National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for tons sulfur dioxide

  1. Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Pitcher, Hugh M.; Wigley, Tom M.

    2005-12-01

    The importance of sulfur dioxide emissions for climate change is now established, although substantial uncertainties remain. This paper presents projections for future sulfur dioxide emissions using the MiniCAM integrated assessment model. A new income-based parameterization for future sulfur dioxide emissions controls is developed based on purchasing power parity (PPP) income estimates and historical trends related to the implementation of sulfur emissions limitations. This parameterization is then used to produce sulfur dioxide emissions trajectories for the set of scenarios developed for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). We use the SRES methodology to produce harmonized SRES scenarios using the latest version of the MiniCAM model. The implications, and requirements, for IA modeling of sulfur dioxide emissions are discussed. We find that sulfur emissions eventually decline over the next century under a wide set of assumptions. These emission reductions result from a combination of emission controls, the adoption of advanced electric technologies, and a shift away from the direct end use of coal with increasing income levels. Only under a scenario where incomes in developing regions increase slowly do global emission levels remain at close to present levels over the next century. Under a climate policy that limits emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide emissions fall in a relatively narrow range. In all cases, the relative climatic effect of sulfur dioxide emissions decreases dramatically to a point where sulfur dioxide is only a minor component of climate forcing by the end of the century. Ecological effects of sulfur dioxide, however, could be significant in some developing regions for many decades to come.

  2. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Yun (Peking, CN); Yu, Qiquan (Peking, CN); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    1996-01-01

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h.sup.-1. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications.

  3. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

    1996-02-27

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

  4. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Richard (Shirley, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY)

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  5. CATALYST EVALUATION FOR A SULFUR DIOXIDE-DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H

    2007-01-31

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. Testing examined the activity and stability of platinum and palladium as the electrocatalyst for the SDE in sulfuric acid solutions. Cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that platinum provided better catalytic activity with much lower potentials and higher currents than palladium. Testing also showed that the catalyst activity is strongly influenced by the concentration of the sulfuric acid electrolyte.

  6. Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes (State College, PA); Zhang, Yinzhi (State College, PA); Kuchta, Matthew E. (State College, PA); Andresen, John M. (State College, PA); Fauth, Dan J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2009-10-20

    A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

  7. Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Andres, Robert; Conception , Elvira; Lurz, Joshua

    2004-01-25

    A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one and a half century were estimated by using a combination of bottom-up and best available inventory methods including all anthropogenic sources. We find that global sulfur dioxide emissions peaked about 1980 and have generally declined since this time. Emissions were extrapolated to a 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid for the time period 1850-2000 at annual resolution with two emission height levels and by season. Emissions are somewhat higher in the recent past in this new work as compared with some comprehensive estimates. This difference is largely due to our use of emissions factors that vary with time to account for sulfur removals from fossil fuels and industrial smelting processes.

  8. Utilizing the market to control sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loeher, C.F. III

    1995-12-01

    Environmental policy in the United States is evolving; command and control approaches are being slowly replaced with market-based incentives. Market-based regulation is favorable because it provides the regulated community with flexibility in choosing between pollution control options. A recent application of a market-based approach is Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. This paper evaluates the advantages of utilizing market-based incentives to control sulfur dioxide emissions. The evaluation embodies an extensive methodology, which provides an overview of the policy governing air quality, discusses pollution control philosophies and analyzes their associated advantages and limitations. Further, it describes the development and operation of a market for emissions trading, impediments to the market, and recommends strategies to improve the market. The evaluation concludes by analyzing the results of five empirical simulations demonstrating the cost-effectiveness of employing market-based incentives versus command-and-control regulation for controlling sulfur dioxide emissions. The results of the evaluation indicate that regulatory barriers and market impediments have inhibited allowance trading. However, many of these obstacles have been or are being eliminated through Federal and state regulations, and through enhancement of the market. Results also demonstrate that sulfur dioxide allowance trading can obtain identical levels of environmental protection as command-and-control approaches while realizing cost savings to government and industry.

  9. Table 11.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Source, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Source, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal 3 Natural Gas 4 Petroleum Total 2,9 Biomass 2 Aviation Gasoline Distillate Fuel Oil 5 Jet Fuel Kero- sene LPG 6 Lubri- cants Motor Gasoline 7 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Other 8 Total Wood 10 Waste 11 Fuel Ethanol 12 Bio- diesel Total 1949 1,118 270 12 140 NA 42 13 7 329 8 244 25 820 2,207 145 NA NA NA 145 1950 1,152 313 14 168 NA 48 16 9 357 8 273 26 918 2,382 147 NA NA

  10. Table 11.2a Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Residential Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Residential Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Retail Electricity 5 Total 2 Biomass 2 Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Kerosene Liquefied Petroleum Gases Total Wood 6 Total 6 1949 121 55 51 21 7 80 66 321 99 99 1950 120 66 61 25 9 95 69 350 94 94 1951 111 81 68 27 10 105 78 374 90 90 1952 103 89 70 27 10 108 85 385 84 84 1953 92 93 71 26 11 108 94 387 78 78 1954 82 104 79 27 12 118 99 404 75 75

  11. Table 11.2c Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Industrial Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    c Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Industrial Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal Coal Coke Net Imports Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Retail Elec- tricity 8 Total 2 Biomass 2 Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Kero- sene LPG 5 Lubri- cants Motor Gasoline 6 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Other 7 Total Wood 9 Waste 10 Fuel Ethanol 11 Total 1949 500 -1 166 41 18 3 3 16 8 95 25 209 120 995 44 NA NA 44 1950 531 (s) 184 51 20 4 3 18 8 110 26 239 140 1,095 50 NA NA 50

  12. Table 11.2d Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Transportation Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    d Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Transportation Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Retail Elec- tricity 7 Total 2 Biomass 2 Aviation Gasoline Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Jet Fuel LPG 5 Lubricants Motor Gasoline 6 Residual Fuel Oil Total Fuel Ethanol 8 Biodiesel Total 1949 161 NA 12 30 NA (s) 4 306 91 443 6 611 NA NA NA 1950 146 7 14 35 NA (s) 5 332 95 481 6 640 NA NA NA 1951 129 11 18 42 NA (s) 6 360 102 529 7 675 NA NA NA

  13. Table 11.2b Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Commercial Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Commercial Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Retail Electricity 7 Total 2 Biomass 2 Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Kerosene LPG 5 Motor Gasoline 6 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Total Wood 8 Waste 9 Fuel Ethanol 10 Total 1949 148 19 16 3 2 7 NA 28 55 58 280 2 NA NA 2 1950 147 21 19 3 2 7 NA 33 66 63 297 2 NA NA 2 1951 125 25 21 4 3 8 NA 34 70 69 289 2 NA NA 2 1952 112 28 22 4 3 8 NA 35 71 73

  14. Table 11.2e Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Electric Power Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    e Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Electric Power Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Geo- thermal Non- Biomass Waste 5 Total 2 Biomass 2 Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Total Wood 6 Waste 7 Total 1949 187 30 2 NA 30 33 NA NA 250 1 NA 1 1950 206 35 2 NA 35 37 NA NA 278 1 NA 1 1951 235 42 2 NA 29 31 NA NA 308 1 NA 1 1952 240 50 2 NA 31 33 NA NA 323 1 NA 1 1953 260 57 3 NA 38 40 NA NA 358 (s) NA (s)

  15. Impact of Sulfur Dioxide on Lean NOx Trap Catalysts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sulfur Dioxide on Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Impact of Sulfur Dioxide on Lean NOx Trap Catalysts 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: University of New Mexico PDF icon 2004_deer_hammache.pdf More Documents & Publications CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling and Analysis CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling and Analysis An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System

  16. Sulfur dioxide capture in the combustion of mixtures of lime, refuse-derived fuel, and coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churney, K.L.; Buckley, T.J. . Center for Chemical Technology)

    1990-06-01

    Chlorine and sulfur mass balance studies have been carried out in the combustion of mixtures of lime, refuse-derived fuel, and coal in the NIST multikilogram capacity batch combustor. The catalytic effect of manganese dioxide on the trapping of sulfur dioxide by lime was examined. Under our conditions, only 4% of the chlorine was trapped in the ash and no effect of manganese dioxide was observed. Between 42 and 14% of the total sulfur was trapped in the ash, depending upon the lime concentration. The effect of manganese dioxide on sulfur capture was not detectable. The temperature of the ash was estimated to be near 1200{degrees}C, which was in agreement with that calculated from sulfur dioxide capture thermodynamics. 10 refs., 12 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Sulfur dioxide-induced chronic bronchitis in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, S.A.; Wolff, R.K.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This study was done to produce a model of chronic bronchitis. Twelve beagle dogs were exposed to 500 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 2 h/d, 5d/wk for 21 wk and 4 dogs were sham-exposed to filtered ambient air for the same period. Exposure effects were evaluated by periodically examining the dogs using chest radiographs, pulmonary function, tracheal mucous clearance, and the cellular and soluble components of bronchopulmonary lavage fluids. Dogs were serially sacrificed after 13 and 21 wk of exposure and after 6 and 14 wk of recovery. Clinical signs produced in the SO/sub 2/-exposed dogs included mucoid nasal discharge, productive cough, moist rales on auscultation, tonsilitis, and conjunctivitis. Chest radiographs revealed mild peribronchiolar thickening. Histopathology, tracheal mucous clearance measurements, and lavage cytology were consistent with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. It is concluded that repeated exposure to 500 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 21 wk produced chronic bronchitis in the beagle dog. Complete recovery occurred within 5 wk following cessation of SO/sub 2/ exposure. 43 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2011-03-15

    Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

  19. Natural sulfur flux from the Gulf of Mexico: dimethyl sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, and sulfur dioxide. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Valin, C.C.; Luria, M.; Wellman, D.L.; Gunter, R.L.; Pueschel, R.F.

    1987-06-01

    Atmospheric measurements of natural sulfur compounds were performed over the northern Gulf of Mexico during the late summer months of 1984. Air samples were collected with an instrumented aircraft at elevations of 30-3500 m, during both day and night. Most air samples were representative of the clean maritime atmosphere, although some were from continental contaminated air during periods of offshore flow at the coastline. In all samples, carbonyl sulfide concentrations were within the range of 400-500 pptv. Conversely, the dimethyl sulfide concentrations showed significant variability: during clean atmospheric conditions the average of all measurements was 27 pptv, whereas under polluted conditions the average was 7 pptv. Measureable quantities of dimethyl sulfide (>5 pptv) were not observed above the boundary layer. The average sulfur dioxide concentration measured in the marine (clean) atmosphere was 215 pptv, which is consistent with the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide being its major source.

  20. An intercomparison of aircraft instrumentation for tropospheric measurements of sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory, G.L.; Davis, D.D.; Beltz, N.; Bandy, A.R.; Ferek, R.J.; Thornton, D.C. [NASA, Langely Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)]|[Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)]|[J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt (Germany)]|[Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    As part of the NASA Tropospheric Chemistry Program, a series of field intercomparisons have been conducted to evaluate the state-of-the art for measuring key tropospheric species. One of the objectives of the third intercomparison campaign in this series, Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 (CITE 3), was to evaluate instrumentation for making reliable tropospheric aircraft measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide. This paper reports the results of the intercomparisons of five sulfur dioxide measurement methods ranging from filter techniques, in which samples collected in flight are returned to the laboratory for analyses (chemiluminescent or ion chromatographic), to near real-time, in-flight measurements via gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric, and chemiluminescent techniques. All techniques showed some tendency to track sizeable changes in ambient SO2 such as those associated with altitude changes. For SO2 mixing ratios in the range of 200 pptv to a few ppbv, agreement among the techniques varies from about 30% to several orders of magnitude, depending upon the pair of measurements intercompared. For SO2 mixing ratios less than 200 pptv, measurements from the techniques are uncorrelated. In general, observed differences in the measurement of standards do not account for the flight results. The CITE 3 results do not unambiguously identify one or more of the measurement techniques as providing valid or invalid SO2 measurements, but identify the range of `potential` uncertainty in SO2 measurements reported by currently available instrumentation and as measured under realistic aircraft environments.

  1. Airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandy, A.R.; Thornton, D.C.; Driedger, A.R. III [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer is described for determining atmospheric sulfur dioxide, carbon disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbonyl sulfide from aircraft and ship platforms. Isotopically labelled variants of each analyte were used as internal standards to achieve high precision. The lower limit of detection for each species for an integration time of 3 min was 1 pptv for sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfide and 0.2 pptv for carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide. All four species were simultaneously determined with a sample frequency of one sample per 6 min or greater. When only one or two species were determined, a frequency of one sample per 4 min was achieved. Because a calibration is included in each sample, no separate calibration sequence was needed. Instrument warmup was only a few minutes. The instrument was very robust in field deployments, requiring little maintenance.

  2. Regional versus global? -- Will strategies for reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions from electric utilities increase carbon dioxide emissions?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randolph, J.C.; Dolsak, N.

    1996-12-31

    Electric utilities, which are dependent on high-sulfur coal are expected to reduce their SO{sub 2} emissions. The strategies for reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions may result in increased CO{sub 2} emissions. Thereby decrease of regional pollution may cause increase of global pollution. Environmental, political, moral, and economic consequences of the two types of pollution differ significantly. Midwestern electric utilities, USA, which are dependent on high-sulfur coal, are analyzed in the paper. However, the same problem is relevant for some European coal fueled power plants. Strategies for reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions, employed by Midwestern electric utilities to comply with the clean Air Act amendments (CAAA) of 1990 and their possible affects on CO{sub 2} emissions, are presented. The paper focuses on two general strategies for reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions. First is coal-switching or blending with a low-sulfur coal. Second is construction and use of flue-gas desulfurization devices (scrubbers). A combination of both strategies is also a viable option. Switching to low-sulfur coal may result in larger CO{sub 2} emissions because that coal has different characteristics and has to be transported much greater distances. Scrubbers require significant amounts of energy for their operation which requires burning more coal. This increases the level of CO{sub 2} emissions.

  3. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  4. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  5. On the formation of carbonyl sulfide in the reduction of sulfur dioxide by carbon monoxide on lanthanum oxysulfide catalyst: A study by XPS and TPR/MS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, N.T.; Fang, M. [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong). Applied Technology Center] [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong). Applied Technology Center

    1998-10-25

    Both the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature-programmed reaction, coupled with mass spectrometry (TPR/MS), are used to study the formation of carbonyl sulfide in the reduction of sulfur dioxide on lanthanum oxysulfide catalyst. It was found that the lattice sulfur of the oxysulfide is released and reacts with carbon monoxide to form carbonyl sulfide when the oxysulfide is heated. The oxysulfide is postulated to form sulfur vacancies at a temperature lower than that for the formation of carbonyl sulfide and atomic sulfur is released in the process. The atomic sulfur can either enter the gas phase and leave the oxysulfide catalyst or react with carbon monoxide to form carbonyl sulfide.

  6. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide absorbents for lean-burn diesel engine emission control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2010-01-23

    It is known that sulfur oxides contribute significantly and deleteriously to the overall performance of lean-burn diesel engine aftertreatment systems, especially in the case of NOx traps. A Ag-based, fast regenerable SO2 absorbent has been developed and will be described. Over a temperature range of 300oC to 550oC, it absorbs almost all of the SO2 in the simulated exhaust gases during the lean cycles and can be fully regenerated by the short rich cycles at the same temperature. Its composition has been optimized as 1 wt% Pt-5wt%Ag-SiO2, and the preferred silica source for the supporting material has been identified as inert Cabosil fumed silica. The thermal instability of Ag2O under fuel-lean conditions at 230oC and above makes it possible to fast regenerate the sulfur-loaded absorbent during the following fuel-rich cycles. Pt catalyst helps reducing Ag2SO4 during rich cycles at low temperatures. And the chemically inert fumed SiO2 support gives the absorbent long term stability. This absorbent shows great potential to work under the same lean-rich cycling conditions as those imposed on the NOx traps, and thus, can protect the downstream particulate filter and the NOx trap from sulfur poisoning.

  7. The last decade of global anthropogenic sulfur dioxide: 2000-2011 emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klimont, Z.; Smith, Steven J.; Cofala, Janusz

    2013-01-09

    Evolution of global and regional anthropogenic SO2 emissions in the last decade has been estimated through a bottom-up calculation for recent years. After a strong increase in emissions that peaked about 2006, we estimate a declining trend continuing until 2011. However, there is a strong spatial variability with North America and Europe continuing to reduce emissions with an increasing role of Asia and international shipping. China remains a key contributor but the introduction of stricter emission limits followed by an ambitious program of installing flue gas desulfurization on power plants resulted in significant decline in emissions from energy sector and stabilization of Chinese SO2 emissions. Comparable mitigation strategies are not yet present in several other Asian countries and industrial sectors in general, while emissions from international shipping are expected to start declining soon following agreed reduction of sulfur content of fuel oil. Estimated trends in global SO2 emissions are within the range of RCP projections and uncertainty calculated for the year 2005.

  8. Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, John H. (LaJolla, CA)

    1983-12-20

    A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

  9. Table 11.5a Emissions From Energy Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2010 (Sum of Tables 11.5b and 11.5c; Metric Tons of Gas)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a Emissions From Energy Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2010 (Sum of Tables 11.5b and 11.5c; Metric Tons of Gas) Year Carbon Dioxide 1 Sulfur Dioxide Nitrogen Oxides Coal 2 Natural Gas 3 Petroleum 4 Geo- thermal 5 Non- Biomass Waste 6 Total Coal 2 Natural Gas 3 Petroleum 4 Other 7 Total Coal 2 Natural Gas 3 Petroleum 4 Other 7 Total 1989 1,573,566,415 218,383,703 145,398,976 363,247 5,590,014 1,943,302,355 14,468,564 1,059 984,406

  10. Table 11.5b Emissions From Energy Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output: Electric Power Sector, 1989-2010 (Subset of Table 11.5a; Metric Tons of Gas)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b Emissions From Energy Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output: Electric Power Sector, 1989-2010 (Subset of Table 11.5a; Metric Tons of Gas) Year Carbon Dioxide 1 Sulfur Dioxide Nitrogen Oxides Coal 2 Natural Gas 3 Petroleum 4 Geo- thermal 5 Non- Biomass Waste 6 Total Coal 2 Natural Gas 3 Petroleum 4 Other 7 Total Coal 2 Natural Gas 3 Petroleum 4 Other 7 Total 1989 1,520,229,870 169,653,294 133,545,718 363,247 4,365,768 1,828,157,897 13,815,263 832 809,873 6,874

  11. Table 11.5c Emissions From Energy Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, 1989-2010 (Subset of Table 11.5a; Metric Tons of Gas)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    c Emissions From Energy Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, 1989-2010 (Subset of Table 11.5a; Metric Tons of Gas) Year Carbon Dioxide 1 Sulfur Dioxide Nitrogen Oxides Coal 2 Natural Gas 3 Petroleum 4 Geo- thermal 5 Non- Biomass Waste 6 Total Coal 2 Natural Gas 3 Petroleum 4 Other 7 Total Coal 2 Natural Gas 3 Petroleum 4 Other 7 Total Commercial Sector 8<//td> 1989 2,319,630 1,542,083 637,423 [ –] 803,754 5,302,890 37,398 4

  12. Communication: Theoretical prediction of the importance of the {sup 3}B{sub 2} state in the dynamics of sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lvque, Camille; CNRS, LCPMR, UMR 7614, Paris Cedex 05; Theoretische Chemie, Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Universitt Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg ; Taeb, Richard; CNRS, LCPMR, UMR 7614, Paris Cedex 05 ; Kppel, Horst

    2014-03-07

    Even though the sulfur dioxide molecule has been extensively studied over the last decades, its photo-excitation dynamics is still unclear, due to its complexity, combining conical intersections, and spin-orbit coupling between a manifold of states. We present a comprehensive ab initio study of the intersystem crossing of the molecule in the low energy domain, based on a wave-packet propagation on the manifold of the lowest singlet and triplet states. Furthermore, spin-orbit couplings are evaluated on a geometry-dependent grid, and diabatized along with the different conical intersections. Our results show for the first time the primordial role of the triplet {sup 3}B{sub 2} state and furthermore predict novel interference patterns due to the different intersystem crossing channels induced by the spin-orbit couplings and the shapes of the different potential energy surfaces. These give new insight into the coupled singlet-triplet dynamics of SO{sub 2}.

  13. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

    2005-11-08

    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  14. 11,202,720 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of October 14, 2015

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOEs Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is equivalent to the...

  15. Calcium looping process for high purity hydrogen production integrated with capture of carbon dioxide, sulfur and halides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramkumar, Shwetha; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-07-30

    A process for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: (i) gasifying a fuel into a raw synthesis gas comprising CO, hydrogen, steam, sulfur and halide contaminants in the form of H.sub.2S, COS, and HX, wherein X is a halide; (ii) passing the raw synthesis gas through a water gas shift reactor (WGSR) into which CaO and steam are injected, the CaO reacting with the shifted gas to remove CO.sub.2, sulfur and halides in a solid-phase calcium-containing product comprising CaCO.sub.3, CaS and CaX.sub.2; (iii) separating the solid-phase calcium-containing product from an enriched gaseous hydrogen product; and (iv) regenerating the CaO by calcining the solid-phase calcium-containing product at a condition selected from the group consisting of: in the presence of steam, in the presence of CO.sub.2, in the presence of synthesis gas, in the presence of H.sub.2 and O.sub.2, under partial vacuum, and combinations thereof.

  16. Calcium looping process for high purity hydrogen production integrated with capture of carbon dioxide, sulfur and halides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramkumar, Shwetha; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2015-11-04

    A process for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: (i) gasifying a fuel into a raw synthesis gas comprising CO, hydrogen, steam, sulfur and halide contaminants in the form of H.sub.2S, COS, and HX, wherein X is a halide; (ii) passing the raw synthesis gas through a water gas shift reactor (WGSR) into which CaO and steam are injected, the CaO reacting with the shifted gas to remove CO.sub.2, sulfur and halides in a solid-phase calcium-containing product comprising CaCO.sub.3, CaS and CaX.sub.2; (iii) separating the solid-phase calcium-containing product from an enriched gaseous hydrogen product; and (iv) regenerating the CaO by calcining the solid-phase calcium-containing product at a condition selected from the group consisting of: in the presence of steam, in the presence of CO.sub.2, in the presence of synthesis gas, in the presence of H.sub.2 and O.sub.2, under partial vacuum, and combinations thereof.

  17. DOE Partner Begins Injecting 50,000 Tons of CO2 in Michigan Basin

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Building on an initial injection project of 10,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide into a Michigan geologic formation, a U.S. Department of Energy team of regional partners has begun injecting 50,000 additional tons into the formation, which is believed capable of storing hundreds of years worth of CO2, a greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change.

  18. High Purity Hydrogen Production with In-Situ Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Capture in a Single Stage Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nihar Phalak; Shwetha Ramkumar; Daniel Connell; Zhenchao Sun; Fu-Chen Yu; Niranjani Deshpande; Robert Statnick; Liang-Shih Fan

    2011-07-31

    Enhancement in the production of high purity hydrogen (H{sub 2}) from fuel gas, obtained from coal gasification, is limited by thermodynamics of the water gas shift (WGS) reaction. However, this constraint can be overcome by conducting the WGS in the presence of a CO{sub 2}-acceptor. The continuous removal of CO{sub 2} from the reaction mixture helps to drive the equilibrium-limited WGS reaction forward. Since calcium oxide (CaO) exhibits high CO{sub 2} capture capacity as compared to other sorbents, it is an ideal candidate for such a technique. The Calcium Looping Process (CLP) developed at The Ohio State University (OSU) utilizes the above concept to enable high purity H{sub 2} production from synthesis gas (syngas) derived from coal gasification. The CLP integrates the WGS reaction with insitu CO{sub 2}, sulfur and halide removal at high temperatures while eliminating the need for a WGS catalyst, thus reducing the overall footprint of the hydrogen production process. The CLP comprises three reactors - the carbonator, where the thermodynamic constraint of the WGS reaction is overcome by the constant removal of CO{sub 2} product and high purity H{sub 2} is produced with contaminant removal; the calciner, where the calcium sorbent is regenerated and a sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream is produced; and the hydrator, where the calcined sorbent is reactivated to improve its recyclability. As a part of this project, the CLP was extensively investigated by performing experiments at lab-, bench- and subpilot-scale setups. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was also conducted to determine the feasibility of the CLP at commercial scale. This report provides a detailed account of all the results obtained during the project period.

  19. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills, 1980-2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John E. Pinkerton

    2007-08-15

    Estimates of total SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills were developed from industry-wide surveys conducted at 5-yr intervals from 1980 to 2005. The following conclusions were drawn from these estimates: (1) Total SO{sub 2} emissions from pulp and paper mills were 340,000 t in 2005. Since 1980, SO{sub 2} emissions have decreased steadily. The decline over the 25-yr period was over 60%. Paper production increased by 50% over the same period. (2) Boilers burning coal and oil are the primary source of SO{sub 2} emissions, with minor contributions from black liquor combustion in kraft recovery furnaces and the burning of noncondensable gases in boilers at kraft pulp mills. Factors contributing to the decline in boiler SO{sub 2} emissions include large reductions in residual oil use, recent decreases in coal use, declines in the average sulfur content of residual oil and coal being burned, and increasing use of flue gas desulfurization systems.(3) NOx emissions from pulp and paper mills were 230,000 t in 2005. NOx emissions were fairly constant through 1995, but then declined by 12% in 2000 and an additional 17% between 2000 and 2005. (4) In 2005, boilers accounted for two-thirds of the NOx emissions, and kraft mill sources approximately 30%. Boiler NOx emissions exhibited very little change through 1995, but decreased by one third in the next 10 yr. The lower emissions resulted from declines in fossil fuel use, a reduction in the EPA emission factors for natural gas combustion in boilers without NOx controls, and more widespread use of combustion modifications and add-on NOx control technologies, particularly on coal-fired boilers subject to EPA's NOx SIP call. Total NOx emissions from kraft mill sources changed little over the 25-yr period. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Table 5. Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by State (2000-2011)" "metric tons of carbon dioxide per person" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2011"...

  1. Table 2. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel " ,"million metric tons of carbon dioxide",,,,,"shares" "State","Coal","Petroleum","Natural Gas ","Total",,"Coal","Petrol...

  2. Table 3. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by sector " "million metric tons of carbon dioxide" "State","Commercial","Electric Power","Residential","Industrial","Transportat...

  3. Table 1. State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year (2000-2011)" "million metric tons of carbon dioxide" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2011" "State",2000,2001,2002,...

  4. Microsoft Word - Updated Air Dispersion Modeling Table _sulfur_.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DIVINE STRAKE AIR DISPERSION MODELING RESULTS for SULFUR DIOXIDE The attached table is updated to include estimated sulfur dioxide concentrations resulting from the Divine Strake Experiment. Output from the POLU4WN model was used to estimate quantities of all emissions from the proposed explosive experiment. All emissions of oxides of sulfur were combined to provide input into Open Burn/Open Detonation Model (OBODM) to model the dispersion; thus overestimating the concentration of sulfur dioxide

  5. Method of detecting sulfur dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spicer, Leonard D.; Bennett, Dennis W.; Davis, Jon F.

    1985-01-01

    (CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiNSO is produced by the reaction of ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 NH with SO.sub.2. Also produced in the reaction are ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 O and a new solid compound [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ]. Both (CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiNSO and [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ] have fluorescent properties. The reaction of the subject invention is used in a method of measuring the concentration of SO.sub.2 pollutants in gases. By the method, a sample of gas is bubbled through a solution of ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 NH, whereby any SO.sub.2 present in the gas will react to produce the two fluorescent products. The measured fluorescence of these products can then be used to calculate the concentration of SO.sub.2 in the original gas sample. The solid product [NH.sub.4][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ] may be used as a standard in solid state NMR spectroscopy.

  6. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

    1993-09-07

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

  7. 11,970,363 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of February 23, 2016 | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy 11,970,363 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of February 23, 2016 11,970,363 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of February 23, 2016 This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOE's Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is equivalent to the annual greenhouse gas emissions from 210,526 passenger vehicles. The projects currently injecting CO2 within DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program

  8. DOE-Sponsored Mississippi Project Hits 1-Million-Ton Milestone for Injected

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    CO2 | Department of Energy Mississippi Project Hits 1-Million-Ton Milestone for Injected CO2 DOE-Sponsored Mississippi Project Hits 1-Million-Ton Milestone for Injected CO2 November 5, 2009 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A large-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) storage project in Mississippi has become the fifth worldwide to reach the important milestone of more than 1 million tons injected. As a result, it is helping to both further carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a mitigation strategy

  9. 11,202,720 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of October 14, 2015 | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy 11,202,720 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of October 14, 2015 11,202,720 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of October 14, 2015 This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOE's Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is equivalent to the annual greenhouse gas emissions from 210,526 passenger vehicles. The projects currently injecting CO2 within DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program

  10. Method to prevent sulfur accumulation in membrane electrode assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steimke, John L; Steeper, Timothy J; Herman, David T

    2014-04-29

    A method of operating a hybrid sulfur electrolyzer to generate hydrogen is provided that includes the steps of providing an anolyte with a concentration of sulfur dioxide, and applying a current. During steady state generation of hydrogen a plot of applied current density versus concentration of sulfur dioxide is below a boundary line. The boundary line may be linear and extend through the origin of the graph with a slope of 0.001 in which the current density is measured in mA/cm2 and the concentration of sulfur dioxide is measured in moles of sulfur dioxide per liter of anolyte.

  11. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  12. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2.1. Total carbon dioxide emissions Annual U.S. carbon dioxide emissions fell by 419 million metric tons in 2009 (7.1 percent), to 5,447 million metric tons (Figure 9 and Table 6). The annual decrease-the largest over the 19-year period beginning with the 1990 baseline-puts 2009 emissions 608 million metric tons below the 2005 level, which is the Obama Administration's benchmark year for its goal of reducing U.S. emissions by 17 percent by 2020. The key factors

  13. Energy Department Project Captures and Stores One Million Metric Tons of Carbon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As part of President Obama’s all-of-the-above energy strategy, the Department of Energy announced today that its Illinois Basin-Decatur Project successfully captured and stored one million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) and injected it into a deep saline formation.

  14. Low-sulfur coal usage alters transportation strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, H.

    1995-07-01

    As electricity production has grown, so has the amount of coal burned by US utilities. In order to comply with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), many utilities have changed from high-sulfur coal to lower-sulfur coal to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions. The primary mode of transporting coal to utilities remains the railroad, and coal represents the largest freight tonnage shipped - two out of every five tons. Since coal is so important to the railroads, it is logical that as utilities have changed their coal-buying strategies, the railroads` strategies have also changed. The increased demand for Western coal has caused rail lines some capacity problems which they are attempting to meet head-on by buying new railcars and locomotives and expanding track capacities. The new railcars typically have aluminum bodies to reduce empty weight, enabling them to carry larger loads of coal. Train locomotives are also undergoing upgrade changes. Most new locomotives have as motors to drive the wheels which deliver more motive power (traction) to the wheel trucks. In fact the motors are up to 30% more efficient at getting the traction to the trucks. Trackage is also being expanded to alleviate serious congestion on the tracks when moving Western coal.

  15. E TON Solar Tech | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Tech Jump to: navigation, search Name: E-TON Solar Tech Place: Tainan, Taiwan Zip: 709 Product: Taiwan-based manufacturer of PV cells. Coordinates: 22.99721, 120.180862...

  16. Separation of sulfur isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeWitt, Robert; Jepson, Bernhart E.; Schwind, Roger A.

    1976-06-22

    Sulfur isotopes are continuously separated and enriched using a closed loop reflux system wherein sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) is reacted with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or the like to form sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO.sub.3). Heavier sulfur isotopes are preferentially attracted to the NaHSO.sub.3, and subsequently reacted with sulfuric acid (H.sub.2 SO.sub.4) forming sodium hydrogen sulfate (NaHSO.sub.4) and SO.sub.2 gas which contains increased concentrations of the heavier sulfur isotopes. This heavy isotope enriched SO.sub.2 gas is subsequently separated and the NaHSO.sub.4 is reacted with NaOH to form sodium sulfate (Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4) which is subsequently decomposed in an electrodialysis unit to form the NaOH and H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 components which are used in the aforesaid reactions thereby effecting sulfur isotope separation and enrichment without objectionable loss of feed materials.

  17. Bioenergy Impacts … Billion Dry Tons

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Oak Ridge National Laboratory published research that shows that U.S. resources could sustainably produce by 2030 at least one billion dry tons of non-food biomass resources, yielding up to 60 billion gallons of biofuels, as well as bio- based chemicals, products, and electricity. This could potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions by up to 500 million tons per year, create 1.5 million new jobs, and keep about $200 billion extra in the U.S. economy each year. Research is showing that U.S.

  18. H. R. 4177: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to impose an excise tax on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from utility plants. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, March 5, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The tax imposed would begin in 1991 in the amount of 15 cents per pound of sulfur dioxide released and 10 cents per pound nitrogen oxide, and would increase so that the tax in 1997 and thereafter would be 45 cents per pound of sulfur dioxide and 30 cents per pound of nitrogen oxide released. An inflation adjustment is provided for years after 1997. The tax is imposed on emissions which exceed the exemption level for each pollutant, and these levels are specified herein as pounds exempted per million Btu's of fuel burned. No tax is imposed on units less than 75 megawatts, or units providing less than one-third of the electricity produced to a utility power distribution system for sale.

  19. Billion Ton Study-A Historical Perspective | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Billion Ton Study-A Historical Perspective Billion Ton Study-A Historical Perspective Breakout Session 1A: Biomass Feedstocks for the Bioeconomy Billion Ton Study-A Historical Perspective Bryce Stokes, Senior Advisor, CNJV PDF icon stokes_bioenergy_2015.pdf More Documents & Publications Biomass Econ 101: Measuring the Technological Improvements on Feedstocks Costs WEBINAR: A CHANGING MARKET FOR BIOFUELS AND BIOPRODUCTS U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts

  20. Biogenic sulfur emissions in the SURE region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.; Robinson, E.; Pack, M.R.

    1980-09-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the magnitude of biogenic sulfur emissions from the northeastern United States - defined as the EPRI Sulfate Regional Experiment (SURE) study area. Initial laboratory efforts developed and validated a portable sulfur sampling system and a sensitive, gas chromatographic analytical detection system. Twenty-one separate sites were visited in 1977 to obtain a representative sulfur emission sampling of soil orders, suborders, and wetlands. The procedure determined the quantity of sulfur added to sulfur-free sweep air by the soil flux as the clean air was blown through the dynamic enclosure set over the selected sampling area. This study represents the first systematic sampling for biogenic sulfur over such a wide range of soils and such a large land area. The major impacts upon the measured sulfur flux were found to include soil orders, temperature, sunlight intensity, tidal effects along coastal areas. A mathematical model was developed for biogenic sulfur emissions which related these field variables to the mean seasonal and annual ambient temperatures regimes for each SURE grid and the percentage of each soil order within each grid. This model showed that at least 53,500 metric tons (MT) of biogenic sulfur are emitted from the SURE land surfaces and approximately 10,000 MT are emitted from the oceanic fraction of the SURE grids. This equates to a land sulfur flux of nearly 0.02 gram of sulfur per square meter per yr, or about 0.6% of the reported anthropogenic emissions withn the SURE study area. Based upon these data and the summertime Bermuda high clockwise circulation of maritime air across Florida and the Gulf Coast states northward through the SURE area, the total land biogenic sulfur emission contribution to the SURE area atmospheric sulfur burden might approach 1 to 2.5% of the anthropogenic.

