National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for ton coal coke

  1. Western Canadian coking coals -- Thermal rheology and coking quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leeder, W.R.; Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F.

    1997-12-31

    Methods of predicting coke strength developed from the thermal rheological properties of Carboniferous coals frequently indicate that Cretaceous coals would not make high quality coke -- yet both types of coals produce coke suitable for the iron blast furnace. This paper will discuss the reasons why Western Canadian coals exhibit lower rheological values and how to predict the strength of coke produced from them.

  2. Coke from coal and petroleum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wynne, Jr., Francis E.; Lopez, Jaime; Zaborowsky, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    A carbonaceous coke is manufactured by the delayed coking of a slurry mixture of from about 10 to about 30 weight percent of caking or non-caking coal and the remainder a petroleum resid blended at below 50.degree. C.

  3. Table 38. Coal Stocks at Coke Plants by Census Division

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coal Stocks at Coke Plants by Census Division (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2014 Table 38. Coal Stocks at Coke Plants by Census Division (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2014 Census Division June 30, 2014 March 31, 2014 June 30, 2013 Percent Change (June 30) 2014 versus 2013 Middle Atlantic 547 544 857 -36.2 East North Central 1,130 963 1,313 -13.9 South

  4. Table 7.8 Coke Overview, 1949-2011 (Thousand Short Tons)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Sources: * 1949-1975Bureau of Mines, Minerals Yearbook, "Coke and Coal Chemicals" chapter. * 1976-1980U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Energy Data Report, Coke and ...

  5. Mozambique becomes a major coking coal exporter?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruffini, A.

    2008-06-15

    In addition to its potential role as a major international supplier of coking coal, Mozambique will also become a major source of power generation for southern Africa. 3 figs.

  6. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    California (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total...

  7. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Richard A.; Im, Chang J.; Wright, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  8. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total...

  9. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total...

  10. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 6,085 670...

  11. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    tons) Coal Destination State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total Alabama Total 6,982 679...

  12. ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...Subbituminous",,"Coal","Petroleum","Electricity","from ... ,,"Total United States" 311,"Food",4,26,0,6,0,6,... 324110," Petroleum Refineries",3,79,0,25,0,25,0,0,0,4...

  13. Operational improvements at Jewell Coal and Coke Company`s non-recovery ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, C.E.; Pruitt, C.W.

    1995-12-01

    Operational improvements at Jewell Coal and Coke Company over the past five years includes safety and environmental concerns, product quality, equipment availability, manpower utilization, and productivity. These improvements with Jewell`s unique process has allowed Jewell Coal and Coke Company to be a consistent, high quality coke producer. The paper briefly explains Jewell`s unique ovens, their operating mode, improved process control, their maintenance management program, and their increase in productivity.

  14. Effects of HyperCoal addition on coke strength and thermoplasticity of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito

    2008-05-15

    Ashless coal, also known as HyperCoal (HPC), was produced by thermal extraction of three coals of different ranks (Gregory caking coal, Warkworth steam coal, and Pasir subbituminous coal) with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at 360, 380, and 400{sup o}C. The effects of blending these HPCs into standard coal blends were investigated. Blending HPCs as 5-10% of a standard blend (Kouryusho:Goonyella:K9) enhanced the thermoplasticity over a wide temperature range. For blends made with the Pasir-HPC, produced from a noncaking coal, increasing the extraction temperature from 360 to 400{sup o}C increased the thermoplasticity significantly. Blends containing Warkworth-HPC, produced from a slightly caking coal, had a higher tensile strength than the standard blend in semicoke strength tests. The addition of 10% Pasir-HPC, extracted at 400{sup o}C, increased the tensile strength of the semicokes to the same degree as those made with Gregory-HPC. Furthermore, all HPC blends had a higher tensile strength and smaller weight loss during carbonization. These results suggest that the HPC became integrated into the coke matrix, interacting strongly with the other raw coals. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Coal flow aids reduce coke plant operating costs and improve production rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedard, R.A.; Bradacs, D.J.; Kluck, R.W.; Roe, D.C.; Ventresca, B.P.

    2005-06-01

    Chemical coal flow aids can provide many benefits to coke plants, including improved production rates, reduced maintenance and lower cleaning costs. This article discusses the mechanisms by which coal flow aids function and analyzes several successful case histories. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Effect of coal and coke qualities on blast furnace injection and productivity at Taranto

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M.; Eichinger, F.; Rafi, M.

    1995-12-01

    Injection rates at Taranto blast furnaces Nos. 2 and 4, for more than 16 months, was maintained above 175 kg/thm. Monthly average injection rate for two months stabilized above 190 kg/thm. This performance was possible due to the very high combined availabilities of Taranto blast furnaces and the KST injection system. Based upon this experience the quantitative relationships between coke/coal and blast furnace operational parameters were studied and are shown graphically. During this period due to coke quality changes, injection rate had to be reduced. The effect of using coke breeze in coke/ferrous charge as well as coal blend was also evaluated. Permeability of the furnace was found to be directly affected by O{sub 2} enrichment level, while at a high PCI rate no correlation between actual change in coke quality and permeability could be established. The future of PCI technology lies in better understanding of relationships between material specifications and blast furnace parameters of which permeability is of prime importance.

  17. Clean Production of Coke from Carbonaceous Fines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig N. Eatough

    2004-11-16

    In order to produce steel (a necessary commodity in developed nations) using conventional technologies, you must have metallurgical coke. Current coke-making technology pyrolyzes high-quality coking coals in a slot oven, but prime coking coals are becoming more expensive and slot ovens are being shut-down because of age and environmental problems. The United States typically imports about 4 million tons of coke per year, but because of a world-wide coke scarcity, metallurgical coke costs have risen from about $77 per tonne to more than $225. This coke shortage is a long-term challenge driving up the price of steel and is forcing steel makers to search for alternatives. Combustion Resources (CR) has developed a technology to produce metallurgical coke from alternative feedstocks in an environmentally clean manner. The purpose of the current project was to refine material and process requirements in order to achieve improved economic benefits and to expand upon prior work on the proposed technology through successful prototype testing of coke products. The ultimate objective of this project is commercialization of the proposed technology. During this project period, CR developed coke from over thirty different formulations that meet the strength and reactivity requirements for use as metallurgical coke. The technology has been termed CR Clean Coke because it utilizes waste materials as feedstocks and is produced in a continuous process where pollutant emissions can be significantly reduced compared to current practice. The proposed feed material and operating costs for a CR Clean Coke plant are significantly less than conventional coke plants. Even the capital costs for the proposed coke plant are about half that of current plants. The remaining barrier for CR Clean Coke to overcome prior to commercialization is full-scale testing in a blast furnace. These tests will require a significant quantity of product (tens of thousands of tons) necessitating the construction

  18. Table 4.8 Coal Demonstrated Reserve Base, January 1, 2011 (Billion Short Tons)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Coal Demonstrated Reserve Base, January 1, 2011 (Billion Short Tons) Region and State Anthracite Bituminous Coal Subbituminous Coal Lignite Total Underground Surface Underground Surface Underground Surface Surface 1 Underground Surface Total Appalachian 4.0 3.3 68.2 21.9 0.0 0.0 1.1 72.1 26.3 98.4 Alabama .0 .0 .9 2.1 .0 .0 1.1 .9 3.1 4.0 Kentucky, Eastern .0 .0 .8 9.1 .0 .0 .0 .8 9.1 9.8 Ohio .0 .0 17.4 5.7 .0 .0 .0 17.4 5.7 23.1 Pennsylvania 3.8 3.3 18.9 .8 .0 .0 .0 22.7 4.2 26.9 Virginia .1

  19. Table 7.2 Coal Production, 1949-2011 (Short Tons)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Production, 1949-2011 (Short Tons) Year Rank Mining Method Location Total 1 Bituminous Coal 1 Subbituminous Coal Lignite Anthracite 1 Underground Surface 1 East of the Mississippi 1 West of the Mississippi 1 1949 437,868,000 [2] [2] 42,702,000 358,854,000 121,716,000 444,199,000 36,371,000 480,570,000 1950 516,311,000 [2] [2] 44,077,000 421,000,000 139,388,000 524,374,000 36,014,000 560,388,000 1951 533,665,000 [2] [2] 42,670,000 442,184,000 134,151,000 541,703,000 34,632,000 576,335,000

  20. Table 7.9 Coal Prices, 1949-2011 (Dollars per Short Ton)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Prices, 1949-2011 (Dollars per Short Ton) Year Bituminous Coal Subbituminous Coal Lignite 1 Anthracite Total Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 1949 4.90 [4] 33.80 [4,R] [4] [4] 2.37 16.35 [R] 8.90 61.38 [R] 5.24 36.14 [R] 1950 4.86 [4] 33.16 [4,R] [4] [4] 2.41 16.44 [R] 9.34 63.73 [R] 5.19 35.41 [R] 1951 4.94 [4] 31.44 [4,R] [4] [4] 2.44 15.53 [R] 9.94 63.26 [R] 5.29 33.67 [R] 1952 4.92 [4] 30.78 [4,R] [4] [4] 2.39 14.95 [R] 9.58 59.94 [R]

  1. Cracking of simulated oil refinery off-gas over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan Zhang; Jin-hu Wu; Dong-ke Zhang

    2008-03-15

    The cracking of oil refinery off-gas, simulated with a gas mixture containing methane (51%), ethylene (21.4%), ethane (21.1%), and propane (6.5%), over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz, respectively, has been studied in a fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed at temperatures between 850 and 1000{sup o}C and at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the conversions of all species considered increased with increasing temperature. Ethane and propane completely decomposed over all three bed materials in the temperature range investigated. However, the higher initial conversion rates of methane and ethylene cracking at all temperatures were observed only over the coal char and not on the petroleum coke and quartz, indicating a significant catalytic effect of the coal char on methane and ethylene cracking. Methane and ethylene conversions decreased with reaction time due to deactivation of the coal char by carbon deposition on the char surface and, in the later stage of a cracking experiment, became negative, suggesting that methane and ethylene had been formed during the cracking of ethane and propane. 16 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Table 7.4 Coal Imports by Country of Origin, 2000-2011 (Short Tons)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Imports by Country of Origin, 2000-2011 (Short Tons) Year Australia New Zealand Canada Mexico Colombia Venezuela China India Indonesia Europe South Africa Other Total Norway Poland Russia Ukraine United Kingdom Other Total 2000 167,595 0 1,923,434 6,671 7,636,614 2,038,774 19,646 205 718,149 0 0 1,212 0 238 0 1,450 0 85 12,512,623 2001 315,870 24,178 2,571,415 8,325 11,176,191 3,335,258 109,877 1,169 882,455 15,933 514,166 219,077 0 75,704 12 824,892 440,408 97,261 19,787,299 2002 821,280 0

