required are specialized and expensive

  17. Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects Within The Frame Of Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerlich, Gerhard

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that authors trace back to the traditional works of Fourier 1824, Tyndall 1861 and Arrhenius 1896 and is still supported in global climatology essentially describes a fictitious mechanism in which a planetary atmosphere acts as a heat pump driven by an environment that is radiatively interacting with but radiatively equilibrated to the atmospheric system. According to the second law of thermodynamics such a planetary machine can never exist. Nevertheless, in almost all texts of global climatology and in a widespread secondary literature it is taken for granted that such mechanism is real and stands on a firm scientific foundation. In this paper the popular conjecture is analyzed and the underlying physical principles are clarified. By showing that (a) there are no common physical laws between the warming phenomenon in glass houses and the fictitious atmospheric greenhouse effects, (b) there are no calculations to determine an average surface temperature of a planet, ...

  18. Data Assimilation Tools for CO2 Reservoir Model Development – A Review of Key Data Types, Analyses, and Selected Software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Sullivan, E. C.; Murray, Christopher J.; Last, George V.; Black, Gary D.

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has embarked on an initiative to develop world-class capabilities for performing experimental and computational analyses associated with geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. The ultimate goal of this initiative is to provide science-based solutions for helping to mitigate the adverse effects of greenhouse gas emissions. This Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative currently has two primary focus areas—advanced experimental methods and computational analysis. The experimental methods focus area involves the development of new experimental capabilities, supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL) housed at PNNL, for quantifying mineral reaction kinetics with CO2 under high temperature and pressure (supercritical) conditions. The computational analysis focus area involves numerical simulation of coupled, multi-scale processes associated with CO2 sequestration in geologic media, and the development of software to facilitate building and parameterizing conceptual and numerical models of subsurface reservoirs that represent geologic repositories for injected CO2. This report describes work in support of the computational analysis focus area. The computational analysis focus area currently consists of several collaborative research projects. These are all geared towards the development and application of conceptual and numerical models for geologic sequestration of CO2. The software being developed for this focus area is referred to as the Geologic Sequestration Software Suite or GS3. A wiki-based software framework is being developed to support GS3. This report summarizes work performed in FY09 on one of the LDRD projects in the computational analysis focus area. The title of this project is Data Assimilation Tools for CO2 Reservoir Model Development. Some key objectives of this project in FY09 were to assess the current state-of-the-art in reservoir model development, the data types and analyses that need to be performed in order to develop and parameterize credible and robust reservoir simulation models, and to review existing software that is applicable to these analyses. This report describes this effort and highlights areas in which additional software development, wiki application extensions, or related GS3 infrastructure development may be warranted.

  19. California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In July 2002, California Assembly Bill 1493 (A.B. 1493) was signed into law. The law requires that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) develop and adopt, by January 1, 2005, greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles that provide the maximum feasible reduction in emissions. In estimating the feasibility of the standard, CARB is required to consider cost-effectiveness, technological capability, economic impacts, and flexibility for manufacturers in meeting the standard.

  20. The Marginal Damage Costs of Different Greenhouse Gases: An Application of FUND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anthoff, David; Rose, Steven K.; Tol, Richard

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use FUND 3.8 to estimate the social cost of four greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and sulphur hexafluoride emissions. The damage potential for each gas—the ratio of the social cost of the non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas to the social cost of carbon dioxide—is also estimated. The damage potentials are compared to several metrics, focusing in particular on the global warming potentials, which are frequently used to measure the trade-off between gases in the form of carbon dioxide equivalents. We find that damage potentials could be significantly higher than global warming potentials. This finding implies that previous papers have underestimated the relative importance of reducing non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions from an economic damage perspective. We show results for a range of sensitivity analyses: carbon dioxide fertilization on agriculture productivity, terrestrial feedbacks, climate sensitivity, discounting, equity weighting, and socioeconomic and emissions scenarios. The sensitivity of the results to carbon dioxide fertilization is a primary focus as it is an important element of climate change that has not been considered in much of the previous literature. We estimate that carbon dioxide fertilization has a large positive impact that reduces the social cost of carbon dioxide with a much smaller effect on the other greenhouse gases. As a result, our estimates of the damage potentials of methane and nitrous oxide are much higher compared to estimates that ignore carbon dioxide fertilization. As a result, our base estimates of the damage potential for methane and nitrous oxide that include carbon dioxide fertilization are twice their respective global warming potentials. Our base estimate of the damage potential of sulphur hexafluoride is similar to the one previous estimate, both almost three times the global warming potential.

  1. Renewable portfolio standards, Greenhouse gas reduction, and Long-Line transmission investments in the WECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, Arne; Orans, Ren; Allen, Doug; Moore, Jack; Woo, C.K.