  1. Department of Energy Releases New 'Billion-Ton' Study Highlighting

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Opportunities for Growth in Bioenergy Resources | Department of Energy New 'Billion-Ton' Study Highlighting Opportunities for Growth in Bioenergy Resources Department of Energy Releases New 'Billion-Ton' Study Highlighting Opportunities for Growth in Bioenergy Resources August 10, 2011 - 3:41pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy today released a report - 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry - detailing U.S. biomass

  2. Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Liu, W.

    1995-01-24

    A catalytic reduction process is described for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(FO[sub 2])[sub 1[minus]n](RO)[sub n

  3. CARBON DIOXIDE AS A FEEDSTOCK.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CREUTZ,C.; FUJITA,E.

    2000-12-09

    This report is an overview on the subject of carbon dioxide as a starting material for organic syntheses of potential commercial interest and the utilization of carbon dioxide as a substrate for fuel production. It draws extensively on literature sources, particularly on the report of a 1999 Workshop on the subject of catalysis in carbon dioxide utilization, but with emphasis on systems of most interest to us. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is an abundant (750 billion tons in atmosphere), but dilute source of carbon (only 0.036 % by volume), so technologies for utilization at the production source are crucial for both sequestration and utilization. Sequestration--such as pumping CO{sub 2} into sea or the earth--is beyond the scope of this report, except where it overlaps utilization, for example in converting CO{sub 2} to polymers. But sequestration dominates current thinking on short term solutions to global warming, as should be clear from reports from this and other workshops. The 3500 million tons estimated to be added to the atmosphere annually at present can be compared to the 110 million tons used to produce chemicals, chiefly urea (75 million tons), salicylic acid, cyclic carbonates and polycarbonates. Increased utilization of CO{sub 2} as a starting material is, however, highly desirable, because it is an inexpensive, non-toxic starting material. There are ongoing efforts to replace phosgene as a starting material. Creation of new materials and markets for them will increase this utilization, producing an increasingly positive, albeit small impact on global CO{sub 2} levels. The other uses of interest are utilization as a solvent and for fuel production and these will be discussed in turn.

  4. Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert; Pickard, Paul S.; Parma, Jr., Edward J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Gelbard, Fred; Lenard, Roger X.

    2010-01-12

    A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

  5. Sulfide catalysts for reducing SO2 to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Yun (Peking, CN); Yu, Qiquan (Peking, CN); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A highly efficient sulfide catalyst for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur, which maximizes the selectivity of elemental sulfur over byproducts and has a high conversion efficiency. Various feed stream contaminants, such as water vapor are well tolerated. Additionally, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or hydrogen sulfides can be employed as the reducing gases while maintaining high conversion efficiency. This allows a much wider range of uses and higher level of feed stream contaminants than prior art catalysts.

  6. Bisphosphine dioxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moloy, K.G.

    1990-02-20

    A process is described for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  7. Bisphosphine dioxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moloy, Kenneth G.

    1990-01-01

    A process for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  8. RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.

    2010-07-22

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In the HyS Process, sulfur dioxide is oxidized in the presence of water at the electrolyzer anode to produce sulfuric acid and protons. The protons are transported through a cation-exchange membrane electrolyte to the cathode and are reduced to form hydrogen. In the second stage of the process, the sulfuric acid by-product from the electrolyzer is thermally decomposed at high temperature to produce sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The two gases are separated and the sulfur dioxide recycled to the electrolyzer for oxidation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been exploring a fuel-cell design concept for the SDE using an anolyte feed comprised of concentrated sulfuric acid saturated with sulfur dioxide. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint compared to a parallel-plate electrolyzer design. This paper will provide a summary of recent advances in the development of the SDE for the HyS process.

  9. Fuel-rich sulfur capture in a combustion environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Pershing, D.W.; Kirchgessner, D.A.; Drehmel, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the use of a refactory-lined, natural gas furnace to study the fuel-rich sulfur capture reactions of calcium sorbents under typical combustion conditions. The fuel-rich sulfur species hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide were monitored in a nearly continuous fashion using a gas chromatograph equiped with a flame photometric detector and an automatic system that sampled every 30 seconds. Below the fuel-rich zone, 25% excess air was added, and the ultimate fuel-lean capture was simultaneously measured using a continuous sulfur dioxide monitor. Under fuel-rich conditions, high levels of sulfur capture were obtained, and calcium utilization increased with sulfur concentration. The ultimate lean capture was found to be weakly dependent on sulfur concentration and independent of the sulfur capture level obtained in the fuel-rich zone.

  10. Uses of lunar sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Pettit, D.R.; Heiken, G.

    1988-01-01

    Sulfur and sulfur compounds have a wide range of applications for their fluid, electrical, chemical and biochemical properties. Although low in abundance on the Moon (/approximately/0.1% in mare soils), sulfur is surface-correlated and relatively extractable. Co-production of sulfur during oxygen extraction from ilmenite-rich soils could yield sulfur in masses up to 10% of the mass of oxygen produced. Sulfur deserves serious consideration as a lunar resource. 29 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Sulfur dioxide gas detection with Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-Li/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-Y/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/-SiO/sub 2/ solid electrolyte by a solid reference electrode method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imanaka, N.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Adachi, G.; Shiokawa, J.

    1987-03-01

    The electromotive force (EMF) measurement for a Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/Li/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-Y/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/-SiO/sub 2/ solid electrolyte was performed both with NiSO/sub 4/-NiO and CoSO/sub 4/-Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/ solid reference SO/sub 2/ electrodes. The measured EMF coincided well with the calculated EMF for a sulfur dioxide gas concentration from 30 ppm to 1% at 973 K. Good agreement between the measured and calculated EMF was also obtained for the SO/sub 2/ gas content from 100 ppm to 1%, at 923 K with the NiSO/sub 4/-NiO electrode.

  12. Energy Department Sponsored Project Captures One Millionth Metric Ton of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    CO2 | Department of Energy Sponsored Project Captures One Millionth Metric Ton of CO2 Energy Department Sponsored Project Captures One Millionth Metric Ton of CO2 June 27, 2014 - 11:09am Addthis An aerial view of Air Products’ steam methane reforming facility at Port Arthur, Texas. | Photo courtesy of Air Products and Chemicals Inc. An aerial view of Air Products' steam methane reforming facility at Port Arthur, Texas. | Photo courtesy of Air Products and Chemicals Inc. Allison Lantero

  13. Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be ...

  14. METHOD TO PREVENT SULFUR ACCUMULATION INSIDE MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steimke, J.; Steeper, T.; Herman, D.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Elvington, M.

    2009-06-22

    HyS is conceptually the simplest of the thermochemical cycles and involves only sulfur chemistry. In the HyS Cycle hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) is produced at the cathode of the electrochemical cell (or electrolyzer). Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is oxidized at the anode to form sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and protons (H{sup +}) as illustrated below. A separate high temperature reaction decomposes the sulfuric acid to water and sulfur dioxide which are recycled to the electrolyzers, and oxygen which is separated out as a secondary product. The electrolyzer includes a membrane that will allow hydrogen ions to pass through but block the flow of hydrogen gas. The membrane is also intended to prevent other chemical species from migrating between electrodes and undergoing undesired reactions that could poison the cathode or reduce overall process efficiency. In conventional water electrolysis, water is oxidized at the anode to produce protons and oxygen. The standard cell potential for conventional water electrolysis is 1.23 volts at 25 C. However, commercial electrolyzers typically require higher voltages ranging from 1.8 V to 2.6 V [Kirk-Othmer, 1991]. The oxidation of sulfur dioxide instead of water in the HyS electrolyzer occurs at a much lower potential. For example, the standard cell potential for sulfur dioxide oxidation at 25 C in 50 wt % sulfuric acid is 0.29 V [Westinghouse, 1980]. Since power consumption by the electrolyzers is equal to voltage times current, and current is proportional to hydrogen production, a large reduction in voltage results in a large reduction in electrical power cost per unit of hydrogen generated.

  15. Carbonyl sulfide: potential agent of atmospheric sulfur corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graedel, T.E.; Kammlott, G.W.; Franey, J.P.

    1981-05-08

    Laboratory exposure experiments demonstrate that carbonyl sulfide in wet air corrodes copper at 22/sup 0/C at a rate that is approximately linear with total exposure (the product of exposure time and carbonyl sulfide concentration). The corrosion rate is similar to that of hydrogen sulfide, a widely recognized corrodant. The much greater average atmospheric abundance of carbonyl sulfide compared with that of hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide suggests that carbonyl sulfide may be a major agent of atmospheric sulfur corrosion.

  16. Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    electrodes (Patent) | SciTech Connect sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the

  17. Sulfur Based Thermochemical Heat Storage for Baseload Concentrated Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    wong, bunsen

    2014-11-20

    This project investigates the engineering and economic feasibility of supplying baseload power using a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant integrated with sulfur based thermochemical heat storage. The technology stores high temperature solar heat in the chemical bonds of elemental sulfur. Energy is recovered as high temperature heat upon sulfur combustion. Extensive developmental and design work associated with sulfur dioxide (SO2) disproportionation and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) decomposition chemical reactions used in this technology had been carried out in the two completed phases of this project. The feasibility and economics of the proposed concept was demonstrated and determined.

  18. Process and apparatus for generating elemental sulfur and re-usable metal oxide from spent metal sulfide sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayala, Raul E. (Clifton Park, NY); Gal, Eli (Lititz, PA)

    1995-01-01

    A process and apparatus for generating elemental sulfur and re-usable metal oxide from spent metal-sulfur compound. Spent metal-sulfur compound is regenerated to re-usable metal oxide by moving a bed of spent metal-sulfur compound progressively through a single regeneration vessel having a first and second regeneration stage and a third cooling and purging stage. The regeneration is carried out and elemental sulfur is generated in the first stage by introducing a first gas of sulfur dioxide which contains oxygen at a concentration less than the stoichiometric amount required for complete oxidation of the spent metal-sulfur compound. A second gas containing sulfur dioxide and excess oxygen at a concentration sufficient for complete oxidation of the partially spent metal-sulfur compound, is introduced into the second regeneration stage. Gaseous sulfur formed in the first regeneration stage is removed prior to introducing the second gas into the second regeneration stage. An oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the third cooling and purging stage. Except for the gaseous sulfur removed from the first stage, the combined gases derived from the regeneration stages which are generally rich in sulfur dioxide and lean in oxygen, are removed from the regenerator as an off-gas and recycled as the first and second gas into the regenerator. Oxygen concentration is controlled by adding air, oxygen-enriched air or pure oxygen to the recycled off-gas.

  19. Picture of the Week: The 100-Ton Test

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 The 100-Ton Test Before the historic Trinity test on July 16th, 1945, Los Alamos scientists conducted a host of other experiments designed to ensure that they would be ready to successfully measure the full force, efficiency, energy release, shock and radiological phenomena of the blast. July 9, 2015 Trinity 1945 x View extra-large image on Flickr » Before the historic Trinity test on July 16th, 1945, Los Alamos scientists conducted a host of other experiments designed to ensure that they

  20. Sulfur recovery process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hise, R.E.; Cook, W.J.

    1991-06-04

    This paper describes a method for recovering sulfur from a process feed stream mixture of gases comprising sulfur-containing compounds including hydrogen sulfide using the Claus reaction to convert sulfur-containing compounds to elemental sulfur and crystallization to separate sulfur-containing compounds from a tail gas of the Claus reaction for further processing as a recycle stream. It comprises: providing a Claus feed stream containing a stoichiometric excess of hydrogen sulfide, the Claus feed stream including the process feed stream and the recycles stream; introducing the Claus feed stream and an oxidizing agent into a sulfur recovery unit for converting sulfur-containing compounds in the Claus feed stream to elemental sulfur; withdrawing the tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit; separating water from the tail gas to producing a dehydrated tail gas; separating sulfur-containing compounds including carbonyl sulfide from the dehydrated tail gas as an excluded material by crystallization and withdrawing an excluded material-enriched output from the crystallization to produce the recycle stream; and combining the recycle stream with the process feed stream to produce the Claus feed stream.

  1. plutonium dioxide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plutonium dioxide - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  2. DOE Will Dispose of 34 Metric Tons of Plutonium by Turning it...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home About Us Our History NNSA Timeline DOE Will Dispose of 34 Metric Tons ... DOE Will Dispose of 34 Metric Tons of ...

  3. U.S. Manufacturers Save $1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturers Save 1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through Energy Efficiency Investments U.S. Manufacturers Save 1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through Energy Efficiency...

  4. U.S. Manufacturers Save $1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. Manufacturers Save 1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through Energy Efficiency Investments U.S. Manufacturers Save 1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through Energy...

  5. DOE to Remove 200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    to Remove 200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from U.S. Nuclear Weapons Stockpile DOE to Remove 200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from U.S. Nuclear Weapons ...

  6. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industry | Department of Energy Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry An update to the 2005 report, "Biomass as a Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply" PDF icon billion_ton_update.pdf More Documents & Publications ECOWAS - GBEP REGIONAL BIOMASS RESOURCE ASSESSMENT WORKSHOP Biomass Program

  7. The CNG process: Acid gas removal with liquid carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.C.; Auyang, L.; Brown, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    The CNG acid gas removal process has two unique features: the absorption of sulfur-containing compounds and other trace contaminants with liquid carbon dioxide, and the regeneration of pure liquid carbon dioxide by triple-point crystallization. The process is especially suitable for treating gases which contain large amounts of carbon dioxide and much smaller amounts (relative to carbon dioxide) of hydrogen sulfide. Capital and energy costs are lower than conventional solvent processes. Further, products of the CNG process meet stringent purity specifications without undue cost penalties. A process demonstration unit has been constructed and operated to demonstrate the two key steps of the CNG process. Hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide removal from gas streams with liquid carbon dioxide absorbent to sub-ppm concentrations has been demonstrated. The production of highly purified liquid carbon dioxide (less than 0.1 ppm total contaminant) by triple-point crystallization also has been demonstrated.

  8. Neutrino physics with multi-ton scale liquid xenon detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baudis, L.; Ferella, A.; Kish, A.; Manalaysay, A.; Undagoitia, T. Marrodn; Schumann, M., E-mail: laura.baudis@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: alfredo.ferella@lngs.infn.it, E-mail: alexkish@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: aaronm@ucdavis.edu, E-mail: marrodan@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: marc.schumann@lhep.unibe.ch [Physik Institut, University of Zrich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, Zrich, CH-8057 (Switzerland)

    2014-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of large-scale xenon detectors to low-energy solar neutrinos, to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering and to neutrinoless double beta decay. As a concrete example, we consider the xenon part of the proposed DARWIN (Dark Matter WIMP Search with Noble Liquids) experiment. We perform detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the expected backgrounds, considering realistic energy resolutions and thresholds in the detector. In a low-energy window of 230 keV, where the sensitivity to solar pp and {sup 7}Be-neutrinos is highest, an integrated pp-neutrino rate of 5900 events can be reached in a fiducial mass of 14 tons of natural xenon, after 5 years of data. The pp-neutrino flux could thus be measured with a statistical uncertainty around 1%, reaching the precision of solar model predictions. These low-energy solar neutrinos will be the limiting background to the dark matter search channel for WIMP-nucleon cross sections below ? 2 10{sup ?48} cm{sup 2} and WIMP masses around 50 GeV?c{sup ?2}, for an assumed 99.5% rejection of electronic recoils due to elastic neutrino-electron scatters. Nuclear recoils from coherent scattering of solar neutrinos will limit the sensitivity to WIMP masses below ? 6 GeV?c{sup ?2} to cross sections above ? 4 10{sup ?45}cm{sup 2}. DARWIN could reach a competitive half-life sensitivity of 5.6 10{sup 26} y to the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe after 5 years of data, using 6 tons of natural xenon in the central detector region.

  9. Bacterial Sulfur Storage Globules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by I. J. Pickering and G. N. George Sulfur is essential for all life, but it plays a particularly central role in the metabolism of many anaerobic microorganisms. Prominent among these are the sulfide-oxidizing bacteria that oxidize sulfide (S2-) to sulfate (SO42-). Many of these organisms can store elemental sulfur (S0) in "globules" for use when food is in short supply (Fig. 1). The chemical nature of the sulfur in these globules has been an enigma since they were first described as

  10. Biogenic sulfur source strengths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.; Robinson, E.; Pack, M.R.; Bamesberger, W.L.

    1981-12-01

    Conclusions are presented from a 4-yr field measurement study of biogenic sulfur gas emissions from soils, and some water and vegetated surfaces, at 35 locales in the eastern and southeastern United States. More than one soil order was examined whenever possible to increase the data base obtained from the 11 major soil orders comprising the study area. Data analysis and emission model development were based upon an (80 x 80)-km/sup 2/ grid system. The measured sulfur fluxes, adjusted for the annual mean temperature for each sampling locale, weigted by the percentage of each soil order within each grid, and averaged for each of the east-west grid tiers from 47/sup 0/N to 25/sup 0/N latitude, showed an exponential north-to-south increase in total sulfur gas flux. Our model predits an additional increase of nearly 25-fold in sulfur flux between 25/sup 0/N and the equator.

  11. Taking the One-Metric-Ton Challenge | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Taking the One-Metric-Ton ... Taking the One-Metric-Ton Challenge Posted: January 13, 2016 - 4:46pm NNSA Uranium Program Manager Tim Driscoll speaks with the One-Metric-Ton Challenge team in Building 9212. The team has undertaken an extensive dedicated maintenance effort to improve metal production equipment reliability and reduce unexpected down time, with an end goal of significantly increasing purified metal production by fiscal year 2017. Last year, NNSA Uranium Program Manager Tim Driscoll

  12. U.S. Removes Nine Metric Tons of Plutonium From Nuclear Weapons Stockpile |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Removes Nine Metric Tons of Plutonium From Nuclear Weapons Stockpile U.S. Removes Nine Metric Tons of Plutonium From Nuclear Weapons Stockpile September 17, 2007 - 2:41pm Addthis Declaration Reinforces U.S. Commitment to Nonproliferation VIENNA, AUSTRIA - Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today announced that the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) will remove nine metric tons of plutonium from further use as fissile material in U.S.

  13. Energy Cost Calculator for Commercial Heat Pumps (5.4 >=< 20 Tons) |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Heat Pumps (5.4 >=< 20 Tons) Energy Cost Calculator for Commercial Heat Pumps (5.4 >=< 20 Tons) Vary equipment size, energy cost, hours of operation, and /or efficiency level. INPUT SECTION Input the following data (if any parameter is missing, calculator will set to default value). Defaults Project Type New Installation Replacement New Installation Condenser Type Air Source Water Source Air Source Existing Capacity * ton - Existing Cooling Efficiency * EER -

  14. Removal of 1,082-Ton Reactor Among Richland Operations Office...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from groundwater across the site ahead of schedule and pumped a record volume of water through treatment facilities to remove contamination, with more than 130 tons of...

  15. U.S. Billion-Ton Update. Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-08-01

    This report is an update to the 2005 Billion-Ton Study that addresses shotcomings and questions that arose from the original report..

  16. Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA); Liu, Wei (Cambridge, MA)

    1995-01-01

    A catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(OF.sub.2).sub.1-n (RO.sub.1)n].sub.1-k M.sub.k, [(FO.sub.2).sub.1-n (RO.sub.1.5).sub.n ].sub.1-k M.sub.k, or [Ln.sub.x Zr.sub.1-x O.sub.2-0.5x ].sub.1-k M.sub.k wherein FO.sub.2 is a fluorite-type oxide; RO represents an alkaline earth oxide; RO.sub.1.5 is a Group IIIB or rare earth oxide; Ln is a rare earth element having an atomic number from 57 to 65 or mixtures thereof; M is a transition metal or a mixture of transition metals; n is a number having a value from 0.0 to 0.35; k is a number having a value from 0.0 to about 0.5; and x is a number having a value from about 0.45 to about 0.55.

  17. Device and method for detecting sulfur dioxide at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, David L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Montgomery, Frederick C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armstrong, Timothy R. (Clinton, TN)

    2011-11-01

    The present invention relates to a method for selectively detecting and/or measuring gaseous SO.sub.2 at a temperature of at least 500.degree. C., the method involving: (i) providing a SO.sub.2-detecting device including an oxygen ion-conducting substrate having on its surface at least three electrodes comprising a first, second, and third electrode; (ii) driving a starting current of specified magnitude and temporal variation between the first and second electrodes; (iii) contacting the SO.sub.2-detecting device with the SO.sub.2-containing sample while maintaining the magnitude and any temporal variation of the starting current, wherein said SO.sub.2-containing sample causes a change in the electrical conductance of said device; and (iv) detecting the change in electrical conductance of the device based on measuring an electrical property related to or indicative of the conductance of the device between the first and third electrodes, or between the second and third electrodes, and detecting SO.sub.2 in the SO.sub.2-containing sample based on the measured change in electrical conductance.

  18. Sulfur tolerant highly durable CO.sub.2 sorbents (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Sulfur tolerant highly durable CO.sub.2 sorbents Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sulfur tolerant highly durable CO.sub.2 sorbents A sorbent for the capture of carbon dioxide from a gas stream is provided, the sorbent containing calcium oxide (CaO) and at least one refractory dopant having a Tammann temperature greater than about 530.degree. C., wherein the refractory dopant enhances resistance to sintering, thereby conserving performance of the sorbent at temperatures of at

  19. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mikkor, Mati (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  20. Nitrogen dioxide detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Agnew, Stephen F. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, William H. (Buena Park, CA)

    1993-01-01

    Method and apparatus for detecting the presence of gaseous nitrogen dioxide and determining the amount of gas which is present. Though polystyrene is normally an insulator, it becomes electrically conductive in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. Conductance or resistance of a polystyrene sensing element is related to the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at the sensing element.

  1. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Topouzian, Armenag (Birmingham, MI)

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  2. Process for forming sulfuric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Wen-Tong P. (Upper St. Clair, PA)

    1981-01-01

    An improved electrode is disclosed for the anode in a sulfur cycle hydrogen generation process where sulfur dioxie is oxidized to form sulfuric acid at the anode. The active compound in the electrode is palladium, palladium oxide, an alloy of palladium, or a mixture thereof. The active compound may be deposited on a porous, stable, conductive substrate.

  3. ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF CARBON DISULFIDE-OXYGEN ICES: TOWARD THE FORMATION OF SULFUR-BEARING MOLECULES IN INTERSTELLAR ICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maity, Surajit; Kaiser, Ralf I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    The formation of sulfur-bearing molecules in interstellar ices was investigated during the irradiation of carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2})-oxygen (O{sub 2}) ices with energetic electrons at 12 K. The irradiation-induced chemical processing of these ices was monitored online and in situ via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to probe the newly formed products quantitatively. The sulfur-bearing molecules produced during the irradiation were sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS). Formations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O{sub 3}) were observed as well. To fit the temporal evolution of the newly formed products and to elucidate the underlying reaction pathways, kinetic reaction schemes were developed and numerical sets of rate constants were derived. Our studies suggest that carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) can be easily transformed to carbonyl sulfide (OCS) via reactions with suprathermal atomic oxygen (O), which can be released from oxygen-containing precursors such as water (H{sub 2}O), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and/or methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) upon interaction with ionizing radiation. This investigation corroborates that carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) are the dominant sulfur-bearing molecules in interstellar ices.

  4. 6 Million Tons of Mill Tailings Removed From DOE Moab Project Site |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 6 Million Tons of Mill Tailings Removed From DOE Moab Project Site 6 Million Tons of Mill Tailings Removed From DOE Moab Project Site June 18, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Donald Metzler, Moab Federal Project Director (970) 257-2115 Wendee Ryan, S&K Aerospace Public Affairs Manager (970) 257-2145 (Grand Junction, CO) - Today, the Department of Energy (DOE) announced that 6 million tons of uranium mill tailings have been shipped from Moab, Utah, under the

  5. Billion-Ton Update: Home-Grown Energy Resources Across the Nation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Billion-Ton Update: Home-Grown Energy Resources Across the Nation Billion-Ton Update: Home-Grown Energy Resources Across the Nation August 11, 2011 - 3:59pm Addthis Total potential biomass resources by county in the contiguous U.S. from the baseline scenario of the Update (Figure 6.4, page 159) | Map from Billion-Ton Update Total potential biomass resources by county in the contiguous U.S. from the baseline scenario of the Update (Figure 6.4, page 159) | Map from

  6. Moab Marks 6-Million-Ton Cleanup Milestone | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Moab Marks 6-Million-Ton Cleanup Milestone Moab Marks 6-Million-Ton Cleanup Milestone June 20, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis At Tuesday's Grand County Council meeting in Utah, Moab Federal Project Director Donald Metzler, center, moves a piece from a plaque representing Moab’s uranium mill tailings pile to a plaque representing the disposal cell in recognition of the site achieving a milestone by shipping 6 million tons of the tailings. Grand County Council Chair Gene Ciarus is on the left and

  7. Process for removal of sulfur compounds from fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Raymond H. (Richland, WA); Stegen, Gary E. (Richland, WA)

    1978-01-01

    Fuel gases such as those produced in the gasification of coal are stripped of sulfur compounds and particulate matter by contact with molten metal salt. The fuel gas and salt are intimately mixed by passage through a venturi or other constriction in which the fuel gas entrains the molten salt as dispersed droplets to a gas-liquid separator. The separated molten salt is divided into a major and a minor flow portion with the minor flow portion passing on to a regenerator in which it is contacted with steam and carbon dioxide as strip gas to remove sulfur compounds. The strip gas is further processed to recover sulfur. The depleted, minor flow portion of salt is passed again into contact with the fuel gas for further sulfur removal from the gas. The sulfur depleted, fuel gas then flows through a solid absorbent for removal of salt droplets. The minor flow portion of the molten salt is then recombined with the major flow portion for feed to the venturi.

  8. Moab Project Disposes 2 Million Tons of Uranium Mill Tailings with Recovery Act Funds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project reached its primary American Recovery and Reinvestment Act milestone ahead of schedule on Wednesday with the disposal of 2 million tons of...

  9. Hanford Landfill Reaches 15 Million Tons Disposed- Waste Disposal Mark Shows Success Cleaning Up River Corridor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, Wash. – The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors have disposed of 15 million tons of contaminated material at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) since the facility began operations in 1996.

  10. U.S. Manufacturers Save $1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Investments | Department of Energy Manufacturers Save $1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through Energy Efficiency Investments U.S. Manufacturers Save $1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through Energy Efficiency Investments September 25, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - Underscoring the Obama Administration's efforts to double energy productivity by 2030 and help businesses save money and energy, the Energy Department today recognized more than

  11. SO2907, A Putative TonB-dependent Receptor, Is Involved in Dissimilatory

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Iron Reduction by Shewanella oneidensis Strain MR-1 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: SO2907, A Putative TonB-dependent Receptor, Is Involved in Dissimilatory Iron Reduction by Shewanella oneidensis Strain MR-1 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SO2907, A Putative TonB-dependent Receptor, Is Involved in Dissimilatory Iron Reduction by Shewanella oneidensis Strain MR-1 Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 utilizes soluble and insoluble ferric ions as terminal electron

  12. Moab Mill Tailings Removal Project Reaches 5 Million Tons Disposed: Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accomplishes Milestone While Doing it Safely | Department of Energy Moab Mill Tailings Removal Project Reaches 5 Million Tons Disposed: Project Accomplishes Milestone While Doing it Safely Moab Mill Tailings Removal Project Reaches 5 Million Tons Disposed: Project Accomplishes Milestone While Doing it Safely February 27, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Donald Metzler, Moab Federal Project Director, (970) 257-2115 Wendee Ryan, S&K Aerospace Public Affairs Manager, (970) 257-2145

  13. Method and system for capturing carbon dioxide and/or sulfur dioxide from gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xinglei

    2014-07-08

    The present invention provides a system for capturing CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 absorber comprising an amine and/or amino acid salt capable of absorbing the CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 to produce a CO.sub.2- and/or SO.sub.2-containing solution; (b) an amine regenerator to regenerate the amine and/or amino acid salt; and, when the system captures CO.sub.2, (c) an alkali metal carbonate regenerator comprising an ammonium catalyst capable catalyzing the aqueous alkali metal bicarbonate into the alkali metal carbonate and CO.sub.2 gas. The present invention also provides for a system for capturing SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a SO.sub.2 absorber comprising aqueous alkali metal carbonate, wherein the alkali metal carbonate is capable of absorbing the SO.sub.2 to produce an alkali metal sulfite/sulfate precipitate and CO.sub.2.

  14. Carbon Dioxide Utilization Summit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 6th Carbon Dioxide Utilization Summit will be held in Newark, New Jersey, from Feb. 24–26, 2016. The conference will look at the benefits and challenges of carbon dioxide utilization. Advanced Algal Systems Program Manager Alison Goss Eng and Technology Manager Devinn Lambert will be in attendance. Dr. Goss Eng will be chairing a round table on Fuels and Chemicals during the Carbon Dioxide Utilization: From R&D to Commercialization discussion session.

  15. ARM - Carbon Dioxide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Dioxide Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Carbon Dioxide Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide have ranged from 200 to 280 ppm over the last 160,000 years. During the 1,000 years before the industrial revolution, in a time of stable global climate, the range was

  16. Assessing historical global sulfur emission patterns for the period 1850--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lefohn, A.S.; Husar, J.D.; Husar, R.B.; Brimblecombe, P.

    1996-07-19

    Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions from energy-producing and metal production activities have become an important factor in better understanding the relationship between humans and the environment. Concerns about (1) acid rain effects on the environment and (2) anthropogenic aerosols affecting possible global change have prompted interest in the transformation and fate of sulfur in the environment. One step in assessing the importance of sulfur emissions is the development of a reliable regional emission inventory of sulfur as a function of time. The objective of this research effort was to create a homogeneous database for historical sulfur emission estimates for the world. The time from 1850--1990 was selected to include the period of industrialization form the time the main production of fuels and minerals began until the most recent year for which complete production data exist. This research effort attempts to correct some of the deficiencies associated with previous global sulfur emission estimates by (1) identifying those production activities that resulted in sulfur emissions by country and (2) calculating historical emission trends by country across years. An important component of this study was the comparison of the sulfur emission results with those of previous studies.

  17. Evaluation of Sulfur in Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2006-04-01

    This project will define the options and costs at different scales of technology that can be used to remove sulfur from syngas.

  18. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue gas desulfurization solids. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1981-10-01

    The emissions of volatile, sulfur-containing compounds from the surfaces of 13 flue gas desulfurization (FGD) solids field storage sites have been characterized. The sulfur gas emissions from these storage surfaces were determined by measuring the sulfur gas enhancement of sulfur-free sweep air passing through a dynamic emission flux chamber placed over selected sampling areas. Samples of the enclosure sweep air were cryogenically concentrated in surface-deactivated Pyrex U traps. Analyses were conducted by wall-coated, open-tubular, capillary column, cryogenic, temperature-programmed gas chromatography using a sulfur-selective flame photometric detector. Several major variables associated with FGD sludge production processes were examined in relation to the measured range and variations in sulfur fluxes including: the sulfur dioxide scrubbing reagent used, sludge sulfite oxidation, unfixed or stabilized (fixed) FGD solids, and ponding or landfill storage. The composition and concentration of the measured sulfur gas emissions were found to vary with the type of solids, the effectiveness of rainwater drainage from the landfill surface, the method of impoundment, and the sulfate/sulfite ratio of the solids. The FGD solids emissions may contain hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide in varying concentrations and ratios. In addition, up to four unidentified organo-sulfur compounds were found in the emissions from four different FGD solids. The measured, total sulfur emissions ranged from less than 0.01 to nearly 0.3 kg of sulfur per day for an equivalent 40.5 hectare (100 acre) FGD solids impoundment surface.

  19. Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T. (Austin, TX); Jozewicz, Wojciech (Chapel Hill, NC)

    1989-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to improved processes for treating hot sulfur-containing flue gas to remove sulfur therefrom. Processes in accorda The government may own certain rights in the present invention pursuant to EPA Cooperative Agreement CR 81-1531.

  20. Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-04-01

    Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

  1. DOE to Remove 200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from U.S. Nuclear

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Weapons Stockpile | Department of Energy to Remove 200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from U.S. Nuclear Weapons Stockpile DOE to Remove 200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from U.S. Nuclear Weapons Stockpile November 7, 2005 - 12:38pm Addthis Will Be Redirected to Naval Reactors, Down-blended or Used for Space Programs WASHINGTON, DC - Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today announced that the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) will

  2. Photo of the Week: Smashing Atoms with 80-ton Magnets | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy The cyclotron, invented by Ernest Lawrence in the 1930s, is a unique circular particle accelerator, which Lawrence himself referred to as a "proton merry-go-round." In reality, the cyclotron specialized in smashing atoms. Part of this atom-smashing process requires very large, very heavy magnets -- sometimes weighing up to 220 tons. In this photo, workers at the Federal Telegraph facility in Menlo Park, California, are smoothing two castings for 80-ton magnets for use in one

  3. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry U.S. BILLI N-TON UPDATE U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry A Study Sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy Energy Effciency and Renewable Energy Offce of the Biomass Program August 2011 Prepared by OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6335 managed by UT-Battelle, LLC for the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 This report was prepared as an account of

  4. Cleanup of 77 Waste Sites Meets Two TPA Milestones: 1.2 million tons of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    soil and debris disposed of from D, H Reactor Areas | Department of Energy Cleanup of 77 Waste Sites Meets Two TPA Milestones: 1.2 million tons of soil and debris disposed of from D, H Reactor Areas Cleanup of 77 Waste Sites Meets Two TPA Milestones: 1.2 million tons of soil and debris disposed of from D, H Reactor Areas January 11, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Cameron Hardy, DOE (509) 376-5365, Cameron.Hardy@rl.doe.gov Dieter Bohrmann, Ecology (509) 372-7954,

  5. DOE Moab Project Safely Removes 7 Million Tons of Mill Tailings |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Moab Project Safely Removes 7 Million Tons of Mill Tailings DOE Moab Project Safely Removes 7 Million Tons of Mill Tailings July 30, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis View of the Crescent Junction disposal cell, looking northwest. From center left to right, the photo shows final cover, interim cover, tailings, and excavated cell ready to be filled. View of the Crescent Junction disposal cell, looking northwest. From center left to right, the photo shows final cover, interim cover,

  6. An Evolutionary Arms Race for Sulfur

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    globally distributed sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in the deep sea carry bacterial genes for the oxidation of elemental sulfur. Although such observations are common in...

  7. Planning for the 400,000 tons/year AISI ironmaking demonstration plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aukrust, E. . AISI Direct Steelmaking Program)

    1993-01-01

    The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) has formulated a four-year program to design, construct, and operate a 400,000 net ton per year ironmaking demonstration plant. The plant will employ the coal-based ironmaking process developed under a 1989 cooperative agreement with DOE. AISI will manage the design and construction to be completed in the first two years and operate the plant for the second two years with a variety or ores, coals, and fluxes. Campaigns of increasing length are planned to optimize operations. After successful operation, the plant will be taken over by the host company. Results of studies to date indicate that, on a commercial scale, the AISI process will use 27% less energy and have variable operating costs $10 per ton lower and capital costs of $160 per annual ton, compared to the $250 per annual ton rebuild cost for the coke oven-blast furnace process it will replace. The process will enable the domestic steel industry to become more competitive by reducing its capital and operating cost. Furthermore, by eliminating the pollution problems associated with coke production and by completely enclosing the smelting reactions, this process represents a major step towards an environmentally friendly steel industry.