  3. Table 7.5 Coal Exports by Country of Destination, 1960-2011 (Thousand Short Tons)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Exports by Country of Destination, 1960-2011 (Thousand Short Tons) Year Canada Brazil Europe Japan Other 3 Total Belgium 1 Denmark France Germany 2 Italy Nether- lands Spain Turkey United Kingdom Other 3 Total 1960 12,843 1,067 1,116 130 794 4,566 4,899 2,837 331 NA – 2,440 17,113 5,617 1,341 37,981 1961 12,135 994 971 80 708 4,326 4,797 2,552 228 NA – 2,026 15,688 6,614 974 36,405 1962 12,302 1,327 1,289 38 851 5,056 5,978 3,320 766 NA 2 1,848 19,148 6,465 973 40,215 1963 14,557 1,161

  4. Table 7.7 Coal Mining Productivity, 1949-2011 (Short Tons per Employee Hour )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Mining Productivity, 1949-2011 (Short Tons per Employee Hour 1) Year Mining Method Location Total 2 Underground Surface 2 East of the Mississippi West of the Mississippi Underground Surface 2 Total 2 Underground Surface 2 Total 2 1949 0.68 [3] 1.92 [3] NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.72 1950 .72 [3] 1.96 [3] NA NA NA NA NA NA .76 1951 .76 [3] 2.00 [3] NA NA NA NA NA NA .80 1952 .80 [3] 2.10 [3] NA NA NA NA NA NA .84 1953 .88 [3] 2.22 [3] NA NA NA NA NA NA .93 1954 1.00 [3] 2.48 [3] NA NA NA NA NA NA

  5. Blast furnace coke quality in relation to petroleum coke addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, R.; Diez, M.A.; Menendez, J.A.; Barriocanal, C.; Pis, J.J.; Sirgado, M.

    1995-12-01

    The incorporation of petroleum coke as an additive in industrial coking coal blends is a practice often used by steel companies. A suitable blast furnace coke produced by replacing part of the coking coal blend with a suitable petroleum coke (addition of 5 to 15%), was made by Great Lakes Carbon Corporation and successfully tested at several blast furnaces. This coke had lower reactivity, less ash and slightly higher sulfur content than coke made without the addition of petroleum coke. In contrast with these results, it has been reported in a BCRA study that additions of petroleum coke to a strong coking coal, above 5 wt%, increased coke reactivity. These differences may be explained on the basis of the coal or blend characteristics to which petroleum coke is added. Petroleum coke addition seems to give better results if the coal/blend has high fluidity. The present situation in Spain is favorable for the use of petroleum coke. So, a study of laboratory and semi-industrial scale was made to assess the possibility of using petroleum coke as an additive to the typical industrial coal blend coked by the Spanish Steel Company, ENSIDESA. The influence of the petroleum coke particle size was also studied to semi-industrial scale.

  6. How to implement a quality program in a coking plant. The AHMSA experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes M, M.A.; Perez, J.L.; Garza, C. de la; Morales, M.

    1995-12-01

    AHMSA (Altos Hornos de Mexico) is the largest integrated Steel Plant in Mexico, with its 3.1 MMMT of Liquid Steel production program for 1995. AHMSA operates two coke plants which began operations in 1955 and 1976. Total coke monthly production capacity amounts to as much as 106,000 Metric Tons (MT). The coke plants working philosophy was discussed and established in 1986 as part of the Quality Improvement Program, where its ultimate goal is to give the best possible coke quality to its main client--the blast furnaces. With this goal in mind, a planned joint effort with their own coal mines was initiated. This paper deals with the implementation process of the Quality Program, and the results of this commitment at the coal mines, coke plants and blast furnaces. The coke quality improvement is shown since 1985 to 1994, as well as the impact on the blast furnace operation.

  7. Use of a scale model for coke oven charging practice development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Case, E.R.; Pendergras, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    A 1/8 scale model coke oven was designed and built for use as a tool to improve coke oven charging practice. Major goals of the program were to increase coke oven productivity and decrease charging emissions. The material used to simulate coal in the model was chosen on the basis of angle of repose. the proper choice of media to simulate the coke oven charge, under a given set of operating conditions, was essential to obtain correspondence between the model and the production oven. Oven profiles were very similar after individual larry car hoppers were dropped and after leveling. Improved coke oven charging practices developed with the coke oven model, in combination with close control by operating personnel, have resulted in increased coke oven charge weights of over 1.0 ton/oven without increased charging emissions.

  8. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coke and Breeze Stocks at Coke Plants by Census Division (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2014 Table 41. Coke and Breeze Stocks at Coke Plants by Census Division (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2014 Census Division June 30, 2014 March 31, 2014 June 30, 2013 Percent Change (June 30) 2014 versus 2013 Middle Atlantic 215 126 54 296.0 East North Central 627 635 724

  9. 1984 Virginia coal mine directory: producers of 100,000 tons or more

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hibbard, W.R. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this directory is to identify major Virginia coal sources for the use of prospective buyers and other interested parties. It is divided into lists: (1) 1984 Virginia coal production, (2) eighty-five largest companies identified by MSHA, (3) alphabetical listing of Virginia coal mines, (4) alphabetical listing of coal mines by county, and (5) coal mines rated by production figures. The rating order for the last list includes factors affecting productivity such as type of mine, number of injuries, seam thickness, total production, and average employment.

  10. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    U.S. Coal Stocks, 2008 - 2014 (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2014 Table 37. U.S. Coal Stocks, 2008 - 2014 (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2014 Coal Consumers Last Day of Quarter Electric Power Sector 1 Coke Plants Other Industrial 2 Commercial and Institutional Users Total Coal Producers and Distributors Total 2008 March 31 146,497 1,462 4,818 448 153,225 34,876

  11. Table 11.2c Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Industrial Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    c Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Industrial Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal Coal Coke Net Imports Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Retail Elec- tricity 8 Total 2 Biomass 2 Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Kero- sene LPG 5 Lubri- cants Motor Gasoline 6 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Other 7 Total Wood 9 Waste 10 Fuel Ethanol 11 Total 1949 500 -1 166 41 18 3 3 16 8 95 25 209 120 995 44 NA NA 44 1950 531 (s) 184 51 20 4 3 18 8 110 26 239 140 1,095 50 NA NA 50

  12. ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.1;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components" " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues",,,," " " "," ","

  13. Simulation of industrial coking -- Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todoschuk, T.W.; Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F.

    1997-12-31

    Two statistically designed experimental programs using an Appalachian and a Western Canadian coal blend were run in CANMET`s 460mm (18 inch) movable wall oven. Factors included coal grind, moisture, oil addition, carbonization rate and final coke temperature. Coke quality parameters including CSR, coal charge characteristics and pressure generation were analyzed.

  14. Coal Market Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    power generation, industrial steam generation, coal-to-liquids production, coal coke manufacturing, residentialcommercial consumption, and coal exports) within the CMM. By...

  15. U.S. coal outlook in Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-02-01

    Coal exports from the US to Asia are declining over time as a result of (1) increased competition from coal suppliers within the Asia-Pacific region, (2) changing steel making technologies, (3) decreased emphasis on security of coal supplies, and (4) deregulation of the energy industry--particularly electric utilities. There are no major changes on the horizon that are likely to alter the role of the US as a modest coal supplier to the Asia-Pacific region. The downward trend in US coal exports to Asia is expected to continue over the 1997--2010 period. But economic and policy changes underway in Asia are likely to result in periodic coal shortages, lasting a few months to a year, and short term increased export opportunities for US coal. US coal exports to Asia are projected to fluctuate within the following ranges over the 2000--2010 period: 10--17 million tons in total exports, 6--12 million tons in thermal coal exports, and 4--9 million tons in coking coal exports. The most important role for US coal, from the perspective of Asian coal importing countries, is to ensure a major alternative source of coal supplies that can be turned to in the event of unforeseen disruptions in coal supplies from the Asia-Pacific region or South Africa. However, the willingness of consumers to pay a premium to ensure US export capacity is declining, with increased emphasis on obtaining the lowest cost coal supplies.

  16. Planning for the 400,000 tons/year AISI ironmaking demonstration plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aukrust, E. . AISI Direct Steelmaking Program)

    1993-01-01

    The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) has formulated a four-year program to design, construct, and operate a 400,000 net ton per year ironmaking demonstration plant. The plant will employ the coal-based ironmaking process developed under a 1989 cooperative agreement with DOE. AISI will manage the design and construction to be completed in the first two years and operate the plant for the second two years with a variety or ores, coals, and fluxes. Campaigns of increasing length are planned to optimize operations. After successful operation, the plant will be taken over by the host company. Results of studies to date indicate that, on a commercial scale, the AISI process will use 27% less energy and have variable operating costs $10 per ton lower and capital costs of $160 per annual ton, compared to the $250 per annual ton rebuild cost for the coke oven-blast furnace process it will replace. The process will enable the domestic steel industry to become more competitive by reducing its capital and operating cost. Furthermore, by eliminating the pollution problems associated with coke production and by completely enclosing the smelting reactions, this process represents a major step towards an environmentally friendly steel industry.

  17. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the first quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  18. High coking value pitch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  19. Coking and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Billimoria, Rustom M.; Tao, Frank F.

    1986-01-01

    An improved coking process for normally solid carbonaceous materials wherein the yield of liquid product from the coker is increased by adding ammonia or an ammonia precursor to the coker. The invention is particularly useful in a process wherein coal liquefaction bottoms are coked to produce both a liquid and a gaseous product. Broadly, ammonia or an ammonia precursor is added to the coker ranging from about 1 to about 60 weight percent based on normally solid carbonaceous material and is preferably added in an amount from about 2 to about 15 weight percent.