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    New, long-distance transmission lines to remote areas with concentrations of high-quality renewable resources can help western states meet the challenges of increasing renewable energy procurement and reducing greenhouse gas emissions more cost-effectively than reliance on local resources alone. The approach applied here to the Western Electricity Coordinating Council is useful for an initial determination of the net benefits of long-line transmission between regions with heterogeneous resource quality. (author)

  2. Well-To-Wheels Energy and Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageStationGreenhouse GasCaliforniaNew England MEDIA CONTACT:

  3. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 2, Greenhouse gas emissions from deforestration in the Brazilian Amazon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Fearnside, P.M. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departmento de Ecologia

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as ``committed carbon,`` or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil`s use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

  4. Electrical contact tool set station

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byers, M.E.

    1988-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is provided for the precise setting to zero of electrically conductive cutting tools used in the machining of work pieces. An electrically conductive cylindrical pin, tapered at one end to a small flat, rests in a vee-shaped channel in a base so that its longitudinal axis is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the machine's spindle. Electronic apparatus is connected between the cylindrical pin and the electrically conductive cutting tool to produce a detectable signal when contact between tool and pin is made. The axes of the machine are set to zero by contact between the cutting tool and the sides, end or top of the cylindrical pin. Upon contact, an electrical circuit is completed, and the detectable signal is produced. The tool can then be set to zero for that axis. Should the tool contact the cylindrical pin with too much force, the cylindrical pin would be harmlessly dislodged from the vee-shaped channel, preventing damage either to the cutting tool or the cylindrical pin. 5 figs.

  5. Life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission impacts of different corn ethanol plant types.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Wu, M.; Huo, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the United States began a program to develop ethanol as a transportation fuel, its use has increased from 175 million gallons in 1980 to 4.9 billion gallons in 2006. Virtually all of the ethanol used for transportation has been produced from corn. During the period of fuel ethanol growth, corn farming productivity has increased dramatically, and energy use in ethanol plants has been reduced by almost by half. The majority of corn ethanol plants are powered by natural gas. However, as natural gas prices have skyrocketed over the last several years, efforts have been made to further reduce the energy used in ethanol plants or to switch from natural gas to other fuels, such as coal and wood chips. In this paper, we examine nine corn ethanol plant types--categorized according to the type of process fuels employed, use of combined heat and power, and production of wet distiller grains and solubles. We found that these ethanol plant types can have distinctly different energy and greenhouse gas emission effects on a full fuel-cycle basis. In particular, greenhouse gas emission impacts can vary significantly--from a 3% increase if coal is the process fuel to a 52% reduction if wood chips are used. Our results show that, in order to achieve energy and greenhouse gas emission benefits, researchers need to closely examine and differentiate among the types of plants used to produce corn ethanol so that corn ethanol production would move towards a more sustainable path.

  6. Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chau, J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Preto, F. [Natural Resources Canada; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO2) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas.

  7. Detection of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change. Progress report, July 1, 1994--July 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, P.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.

    1995-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to assembly and analyze instrumental climate data and to develop and apply climate models as a basis for detecting greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change, and validation of General Circulation Models. In addition to changes due to variations in anthropogenic forcing, including greenhouse gas and aerosol concentration changes, the global climate system exhibits a high degree of internally-generated and externally-forced natural variability. To detect the anthropogenic effect, its signal must be isolated from the ``noise`` of this natural climatic variability. A high quality, spatially extensive data base is required to define the noise and its spatial characteristics. To facilitate this, available land and marine data bases will be updated and expanded. The data will be analyzed to determine the potential effects on climate of greenhouse gas and aerosol concentration changes and other factors. Analyses will be guided by a variety of models, from simple energy balance climate models to coupled atmosphere ocean General Circulation Models. These analyses are oriented towards obtaining early evidence of anthropogenic climatic change that would lead either to confirmation, rejection or modification of model projections, and towards the statistical validation of General Circulation Model control runs and perturbation experiments.

  8. Estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects: A Costa Rican Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busch, Christopher; Sathaye, Jayant; Sanchez Azofeifa, G. Arturo

    2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If the Clean Development Mechanism proposed under the Kyoto Protocol is to serve as an effective means for combating global climate change, it will depend upon reliable estimates of greenhouse gas benefits. This paper sketches the theoretical basis for estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects and suggests lessons learned based on a case study of Costa Rica's Protected Areas Project, which is a 500,000 hectare effort to reduce deforestation and enhance reforestation. The Protected Areas Project in many senses advances the state of the art for Clean Development Mechanism-type forestry projects, as does the third-party verification work of SGS International Certification Services on the project. Nonetheless, sensitivity analysis shows that carbon benefit estimates for the project vary widely based on the imputed deforestation rate in the baseline scenario, e.g. the deforestation rate expected if the project were not implemented. This, along with a newly available national dataset that confirms other research showing a slower rate of deforestation in Costa Rica, suggests that the use of the 1979--1992 forest cover data originally as the basis for estimating carbon savings should be reconsidered. When the newly available data is substituted, carbon savings amount to 8.9 Mt (million tones) of carbon, down from the original estimate of 15.7 Mt. The primary general conclusion is that project developers should give more attention to the forecasting land use and land cover change scenarios underlying estimates of greenhouse gas benefits.