  8. Carbon dioxide removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2003-11-18

    A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

  9. Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuliang; Li, Xiaolin

    2015-04-07

    A method of preparing a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite for a cathode in a rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery comprising thermally expanding graphite oxide to yield graphene layers, mixing the graphene layers with a first solution comprising sulfur and carbon disulfide, evaporating the carbon disulfide to yield a solid nanocomposite, and grinding the solid nanocomposite to yield the graphene-sulfur nanocomposite. Rechargeable-lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter of less than 50 nm.

  10. Criticality characteristics of mixtures of plutonium, silicon dioxide, Nevada tuff, and water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, R.; Myers, W.; Hayes, D.

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear criticality characteristics of mixtures of plutonium, silicon dioxide, and water (Part A) or plutonium, silicon dioxide, Nevada Yucca Mountain tuff, and water (Part B) have become of interest because of the appearance of recent papers on the subject. These papers postulate that if excess weapons plutonium is vitrified into a silicate log and buried underground, a self-sustaining neutron chain reaction may develop given sufficient time and interaction with the burial medium. Moreover, given specific geologic actions resulting in postulated configurations, the referenced papers state that nuclear explosions could occur with multi-kiloton yields or yields equivalent to hundreds of tons of TNT.

  11. "Table 21. Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million metric tons)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",5060,5129.666667,5184.666667,5239.666667,5287.333333,5335,5379,5437.666667,5481.666667,5529.333333,5599,5657.666667,5694.333333,5738.333333,5797,5874,5925.333333,5984 "AEO

  12. DOE Will Dispose of 34 Metric Tons of Plutonium by Turning it into Fuel for

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Civilian Reactors | National Nuclear Security Administration Will Dispose of 34 Metric Tons of Plutonium by Turning it into Fuel for Civilian Reactors | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations

  13. Y-12's rough roads smoothed over with 23,000 tons of recycled asphalt |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration rough roads smoothed over with 23,000 tons of recycled asphalt | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets

  14. How well will ton-scale dark matter direct detection experiments constrain minimal supersymmetry?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akrami, Yashar; Savage, Christopher; Scott, Pat; Conrad, Jan; Edsj, Joakim E-mail: savage@fysik.su.se E-mail: conrad@fysik.su.se

    2011-04-01

    Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are amongst the most interesting dark matter (DM) candidates. Many DM candidates naturally arise in theories beyond the standard model (SM) of particle physics, like weak-scale supersymmetry (SUSY). Experiments aim to detect WIMPs by scattering, annihilation or direct production, and thereby determine the underlying theory to which they belong, along with its parameters. Here we examine the prospects for further constraining the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (CMSSM) with future ton-scale direct detection experiments. We consider ton-scale extrapolations of three current experiments: CDMS, XENON and COUPP, with 1000 kg-years of raw exposure each. We assume energy resolutions, energy ranges and efficiencies similar to the current versions of the experiments, and include backgrounds at target levels. Our analysis is based on full likelihood constructions for the experiments. We also take into account present uncertainties on hadronic matrix elements for neutralino-quark couplings, and on halo model parameters. We generate synthetic data based on four benchmark points and scan over the CMSSM parameter space using nested sampling. We construct both Bayesian posterior PDFs and frequentist profile likelihoods for the model parameters, as well as the mass and various cross-sections of the lightest neutralino. Future ton-scale experiments will help substantially in constraining supersymmetry, especially when results of experiments primarily targeting spin-dependent nuclear scattering are combined with those directed more toward spin-independent interactions.

  15. METHOD OF SINTERING URANIUM DIOXIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henderson, C.M.; Stavrolakis, J.A.

    1963-04-30

    This patent relates to a method of sintering uranium dioxide. Uranium dioxide bodies are heated to above 1200 nif- C in hydrogen, sintered in steam, and then cooled in hydrogen. (AEC)

  16. Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility Facility Martinez Sulfuric Acid...

  17. Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and grinding the solid nanocomposite to yield the graphene-sulfur nanocomposite. Rechargeable-lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur...

  18. Carbon dioxide sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  19. Table 11.4 Nitrous Oxide Emissions, 1980-2009 (Thousand Metric Tons of Nitrous Oxide)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nitrous Oxide Emissions, 1980-2009 (Thousand Metric Tons of Nitrous Oxide) Year Energy Sources Waste Management Agricultural Sources Industrial Processes 3 Total Mobile Combustion 1 Stationary Combustion 2 Total Waste Combustion Human Sewage in Wastewater Total Nitrogen Fertilization of Soils Crop Residue Burning Solid Waste of Domesticated Animals Total 1980 60 44 104 1 10 11 364 1 75 440 88 642 1981 63 44 106 1 10 11 364 2 74 440 84 641 1982 67 42 108 1 10 11 339 2 74 414 80 614 1983 71 43 114

  20. Occidental Chemical's Energy From Waste facility: 3,000,000 tons later

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blasins, G.F. )

    1988-01-01

    Occidental Chemical's Energy From Waste's cogeneration facility continues to be one of the most successful RDF plants in the U.S. The facility began operation in 1980 and was an operational success after a lengthy 2-1/2 year start-up and redesign, utilizing the air classification technology to produce RDF. In 1984, the plant was converted to a simplified shred and burn concept, significantly improving overall economics and viability of the operation. After processing 3.0 million tons the facility is a mature operation with a well developed experience base in long range operation and maintenance of the equipment utilized for processing and incinerating municipal solid waste.

  1. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downing, Mark; Eaton, Laurence M; Graham, Robin Lambert; Langholtz, Matthew H; Perlack, Robert D; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Stokes, Bryce; Brandt, Craig C

    2011-08-01

    The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory, production capacity, availability, and technology. The analysis was made to determine if conterminous U.S. agriculture and forestry resources had the capability to produce at least one billion dry tons of sustainable biomass annually to displace 30% or more of the nation's present petroleum consumption. An effort was made to use conservative estimates to assure confidence in having sufficient supply to reach the goal. The potential biomass was projected to be reasonably available around mid-century when large-scale biorefineries are likely to exist. The study emphasized primary sources of forest- and agriculture-derived biomass, such as logging residues, fuel treatment thinnings, crop residues, and perennially grown grasses and trees. These primary sources have the greatest potential to supply large, reliable, and sustainable quantities of biomass. While the primary sources were emphasized, estimates of secondary residue and tertiary waste resources of biomass were also provided. The original Billion-Ton Resource Assessment, published in 2005, was divided into two parts-forest-derived resources and agriculture-derived resources. The forest resources included residues produced during the harvesting of merchantable timber, forest residues, and small-diameter trees that could become available through initiatives to reduce fire hazards and improve forest health; forest residues from land conversion; fuelwood extracted from forests; residues generated at primary forest product processing mills; and urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes (MSW), and construction and demolition (C&D) debris. For these forest resources, only residues, wastes, and small-diameter trees were considered. The 2005 BTS did not attempt to include any wood that would normally be used for higher-valued products (e.g., pulpwood) that could potentially shift to bioenergy applications. This would have required a separate economic analysis, which was not part of the 2005 BTS. The agriculture resources in the 2005 BTS included grains used for biofuels production; crop residues derived primarily from corn, wheat, and small grains; and animal manures and other residues. The cropland resource analysis also included estimates of perennial energy crops (e.g., herbaceous grasses, such as switchgrass, woody crops like hybrid poplar, as well as willow grown under short rotations and more intensive management than conventional plantation forests). Woody crops were included under cropland resources because it was assumed that they would be grown on a combination of cropland and pasture rather than forestland. In the 2005 BTS, current resource availability was estimated at 278 million dry tons annually from forestlands and slightly more than 194 million dry tons annually from croplands. These annual quantities increase to about 370 million dry tons from forestlands and to nearly 1 billion dry tons from croplands under scenario conditions of high-yield growth and large-scale plantings of perennial grasses and woody tree crops. This high-yield scenario reflects a mid-century timescale ({approx}2040-2050). Under conditions of lower-yield growth, estimated resource potential was projected to be about 320 and 580 million dry tons for forest and cropland biomass, respectively. As noted earlier, the 2005 BTS emphasized the primary resources (agricultural and forestry residues and energy crops) because they represent nearly 80% of the long-term resource potential. Since publication of the BTS in April 2005, there have been some rather dramatic changes in energy markets. In fact, just prior to the actual publication of the BTS, world oil prices started to increase as a result of a burgeoning worldwide demand and concerns about long-term supplies. By the end of the summer, oil prices topped $70 per barrel (bbl) and catastrophic hurricanes in the Gulf Coast shut down a significant fraction of U.S. refinery capacity. The following year, oil approached $80 per bbl due to supply concerns, as well as continued political tensions in the Middle East. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) was enacted in December of that year. By the end of December 2007, oil prices surpassed $100 per bbl for the first time, and by mid-summer 2008, prices approached $150 per bbl because of supply concerns, speculation, and weakness of the U.S. dollar. As fast as they skyrocketed, oil prices fell, and by the end of 2008, oil prices dropped below $50 per bbl, falling even more a month later due to the global economic recession. In 2009 and 2010, oil prices began to increase again as a result of a weak U.S. dollar and the rebounding of world economies.

  2. Seal for sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Topouzian, Armenag (Birmingham, MI); Minck, Robert W. (Lathrup Village, MI); Williams, William J. (Northville, MI)

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  3. Two stage sorption of sulfur compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, William E.

    1992-01-01

    A two stage method for reducing the sulfur content of exhaust gases is disclosed. Alkali- or alkaline-earth-based sorbent is totally or partially vaporized and introduced into a sulfur-containing gas stream. The activated sorbent can be introduced in the reaction zone or the exhaust gases of a combustor or a gasifier. High efficiencies of sulfur removal can be achieved.

  4. supercritical carbon dioxide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    supercritical carbon dioxide - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  5. Cracked lifting lug welds on ten-ton UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorning, R.E.

    1991-12-31

    Ten-ton, Type 48X, UF{sub 6} cylinders are used at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant to withdraw enriched uranium hexafluoride from the cascade, transfer enriched uranium hexafluoride to customer cylinders, and feed enriched product to the cascade. To accomplish these activities, the cylinders are lifted by cranes and straddle carriers which engage the cylinder lifting lugs. In August of 1988, weld cracks on two lifting lugs were discovered during preparation to lift a cylinder. The cylinder was rejected and tagged out, and an investigating committee formed to determine the cause of cracking and recommend remedial actions. Further investigation revealed the problem may be general to this class of cylinder in this use cycle. This paper discusses the actions taken at the Portsmouth site to deal with the cracked lifting lug weld problem. The actions include inspection activities, interim corrective actions, metallurgical evaluation of cracked welds, weld repairs, and current monitoring/inspection program.

  6. Table 11.3 Methane Emissions, 1980-2009 (Million Metric Tons of Methane)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Methane Emissions, 1980-2009 (Million Metric Tons of Methane) Year Energy Sources Waste Management Agricultural Sources Industrial Processes 9 Total 5 Coal Mining Natural Gas Systems 1 Petroleum Systems 2 Mobile Com- bustion 3 Stationary Com- bustion 4 Total 5 Landfills Waste- water Treatment 6 Total 5 Enteric Fermen- tation 7 Animal Waste 8 Rice Cultivation Crop Residue Burning Total 5 1980 3.06 4.42 NA 0.28 0.45 8.20 10.52 0.52 11.04 5.47 2.87 0.48 0.04 8.86 0.17 28.27 1981 2.81 5.02 NA .27

  7. Table 4.8 Coal Demonstrated Reserve Base, January 1, 2011 (Billion Short Tons)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Coal Demonstrated Reserve Base, January 1, 2011 (Billion Short Tons) Region and State Anthracite Bituminous Coal Subbituminous Coal Lignite Total Underground Surface Underground Surface Underground Surface Surface 1 Underground Surface Total Appalachian 4.0 3.3 68.2 21.9 0.0 0.0 1.1 72.1 26.3 98.4 Alabama .0 .0 .9 2.1 .0 .0 1.1 .9 3.1 4.0 Kentucky, Eastern .0 .0 .8 9.1 .0 .0 .0 .8 9.1 9.8 Ohio .0 .0 17.4 5.7 .0 .0 .0 17.4 5.7 23.1 Pennsylvania 3.8 3.3 18.9 .8 .0 .0 .0 22.7 4.2 26.9 Virginia .1

  8. Table 7.2 Coal Production, 1949-2011 (Short Tons)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Production, 1949-2011 (Short Tons) Year Rank Mining Method Location Total 1 Bituminous Coal 1 Subbituminous Coal Lignite Anthracite 1 Underground Surface 1 East of the Mississippi 1 West of the Mississippi 1 1949 437,868,000 [2] [2] 42,702,000 358,854,000 121,716,000 444,199,000 36,371,000 480,570,000 1950 516,311,000 [2] [2] 44,077,000 421,000,000 139,388,000 524,374,000 36,014,000 560,388,000 1951 533,665,000 [2] [2] 42,670,000 442,184,000 134,151,000 541,703,000 34,632,000 576,335,000

  9. Table 7.4 Coal Imports by Country of Origin, 2000-2011 (Short Tons)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Imports by Country of Origin, 2000-2011 (Short Tons) Year Australia New Zealand Canada Mexico Colombia Venezuela China India Indonesia Europe South Africa Other Total Norway Poland Russia Ukraine United Kingdom Other Total 2000 167,595 0 1,923,434 6,671 7,636,614 2,038,774 19,646 205 718,149 0 0 1,212 0 238 0 1,450 0 85 12,512,623 2001 315,870 24,178 2,571,415 8,325 11,176,191 3,335,258 109,877 1,169 882,455 15,933 514,166 219,077 0 75,704 12 824,892 440,408 97,261 19,787,299 2002 821,280 0

  10. Table 7.5 Coal Exports by Country of Destination, 1960-2011 (Thousand Short Tons)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Exports by Country of Destination, 1960-2011 (Thousand Short Tons) Year Canada Brazil Europe Japan Other 3 Total Belgium 1 Denmark France Germany 2 Italy Nether- lands Spain Turkey United Kingdom Other 3 Total 1960 12,843 1,067 1,116 130 794 4,566 4,899 2,837 331 NA – 2,440 17,113 5,617 1,341 37,981 1961 12,135 994 971 80 708 4,326 4,797 2,552 228 NA – 2,026 15,688 6,614 974 36,405 1962 12,302 1,327 1,289 38 851 5,056 5,978 3,320 766 NA 2 1,848 19,148 6,465 973 40,215 1963 14,557 1,161

  11. Table 7.7 Coal Mining Productivity, 1949-2011 (Short Tons per Employee Hour )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Mining Productivity, 1949-2011 (Short Tons per Employee Hour 1) Year Mining Method Location Total 2 Underground Surface 2 East of the Mississippi West of the Mississippi Underground Surface 2 Total 2 Underground Surface 2 Total 2 1949 0.68 [3] 1.92 [3] NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.72 1950 .72 [3] 1.96 [3] NA NA NA NA NA NA .76 1951 .76 [3] 2.00 [3] NA NA NA NA NA NA .80 1952 .80 [3] 2.10 [3] NA NA NA NA NA NA .84 1953 .88 [3] 2.22 [3] NA NA NA NA NA NA .93 1954 1.00 [3] 2.48 [3] NA NA NA NA NA NA

  12. Table 7.8 Coke Overview, 1949-2011 (Thousand Short Tons)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coke Overview, 1949-2011 (Thousand Short Tons) Year Production Trade Stock Change 2 Consumption 3 Imports Exports Net Imports 1 1949 63,637 279 548 -269 176 63,192 1950 72,718 438 398 40 -659 73,417 1951 79,331 162 1,027 -865 372 78,094 1952 68,254 313 792 -479 419 67,356 1953 78,837 157 520 -363 778 77,696 1954 59,662 116 388 -272 269 59,121 1955 75,302 126 531 -405 -1,248 76,145 1956 74,483 131 656 -525 634 73,324 1957 75,951 118 822 -704 814 74,433 1958 53,604 122 393 -271 675 52,658 1959

  13. Table 7.9 Coal Prices, 1949-2011 (Dollars per Short Ton)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Prices, 1949-2011 (Dollars per Short Ton) Year Bituminous Coal Subbituminous Coal Lignite 1 Anthracite Total Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 1949 4.90 [4] 33.80 [4,R] [4] [4] 2.37 16.35 [R] 8.90 61.38 [R] 5.24 36.14 [R] 1950 4.86 [4] 33.16 [4,R] [4] [4] 2.41 16.44 [R] 9.34 63.73 [R] 5.19 35.41 [R] 1951 4.94 [4] 31.44 [4,R] [4] [4] 2.44 15.53 [R] 9.94 63.26 [R] 5.29 33.67 [R] 1952 4.92 [4] 30.78 [4,R] [4] [4] 2.39 14.95 [R] 9.58 59.94 [R]

  14. Dynamic performance testing of prototype 3 ton air-cooled carrier absorption chiller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borst, R.R.; Wood, B.D.

    1985-05-01

    The performance of a prototype 3 ton cooling capacity air-cooled lithium bromide/water absorption chiller was tested using an absorption chiller test facility which was modified to expand its testing capabilities to include air-cooled chillers in addition to water-cooled chillers. Temperatures of the three externally supplied fluid loops: hot water, chilled water, and cooling air, were varied in order to determine the effects this would have on the two principal measures of chiller performance: cooling capacity and thermal coefficient of performance (COP). A number of interrelated factors were identified as contributing to less than expected performance. For comparison, experimental correlations of other investigators for this and other similar absorption chillers are presented. These have been plotted as both contour and three-dimensional performance maps in order to more clearly show the functional dependence of the chiller performance on the fluid loop temperatures.

  15. Reduction mechanism of sulfur in lithium-sulfur battery: From elemental sulfur to polysulfide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xuran; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Jiankun; Qu, Deyu; Qu, Deyang

    2015-10-30

    In this study, the polysulfide ions formed during the first reduction wave of sulfur in Li–S battery were determined through both in-situ and ex-situ derivatization of polysulfides. By comparing the cyclic voltammetric results with and without the derivatization reagent (methyl triflate) as well as the in-situ and ex-situ derivatization results under potentiostatic condition, in-situ derivatization was found to be more appropriate than its ex-situ counterpart, since subsequent fast chemical reactions between the polysulfides and sulfur may occur during the timeframe of ex-situ procedures. It was found that the major polysulfide ions formed at the first reduction wave of elemental sulfurmore » were the S42– and S52– species, while the widely accepted reduction products of S82– and S62– for the first reduction wave were in low abundance.« less

  16. Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    lithium-sulfur battery electrodes (Patent) | SciTech Connect Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes A method of preparing a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite for a cathode in a rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery comprising thermally expanding graphite oxide to yield graphene layers, mixing

  17. Carbon dioxide and climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  18. Reduction mechanism of sulfur in lithium-sulfur battery: From elemental sulfur to polysulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xuran; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Jiankun; Qu, Deyu; Qu, Deyang

    2015-10-30

    In this study, the polysulfide ions formed during the first reduction wave of sulfur in LiS battery were determined through both in-situ and ex-situ derivatization of polysulfides. By comparing the cyclic voltammetric results with and without the derivatization reagent (methyl triflate) as well as the in-situ and ex-situ derivatization results under potentiostatic condition, in-situ derivatization was found to be more appropriate than its ex-situ counterpart, since subsequent fast chemical reactions between the polysulfides and sulfur may occur during the timeframe of ex-situ procedures. It was found that the major polysulfide ions formed at the first reduction wave of elemental sulfur were the S42 and S52 species, while the widely accepted reduction products of S82 and S62 for the first reduction wave were in low abundance.

  19. An Evolutionary Arms Race for Sulfur

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Evolutionary Arms Race for Sulfur An Evolutionary Arms Race for Sulfur Print Friday, 07 November 2014 10:49 On the Earth's surface, plants use photosynthesis to convert sunlight into food. In the deep oceans, however, where no light penetrates, microbes (e.g., bacteria) use chemosynthesis-chemical reactions involving inorganic materials like sulfur-to power the production of the organic compounds necessary for life. Such microbes drive key biogeochemical cycles that impact all life on earth.

  20. HYDROCARBON AND SULFUR SENSORS FOR SOFC SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.M. Azad; Chris Holt; Todd Lesousky; Scott Swartz

    2003-11-01

    The following report summarizes work conducted during the Phase I program Hydrocarbon and Sulfur Sensors for SOFC Systems under contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41576. For the SOFC application, sensors are required to monitor hydrocarbons and sulfur in order to increase the operation life of SOFC components. This report discusses the development of two such sensors, one based on thick film approach for sulfur monitoring and the second galvanic based for hydrocarbon monitoring.

  1. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions Jump to: navigation, search Geothermal Lab Call Projects for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock...

  2. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

  3. Uranium dioxide electrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willit, James L.; Ackerman, John P.; Williamson, Mark A.

    2009-12-29

    This is a single stage process for treating spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. The spent nuclear fuel, uranium oxide, UO.sub.2, is added to a solution of UCl.sub.4 dissolved in molten LiCl. A carbon anode and a metallic cathode is positioned in the molten salt bath. A power source is connected to the electrodes and a voltage greater than or equal to 1.3 volts is applied to the bath. At the anode, the carbon is oxidized to form carbon dioxide and uranium chloride. At the cathode, uranium is electroplated. The uranium chloride at the cathode reacts with more uranium oxide to continue the reaction. The process may also be used with other transuranic oxides and rare earth metal oxides.

  4. Performance and results of the LBNE 35 ton membrane cryostat prototype

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Montanari, David; Adamowski, Mark; Hahn, Alan; Norris, Barry; Reichenbacher, Juergen; Rucinski, Russell; Stewart, Jim; Tope, Terry

    2015-07-15

    We report on the performance and commissioning of the first membrane cryostat to be used for scientific application. The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) has designed and fabricated a membrane cryostat prototype in collaboration with Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI). LBNE has designed and fabricated the supporting cryogenic system infrastructure and successfully commissioned and operated the first membrane cryostat. Original goals of the prototype are: to demonstrate the membrane cryostat technology in terms of thermal performance, feasibility for liquid argon and leak tightness; to demonstrate that we can remove all the impurities from the vessel and achieve the puritymore » requirements in a membrane cryostat without evacuation; to demonstrate that we can achieve and maintain the purity requirements of the liquid argon using mol sieve and copper filters. The purity requirements of a large liquid argon detector such as LBNE are contaminants below 200 parts per trillion (ppt) oxygen equivalent. LBNE is planning the design and construction of a large liquid argon detector. This presentation will present requirements, design and construction of the LBNE 35 ton membrane cryostat prototype, and detail the commissioning and performance. The experience and results of this prototype are extremely important for the development of the LBNE detector.« less

  5. Performance and results of the LBNE 35 ton membrane cryostat prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montanari, David; Adamowski, Mark; Hahn, Alan; Norris, Barry; Reichenbacher, Juergen; Rucinski, Russell; Stewart, Jim; Tope, Terry

    2015-07-15

    We report on the performance and commissioning of the first membrane cryostat to be used for scientific application. The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) has designed and fabricated a membrane cryostat prototype in collaboration with Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI). LBNE has designed and fabricated the supporting cryogenic system infrastructure and successfully commissioned and operated the first membrane cryostat. Original goals of the prototype are: to demonstrate the membrane cryostat technology in terms of thermal performance, feasibility for liquid argon and leak tightness; to demonstrate that we can remove all the impurities from the vessel and achieve the purity requirements in a membrane cryostat without evacuation; to demonstrate that we can achieve and maintain the purity requirements of the liquid argon using mol sieve and copper filters. The purity requirements of a large liquid argon detector such as LBNE are contaminants below 200 parts per trillion (ppt) oxygen equivalent. LBNE is planning the design and construction of a large liquid argon detector. This presentation will present requirements, design and construction of the LBNE 35 ton membrane cryostat prototype, and detail the commissioning and performance. The experience and results of this prototype are extremely important for the development of the LBNE detector.

  6. High temperature experiments on a 4 tons UF6 container TENERIFE program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casselman, C.; Duret, B.; Seiler, J.M.; Ringot, C.; Warniez, P.

    1991-12-31

    The paper presents an experimental program (called TENERIFE) whose aim is to investigate the behaviour of a cylinder containing UF{sub 6} when exposed to a high temperature fire for model validation. Taking into account the experiments performed in the past, the modelization needs further information in order to be able to predict the behaviour of a real size cylinder when engulfed in a 800{degrees}C fire, as specified in the regulation. The main unknowns are related to (1) the UF{sub 6} behaviour beyond the critical point, (2) the relationship between temperature field and internal pressure and (3) the equivalent conductivity of the solid UF{sub 6}. In order to investigate these phenomena in a representative way it is foreseen to perform experiments with a cylinder of real diameter, but reduced length, containing 4 tons of UF{sub 6}. This cylinder will be placed in an electrically heated furnace. A confinement vessel prevents any dispersion of UF{sub 6}. The heat flux delivered by the furnace will be calibrated by specific tests. The cylinder will be changed for each test.

  7. Sulfurization behavior of cerium doped uranium oxides by CS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, Nobuaki; Kato, Shintaro; Kirishima, Akira; Tochiyama, Osamu

    2007-07-01

    For the recovery of nuclear materials from the spent nuclear fuel, the sulfide process has been proposed and the voloxidation of spent fuel and selective sulfurization rare-earth elements has been proposed. In this paper, cerium was used as a stand-in of plutonium and sulfurization behavior of cerium doped uranium dioxide by CS{sub 2} was studied. UO{sub 2} was oxidized to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in air, while the Ce doped UO{sub 2} solid solution was formed in the presence of CeO{sub 2} by the heat treatment in air. The effect of heating time, temperature and the ratio of uranium to cerium on the formation of solid solution was analyzed. The results were also compared with those of thermodynamic consideration. (authors)

  8. Sulfur-carbon nanocomposites and their application as cathode materials in lithium-sulfur batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, Chengdu; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y

    2015-05-05

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to a sulfur-carbon composite material comprising: (i) a bimodal porous carbon component containing therein a first mode of pores which are mesopores, and a second mode of pores which are micropores; and (ii) elemental sulfur contained in at least a portion of said micropores. The invention is also directed to the aforesaid sulfur-carbon composite as a layer on a current collector material; a lithium ion battery containing the sulfur-carbon composite in a cathode therein; as well as a method for preparing the sulfur-composite material.

  9. Identification of Martian Regolith Sulfur Components In Shergottites...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Using Sulfur K XANES and FeS Ratios. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Identification of Martian Regolith Sulfur Components In Shergottites Using Sulfur K XANES and FeS ...

  10. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Steven; Browers, Bruce; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-31

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, a Technical and Economic Feasibility Study was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment developed a process flow diagram, major equipment list, heat balances for the SCPC power plant, capital cost estimate, operating cost estimate, levelized cost of electricity, cost of CO2 capture ($/ton) and three sensitivity cases for the CACHYS™ process.

  11. Table 21. Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual Projected (million metric tons) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 5060 5130 5185 5240 5287 5335 5379 5438 5482 5529 5599 5658 5694 5738 5797 5874 5925 5984 AEO 1995 5137 5174 5188 5262 5309 5361 5394 5441 5489 5551 5621 5680 5727 5775 5841 5889 5944 AEO 1996 5182 5224 5295 5355 5417 5464 5525 5589 5660 5735 5812 5879 5925 5981 6030 6087 6142 6203

  12. Stabilized sulfur binding using activated fillers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalb, Paul D.; Vagin, Vyacheslav P.; Vagin, Sergey P.

    2015-07-21

    A method of making a stable, sulfur binding composite comprising impregnating a solid aggregate with an organic modifier comprising unsaturated hydrocarbons with at least one double or triple covalent bond between adjacent carbon atoms to create a modifier-impregnated aggregate; heating and drying the modifier-impregnated aggregate to activate the surface of the modifier-impregnated aggregate for reaction with sulfur.

  13. Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA)

    2006-12-26

    High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

  14. Low Quality Natural Gas Sulfur Removal and Recovery CNG Claus Sulfur Recovery Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klint, V.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-10-01

    Increased use of natural gas (methane) in the domestic energy market will force the development of large non-producing gas reserves now considered to be low quality. Large reserves of low quality natural gas (LQNG) contaminated with hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen (N) are available but not suitable for treatment using current conventional gas treating methods due to economic and environmental constraints. A group of three technologies have been integrated to allow for processing of these LQNG reserves; the Controlled Freeze Zone (CFZ) process for hydrocarbon / acid gas separation; the Triple Point Crystallizer (TPC) process for H{sub 2}S / C0{sub 2} separation and the CNG Claus process for recovery of elemental sulfur from H{sub 2}S. The combined CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus group of processes is one program aimed at developing an alternative gas treating technology which is both economically and environmentally suitable for developing these low quality natural gas reserves. The CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus process is capable of treating low quality natural gas containing >10% C0{sub 2} and measurable levels of H{sub 2}S and N{sub 2} to pipeline specifications. The integrated CFZ / CNG Claus Process or the stand-alone CNG Claus Process has a number of attractive features for treating LQNG. The processes are capable of treating raw gas with a variety of trace contaminant components. The processes can also accommodate large changes in raw gas composition and flow rates. The combined processes are capable of achieving virtually undetectable levels of H{sub 2}S and significantly less than 2% CO in the product methane. The separation processes operate at pressure and deliver a high pressure (ca. 100 psia) acid gas (H{sub 2}S) stream for processing in the CNG Claus unit. This allows for substantial reductions in plant vessel size as compared to conventional Claus / Tail gas treating technologies. A close integration of the components of the CNG Claus process also allow for use of the methane/H{sub 2}S separation unit as a Claus tail gas treating unit by recycling the CNG Claus tail gas stream. This allows for virtually 100 percent sulfur recovery efficiency (virtually zero SO{sub 2} emissions) by recycling the sulfur laden tail gas to extinction. The use of the tail gas recycle scheme also deemphasizes the conventional requirement in Claus units to have high unit conversion efficiency and thereby make the operation much less affected by process upsets and feed gas composition changes. The development of these technologies has been ongoing for many years and both the CFZ and the TPC processes have been demonstrated at large pilot plant scales. On the other hand, prior to this project, the CNG Claus process had not been proven at any scale. Therefore, the primary objective of this portion of the program was to design, build and operate a pilot scale CNG Claus unit and demonstrate the required fundamental reaction chemistry and also demonstrate the viability of a reasonably sized working unit.

  15. Method of removing sulfur emissions from a fluidized-bed combustion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogel, Gerhard John (Elmhurst, IL); Jonke, Albert A. (Elmhurst, IL); Snyder, Robert B. (Naperville, IL)

    1978-01-01

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal oxides are impregnated within refractory support material such as alumina and introduced into a fluidized-bed process for the combustion of coal. Sulfur dioxide produced during combustion reacts with the metal oxide to form metal sulfates within the porous support material. The support material is removed from the process and the metal sulfate regenerated to metal oxide by chemical reduction. Suitable pore sizes are originally developed within the support material by heat-treating to accommodate both the sulfation and regeneration while still maintaining good particle strength.

  16. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  17. Method of removal of sulfur from coal and petroleum products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verkade, John G. (Ames, IA); Mohan, Thyagarajan (Ames, IA); Angelici, Robert J. (Ames, IA)

    1995-01-01

    A method for the removal of sulfur from sulfur-bearing materials such as coal and petroleum products using organophosphine and organophosphite compounds is provided.

  18. Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  19. Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

    2014-11-18

    A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

  20. A Proposal for a Ton Scale Bubble Chamber for Dark Matter Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collar, Juan; Dahl, C.Eric; Fustin, Drew; Robinson, Alan; Behnke, Ed; Behnke, Joshua; Breznau, William; Connor, Austin; Kuehnemund, Emily Grace; Levine, Ilan; Moan, Timothy; /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab

    2010-10-07

    The nature of non-baryonic dark matter is one of the most intriguing questions for particle physics at the start of the 21st century. There is ample evidence for its existence, but almost nothing is known of its properties. WIMPs are a very appealing candidate particle and several experimental campaigns are underway around the world to search for these particles via the nuclear recoils that they should induce. The COUPP series of bubble chambers has played a significant role in the WIMP search. Through a sequence of detectors of increasing size, a number of R&D issues have arisen and been solved, and the technology has now been advanced to the point where the construction of large chambers requires a modest research effort, some development, but mostly just engineering. It is within this context that we propose to build the next COUPP detector - COUPP-500, a ton scale device to be built over the next three years at Fermilab and then deployed deep underground at SNOLAB. The primary advantages of the COUPP approach over other technologies are: (1) The ability to reject electron and gamma backgrounds by arranging the chamber thermodynamics such that these particles do not even trigger the detector. (2) The ability to suppress neutron backgrounds by having the radioactively impure detection elements far from the active volume and by using the self-shielding of a large device and the high granularity to identify multiple bubbles. (3) The ability to build large chambers cheaply and with a choice of target fluids. (4) The ability to increase the size of the chambers without changing the size or complexity of the data acquisition. (5) Sensitivity to spin-dependent and spin-independent WIMP couplings. These key advantages should enable the goal of one background event in a ton-year of exposure to be achieved. The conceptual design of COUPP-500 is scaled from the preceding devices. In many cases all that is needed is a simple scaling up of components previously used. Calibration and R&D are still needed on some aspects of the system. We know we have the ability to distinguish alpha-induced events from nuclear recoils, but we do not yet know whether the combination of material purity and rejection are good enough to run for a year with no alpha background. We also need to have more detailed measurements of the detector threshold and a better understanding of its high gamma rejection. In addition, there are important checks to make on the longevity of the detector components in the hydraulic fluid and on the chemistry of the active fluid. The 2009 PASAG report explicitly supported the construction of the COUPP-500 device in all funding scenarios. The NSF has shown similar enthusiasm. It awarded one of its DUSEL S4 grants to assist in the engineering needed to build COUPP-500. The currently estimated cost of COUPP-500 is $8M, about half the $15M-$20M price tag expected by the PASAG report for a next generation dark matter search experiment. The COUPP-500 device will have a spin independent WIMP-nucleus cross-section sensitivity of 6 x 10{sup -47} cm{sup 2} after a background-free year of running. This device should then provide the benchmark against which all other WIMP searches are measured.