  20. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: Blast furnace granulated coal injection system demonstration project: A project proposed by: Bethlehem Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, has requested financial assistance from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a 2800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for each of two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. BFGCI technology involves injecting coal directly into an iron-making blast furnace and subsequently reduces the need for coke on approximately a pound of coke for pound of coal basis. BFGCI also increases blast furnace production. Coke will be replaced with direct coal injection at a rate of up to 400 pounds per NTHM. The reducing environment of the blast furnace enables all of the sulfur in the coal to be captured by the slag and hot metal. The gases exiting the blast furnace are cleaned by cyclones and then wet scrubbing to remove particulates. The cleaned blast furnace gas is then used as a fuel in plant processes. There is no measurable sulfur in the off gas. The primary environmental benefits derived from blast furnace coal injection result from the reduction of coke requirements for iron making. Reduced coke production will result in reduced releases of environmental contaminants from coking operations. 5 figs.

  1. Problems of organizing zero-effluent production in coking plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiskii, S.V.; Kagasov, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    The basic method of protecting the environment against pollution by coking plants in the future must be the organization of zero-waste production cycles. Problems associated with the elimination of effluent are considered. In the majority of plants at present, the phenolic effluent formed during coal carbonization and chemical product processing is completely utilized within the plant as a coke quenching medium (the average rate of phenolic effluent formation is 0.4 m/sup 3//ton of dry charge, which equals the irrecoverable water losses in coke quenching operations). However, the increasing adoption of dry coke cooling is inevitably associated with increasing volumes of surplus effluent which cannot be disposed of in coke quenching towers. As a result of experiments it was concluded that: 1. The utilization of phenolic effluent in closed-cycle watercooling systems does not entirely solve the effluent disposal problem. The volume of surplus effluent depends on the volume originally formed, the rate of consuming water in circulation and the time of year. In order to dispose of surplus effluent, wet quenching must be retained for a proportion of the coke produced. 2. The greatest hazards in utilizing phenolic effluent in closed-cycle watercooling systems are corrosion and the build-up of suspended solids. The water must be filtered and biochemically purified before it is fed into the closed-cycle watercooling systems. The total ammonia content after purification should not exceed 100 to 150 mg/l. 3. Stormwater and thawed snow can be used in closed-cycle water supply systems after purification. 4. The realization of zero-effluent conditions in existing plants will require modifications to the existing water supply systems.

  2. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance. Although the blending of petroleum coke with coal may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

  3. The correlation between reactivity and ash mineralogy of coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerkkonen, O.; Mattila, E.; Heiniemi, R.

    1996-12-31

    Rautaruukki is a modern integrated Finnish steel works having a production of 2.4 mil. t/year of flat products. The total fuel consumption of the two blast furnaces in 1994 was 435 kg/t HM. Coke used was 345 kg/t HM and oil injection was 90 kg/t HM. The coking plant was taken in to operation in 1987 and is the only one in Finland, which means that the coking tradition is very short. Coke production is 0.9 mil. t/year. The coking blends include 70--80% medium volatile coals having a wide range of total dilatation. From time to time disturbances in the operation of the blast furnaces have occurred in spite of the fact that the reactivity of the coke used has remained constant or even decreased. It was thought necessary to investigate the factors affecting coke reactivity, in order to better understand the results of the reactivity test. This paper deals with carbonization tests done in a 7 kg test oven using nine individual coals having volatile-matter contents of 17--36% (dry) and seven blends made from these coals. Coke reactivity with CO{sub 2} at 1100 C (CRI) and coke strength after reaction (CSR) were determined using the test developed by the Nippon Steel Corporation. The influence of coke carbon form, porosity and especially ash mineralogy on the coke reactivity were examined. The effects of some additives; petroleum coke (pet coke), the spillage material from the coke ovens and oxidized coal, on coke quality were also studied. Typical inorganic minerals found in coals were added to one of the high volatile coals, which was then coked to determine the affect of the minerals on the properties of the coke produced.

  4. An update on blast furnace granular coal injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, D.G.; Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W.

    1997-12-31

    A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

  5. Quarterly coal report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  6. Annual Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    & distribution Coal-fired electric power plants Transportation costs to electric power ... domestic distribution, while industrial plants excluding coke received 4.8%, coke plants ...

  7. Rheology of petroleum coke-water slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, M.; Mall, B.K.; Mukherjee, A.; Basu, S.K.; Verma, S.K.; Narasimhan, K.S.

    1998-07-01

    This paper reports the results of the studies carried out on the optimization of particle size distribution, the rheological characteristics and stability of highly loaded petroleum coke-water slurry using three additives. The solids loading achieved in the slurries were in the range of 65% to 75.6% depending on the additives used. Slurry viscosity varied between 267 to 424 mPas at 128 s{sup {minus}} shear rate. The petroleum coke-water slurries exhibited pseudoplastic characteristics with yield tending towards Bingham plastic as the solids loading progressively increased. The effect of addition of petroleum coke to the extent of 25% in coal-water slurry prepared from low ash Ledo coal of Makum field in Assam was also examined. The slurry containing coal-petroleum coke blend showed better stability, having shelf life of 7 days as compared to 5 days in the case of petroleum coke-water slurry.

  8. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L.

    1995-12-01

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  9. Reducing power production costs by utilizing petroleum coke. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galbreath, K.C.

    1998-07-01

    A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

  10. Coke cake behavior under compressive forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watakabe, S.; Takeda, T.; Itaya, H.; Suginobe, H.

    1997-12-31

    The deformation of the coke cake and load on the side wall during pushing were studied using an electric furnace equipped with a movable wall. Coke cake was found to deform in three stages under compressive forces. The coke cake was shortened in the pushing direction in the cake deformation stage, and load was generated on the side walls in the high wall load stage. Secondary cracks in the coke cake were found to prevent load transmission on the wall. The maximum load transmission rate was controlled by adjusting the maximum fluidity and mean reflectance of the blended coal.

  11. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    1999-09-01

    Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and

  12. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities. This report presents detailed quarterly data for october through December 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the third quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  13. Improvement of coke quality by utilization of hydrogenation residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meckel, J.F. ); Wairegi, T. )

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogenation residue is the product left over when petroleum residue feedstocks (or coal) are treated by, e.g. the Veba Combi Cracking (VCC) process. Many tests in semitechnical and full-sized coke ovens were carried out with hydrogenation residue (HR) as an additive in coking coal blends for the production of blast furnace coke or foundry coke. The results of the investigations reported in this paper demonstrate that HR is a very promising alternative for enlarging the coking coal basis compared to other processes or the use of other additives. The application of HR on an industrial scale did not indicate any negative impact on the handling of the hydrogenation residue or on the operation of the coke oven battery.

  14. DOE/EIA-M060(2007) Coal Market Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    power generation, industrial steam generation, coal-to-liquids production, coal coke manufacturing, residentialcommercial consumption, and coal exports) within the CMM. By...

  15. Coal Market Module of the Energy Modeling System Model Documentation...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    power generation, industrial steam generation, coal-to-liquids production, coal coke manufacturing, residentialcommercial consumption, and coal exports) within the CMM. By...

  16. Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System Model...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    power generation, industrial steam generation, coal-to-liquids production, coal coke manufacturing, residentialcommercial consumption, and coal exports) within the CMM. By...

  17. Coal resources of Kyrgyzstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landis, E.R.; Bostick, N.H.; Gluskoter, H.J.; Johnson, E.A.; Harrison, C.D.; Huber, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    The rugged, mountainous country of Kyrgyzstan contains about one-half of the known coal resources of central Asia (a geographic and economic region that also includes Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan and Turkmenistan). Coal of Jurassic age is present in eight regions in Kyrgyzstan in at least 64 different named localities. Significant coal occurrences of about the same age are present in the central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, China, and Russia. Separation of the coal-bearing rocks into individual deposits results more than earth movements before and during formation of the present-day mountains and basins of the country than from deposition in separate basins.Separation was further abetted by deep erosion and removal of the coal-bearing rocks from many areas, followed by covering of the remaining coal-bearing rocks by sands and gravels of Cenozoic age. The total resources of coal in Kyrgyzstan have been reported as about 30 billion tons. In some of the reported localities, the coal resources are known and adequately explored. In other parts of the republic, the coal resources are inadequately understood or largely unexplored. The resource and reserve inventory of Kyrgyzstan is at best incomplete; for some purposes, such as short-term local and long-range national planning, it may be inadequate. Less than 8% of the total estimated resources are categorized as recoverable reserves, and the amount that is economically recoverable is unknown. The coal is largely of subbituminous and high-volatile C bituminous rank, most has low and medium ash and sulfur contents, and coals of higher rank (some with coking qualities) are present in one region. It is recommended that appropriate analyses and tests be made during planning for utilization.

  18. Demand for superpremium needle cokes on upswing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acciarri, J.A.; Stockman, G.H. )

    1989-12-01

    The authors discuss how recent supply shortages of super-premium quality needle cokes, plus the expectation of increased shortfalls in the future, indicate that refiners should consider upgrading their operations to fill these demands. Calcined, super-premium needle cokes are currently selling for as much as $550/metric ton, fob producer, and increasing demand will continue the upward push of the past year. Needle coke, in its calcined form, is the major raw material in the manufacture of graphite electrodes. Used in steelmaking, graphite electrodes are the electrical conductors that supply the heat source, through arcing electrode column tips, to electric arc steel furnaces. Needle coke is commercially available in three grades - super premium, premium, and intermediate. Super premium is used to produce electrodes for the most severe electric arc furnace steelmaking applications, premium for electrodes destined to less severe operations, and intermediate for even less critical needs.

  19. Table 11.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Source, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Source, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal 3 Natural Gas 4 Petroleum Total 2,9 Biomass 2 Aviation Gasoline Distillate Fuel Oil 5 Jet Fuel Kero- sene LPG 6 Lubri- cants Motor Gasoline 7 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Other 8 Total Wood 10 Waste 11 Fuel Ethanol 12 Bio- diesel Total 1949 1,118 270 12 140 NA 42 13 7 329 8 244 25 820 2,207 145 NA NA NA 145 1950 1,152 313 14 168 NA 48 16 9 357 8 273 26 918 2,382 147 NA NA

  20. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-24

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  1. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-23

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the third quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  2. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    This Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience,including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  3. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-24

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the fourth quarter of 1993. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  4. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  5. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 4th Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  6. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  7. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  8. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  9. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  10. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 4th Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  11. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  12. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  13. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  14. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  15. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  16. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  17. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  18. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  19. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  20. Technical and economic aspects of coal injection at blast furnace tuyeres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, L.N.