  9. Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS) for Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Imhoff; Ramin Yazdani; Don Augenstein; Harold Bentley; Pei Chiu

    2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane is an important contributor to global warming with a total climate forcing estimated to be close to 20% that of carbon dioxide (CO2) over the past two decades. The largest anthropogenic source of methane in the US is 'conventional' landfills, which account for over 30% of anthropogenic emissions. While controlling greenhouse gas emissions must necessarily focus on large CO2 sources, attention to reducing CH4 emissions from landfills can result in significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at low cost. For example, the use of 'controlled' or bioreactor landfilling has been estimated to reduce annual US greenhouse emissions by about 15-30 million tons of CO2 carbon (equivalent) at costs between $3-13/ton carbon. In this project we developed or advanced new management approaches, landfill designs, and landfill operating procedures for bioreactor landfills. These advances are needed to address lingering concerns about bioreactor landfills (e.g., efficient collection of increased CH4 generation) in the waste management industry, concerns that hamper bioreactor implementation and the consequent reductions in CH4 emissions. Collectively, the advances described in this report should result in better control of bioreactor landfills and reductions in CH4 emissions. Several advances are important components of an Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS).

  10. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade Proposals: Application of a Forward-Looking Computable General Equilibrium Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurgel, Angelo C.

    We develop a forward-looking version of the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, and apply it to examine the economic implications of proposals in the U.S. Congress to limit greenhouse gas (GHG) ...

  11. A game of climate chicken : can EPA regulate greenhouse gases before the U.S. Senate ratifies the Kyoto Protocol?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bugnion, Véronique.; Reiner, David M.

    EPA's legal authority to regulate greenhouse gas emissions under the Clean Air Act is reviewed. While EPA clearly does not have the authority to implement the precise terms of the Kyoto Protocol, arguments could be put ...

  12. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and non-CO? combustion effects from alternative jet fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stratton, Russell William

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The long-term viability and success of a transportation fuel depends on both economic and environmental sustainability. This thesis focuses specifically on assessing the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and non-CO ...

  13. Detection of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change. Progress report, 1 December 1991--30 June 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigley, T.M.L.; Jones, P.D.

    1992-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The aims of the US Department of Energy`s Carbon Dioxide Research Program are to improve assessments of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and to define and reduce uncertainties through selected research. This project will address: The regional and seasonal details of the expected climatic changes; how rapidly will these changes occur; how and when will the climatic effects of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases be first detected; and the relationships between greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and changes caused by other external and internal factors. The present project addresses all of these questions. Many of the diverse facets of greenhouse-gas-related climate research can be grouped under three interlinked subject areas: modeling, first detection and supporting data. This project will include the analysis of climate forcing factors, the development and refinement of transient response climate models, and the use of instrumental data in validating General Circulation Models (GCMs).

  14. Coal-Fired Power Plants, Greenhouse Gases, and State Statutory Substantial Endangerment Provisions: Climate Change Comes to Kansas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Robert L.

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    economy standards on motor vehicles by states such as California. But the states have also targeted stationary sources of greenhouse gases. In particular, they have sought to minimize carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants. States have used...

  15. Plant power : the cost of using biomass for power generation and potential for decreased greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cuellar, Amanda Dulcinea

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To date, biomass has not been a large source of power generation in the United States, despite the potential for greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits from displacing coal with carbon neutral biomass. In this thesis, the fuel cycle ...

  16. E85, Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and AB 1493 Integrating biofuels into California's vehicular greenhouse gas regulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    E85, Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and AB 1493 Integrating biofuels into California's vehicular greenhouse.................................................................................................. 5 1.1.3 CALIFORNIA CLEAN FUELS PROGRAM ....................................... 6 1.1.5 AB 1007: THE ALTERNATIVE FUELS PLAN

  17. Ultracapacitor current collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jerabek, Elihu Calfin (Glenmont, NY); Mikkor, Mati (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2001-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultracapacitor having two solid, nonporous current collectors, two porous electrodes separating the collectors, a porous separator between the electrodes and an electrolyte occupying the pores in the electrodes and separator. At least one of the current collectors comprises a conductive metal substrate coated with a metal nitride, carbide or boride coating.