  1. Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, Randy

    2011-08-20

    Problem drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) investigation of problem drywall incorporates three parallel tracks: (1) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and reported health symptoms; (2) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and electrical and fire safety issues in affected homes; and (3) tracing the origin and the distribution of the drywall. To assess the potential impact on human health and to support testing for electrical and fire safety, the CPSC has initiated a series of laboratory tests that provide elemental characterization of drywall, characterization of chemical emissions, and in-home air sampling. The chemical emission testing was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The LBNL study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1 of this study, LBNL tested thirty drywall samples provided by CPSC and reported standard emission factors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, reactive sulfur gases (RSGs) and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). The standard emission factors were determined using small (10.75 liter) dynamic test chambers housed in a constant temperature environmental chamber. The tests were all run at 25 C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and with an area-specific ventilation rate of {approx}1.5 cubic meters per square meter of emitting surface per hour [m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}/h]. The thirty samples that were tested in Phase 1 included seventeen that were manufactured in China in 2005, 2006 and 2009, and thirteen that were manufactured in North America in 2009. The measured emission factors for VOCs and aldehydes were generally low and did not differ significantly between the Chinese and North American drywall. Eight of the samples tested had elevated emissions of volatile sulfur-containing compounds with total RSG emission factors between 32 and 258 micrograms per square meter per hour [{micro}g/m{sup 2}/h]. The dominant sulfur containing compounds in the RSG emission stream were hydrogen sulfide with emission factors between 17-201 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h, and sulfur dioxide with emission factors between 8-64 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h. The four highest emitting samples also had a unique signature of VSC emissions including > 40 higher molecular weight sulfur-containing compounds although the emission rate for the VSCs was several orders of magnitude lower than that of the RSGs. All of the high emitting drywall samples were manufactured in China in 2005-2006. Results from Phase 1 provided baseline emission factors for drywall samples manufactured in China and in North America but the results exclude variations in environmental conditions that may exist in homes or other built structures, including various combinations of temperature, RH, ventilation rate and the influence of coatings such as texture and paints. The objective of Phase 2 was to quantify the effect of temperature and RH on the RSG emission factors for uncoated drywall, and to measure the effect of plaster and paint coatings on RSG emission factors from drywall. Additional experiments were also performed to assess the influence of ventilation rate on measured emission factors for drywall.

  2. Long-Term, Autonomous Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Using an Ormosil Nanocomposite-Based Optical Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisholoy Goswami

    2005-10-11

    The goal of this project is to construct a prototype carbon dioxide sensor that can be commercialized to offer a low-cost, autonomous instrument for long-term, unattended measurements. Currently, a cost-effective CO2 sensor system is not available that can perform cross-platform measurements (ground-based or airborne platforms such as balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)) for understanding the carbon sequestration phenomenon. The CO2 sensor would support the research objectives of DOE-sponsored programs such as AmeriFlux and the North American Carbon Program (NACP). Global energy consumption is projected to rise 60% over the next 20 years and use of oil is projected to increase by approximately 40%. The combustion of coal, oil, and natural gas has increased carbon emissions globally from 1.6 billion tons in 1950 to 6.3 billion tons in 2000. This figure is expected to reach 10 billon tons by 2020. It is important to understand the fate of this excess CO2 in the global carbon cycle. The overall goal of the project is to develop an accurate and reliable optical sensor for monitoring carbon dioxide autonomously at least for one year at a point remote from the actual CO2 release site. In Phase I of this project, InnoSense LLC (ISL) demonstrated the feasibility of an ormosil-monolith based Autonomous Sensor for Atmospheric CO2 (ASAC) device. All of the Phase I objectives were successfully met.

  3. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alaska Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Alaska) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural Gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 2,384 48 Electric utilities 2,205 39 IPP & CHP 179 50 Net generation (megawatthours) 6,496,822 49 Electric utilities 5,851,727 39 IPP & CHP 645,095 49 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 4,202 43 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 18,043 37 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 3,768 44 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.3 29 Nitrogen oxide

  4. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Arizona Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Arizona) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 27,910 13 Electric utilities 20,668 12 IPP & CHP 7,242 16 Net generation (megawatthours) 113,325,986 12 Electric utilities 92,740,582 8 IPP & CHP 20,585,405 15 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 23,716 31 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 59,416 15 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 55,342 16 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 42 Nitrogen

  5. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    California Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (California) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Natural Gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 73,772 2 Electric utilities 28,165 4 IPP & CHP 45,607 2 Net generation (megawatthours) 200,077,115 5 Electric utilities 78,407,643 14 IPP & CHP 121,669,472 4 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 2,109 48 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 96,842 5 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 57,323 13 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.0 49

  6. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Colorado Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Colorado) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 14,769 30 Electric utilities 10,238 28 IPP & CHP 4,531 20 Net generation (megawatthours) 52,937,436 28 Electric utilities 42,508,826 25 IPP & CHP 10,428,610 29 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 40,012 27 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 49,623 21 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 39,387 20 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.5 27 Nitrogen

  7. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Connecticut Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Connecticut) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,769 35 Electric utilities 152 46 IPP & CHP 8,617 13 Net generation (megawatthours) 35,610,789 38 Electric utilities 50,273 45 IPP & CHP 35,560,516 10 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 3,512 45 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 9,372 45 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 8,726 41 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.2 47 Nitrogen

  8. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Delaware Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Delaware) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 3,246 46 Electric utilities 102 47 IPP & CHP 3,144 32 Net generation (megawatthours) 7,760,861 47 Electric utilities 25,986 47 IPP & CHP 7,734,875 34 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 2,241 47 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 2,585 48 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 4,722 43 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.6 40 Nitrogen oxide

  9. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    District of Columbia Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (District of Columbia) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 9 51 Electric utilities IPP & CHP 9 51 Net generation (megawatthours) 65,852 51 Electric utilities IPP & CHP 65,852 51 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 0 51 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 148 51 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 49 50 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.0 51 Nitrogen oxide (lbs/MWh) 4.5 3

  10. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Florida Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Florida) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 58,781 3 Electric utilities 50,967 1 IPP & CHP 7,813 15 Net generation (megawatthours) 222,398,924 3 Electric utilities 202,527,297 1 IPP & CHP 19,871,627 18 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 117,797 12 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 88,345 6 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 108,431 3 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.1 34

  11. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Georgia Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Georgia) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 38,210 7 Electric utilities 28,875 2 IPP & CHP 9,335 10 Net generation (megawatthours) 120,953,734 10 Electric utilities 107,082,884 4 IPP & CHP 13,870,850 26 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 123,735 10 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 55,462 20 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 56,812 15 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.0 20

  12. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hawaii Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Hawaii) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Petroleum Net summer capacity (megawatts) 2,757 47 Electric utilities 1,821 40 IPP & CHP 937 45 Net generation (megawatthours) 10,267,052 45 Electric utilities 5,748,256 40 IPP & CHP 4,518,796 40 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 20,710 33 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 25,416 31 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 7,428 42 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 4.0 5 Nitrogen oxide

  13. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Idaho Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Idaho) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Hydroelectric Net summer capacity (megawatts) 4,924 42 Electric utilities 3,394 37 IPP & CHP 1,530 39 Net generation (megawatthours) 15,186,128 43 Electric utilities 9,600,216 36 IPP & CHP 5,585,912 39 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 6,565 42 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 7,627 46 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 1,942 49 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.9 37 Nitrogen

  14. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Illinois Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Illinois) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 44,950 4 Electric utilities 5,269 35 IPP & CHP 39,681 4 Net generation (megawatthours) 203,004,919 4 Electric utilities 11,571,734 35 IPP & CHP 191,433,185 3 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 203,951 6 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 63,358 11 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 97,812 6 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.0 21 Nitrogen

  15. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Indiana Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Indiana) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 27,196 14 Electric utilities 23,309 8 IPP & CHP 3,888 24 Net generation (megawatthours) 110,403,477 13 Electric utilities 96,047,678 7 IPP & CHP 14,355,799 23 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 273,718 4 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 121,681 3 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 98,895 5 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 5.0 2 Nitrogen

  16. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Iowa Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Iowa) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 15,929 25 Electric utilities 12,092 21 IPP & CHP 3,837 26 Net generation (megawatthours) 56,670,757 27 Electric utilities 41,932,708 26 IPP & CHP 14,738,048 22 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 106,879 14 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 44,657 25 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 39,175 21 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.8 6 Nitrogen oxide

  17. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kansas Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Kansas) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 14,093 32 Electric utilities 11,593 24 IPP & CHP 2,501 35 Net generation (megawatthours) 48,472,581 32 Electric utilities 39,808,763 28 IPP & CHP 8,663,819 32 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 30,027 30 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 30,860 30 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 33,125 27 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.2 30 Nitrogen

  18. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kentucky Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Kentucky) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 21,004 21 Electric utilities 19,599 16 IPP & CHP 1,405 40 Net generation (megawatthours) 89,741,021 18 Electric utilities 89,098,127 11 IPP & CHP 642,894 50 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 190,782 7 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 87,201 7 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 85,304 7 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 4.3 4 Nitrogen oxide

  19. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Louisiana Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Louisiana) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 26,228 15 Electric utilities 17,297 17 IPP & CHP 8,931 12 Net generation (megawatthours) 102,010,177 15 Electric utilities 56,226,016 17 IPP & CHP 45,784,161 8 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 122,578 11 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 82,286 9 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 58,274 12 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.4 16

  20. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maine Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Maine) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 4,499 43 Electric utilities 14 49 IPP & CHP 4,485 21 Net generation (megawatthours) 14,030,038 44 Electric utilities 597 49 IPP & CHP 14,029,441 25 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 13,365 38 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 9,607 44 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 3,675 45 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.9 23 Nitrogen oxide

  1. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maryland Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Maryland) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 12,339 33 Electric utilities 85 48 IPP & CHP 12,254 8 Net generation (megawatthours) 35,850,812 37 Electric utilities 30,205 46 IPP & CHP 35,820,607 9 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 41,539 26 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 21,995 34 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 18,950 34 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.3 17 Nitrogen oxide

  2. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Massachusetts Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Massachusetts) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 13,678 32 Electric utilities 969 42 IPP & CHP 12,709 7 Net generation (megawatthours) 32,885,021 40 Electric utilities 611,320 44 IPP & CHP 32,273,700 12 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 12,339 40 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 15,150 41 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 14,735 38 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.8 38

  3. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Michigan Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Michigan) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 30,128 11 Electric utilities 22,148 9 IPP & CHP 7,981 14 Net generation (megawatthours) 105,417,801 14 Electric utilities 83,171,310 13 IPP & CHP 22,246,490 14 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 237,091 5 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 86,058 8 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 67,193 10 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 4.5 3 Nitrogen oxide

  4. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Minnesota Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Minnesota) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 15,758 26 Electric utilities 11,901 22 IPP & CHP 3,858 25 Net generation (megawatthours) 51,296,988 31 Electric utilities 41,155,904 27 IPP & CHP 10,141,084 30 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 35,625 28 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 36,972 28 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 29,255 29 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.4 28 Nitrogen

  5. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mississippi Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Mississippi) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 15,561 28 Electric utilities 12,842 20 IPP & CHP 2,719 35 Net generation (megawatthours) 52,810,264 29 Electric utilities 45,413,403 23 IPP & CHP 7,396,861 35 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 87,718 17 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 24,490 32 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 22,633 33 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.3 9

  6. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Missouri Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Missouri) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 21,801 19 Electric utilities 20,562 15 IPP & CHP 1,239 42 Net generation (megawatthours) 91,626,593 17 Electric utilities 89,217,205 10 IPP & CHP 2,409,387 46 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 157,488 8 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 78,033 10 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 78,344 8 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.4 8 Nitrogen oxide

  7. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Montana Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Montana) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 6,329 41 Electric utilities 2,568 38 IPP & CHP 3,761 27 Net generation (megawatthours) 27,687,326 41 Electric utilities 7,361,898 38 IPP & CHP 20,325,428 16 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 16,865 36 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 21,789 35 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 16,951 35 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.2 31 Nitrogen oxide

  8. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nebraska Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Nebraska) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,449 36 Electric utilities 7,911 30 IPP & CHP 538 49 Net generation (megawatthours) 37,104,628 34 Electric utilities 35,170,167 30 IPP & CHP 1,934,461 48 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 66,884 22 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 31,505 29 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 28,043 32 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.6 7 Nitrogen oxide

  9. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nevada Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Nevada) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 10,652 34 Electric utilities 7,915 29 IPP & CHP 2,737 34 Net generation (megawatthours) 36,443,874 35 Electric utilities 27,888,008 34 IPP & CHP 8,555,866 33 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 7,436 41 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 16,438 39 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 15,690 37 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 43 Nitrogen

  10. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hampshire Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (New Hampshire) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 4,413 44 Electric utilities 1,121 41 IPP & CHP 3,292 30 Net generation (megawatthours) 19,778,520 42 Electric utilities 2,266,903 41 IPP & CHP 17,511,617 20 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 3,733 44 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 5,057 47 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 3,447 46 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 45 Nitrogen

  11. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Jersey Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (New Jersey) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 18,997 22 Electric utilities 544 43 IPP & CHP 18,452 6 Net generation (megawatthours) 64,750,942 24 Electric utilities -122,674 50 IPP & CHP 64,873,616 6 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 3,196 46 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 15,299 40 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 15,789 36 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.1 48 Nitrogen oxide

  12. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mexico Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (New Mexico) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 7,938 38 Electric utilities 5,912 33 IPP & CHP 2,026 36 Net generation (megawatthours) 35,870,965 36 Electric utilities 29,833,095 33 IPP & CHP 6,037,870 37 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 17,735 34 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 59,055 16 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 28,535 31 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.0 36 Nitrogen

  13. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    York Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (New York) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural Gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 39,918 6 Electric utilities 10,736 26 IPP & CHP 29,182 5 Net generation (megawatthours) 136,116,830 8 Electric utilities 33,860,490 31 IPP & CHP 102,256,340 5 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 30,947 29 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 44,824 24 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 33,456 26 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.5 41 Nitrogen

  14. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    North Carolina Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (North Carolina) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 30,048 12 Electric utilities 26,706 6 IPP & CHP 3,342 29 Net generation (megawatthours) 125,936,293 9 Electric utilities 116,317,050 2 IPP & CHP 9,619,243 31 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 71,293 20 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 62,397 12 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 56,940 14 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.1 32

  15. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dakota Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (North Dakota) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 6,566 40 Electric utilities 5,292 34 IPP & CHP 1,274 41 Net generation (megawatthours) 35,021,673 39 Electric utilities 31,044,374 32 IPP & CHP 3,977,299 42 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 56,854 23 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 48,454 22 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 30,274 28 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.2 11 Nitrogen oxide

  16. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oregon Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Oregon) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Hydroelectric Net summer capacity (megawatts) 15,662 27 Electric utilities 10,973 25 IPP & CHP 4,689 19 Net generation (megawatthours) 59,895,515 26 Electric utilities 43,254,167 24 IPP & CHP 16,641,348 21 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 17,511 35 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 13,803 42 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 9,500 40 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.6 39 Nitrogen

  17. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pennsylvania Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Pennsylvania) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 43,040 5 Electric utilities 455 44 IPP & CHP 42,584 3 Net generation (megawatthours) 226,785,630 2 Electric utilities 1,105,740 42 IPP & CHP 225,679,890 2 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 276,851 3 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 151,148 2 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 108,729 2 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.4 15 Nitrogen

  18. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rhode Island Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Rhode Island) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 1,809 49 Electric utilities 8 50 IPP & CHP 1,802 38 Net generation (megawatthours) 6,246,807 50 Electric utilities 10,659 48 IPP & CHP 6,236,148 36 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 1,271 49 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 1,161 49 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 2,838 48 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 44 Nitrogen

  19. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (South Carolina) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 23,017 18 Electric utilities 21,039 10 IPP & CHP 1,978 37 Net generation (megawatthours) 95,249,894 16 Electric utilities 91,795,732 9 IPP & CHP 3,454,162 44 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 47,671 25 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 19,035 36 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 28,809 30 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.0 35

  20. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    South Dakota Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (South Dakota) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Hydroelectric Net summer capacity (megawatts) 4,109 45 Electric utilities 3,480 36 IPP & CHP 629 48 Net generation (megawatthours) 10,108,887 46 Electric utilities 8,030,545 37 IPP & CHP 2,078,342 47 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 15,347 37 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 11,430 43 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 3,228 47 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.0 12

  1. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Tennessee Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Tennessee) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 21,326 20 Electric utilities 20,635 13 IPP & CHP 690 47 Net generation (megawatthours) 79,651,619 19 Electric utilities 75,988,871 15 IPP & CHP 3,662,748 43 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 86,204 18 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 23,189 33 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 38,118 22 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.2 19 Nitrogen oxide

  2. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Texas Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Texas) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 109,584 1 Electric utilities 28,705 3 IPP & CHP 80,879 1 Net generation (megawatthours) 433,380,166 1 Electric utilities 96,131,888 6 IPP & CHP 337,248,278 1 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 383,728 1 Nitrogen Oxide short tons) 228,695 1 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 257,465 1 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.8 25 Nitrogen Oxide

  3. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Utah Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Utah) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 7,698 39 Electric utilities 6,669 32 IPP & CHP 1,029 44 Net generation (megawatthours) 42,516,751 33 Electric utilities 39,526,881 29 IPP & CHP 2,989,870 45 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 23,670 32 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 62,296 13 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 35,699 24 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.1 33 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh)

  4. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vermont Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Vermont) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 1,255 50 Electric utilities 329 45 IPP & CHP 925 46 Net generation (megawatthours) 6,884,910 48 Electric utilities 872,238 43 IPP & CHP 6,012,672 38 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 71 50 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 792 50 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 15 51 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.0 50 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.2 51

  5. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Virginia Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Virginia) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 24,828 16 Electric utilities 20,601 14 IPP & CHP 4,227 22 Net generation (megawatthours) 76,896,565 20 Electric utilities 63,724,860 16 IPP & CHP 13,171,706 28 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 68,077 21 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 39,706 27 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 34,686 25 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.8 26 Nitrogen

  6. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Washington Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Washington) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Hydroelectric Net summer capacity (megawatts) 30,656 10 Electric utilities 27,070 5 IPP & CHP 3,586 28 Net generation (megawatthours) 114,172,916 11 Electric utilities 100,013,661 5 IPP & CHP 14,159,255 24 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 13,259 39 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 17,975 38 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 12,543 39 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.2 46

  7. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    West Virginia Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (West Virginia) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 16,282 24 Electric utilities 10,625 27 IPP & CHP 5,657 18 Net generation (megawatthours) 75,863,067 21 Electric utilities 46,351,104 22 IPP & CHP 29,511,963 13 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 93,888 15 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 60,229 14 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 68,862 9 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.5 14

  8. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wisconsin Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Wisconsin) Item Value Rank Primary Energy Source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 17,342 23 Electric utilities 13,358 19 IPP & CHP 3,984 23 Net generation (megawatthours) 65,962,792 23 Electric utilities 47,027,455 20 IPP & CHP 18,935,337 19 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 108,306 13 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 44,114 26 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 47,686 18 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.3 10 Nitrogen

  9. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wyoming Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Wyoming) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,381 37 Electric utilities 7,279 31 IPP & CHP 1,102 43 Net generation (megawatthours) 52,483,065 30 Electric utilities 48,089,178 19 IPP & CHP 4,393,887 41 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 49,587 24 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 55,615 19 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 50,687 17 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.9 24 Nitrogen Oxide

  10. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Idaho Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Idaho) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Hydroelectric Net summer capacity (megawatts) 4,924 42 Electric utilities 3,394 37 IPP & CHP 1,530 39 Net generation (megawatthours) 15,186,128 43 Electric utilities 9,600,216 36 IPP & CHP 5,585,912 39 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 6,565 42 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 7,627 46 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 1,942 49 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.9 37 Nitrogen

  11. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oregon Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Oregon) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Hydroelectric Net summer capacity (megawatts) 15,662 27 Electric utilities 10,973 25 IPP & CHP 4,689 19 Net generation (megawatthours) 59,895,515 26 Electric utilities 43,254,167 24 IPP & CHP 16,641,348 21 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 17,511 35 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 13,803 42 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 9,500 40 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.6 39 Nitrogen

  12. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    South Dakota Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (South Dakota) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Hydroelectric Net summer capacity (megawatts) 4,109 45 Electric utilities 3,480 36 IPP & CHP 629 48 Net generation (megawatthours) 10,108,887 46 Electric utilities 8,030,545 37 IPP & CHP 2,078,342 47 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 15,347 37 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 11,430 43 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 3,228 47 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.0 12

  13. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    United States Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (United States) Item Value Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 1,060,064 Electric utilities 616,799 IPP & CHP 443,264 Net generation (megawatthours) 4,065,964,067 Electric utilities 2,388,058,409 IPP & CHP 1,677,905,658 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 3,978,753 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 2,411,564 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 2,172,355 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.0 Nitrogen Oxide

  14. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Washington Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Washington) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Hydroelectric Net summer capacity (megawatts) 30,656 10 Electric utilities 27,070 5 IPP & CHP 3,586 28 Net generation (megawatthours) 114,172,916 11 Electric utilities 100,013,661 5 IPP & CHP 14,159,255 24 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 13,259 39 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 17,975 38 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 12,543 39 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.2 46

  15. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wyoming Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Wyoming) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,381 37 Electric utilities 7,279 31 IPP & CHP 1,102 43 Net generation (megawatthours) 52,483,065 30 Electric utilities 48,089,178 19 IPP & CHP 4,393,887 41 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 49,587 24 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 55,615 19 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 50,687 17 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.9 24 Nitrogen Oxide

  16. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Alabama Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Alabama) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 32,353 9 Electric utilities 23,419 7 IPP & CHP 8,934 11 Net generation (megawatthours) 150,572,924 6 Electric utilities 115,027,021 3 IPP & CHP 35,545,903 11 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 144,568 9 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 56,885 18 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 66,986 11 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.9 22 Nitrogen oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.8 39

  17. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Arkansas Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Arkansas) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 14,786 29 Electric utilities 11,559 23 IPP & CHP 3,227 31 Net generation (megawatthours) 60,322,492 25 Electric utilities 46,547,772 21 IPP & CHP 13,774,720 27 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 88,811 16 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 45,896 23 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 37,346 23 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.9 13 Nitrogen

  18. Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Batteries | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon es105_liang_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Protection of Li Anodes Using Dual Phase Electrolytes

  19. Definition of Non-Conventional Sulfur Utilization in Western Kazakhstan for Sulfur Concrete (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalb, Paul

    2007-05-31

    Battelle received a contract from Agip-KCO, on behalf a consortium of international oil and gas companies with exploration rights in the North Caspian Sea, Kazakhstan. The objective of the work was to identify and help develop new techniques for sulfur concrete products from waste, by-product sulfur that will be generated in large quantitites as drilling operations begin in the near future. BNL has significant expertise in the development and use of sulfur concrete products and has direct experience collaborating with the Russian and Kazakh partners that participated. Feasibility testing was successfully conducted for a new process to produce cost-effective sulfur polymer cement that has broad commerical applications.

  20. Method for reducing the sulfur content of a sulfur-containing hydrocarbon stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2004-12-28

    The sulfur content of a liquid hydrocarbon stream is reduced under mild conditions by contracting a sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbon stream with transition metal particles containing the transition metal in a zero oxidation state under conditions sufficient to provide a hydrocarbon product having a reduced sulfur content and metal sulfide particles. The transition metal particles can be produced in situ by adding a transition metal precursor, e.g., a transition metal carbonyl compound, to the sulfur-containing liquid feed stream and sonicating the feed steam/transition metal precursor combination under conditions sufficient to produce the transition metal particles.

  1. Process for removing sulfur from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aida, T.; Squires, T.G.; Venier, C.G.

    1983-08-11

    A process is disclosed for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

  2. Process for removing sulfur from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aida, Tetsuo (Ames, IA); Squires, Thomas G. (Gilbert, IA); Venier, Clifford G. (Ames, IA)

    1985-02-05

    A process for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

  3. Spray drying for high-sulfur coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhudy, R.

    1988-09-01

    Recent pilot plant tests indicate that spray drying, now used to control SO/sub 2/ emissions from low-sulfur coal, can also be effective for high-sulfur coal. Spray drying coupled with baghouse particulate removal is the most effective configuration tested to date, removing over 90% of SO/sub 2/ while easily meeting New Source Performance Standards for particulate emissions. 2 figures, 1 table.

  4. The south Karelia air pollution study: Effects of low-level expsoure to malodorous sulfur compounds on symptoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partti-Pellinen, K.; Marttila, O.; Vilkka, V.; Jaakkola, J.J. |

    1996-07-01

    Exposure to very low levels of ambient-air malodorous sulfur compounds and their effect on eye irritation, respiratory-tract symptoms, and central nervous system symptoms in adults were assessed. A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire (response rate = 77%) was distributed during March and April 1992 to adults (n = 336) who lived in a neighborhood that contained a pulp mill and in a nonpolluted reference community (n = 380). In the exposed community, the measured annual mean concentrations of total reduced sulfur compounds and sulfur dioxide measured in two stations were 2 to 3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. In the reference community, the annual mean concentration of sulfur dioxide was 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. The residents of the community near the pulp mill reported an excess of cough, respiratory infections, and headache during the previous 4 wk, as well as during the preceding 12 mo. The relative risk for headache was increased significantly in the exposed community, compared with the reference area: the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was 1.83 (95% confidence interval [95% Cl] = 1.06-3.15) during the previous 4 wk and 1.70 (95% Cl = 1.05-2.73) during the preceding 12 mo. The relative risk for cough was also increased during the preceding 12 mo (aOR = 1.64, 95% Cl = 1.01-2.64). These results indicated that adverse health effects of malodorous sulfur compounds occur at lower concentrations than reported previously. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Reducing Emissions of Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, and Mercury from Electric Power Plants

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    This analysis responds to a request from Senators Bob Smith, George Voinovich, and Sam Brownback to examine the costs of specific multi-emission reduction strategies.

  6. An experimental investigation of the mass-transfer mechanisms in sulfur dioxide absorption in lime solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markussen, J.M.

    1991-04-01

    The experiments were performed at gas temperatures from 24 to 114C using a wetted-wall column apparatus with SO{sub 2} concentrations ranging from 1800 to 7350 ppM, calcium concentrations of 2.82 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} to 1. 25 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} gmol/cm{sup 3}, and column heights of 14 to 29 cm. Inlet SO{sub 2} content had a significant effect on rate of SO{sub 2} absorption, with the average absorption flux increasing with increasing SO{sub 2} gas concentration. Increasing gas temperature did not significantly affect the rate of SO{sub 2} absorption. Presence of lime in solution enhanced the average SO{sub 2} absorption flux and appeared to maintain the SO{sub 2} absorption capacity of the liquid, thereby negating the effect of decreasing SO{sub 2} solubility in water with increasing temperature. Slight increases in both the system`s gas-phase resistances and enhancement factors were observed with increasing gas temperature. Under the conditions studied, the mass-transfer resistance in the SO{sub 2}-lime solution system was predominantly liquid-phase controlled, with observed gas-phase resistances ranging up to 42% of total. Comparison to literature shows that the system mass-transfer mechanism can be dominated by either the gas-phase resistance or the liquid-phase resistance, depending upon the gas-liquid contact times. Thus, results support the need to incorporate both gas- and liquid-phase mass-transfer resistances when modeling the absorption of SO{sub 2} in lime solutions and lime slurries, such as that occurring in the constant rate drying stage of the spray drying flue gas desulfurization process.

  7. An experimental investigation of the mass-transfer mechanisms in sulfur dioxide absorption in lime solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markussen, J.M.

    1991-04-01

    The experiments were performed at gas temperatures from 24 to 114C using a wetted-wall column apparatus with SO[sub 2] concentrations ranging from 1800 to 7350 ppM, calcium concentrations of 2.82 [times] 10[sup [minus]6] to 1. 25 [times] 10[sup [minus]5] gmol/cm[sup 3], and column heights of 14 to 29 cm. Inlet SO[sub 2] content had a significant effect on rate of SO[sub 2] absorption, with the average absorption flux increasing with increasing SO[sub 2] gas concentration. Increasing gas temperature did not significantly affect the rate of SO[sub 2] absorption. Presence of lime in solution enhanced the average SO[sub 2] absorption flux and appeared to maintain the SO[sub 2] absorption capacity of the liquid, thereby negating the effect of decreasing SO[sub 2] solubility in water with increasing temperature. Slight increases in both the system's gas-phase resistances and enhancement factors were observed with increasing gas temperature. Under the conditions studied, the mass-transfer resistance in the SO[sub 2]-lime solution system was predominantly liquid-phase controlled, with observed gas-phase resistances ranging up to 42% of total. Comparison to literature shows that the system mass-transfer mechanism can be dominated by either the gas-phase resistance or the liquid-phase resistance, depending upon the gas-liquid contact times. Thus, results support the need to incorporate both gas- and liquid-phase mass-transfer resistances when modeling the absorption of SO[sub 2] in lime solutions and lime slurries, such as that occurring in the constant rate drying stage of the spray drying flue gas desulfurization process.

  8. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2005-01-01

    The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and the hot-gas desulfurization using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term process development efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a micro bubble reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 0.059-0.87 seconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, reaction pressure, and catalyst loading on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 62-78 v% hydrogen, 3,000-7,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,500-3,500 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to a micro bubble reactor are 50 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-170 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the bubble reactor is maintained at 2 for all the reaction experiment runs.

  9. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2004-01-01

    The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and the hot-gas desulfurization using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term process development efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a micro bubble reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 1-6 milliseconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperature, moisture concentration, reaction pressure on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 70 v% hydrogen, 2,500-7,500-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,250-3,750 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 0-15 vol% moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to a micro bubble reactor are 100 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-170 psia.

  10. Low-quality natural gas sulfur removal/recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damon, D.A.; Siwajek, L.A.; Klint, B.W.

    1993-12-31

    Low quality natural gas processing with the integrated CFZ/CNG Claus process is feasible for low quality natural gas containing 10% or more of CO{sub 2}, and any amount of H{sub 2}S. The CNG Claus process requires a minimum CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the feed gas of about 100 psia (15% CO{sub 2} for a 700 psia feed gas) and also can handle any amount of H{sub 2}S. The process is well suited for handling a variety of trace contaminants usually associated with low quality natural gas and Claus sulfur recovery. The integrated process can produce high pressure carbon dioxide at purities required by end use markets, including food grade CO{sub 2}. The ability to economically co-produce high pressure CO{sub 2} as a commodity with significant revenue potential frees process economic viability from total reliance on pipeline gas, and extends the range of process applicability to low quality gases with relatively low methane content. Gases with high acid gas content and high CO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}S ratios can be economically processed by the CFZ/CNG Claus and CNG Claus processes. The large energy requirements for regeneration make chemical solvent processing prohibitive. The cost of Selexol physical solvent processing of the LaBarge gas is significantly greater than the CNG/CNG Claus and CNG Claus processes.

  11. Longitudinal study of children exposed to sulfur oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodge, R.; Solomon, P.; Moyers, J.; Hayes, C.

    1985-05-01

    This study is a longitudinal comparison of the health of children exposed to markedly different concentrations of sulfur dioxide and moderately different concentrations of particulate sulfate. The four groups of subjects lived in two areas of one smelter town and in two other towns, one of which was also a smelter town. In the area of highest pollution, children were intermittently exposed to high SO/sub 2/ levels (peak three-hour average concentration exceeded 2,500 micrograms/m3) and moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= levels (average concentration was 10.1 micrograms/m3). When the children were grouped by the four gradients of pollution observed, the prevalence of cough (measured by questionnaire) correlated significantly with pollution levels (trend chi-square = 5.6, p = 0.02). No significant differences in the incidence of cough or other symptoms occurred among the groups of subjects over three years, and pulmonary function and lung function growth over the study were roughly equal among all the groups. These results suggest that intermittent elevations in SO/sub 2/ concentration, in the presence of moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= concentration, produced evidence of bronchial irritation in the subjects, but no chronic effect on lung function or lung function growth was detected.

  12. Low-quality natural gas sulfur removal/recovery: Task 2. Topical report, September 30, 1992--August 29, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, W.J.; Neyman, M.; Brown, W.; Klint, B.W.; Kuehn, L.; O`Connell, J.; Paskall, H.; Dale, P.

    1993-08-01

    The primary purpose of this Task 2 Report is to present conceptual designs developed to treat a large portion of proven domestic natural gas reserves which are low quality. The conceptual designs separate hydrogen sulfide and large amounts of carbon dioxide (>20%) from methane, convert hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur, produce a substantial portion of the carbon dioxide as EOR or food grade CO{sub 2}, and vent residual CO{sub 2} virtually free of contaminating sulfur containing compounds. A secondary purpose of this Task 2 Report is to review existing gas treatment technology and identify existing commercial technologies currently used to treat large volumes of low quality natural gas with high acid content. Section II of this report defines low quality gas and describes the motivation for seeking technology to develop low quality gas reserves. The target low quality gas to be treated with the proposed technology is identified, and barriers to the production of this gas are reviewed. Section III provides a description of the Controlled Freeze Zone (CFG)-CNG technologies, their features, and perceived advantages. The three conceptual process designs prepared under Task 2 are presented in Section IV along with the design basis and process economics. Section V presents an overview of existing gas treatment technologies, organized into acid gas removal technology and sulfur recovery technology.

  13. FISCAL YEAR 2006 REPORT ON ELECTROLYZER COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT FOR THE HYBRID SULFUR PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colon-Mercado, H; David Hobbs, D; Daryl Coleman, D; Amy Ekechukwu, A

    2006-08-03

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In FY05, testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) explored a low temperature fuel cell design concept for the SDE. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small volumetric footprint that is crucial for successful implementation on a commercial scale. A key component of the SDE is the ion conductive membrane through which protons produced at anode migrate to the cathode and react to produce hydrogen. An ideal membrane for the SDE should have both low ionic resistivity and low sulfur dioxide transport. These features allow the electrolyzer to perform at high currents with low potentials, along with preventing contamination of both the hydrogen output and poisoning of the catalysts involved. Another key component is the electrocatalyst material used for the anode and cathode. Good electrocatalysts should be chemically stable and low overpotential for the desired electrochemical reactions. This report summarizes results from activities to evaluate different membrane and electrocatalyst materials for the SDE. Several different types of commercially-available membranes were analyzed for ionic resistance and sulfur dioxide transport including perfluorinated sulfonic acid, sulfonated poly-etherketone-ketone, and poly-benzimidazole membranes. Of these membrane types, the poly-benzimidazole (PBI) membrane, Celtec-L, exhibited the best combination of characteristics for use in an SDE. Testing examined the activity and stability of platinum and palladium as electrocatalyst for the SDE in sulfuric acid solutions. Cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that platinum provided better catalytic activity with much lower potentials and higher currents than palladium. Testing also showed that the catalyst activity is strongly influenced by concentration of the sulfuric acid. Various cell configurations were examined with respect to the deposition of electrocatalyst and use of conductive carbon materials such as carbon cloth and carbon paper. Findings from these evaluations and the results of the membrane and electrocatalyst testing, we prepared three different membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for electrolyzer testing. The first MEA consisted of a Nafion{reg_sign} membrane with platinum electrocatalyst deposited on carbon cloths, which were heat pressed onto the membrane, an assembly identical to those used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The second MEA also used a Nafion membrane with the electrocatalysts deposited directly onto the membrane. The third MEA proved similar to the second but utilized a PBI membrane in place of the Nafion{reg_sign} membrane. Tailor of the membrane and catalysts properties for the SDE system was concluded as a required step for the technology to move forward. It was also recommended the evaluation of the tested and new developed materials at conditions closer to the SDE operating conditions and for longer period of time.

  14. Direct Observation of Sulfur Radicals as Reaction Media in lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Jianming; Walter, Eric D.; Pan, Huilin; Lu, Dongping; Zuo, Pengjian; Chen, Honghao; Deng, Zhiqun; Liaw, Bor Yann; Yu, Xiqian; Yang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2014-12-09

    Lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has been regaining tremendous interest in recent years because of its attractive attributes such as high gravimetric energy, low cost and environmental benignity. However, it is still not conclusively known how polysulfide ring/chain participates in the whole cycling and whether the discharge and charge process follow the same pathway. Herein, we demonstrate the direct observation of sulfur radicals by using in situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. Based on the concentration changes of sulfur radicals at different potentials, it is revealed that the chemical and electrochemical reactions in Li-S cell are driven each other to proceed through sulfur radicals, leading to two completely different reaction pathways during discharge and charge. The proposed radical mechanism may provide new insights to investigate the interactions between sulfur species and the electrolyte, inspiring novel strategies to develop Li-S battery technology.