    1981-01-01

    The basic factors in selection of an auxiliary fuel have been mentioned. These include availability and cost of the auxiliary fuel, cost of injection facilities, and coke availability. Operating factors such as coal particle size, hot blast temperature, lance location, and flame temperature were discussed as they relate to the efficiency of coal combustion, therefore the economics of a system. Safety is a must when preparing and storing pulverized coal. An unsafe system will never be economical. Based on years of experience at Bellefonte a safe system has been installed at Amanda with no problems in seven years of operation. Coal quality must be considered primarily as regards ash content. A significant penalty is paid for injected ash. Both coking and non-coking coals with the same ash content have been injected with equally successful results. A simplified economic analysis gives an indication of the possible justification of a coal injection system. Replacing 130 lbs oil per net ton of hot metal with an equivalent amount of coal will result in an annual savings of 12.3 million dollars for a 5000 TPD furnace, and a cost payback of three (3) years after start-up. 3 figures, 1 table.

  1. Chemicals from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

    2004-12-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

  2. Health-hazard evaluation report No. HETA-88-377-2120, Armco Coke Oven, Ashland Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinnes, G.M.; Fleeger, A.K.; Baron, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    In response to a request from the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union, a study was made of possible hazardous working conditions at ARMCO Coke Oven (SIC-3312), Ashland, Kentucky. The facility produces about 1,000,000 tons of coke annually. Of the approximately 400 total employees at the coke oven site, 55 work in the by products area. Air quality sampling results indicated overexposure to both benzene (71432) and coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPVs). Airborne levels of benzene ranged as high as 117 parts per million (ppm) with three of 17 samples being above the OSHA limit of 1ppm. Airborne concentrations of CTPVs ranged as high as 0.38mg/cu m with two of six readings being above OSHA limit of 0.2mg/cu m. Several polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were also detected. The authors conclude that by products area workers are potentially overexposed to carcinogens, including benzene, CTPVs, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. An epidemiologic study is considered unlikely to yield meaningful information at this time, due to the small number of workers and the short follow up period. The authors recommend specific measures for reducing potential employee exposures, including an environmental sampling program, a preventive maintenance program, improved housekeeping procedures, and reducing exposure in operators' booths.

  3. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2003-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  4. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2004-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  5. Carbonization of blends of L'vovsk-Volynsk and Karaganda coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panchenko, N.I.; Maksimenko, I.I.; Glushchenko, I.M.; Mel'nichhuk, A.Yu.; Pustovoit, M.I.; Plvnyak, V.I.

    1981-07-01

    It has been shown that the coking of blends of Donbass, Karaganda and L'vov-Volynya coals can produce metallurgical coke of satisfactory quality. In view of the shortage of Donbass coking coals, and the availability of coals from the other two regions, it is obviously advantageous to increase the application of these latter coals in Ukraine coking plants by incorporating them in blends for the production of metallurgical coke. An account is given of tests at a Ukraine coking plant showing the effects of the Karaganda coal, which has a high fusinite and semi-vitrinite content, and the Volynya coal which has a high liptinite content. (6 refs.)

  6. Table 35. U.S. Coal Consumption at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Coke Net Residual Distillate Natural Gas(d) LPG and Coal and Breeze NAICS Total Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(c) (billion NGL(e) (million (million Other(f) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) short tons) (trillion Btu) Total United States 311 Food 1,158 75,407 2 4 563 1 8 * 99

  7. Quarterly coal report July--September 1995, February 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-16

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the second quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  8. Review of a Proposed Quarterly Coal Publication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This Review of a Proposed Quartery Coal Publication contains findings and recommendations regarding the content of a new summary Energy Information Administration (EIA) coal and coke publication entitled The Quarterly Coal Review (QCR). It is divided into five sections: results of interviews with selected EIA data users; identification of major functions of the coal and coke industries; analysis of coal and coke data collection activities; evaluation of issues conerning data presentation including recommendations for the content of the proposed QCR; and comparison of the proposed QCR with other EIA publications. Major findings and recommendations are as follows: (1) User interviews indicate a definite need for a compehensive publication that would support analyses and examine economic, supply and demand trends in the coal industry; (2) the organization of the publication should reflect the natural order of activities of the coal and coke industries. Based on an analysis of the industries, these functions are: production, stocks, imports, exports, distribution, and consumption; (3) current EIA coal and coke surveys collect sufficient data to provide a summary of the coal and coke industries on a quarterly basis; (4) coal and coke data should be presented separately. Coke data could be presented as an appendix; (5) three geographic aggregations are recommended in the QCR. These are: US total, coal producing districts, and state; (6) coal consumption data should be consolidated into four major consumer categories: electric utilities, coke plants, other industrial, and residential commercial; (7) several EIA publications could be eliminated by the proposed QCR.

  9. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be

  10. Factors affecting coking pressures in tall coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimley, J.J.; Radley, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    The detrimental effects of excessive coking pressures, resulting in the permanent deformation of coke oven walls, have been recognized for many years. Considerable research has been undertaken worldwide in attempts to define the limits within which a plant may safely operate and to quantify the factors which influence these pressures. Few full scale techniques are available for assessing the potential of a coal blend for causing wall damage. Inference of dangerous swelling pressures may be made however by the measurement of the peak gas pressure which is generated as the plastic layers meet and coalesce at the center of the oven. This pressure is referred to in this report as the carbonizing pressure. At the Dawes Lane cokemaking plant of British Steel`s Scunthorpe Works, a large database has been compiled over several years from the regulator measurement of this pressure. This data has been statistically analyzed to provide a mathematical model for predicting the carbonizing pressure from the properties of the component coals, the results of this analysis are presented in this report.

  11. Coal Markets

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Markets | Archive Coal Markets Weekly production Dollars per short ton Dollars per mmbtu Average weekly coal commodity spot prices dollars per short ton Week ending Week ago change Central Appalachia 12,500 Btu, 1.2 SO2 Northern Appalachia 13,000 Btu, < 3.0 SO2 Illinois Basin 11,800 Btu, 5.0 SO2 Powder River Basin 8,800 Btu, 0.8 SO2 Uinta Basin 11,700 Btu, 0.8 SO2 Source: With permission, SNL Energy Note: Coal prices shown reflect those of relatively high-Btu coal selected in each region

  12. Integration of stripping of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeorge, Charles W.

    1980-01-01

    In an integrated fluid coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a wet scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped to remove acidic gases, the stripped vapors of the stripping zone are sent to the gas cleanup stage of the gasification product gas. The improved stripping integration is particularly useful in the combination coal liquefaction process, fluid coking of bottoms of the coal liquefaction zone and gasification of the product coke.

  13. Coke formation in visbreaking process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, T.Y. )

    1987-04-01

    Visbreaking is a mild cracking process primarily used to reduce residual oil viscosity and thus decrease the amount of cutter stock required for blending to heavy fuels specification. It can also be used to produce incremental quantities of gasoline, middle distillates and catalytic cracker feeds. This process was widely used in the 1930s and 1940s and became obsolete until a few years ago. When the need for increased conversion of residues to light products became desirable, visbreaking offered economic advantages to many refining schemes - especially in Western Europe. Between 1978-1981, Exxon brought on stream seven visbreakers ranging from 1900 to 9100 tons/SD capacity. In January 1983, the world-wide visbreaking capacity was over 2 MM B/SD. The visbreaking process and its application in refinery operations have been well described. In general, the process economics improve as the process severity is increased but it is limited by coke formation in the process. For this reason, they have studied the kinetics of coke formation in the visbreaking process.

  14. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2001 (Thousand Short Tons) DESTINATION: Alabama State of Origin by...

  15. A coke oven model including thermal decomposition kinetics of tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munekane, Fuminori; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Tanioka, Seiichi

    1997-12-31

    A new one-dimensional coke oven model has been developed for simulating the amount and the characteristics of by-products such as tar and gas as well as coke. This model consists of both heat transfer and chemical kinetics including thermal decomposition of coal and tar. The chemical kinetics constants are obtained by estimation based on the results of experiments conducted to investigate the thermal decomposition of both coal and tar. The calculation results using the new model are in good agreement with experimental ones.

  16. Coal liquefaction quenching process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorogood, Robert M.; Yeh, Chung-Liang; Donath, Ernest E.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

  17. Table 11.2b Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Commercial Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Commercial Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Retail Electricity 7 Total 2 Biomass 2 Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Kerosene LPG 5 Motor Gasoline 6 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Total Wood 8 Waste 9 Fuel Ethanol 10 Total 1949 148 19 16 3 2 7 NA 28 55 58 280 2 NA NA 2 1950 147 21 19 3 2 7 NA 33 66 63 297 2 NA NA 2 1951 125 25 21 4 3 8 NA 34 70 69 289 2 NA NA 2 1952 112 28 22 4 3 8 NA 35 71 73

  18. Table 11.2e Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Electric Power Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    e Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Electric Power Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Geo- thermal Non- Biomass Waste 5 Total 2 Biomass 2 Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Total Wood 6 Waste 7 Total 1949 187 30 2 NA 30 33 NA NA 250 1 NA 1 1950 206 35 2 NA 35 37 NA NA 278 1 NA 1 1951 235 42 2 NA 29 31 NA NA 308 1 NA 1 1952 240 50 2 NA 31 33 NA NA 323 1 NA 1 1953 260 57 3 NA 38 40 NA NA 358 (s) NA (s)

  19. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

    2005-10-01

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  20. An investigation of the properties of pitch coke modified by chemically active additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulakov, V.V.; Fedeneva, E.N.; Neproshin, E.I.

    1984-01-01

    The results of an investigation are presented of the influence of chemically active additives on the yield and properties of coke from hard-coal pitch. A comparison has been made of the efficacy of the influence of these additives.

  1. Cokemaking from coals of Kuzbas and Donbas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umansky, R.Z.; Kovalev, E.T.; Drozdnik, I.D.

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses features of Donetsk and Kuznetsk coals, the export capability of Ukraine coking industry, the selection of coal blends involving coals from different basins, and practical recommendations and techno-economic considerations. It is concluded that by raising the share of low-sulfur Kuznetsk coal in the blend to 50%, coke produced will meet all the requirements of European and American consumers.

  2. Coal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Coal is the largest domestically produced source of energy in America and is used to generate a significant amount of our nation’s electricity.