  18. Current to Current Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformationNew|CoreCpWing County,ElectricCumingCurrent Group,LLC

  19. Current to Current | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformationNew|CoreCpWing County,ElectricCumingCurrent Group,LLCto

  20. Greenhouse and laboratory studies on the effects of an anaerobic digester sludge on growth and nutrient uptake of sorghum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent, John Cooper

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GREENHOUSE AND LABORATORI STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS OF AN ANAEROBIC DIGESTER SLUDGE ON GROWTH AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE OF SORGHUM A Thesis By John Cooper Vincent Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Agronomy GREENHOUSE AND LABORATORy STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS OF AN ANAEROBIC DIGESTER SLUDGE ON GROWTH AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE OF SORGHUM A Thesis by John Cooper Vincent Approved...

  1. Nonstandard Tools for Nonsmooth Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. S. Kutateladze

    2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This is an overview of the basic tools of nonsmooth analysis which are grounded on nonstandard models of set theory. By way of illustration we give a criterion for an infinitesimally optimal path of a general discrete dynamic system.

  2. Tools for dynamic model development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaber, Spencer Daniel

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For this thesis, several tools for dynamic model development were developed and analyzed. Dynamic models can be used to simulate and optimize the behavior of a great number of natural and engineered systems, from the ...

  3. Management System Verification (MSV) Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The MSV process developed by ACC is a tool (not a requirement) that DOE sites may consider to help determine whether their ES&H program is truly integrated into all work at all levels by all employees.

  4. Running tool for liner hanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melenyzer, G.J.

    1990-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a running tool. It is for a liner hanger having an annular groove in its bore, and upwardly facing slots in its upper end, and a liner string depending therefrom.

  5. Design tools for passive solar applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Examples of passive solar design tools are given, categorized as either evaluation tools or guidance tools. A trend toward microcomputer-based tools is noted; however, these are usually developed for use by engineers rather than architects. The need for more instructive tools targeted specifically to designers is emphasized.

  6. Design of a cross section reduction extrusion tool for square bars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Onipede, Bolarinwa O.

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    defining a need statement, which is the "Need for an area reduction extrusion tool to replace the current practices of machining ECAE processed billets". The system functions and requirements are defined next and used to generate three concepts...

  7. A greenhouse-gas information system monitoring and validating emissions reporting and mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonietz, Karl K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dimotakis, Paul E [JPL/CAL TECH; Roman, Douglas A [LLNL; Walker, Bruce C [SNL

    2011-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Current GHG-mitigating regimes, whether internationally agreed or self-imposed, rely on the aggregation of self-reported data, with limited checks for consistency and accuracy, for monitoring. As nations commit to more stringent GHG emissions-mitigation actions and as economic rewards or penalties are attached to emission levels, self-reported data will require independent confirmation that they are accurate and reliable, if they are to provide the basis for critical choices and actions that may be required. Supporting emissions-mitigation efforts and agreements, as well as monitoring energy- and fossil-fuel intensive national and global activities would be best achieved by a process of: (1) monitoring of emissions and emission-mitigation actions, based, in part, on, (2) (self-) reporting of pertinent bottom-up inventory data, (3) verification that reported data derive from and are consistent with agreed-upon processes and procedures, and (4) validation that reported emissions and emissions-mitigation action data are correct, based on independent measurements (top-down) derived from a suite of sensors in space, air, land, and, possibly, sea, used to deduce and attribute anthropogenic emissions. These data would be assessed and used to deduce and attribute measured GHG concentrations to anthropogenic emissions, attributed geographically and, to the extent possible, by economic sector. The validation element is needed to provide independent assurance that emissions are in accord with reported values, and should be considered as an important addition to the accepted MRV process, leading to a MRV&V process. This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a system that meets specifications derived from imposed requirements; the need for rigorous calibration, verification, and validation (CV&V) standards, processes, and records for all measurement and modeling/data-inversion data; the need to develop and adopt an uncertainty-quantification (UQ) regimen for all measurement and modeling data; and the requirement that GHGIS products can be subjected to third-party questioning and scientific scrutiny. This report examines and assesses presently available capabilities that could contribute to a future GHGIS. These capabilities include sensors and measurement technologies; data analysis and data uncertainty quantification (UQ) practices and methods; and model-based data-inversion practices, methods, and their associated UQ. The report further examines the need for traceable calibration, verification, and validation processes and attached metadata; differences between present science-/research-oriented needs and those that would be required for an operational GHGIS; the development, operation, and maintenance of a GHGIS missions-operations center (GMOC); and the complex systems engineering and integration that would be required to develop, operate, and evolve a future GHGIS. Present monitoring systems would be heavily relied on in any GHGIS implementation at the outset and would likely continue to provide valuable future contributions to GHGIS. However, present monitoring systems were developed to serve science/research purposes. This study concludes that no component or capability presently available is at the level of technological maturity and readiness required for implementation in an operational GHGIS today. However, purpose-designed and -built components could be developed and implemented in support of a future GHGIS. The study concludes that it is possible to develop and provide a capability-driven prototype GHGIS, as part of a Phase-1 effort, within three years from project-funding start, that would make use of and integrate existing sensing and system capabilities. As part of a Phase-2 effort, a requirem