  15. Direct Observation of Sulfur Radicals as Reaction Media in Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Jianming; Walter, Eric; Pan, Huilin; Lv, Dongping; Zuo, Pengjian; Chen, Honghao; Deng, Z. D.; Liaw, Bor Y.; Yu, Xiqian; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2015-01-09

    Lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has been regaining tremendous interest in recent years because of its attractive attributes such as high gravimetric energy, low cost and environmental benignity. However, it is still not conclusively known how polysulfide ring/chain participates in the whole cycling and whether the discharge and charge processes follow the same pathway. Herein, we demonstrate the direct observation of sulfur radicals by using in situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. Based on the concentration changes of sulfur radicals at different potentials and the electrochemical characteristics of the cell, it is revealed that the chemical and electrochemical reactions in Li-S cell are driving each other to proceed through sulfur radicals, leading to two completely different reaction pathways during discharge and charge. The proposed radical mechanism may provide new perspectives to investigate the interactions between sulfur species and the electrolyte, inspiring novel strategies to develop Li-S battery technology.

  16. Direct Observation of Sulfur Radicals as Reaction Media in Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Jianming; Walter, Eric; Pan, Huilin; Lv, Dongping; Zuo, Pengjian; Chen, Honghao; Deng, Z. D.; Liaw, Bor Y.; Yu, Xiqian; et al

    2015-01-09

    Lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has been regaining tremendous interest in recent years because of its attractive attributes such as high gravimetric energy, low cost and environmental benignity. However, it is still not conclusively known how polysulfide ring/chain participates in the whole cycling and whether the discharge and charge processes follow the same pathway. Herein, we demonstrate the direct observation of sulfur radicals by using in situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. Based on the concentration changes of sulfur radicals at different potentials and the electrochemical characteristics of the cell, it is revealed that the chemical and electrochemical reactions in Li-Smore » cell are driving each other to proceed through sulfur radicals, leading to two completely different reaction pathways during discharge and charge. The proposed radical mechanism may provide new perspectives to investigate the interactions between sulfur species and the electrolyte, inspiring novel strategies to develop Li-S battery technology.« less

  17. Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur ...

  18. Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur ...

  19. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, P. E.

    1981-09-22

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another. 3 figs.

  20. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, Perry E.

    1981-01-01

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another.

  1. Method for carbon dioxide sequestration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Yifeng; Bryan, Charles R.; Dewers, Thomas; Heath, Jason E.

    2015-09-22

    A method for geo-sequestration of a carbon dioxide includes selection of a target water-laden geological formation with low-permeability interbeds, providing an injection well into the formation and injecting supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) into the injection well under conditions of temperature, pressure and density selected to cause the fluid to enter the formation and splinter and/or form immobilized ganglia within the formation. This process allows for the immobilization of the injected SC--CO.sub.2 for very long times. The dispersal of scCO2 into small ganglia is accomplished by alternating injection of SC--CO.sub.2 and water. The injection rate is required to be high enough to ensure the SC--CO.sub.2 at the advancing front to be broken into pieces and small enough for immobilization through viscous instability.

  2. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  3. EPA Diesel Rule and the Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-05-08

    The VT program collaborated with industry stakeholders and the EPA (in an effort initiated in 1998 called Diesel Emission Control Sulfur Effects study, otherwise known as DECSE) to quantify the effects of fuel sulfur on emission control technologies.

  4. Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation...

  5. Sulfuric acid thermoelectrochemical system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludwig, Frank A. (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A thermoelectrochemical system in which an electrical current is generated between a cathode immersed in a concentrated sulfuric acid solution and an anode immersed in an aqueous buffer solution of sodium bisulfate and sodium sulfate. Reactants consumed at the electrodes during the electrochemical reaction are thermochemically regenerated and recycled to the electrodes to provide continuous operation of the system.

  6. Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases: high calcium fly-ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T. (Austin, TX); Chang, John C. S. (Cary, NC)

    1991-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to improved processes for treating hot sulfur-containing flue gas to remove sulfur therefrom. Processes in accordance with the present invention include preparing an aqueous slurry composed of a calcium alkali source and a source of reactive silica and/or alumina, heating the slurry to above-ambient temperatures for a period of time in order to facilitate the formation of sulfur-absorbing calcium silicates or aluminates, and treating the gas with the heat-treated slurry components. Examples disclosed herein demonstrate the utility of these processes in achieving improved sulfur-absorbing capabilities. Additionally, disclosure is provided which illustrates preferred configurations for employing the present processes both as a dry sorbent injection and for use in conjunction with a spray dryer and/or bagfilter. Retrofit application to existing systems is also addressed.

  7. Sulfur-Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Cathodes for Lithium/Sulfur Cells -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Sulfur-Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Cathodes for Lithium/Sulfur Cells Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication LBNL Commercial Analysis Report (1,062 KB) Technology Marketing Summary A Berkeley Lab team headed by Yuegang Zhang and Elton Cairns has developed

  8. Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries > Research Highlights >

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Research Highlights In This Section The Structural Evolution and Diffusion During the Chemical Transformation from Cobalt to Cobalt Phosphide Nanoparticles Joint Density-Functional Theory of Electrochemistry Double-band Electrode Channel Flow DEMS Cell Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs High

  9. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate the potential of storing carbon dioxide in depleted oil fields while simultaneously maximizing oil production. January 8, 2014 Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery. Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery.

  10. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate the potential of storing carbon dioxide in depleted oil fields while simultaneously maximizing oil production. January 8, 2014 Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery. Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery.

  11. How Atomic Vibrations Transform Vanadium Dioxide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How Atomic Vibrations Transform Vanadium Dioxide How Atomic Vibrations Transform Vanadium Dioxide Calculations Confirm Material's Potential for Next-Generation Electronics, Energy November 10, 2014 Contact: Dawn Levy, levyd@ornl.gov, 865.576.6448 Budaivibe Vanadium atoms (blue) have unusually large thermal vibrations that stabilize the metallic state of a vanadium dioxide crystal. Red depicts oxygen atoms. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory For more than 50 years, scientists have

  12. Tailoring Pore Size of Nitrogen-Doped Hollow Carbon Nanospheres for Confi ning Sulfur in LithiumSulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Weidong; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Quiglin; Abruna, Hector D.; He, Yang; Wang, Jiangwei; Mao, Scott X.; Xiao, Xingcheng

    2015-08-19

    Three types of nitrogen-doped hollow carbon spheres with different pore sized porous shells are prepared to investigate the performance of sulfur confinement. The reason that why no sulfur is observed in previous research is determined and it is successfully demonstrated that the sulfur/polysulfide will overflow the porous carbon during the lithiation process.

  13. Project Profile: Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    characterize, and experimentally demonstrate a novel high-temperature receiver technology using supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) directly as the heat transfer fluid (HTF). ...

  14. ARM - Measurement - Carbon dioxide (CO2) flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide, a heavy, colorless greenhouse gas. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  15. Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    one year of operating experience with a transcritical carbon dioxide (TC CO2) booster refrigeration system at Delhaize America's Hannaford supermarket location in Turner, Maine. ...

  16. Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Fridley, David

    2007-07-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target for energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20% from 2005 to 2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and binding target has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift in China's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energy development. The 20% energy intensity target also translates into an annual reduction of over 1.5 billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making the Chinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in the world today. While it is still too early to tell whether China will achieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend in energy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options toward meeting the 20% target using a detailed end-use energy model.

  17. Identification of Martian Regolith Sulfur Components In Shergottites Using

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sulfur K XANES and Fe/S Ratios. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Identification of Martian Regolith Sulfur Components In Shergottites Using Sulfur K XANES and Fe/S Ratios. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Identification of Martian Regolith Sulfur Components In Shergottites Using Sulfur K XANES and Fe/S Ratios. Authors: Sutton, S.R. ; Ross, D.K. ; Rao, M.N. ; Nyquist, L.E. [1] ; ESCG Jacobs) [2] ; UC) [2] + Show Author Affiliations (NASA-JSC) [NASA-JSC ( Publication Date: 2014-02-26

  18. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    20 Table 8. Carbon intensity of the economy by state (2000-2013) metric tons of energy-related carbon dioxide per million chained 2009 dollars of GDP Change (2000-2013) State 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 percent Absolute Alabama 947.5 881.6 889.4 873.7 839.2 825.8 827.1 833.3 791.5 704.6 759.5 734.5 691.6 661.8 -30.2% -285.7 Alaska 1,220.0 1,145.3 1,118.1 1,127.8 1,158.5 1,161.3 1,038.3 949.7 847.3 758.4 793.2 770.3 735.6 730.8 -40.1% -489.2 Arizona 424.8

  19. Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrosynthesis with Synthetic Electromicrobiology and System Design | Department of Energy Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial Electrosynthesis with Synthetic Electromicrobiology and System Design Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial Electrosynthesis with Synthetic Electromicrobiology and System Design Presentation by Derek Lovley, UMass Amherst, during the "Targeting High-Value Challenges" panel at the Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons,

  20. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ohio Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Ohio) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 32,482 8 Electric utilities 20,779 11 IPP & CHP 11,703 9 Net generation (megawatthours) 137,284,189 7 Electric utilities 88,763,825 12 IPP & CHP 48,520,364 7 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 346,873 2 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 102,526 4 Carbon dioxide (thousand metrictons) 102,466 4 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 5.1 1 Nitrogen oxide (lbs/MWh)

  1. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture (Patent) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture You are accessing a document from...

  2. Method for carbon dioxide sequestration (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Method for carbon dioxide sequestration Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Method for carbon dioxide sequestration You are accessing a document from the Department of...

  3. Thermodynamic properties of uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, J.K.; Chasanov, M.G.; Leibowitz, L.

    1981-04-01

    In order to provide reliable and consistent data on the thermophysical properties of reactor materials for reactor safety studies, this revision is prepared for the thermodynamic properties of the uranium dioxide portion of the fuel property section of the report Properties for LMFBR Safety Analysis. Since the original report was issued in 1976, there has been international agreement on a vapor pressure equation for the total pressure over UO/sub 2/, new methods have been suggested for the calculation of enthalpy and heat capacity, and a phase change at 2670 K has been proposed. In this report, an electronic term is used in place of the Frenkel defect term in the enthalpy and heat capacity equation and the phase transition is accepted.

  4. Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2015-04-21

    Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion include at least one catalytically active element with a particle size above 0.6 nm. The electrocatalysts can also include a Helper Catalyst. The catalysts can be used to increase the rate, modify the selectivity or lower the overpotential of electrochemical conversion of CO.sub.2. Chemical processes and devices using the catalysts also include processes to produce CO, HCO.sup.-, H.sub.2CO, (HCO.sub.2).sup.-, H.sub.2CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3OH, CH.sub.4, C.sub.2H.sub.4, CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH, CH.sub.3COO.sup.-, CH.sub.3COOH, C.sub.2H.sub.6, (COOH).sub.2, or (COO.sup.-).sub.2, and a specific device, namely, a CO.sub.2 sensor.

  5. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN KAZAKHASTAN: USING OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION BY-PRODUCT SULFUR FOR COST-EFFECTIVE SECONDARY END-USE PRODUCTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KALB, P.D.; VAGIN, S.; BEALL, P.W.; LEVINTOV, B.L.

    2004-09-25

    The Republic of Kazakhstan is continuing to develop its extensive petroleum reserves in the Tengiz region of the northeastern part of the Caspian Sea. Large quantities of by-product sulfur are being produced as a result of the removal of hydrogen sulfide from the oil and gas produced in the region. Lack of local markets and economic considerations limit the traditional outlets for by-product sulfur and the buildup of excess sulfur is a becoming a potential economic and environmental liability. Thus, new applications for re-use of by-product sulfur that will benefit regional economies including construction, paving and waste treatment are being developed. One promising application involves the cleanup and treatment of mercury at a Kazakhstan chemical plant. During 19 years of operation at the Pavlodar Khimprom chlor-alkali production facility, over 900 tons of mercury was lost to the soil surrounding and beneath the buildings. The Institute of Metallurgy and Ore Benefication (Almaty) is leading a team to develop and demonstrate a vacuum-assisted thermal process to extract the mercury from the soil and concentrate it as pure, elemental mercury, which will then be treated using the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process. The use of locally produced sulfur will recycle a low-value industrial by-product to treat hazardous waste and render it safe for return to the environment, thereby helping to solve two problems at once. SPSS chemically stabilizes mercury to mercuric sulfide, which has a low vapor pressure and low solubility, and then physically encapsulates the material in a durable, monolithic solid sulfur polymer matrix. Thus, mercury is placed in a solid form very much like stable cinnabar, the form in which it is found in nature. Previous research and development has shown that the process can successfully encapsulate up to 33 wt% mercury in the solid form, while still meeting very strict regulatory standards for leachable mercury (0.025 mg/l in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure). The research and development to deploy Kazakhstan recycled sulfur for secondary applications described in this paper is being conducted with support from the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and the U.S. Department of Energy Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (DOE IPP).

  6. Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Najjar, Mitri S. (Hopewell Junction, NY); Corbeels, Roger J. (Wappingers Falls, NY); Kokturk, Uygur (Wappingers Falls, NY)

    1989-01-01

    A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

  7. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. C. Kwon

    2006-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2} in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives using a monolithic catalyst reactor, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 40-560 seconds at 120-150 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperatures, total pressure, space time, and catalyst regeneration on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,600-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,800-2,000 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 23-27 v% hydrogen, 36-41 v% CO, 10-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 30-180 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-150 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is mai

  8. Removal of sulfur compounds from combustion product exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Dah Y. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A method and device are disclosed for removing sulfur containing contaminents from a combustion product exhaust. The removal process is carried out in two stages wherein the combustion product exhaust is dissolved in water, the water being then heated to drive off the sulfur containing contaminents. The sulfur containing gases are then resolublized in a cold water trap to form a concentrated solution which can then be used as a commercial product.

  9. Project Profile: Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermochemical Heat Storage | Department of Energy Concentrating Solar Power » Project Profile: Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat Storage Project Profile: Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat Storage General Atomics logo General Atomics, under the Baseload CSP FOA, is demonstrating the engineering feasibility of using a sulfur-based thermochemical cycle to store heat from a CSP plant and support baseload power

  10. Lithium/Sulfur Batteries Based on Doped Mesoporous Carbon - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Lithium/Sulfur Batteries Based on Doped Mesoporous Carbon Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 11-G00232_ID2519.pdf (729 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryA sulfur/carbon composite material was prepared by heat treatment of doped mesoporous carbon and elemental sulfur

  11. Extraction of Sulfur Mustard Metabolites from Urine Samples and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Extraction of Sulfur Mustard Metabolites from Urine Samples and Analysis by Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) Citation Details In-Document Search...

  12. Investigation of Sulfur Deactivation on Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Deactivation Mechanisms of Base MetalZeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials Sulfur Effect and Performance Recovery of a DOC...

  13. Extraction of Sulfur Mustard Metabolites from Urine Samples and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Extraction of Sulfur Mustard Metabolites from Urine Samples and Analysis by Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) Authors: Mayer, B P ; Williams, ...

  14. Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narain, Nand K.; Ruether, John A.; Smith, Dennis N.

    1988-01-01

    Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product.

  15. Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narain, N.K.; Ruether, J.A.; Smith, D.N.

    1987-10-07

    Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product. 2 figs.

  16. Sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mamantov, Gleb (Knoxville, TN)

    1985-04-02

    A sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell with a .beta."-alumina sodium ion conductor having a S-Al mole ratio of above about 0.15 in an acidic molten chloroaluminate cathode composition is disclosed. The cathode composition has an AlCl.sub.3 -NaCl mole percent ratio of above about 70-30 at theoretical full charge. The cell provides high energy densities at low temperatures and provides high energy densities and high power densities at moderate temperatures.

  17. Nonflame, source-induced sulfur fluorescence detector for sulfur-containing compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gage, D.R.; Farwell, S.O.

    1980-12-01

    Results of some preliminary investigations of the fluorescence spectra of S/sub 2/ and the non-flame production of S/sub 2/ from sulfur-containing molecules are reported. Passage of the gas to be analyzed through a catalyst-oven containing a plug of NiO/sub 2//Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst containing 10 wt% NiO/sub 2/ and heated to 400/sup 0/C resulted in conversion of H/sub 2/S to S/sub 2/ and elemental sulfur. The S/sub 2/ was detected by measurement of its fluorescence bands at 260 and 310nm, and elemental sulfur condensed on the cool parts of the apparatus. However, determination of sulfur-content of gas mixtures with the apparatus described herein were not as repeatable as desired, and the work is being continued on various facets of the non-flame system with work being directed toward the evaluation of different catalysts, catalyst temperature, design of a smaller detector geometry utilizing a pulsed-light excitation source, a windowless cell, and optical filters instead of monochromators to select the S/sub 2/ excitation and emission wavelengths. (BLM)

  18. Short run effects of a price on carbon dioxide emissions from U.S. electric generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam Newcomer; Seth A. Blumsack; Jay Apt; Lester B. Lave; M. Granger Morgan [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center

    2008-05-01

    The price of delivered electricity will rise if generators have to pay for carbon dioxide emissions through an implicit or explicit mechanism. There are two main effects that a substantial price on CO{sub 2} emissions would have in the short run (before the generation fleet changes significantly). First, consumers would react to increased price by buying less, described by their price elasticity of demand. Second, a price on CO{sub 2} emissions would change the order in which existing generators are economically dispatched, depending on their carbon dioxide emissions and marginal fuel prices. Both the price increase and dispatch changes depend on the mix of generation technologies and fuels in the region available for dispatch, although the consumer response to higher prices is the dominant effect. We estimate that the instantaneous imposition of a price of $35 per metric ton on CO{sub 2} emissions would lead to a 10% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in PJM and MISO at a price elasticity of -0.1. Reductions in ERCOT would be about one-third as large. Thus, a price on CO{sub 2} emissions that has been shown in earlier work to stimulate investment in new generation technology also provides significant CO{sub 2} reductions before new technology is deployed at large scale. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 Table 1. State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year (2000-2013) million metric tons carbon dioxide Change (2000-2013) State 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 percent Absolute Alabama 142.1 133.5 138.3 139.1 141.3 142.9 145.1 146.5 138.9 119.4 131.8 128.9 122.2 119.8 -15.7% -22.3 Alaska 44.3 43.4 43.5 43.6 46.7 48.0 45.7 43.9 39.3 37.7 38.5 38.4 37.8 36.1 -18.5% -8.2 Arizona 86.0 88.3 87.6 89.4 96.2 96.3 99.2 100.9 101.2 92.2 93.9 91.9 89.9 93.8

  20. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Table 2. 2013 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel million metric tons of carbon dioxide Shares State Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Total Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Alabama 53.3 33.2 33.4 119.8 44.5% 27.7% 27.8% Alaska 1.4 17.1 17.7 36.1 3.9% 47.2% 48.9% Arizona 43.0 32.8 18.1 93.8 45.8% 34.9% 19.3% Arkansas 30.9 21.6 15.3 67.8 45.5% 31.9% 22.5% California 3.6 217.7 131.8 353.1 1.0% 61.7% 37.3% Colorado 34.3 30.6 25.6 90.5 37.9% 33.8% 28.2% Connecticut 0.7 20.8 12.7 34.3 2.1%

  1. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Table 3. 2013 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by sector million metric tons carbon dioxide State Commercial Electric Power Residential Industrial Transportation Total Alabama 1.8 64.2 2.2 21.3 30.3 119.8 Alaska 2.4 2.6 1.6 17.5 12.0 36.1 Arizona 2.4 54.7 2.4 4.5 29.8 93.8 Arkansas 2.8 35.5 2.2 9.3 18.0 67.8 California 16.0 45.7 27.7 72.9 190.8 353.1 Colorado 3.7 38.6 8.2 13.9 26.3 90.5 Connecticut 3.6 6.8 7.2 2.3 14.4 34.3 Delaware 0.8 4.1 0.9 3.7 3.9 13.4 District of Columbia

  2. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Table 5. Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by state (2000-2013) metric tons carbon dioxide per person Change (2000-2013) State 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 percent Absolute Alabama 31.9 29.9 30.9 30.9 31.2 31.3 31.3 31.4 29.4 25.1 27.5 26.9 25.4 24.8 -22.4% -7.1 Alaska 70.6 68.4 67.8 67.3 70.9 72.0 67.7 64.6 57.2 53.9 53.9 53.1 51.8 49.0 -30.6% -21.6 Arizona 16.7 16.7 16.2 16.2 17.0 16.5 16.5 16.4 16.1 14.5 14.6 14.2 13.7 14.1 -15.2%

  3. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

  4. Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The world’s first successful large-scale production of a polypropylene carbonate polymer using waste carbon dioxide as a key raw material has resulted from a projected funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  5. Carbon dioxide-soluble polymers and swellable polymers for carbon dioxide applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Birnbaum, Eva; Carbonell, Ruben G.; Crette, Stephanie; McClain, James B.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Powell, Kimberly R.; Romack, Timothy J.; Tumas, William

    2004-06-08

    A method for carrying out a catalysis reaction in carbon dioxide comprising contacting a fluid mixture with a catalyst bound to a polymer, the fluid mixture comprising at least one reactant and carbon dioxide, wherein the reactant interacts with the catalyst to form a reaction product. A composition of matter comprises carbon dioxide and a polymer and a reactant present in the carbon dioxide. The polymer has bound thereto a catalyst at a plurality of chains along the length of the polymer, and wherein the reactant interacts with the catalyst to form a reaction product.

  6. Thorium dioxide: properties and nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belle, J.; Berman, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    This is the sixth book on reactor materials published under sponsorship of the Naval Reactors Office of the United States Department of Energy, formerly the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This book presents a comprehensive compilation of the most significant properties of thorium dioxide, much like the book Uranium Dioxide: Properties and Nuclear Applications presented information on the fuel material used in the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor core.

  7. ARM - Measurement - Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration The amount of carbon dioxide, a heavy, colorless greenhouse gas, per unit of volume. Categories Atmospheric Carbon Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all

  8. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. C. Kwon

    2007-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 130-156 seconds at 120-140 C to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases, evaluate removal capabilities of hydrogen sulfide and COS from coal gases with formulated catalysts, and develop an economic regeneration method of deactivated catalysts. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,300-3,800-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-1,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-21 v% hydrogen, 29-34 v% CO, 8-10 v% CO{sub 2}, 5-18 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 114-132 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-140 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 116-129 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is

  9. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2009-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash coat, and catalytic metals, to develop a regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor. The task of developing kinetic rate equations and modeling the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants will be abandoned since formulation of catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS is being in progress. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 46-570 seconds under reaction conditions to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases and evaluate their capabilities in reducing hydrogen sulfide and COS in coal gases. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,200-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-20,000-ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-27 v% hydrogen, 29-41 v% CO, 8-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of simulated coal gas mixtures to the reactor are 30 - 180 cm{sup 3}/min at 1 atm and 25 C (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio

  10. Sodium sulfur container with chromium/chromium oxide coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludwig, Frank A. (Irvine, CA); Higley, Lin R. (Santa Ana, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A coating of chromium/chromium oxide is disclosed for coating the surfaces of electrically conducting components of a sodium sulfur battery. This chromium/chromium oxide coating is placed on the surfaces of the electrically conducting components of the battery which are in contact with molten polysulfide and sulfur reactants during battery operation.

  11. Process for removing pyritic sulfur from bituminous coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Janiak, Jerzy S. (Edmonton, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw L. (Edmonton, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A process is provided for removing pyritic sulfur and lowering ash content of bituminous coals by grinding the feed coal, subjecting it to micro-agglomeration with a bridging liquid containing heavy oil, separating the microagglomerates and separating them to a water wash to remove suspended pyritic sulfur. In one embodiment the coal is subjected to a second micro-agglomeration step.

  12. Metal-sulfur type cell having improved positive electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeJonghe, L.C.; Visco, S.J.; Mailhe, C.C.; Armand, M.B.

    1988-03-31

    A novel metal-sulfur type cell operable at a temperature of 200/degree/C or less with an energy density of 150 Whrs/Kg or better is disclosed characterized by an organo-sulfur cathode formed from an organic-sulfur compound having the general formula, in its charged state, of (R(S)/sub y/)n wherein y = 1 to 6; n = 2 to 20; and R is one or more different aliphatic or aromatic organic moieties having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, which may include one or more oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen heteroatoms when R comprises one or more aromatic rings, or one or more oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, or fluorine atoms associated with the chain when R comprises an aliphatic chain, wherein the aliphatic group may be linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated, and wherein either the aliphatic chain or the aromatic ring may have substituted groups thereon. 4 figs.

  13. Metal-sulfur type cell having improved positive electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dejonghe, Lutgard C.; Visco, Steven J.; Mailhe, Catherine C.; Armand, Michel B.

    1989-01-01

    An novel metal-sulfur type cell operable at a temperature of 200.degree. C. or less with an energy density of 150 Whrs/Kg or better is disclosed characterized by an organo-sulfur cathode formed from an organic-sulfur compound having the general formula, in its charged state, of (R(S).sub.y).sub.n wherein y=1 to 6; n=2 to 20; and R is one or more different aliphatic or aromatic organic moieties having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, which may include one or more oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen heteroatoms when R comprisises one of more aromatic rings, or one or more oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, or fluorine atoms associtated with the chain when R comprises an aliphatic chain, wherein the aliphatic group may be linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated, and wherein either the aliphatic chain or the aromatic ring may have substituted groups thereon.

  14. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasability of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perlack, R.D.

    2005-12-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are both strongly committed to expanding the role of biomass as an energy source. In particular, they support biomass fuels and products as a way to reduce the need for oil and gas imports; to support the growth of agriculture, forestry, and rural economies; and to foster major new domestic industries--biorefineries--making a variety of fuels, chemicals, and other products. As part of this effort, the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee, a panel established by the Congress to guide the future direction of federally funded biomass R&D, envisioned a 30 percent replacement of the current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. Biomass--all plant and plant-derived materials including animal manure, not just starch, sugar, oil crops already used for food and energy--has great potential to provide renewable energy for America's future. Biomass recently surpassed hydropower as the largest domestic source of renewable energy and currently provides over 3 percent of the total energy consumption in the United States. In addition to the many benefits common to renewable energy, biomass is particularly attractive because it is the only current renewable source of liquid transportation fuel. This, of course, makes it invaluable in reducing oil imports--one of our most pressing energy needs. A key question, however, is how large a role could biomass play in responding to the nation's energy demands. Assuming that economic and financial policies and advances in conversion technologies make biomass fuels and products more economically viable, could the biorefinery industry be large enough to have a significant impact on energy supply and oil imports? Any and all contributions are certainly needed, but would the biomass potential be sufficiently large to justify the necessary capital replacements in the fuels and automobile sectors? The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country's present petroleum consumption--the goal set by the Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

  15. Respiratory effects of two-hour exposure with intermittent exercise to ozone, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide alone and in combination in normal subjects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kagawa, J.

    1983-01-01

    Seven adult male healthy volunteer subjects were exposed to 0.15 ppm each of O/sub 3/, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/ alone and in combination, with intermittent light exercise for two hours. Three of the 7 subjects developed cough during deep inspiration and one subject had chest pain during exposure to O/sub 3/ alone. Among the various indices of pulmonary function tests, specific airway conductane (G/sub aw//V/sub tg/) was the most sensitive index to examine the changes produced by the exposure to O/sub 3/ and other pollutants. Significant decrease of G/sub aw//V/sub tg/ in comparison with control measurements was observed in 6 of 7 subjects during exposure to O/sub 3/ alone, and in all subjects during exposures to the mixture of O/sub 3/ and other pollutants. However, no significant enhancement of effect was observed in the mixture of O/sub 3/ and other pollutants, although a slightly greater decrease of airway resistance/volume of thoracic gas (G/sub aw//V/sub tg/) was observed for the mixture of O/sub 3/ and other pollutants than for O/sub 3/ alone.

  16. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-10-29

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  17. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-01-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  18. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-04-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 percent (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  19. Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W.; Hoffman, James S.

    2002-05-14

    A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

  20. SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; J.E. Fitzgerald; Z. Pan; M. Sudibandriyo

    2003-04-30

    The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure, and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project developed, an important additional objective was added to the above original list. Namely, we were encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project are summarized below in three broad categories: experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

  1. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply, April 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the countrys present petroleum consumption the goal set by the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

  2. Polymers for metal extractions in carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeSimone, Joseph M. (7315 Crescent Ridge Dr., Chapel Hill, NC 27516); Tumas, William (1130 Big Rock Loop, Los Alamos, NM 87544); Powell, Kimberly R. (103 Timber Hollow Ct. Apartment 323, Chapel Hill, NC 27514); McCleskey, T. Mark (1930 Camino Mora, Los Alamos, NM 87544); Romack, Timothy J. (5810 Forest Ridge Dr., Durham, NC 27713); McClain, James B. (8530 Sommersweet La., Raleigh, NC 27612); Birnbaum, Eva R. (1930 Camino Mora, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

    2001-01-01

    A composition useful for the extraction of metals and metalloids comprises (a) carbon dioxide fluid (preferably liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide); and (b) a polymer in the carbon dioxide, the polymer having bound thereto a ligand that binds the metal or metalloid; with the ligand bound to the polymer at a plurality of locations along the chain length thereof (i.e., a plurality of ligands are bound at a plurality of locations along the chain length of the polymer). The polymer is preferably a copolymer, and the polymer is preferably a fluoropolymer such as a fluoroacrylate polymer. The extraction method comprises the steps of contacting a first composition containing a metal or metalloid to be extracted with a second composition, the second composition being as described above; and then extracting the metal or metalloid from the first composition into the second composition.

  3. Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 | Department of Energy Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 This study demonstrates the feasibility of developing highly stable, sulfur-tolerant oxidation catalysts that use less Pt via surface modification of silica supports

  4. Enhanced carbon dioxide capture upon incorporation of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine in the metal-organic framework CuBTTri | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Enhanced carbon dioxide capture upon incorporation of N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine in the metal-organic framework CuBTTri Previous Next List Thomas M. McDonald, Deanna M. D'Alessandro, Rajamani Krishna and Jeffrey R. Long, Chem. Sci., 2011,2, 2022-2028 DOI: 10.1039/C1SC00354B Graphical abstract: Enhanced carbon dioxide capture upon

  5. Project Profile: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    aim to demonstrate a multi-megawatt power cycle using supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) as the working fluid. The use of carbon dioxide instead of steam allows higher...

  6. Low Temperature Sorbents for Removal of Sulfur Compounds from Fluid Feed Streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani

    2004-06-01

    A sorbent material is provided comprising a material reactive with sulfur, a binder unreactive with sulfur and an inert material, wherein the sorbent absorbs the sulfur at temperatures between 30 and 200 C. Sulfur absorption capacity as high as 22 weight percent has been observed with these materials.

  7. Los Alamos probes mysteries of uranium dioxide's thermal conductivity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mysteries of uranium dioxide's thermal conductivity Los Alamos probes mysteries of uranium dioxide's thermal conductivity New research is showing that the thermal conductivity of cubic uranium dioxide is strongly affected by interactions between phonons carrying heat and magnetic spins. August 4, 2014 Illustration of anisotropic thermal conductivity in uranium dioxide (UO2). Scientists are studying the thermal conductivity related to the material's different crystallographic directions, hoping

  8. Geothermal Startup Will Put Carbon Dioxide to Good Use

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Geothermal power holds enormous opportunities to provide affordable, clean energy that avoids greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2).

  9. System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J; Weissman, Jeffrey G

    2013-08-13

    A system for adding sulfur to a reformate stream feeding a fuel cell stack, having a sulfur source for providing sulfur to the reformate stream and a metering device in fluid connection with the sulfur source and the reformate stream. The metering device injects sulfur from the sulfur source to the reformate stream at a predetermined rate, thereby providing a conditioned reformate stream to the fuel cell stack. The system provides a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

  10. Ultra Low Sulfur Home Heating Oil Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batey, John E.; McDonald, Roger

    2015-09-30

    This Ultra Low Sulfur (ULS) Home Heating Oil Demonstration Project was funded by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and has successfully quantified the environmental and economic benefits of switching to ULS (15 PPM sulfur) heating oil. It advances a prior field study of Low Sulfur (500 ppm sulfur) heating oil funded by NYSERDA and laboratory research conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Canadian researchers. The sulfur oxide and particulate matter (PM) emissions are greatly reduced as are boiler cleaning costs through extending cleaning intervals. Both the sulfur oxide and PM emission rates are directly related to the fuel oil sulfur content. The sulfur oxide and PM emission rates approach near-zero levels by switching heating equipment to ULS fuel oil, and these emissions become comparable to heating equipment fired by natural gas. This demonstration project included an in-depth review and analysis of service records for both the ULS and control groups to determine any difference in the service needs for the two groups. The detailed service records for both groups were collected and analyzed and the results were entered into two spreadsheets that enabled a quantitative side-by-side comparison of equipment service for the entire duration of the ULS test project. The service frequency for the ULS and control group were very similar and did indicate increased service frequency for the ULS group. In fact, the service frequency with the ULS group was slightly less (7.5 percent) than the control group. The only exception was that three burner fuel pump required replacement for the ULS group and none were required for the control group.

  11. Mechanisms of Sulfur Poisoning of NOx Adsorber (LNT) Materials | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Sulfur Poisoning of NOx Adsorber (LNT) Materials Mechanisms of Sulfur Poisoning of NOx Adsorber (LNT) Materials 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace_24_peden.pdf More Documents & Publications Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction (NSR) Materials Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal/Zeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials

  12. Method of detecting sulfur dioxide. [DOE patent application; 1,1,1-trimethyl-N-sulfinyl silanamine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spicer, L.D.; Bennett, D.W.; Davis, J.F.

    1981-06-12

    (CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/SiNSO is produced by the reaction of ((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/Si)/sub 2/NH with SO/sub 2/. Also produced in the reaction are ((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/Si)/sub 2/O and a new solid compound (NH/sub 4/)((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/SiOSO/sub 2/). Both (C/sub 3/)/sub 3/SiNSO and (NH/sub 4/)((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/SiOSO/sub 2/) have fluorescent properties. The reaction of the subject invention is used in a method of measuring the concentration of SO/sub 2/ pollutants in gases. By the method, a sample of gas is bubbled through a solution of ((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/Si)/sub 2/NH, whereby any SO/sub 2/ present in the gas will react to produce the two fluorescent products. The measured fluorescence of these products can then be used to calculate the concentration of SO/sub 2/ in the original gas sample. The solid product (NH/sub 4/)((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/SiOSO/sub 2/) may be used as a standard in solid state NMR spectroscopy.