  3. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Stocks of Coal, Petroleum Liquids, and Petroleum Coke: Electric Power Sector, 2004 - 2014 Electric Power Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Period Coal (Thousand Tons) Petroluem Liquids (Thousand Barrels) Petroleum Coke (Thousand Tons) Coal (Thousand Tons) Petroluem Liquids (Thousand Barrels) Petroleum Coke (Thousand Tons) Coal (Thousand Tons) Petroluem Liquids (Thousand Barrels) Petroleum Coke (Thousand Tons) End of Year Stocks 2004 106,669 46,750 937 84,917 29,144 627

  4. U.S. Domestic and Foreign Coal Distribution by State of Origin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (thousand short tons) Coal Exports Coal Origin State and Region Domestic Distribution By Coal Mines By Brokers & Traders* Total Exports Total Distribution Alabama 10,679.56...

  5. Coal production, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Coal production in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal production that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal production in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine production occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of production was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground production was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons).

  6. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  7. Coal industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  8. Domestic Coal Distribution 2009 Q1 by Destination State: Alabama

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Domestic Coal Distribution 2009 Q1 by Destination State: Alabama (1000 Short Tons) 1 64 Domestic Coal Distribution 2009 Q1 by Destination State: Alabama (1000 Short Tons)...

  9. Domestic Coal Distribution 2009 Q2 by Destination State: Alabama

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    61 Domestic Coal Distribution 2009 Q2 by Destination State: Alabama (1000 Short Tons) 1 61 Domestic Coal Distribution 2009 Q2 by Destination State: Alabama (1000 Short Tons)...

  10. Treatment of petroleum cokes to inhibit coke puffing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orac, T.H.; Quandt, H.C.; Ball, D.R.

    1992-06-02

    This patent describes apparatus for treating raw petroleum coke particles. It comprises an elongated, cylindrical, calcining kiln having an inlet end and an outlet end; and entrance chamber and a discharge chamber, an elongated, cylindrical, cooler having an inlet end and an outlet end; means defining a retention chamber communicating with the discharge chamber; means defining a hot zone communicating with the retention chamber and the inlet end of the cooler; means for introducing a dry, granulated, puffing inhibitor into the retention chamber in contact with the calcined coke particles; and a coke delivery chamber for collecting the cooled, calcined coke particles at the outlet end of the cooler.

  11. "Table 2. Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary Transport Mode and Supply Region" "(2013 dollars per ton)" "Coal Supply Region",2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "Railroad"...

  12. Table 1. Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal, By Year and Primary Transport Mode" "Year","Average Transportation Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton)","Average Delivered Cost...

  13. EIA - Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of U.S Coal by Destination Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2004 (Thousand Short Tons)...

  14. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Stocks at Commercial and Institutional Users by Census Division and State (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June ...

  15. 11,202,720 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of October 14, 2015...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOE's Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is ...

  16. 11,202,720 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of October 14, 2015

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOEs Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is equivalent to the...

  17. 12,877,644 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of July 1, 2016

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOE’s Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is equivalent to the...

  18. COKEMASTER: Coke plant management system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johanning, J.; Reinke, M.

    1996-12-31

    To keep coke utilization in ironmaking as competitive as possible, the potential to improve the economics of coke production has to be utilized. As one measure to meet this need of its customers, Krupp Koppers has expanded its existing ECOTROL computer system for battery heating control to a comprehensive Coke Plant Management System. Increased capacity utilization, lower energy consumption, stabilization of plant operation and ease of operation are the main targets.

  19. Table 21. U.S. Coke Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. U.S. Coke Imports (short tons) Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 2,763 52,115 2,035 2,763 2,035 35.8 Canada 2,763 52,115 2,035 2,763 2,035 35.8 Europe Total 1,056 1,156 14 1,056 14 NM Austria - 3 - - - - France - 23 - - - - Germany, Federal Republic of - - 11 - 11 - Italy 1,043 976 - 1,043 - - Spain - 141 - - - - United Kingdom 13 13 3 13 3 333.3 Asia Total 457 326 954 457

  20. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-26

    In the second quarter of 1993, the United States produced 235 million short tons of coal. This brought the total for the first half of 1993 to 477 million short tons, a decrease of 4 percent (21 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first half of 1992. The decrease was due to a 26-million-short-ton decline in production east of the Mississippi River, which was partially offset by a 5-million-short-ton increase in coal production west of the Mississippi River. Compared with the first 6 months of 1992, all States east of the Mississippi River had lower coal production levels, led by West Virginia and Illinois, which produced 9 million short tons and 7 million short tons less coal, respectively. The principal reasons for the drop in coal output for the first 6 months of 1993 compared to a year earlier were: a decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets, particularly the steam coal markets; a draw-down of electric utility coal stocks to meet the increase in demand for coal-fired electricity generation; and a lower producer/distributor stock build-up. Distribution of US coal in the first half of 1993 was 15 million short tons lower than in the first half of 1992, with 13 million short tons less distributed to overseas markets and 2 million short tons less distributed to domestic markets.

  1. Role of hydrogen in blast furnaces to improve productivity and decrease coke consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.; Stevens, G.; Clark, R.; Smith, D.

    1995-12-01

    The hydrogen contained in blast furnace gases exerts a variety of physical, thermochemical, and kinetic effects as the gases pass through the various zones. The hydrogen is derived from two sources: (1) the dissociation of moisture in the blast air (ambient and injected with hot blast), and (2) the release from partial combustion of supplemental fuels (including moisture in atomizing water, steam, or transport air, if any). With each atom of oxygen (or carbon), the molar amounts of hydrogen released are more than six times higher for natural gas than for coal, and two times higher for natural gas than for oil. Injection of natural gas in a blast furnace is not a new process. Small amounts of natural gas--about 50--80 lb or 1,100--1,700 SCF/ton of hot metal--have been injected in many of the North American blast furnaces since the early 1960s, with excellent operating results. What is new, however, is a batter understanding of how natural gas reacts in the blast furnace and how natural gas and appropriate quantities of oxygen can be used to increase the driving rate or combustion rate of carbon (coke) in the blast furnace without causing hanging furnace and operating problems. The paper discusses the factors limiting blast furnace productivity and how H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} can increase productivity.

  2. Coal industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  3. Usibelli Coal Mine - Cleaner Energy, Brighter Future

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    * Operated by Aurora Energy Services, LLC 14 Historical Coal Export Markets * South Korea - 15 million tons since 1984 * Chile - 3.3 million tons since 2003 * Japan - 840,000 ...

  4. Centrifuge treatment of coal tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov

    2009-07-15

    New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

  5. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derbidge, T. Craig; Mulholland, James A.; Foster, Edward P.

    1986-01-01

    An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

  6. Quarterly coal report, April 1996--June 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    This report provides information about U.S. coal production, distribution; exports, imports, prices, consumption, and stocks. Data on coke production is also provided. This report presents data for April 1996 thru June 1996.

  7. Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-30

    Production levels on each furnace exceeded 7000 NTHM/day during July. The combined production of 14,326 was a result of lower coke rates and below average delay rates on both furnaces, The combined production was at its highest level since September 1997. In August, the combined productivity declined to less than 13,500 NTHM/day. Although D furnace maintained a production rate in excess of 7000 NTHM/day, C furnace was lower because of a castfloor breakout and subsequent five day repair from August 26-30. Despite the lower productivity in August, injected coal and furnace coke rates were very good during the month. During September, the operation was difficult as a result of higher delays on both furnaces. The combined average monthly delay rate was considerably above the twenty-month average of 113 minutes per day and the combined average monthly production was less than 14,000 NTHM/day. Higher furnace coke rates at lower coal injection levels also contributed to the decrease. Additionally, the coke rate on both furnaces was increased substantially and the injected coal rate was decreased in preparation for the high volatile Colorado coal trial that started on September 28. The furnace process results for this quarter are shown in Tables 1A and 1B. In addition, the last twelve months of injected coal and coke rates for each furnace are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

  8. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-20

    The United States produced 242 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1993, a decrease of 6 percent (14 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first quarter of 1992. The decrease was due to a decline in production east of the Mississippi River. All major coal-producing States in this region had lower coal production levels led by West Virginia, which produced 5 million short tons less coal. The principal reasons for the overall drop in coal output compared to a year earlier were: A decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets; a slower rate of producer/distributor stock build-up; and a drawn-down of electric utility coal stocks. Distribution of US coal in the first quarter of 1993 was 10 million short tons lower than in the first quarter of 1992, with 5 million short tons less distributed to both electric utilities and overseas markets. The average price of coal delivered to electric utilities during the first quarter of 1993 was $28.65 per short ton, the lowest value since the first quarter of 1980. Coal consumption in the first quarter of 1993 was 230 million short tons, 4 percent higher than in the first quarter of 1992, due primarily to a 5-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Total consumer stocks, at 153 million short tons, and electric utility stocks, at 144 million short tons, were at their lowest quarterly level since the end of 1989. US. coal exports totaled 19 million short tons, 6 million short tons less than in the first quarter of 1992, and the lowest quarterly level since 1988. The decline was primarily due to a 1-million-short-ton drop in exports to each of the following destinations: Italy, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Canada.

  9. Gas treatment and by-products recovery of Thailand`s first coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diemer, P.E.; Seyfferth, W.

    1997-12-31

    Coke is needed in the blast furnace as the main fuel and chemical reactant and the main product of a coke plant. The second main product of the coke plant is coke oven gas. During treatment of the coke oven gas some coal chemicals like tar, ammonia, sulphur and benzole can be recovered as by-products. Since the market prices for these by-products are rather low and often erratic it does not in most cases justify the investment to recover these products. This is the reason why modern gas treatment plants only remove those impurities from the crude gas which must be removed for technical and environmental reasons. The cleaned gas, however, is a very valuable product as it replaces natural gas in steel work furnaces and can be used by other consumers. The surplus can be combusted in the boiler of a power plant. A good example for an optimal plant layout is the new coke oven facility of Thai Special Steel Industry (TSSI) in Rayong. The paper describes the TSSI`s coke oven gas treatment plant.

  10. U.S. monthly coal production increases

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    monthly coal production increases U.S. coal production in July totaled 88.9 million short tons, the highest level since August 2012, according to preliminary data from the U.S. ...

  11. Coal sector profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  12. Proposal of a novel multifunctional energy system for cogeneration of coke, hydrogen, and power - article no. 052001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, H.G.; Sun, S.; Han, W.; Gao, L.