  8. Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate and verifiable emission reductions are a function of the degree of transparency and stringency of the protocols employed in documenting project- or program-associated emissions reductions. The purpose of this guide is to provide a background for law and policy makers, urban planners, and project developers working with the many Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction programs throughout the world to quantify and/or evaluate the GHG impacts of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGVs). In order to evaluate the GHG benefits and/or penalties of NGV projects, it is necessary to first gain a fundamental understanding of the technology employed and the operating characteristics of these vehicles, especially with regard to the manner in which they compare to similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the first two sections of this paper explain the basic technology and functionality of NGVs, but focus on evaluating the models that are currently on the market with their similar conventional counterparts, including characteristics such as cost, performance, efficiency, environmental attributes, and range. Since the increased use of NGVs, along with Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFVs) in general, represents a public good with many social benefits at the local, national, and global levels, NGVs often receive significant attention in the form of legislative and programmatic support. Some states mandate the use of NGVs, while others provide financial incentives to promote their procurement and use. Furthermore, Federal legislation in the form of tax incentives or procurement requirements can have a significant impact on the NGV market. In order to implement effective legislation or programs, it is vital to have an understanding of the different programs and activities that already exist so that a new project focusing on GHG emission reduction can successfully interact with and build on the experience and lessons learned of those that preceded it. Finally, most programs that deal with passenger vehicles--and with transportation in general--do not address the climate change component explicitly, and thus there are few GHG reduction goals that are included in these programs. Furthermore, there are relatively few protocols that exist for accounting for the GHG emissions reductions that arise from transportation and, specifically, passenger vehicle projects and programs. These accounting procedures and principles gain increased importance when a project developer wishes to document in a credible manner, the GHG reductions that are achieved by a given project or program. Section four of this paper outlined the GHG emissions associated with NGVs, both upstream and downstream, and section five illustrated the methodology, via hypothetical case studies, for measuring these reductions using different types of baselines. Unlike stationary energy combustion, GHG emissions from transportation activities, including NGV projects, come from dispersed sources creating a need for different methodologies for assessing GHG impacts. This resource guide has outlined the necessary context and background for those parties wishing to evaluate projects and develop programs, policies, projects, and legislation aimed at the promotion of NGVs for GHG emission reduction.

  9. Seal for fluid forming tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golovashchenko, Sergey Fedorovich (Beverly Hills, MI); Bonnen, John Joseph Francis (Milford, MI)

    2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An electro-hydraulic forming tool for forming a sheet metal blank in a one-sided die has first and second rigid rings that engage opposite sides of a sheet metal blank. The rigid rings are contained within slots on a die portion and a hydraulic force applicator portion of the forming tool. The seals are either resiliently biased by an elastomeric member or inherently resiliently biased into contact with the blank.

  10. Eastern Energy Zones Mapping Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Eastern Interconnection States’ Planning Council (EISPC) has released the Energy Zones (EZ) Mapping Tool, a free, web-based interactive tool that will help states and other stakeholders in the Eastern Interconnection identify geographic areas suitable for the development of clean energy resources (natural gas, sequestration or utilitization locations for C02 from coal, nuclear, and renewable) which can potentially provide significant amounts of new electric power generation.

  11. AUTOPAYITEM -A SOFTWARE TOOL TO MANAGE PAY ITEMS FOR HIGHWAY DESIGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, Zong Z.

    standards and procedures of the Idaho Transportation Department (ITD). API can be described as a Micro of AutoPayItem (API), a computer software tool that manages highway design pay items based on the current Language (MDL) is the primary tool for coding the software. API allows highway designers a single point

  12. Experimental Comparison of Observers for Tool Position Estimation of Industrial Robots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schön, Thomas

    Experimental Comparison of Observers for Tool Position Estimation of Industrial Robots Robert methods for tool position estimation of industrial robots. It is assumed that the motor angular position industrial robot. I. INTRODUCTION Current industrial robot development is focused on in- creasing the robot

  13. Current control circuitry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taubman, Matthew S. (Richland, WA)

    2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Among the embodiments of the present invention is an apparatus that includes a transistor (30), a servo device (40), and a current source (50). The servo device (40) is operable to provide a common base mode of operation of the transistor (30) by maintaining an approximately constant voltage level at the transistor base (32b). The current source (150) is operable to provide a bias current to the transistor (30). A first device (24) provides an input signal to an electrical node (70) positioned between the emitter (32e) of the transistor (30) and the current source (50). A second device (26) receives an output signal from the collector (32c) of the transistor (30).