  13. National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Price, Lynn; Zheng, Nina; Ke, Jing; Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2011-10-15

    Since 2006, China has set goals of reducing energy intensity, emissions, and pollutants in multiple guidelines and in the Five Year Plans. Various strategies and measures have then been taken to improve the energy efficiency in all sectors and to reduce pollutants. Since controlling energy, CO{sub 2} emissions, and pollutants falls under the jurisdiction of different government agencies in China, many strategies are being implemented to fulfill only one of these objectives. Co-controls or integrated measures could simultaneously reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and criteria air pollutant emissions. The targets could be met in a more cost effective manner if the integrated measures can be identified and prioritized. This report provides analysis and insights regarding how these targets could be met via co-control measures focusing on both CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} emissions in the cement, iron &steel, and power sectors to 2030 in China. An integrated national energy and emission model was developed in order to establish a baseline scenario that was used to assess the impact of actions already taken by the Chinese government as well as planned and expected actions. In addition, CO{sub 2} mitigation scenarios and SO{sub 2} control scenarios were also established to evaluate the impact of each of the measures and the combined effects. In the power sector, although the end of pipe SO{sub 2} control technology such as flue gas desulfurization (FGD) has the largest reduction potential for SO{sub 2} emissions, other CO{sub 2} control options have important co-benefits in reducing SO{sub 2} emissions of 52.6 Mt of SO{sub 2} accumulatively. Coal efficiency improvements along with hydropower, renewable and nuclear capacity expansion will result in more than half of the SO{sub 2} emission reductions as the SO{sub 2} control technology through 2016. In comparison, the reduction from carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is much less and has negative SO{sub 2} reductions potential. The expanded biomass generation scenario does not have significant potential for reducing SO{sub 2} emissions, because of its limited availability. For the cement sector, the optimal co-control strategy includes accelerated adoption of energy efficiency measures, decreased use of clinker in cement production, increased use of alternative fuels, and fuel-switching to biomass. If desired, additional SO{sub 2} mitigation could be realized by more fully adopting SO{sub 2} abatement mitigation technology measures. The optimal co-control scenario results in annual SO{sub 2} emissions reductions in 2030 of 0.16 Mt SO{sub 2} and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reductions of 76 Mt CO{sub 2}. For the iron and steel sector, the optimal co-control strategy includes accelerated adoption of energy efficiency measures, increased share of electric arc furnace steel production, and reduced use of coal and increased use of natural gas in steel production. The strategy also assumes full implementation of sinter waste gas recycling and wet desulfurization. This strategy results in annual SO{sub 2} emissions reductions in 2030 of 1.3 Mt SO{sub 2} and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reductions of 173 Mt CO{sub 2}.

  14. Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chi, Miaofang; Ivanov, Ilia N; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2014-12-30

    An array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization includes a plurality of nanotubes, each nanotube including an outer layer coaxial with an inner layer, where the inner layer comprises p-type titanium dioxide and the outer layer comprises n-type titanium dioxide. An interface between the inner layer and the outer layer defines a p-n junction.

  15. Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Anderson, SC)

    2001-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  16. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2003-01-01

    The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term DOE efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 60-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a PFA differential fixed-bed micro reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 0.01-0.047 seconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperatures, moisture concentrations, reaction pressures on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 61-89 v% hydrogen, 2,300-9,200-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-4,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 2.6-13.7 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 100-110 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 28-127 psia. The following results were obtained based on experimental data generated from the differential reactor system, and their interpretations, (1) Concentration of moisture and concentrations of both H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} appear to affect slightly reaction rates of H{sub 2}S with SO{sub 2} over the moisture range of 2.5-13.6 v% moisture at 140 C and 120-123 psia. (2) Concentrations of both H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} appear to affect slightly reaction rates of H{sub 2}S with SO{sub 2} over the temperature range of 135-145 C at 5-v% moisture and 112-123 psia. However, reaction rates of H{sub 2}S with SO{sub 2} appear to decrease slightly with increased reaction temperatures over the temperature range of 135-145 C at 5-v% moisture and 112-123 psia. (3) Concentrations of both H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} appear to affect slightly reaction rates of H{sub 2}S with SO{sub 2} over the pressure range of 28-123 psia at 5-v% moisture and 140 C. However, reaction rates of H{sub 2}S with SO{sub 2} increase significantly with increased reaction pressures over the pressure range of 28-123 psia at 5-v% moisture and 140 C.

  17. Assessment of Reusing 14-ton, Thin-Wall, Depleted UF{sub 6} Cylinders as LLW Disposal Containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, D.G.

    2000-11-30

    Approximately 700,000 MT of DUF{sub 6} is stored, or will be produced under a current agreement with the USEC, at the Paducah site in Kentucky, Portsmouth site in Ohio, and ETTP site in Tennessee. On July 21, 1998, the 105th Congress approved Public Law 105-204 (Ref; 1), which directed that facilities be built at the Kentucky and Ohio sites to convert DUF{sub 6} to a stable form for disposition. On July 6, 1999, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued the ''Final Plan for the Conversion of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride as Required by Public Law 105-204 (Ref. 2), in which DOE committed to develop a Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Materials Use Roadmap''. On September 1, 2000, DOE issued the Draft Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Materials Use Roadmap (Ref. 3) (Roadmap), which provides alternate paths for the long-term storage, beneficial use, and eventual disposition of each product form and material that will result from the DUF{sub 6} conversion activity. One of the paths being considered for DUF{sub 6} cylinders is to reuse the empty cylinders as containers to transport and dispose of LLW, including the converted DU. The Roadmap provides results of the many alternate uses and disposal paths for conversion products and the empty DUF{sub 6} storage cylinders. As a part of the Roadmap, evaluations were conducted of cost savings, technical maturity, barriers to implementation, and other impacts. Results of these evaluations indicate that using the DUF{sub 6} storage cylinders as LLW disposal containers could provide moderate cost savings due to the avoided cost of purchasing LLW packages and the avoided cost of disposing of the cylinders. No significant technical or institutional issues were identified that would make using cylinders as LLW packages less effective than other disposition paths. Over 58,000 cylinders have been used, or will be used, to store DUF{sub 6}. Over 51,000 of those cylinders are 14TTW cylinders with a nominal wall thickness of 5/16-m (0.79 cm). These- 14TTW cylinders, which have a nominal diameter of 48 inches and nominally contain 14 tons (12.7 MT) of DUF{sub 6}, were originally designed and fabricated for temporary storage of DUF{sub 6}. They were fabricated from pressure-vessel-grade steels according to the provisions of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (Ref. 4). Cylinders are stored in open yards at the three sites and, due to historical storage techniques, were subject to corrosion. Roughly 10,000 of the 14TTW cylinders are considered substandard (Ref. 5) due to corrosion and other structural anomalies caused by mishandling. This means that approximately 40,000 14TTW cylinders could be made available as containers for LLW disposal In order to demonstrate the use of 14TTW cylinders as LLW disposal containers, several qualifying tasks need to be performed. Two demonstrations are being considered using 14TTW cylinders--one demonstration using contaminated soil and one demonstration using U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. The objective of this report are to determine how much information is known that could be used to support the demonstrations, and how much additional work will need to be done in order to conduct the demonstrations. Information associated with the following four qualifying tasks are evaluated in this report. (1) Perform a review of structural assessments that have been conducted for 14TTW. (2) Develop a procedure for filling 14TTW cylinders with LLW that have been previously washed. (3) Evaluate the transportation requirements for shipping 14TTW cylinders containing LLW. (4) Evaluate the WAC that will be imposed by the NTS. Two assumptions are made to facilitate this evaluation of using DUF{sub 6} cylinders as LLW disposal containers. (1) Only 14TTW cylinders will be considered for use as LLW containers, and (2) The NTS will be the LLW disposal site.

  18. Prevalence of persistent cough and phlegm in young adults in relation to long-term ambient sulfur oxide exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, R.S.; Calafiore, D.C.; Hasselblad, V.

    1985-01-01

    In early 1976, a survey of persistent co gh and plegma (PCP) prevalence was conducted in 5623 young adults in four Utah communities. Over the previous five years, community specific mean sulfur dioxide levels had been 11, 18, 36, and 115 ug/mT. Corresponding mean suspended sulfate levels had been 5, 7, 8, and 14 g/mT No intercommunity exposure gradient of total suspended particulates or suspended nitrates was observed. In mothers, PCP prevalence among non-smokers was 4.2% in the high-exposure community and about 2.0% in all other communities. In smoking mothers, PCP prevalence was 21.8% in the high-exposure community and about 15.0% elsewhere. In fathers, PCP prevalence among non-smokers was about 8.0% in the high-exposure community and averaged about 3.0% elsewhere. In smoking fathers, PCP prevalence was less strongly associated with sulfur oxide exposure. PCP prevalence rates estimated in a categorical logistic regression model were qualitatively consistent with the prevalences presented above.

  19. In situ Observation of Sulfur in Living Mammalian Cells: Uptake of Taurine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    into MDCK Cells In situ Observation of Sulfur in Living Mammalian Cells: Uptake of Taurine into MDCK Cells Sulfur is essential for life. It plays important roles in the amino acids methionine and cysteine, and has a structural function in disulfide bonds. As a component of iron-sulfur clusters it takes part in electron and sulfur transfer reactions.1 Glutathione, a sulfur-containing tripeptide, is an important part of biological antioxidant systems.2 Another example for the biological

  20. The South Karelia Air Pollution Study. The effects of malodorous sulfur compounds from pulp mills on respiratory and other symptoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaakkola, J.J.; Vilkka, V.; Marttila, O.; Jaeppinen, P.H.; Haahtela, T. )

    1990-12-01

    The paper mills in South Karelia, the southeast part of Finland, are responsible for releasing a substantial amount of malodorous sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), and methyl sulfides ((CH3)2S and (CH3)2S2), into ambient air. In the most polluted residential area the annual mean concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan are estimated to be 8 and 2 to 5 micrograms/m3 and the highest daily average concentration 100 and 50 micrograms/m3. The annual mean and highest daily concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) are very low. We studied the effects of malodorous sulfur compounds on eye, nasal and respiratory symptoms, and headache in adults. A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire was distributed in February 1987 and responded to by 488 adults living in a severely (n = 198), a moderately (n = 204), and a nonpolluted community (n = 86). This included questions about occurrence of the symptoms of interest during the previous 4 wk and 12 months and individual, behavioral, and other environmental determinants of the symptoms. The response rate was 83%. The odds ratios (OR) for symptoms experienced often or constantly in severely versus nonpolluted and moderately versus nonpolluted communities were estimated in logistic regression analysis controlling potential confounders. The odds ratios for eye (moderate exposure OR 11.70, Cl95% 2.33 to 58.65; severe exposure OR 11.78, Cl95% 2.35 to 59.09) and nasal symptoms (OR 2.01, Cl95% 0.97 to 4.15; OR 2.19, Cl95% 1.06 to 4.55) and cough (OR 1.89, Cl95% 0.61 to 5.86; OR 3.06, Cl95% 1.02 to 9.29) during the previous 12 months were increased, with a dose-response pattern.

  1. HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS REFERENCE DESIGN AND COST ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.; Boltrunis, C.; Lahoda, E.; Allen, D.; Greyvenstein, R.

    2009-05-12

    This report documents a detailed study to determine the expected efficiency and product costs for producing hydrogen via water-splitting using energy from an advanced nuclear reactor. It was determined that the overall efficiency from nuclear heat to hydrogen is high, and the cost of hydrogen is competitive under a high energy cost scenario. It would require over 40% more nuclear energy to generate an equivalent amount of hydrogen using conventional water-cooled nuclear reactors combined with water electrolysis compared to the proposed plant design described herein. There is a great deal of interest worldwide in reducing dependence on fossil fuels, while also minimizing the impact of the energy sector on global climate change. One potential opportunity to contribute to this effort is to replace the use of fossil fuels for hydrogen production by the use of water-splitting powered by nuclear energy. Hydrogen production is required for fertilizer (e.g. ammonia) production, oil refining, synfuels production, and other important industrial applications. It is typically produced by reacting natural gas, naphtha or coal with steam, which consumes significant amounts of energy and produces carbon dioxide as a byproduct. In the future, hydrogen could also be used as a transportation fuel, replacing petroleum. New processes are being developed that would permit hydrogen to be produced from water using only heat or a combination of heat and electricity produced by advanced, high temperature nuclear reactors. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing these processes under a program known as the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). The Republic of South Africa (RSA) also is interested in developing advanced high temperature nuclear reactors and related chemical processes that could produce hydrogen fuel via water-splitting. This report focuses on the analysis of a nuclear hydrogen production system that combines the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), under development by PBMR (Pty.) Ltd. in the RSA, with the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, under development by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in the US as part of the NHI. This work was performed by SRNL, Westinghouse Electric Company, Shaw, PBMR (Pty) Ltd., and Technology Insights under a Technical Consulting Agreement (TCA). Westinghouse Electric, serving as the lead for the PBMR process heat application team, established a cost-shared TCA with SRNL to prepare an updated HyS thermochemical water-splitting process flowsheet, a nuclear hydrogen plant preconceptual design and a cost estimate, including the cost of hydrogen production. SRNL was funded by DOE under the NHI program, and the Westinghouse team was self-funded. The results of this work are presented in this Final Report. Appendices have been attached to provide a detailed source of information in order to document the work under the TCA contract.

  2. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Development of High Energy Lithium-Sulfur Cells for Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    BEEST Project: Sion Power is developing a lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery, a potentially cost-effective alternative to the Li-Ion battery that could store 400% more energy per pound. All batteries have 3 key partsa positive and negative electrode and an electrolytethat exchange ions to store and release electricity. Using different materials for these components changes a batterys chemistry and its ability to power a vehicle. Traditional Li-S batteries experience adverse reactions between the electrolyte and lithium-based negative electrode that ultimately limit the battery to less than 50 charge cycles. Sion Power will sandwich the lithium- and sulfur-based electrode films around a separator that protects the negative electrode and increases the number of charges the battery can complete in its lifetime. The design could eventually allow for a battery with 400% greater storage capacity per pound than Li-Ion batteries and the ability to complete more than 500 recharge cycles.

  3. A nuclear criticality safety assessment of the loss of moderation control in 2 1/2 and 10-ton cylinders containing enriched UF{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newvahner, R.L.; Pryor, W.A.

    1991-12-31

    Moderation control for maintaining nuclear criticality safety in 2 {1/2}-ton, 10-ton, and 14-ton cylinders containing enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) has been used safely within the nuclear industry for over thirty years, and is dependent on cylinder integrity and containment. This assessment evaluates the loss of moderation control by the breaching of containment and entry of water into the cylinders. The first objective of this study was to estimate the required amounts of water entering these large UF{sub 6} cylinders to react with, and to moderate the uranium compounds sufficiently to cause criticality. Hypothetical accident situations were modeled as a uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) slab above a UF{sub 6} hemicylinder, and a UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} sphere centered within a UF{sub 6} hemicylinder. These situations were investigated by computational analyses utilizing the KENO V.a Monte Carlo Computer Code. The results were used to estimate both the masses of water required for criticality, and the limiting masses of water that could be considered safe. The second objective of the assessment was to calculate the time available for emergency control actions before a criticality would occur, i.e., a {open_quotes}safetime{close_quotes}, for various sources of water and different size openings in a breached cylinder. In the situations considered, except the case for a fire hose, the safetime appears adequate for emergency control actions. The assessment shows that current practices for handling moderation controlled cylinders of low enriched UF{sub 6}, along with the continuation of established personnel training programs, ensure nuclear criticality safety for routine and emergency operations.

  4. THE A.EROSPACE CORPORATION Suite 4000, 955 L'Enfk Plaza, S. W,, Wash&-ton, D,C: 200.24~ZJ74, Telephone:'(

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    -t / . \; ', THE A.EROSPACE CORPORATION Suite 4000, 955 L'Enfk Plaza, S. W,, Wash&-ton, D,C: 200.24~ZJ74, Telephone:'( Mr: Edward DeLaney, NE-23 Division of Facility & Site Decommissioning Projects U.S; Department of Energy Germantown, Maryland 20545 Dear Mr. DeLaney: AUTHORITY REVIEW FOR MED OPERATIONS CONDUCTED AT AMES LABDRATORY :@*oi-l 12) 488-6000 1 I Enclosed please find Attachment 1, I a summary of the facts and issues relating to the authority for remedial action at Ames; of

  5. Sulfur tolerant highly durable CO.sub.2 sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smirniotis, Panagiotis G. (Cincinnati, OH); Lu, Hong (Urbana, IL)

    2012-02-14

    A sorbent for the capture of carbon dioxide from a gas stream is provided, the sorbent containing calcium oxide (CaO) and at least one refractory dopant having a Tammann temperature greater than about 530.degree. C., wherein the refractory dopant enhances resistance to sintering, thereby conserving performance of the sorbent at temperatures of at least about 530.degree. C. Also provided are doped CaO sorbents for the capture of carbon dioxide in the presence of SO.sub.2.

  6. Insight into Sulfur Reactions in LiS Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Rui; Belharouak, Ilias; Zhang, Xiaofeng; chamoun, rita; Yu, Cun; Ren, Yang; Nie, Anmin; Reza, Shahbazian-Yassar; Lu, Jun; Li, James C.M.; Amine, Khalil

    2014-12-09

    Understanding and controlling the sulfur reduction species (Li2Sx, 1 ? x ? 8) under realistic battery conditions are essential for the development of advanced practical LiS cells that can reach their full theoretical capacity. However, it has been a great challenge to probe the sulfur reduction intermediates and products because of the lack of methods. This work employed various ex situ and in situ methods to study the mechanism of the LiS redox reactions and the properties of Li2Sx and Li2S. Synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction analysis used to characterize dry powder deposits from lithium polysulfide solution suggests that the new crystallite phase may be lithium polysulfides. The formation of Li2S crystallites with a polyhedral structure was observed in cells with both the conventional (LiTFSI) electrolyte and polysulfide-based electrolyte. In addition, an in situ transmission electron microscopy experiment observed that the lithium diffusion to sulfur during discharge preferentially occurred at the sulfur surface and formed a solid Li2S crust. This may be the reason for the capacity fade in LiS cells (as also suggested by EIS experiment in Supporting Information). The results can be a guide for future studies and control of the sulfur species and meanwhile a baseline for approaching the theoretical capacity of the LiS battery.

  7. ADDITIVE TESTING FOR IMPROVED SULFUR RETENTION: PRELIMINARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amoroso, J.; Fox, K.

    2011-09-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory is collaborating with Alfred University to evaluate the potential for additives in borosilicate glass to improve sulfur retention. This preliminary report provides further background on the incorporation of sulfur in glass and outlines the experiments that are being performed by the collaborators. A simulated waste glass composition has been selected for the experimental studies. The first phase of experimental work will evaluate the impacts of BaO, PbO, and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 wt % on sulfate retention in simulated high level waste borosilicate glass. The second phase of experimental work will evaluate the effects of time at the melt temperature on sulfur retention. The resulting samples will be characterized to determine the amount of sulfur remaining as well as to identify the formation of any crystalline phases. The results will be used to guide the future selection of frits and glass forming chemicals in vitrifying Department of Energy wastes containing high sulfur concentrations.

  8. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue-gas-desulfurization sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1980-01-01

    In field studies conducted for the Electric Power Research Institute by the University of Washington (1978) and the University of Idaho (1979), 13 gas samples from sludge storage sites at coal-burning power plants were analyzed by wall-coated open-tube cryogenic capillary-column gas chromatography with a sulfur-selective flame-photometric detector. Hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide were identified in varying concentrations and ratios in the emissions from both operating sludge ponds and landfills and from FGD sludge surfaces that had been stored in the open for 3-32 mo or longer. Other sulfur compounds, probably propanethiols, were found in emissions from some sludges. Chemical ''stabilization/fixation'' sulfate-sulfite ratio, sludge water content, and temperature were the most significant variables controlling sulfur gas production. The average sulfur emissions from each of the 13 FGD storage sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 g/sq m/yr sulfur.

  9. Process and system for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gaseous streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basu, Arunabha; Meyer, Howard S.; Lynn, Scott; Leppin, Dennis; Wangerow, James R.

    2012-08-14

    A multi-stage UCSRP process and system for removal of sulfur from a gaseous stream in which the gaseous stream, which contains a first amount of H.sub.2S, is provided to a first stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess SO.sub.2 mode at a first amount of SO.sub.2, producing an effluent gas having a reduced amount of SO.sub.2, and in which the effluent gas is provided to a second stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess H.sub.2S mode, producing a product gas having an amount of H.sub.2S less than said first amount of H.sub.2S.

  10. Extraction of furfural with carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamse, T.; Marr, R.; Froeschl, F.; Siebenhofer, M.

    1997-01-01

    A new approach to separate furfural from aqueous waste has been investigated. Recovery of furfural and acetic acid from aqueous effluents of a paper mill has successfully been applied on an industrial scale since 1981. The process is based on the extraction of furfural and acetic acid by the solvent trooctylphosphineoxide (TOPO). Common extraction of both substances may cause the formation of resin residues. Improvement was expected by selective extraction of furfural with chlorinated hydrocarbons, but ecological reasons stopped further development of this project. The current investigation is centered in the evaluation of extraction of furfural by supercritical carbon dioxide. The influence of temperature and pressure on the extraction properties has been worked out. The investigation has considered the multi-component system furfural-acetic acid-water-carbon dioxide. Solubility of furfural in liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide has been measured, and equilibrium data for the ternary system furfural-water-CO{sub 2} as well as for the quaternary system furfural-acetic acid-water-CO{sub 2} have been determined. A high-pressure extraction column has been used for evaluation of mass transfer rates.

  11. Transporting carbon dioxide recovered from fossil-energy cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doctor, R. D.; Molburg, J. C.; Brockmeier, J. F.

    2000-07-24

    Transportation of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) for enhanced oil recovery is a mature technology, with operating experience dating from the mid-1980s. Because of this maturity, recent sequestration studies for the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory have been able to incorporate transportation into overall energy-cycle economics with reasonable certainty. For these studies, two different coal-fueled plants are considered; the first collects CO{sub 2} from a 456-MW integrated coal gasification combined-cycle plant, while the second employs a 353-MW pulverized-coal boiler plant retrofitted for flue-gas recycling (Doctor et al. 1999; MacDonald and Palkes 1999). The pulverized-coal plant fires a mixture of coal in a 33% O{sub 2} atmosphere, the bulk of the inert gas being made up to CO{sub 2} to the greatest extent practical. If one power plant with one pipe feeds one sequestration reservoir, projected costs for a 500-km delivery pipeline are problematic, because when supplying one reservoir both plant availability issues and useful pipeline life heavily influence capital recovery costs. The transportation system proposed here refines the sequestration scheme into a network of three distinctive pipelines: (1) 80-km collection pipelines for a 330-MW pulverized-coal power plant with 100% CO{sub 2} recovery; (2) a main CO{sub 2} transportation trunk of 320 km that aggregates the CO{sub 2} from four such plants; and (3) an 80-km distribution network. A 25-year life is assumed for the first two segments, but only half that for the distribution to the reservoir. Projected costs for a 500-km delivery pipeline, assuming an infrastructure, are $7.82/tonne ($17.22/10{sup 3} Nm{sub 3} CO{sub 2} or $0.49/10{sup 3} scf CO{sub 2}), a savings of nearly 60% with respect to base-case estimates with no infrastructure. These costs are consistent only with conditioned CO{sub 2} having low oxygen and sulfur content; they do not include CO{sub 2} recovery, drying, and compression.

  12. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co-current downflow reactor system for adsorption of CO{sub 2} and a steam-heated, hollow-screw conveyor system for regeneration of the sorbent and release of a concentrated CO{sub 2} gas stream. An economic analysis of this process (based on the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory's [DOE/NETL's] 'Carbon Capture and Sequestration Systems Analysis Guidelines') was carried out. RTI's economic analyses indicate that installation of the Dry Carbonate Process in a 500 MW{sub e} (nominal) power plant could achieve 90% CO{sub 2} removal with an incremental capital cost of about $69 million and an increase in the cost of electricity (COE) of about 1.95 cents per kWh. This represents an increase of roughly 35.4% in the estimated COE - which compares very favorable versus MEA's COE increase of 58%. Both the incremental capital cost and the incremental COE were projected to be less than the comparable costs for an equally efficient CO{sub 2} removal system based on monoethanolamine (MEA).

  13. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, John B. L. (Naperville, IL); Gorski, Anthony J. (Woodridge, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A process for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  14. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Gorski, A.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1993-05-18

    A process is described for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is [dis]associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  15. Method for removing sulfur oxides from a hot gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, W.P.; Hurst, T.B.

    1984-06-05

    An improved method for removing sulfur oxides from a hot gas by introducing the gas into a first compartment of a spray drying reactor chamber for settleable particulate removal, by then directing the gas to a second compartment of the reactor chamber wherein the gas is contacted with an atomized alkali slurry for sulfur oxide removal by formation of a dry mixture of sulfite and sulfate compounds, by removing a portion of the dry mixture from the gas in the second compartment and by passing the gas from the second compartment to a dry particle collection zone for removal of substantially all of the remaining gas entrained dry mixture.

  16. Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage - FY13 Q1 | Department of Energy Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat Storage - FY13 Q1 Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat Storage - FY13 Q1 This document summarizes the progress of this General Atomics project, funded by SunShot, for the first quarter of fiscal year 2013. PDF icon progress_report_baseload_generalatomics_fy13_q1.pdf More Documents & Publications Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with

  17. Electrochemical Membrane for Carbon Dioxide Separation and Power Generation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Electrochemical Membrane for Carbon Dioxide Separation and Power Generation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electrochemical Membrane for Carbon Dioxide Separation and Power Generation uelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) has developed a novel system concept for separation of carbon dioxide (CO2) from greenhouse gas (GHG) emission sources using an electrochemical membrane (ECM). The salient feature of the ECM is its capability to produce electric

  18. A Novel System for Carbon Dioxide Capture Utilizing Electrochemical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Membrane Technology (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: A Novel System for Carbon Dioxide Capture Utilizing Electrochemical Membrane Technology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Novel System for Carbon Dioxide Capture Utilizing Electrochemical Membrane Technology FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE), in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and URS Corporation, is developing a novel Combined Electric Power and Carbon-Dioxide Separation (CEPACS)

  19. Carbon Dioxide Capture at a Reduced Cost - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Carbon Dioxide Capture at a Reduced Cost Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed a method that reduces the expense of capturing carbon dioxide generated by the combustion of fossil fuels. This technology would allow power plants and the chemical and cement industries to better sequester carbon dioxide and

  20. Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer August 1, 2012 Rebecca Raber, rraber@haverford.edu, +1 610 896 1038 gtoc.jpg Carbon dioxide gas separation is important for many environmental and energy applications. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to characterize a two-dimensional hydrocarbon polymer, PG-ES1, that uses a combination of surface adsorption and narrow pores to separate carbon

  1. Project Profile: High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cycles | Department of Energy Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles Project Profile: High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles Brayton logo Brayton Energy, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D FOA, is building and testing a new solar receiver that uses supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) as the heat-transfer fluid. The research team is designing the receiver to withstand higher operating temperatures and pressures than

  2. ARM - Lesson Plans: Plant Growth and Carbon Dioxide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plant Growth and Carbon Dioxide Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Plant Growth and Carbon Dioxide Objective The objective is to show how carbon dioxide in the air affects plant growth. Materials Each group of students will need the following: Graph paper Pencil

  3. Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems This case study documents one year of operating experience with a transcritical carbon dioxide (TC CO2) booster refrigeration system at Delhaize America's Hannaford supermarket location in Turner, Maine. This supermarket, which began operation in June 2013, is the first supermarket installation in the U.S. of a TC CO2 booster

  4. Word Pro - Untitled1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 Emissions From Energy Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output Emissions by Type of Generating Unit, 2010 Emissions by Sector, 1989-2010 314 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 5.0 (s) 0.2 0.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Million Metric Tons of Gas Sulfur Dioxide ¹ For carbon dioxide: municipal solid waste from non-biogenic sources; tire-derived fuel, and geothermal. For sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides: blast furnace gas, propane gas, and other

  5. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oklahoma Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (Oklahoma) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 23,300 17 Electric utilities 16,951 18 IPP & CHP 6,349 17 Net generation (megawatthours) 73,673,680 22 Electric utilities 53,348,841 18 IPP & CHP 20,324,839 17 Emissions Sulfur dioxide 80,418 19 Nitrogen oxide 57,024 17 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 46,268 19 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.2 18 Nitrogen oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.5 19

  6. Solvent Tuning of Properties of Iron-Sulfur Clusters in Proteins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Proteins Figure 1. Schematic repre-sentation of the common active-site iron-sulfur cluster structural motif. Proteins containing Fe4S4 iron-sulfur clusters are ubiquitous in...

  7. System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J; Weissman, Jeffrey G.

    2012-03-06

    A system for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack, having a reformer adapted to reform a hydrocarbon fuel stream containing sulfur contaminants, thereby providing a reformate stream having sulfur; a sulfur trap fluidly coupled downstream of the reformer for removing sulfur from the reformate stream, thereby providing a desulfurized reformate stream; and a metering device in fluid communication with the reformate stream upstream of the sulfur trap and with the desulfurized reformate stream downstream of the sulfur trap. The metering device is adapted to bypass a portion of the reformate stream to mix with the desulfurized reformate stream, thereby producing a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

  8. Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dioxide gas separation is important for many environmental and energy applications. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to characterize a two-dimensional hydrocarbon...

  9. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral Interactions and Determination of Contact Angles. Abstract not provided. Authors: Tenney, Craig M ; Cygan, ...

  10. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Nanodroplets on Clay in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Nanodroplets on Clay in Deep Saline Aquifers. Authors: Tenney, Craig M. Publication Date: 2012-06-01 OSTI Identifier: 1073284 Report ...

  11. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Nanodroplets on Clay Surfaces...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Nanodroplets on Clay Surfaces in Deep Saline Aquifers. Authors: Tenney, Craig M. Publication Date: 2013-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1063603 ...

  12. Comparison of methods for geologic storage of carbon dioxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Comparison of methods for geologic storage of carbon dioxide in saline formations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comparison of methods for geologic...

  13. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuel CO2 Emissions Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions AgencyCompany...

  14. Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Other Biogenic Sources Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic Sources AgencyCompany...

  15. CarBen Version 3: Multisector Carbon Dioxide Emissions Accounting...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: CarBen Version 3: Multisector Carbon Dioxide Emissions Accounting Tool Focus Area: Geothermal Power Topics: Policy, Deployment, & Program Impact Website: www.netl.doe.gov...

  16. High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Brayton Energy's supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO 2 ) solar receiver has the potential to significantly improve reliability, increase efficiency, and reduce costs of CSP systems. ...

  17. Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in binding matrix. Two typical precast products are examined for their capacity to store carbon dioxide during the production. They are concrete blocks and fiber-cement panels. ...

  18. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, Robert James; O'Brien, Michael Joseph

    2014-06-10

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides a composition which contains the amino-siloxane structures I, or III, as described herein. The composition is useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from process streams. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane composition. Another aspect of the present invention provides methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention, as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration in Fractured Porous Rocks

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Training and Research on Probabilistic Hydro-Thermo-Mechanical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration in Fractured Porous Rocks Gutierrez, Marte 54 ENVIRONMENTAL...

  20. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Demonstration in Developing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Demonstration in Developing Countries: Analysis of Key Policy Issues and Barriers...

  1. Method for carbon dioxide sequestration (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    interbeds, providing an injection well into the formation and injecting supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) into the injection well under conditions of ...

  2. Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production Shao, Yixin 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE Clean Coal Technology Coal - Environmental Processes Clean Coal Technology Coal - Environmental...

  3. High Performance Composite Membranes for Separation of Carbon Dioxide from

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome High Performance Composite Membranes for Separation of Carbon Dioxide from Methane

  4. Innovative Concepts for Beneficial Reuse of Carbon Dioxide | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Innovative Concepts for Beneficial Reuse of Carbon Dioxide Innovative Concepts for Beneficial Reuse of Carbon Dioxide Funding for 12 projects to test innovative concepts for the beneficial use of carbon dioxide (CO2) was announced by the U.S. Department of Energy. The awards are part of $1.4 billion in funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) for projects that will capture carbon dioxide from industrial sources. These 12 projects will engage in a first phase

  5. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Robert James; O'Brien, Michael Joseph

    2015-12-29

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides a composition which contains the amino-siloxane structures I, or III, as described herein. The composition is useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from process streams. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane composition. Another aspect of the present invention provides methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention, as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide.

  6. Scale-up of mild gasification to be a process development unit mildgas 24 ton/day PDU design report. Final report, November 1991--July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    From November 1991 to April 1996, Kerr McGee Coal Corporation (K-M Coal) led a project to develop the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) Mild Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program were to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scale-up; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The project team for the PDU development program consisted of: K-M Coal, IGT, Bechtel Corporation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC), General Motors (GM), Pellet Technology Corporation (PTC), LTV Steel, Armco Steel, Reilly Industries, and Auto Research.

  7. Investigation of Sulfur Deactivation on Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Application | Department of Energy Sulfur Deactivation on Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application Investigation of Sulfur Deactivation on Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application Investigation of Sulfur Deactivation on Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application PDF icon deer09_cheng.pdf More Documents & Publications Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal/Zeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials Sulfur Effect and Performance Recovery of a DOC + CSF + Cu-Zeolite

  8. Fact #824: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 4: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline Fact #824: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline Sulfur naturally occurs in gasoline and diesel fuel, contributing to pollution when the fuel is burned. Beginning in 2004, standards were set on the amount of sulfur in gasoline (Tier 2 standards). Separate standards were set for different entities, such as large refiners, small refiners, importers, downstream wholesalers, etc. In March 2014, Tier 3 standards were finalized by

  9. Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es125_wang_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Lithium-Sulfur Cathodes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells

  10. Workshop on sulfur chemistry in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, W.E. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    The Flue Gas Desulfurization Workshop was held at Morgantown, West Virginia, June 7-8, 1979. The presentations dealt with the chemistry of sulfur and calcium compounds in scrubbers. DOE and EPRI programs in this area are described. Ten papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  11. Attrition resistant, zinc titanate-containing, reduced sulfur sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vierheilig, Albert A.; Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.

    2004-11-02

    The disclosure is directed to sorbent compositions for removing reduced sulfur species (e.g., H.sub.2 S, COS and CS.sub.2) a feed stream. The sorbent is formed from a multi-phase composition including a zinc titanate phase and a zinc oxide-aluminate phase. The sorbent composition is substantially free of unreacted alumina.

  12. Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Remick, Robert J. (Naperville, IL)

    1990-01-01

    Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

  13. Catalyst added to Claus furnace reduces sulfur losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luinstra, E.A.; d'Haene, P.E. (Shell Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada). Oakville Research Centre)

    1989-07-01

    Several substances effectively catalyze the reduction of carbon disulfide in Claus gas streams at Claus reaction furnace conditions (about 1,000{sup 0}C). Some conversion of carbonyl sulfide also occurs. Carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide as well-known problem compounds that reduce sulfur recovery efficiency in many sulfur recovery plants. Installation of a suitable catalytic material in the reaction furnace promises significant improvement of Claus plant efficiency, and prolonged life of the catalytic converters. Almost every Claus sulfur recovery plant makes some carbon disulfide (CS/sub 2/) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) in the reaction furnace, and in many of these plants, these compounds constitute a significant problem. CS/sub 2/ and COS often comprise more than 50% of sulfur losses in the tail gas. This article reexamines the issue of CS/sub 2/ and COS in the Claus plant. The relative importance of these two troublesome components is explored with data accumulated from Shell Canada Claus plants. The authors discuss which factors tend to produce these components. Then a method for reducing CS/sub 2/ and COS virtually at the source will be introduced.