    2009-09-15

    This paper proposes a novel multifunctional energy system (MES), which cogenerates coke, hydrogen, and power, through the use of coal and coke oven gas (COG). In this system, a new type of coke oven, firing coal instead of COG as heating resource for coking, is adopted. The COG rich in H{sub 2} is sent to a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit to separate about 80% of hydrogen first, and then the PSA purge gas is fed to a combined cycle as fuel. The new system combines the chemical processes and power generation system, along with the integration of chemical conversion and thermal energy utilization. In this manner, both the chemical energy of fuel and thermal energy can be used more effectively. With the same inputs of fuel and the same output of coking heat, the new system can produce about 65% more hydrogen than that of individual systems. As a result, the thermal efficiency of the new system is about 70%, and the exergy efficiency is about 66%. Compared with individual systems, the primary energy saving ratio can reach as high as 12.5%. Based on the graphical exergy analyses, we disclose that the integration of synthetic utilization of COG and coal plays a significant role in decreasing the exergy destruction of the MES system. The promising results obtained may lead to a clean coal technology that will utilize COG and coal more efficiently and economically.

  13. Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer Y.

    1991-01-01

    A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

  14. An overview of crisis management in the coke industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saunders, D.A.

    1995-12-01

    Members of the American Coke and Coal Chemicals Institute (ACCCI), as responsible corporate citizens, have embraced the concepts of crisis management and progress down the various paths of planning and preparation, monitoring, media communications, community outreach, emergency response, and recovery. Many of the concepts outlined here reflect elements of crisis management guidelines developed by the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA). At a coke plant, crises can take the form of fires, chemical releases, labor strikes, feedstock supply disruptions, and excessive snowfall, just to name a few. The CMA defines a crisis as: ``an unplanned event that has the potential to significantly impact a company`s operability or credibility, or to pose a significant environment, economic or legal liability``; and crisis management as: ``those activities undertaken to anticipate or prevent, prepare for, respond to and recover from any incident that has the potential to greatly affect the way a company conducts its business.

  15. TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

    2005-04-15

    Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

  16. STEO December 2012 - coal demand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    coal demand seen below 1 billion tons in 2012 for fourth year in a row Coal consumption by U.S. power plants to generate electricity is expected to fall below 1 billion tons in 2012 for the fourth year in a row. Domestic coal consumption is on track to total 829 million tons this year. That's the lowest level since 1992, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's new monthly energy forecast. Utilities and power plant operators are choosing to burn more lower-priced natural gas

  17. Coal production 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-11-07

    Coal Production 1985 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. All data presented in this report, except the total production table presented in the Highlights section, and the demonstrated reserve base data presented in Appendix A, were obtained from form EIA-7A, ''Coal Production Report,'' from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1985. The data cover 4105 of the 5477 US coal mining operations active in 1985. These mining operations accounted for 99.4% of total US coal production and represented 74.9% of all US coal mining operations in 1985. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve vase of coal in the US on January 1, 1985.

  18. Economics of coal fines utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hathi, V.; McHale, E.; Ramezan, M.; Winslow, J.

    1995-12-31

    In the twentieth century, coal has become the major fuel for electric power generation in the U.S. and most of the nonpetroleum-producing countries of the world. In 1998, the world coal-fired capacity for electric power generation was about 815 GW, consuming large quantities of coals of all ranks. Today, coal provides a third of the world`s energy requirements. In fact, coal use for power generation has grown steadily since the oil embargo in 1973 and has seen an even faster rate of growth in recent years. It has been reported that the global demand for new coal will increase by more than 1500 million tons by the year 2000. However, this increased production of coal has its drawbacks, including the concomitant production of coal waste. Reported estimates indicate that billions of tons of coal waste have already been disposed of in waste impoundments throughout the U.S. Further, in the U.S. today, about 20-25 % of each ton of mined coal is discarded by preparation plants as gob and plant tailings. It appears that the most economical near-term approach to coal waste recovery is to utilize the waste coal fines currently discarded with the refuse stream, rather than attempt to recover coal from waste impoundments that require careful prior evaluation and site preparation. A hypothetical circuit was designed to examine the economics of recovery and utilization of waste coal fines. The circuit recovers products from 100 tons per hour (tph) of coal waste feed recovering 70 tph of fine coal that can be used in coal-fired boilers. The present analysis indicates that the coal waste recovery is feasible and economical. In addition, significant environmental benefits can be expected.

  19. Energy Information Administration quarterly coal report, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-21

    The United States produced just over 1 billion short tons of coal in 1992, 0.4 percent more than in 1991. Most of the 4-million-short-ton increase in coal production occurred west of the Mississippi River, where a record level of 408 million short tons of coal was produced. The amount of coal received by domestic consumers in 1992 totaled 887 million short tons. This was 7 million short tons more than in 1991, primarily due to increased coal demand from electric utilities. The average price of delivered coal to each sector declined by about 2 percent. Coal consumption in 1992 was 893 million short tons, only 1 percent higher than in 1991, due primarily to a 1-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Consumer coal stocks at the end of 1992 were 163 million short tons, a decrease of 3 percent from the level at the end of 1991, and the lowest year-end level since 1989. US coal exports fell 6 percent from the 1991 level to 103 million short tons in 1992. Less coal was exported to markets in Europe, Asia, and South America, but coal exports to Canada increased 4 million short tons.

  20. Domestic Coal Distribution 2009 Q1 by Origin State: Alabama

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Q1 by Origin State: Alabama (1000 Short Tons) 1 58 Domestic Coal Distribution 2009 Q1 by Origin State: Alabama (1000 Short Tons) Destination State Transportation Mode Electricity...

  1. Domestic Coal Distribution 2009 Q2 by Origin State: Alabama

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Q2 by Origin State: Alabama (1000 Short Tons) 1 58 Domestic Coal Distribution 2009 Q2 by Origin State: Alabama (1000 Short Tons) Destination State Transportation Mode Electricity...

  2. Annual bulletin of coal statistics for Europe-1983. [Europe, Canada, USA, USSR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This is a series of statistical tables documenting the production, trade, and consumption of coal in Europe, Canada, the United States, and the Soviet Union. Balance sheets of solid forms of energy are provided for hard coal, patent fuel, and coke; and for brown coal, brown coal briquettes, and brown coal coke. Data are provided on hard coal mines and on brown coal mines for production, employment and productivity of labor. Other tables list imports of solid fuels by country, exports of solid fuels by country, and world production of solid fuels.

  3. Raceway behaviors in blast furnace with pulverized coal injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, J.K.; Han, J.W.; Cho, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    The blast furnace raceway shows different characteristics with PCR (pulverized coal injection rate). It was found in this study that with the increase of PCR the raceway depth decreases, and the size of birds nest and sometimes with liquid holdup, increases. Oxygen enrichment with co-axial lances was known to be very effective on the extension of raceway depth and size reduction of birds nest. It was also found that there are various factors which affect the coke properties at tuyere level of the blast furnace. Coke traveling time was calculated to be extended with PCR and it had a close relationship with the coke size in bosh. Coke mean size decreased with the increase of coke traveling time, that is, with the increase of PCR. Both DI (the strength of coke in cold) and CSR (the strength of coke after reaction) were also decreased with PCR. RAFT (Raceway Adiabatic Flame Temperature) had a tendency to be decreased with the increase of PCR, which is obtained by the estimation of coke temperature via XRD analysis. From the analysis of alkali contents in coke sampled along the radius of the blast furnace, it was understood that no difference in alkali contents between fine and lump coke represents that coke fines generated from upper burden might appear at tuyere level.

  4. Prevention of deleterious deposits in a coal liquefaction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Norman L.; Prudich, Michael E.; King, Jr., William E.; Moon, William G.

    1984-07-03

    A process for preventing the formation of deleterious coke deposits on the walls of coal liquefaction reactor vessels involves passing hydrogen and a feed slurry comprising feed coal and recycle liquid solvent to a coal liquefaction reaction zone while imparting a critical mixing energy of at least 3500 ergs per cubic centimeter of reaction zone volume per second to the reacting slurry.

  5. Coal keeps the home fires burning, at a price

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connell, J.

    2007-11-15

    The wild ride of 2007 thermal and coking coal and freight prices does not show any signs of abating as 2008 nears, leaving consumers coping with historic high costs, except in the US. 3 figs.

  6. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  7. Two (2) 175 Ton (350 Tons total) Chiller Geothermal Heat Pumps for recently

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    commissioned LEED Platinum Building | Department of Energy Two (2) 175 Ton (350 Tons total) Chiller Geothermal Heat Pumps for recently commissioned LEED Platinum Building Two (2) 175 Ton (350 Tons total) Chiller Geothermal Heat Pumps for recently commissioned LEED Platinum Building This project will operate; collect data; and market the energy savings and capital costs of a recently commissioned chiller geothermal heat pump project to promote the wide-spread adoption of this mature

  8. Coal repository. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    The Coal Repository Project was initiated in 1980 by the Department of Energy/Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center to provide a centralized system for the collection of well characterized coal samples, and distribution to organizations involved in the chemical beneficiation of coal and related research. TRW Energy Development Group, together with its subcontractor Commercial Testing and Engineering Company, established the Coal Repository at the TRW Capistrano Chemical Facility, which is the location of the DOE-owned Multi-Use Fuel and Energy Processes Test Plant (MEP). Twenty tons each of three coals (Illinois No. 6, Kentucky No. 11 (West), and Pittsburgh No. 8 (from an Ohio mine)) were collected, characterized, and stored under a nitrogen atmosphere. Ten tons of each coal are 3/8-inch x 0, five tons of each are 14-mesh x 0, and five tons of each are 100-mesh x 0. Although TRW was within budget and on schedule, Department of Energy funding priorities in this area were altered such that the project was terminated prior to completion of the original scope of work. 9 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Mathematical modeling of clearance between wall of coke oven and coke cake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nushiro, K.; Matsui, T.; Hanaoka, K.; Igawa, K.; Sorimachi, K.

    1995-12-01

    A mathematical model was developed for estimating the clearance between the wall of the coke oven and the coke cake. The prediction model is based on the balance between the contractile force and the coking pressure. A clearance forms when the contractile force exceeds the coking pressure in this model. The contractile force is calculated in consideration of the visco-elastic behavior of the thermal shrinkage of the coke. The coking pressure is calculated considering the generation and dispersion of gas in the melting layer. The relaxation time off coke used in this model was obtained with a dilatometer under the load application. The clearance was measured by the laser sensor, and the internal gas pressure was measured in a test oven. The clearance calculated during the coking process were in good agreement with the experimental results, which supported the validity of the mathematical model.