  14. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ringe, A.C. (ed.)

    1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  15. Photocatalysis Currently, the research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vollmer, Heribert

    Photocatalysis Currently, the research activit in the area ofies Photocatalysis focus on the topics Photocatalysis and Prof. Dr. Detlef Bahnemann Nanotechnology Research Topics Bioprocess Engineering Bioprocess Modeling and Control Photocatalysis and Nanotechnology Institute of Technical Chemistry Contact Person

  16. Introduction Two Applications Basic Operations Tools Overview of the Tools A Survey of Techniques Used in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agrawal, Manindra

    Introduction Two Applications Basic Operations Tools Overview of the Tools A Survey of Techniques and IIT Kanpur Kunming Tutorial, May 2005 #12;Introduction Two Applications Basic Operations Tools Cryptography Application: RSA Cryptosystem Complexity of Basic Operations Tools for Designing Algorithms

  17. Better IAQ through integrating design tools for the HVACindustry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laine, Tuomas; Kosonen, Risto; Hagstrom, Kim; Mustakallio, Panu; Yin, De-Wei; Haves, Philip; Chen, Qingyan

    2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is currently no effective combination of interoperable design tools to cover all critical aspects of the HVAC design process. Existing design tools are separately available, but require expertise and operating time that is beyond the scope of a normal design project. For example, energy analysis and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools are not used in practical design, leading to poor indoor air quality and/or unnecessary energy consumption in buildings. A prototype integrated software tool for demonstration, process mapping and proof-of-concept purposes was developed under a new international, Finland/USA jointly funded development project BildIT. Individual design tools were simplified and adapted to specific applications and also integrated so that they can be used in a timely and effective manner by the designer. The core of the prototype linked together an architectural CAD system, a 3D space model, a CFD program and a building energy simulation program and it utilizes real product data from manufacturer's software. Also the complex building design, construction, maintenance and retrofit processes were mapped to get a template for the structure of the integrated design tool.

  18. VISTA - computational tools for comparative genomics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frazer, Kelly A.; Pachter, Lior; Poliakov, Alexander; Rubin, Edward M.; Dubchak, Inna

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tools for comparative genomics Kelly A. Frazer 1 , LiorBerkeley, CA, 94720 Genomics Division, Lawrence Berkeleymultiple comparative genomics tools and provides users with

  19. Buildings Performance Database Analysis Tools | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Performance Database Analysis Tools The Buildings Performance Database offers several analysis tools for exploring building data and forecasting financial and energy savings,...

  20. Tools for Living and Tools for Learning Stefan Carmien and Gerhard Fischer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Gerhard

    Tools for Living and Tools for Learning Stefan Carmien and Gerhard Fischer University of Colorado as tools, particularly computational artifacts. We introduce the notions of tools for living and tools for the design of artifacts. The tools concept is then studied in the context of the Memory Aiding Prompting

  1. New Scenario & Analytical Tools January 31, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    Emissions By Sector, 2006 40% 25% Cars and Trucks Building Energy Use #12;3-Leg Stool: Transport Greenhouse Pollution · Water and Energy Consumption Transportation · Vehicle Miles Traveled · Transit,Walk, Bike Mode Climate Change Energy Security Water Shortages Budget Shortfalls Failing Infrastructure Asthma Rates

  2. Combination drilling and skiving tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, William J. (Kansas City, MO)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combination drilling and skiving tool including a longitudinally extending hollow skiving sleeve slidably and concentrically mounted on a right-handed twist drill. Dogs or pawls provided on the internal periphery of the skiving sleeve engage with the helical grooves of the drill. During a clockwise rotation of the tool, the drill moves downwardly and the sleeve translates upwardly, so that the drill performs a drilling operation on a workpiece. On the other hand, the drill moves upwardly and the sleeve translates downwardly, when the tool is rotated in a counter-clockwise direction, and the sleeve performs a skiving operation. The drilling and skiving operations are separate, independent and exclusive of each other.