  14. Emission of reduced malodorous sulfur gases from wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devai, I.; DeLaune, R.D.

    1999-03-01

    The emission of malodorous gaseous compounds from wastewater collection and treatment facilities is a growing maintenance and environmental problem. Numerous gaseous compounds with low odor detection thresholds are emitted from these facilities. Sulfur-bearing gases represent compounds with the lowest odor detection threshold. Using solid adsorbent preconcentration and gas chromatographic methods, the quantity and composition of reduced malodorous sulfur gases emitted from various steps of the treatment process were determined in wastewater treatment plants in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Hydrogen sulfide, which is a malodorous, corrosive, and potentially toxic gas, was the most dominant volatile reduced sulfur (S) compound measured. Concentrations were not only more than the odor detection threshold of hydrogen sulfide, but above levels that may affect health during long-term exposure. The concentrations of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide were significantly less than hydrogen sulfide. However, even though emissions of reduced sulfur gases other than hydrogen sulfide were low, previous studies suggested that long-term exposure to such levels may cause respiratory problems and other symptoms.

  15. Method for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

    2005-05-10

    A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  16. Apparatus for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-02-02

    An apparatus and method associated therewith to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2 and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  17. Capture of carbon dioxide by hybrid sorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasachar, Srivats

    2014-09-23

    A composition, process and system for capturing carbon dioxide from a combustion gas stream. The composition has a particulate porous support medium that has a high volume of pores, an alkaline component distributed within the pores and on the surface of the support medium, and water adsorbed on the alkaline component, wherein the proportion of water in the composition is between about 5% and about 35% by weight of the composition. The process and system contemplates contacting the sorbent and the flowing gas stream together at a temperature and for a time such that some water remains adsorbed in the alkaline component when the contact of the sorbent with the flowing gas ceases.

  18. Doped carbon-sulfur species nanocomposite cathode for Li--S batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Donghai; Xu, Tianren; Song, Jiangxuan

    2015-12-29

    We report a heteroatom-doped carbon framework that acts both as conductive network and polysulfide immobilizer for lithium-sulfur cathodes. The doped carbon forms chemical bonding with elemental sulfur and/or sulfur compound. This can significantly inhibit the diffusion of lithium polysulfides in the electrolyte, leading to high capacity retention and high coulombic efficiency.

  19. Vapor phase elemental sulfur amendment for sequestering mercury in contaminated soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Jackson, Dennis G.

    2014-07-08

    The process of treating elemental mercury within the soil is provided by introducing into the soil a heated vapor phase of elemental sulfur. As the vapor phase of elemental sulfur cools, sulfur is precipitated within the soil and then reacts with any elemental mercury thereby producing a reaction product that is less hazardous than elemental mercury.

  20. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lignite Census Division and State Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by...

  1. Method for synthesis of titanium dioxide nanotubes using ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng

    2013-11-19

    The invention is directed to a method for producing titanium dioxide nanotubes, the method comprising anodizing titanium metal in contact with an electrolytic medium containing an ionic liquid. The invention is also directed to the resulting titanium dioxide nanotubes, as well as devices incorporating the nanotubes, such as photovoltaic devices, hydrogen generation devices, and hydrogen detection devices.

  2. Effects of ambient sulfur oxides and suspended particles on respiratory health of preadolescent children

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.; Dockery, D.W.; Spengler, J.D.; Stram, D.O.; Speizer, F.E.

    1986-05-01

    Reported here are the results from an ongoing study of outdoor air pollution and respiratory health of children living in six cities in the eastern and midwestern United States. The study enrolled 10,106 white preadolescent children between 1974 and 1977 in 3 successive annual visits to each city. Each child received a spirometric examination, and a parent completed a standard questionnaire. Of this cohort, 8,380 children were seen for a second examination 1 yr later. An air pollution monitoring program was begun in each community at about the time of the first examination. For this report, measurements of total suspended particulates (TSP), the sulfate fraction of TSP (TSO/sub 4/), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations at study-affiliated outdoor stations were combined with measurements at other public and private monitoring sites to create a record of TSP, TSO/sub 4/, and SO/sub 2/ concentrations in each of 9 air pollution regions during the 1-yr period preceding each examination and, for TSP, during each child's lifetime up to the time of testing. Across the 6 cities, frequency of cough was significantly associated with the average of 24-h mean concentrations of all 3 air pollutants during the year preceding the health examination (p less than 0.01). Rates of bronchitis and a composite measure of lower respiratory illness were significantly associated with average particulate concentrations (p less than 0.05). In analyses restricted to lifetime residents, these outcomes were significantly associated with measures of lifetime mean TSP concentration. Within the cities, however, temporal and spatial variation in air pollutant concentrations and illness and symptom rates were not positively associated.

  3. Method of burning sulfur-containing fuels in a fluidized bed boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A method of burning a sulfur-containing fuel in a fluidized bed of sulfur oxide sorbent wherein the overall utilization of sulfur oxide sorbent is increased by comminuting the bed drain solids to a smaller average particle size, preferably on the order of 50 microns, and reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed. In comminuting the bed drain solids, particles of spent sulfur sorbent contained therein are fractured thereby exposing unreacted sorbent surface. Upon reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed, the newly-exposed unreacted sorbent surface is available for sulfur oxide sorption, thereby increasing overall sorbent utilization.

  4. A crossover design study to evaluate the effectiveness of appliance inspection and servicing for lowering indoor nitrogen dioxide concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colome, S.D. ); Billick, I.H. ); Baker, P.E.; Beals, S.A.; Rubio, S.A.; Cunningham, S.J. ); Wilson, A.L. )

    1988-01-01

    Some researchers have suggested that natural gas appliances are significant contributors to indoor air pollution. Indoor unvented combustion appliances, such as gas-fired ranges, unvented space heaters, and portable kerosene space heaters, have been associated with a wide variety of pollutants, including carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), formaldehyde (HCHO), and respirable particles. Previous indoor air quality studies have demonstrated that indoor NO{sub 2} concentrations often exceed outdoor ambient levels when gas- burning appliances are used. Cooking with gas has been the focus of many of these studies, although other unvented appliances, such as space-heaters, have also been associated with elevated NO{sub 2} concentrations. Some epidemiologic studies of exposure to NO{sub 2} in homes with gas ranges have indicated a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and illness. However, other studies contradicted these findings and failed to show any significant effects associated with gas cooking.

  5. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Robert James; Lewis, Larry Neil; O'Brien, Michael Joseph; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev; Kniajanski, Sergei; Lam, Tunchiao Hubert; Lee, Julia Lam; Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona

    2011-10-04

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides an amino-siloxane composition comprising at least one of structures I, II, III, IV or V said compositions being useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from gas streams such as power plant flue gases. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane compositions are provided. Also provided are methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide. The reaction of the amino-siloxane compositions provided by the present invention with carbon dioxide is reversible and thus, the method provides for multicycle use of said compositions.

  6. Synthesis and development of processes for the recovery of sulfur from acid gases. Part 1, Development of a high-temperature process for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gas using limestone -- thermodynamic and kinetic considerations; Part 2, Development of a zero-emissions process for recovery of sulfur from acid gas streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Towler, G.P.; Lynn, S.

    1993-05-01

    Limestone can be used more effectively as a sorbent for H{sub 2}S in high-temperature gas-cleaning applications if it is prevented from undergoing calcination. Sorption of H{sub 2}S by limestone is impeded by sintering of the product CaS layer. Sintering of CaS is catalyzed by CO{sub 2}, but is not affected by N{sub 2} or H{sub 2}. The kinetics of CaS sintering was determined for the temperature range 750--900{degrees}C. When hydrogen sulfide is heated above 600{degrees}C in the presence of carbon dioxide elemental sulfur is formed. The rate-limiting step of elemental sulfur formation is thermal decomposition of H{sub 2}S. Part of the hydrogen thereby produced reacts with CO{sub 2}, forming CO via the water-gas-shift reaction. The equilibrium of H{sub 2}S decomposition is therefore shifted to favor the formation of elemental sulfur. The main byproduct is COS, formed by a reaction between CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S that is analogous to the water-gas-shift reaction. Smaller amounts of SO{sub 2} and CS{sub 2} also form. Molybdenum disulfide is a strong catalyst for H{sub 2}S decomposition in the presence of CO{sub 2}. A process for recovery of sulfur from H{sub 2}S using this chemistry is as follows: Hydrogen sulfide is heated in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of CO{sub 2} and a suitable catalyst. The primary products of the overall reaction are S{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture to roughly 600{degrees}C prevents loss Of S{sub 2} during cooling. Carbonyl sulfide is removed from the product gas by hydrolysis back to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S. Unreacted CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H{sub 2} and CO, which recovers the hydrogen value from the H{sub 2}S. This process is economically favorable compared to the existing sulfur-recovery technology and allows emissions of sulfur-containing gases to be controlled to very low levels.

  7. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2014-11-18

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  8. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, L. B.; Parise, J. B.; Benmore, C. J.; Weber, J. K.R.; Williamson, M. A.; Tamalonis, A.; Hebden, A.; Wiencek, T.; Alderman, O. L.G.; Guthrie, M.; Leibowitz, L.

    2014-11-21

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.

  9. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Skinner, L. B.; Parise, J. B.; Benmore, C. J.; Weber, J. K.R.; Williamson, M. A.; Tamalonis, A.; Hebden, A.; Wiencek, T.; Alderman, O. L.G.; Guthrie, M.; et al

    2014-11-21

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. Onmore » melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.« less

  10. Carbon dioxide research plan. A summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trivelpiece, Alvin W.; Koomanoff, F. A.; Suomi, Verner E.

    1983-11-01

    The Department of Energy is the lead federal agency for research related to atmospheric carbon dioxide. Its responsibility is to sponsor a program of relevant research, and to coordinate this research with that of others. As part of its responsibilities, the Department of Energy has prepared a research plan. The plan documented in this Summary delineated the logic, objectives, organization, background and current status of the research activities. The Summary Plan is based on research subplans in four specific areas: global carbon cycle, climate effects, vegetative response and indirect effects. These subplans have emanated from a series of national and international workshops, conferences, and from technical reports. The plans have been peer reviewed by experts in the relevant scientific fields. Their execution is being coordinated between the responsible federal and international government agencies and the involved scientific community.

  11. Method of making sulfur-resistant composite metal membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Way, J. Douglas (Boulder, CO) [Boulder, CO; Lusk, Mark (Golden, CO) [Golden, CO; Thoen, Paul (Littleton, CO) [Littleton, CO

    2012-01-24

    The invention provides thin, hydrogen-permeable, sulfur-resistant membranes formed from palladium or palladium-alloy coatings on porous, ceramic or metal supports. Also disclosed are methods of making these membranes via sequential electroless plating techniques, wherein the method of making the membrane includes decomposing any organic ligands present on the substrate, reducing the palladium crystallites on the substrate to reduced palladium crystallites, depositing a film of palladium metal on the substrate and then depositing a second, gold film on the palladium film. These two metal films are then annealed at a temperature between about 200.degree. C. and about 1200.degree. C. to form a sulfur-resistant, composite PdAu alloy membrane.

  12. Coiled tubing drilling with supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolle , Jack J. (Seattle, WA)

    2002-01-01

    A method for increasing the efficiency of drilling operations by using a drilling fluid material that exists as supercritical fluid or a dense gas at temperature and pressure conditions existing at a drill site. The material can be used to reduce mechanical drilling forces, to remove cuttings, or to jet erode a substrate. In one embodiment, carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) is used as the material for drilling within wells in the earth, where the normal temperature and pressure conditions cause CO.sub.2 to exist as a supercritical fluid. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) is preferably used with coiled tube (CT) drilling equipment. The very low viscosity SC--CO.sub.2 provides efficient cooling of the drill head, and efficient cuttings removal. Further, the diffusivity of SC--CO.sub.2 within the pores of petroleum formations is significantly higher than that of water, making jet erosion using SC--CO.sub.2 much more effective than water jet erosion. SC--CO.sub.2 jets can be used to assist mechanical drilling, for erosion drilling, or for scale removal. A choke manifold at the well head or mud cap drilling equipment can be used to control the pressure within the borehole, to ensure that the temperature and pressure conditions necessary for CO.sub.2 to exist as either a supercritical fluid or a dense gas occur at the drill site. Spent CO.sub.2 can be vented to the atmosphere, collected for reuse, or directed into the formation to aid in the recovery of petroleum.

  13. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: from Liquid to Solid Cells?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhan; Liang, Chengdu

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries supply a theoretical specific energy 5 times higher than that of lithium-ion batteries (2,500 vs. ~500 Wh kg-1). However, the insulating properties and polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and the safety concerns of the lithium anode in liquid electrolytes are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li-S batteries. In this review, we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li-S batteries and key challenges associated with the conventional liquid cells. Then, we introduce the most recent progresses in the liquid systems, including the sulfur positive electrodes, the lithium negative electrodes, and the electrolytes and binders. We discuss the significance of investigating electrode reaction mechanisms in liquid cells using in-situ techniques to monitor the compositional and morphological changes. By moving from the traditional liquid cells to recent solid cells, we discuss the importance of this game-changing shift with positive advances in both solid electrolytes and electrode materials. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research on Li-S batteries are presented.

  14. Process for recovery of sulfur from acid gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Towler, Gavin P.; Lynn, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Elemental sulfur is recovered from the H.sub.2 S present in gases derived from fossil fuels by heating the H.sub.2 S with CO.sub.2 in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of a catalyst selected as one which enhances the thermal dissociation of H.sub.2 S to H.sub.2 and S.sub.2. The equilibrium of the thermal decomposition of H.sub.2 S is shifted by the equilibration of the water-gas-shift reaction so as to favor elemental sulfur formation. The primary products of the overall reaction are S.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. Small amounts of COS, SO.sub.2 and CS.sub.2 may also form. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture results in a substantial increase in the efficiency of the conversion of H.sub.2 S to elemental sulfur. Plant economy is further advanced by treating the product gases to remove byproduct carbonyl sulfide by hydrolysis, which converts the COS back to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S. Unreacted CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H.sub.2 and CO, which has value either as a fuel or as a chemical feedstock and recovers the hydrogen value from the H.sub.2 S.

  15. Removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olmstead, W.N.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes a process for enhancing the removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale. The process consists of: (a) contacting the oil-shale with a sufficient amount of an aqueous base solution comprised of at least a stoichiometric amount of one or more alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal hydroxides based on the total amount of nitrogen and sulfur present in the oil-shale. Also necessary is an amount sufficient to form a two-phase liquid, solid system, a temperature from about 50/sup 0/C to about 350/sup 0/C., and pressures sufficient to maintain the solution in liquid form; (b) separating the effluents from the treated oil-shale, wherein the resulting liquid effluent contains nitrogen moieties and sulfur moieties from the oil-shale and any resulting gaseous effluent contains nitrogen moieties from the oil-shale, and (c) converting organic material of the treated oil-shale to shale-oil at a temperature from about 450/sup 0/C to about 550/sup 0/C.

  16. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: from Liquid to Solid Cells?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lin, Zhan; Liang, Chengdu

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries supply a theoretical specific energy 5 times higher than that of lithium-ion batteries (2,500 vs. ~500 Wh kg-1). However, the insulating properties and polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and the safety concerns of the lithium anode in liquid electrolytes are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li-S batteries. In this review, we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li-S batteries and key challenges associated with the conventional liquid cells. Then, we introduce the most recent progresses in the liquid systems, including the sulfur positive electrodes, the lithium negative electrodes, and themore » electrolytes and binders. We discuss the significance of investigating electrode reaction mechanisms in liquid cells using in-situ techniques to monitor the compositional and morphological changes. By moving from the traditional liquid cells to recent solid cells, we discuss the importance of this game-changing shift with positive advances in both solid electrolytes and electrode materials. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research on Li-S batteries are presented.« less

  17. Glass surface deactivants for sulfur-containing gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farwell, S.O.; Gluck, S.J.

    1980-10-01

    In gas chromatographic technique for measuring reduced sulfur-containing gases in biogenic air fluxes, the major problem seemed to be the irreversible adsorption of the polar sulfur compounds on the glass surfaces of the cryogenic sampling traps. This article discusses the comparative degrees of Pyrex glass surface passivation for over 25 chemical deactivants and their related pretreatment procedures. Since H/sub 2/S was discovered to be the sulfur compound with a consistently lower recovery efficiency than COS, CH/sub 3/SH, CH/sub 3/SCH, CS/sub 2/ or CH/sub 3/SSCH/sub 3/, the percent recovery for H/sub 2/S was employed as the indicator of effectiveness for the various deactivation treatments. Tables are presented summarizing the mean H/sub 2/S recoveries for chlorosilane deactivants and for the mean H/sub 2/S recoveries for different pyrex surface pretreatments with an octadecyltrialkoxysilane deactivation. The general conclusion of this investigation is that the relative degree of passivation for glass surfaces by present deactivation techniques is dependent on the types of analyzed compounds and the nature of the glass surface.

  18. Corrosion of aluminum clad spent nuclear fuel in the 70 ton cask during transfer from L area to H-canyon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickalonis, J. I.

    2015-08-01

    Aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel will be transported for processing in the 70-ton nuclear fuel element cask from L Basin to H-canyon. During transport these fuels would be expected to experience high temperature aqueous corrosion from the residual L Basin water that will be present in the cask. Cladding corrosion losses during transport were calculated for material test reactor (MTR) and high flux isotope reactors (HFIR) fuels using literature and site information on aqueous corrosion at a range of time/temperature conditions. Calculations of the cladding corrosion loss were based on Arrhenius relationships developed for aluminum alloys typical of cladding material with the primary assumption that an adherent passive film does not form to retard the initial corrosion rate. For MTR fuels a cladding thickness loss of 33% was found after 1 year in the cask with a maximum temperature of 263 °C. HFIR fuels showed a thickness loss of only 6% after 1 year at a maximum temperature of 180 °C. These losses are not expected to impact the overall confinement function of the aluminum cladding.

  19. Corrosion of aluminum clad spent nuclear fuel in the 70 ton cask during transfer from L area to H-canyon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickalonis, J. I.

    2015-08-31

    Aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel will be transported for processing in the 70-ton nuclear fuel element cask from L Basin to H-canyon. During transport these fuels would be expected to experience high temperature aqueous corrosion from the residual L Basin water that will be present in the cask. Cladding corrosion losses during transport were calculated for material test reactor (MTR) and high flux isotope reactors (HFIR) fuels using literature and site information on aqueous corrosion at a range of time/temperature conditions. Calculations of the cladding corrosion loss were based on Arrhenius relationships developed for aluminum alloys typical of cladding material with the primary assumption that an adherent passive film does not form to retard the initial corrosion rate. For MTR fuels a cladding thickness loss of 33 % was found after 1 year in the cask with a maximum temperature of 263 °C. HFIR fuels showed a thickness loss of only 6% after 1 year at a maximum temperature of 180 °C. These losses are not expected to impact the overall confinement function of the aluminum cladding.

  20. CORROSION OF ALUMINUM CLAD SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL IN THE 70 TON CASK DURING TRANSFER FROM L AREA TO H-CANYON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickalonis, J.

    2014-06-01

    Aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel will be transported for processing in the 70-ton nuclear fuel element cask from L Basin to H-canyon. During transport these fuels would be expected to experience high temperature aqueous corrosion from the residual L Basin water that will be present in the cask. Cladding corrosion losses during transport were calculated for material test reactor (MTR) and high flux isotope reactors (HFIR) fuels using literature and site information on aqueous corrosion at a range of time/temperature conditions. Calculations of the cladding corrosion loss were based on Arrhenius relationships developed for aluminum alloys typical of cladding material with the primary assumption that an adherent passive film does not form to retard the initial corrosion rate. For MTR fuels a cladding thickness loss of 33 % was found after 1 year in the cask with a maximum temperature of 260 {degrees}C. HFIR fuels showed a thickness loss of only 6% after 1 year at a maximum temperature of 180 {degrees}C. These losses are not expected to impact the overall confinement function of the aluminum cladding.

  1. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Xuran; Li, Chao; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Sadok, Rachel G.; Qu, Deyu; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2014-12-02

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility ofmore » the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.« less

  2. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Xuran; Li, Chao; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Sadok, Rachel G.; Qu, Deyu; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2014-12-02

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility of the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.

  3. ENERGY EFFICIENCY LIMITS FOR A RECUPERATIVE BAYONET SULFURIC ACID DECOMPOSITION REACTOR FOR SULFUR CYCLE THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M.; Edwards, T.

    2009-06-11

    A recuperative bayonet reactor design for the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition step in sulfur-based thermochemical hydrogen cycles was evaluated using pinch analysis in conjunction with statistical methods. The objective was to establish the minimum energy requirement. Taking hydrogen production via alkaline electrolysis with nuclear power as the benchmark, the acid decomposition step can consume no more than 450 kJ/mol SO{sub 2} for sulfur cycles to be competitive. The lowest value of the minimum heating target, 320.9 kJ/mol SO{sub 2}, was found at the highest pressure (90 bar) and peak process temperature (900 C) considered, and at a feed concentration of 42.5 mol% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. This should be low enough for a practical water-splitting process, even including the additional energy required to concentrate the acid feed. Lower temperatures consistently gave higher minimum heating targets. The lowest peak process temperature that could meet the 450-kJ/mol SO{sub 2} benchmark was 750 C. If the decomposition reactor were to be heated indirectly by an advanced gas-cooled reactor heat source (50 C temperature difference between primary and secondary coolants, 25 C minimum temperature difference between the secondary coolant and the process), then sulfur cycles using this concept could be competitive with alkaline electrolysis provided the primary heat source temperature is at least 825 C. The bayonet design will not be practical if the (primary heat source) reactor outlet temperature is below 825 C.

  4. Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Date Report No. 3: Diesel Fuel Sulfur Effects on Particulate Matter Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

    1999-11-15

    The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report covers the effects of diesel fuel sulfur level on particulate matter emissions for four technologies.

  5. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers This fact sheet describes a supercritical carbon dioxide turbo-expander and heat exchangers project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Southwest Research Institute, is working to develop a megawatt-scale s-CO2 hot-gas turbo-expander optimized for the highly transient solar

  6. Lithium Polysulfidophosphates: A Family of Lithium-Conducting Sulfur-Rich Compounds for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Zengcai [ORNL] [ORNL; Fu, Wujun [ORNL] [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Given the great potential for improving the energy density of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries by a factor of 5, a breakthrough in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries will have a dramatic impact in a broad scope of energy related fields. Conventional Li-S batteries that use liquid electrolytes are intrinsically short-lived with low energy efficiency. The challenges stem from the poor electronic and ionic conductivities of elemental sulfur and its discharge products. We report herein lithium polysulfidophosphates (LPSP), a family of sulfur-rich compounds, as the enabler of long-lasting and energy-efficient Li-S batteries. LPSP have ionic conductivities of 3.0 10-5 S cm-1 at 25 oC, which is 8 orders of magnitude higher than that of Li2S (~10-13 S cm-1). The high Li-ion conductivity of LPSP is the salient characteristic of these compounds that impart the excellent cycling performance to Li-S batteries. In addition, the batteries are configured in an all-solid state that promises the safe cycling of high-energy batteries with metallic lithium anodes.

  7. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Description of the procedures for estimating carbon dioxide emissions in the Short-Term Energy Outlook

  8. Membranes for separation of carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ku, Anthony Yu-Chung (Rexford, NY); Ruud, James Anthony (Delmar, NY); Ramaswamy, Vidya (Niskayuna, NY); Willson, Patrick Daniel (Latham, NY); Gao, Yan (Niskayuna, NY)

    2011-03-01

    Methods for separating carbon dioxide from a fluid stream at a temperature higher than about 200.degree. C. with selectivity higher than Knudsen diffusion selectivity include contacting a porous membrane with the fluid stream to preferentially transport carbon dioxide. The porous membrane includes a porous support and a continuous porous separation layer disposed on a surface of the porous support and extending between the fluid stream and the porous support layer. The porous support comprises alumina, silica, zirconia, stabilized zirconia, stainless steel, titanium, nickel-based alloys, aluminum-based alloys, zirconium-based alloys or a combination thereof. Median pore size of the porous separation layer is less than about 10 nm, and the porous separation layer comprises titania, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, La.sub.2O.sub.3, CeO.sub.2, HfO.sub.2, Y.sub.2O.sub.3, VO.sub.z, NbO.sub.z, TaO.sub.z, ATiO.sub.3, AZrO.sub.3, AAl.sub.2O.sub.4, A.sup.1FeO.sub.3, A.sup.1MnO.sub.3, A.sup.1CoO.sub.3, A.sup.1NiO.sub.3, A.sup.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.3 CeO.sub.3, Li.sub.2ZrO.sub.3, Li.sub.2SiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2TiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.4N.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, Y.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, La.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, HfN.sup.2.sub.yO.sub.z, or a combination thereof; wherein A is La, Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.1 is La, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.2 is Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.3 is Sr or Ba; A.sup.4 is Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ti or Zr; N.sup.1 is V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Si or Ge; N.sup.2 is V, Mo, W or Si; x is 1 or 2; y ranges from 1 to 3; and z ranges from 2 to 7.

  9. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  10. Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent Dome Of Long Valley...

  11. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2013 October 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 October 2014 U.S. Energy...

  12. Short-Term Energy Carbon Dioxide Emissions Forecasts August 2009

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Supplement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook. Short-term projections for U.S. carbon dioxide emissions of the three fossil fuels: coal, natural gas, and petroleum.

  13. Formation of rare earth carbonates using supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Quintus (Tucson, AZ); Yanagihara, Naohisa (Zacopan, MX); Dyke, James T. (Santa Fe, NM); Vemulapalli, Krishna (Tuscon, AZ)

    1991-09-03

    The invention relates to a process for the rapid, high yield conversion of select rare earth oxides or hydroxides, to their corresponding carbonates by contact with supercritical carbon dioxide.

  14. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Thomas Nelson; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-01-01

    This report describes research conducted between October 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Two supported sorbents were tested in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor system. The sorbents were prepared by impregnation of sodium carbonate on to an inert support at a commercial catalyst manufacturing facility. One sorbent, tested through five cycles of carbon dioxide sorption in an atmosphere of 3% water vapor and 0.8 to 3% carbon dioxide showed consistent reactivity with sodium carbonate utilization of 7 to 14%. A second, similarly prepared material, showed comparable reactivity in one cycle of testing. Batches of 5 other materials were prepared in laboratory scale quantities (primarily by spray drying). These materials generally have significantly greater surface areas than calcined sodium bicarbonate. Small scale testing showed no significant adsorption of mercury on representative carbon dioxide sorbent materials under expected flue gas conditions.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Capture: Prospects for New Materials | Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Dioxide Capture: Prospects for New Materials Previous Next List D. M. D'Alessandro, B. Smit, and J. R. Long, Angew. Chem.-Int. Edit. 49 (35), 6058 (2010) DOI: 10.1002...

  16. Using supercritical carbon dioxide as a fracturing fluid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using supercritical carbon dioxide as a fracturing fluid Using supercritical carbon dioxide as a fracturing fluid The Laboratory team used a combination of experiments and modeling for the investigation. June 25, 2015 Simulation of a selection of the particle trajectories toward the well. Simulation of a selection of the particle trajectories toward the well. Communications Office (505) 667-7000 The Laboratory research is part of an ongoing project to make the necessary measurements and develop

  17. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral Interactions

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Determination of Contact Angles. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral Interactions and Determination of Contact Angles. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral Interactions and Determination of Contact Angles. Abstract not provided. Authors: Tenney, Craig M ; Cygan, Randall T. Publication Date: 2013-08-01 OSTI Identifier: 1106710 Report Number(s):

  18. Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and Organic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Limestone Aquifer (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and Organic Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Limestone Aquifer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and Organic Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Limestone Aquifer An important risk at CO2 storage sites is the potential for groundwater quality impacts. As

  19. First Direct Observation of Carbon Dioxide's Increasing Greenhouse Effect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at Earth's Surface First Direct Observation of Carbon Dioxide's Increasing Greenhouse Effect at Earth's Surface First Direct Observation of Carbon Dioxide's Increasing Greenhouse Effect at Earth's Surface Researchers Link Rising CO₂ Levels from Fossil Fuels to Radiative Forcing February 25, 2015 Contact: Dan Krotz, dakrotz@lbl.gov, 510-486-4019 ARM Alaska Caption: The scientists used incredibly precise spectroscopic instruments at two sites operated by the Department of Energy's

  20. Carbon Dioxide Sequestering Using Microalgal Systems (Technical Report) |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SciTech Connect Carbon Dioxide Sequestering Using Microalgal Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Carbon Dioxide Sequestering Using Microalgal Systems × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is

  1. Carbon Ion Pump for Carbon Dioxide Removal - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Carbon Ion Pump for Carbon Dioxide Removal Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary The limitation to reducing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is the expense of stripping carbon dioxide from other combustion gases. Without a cost-effective means of accomplishing this, hydrocarbon resources cannot be used freely. A few power plants currently remove

  2. Tethered catalysts for the hydration of carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valdez, Carlos A; Satcher, Jr., Joe H; Aines, Roger D; Wong, Sergio E; Baker, Sarah E; Lightstone, Felice C; Stolaroff, Joshuah K

    2014-11-04

    A system is provided that substantially increases the efficiency of CO.sub.2 capture and removal by positioning a catalyst within an optimal distance from the air-liquid interface. The catalyst is positioned within the layer determined to be the highest concentration of carbon dioxide. A hydrophobic tether is attached to the catalyst and the hydrophobic tether modulates the position of the catalyst within the liquid layer containing the highest concentration of carbon dioxide.

  3. Porous Framework Electrocatalysts Are Key to Carbon Dioxide Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Porous Framework Electrocatalysts Are Key to Carbon Dioxide Conversion Porous Framework Electrocatalysts Are Key to Carbon Dioxide Conversion Print Friday, 19 February 2016 13:11 The burning of fossil fuels and the consequent rising levels of atmospheric CO-2 has led to a number of negative environmental consequences, including global warming and ocean acidification. Converting CO2 to fuels or chemical feedstock, ideally through the use of renewable energy, can simultaneously reduce atmospheric

  4. Project Profile: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and its partners, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D funding opportunity announcement (FOA), aim to demonstrate a multi-megawatt power cycle using supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) as the working fluid. The use of carbon dioxide instead of steam allows higher power-cycle efficiency and cycle components that are more compact.

  5. Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Field Projects Supported by DOE's

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Sequestration Program | Department of Energy Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Field Projects Supported by DOE's Sequestration Program Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Field Projects Supported by DOE's Sequestration Program Background: The U.S. DOE's Sequestration Program began with a small appropriation of $1M in 1997 and has grown to be the largest most comprehensive CCS R&D program in the world. The U.S. DOE's sequestration program has supported a number of projects implementing CO2

  6. Sulfur Effect and Performance Recovery of a DOC + CSF + Cu-Zeolite SCR

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System | Department of Energy Sulfur Effect and Performance Recovery of a DOC + CSF + Cu-Zeolite SCR System Sulfur Effect and Performance Recovery of a DOC + CSF + Cu-Zeolite SCR System effect and performance recovery studies at system level with typical diesel emission control consisting of diesel oxidation catalyst, catalyzed soot filter, and selective catalytic reduction PDF icon deer11_tang.pdf More Documents & Publications Investigation of Sulfur Deactivation on Cu/Zeolite SCR

  7. DOE Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Sulfur

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Distillate | Department of Energy Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Sulfur Distillate DOE Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Sulfur Distillate February 1, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The current inventory of the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve will be converted to cleaner burning ultra low sulfur distillate to comply with new, more stringent fuel standards by some Northeastern states, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) said

  8. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illnesses in infants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samet, J.M.; Lambert, W.E.; Skipper, B.J.; Cushing, A.H.; Hunt, W.C.; Young, S.A.; McLaren, L.C.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. )

    1993-11-01

    Nitrogen dioxide is an oxidant gas that contaminates outdoor air and indoor air in homes with unvented gas appliances. A prospective cohort study was carried out to test the hypothesis that residential exposure to NO2 increases incidence and severity of respiratory illnesses during the first 18 months of life. A cohort of 1,205 healthy infants from homes without smokers was enrolled. The daily occurrence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was reported by the mothers every 2 wk. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as lower respiratory tract. Indoor NO2 concentrations were serially measured with passive samplers place in the subjects' bedrooms. In stratified analyses, illness incidence rates did not consistently increase with exposure to NO2 or stove type. In multivariate analyses that adjusted for potential confounding factors, odds ratios were not significantly elevated for current or lagged NO2 exposures, or stove type. Illness duration, a measure of illness severity, was not associated with NO2 exposure. The findings can be extended to homes with gas stoves in regions of the United States where the outdoor air is not heavily polluted by NO2.

  9. Portable instrument and method for detecting reduced sulfur compounds in a gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaffney, J.S.; Kelly, T.J.; Tanner, R.L.

    1983-06-01

    A portable real time instrument for detecting concentrations in the part per billion range of reduced sulfur compounds in a sample gas. Ozonized air or oxygen and reduced sulfur compounds in a sample gas stream react to produce chemiluminescence in a reaction chamber and the emitted light is filtered and observed by a photomultiplier to detect reduced sulfur compounds. Selective response to individual sulfur compounds is achieved by varying reaction chamber temperature and ozone and sample gas flows, and by the use of either air or oxygen as the ozone source gas.

  10. SULFUR REMOVAL FROM PIPE LINE NATURAL GAS FUEL: APPLICATION TO FUEL CELL POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, David L.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2003-11-21

    Pipeline natural gas is being considered as the fuel of choice for utilization in fuel cell-based distributed generation systems because of its abundant supply and the existing supply infrastructure (1). For effective utilization in fuel cells, pipeline gas requires efficient removal of sulfur impurities (naturally occurring sulfur compounds or sulfur bearing odorants) to prevent the electrical performance degradation of the fuel cell system. Sulfur odorants such as thiols and sulfides are added to pipeline natural gas and to LPG to ensure safe handling during transportation and utilization. The odorants allow the detection of minute gas line leaks, thereby minimizing the potential for explosions or fires.

  11. Sulfur in the Timbers of Henry VIII's Warship Mary Rose: Synchrotrons...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sulfur in the Timbers of Henry VIII's Warship Mary Rose: Synchrotrons Illuminate Conservation Concerns Magnus Sandstrm,1 Farideh Jalilehvand,2 Emiliana Damian,1 Yvonne Fors,1...

  12. Sulfur barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Christensen, Del Scot (Friendswood, TX)

    2009-12-15

    Methods for forming a barrier around at least a portion of a treatment area in a subsurface formation are described herein. Sulfur may be introduced into one or more wellbores located inside a perimeter of a treatment area in the formation having a permeability of at least 0.1 darcy. At least some of the sulfur is allowed to move towards portions of the formation cooler than the melting point of sulfur to solidify the sulfur in the formation to form the barrier.

  13. Status of Heavy Vehicle Diesel Emission Control Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Test Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Sverdrup

    1999-06-07

    DECSE test program is well under way to providing data on effects of sulfur levels in diesel fuel on performance of emission control technologies.