  10. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Destination State ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2013 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 1st Quarter 2013 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State

  11. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Origin State ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2013 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic Coal Distribution, by Origin State, 1st Quarter 2013 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation

  12. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2012

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Origin State ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2012 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2012 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State Transportation

  13. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Destination State ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2013 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2nd Quarter 2013 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State

  14. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Destination State ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 2nd Quarter 2014 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic Coal Distribution, by Destination State, 2nd Quarter 2014 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State

  15. Inhibition of coke formation in pyrolysis furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong, Y.; Poindexter, M.K.; Rowe, C.T.

    1995-12-31

    Coke formation in pyrolysis furnaces, which thermally convert hydrocarbons to ethylene as well as other useful products, adversely affects product yields, causes furnace down time for coke removal, and shortens furnace coil life. A phosphorus-based chemical treatment program was developed to inhibit the coke formation. The anticoking performance of the phosphorus-based treatment program was studied using a bench scale coking rate measurement apparatus. The programs`s influence on coke morphology and reactor surface was addressed using SEM/EDX surface characterization techniques. For comparison, similar studies were carried out with sulfur-containing species which are conventionally used in industrial practice as furnace additives. The present work demonstrated that the phosphorus-based treatment program provided an efficient and durable surface passivation against coke formation.

  16. Possibilities of production of smokeless fuel via carbonization of Czech coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchtele, J.; Straka, P.

    1995-12-01

    It was consumed 48 -51 % of hard coal (total output 28 - 30 Mt/year) in a long period for the production of coke. It appears to be anomaly in comparison with other coke producers in Europe and in the world, it was predeterminated by {open_quotes}steel conception{close_quotes} of state`s economics. The production of coke reached 10-11 Mt/year in former Czechoslovakia in the period 1970-1990. A considerable quantity 1.2 - 1.7 Mt/year of produced coke was utilized for heating. In comparison, 7-5.4 Mt coke/year was it in Poland for the heating. Al coke production is realized on the basis of Czech hard coals mined in the southern part of Upper Silesian Coal District. The coke production is operated in multi-chamber system with full recovery of chemical products (gas, raw tar, raw benzene, amonium etc.). The future trend of smokeless fuel production in Czech Republic makes for to the non-recovery coke oven, it means to two-product processes (coke + reduction gas, coke + electricity and so on). Jewell--Thompson coke oven (hard coal) and Salem oven (ignites) represent nonrecovery nowadays. The possibility of it`s application in Czech Republic are discussed. Jumbo coking reactor system (European project No. 500 to the Eureka programme) produces primarily metallurgical coke. The strong Clean Air Act suspends the production of smokeless fuel in multi-chamber system also in Czech Republic for the future period 2010-2020.

  17. STEO November 2012 - coal supplies

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Despite drop in domestic coal production, U.S. coal exports to reach record high in 2012. While U.S. coal production is down 7 percent this year due in part to utilities switching to low-priced natural gas to generate electricity, American coal is still finding plenty of buyers in overseas markets. U.S. coal exports are expected to hit a record 125 million tons in 2012, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says in its new monthly short-term energy outlook. Coal exports are expected to

  18. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Underground Coal Mines by State and Mining Method, 2014 (million short tons) Continuous 1 Conventional and Other 2 Longwall 3 Total Coal-Producing State Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines Average Recovery Percentage Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines Average Recovery Percentage Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines Average Recovery Percentage Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines Average

  19. Collector main replacement at Indianapolis Coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sickle, R.R. Van

    1997-12-31

    Indianapolis Coke is a merchant coke producer, supplying both foundry and blast furnace coke to the industry. The facility has three coke batteries: two 3 meter batteries, one Wilputte four divided and one Koppers Becker. Both batteries are underjet batteries and are producing 100% foundry coke at a net coking time of 30.6 hours. This paper deals with the No. 1 coke battery, which is a 72 oven, gun fired, 5 meter Still battery. No. 1 battery produces both foundry and blast furnace coke at a net coking rate of 25.4 hours. No. 1 battery was commissioned in 1979. The battery is equipped with a double collector main. Although many renovations have been completed to the battery, oven machinery and heating system, to date no major construction projects have taken place. Deterioration of the collector main was caused in part from elevated levels of chlorides in the flushing liquor, and temperature fluctuations within the collector main. The repair procedures are discussed.

  20. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks. Coke production consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the second quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 72 tabs.

  1. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the second quarter of 1998. 58 tabs.

  2. Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 181.85 113.11 213.82 181.85 213.82 -15.0 Canada 181.85 113.11 213.82 181.85 213.82 -15.0 Europe Total 270.94 416.80 770.50 270.94 770.50 -64.8 Austria - 1,788.00 - - - - France - 1,110.35 - - - - Germany, Federal Republic of - - 206.27 - 206.27 - Italy 265.37 300.11 - 265.37 - -

  3. The shell coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O.

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  4. E TON Solar Tech | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Tech Jump to: navigation, search Name: E-TON Solar Tech Place: Tainan, Taiwan Zip: 709 Product: Taiwan-based manufacturer of PV cells. Coordinates: 22.99721, 120.180862...

  5. Coke County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Subtype B. Places in Coke County, Texas Blackwell, Texas Bronte, Texas Robert Lee, Texas Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCokeCounty,Texas&oldid...

  6. U.S. Energy Information Administration | State Energy Data 2014...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Billion Btu CCIMBUS CCIMPUS * 24.80 CCIMPUS Coal coke imported into the United States. Thousand short tons CCIMPUS is independent. CCNIBUS Coal coke net imports into the United ...

  7. Weak economy and politics worry US coal operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-01-15

    A potential decrease in demand, a new administration, and production constraints have coal operators worried about prospects for 2009. This and other interesting facts are revealed in this 2009 forecast by the journal Coal Age. Results are presented of the survey answered by 69 of the 646 executives contacted, on such questions about expected coal production, coal use, attitude in the coal industry, capital expenditure on types of equipment and productive capacity. Coal Age forecasts a 2.3% decline in coal production in 2009, down to 1.145 billion tons from 1.172 billion tons. 8 figs.

  8. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the third quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  9. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, P.

    1998-08-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information has been integrated in this report. 58 tabs.

  10. Proximate analysis of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donahue, C.J.; Rais, E.A.

    2009-02-15

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content are determined for each sample and comparisons are made. Proximate analysis is performed on a coal sample from a local electric utility. From the weight percent sulfur found in the coal (determined by a separate procedure the Eschka method) and the ash content, students calculate the quantity of sulfur dioxide emissions and ash produced annually by a large coal-fired electric power plant.

  11. 12,893,780 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of July 19, 2016 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 12,893,780 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of July 19, 2016 12,893,780 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of July 19, 2016 This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOE's Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is equivalent to the annual greenhouse gas emissions from 210,526 passenger vehicles. The projects currently injecting CO2 within DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program and the

  12. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve Base by Mining Method, 2014 (million short tons) Underground - Minable Coal Surface - Minable Coal Total Coal-Resource State Recoverable Reserves at Producing Mines Estimated Recoverable Reserves Demonstrated Reserve Base Recoverable Reserves at Producing Mines Estimated Recoverable Reserves Demonstrated Reserve Base Recoverable Reserves at Producing Mines Estimated Recoverable Reserves

  13. Bioenergy Impacts … Billion Dry Tons

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Oak Ridge National Laboratory published research that shows that U.S. resources could sustainably produce by 2030 at least one billion dry tons of non-food biomass resources, yielding up to 60 billion gallons of biofuels, as well as bio- based chemicals, products, and electricity. This could potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions by up to 500 million tons per year, create 1.5 million new jobs, and keep about $200 billion extra in the U.S. economy each year. Research is showing that U.S.

  14. Determination of electrical resistivity of dry coke beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eidem, P.A.; Tangstad, M.; Bakken, J.A.

    2008-02-15

    The electrical resistivity of the coke bed is of great importance when producing FeMn, SiMn, and FeCr in a submerged arc furnace. In these processes, a coke bed is situated below and around the electrode tip and consists of metallurgical coke, slag, gas, and metal droplets. Since the basic mechanisms determining the electrical resistivity of a coke bed is not yet fully understood, this investigation is focused on the resistivity of dry coke beds consisting of different carbonaceous materials, i.e., coke beds containing no slag or metal. A method that reliably compares the electrical bulk resistivity of different metallurgical cokes at 1500{sup o} C to 1600{sup o}C is developed. The apparatus is dimensioned for industrial sized materials, and the electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, petroleum coke, and metallurgical coke has been measured. The resistivity at high temperatures of the Magnitogorsk coke, which has the highest resistivity of the metallurgical cokes investigated, is twice the resistivity of the Corus coke, which has the lowest electrical resistivity. Zdzieszowice and SSAB coke sort in between with decreasing resistivities in the respective order. The electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, and petroleum coke is generally higher than the resistivity of the metallurgical cokes, ranging from about two to about eight times the resistivity of the Corus coke at 1450{sup o}C. The general trend is that the bulk resistivity of carbon materials decreases with increasing temperature and increasing particle size.

  15. Coals and coal requirements for the COREX process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heckmann, H.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of non met coals for production of liquid hot metal was the motivation for the development of the COREX Process by VAI/DVAI during the 70`s. Like the conventional ironmaking route (coke oven/blast furnace) it is based on coal as source of energy and reduction medium. However, in difference to blast furnace, coal can be used directly without the necessary prestep of cokemaking. Coking ability of coals therefore is no prerequisite of suitability. Meanwhile the COREX Process is on its way to become established in ironmaking industry. COREX Plants at ISCOR, Pretoria/South Africa and POSCO Pohang/Korea, being in operation and those which will be started up during the next years comprise already an annual coal consumption capacity of approx. 5 Mio. tonnes mtr., which is a magnitude attracting the interest of industrial coal suppliers. The increasing importance of COREX as a comparable new technology forms also a demand for information regarding process requirements for raw material, especially coal, which is intended to be met here.

  16. Heteroatom incorporated coke for electrochemical cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Irwin Charles (Strongsville, OH); Greinke, Ronald Alfred (Medina, OH)

    1997-01-01

    This invention relates to an electrode for a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) calcined coke particles: (i) that contain at least 0.5 weight percent of nitrogen heteroatoms and at least 1.0 weight percent sulfur heteroatoms, and (ii) that have an average particle size from 2 microns to 40 microns with essentially no particles being greater than 50 microns. (b) a binder This invention also relates to a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrically conductive salt, and (c) a counterelectrode.