  3. Foundational Tools for Petascale Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Barton

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Paradyn project has a history of developing algorithms, techniques, and software that push the cutting edge of tool technology for high-end computing systems. Under this funding, we are working on a three-year agenda to make substantial new advances in support of new and emerging Petascale systems. The overall goal for this work is to address the steady increase in complexity of these petascale systems. Our work covers two key areas: (1) The analysis, instrumentation and control of binary programs. Work in this area falls under the general framework of the Dyninst API tool kits. (2) Infrastructure for building tools and applications at extreme scale. Work in this area falls under the general framework of the MRNet scalability framework. Note that work done under this funding is closely related to work done under a contemporaneous grant, “High-Performance Energy Applications and Systems”, SC0004061/FG02-10ER25972, UW PRJ36WV.

  4. Preliminary Estimates of Combined Heat and Power Greenhouse GasAbatement Potential for California in 2020

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, Ryan; Ling, Frank; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi LaCommare,Kristina

    2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this scoping project is to help the California Energy Commission's (CEC) Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program determine where it should make investments in research to support combined heat and power (CHP) deployment. Specifically, this project will: {sm_bullet} Determine what impact CHP might have in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, {sm_bullet} Determine which CHP strategies might encourage the most attractive early adoption, {sm_bullet} Identify the regulatory and technological barriers to the most attractive CHP strategies, and {sm_bullet} Make recommendations to the PIER program as to research that is needed to support the most attractive CHP strategies.

  5. Comments on the "Proof of the atmospheric greenhouse effect" by Arthur B. Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramm, Gerhard; Zelger, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper it is shown that Smith (2008) used inappropriate and inconsistent formulations in averaging various quantities over the entire surface of the Earth considered as a sphere. Using two instances of averaging procedures as customarily applied in studies on turbulence, it is shown that Smith's formulations are highly awkward. Furthermore, Smith's discussion of the infrared absorption in the atmosphere is scrutinized and evaluated. It is shown that his attempt to refute the criticism of Gerlich and Tscheuschner (2007, 2009) on the so-called greenhouse effect is rather fruitless.

  6. Screening cucumber for resistance to the vegetable leafminer in the greenhouse and field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franca, Felix Humberto

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are removed earlier than those stored for longer periods. The longer the pupae were held at 13' C the greater the male mortality. Mines and pupal evaluations showed that PI 200815 was consistently resistant to VLM in both greenhouse and field experiments.... The lines 817A, GY 14A and PI 279465 were susceptible to VLM in all plant stages. VLM ratios of 0. 5 female/plant and above provided measurable differences between resistant candidates and known susceptible lines in nonchoice tests. Egg...

  7. Beyond the Inventory: An Interagency Collaboration to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Fiebig, M.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As one of the largest, intact ecosystems in the continental United States, land managers within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) have recognized the importance of compiling and understanding agency greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 10 Federal units within the GYA have taken an active role in compiling GHG inventories on a unit- and ecosystem-wide level, setting goals for GHG mitigation, and identifying mitigation strategies for achieving those goals. This paper details the processes, methodologies, challenges, solutions, and lessons learned by the 10 Federal units within the GYA throughout this ongoing effort.

  8. Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdf Flash2006-52.pdf0.pdfDepartmentCounselGlassGreenHunter Biodiesel RefineryGreenhouse

  9. Fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

  10. Current Solicitations - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract Management Fermi Site OfficeCoursePublicCurrent ProjectsCurrentDOE -

  11. Current Wind Power Capacity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract Management Fermi Site OfficeCoursePublicCurrent ProjectsCurrentDOE

  12. Current Schedule of Experiments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGas SeparationsRelevant toSiteCurrent Long-Term OperatingCurrent

  13. Tools for measuring surface cleanliness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroder, Mark Stewart (Hendersonville, NC); Woodmansee, Donald Ernest (Simpsonville, SC); Beadie, Douglas Frank (Greenville, SC)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

  14. Analytic tools for information warfare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandewart, R.L.; Craft, R.L.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information warfare and system surety (tradeoffs between system functionality, security, safety, reliability, cost, usability) have many mechanisms in common. Sandia`s experience has shown that an information system must be assessed from a {ital system} perspective in order to adequately identify and mitigate the risks present in the system. While some tools are available to help in this work, the process is largely manual. An integrated, extensible set of assessment tools would help the surety analyst. This paper describes one approach to surety assessment used at Sandia, identifies the difficulties in this process, and proposes a set of features desirable in an automated environment to support this process.

  15. AN OVERVIEW OF TOOL FOR RESPONSE ACTION COST ESTIMATING (TRACE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FERRIES SR; KLINK KL; OSTAPKOWICZ B

    2012-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Tools and techniques that provide improved performance and reduced costs are important to government programs, particularly in current times. An opportunity for improvement was identified for preparation of cost estimates used to support the evaluation of response action alternatives. As a result, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company has developed Tool for Response Action Cost Estimating (TRACE). TRACE is a multi-page Microsoft Excel{reg_sign} workbook developed to introduce efficiencies into the timely and consistent production of cost estimates for response action alternatives. This tool combines costs derived from extensive site-specific runs of commercially available remediation cost models with site-specific and estimator-researched and derived costs, providing the best estimating sources available. TRACE also provides for common quantity and key parameter links across multiple alternatives, maximizing ease of updating estimates and performing sensitivity analyses, and ensuring consistency.