  14. A Long-Life, High-Rate Lithium/Sulfur Cell: A Multifaceted Approach...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Long-Life, High-Rate LithiumSulfur Cell: A Multifaceted Approach to Enhancing Cell Performance Min-Kyu Song, , Yuegang Zhang,* ,, and Elton J. Cairns* ,, The...

  15. Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Content, Sales Type, and PAD District 242 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1997 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type,...

  16. Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Content, Sales Type, and PAD District 242 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type,...

  17. A solvent system to provide selective removal of sulfur compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearce, R.L.; Bacon, T.R.

    1986-01-01

    Energy costs and SRU inefficiencies resulting from utilization of low strength MEA technology induced a large refinery to convert to MDEA. One of the seven product streams being treated required extremely low carbonyl sulfide in the treated product. This required careful consideration in making the decision to convert. However, the conclusions were that the advantages outweighed the disadvantages. When the initial converted operations verified a need to improve the carbonyl sulfide removal, GAS/SPEC Tech Service produced an innovative solution which allowed for efficient operation at acceptable COS specification, lower energy utilization, reduced solvent losses, and improved sulfur recovery unit operation.

  18. Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01

    Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

  19. Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, David; Golomb, Dan; Shi, Guang; Shih, Cherry; Lewczuk, Rob; Miksch, Joshua; Manmode, Rahul; Mulagapati, Srihariraju; Malepati, Chetankurmar

    2011-09-30

    This project involves the use of an innovative new invention ? Particle Stabilized Emulsions (PSEs) of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water and Water-in-Carbon Dioxide for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. The EOR emulsion would be injected into a semi-depleted oil reservoir such as Dover 33 in Otsego County, Michigan. It is expected that the emulsion would dislocate the stranded heavy crude oil from the rock granule surfaces, reduce its viscosity, and increase its mobility. The advancing emulsion front should provide viscosity control which drives the reduced-viscosity oil toward the production wells. The make-up of the emulsion would be subsequently changed so it interacts with the surrounding rock minerals in order to enhance mineralization, thereby providing permanent sequestration of the injected CO{sub 2}. In Phase 1 of the project, the following tasks were accomplished: 1. Perform laboratory scale (mL/min) refinements on existing procedures for producing liquid carbon dioxide-in-water (C/W) and water-in-liquid carbon dioxide (W/C) emulsion stabilized by hydrophilic and hydrophobic fine particles, respectively, using a Kenics-type static mixer. 2. Design and cost evaluate scaled up (gal/min) C/W and W/C emulsification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 at the Otsego County semi-depleted oil field. 3. Design the modifications necessary to the present CO{sub 2} flooding system at Otsego County for emulsion injection. 4. Design monitoring and verification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 for measuring potential leakage of CO{sub 2} after emulsion injection. 5. Design production protocol to assess enhanced oil recovery with emulsion injection compared to present recovery with neat CO{sub 2} flooding. 6. Obtain Federal and State permits for emulsion injection. Initial research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions with the smallest possible globule size so that the emulsion can penetrate even low-permeability crude oilcontaining formations or saline aquifers. The term ?globule? refers to the water or liquid carbon dioxide droplets sheathed with ultrafine particles dispersed in the continuous external medium, liquid CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O, respectively. The key to obtaining very small globules is the shear force acting on the two intermixing fluids, and the use of ultrafine stabilizing particles or nanoparticles. We found that using Kenics-type static mixers with a shear rate in the range of 2700 to 9800 s{sup -1} and nanoparticles between 100-300 nm produced globule sizes in the 10 to 20 ?m range. Particle stabilized emulsions with that kind of globule size should easily penetrate oil-bearing formations or saline aquifers where the pore and throat size can be on the order of 50 ?m or larger. Subsequent research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions that are deemed particularly suitable for Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. Based on a survey of the literature an emulsion consisting of 70% by volume of water, 30% by volume of liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide, and 2% by weight of finely pulverized limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) was selected as the most promising agent for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2}. In order to assure penetration of the emulsion into tight formations of sandstone or other silicate rocks and carbonate or dolomite rock, it is necessary to use an emulsion consisting of the smallest possible globule size. In previous reports we described a high shear static mixer that can create such small globules. In addition to the high shear mixer, it is also necessary that the emulsion stabilizing particles be in the submicron size, preferably in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 ?m (100 to 200 nm) size. We found a commercial source of such pulverized limestone particles, in addition we purchased under this DOE Project a particle grinding apparatus that can provide particles in the desired size range. Additional work focused on attempts to generate particle stabilized emulsions with a flow through, static mixer based apparatus under a variety

  20. Catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivas, Girish; Bai, Chuansheng

    2000-08-08

    This invention provides catalysts for the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. In particular, the invention provides catalysts for the partial oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur and water. The catalytically active component of the catalyst comprises a mixture of metal oxides containing titanium oxide and one or more metal oxides which can be selected from the group of metal oxides or mixtures of metal oxides of transition metals or lanthanide metals. Preferred metal oxides for combination with TiO.sub.2 in the catalysts of this invention include oxides of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Hf, Ta, W, Au, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu. Catalysts which comprise a homogeneous mixture of titanium oxide and niobium (Nb) oxide are also provided. A preferred method for preparing the precursor homogenous mixture of metal hydroxides is by coprecipitation of titanium hydroxide with one or more other selected metal hydroxides. Catalysts of this invention have improved activity and/or selectivity for elemental sulfur production. Further improvements of activity and/or selectivity can be obtained by introducing relatively low amounts (up to about 5 mol %)of a promoter metal oxide (preferably of metals other than titanium and that of the selected second metal oxide) into the homogeneous metal/titanium oxide catalysts of this invention.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN DEEP AQUIFER MEDIA - PHASE II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeraj Gupta; Bruce Sass; Jennifer Ickes

    2000-11-28

    In 1998 Battelle was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under a Novel Concepts project grant to continue Phase II research on the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in deep saline formations. The focus of this investigation is to conduct detailed laboratory experiments to examine factors that may affect chemical sequestration of CO{sub 2} in deep saline formations. Reactions between sandstone and other geologic media from potential host reservoirs, brine solutions, and CO{sub 2} are being investigated under high-pressure conditions. Some experiments also include sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) gases to evaluate the potential for co-injection of CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} related gases in the deep formations. In addition, an assessment of engineering and economic aspects is being conducted. This current Technical Progress Report describes the status of the project as of September 2000. The major activities undertaken during the quarter included several experiments conducted to investigate the effects of pressure, temperature, time, and brine composition on rock samples from potential host reservoirs. Samples (both powder and slab) were taken from the Mt. Simon Sandstone, a potential CO{sub 2} host formation in the Ohio, the Eau Claire Shale, and Rome Dolomite samples that form the caprock for Mt. Simon Sandstone. Also, a sample with high calcium plagioclase content from Frio Formation in Texas was used. In addition, mineral samples for relatively pure Anorthite and glauconite were experimented on with and without the presence of additional clay minerals such as kaolinite and montmorillonite. The experiments were run for one to two months at pressures similar to deep reservoirs and temperatures set at 50 C or 150 C. Several enhancements were made to the experimental equipment to allow for mixing of reactants and to improve sample collection methods. The resulting fluids (gases and liquids) as well as the rock samples were characterized to evaluate the geochemical changes over the experimental period. Preliminary results from the analysis are presented in the report. More detailed interpretation of the results will be presented in the technical report at the end of Phase II.

  2. Use of selective oxidation of petroleum residue for production of low-sulfur coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hairudinov, I.R.; Kul`chitskaya, O.V.; Imashev, U.B.

    1995-12-10

    The chemical nature of liquid-phase oxidation of sulfurous petroleum residues by cumene hydroperoxide was studied by a tracer technique. Sulfur compounds are selectively oxidized in the presence of catalytic additives of molybdenum salts. Desulfurization of distillate products and coke during coking of preoxidized raw materials was revealed.

  3. Adsorbed sulfur-gas methods for both near-surface exploration and downhole logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farwell, S.O.; Barinaga, C.J.; Dolenc, M.R.; Farwell, G.H.

    1986-08-01

    The use of sulfur-containing gases in petroleum exploration is supported by (1) the idea that sulfur may play a role in petroleum genesis, (2) the corresponding existence of sulfur-containing compounds in petroleum and the potential for vertical migration of the low-molecular-weight sulfur species from these reservoirs, (3) the production of H/sub 2/S by anaerobic microorganism populations that develop in the subsurface areas overlying petroleum reservoirs due to the concomitant supply of hydrocarbon nutrients, (4) the recent discovery of near-surface accumulations of pyrite and marcasite as the source of induction potential anomalies over certain fields, and (5) the strong adsorptive affinities of sulfur gases to solid surfaces, which enhance both the concentration and localization of such sulfur-expressed anomalies. During the past 3 years, numerous near-surface soil samples and well cuttings from the Utah-Wyoming Overthrust belt have been analyzed for adsorbed sulfur-gas content by two novel analytical techniques: thermal desorption/metal foil collection/flash desorption/sulfur-selective detection (TD/MFC/FD/SSD) and thermal desorption/cryogenic preconcentration/high-resolution-gas chromatography/optimized-flame photometry (TD/CP/HRGC/OFP).

  4. Sulfur tolerant highly durable CO.sub.2 sorbents (Patent) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA at www.ntis.gov. A sorbent for the capture of carbon dioxide from a gas stream is provided, the sorbent containing calcium...

  5. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

    2004-07-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2004 and June 30, 2004 on the preparation and use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Support materials and supported sorbents were prepared by spray drying. Sorbents consisting of 20 to 50% sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were prepared by spray drying in batches of approximately 300 grams. The supported sorbents exhibited greater carbon dioxide capture rates than unsupported calcined sodium bicarbonate in laboratory tests. Preliminary process design and cost estimation for a retrofit application suggested that costs of a dry regenerable sodium carbonate-based process could be lower than those of a monoethanolamine absorption system. In both cases, the greatest part of the process costs come from power plant output reductions due to parasitic consumption of steam for recovery of carbon dioxide from the capture medium.

  6. Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide cleaning of plutonium parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hale, S.J.

    1991-12-31

    Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide is under investigation in this work for use as a cleaning solvent for the final cleaning of plutonium parts. These parts must be free of organic residue to avoid corrosion in the stockpile. Initial studies on stainless steel and full-scale mock-up parts indicate that the oils of interest are easily and adequately cleaned from the metal surfaces with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide. Results from compatibility studies show that undesirable oxidation or other surface reactions are not occurring during exposure of plutonium to the supercritical fluid. Cleaning studies indicate that the oils of interest are removed from the plutonium surface under relatively mild conditions. These studies indicate that supercritical fluid carbon dioxide is a very promising cleaning medium for this application.

  7. Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Type Area Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History U.S. 1.39 1.36 1.36 1.37 1.44 1.44 1985-2015 PADD 1 0.85 0.97 0.62 0.83 0.75 0.75 1985-2015 East Coast 0.78 0.91 0.51 0.76 0.68 0.67 1985-2015 Appalachian No. 1 1.57 1.62 1.71 1.59 1.61 1.65 1985-2015 PADD 2 1.44 1.46 1.40 1.33 1.54 1.55

  8. Method of forming and starting a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paquette, David G. (Costa Mesa, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A method of forming a sodium sulfur battery and of starting the reactive capability of that battery when heated to a temperature suitable for battery operation is disclosed. An anodic reaction zone is constructed in a manner that sodium is hermetically sealed therein, part of the hermetic seal including fusible material which closes up openings through the container of the anodic reaction zone. The hermetically sealed anodic reaction zone is assembled under normal atmospheric conditions with a suitable cathodic reaction zone and a cation-permeable barrier. When the entire battery is heated to an operational temperature, the fusible material of the hermetically sealed anodic reaction zone is fused, thereby allowing molten sodium to flow from the anodic reaction zone into reactive engagement with the cation-permeable barrier.

  9. Water and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption at Olivine Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2013-11-14

    Plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to simulate water and carbon dioxide adsorption at the (010) surface of five olivine minerals, namely, forsterite (Mg2SiO4), calcio-olivine (Ca2SiO4), tephroite (Mn2SiO4), fayalite (Fe2SiO4), and Co-olivine (Co2SiO4). Adsorption energies per water molecule obtained from energy minimizations varied from -78 kJ mol-1 for fayalite to -128 kJ mol-1 for calcio-olivine at sub-monolayer coverage and became less exothermic as coverage increased. In contrast, carbon dioxide adsorption energies at sub-monolayer coverage ranged from -20 kJ mol-1 for fayalite to -59 kJ mol-1 for calcio-olivine. Therefore, the DFT calculations show a strong driving force for carbon dioxide displacement by water at the surface of all olivine minerals in a competitive adsorption scenario. Additionally, adsorption energies for both water and carbon dioxide were found to be more exothermic for the alkaline-earth (AE) olivines than for the transition-metal (TM) olivines and to not correlate with the solvation enthalpies of the corresponding divalent cations. However, a correlation was obtained with the charge of the surface divalent cation indicating that the more ionic character of the AE cations in the olivine structure relative to the TM cations leads to greater interactions with adsorbed water and carbon dioxide molecules at the surface and thus more exothermic adsorption energies for the AE olivines. For calcio-olivine, which exhibits the highest divalent cation charge of the five olivines, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations showed that this effect leads both water and carbon dioxide to react with the surface and form hydroxyl groups and a carbonate-like species, respectively.

  10. A New Method for Production of Titanium Dioxide Pigment - Eliminating CO2 Emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Zhigang Zak

    2013-11-05

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the potential of a new process technology to reduce the energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emission from the production of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) pigment. TiO{sub 2} is one of the most commonly used minerals in the chemical manufacturing industry. It has been commercially processed as a pigment since the early 1900's, and has a wide variety of domestic and industrial applications. TiO{sub 2} pigment is currently produced primarily by the use of the so called ?chloride process?. A key step of the chloride process relies on high temperature carbo-chlorination of TiO{sub 2} bearing raw materials, hence producing large quantities of CO{sub 2}. The new method uses a chemical/metallurgical sequential extraction methodology to produce pigment grade TiO{sub 2} from high-TiO{sub 2} slag. The specific project objectives were to 1) study and prove the scientific validity of the concept, 2) understand the primary chemical reactions and the efficiency of sequential extraction schemes, 3) determine the properties of TiO{sub 2} produced using the technology, and 4) model the energy consumptions and environmental benefits of the technology. These objectives were successfully met and a new process for producing commercial quality TiO{sub 2} pigment was developed and experimentally validated. The process features a unique combination of established metallurgical processes, including alkaline roasting of titania slag followed by leaching, solvent extraction, hydrolysis, and calcination. The caustic, acidic, and organic streams in the process will also be regenerated and reused in the process, greatly reducing environmental waste. The purpose and effect of each of these steps in producing purified TiO{sub 2} is detailed in the report. The levels of impurities in our pigment meet the requirements for commercial pigment, and are nearly equivalent to those of two commercial pigments. Solvent extraction with an amine extractant proved to be extremely effective in achieving these targets. A model plant producing 100,000 tons TiO{sub 2} per year was designed that would employ the new method of pigment manufacture. A flow sheet was developed and a mass and energy balance was performed. A comparison of the new process and the chloride process indicate that implementation of the new process in the US would result in a 21% decrease in energy consumption, an annual energy savings of 42.7 million GJ. The new process would reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 21% in comparison to the chloride process, an annual reduction of 2.70 million tons of CO{sub 2}. Since the process equipment employed in the new process is well established in other industrial processes and the raw materials for the two processes are identical we believe the capital, labor and materials cost of production of pigment grade TiO{sub 2} using the new method would be at least equivalent to that of the chloride process. Additionally, it is likely that the operating costs will be lower by using the new process because of the reduced energy consumption. Although the new process technology is logical and feasible based on its chemistry, thermodynamic principles, and experimental results, its development and refinement through more rigorous and comprehensive research at the kilogram scale is needed to establish it as a competitive industrial process. The effect of the recycling of process streams on the final product quality should also be investigated. Further development would also help determine if the energy efficiency and the environmental benefits of the new process are indeed significantly better than current commercial methods of pigment manufacture.

  11. Ultra-low Sulfur Reduction Emission Control Device/Development of an On-board Fuel Sulfur Trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohrbach, Ron; Barron, Ann

    2008-07-31

    Honeywell has completed working on a multiyear program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an 'on-vehicle' desulfurization fuel filter for both light duty and heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NOx adsorbers. The NOx adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and '2007-Rule' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters was also examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. In the second phase of the program a light duty diesel engine test was also demonstrated. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consisted of four phases. Phase I focused on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II concentrated on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III studied life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV focused on efficacy and benefits in the desulfation steps of a NOx adsorber on both a heavy and light duty engine. The project team included a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Navistar Inc. (formerly International Truck & Engine Corporation) and Mack Trucks Inc.), and filter recycler (American Wastes Industries).

  12. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-07-28

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  13. Silicon dioxide and hafnium dioxide evaporation characteristics from a high-frequency sweep e-beam system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Tsujimoto, N. [MDC Vacuum Products Corporation, Hayward, California 94545 (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Reactive oxygen evaporation characteristics were determined as a function of the front-panel control parameters provided by a programmable, high-frequency sweep e-beam system. An experimental design strategy used deposition rate, beam speed, pattern, azimuthal rotation speed, and dwell time as the variables. The optimal settings for obtaining a broad thickness distribution, efficient silicon dioxide boule consumption, and minimal hafnium dioxide defect density were generated. The experimental design analysis showed the compromises involved with evaporating these oxides. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  14. Emission of biogenic sulfur gases from Chinese paddy soil and rice plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhen Yang [Nanjing Univ. of Science and Technology (China); Li Kong [Nanjing Agricultural Univ. (China)

    1996-12-31

    Biogenic sulfur gases emitted from terrestrial ecosystem may play in important role in global sulfur cycle and have a profound influence on global climate change. But very little is known concerning emissions from paddy soil and rice plant, which are abundant in many parts of the world. As a big agricultural country, this is about 33 million hectare rice planted in China. With laboratory incubation and closed chamber method in the field, the biogenic sulfur gases emitted from Chinese paddy soil and rice plant were detected in both conditions: hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), methyl mercaptan (MSH), carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Among which, DMS was predominant part of sulfur emission. Emission of sulfur gases from different paddy field exhibit high spatial and temporal variability. The application of fertilizer and organic manure, total sulfur content in wetland, air temperature were positively correlated to the emission of volatile sulfur gases from paddy soil. Diurnal and seasonal variation of total volatile sulfur gases and DMS indicate that their emissions were greatly influenced by the activity of the rice plant. The annual emission of total volatile sulfur gases, from Nanjing paddy field is ranged from 4.0 to 9.5 mg S m{sup -2}yr{sup -1}, that of DMS is ranged from 3.1 to 6.5 mg S m{sup -2}yr{sup -1}. Rice plant could absorb COS gas, that may be one of the sinks of COS.

  15. Toward Understanding the Effect of Low-Activity Waste Glass Composition on Sulfur Solubility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Muller, Isabelle S.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2014-10-01

    The concentration of sulfur in nuclear waste glass melter feed must be maintained below the point where salt accumulates on the melt surface. The allowable concentrations may range from 0.37 to over 2.05 weight percent (of SO3 on a calcined oxide basis). If the amount of sulfur exceeds its tolerance level a molten salt will accumulate and upset melter operations and potentially shorten melter useful life. Therefore relatively conservative limits have been placed on sulfur loading in melter feed which in-turn significantly impacts the amount of glass that will be produced, in particular at the Hanford site. Crucible-scale sulfur solubility data and scaled melter sulfur tolerance data have been collected on simulated Hanford waste glasses over the last 15 years. These data were compiled and analyzed. A model was developed to predict the solubility of SO3 in glass based on 312 individual glass compositions. This model was shown to well represent the data, accounting for over 80% of the variation in data and was well validated. The model was also found to accurately predict the tolerance for sulfur in melter feed based on 19 scaled melter tests. The model is appropriate for control of waste glass processing which includes uncertainty quantification. The model also gives quantitative estimates of component concentration effects on sulfur solubility. The components that most increase sulfur solubility are Li2O > V2O5 ? TiO2 < CaO < P2O5 ? ZnO. The components that most decrease sulfur solubility are Cl > Cr2O3 > SiO2 ? ZrO2 > Al2O3.

  16. Integrated Energy System with Beneficial Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Use - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy T

    2011-04-29

    This report presents an integrated energy system that combines the production of substitute natural gas through coal hydrogasification with an algae process for beneficial carbon dioxide (CO2) use and biofuel production (funded under Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-FE0001099). The project planned to develop, test, operate and evaluate a 2 ton-per-day coal hydrogasification plant and 25-acre algae farm at the Arizona Public Service (APS) 1000 Megawatt (MW) Cholla coal-fired power plant in Joseph City, Arizona. Conceptual design of the integrated system was undertaken with APS partners Air Liquide (AL) and Parsons. The process engineering was separated into five major areas: flue gas preparation and CO2 delivery, algae farming, water management, hydrogasification, and biofuel production. The process flow diagrams, energy and material balances, and preliminary major equipment needs for each major area were prepared to reflect integrated process considerations and site infrastructure design basis. The total project also included research and development on a bench-scale hydrogasifier, one-dimensional (1-D) kinetic-model simulation, extensive algae stressing, oil extraction, lipid analysis and a half-acre algae farm demonstration at APS?s Redhawk testing facility. During the project, a two-acre algae testing facility with a half-acre algae cultivation area was built at the APS Redhawk 1000 MW natural gas combined cycle power plant located 55 miles west of Phoenix. The test site integrated flue gas delivery, CO2 capture and distribution, algae cultivation, algae nursery, algae harvesting, dewatering and onsite storage as well as water treatment. The site environmental, engineering, and biological parameters for the cultivators were monitored remotely. Direct biodiesel production from biomass through an acid-catalyzed transesterification reaction and a supercritical methanol transesterification reaction were evaluated. The highest oil-to-biodiesel conversion of 79.9% was achieved with a stressed algae sample containing 40% algae oil. The effort concluded that producing biodiesel directly from the algae biomass could be an efficient, cost-effective and readily scalable way to produce biodiesel by eliminating the oil extraction process.

  17. Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project Objectives: Elucidate comprehensively the carbonation reaction mechanisms between supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and reservoir rocks consisting of different mineralogical compositions in aqueous and non-aqueous environments at temperatures of up to 250ºC, and to develop chemical modeling of CO2-reservior rock interactions.

  18. Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, Jerome W. (Lockport, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Westmount, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

  19. Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.

    1993-03-30

    A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

  20. Update on Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    On November 8, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator signed a direct final rule that will shift the retail compliance date for offering ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for highway use from September 1, 2006, to October 15, 2006. The change will allow more time for retail outlets and terminals to comply with the new 15 parts per million (ppm) sulfur standard, providing time for entities in the diesel fuel distribution system to flush higher sulfur fuel out of the system during the transition. Terminals will have until September 1, 2006, to complete their transitions to ULSD. The previous deadline was July 15, 2006.

  1. Method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tischer, Ragnar P. (Birmingham, MI); Winterbottom, Walter L. (Farmington Hills, MI); Wroblowa, Halina S. (West Bloomfield, MI)

    1987-01-01

    This specification is directed to a method of making a current collector (14) for a sodium/sulfur battery (10). The current collector so-made is electronically conductive and resistant to corrosive attack by sulfur/polysulfide melts. The method includes the step of forming the current collector for the sodium/sulfur battery from a composite material (16) formed of aluminum filled with electronically conductive fibers selected from the group of fibers consisting essentially of graphite fibers having a diameter up to 10 microns and silicon carbide fibers having a diameter in a range of 500-1000 angstroms.

  2. Method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tischer, R.P.; Winterbottom, W.L.; Wroblowa, H.S.

    1987-03-10

    This specification is directed to a method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery. The current collector so-made is electronically conductive and resistant to corrosive attack by sulfur/polysulfide melts. The method includes the step of forming the current collector for the sodium/sulfur battery from a composite material formed of aluminum filled with electronically conductive fibers selected from the group of fibers consisting essentially of graphite fibers having a diameter up to 10 microns and silicon carbide fibers having a diameter in a range of 500--1,000 angstroms. 2 figs.

  3. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, John E.; Jalan, Vinod M.

    1984-01-01

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  4. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1984-06-19

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  5. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur-containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1982-07-07

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorbtion capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  6. Notification to Mirant by the Commonwealth of Virginia of Serious Violations of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Sulfur Dioxide

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    19, 2005 Lisa D. Johnson, President Mirant Potomac River, LLC 8711 Westphalia Road Upper Marlboro, Maryland 20774 Dear Ms. Johnson: DEQ is in receipt of the results of Mirant's "downwash" modeling provided by Mirant to DEQ pursuant to the consent special order between the State Air Pollution Control Board and Mirant Potomac River, LLC. A cursory review of the modeling reveals that emissions from the Potomac River Generating Station result in, cause or substantially contribute to

  7. Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    57.8 42.0 See footnotes at end of table. 200 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type,...

  8. Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    62.6 47.4 See footnotes at end of table. 200 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type,...

  9. Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    51.8 See footnotes at end of table. 242 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type,...

  10. Sulfur gas sensor using a calcium fluoride solid electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toniguchi, M.; Wakihara, M.; Uchida, T.; Hirakawa, K.; Nii, J.

    1988-01-01

    The sulfur gas potentials in the H/sub 2/S + H/sub 2/ buffer gases were measured by a galvanic cell Ps/sub 2/(g),Au(Pt)/(MoS/sub 2/ + CaS)/CaF/sub 2//(Cu + Cu/sub 2/S + CaS)/Au(Pt) in the temperature range from 650/sup 0/ to 950/sup 0/C and Ps/sub 2/ region from 10/sup -2/ to 10/sup -10/ atm. A quick response time (within 5 to 10 min) in emf with the change of Ps/sub 2/ at a given temperature was observed by placing a MoS/sub 2/ and CaS mixed pellet auxiliary electrode at the bottom of the cylindrical single-crystal CaF/sub 2/ electrolyte. The observed emf's agreed well with with those calculated from the Nernst equation. Using this sensor, Ps/sub 2/ values in the SO/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/S gas system were also evaluated from the measured emf at 827/sup 0/C and were found to be in close agreement with those calculated from the thermochemical tables.

  11. Facile synthesis, spectral properties and formation mechanism of sulfur nanorods in PEG-200

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Xin-yuan; Li, Li-yun; Zheng, Pu-sheng; Zheng, Wen-jie; Bai, Yan; Cheng, Tian-feng; Liu, Jie

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Homogeneous rod-like structure of sulfur with a typical diameter of about 80 nm and an average aspect ratio of about 68 was obtained. The sulfur nanoparticles could self-assemble from spherical particles to nanorods in PEG-200. During the self-assembling process, the absorption band showed a red shift which was due to the production of nanorods. Highlights: ? A novel, facile and greener method to synthesize sulfur nanorods by the solubilizing and templating effect of PEG-200 was reported. ? S{sup 0} nanoparticles could self assemble in PEG-200 and finally form monodisperse and homogeneous rod-like structure with an average diameter of about 80 nm, the length ca. 600 nm. ? The absorption band showed a red shift and the RRS intensity enhanced continuously during the self-assembling process. ? PEG-200 induced the oriented attachment of sulfur nanoparticles by the terminal hydroxyl groups. -- Abstract: The synthesis of nano-sulfur sol by dissolving sublimed sulfur in a green solvent-PEG-200 was studied. Homogeneous rod-like structure of sulfur with a typical diameter of about 80 nm and an average aspect ratio of 68 was obtained. The structure, morphology, size, and stability of the products were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The spectral properties of the products were investigated by ultraviolet-visible (UVvis) absorption and resonance Rayleigh scattering spectroscopy (RRS). The results showed that the spherical sulfur nanoparticles could self-assemble into nanorods in PEG-200. During the self-assembling process, the absorption band showed a red shift and the RRS intensity enhanced continuously. There was physical cross-linking between PEG and sulfur nanoparticles. PEG-200 induced the oriented attachment of sulfur nanoparticles by the terminal hydroxyl groups. This research provides a greener and more environment-friendly synthetic method for the production of sulfur nanorods.

  12. Development of Efficient Flowsheet and Transient Modeling for Nuclear Heat Coupled Sulfur Iodine Cyclefor Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shripad T. Revankar; Nicholas R. Brown; Cheikhou Kane; Seungmin Oh

    2010-05-01

    The realization of the hydrogen as an energy carrier for future power sources relies on a practical method of producing hydrogen in large scale with no emission of green house gases. Hydrogen is an energy carrier which can be produced by a thermochemical water splitting process. The Sulfur-Iodine (SI) process is an example of a water splitting method using iodine and sulfur as recycling agents.

  13. Multi-model Mean Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition from the Atmospheric

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP): Evaluation of Historical and Projected Future Changes (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Multi-model Mean Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP): Evaluation of Historical and Projected Future Changes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multi-model Mean Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison

  14. Extraction of Sulfur Mustard Metabolites from Urine Samples and Analysis by

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Sulfur Mustard Metabolites from Urine Samples and Analysis by Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Extraction of Sulfur Mustard Metabolites from Urine Samples and Analysis by Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) Authors: Mayer, B P ; Williams, A M ; Leif, R N ; Udey, R N ; Vu, A K

  15. Low Temperature Sodium-Sulfur Grid Storage and EV Battery - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Low Temperature Sodium-Sulfur Grid Storage and EV Battery Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Berkeley Lab researcher Gao Liu has developed an innovative design for a battery, made primarily of sodium and sulfur, that

  16. Interaction of CuS and sulfur in Li-S battery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Ke; Su, Dong; Zhang, Qing; Bock, David C.; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.; Gan, Hong

    2015-10-27

    Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) battery has been a subject of intensive research in recent years due to its potential to provide much higher energy density and lower cost than the current state of the art lithiumion battery technology. In this work, we have investigated Cupric Sulfide (CuS) as a capacitycontributing conductive additive to the sulfur electrode in a Li-S battery. Galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling has been used to compare the performance of both sulfur electrodes and S:CuS hybrid electrodes with various ratios. We found that the conductive CuS additive enhanced the utilization of the sulfur cathode under a 1C rate discharge. However, under a C/10 discharge rate, S:CuS hybrid electrodes exhibited lower sulfur utilization in the first discharge and faster capacity decay in later cycles than a pure sulfur electrode due to the dissolution of CuS. The CuS dissolution is found to be the result of strong interaction between the soluble low order polysulfide Li2S3 and CuS. As a result, we identified the presence of conductive copper-containing sulfides at the cycled lithium anode surface, which may degrade the effectiveness of the passivation function of the solid-electrolyte-interphase (SEI) layer, accounting for the poor cycling performance of the S:CuS hybrid cells at low rate.

  17. Interaction of CuS and sulfur in Li-S battery system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Ke; Su, Dong; Zhang, Qing; Bock, David C.; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.; Gan, Hong

    2015-10-27

    Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) battery has been a subject of intensive research in recent years due to its potential to provide much higher energy density and lower cost than the current state of the art lithiumion battery technology. In this work, we have investigated Cupric Sulfide (CuS) as a capacitycontributing conductive additive to the sulfur electrode in a Li-S battery. Galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling has been used to compare the performance of both sulfur electrodes and S:CuS hybrid electrodes with various ratios. We found that the conductive CuS additive enhanced the utilization of the sulfur cathode under a 1C rate discharge. However, undermore » a C/10 discharge rate, S:CuS hybrid electrodes exhibited lower sulfur utilization in the first discharge and faster capacity decay in later cycles than a pure sulfur electrode due to the dissolution of CuS. The CuS dissolution is found to be the result of strong interaction between the soluble low order polysulfide Li2S3 and CuS. As a result, we identified the presence of conductive copper-containing sulfides at the cycled lithium anode surface, which may degrade the effectiveness of the passivation function of the solid-electrolyte-interphase (SEI) layer, accounting for the poor cycling performance of the S:CuS hybrid cells at low rate.« less

  18. Sulfur oxidation to sulfate coupled with electron transfer to electrodes by Desulfuromonas strain TZ1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, T; Bain, TS; Barlett, MA; Dar, SA; Snoeyenbos-West, OL; Nevin, KP; Lovley, DR

    2014-01-02

    Microbial oxidation of elemental sulfur with an electrode serving as the electron acceptor is of interest because this may play an important role in the recovery of electrons from sulfidic wastes and for current production in marine benthic microbial fuel cells. Enrichments initiated with a marine sediment inoculum, with elemental sulfur as the electron donor and a positively poised (+300 mV versus Ag/AgCl) anode as the electron acceptor, yielded an anode biofilm with a diversity of micro-organisms, including Thiobacillus, Sulfurimonas, Pseudomonas, Clostridium and Desulfuromonas species. Further enrichment of the anode biofilm inoculum in medium with elemental sulfur as the electron donor and Fe(III) oxide as the electron acceptor, followed by isolation in solidified sulfur/Fe(III) medium yielded a strain of Desulfuromonas, designated strain TZ1. Strain TZ1 effectively oxidized elemental sulfur to sulfate with an anode serving as the sole electron acceptor, at rates faster than Desulfobulbus propionicus, the only other organism in pure culture previously shown to oxidize S with current production. The abundance of Desulfuromonas species enriched on the anodes of marine benthic fuel cells has previously been interpreted as acetate oxidation driving current production, but the results presented here suggest that sulfur-driven current production is a likely alternative.

  19. Unusual refinery boiler tube failures due to corrosion by sulfuric acid induced by steam leaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Lopez, D.; Wong-Moreno, A.

    1998-12-31

    Corrosion by sulfuric acid in boilers is a low probability event because gas temperature and metal temperature of boiler tubes are high enough to avoid the condensation of sulfuric acid from flue gases. This degradation mechanism is frequently considered as an important cause of air preheaters materials degradation, where flue gases are cooled by heat transfer to the combustion air. Corrosion is associated to the presence of sulfuric acid, which condensates if metal temperature (or gas temperature) is below of the acid dew point. In economizer tubes, sulfuric acid corrosion is an unlikely event because flue gas and tube temperatures are normally over the acid dewpoint. In this paper, the failure analysis of generator tubes (similar to the economizer of bigger boilers) of two small oil-fired subcritical boilers is reported. It is concluded that sulfuric acid corrosion was the cause of the failure. The sulfuric acid condensation was due to the contact of flue gases containing SO{sub 3} with water-steam spray coming from leaks at the interface of rolled tube to the drum. Considering the information gathered from these two cases studied, an analysis of this failure mechanism is presented including a description of the thermodynamics condition of water leaking from the drum, and an analysis of the factors favoring it.

  20. Regenerable immobilized aminosilane sorbents for carbon dioxide capture applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, McMahan; Choi, Sunho; Jones, Christopher W

    2014-09-16

    A method for the separation of carbon dioxide from ambient air and flue gases is provided wherein a phase separating moiety with a second moiety are simultaneously coupled and bonded onto an inert substrate to create a mixture which is subsequently contacted with flue gases or ambient air. The phase-separating moiety is an amine whereas the second moiety is an aminosilane, or a Group 4 propoxide such as titanium (IV) propoxide (tetrapropyl orthotitanate, C.sub.12H.sub.28O.sub.4Ti). The second moiety makes the phase-separating moiety insoluble in the pores of the inert substrate. The new sorbents have a high carbon dioxide loading capacity and considerable stability over hundreds of cycles. The synthesis method is readily scalable for commercial and industrial production.