  16. HEP-FCE Working Group on Libraries and Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anders Borgland; Peter Elmer; Michael Kirby; Simon Patton; Maxim Potekhin; Brett Viren; Brian Yanny

    2015-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a report from the Libraries and Tools Working Group of the High Energy Physics Forum for Computational Excellence. It presents the vision of the working group for how the HEP software community may organize and be supported in order to more efficiently share and develop common software libraries and tools across the world's diverse set of HEP experiments. It gives prioritized recommendations for achieving this goal and provides a survey of a select number of areas in the current HEP software library and tools landscape. The survey identifies aspects which support this goal and areas with opportunities for improvements. The survey covers event processing software frameworks, software development, data management, workflow and workload management, geometry information management and conditions databases.

  17. HEP-FCE Working Group on Libraries and Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borgland, Anders; Kirby, Michael; Patton, Simon; Potekhin, Maxim; Viren, Brett; Yanny, Brian

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a report from the Libraries and Tools Working Group of the High Energy Physics Forum for Computational Excellence. It presents the vision of the working group for how the HEP software community may organize and be supported in order to more efficiently share and develop common software libraries and tools across the world's diverse set of HEP experiments. It gives prioritized recommendations for achieving this goal and provides a survey of a select number of areas in the current HEP software library and tools landscape. The survey identifies aspects which support this goal and areas with opportunities for improvements. The survey covers event processing software frameworks, software development, data management, workflow and workload management, geometry information management and conditions databases.

  18. Contribution of cooperative sector recycling to greenhouse gas emissions reduction: A case study of Ribeirão Pires, Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Megan F., E-mail: mfking@uvic.ca [The Community-Based Research Laboratory, Department of Geography, University of Victoria, PO Box 3060 STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3R4 (Canada); Gutberlet, Jutta, E-mail: gutber@uvic.ca [Department of Geography, University of Victoria, PO Box 3060 STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3R4 (Canada)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Cooperative recycling achieves environmental, economic and social objectives. • We calculate GHG emissions reduction for a recycling cooperative in São Paulo, Brazil. • The cooperative merits consideration as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project. • A CDM project would enhance the achievements of the recycling cooperative. • National and local waste management policies support the recycling cooperative. - Abstract: Solid waste, including municipal waste and its management, is a major challenge for most cities and among the key contributors to climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced through recovery and recycling of resources from the municipal solid waste stream. In São Paulo, Brazil, recycling cooperatives play a crucial role in providing recycling services including collection, separation, cleaning, stocking, and sale of recyclable resources. The present research attempts to measure the greenhouse gas emission reductions achieved by the recycling cooperative Cooperpires, as well as highlight its socioeconomic benefits. Methods include participant observation, structured interviews, questionnaire application, and greenhouse gas accounting of recycling using a Clean Development Mechanism methodology. The results show that recycling cooperatives can achieve important energy savings and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and suggest there is an opportunity for Cooperpires and other similar recycling groups to participate in the carbon credit market. Based on these findings, the authors created a simple greenhouse gas accounting calculator for recyclers to estimate their emissions reductions.

  19. Greenhouse gas emission impacts of alternative-fueled vehicles: Near-term vs. long-term technology options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.Q.

    1997-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Alternative-fueled vehicle technologies have been promoted and used for reducing petroleum use, urban air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, greenhouse gas emission impacts of near-term and long-term light-duty alternative-fueled vehicle technologies are evaluated. Near-term technologies, available now, include vehicles fueled with M85 (85% methanol and 15% gasoline by volume), E85 (85% ethanol that is produced from corn and 15% gasoline by volume), compressed natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. Long-term technologies, assumed to be available around the year 2010, include battery-powered electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, vehicles fueled with E85 (ethanol produced from biomass), and fuel-cell vehicles fueled with hydrogen or methanol. The near-term technologies are found to have small to moderate effects on vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. On the other hand, the long-term technologies, especially those using renewable energy (such as biomass and solar energy), have great potential for reducing vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. In order to realize this greenhouse gas emission reduction potential, R and D efforts must continue on the long-term technology options so that they can compete successfully with conventional vehicle technology.

  20. Hydrogen Delivery- Current Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen is transported from the point of production to the point of use via pipeline, over the road in cryogenic liquid trucks or gaseous tube trailers, or by rail or barge. Read on to learn more about current hydrogen delivery and storage technologies.