  17. Heteroatom incorporated coke for electrochemical cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, I.C.; Greinke, R.A.

    1997-06-17

    This invention relates to an electrode for a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) calcined coke particles: (1) that contain at least 0.5 weight percent of nitrogen heteroatoms and at least 1.0 weight percent sulfur heteroatoms, and (2) that have an average particle size from 2 microns to 40 microns with essentially no particles being greater than 50 microns and (b) a binder. This invention also relates to a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrically conductive salt, and (c) a counterelectrode. 5 figs.

  18. Reactivity of North Bohemian coals in coprocessing of coal/oil mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sebor, G.; Cerny, J.; Maxa, D.; Blazek, J.; Sykorova, I.

    1995-12-01

    Autoclave experiments with North Bohemian coal were done in order to evaluate their reactivity in coprocessing with petroleum vacuum residue, Selected coals were comprehensively characterized by using a number of analytical methods. While the coals were of similar geological origin, some of their characteristics differed largely from one coal to another. Despite the differences in physical and chemical structure, the coals provided very similar yields of desired reaction products. The yields of a heavy non- distillable fraction and/or an insoluble solid residue were, under experimental conditions, largely affected by retrogressive reactions (coking). The insoluble solid fractions were examined microscopically under polarized light.

  19. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, January-March 1979. [US DOE supported

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-01-01

    Progress in DOE-supported coal liquefaction pilot plant projects is reported: company, location, contract, funding, process description, history and progress in the current quarter. Related projects discussed are: coking and gasification of liquefaction plant residues, filtration of coal liquids and refining of coal liquids by hydrogenation. (LTN)

  20. Pulverized coal injection (PCI) at Inland`s No. 7 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, W.L.; Greenawald, P.B.; Ranade, M.G.; Ricketts, J.A.; Zuke, D.A.

    1995-12-01

    Fuel injection at the tuyeres has always been part of normal operating practice on this blast furnace. It has been used as much because of the beneficial effects on furnace operation as for the replacement of some of the coke that would otherwise be consumed. Fuel oil was used at first, but since the early 1980s it was more economical to inject natural gas. Studies in 1990 indicated that natural gas could be increased to 75 kg/tHM on No. 7 Furnace, and this would result in a coke rate of approximately 360 kg/tHM. It was apparent that coal injection offered significantly more opportunity for coke savings. Coke rate could be lowered to 300 kg/tHM with coal injected at 175 kg/tHM. Some combustion limitations were expected at that level. A coke rate of 270 kg/tHM with coal at 200 kg/tHM may be possible once these limitations are overcome. Furnace permeability was expected to limit the ability to reduce coke rate any further. In addition, the relative cost of coal would be significantly lower than the cost of coke it replaced. This lead to the decision late in 1991 to install pulverized coal injection (PCI) equipment for all of Inland`s blast furnaces. This paper will deal with PCI experience at No. 7 Blast Furnace.

  1. The waste water free coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuepphaus, K.; Brink, N.

    1995-12-01

    Apart from coke which is the actual valuable material a coke oven plant also produces a substantial volume of waste water. These effluent water streams are burdened with organic components (e.g. phenols) and inorganic salts (e.g. NH{sub 4}Cl); due to the concentration of the constituents contained therein these effluent waters must be subjected to a specific treatment before they can be introduced into public waters. For some years a lot of separation tasks have been solved successfully by applying the membrane technology. It was especially the growing number of membrane facilities for cleaning of landfill leakage water whose composition can in fact be compared with that of coking plant waste waters (organic constituents, high salt fright, ammonium compounds) which gave Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik the idea for developing a process for coke plant effluent treatment which contains the membrane technology as an essential component.

  2. Ukrainian mineral wax from brown coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shabad, T.

    1986-07-01

    An unusual mineral enterprise is the mineral wax plant of Semenovskoye in the Aleksandriya brown coal basin of the Ukraine. The only plant of its kind in the Soviet Union, it has been in operation since 1959, extracting mineral wax from the local bitumen-rich brown coal. The plant yields about 7.5 tons of mineral wax a day (about 2700 tons a year), for use in a variety of applications.

  3. Quarterly coal report, April--June, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the first quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  4. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-07-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the third quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  5. Coal reserves are plentiful but unevenly distributed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeremic, M.L.

    1981-07-01

    There is plenty of coal in Canada. The estimated coal resources are more than 360,000,000,000 tons with most of this coal located in the western provinces. The estimated minable coal reserves are more than 16,000,000,000 tons and the recoverable coal is more than 6,000,000,000 tons. The latter figure reflects the lack of current development in many coalfields. Very recent and current exploration for coal as well as for oil and gas has indicated coal resources in addition to those already estimated. Incremental additions to coal resources can be expected in northern and eastern Canada. In the latter region, more than 85 percent of the total coal resources are beneath the ocean. The main coal deposits in western Canada are very far from the large industrial markets of Ontario and Quebec. They are closer, yet still quite distant, from export ports on the Pacific Ocean. Current efforts to improve coal transportation are expected to decrease the disadvantages of the unfavorable location of the western coalfields. This will increase the coal reserves in the region as further exploration will surely follow.

  6. Oil coking propensity under hydroprocessing conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriz, J.F. )

    1991-01-01

    If the processability of heavy or residual oil is assessed in terms of conversion to distillate oils, the tendency to form carbonaceous (coke) deposits in the reactor would impose limits on the operating conditions, since any significant coke accumulation on a continuing basis would be prohibitive. Experimentally, one can evaluate the feedstock coking propensity in a bench-scale reactor for a set of typical hydroprocessing conditions by varying the temperature near the threshold of coking. For a number of different feedstocks examined by this method, an empirical function can be found correlating the coking propensity with some of the characteristic properties determined by routine analyses. The present approach used a combination of physical and chemical properties including density and contents of Conradson Carbon residue, pentane and toluene insolubles, fraction of high-boiling pitch, and carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and ash. Feedstocks were chosen to cover a wide but practical range of properties to establish their impact on the coking propensity. Although these relationships apply to thermal hydroprocessing, the role of catalysts is also indicated.

  7. Production of coal-based fuels and value-added products: coal to liquids using petroleum refinery streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, C.E.B.; Schobert, H.H.

    2008-07-01

    We are studying several processes that utilize coal, coal-derived materials, or biomass in existing refining facilities. A major emphasis is the production of a coal-based replacement for JP-8 jet fuel. This fuel is very similar to Jet A and jet A-1 in commercial variation, so this work has significant carry-over into the private sector. We have been focusing on three processes that would be retrofitted into a refinery: (1) coal tar/refinery stream blending and hydro-treatment; (2) coal extraction using refinery streams followed by hydro-treatment; and (3) co-coking of coal blended with refinery streams. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Quarterly coal report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    This document provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, imports, exports, prices, and consumption. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports are also provided. This report presents compiled data for April thru June, and historical data for 1987 thru the first quarter of 1995.

  9. file://C:\\Documents%20and%20Settings\\ICR\\My%20Documents\\Coal...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Distribution by Destination: Alaska Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2002 (Thousand Short Tons) State...

  10. Unmanned operation of the coke guides at Hoogovens IJmuiden Coke Plant 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vos, D.; Mannes, N.; Poppema, B.

    1995-12-01

    Due to the bad condition of batteries and many ovens under repair, Hoogovens was forced to partially repair and rebuild the Coke plant No. 1. The production of coke at Coke plant No. 1 is realized in 3 production blocks subdivided in 6 batteries. Besides a renovated installation, all coke oven machines were renewed. A total of five identical machine sets are available. Each consists of a pusher machine, larry car, coke guide and quench car with diesel locomotive. A complete automated control system was implemented. The main objectives were a highly regular coking and pushing process, automated traveling and positioning and a centrally coordinated interlocking of machine functions. On each operational machine however an operator performed the supervisory control of the automated machine functions. After years of good experience with the automated system, economical reasons urged further personnel reduction from 1994 on. Totally 375 people were involved, including the maintenance department. To reduce the occupation at coke plant No. 1, the coke guide was the first machine to be fully automated because of the isolated and uncomfortable working place.

  11. Coal - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S. Energy...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coal consumption in the electric power sector increased by 4.5 percent or 42.0 million short tons to end 2010 at 975.6 ... 3), while coal-based electricity generation in kilowatt ...

  12. Air pollution from a large steel factory: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from coke-oven batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenzo Liberti; Michele Notarnicola; Roberto Primerano; Paolo Zannetti

    2006-03-15

    A systematic investigation of solid and gaseous atmospheric emissions from some coke-oven batteries of one of Europe's largest integrated steel factory (Taranto, Italy) has been carried out. These emissions, predominantly diffuse, originate from oven leakages, as well as from cyclic operations of coal loading and coke unloading. In air monitoring samples, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were consistently detected at concentrations largely exceeding threshold limit values. By means of PAHs speciation profile and benzo-(a)pyrene (BaP) equivalent dispersion modeling from diffuse sources, the study indicated that serious health risks exist not only in working areas, but also in a densely populated residential district near the factory. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Studies on design of a process for organo-refining of coal to obtain super clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, C.S.; Sharma, D.K.

    1999-08-01

    Organo-refining of coal results in refining the coal to obtain super clean coal and residual coal. Super clean coal may be used to obtain value added chemicals, products, and cleaner fuels from coal. In the present work, studies on the design of a semicontinuous process for organo-refining of one ton of coal have been made. The results are reported. This is only a cursory attempt for the design, and further studies may be required for designing this process for use in the development of a scaled-up process of organo-refining of coal.

  14. Billion Ton Study-A Historical Perspective | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Billion Ton Study-A Historical Perspective Billion Ton Study-A Historical Perspective Breakout Session 1A: Biomass Feedstocks for the Bioeconomy Billion Ton Study-A Historical Perspective Bryce Stokes, Senior Advisor, CNJV stokes_bioenergy_2015.pdf (1.37 MB) More Documents & Publications Biomass Econ 101: Measuring the Technological Improvements on Feedstocks Costs WEBINAR: A CHANGING MARKET FOR BIOFUELS AND BIOPRODUCTS 2016 Billion-Ton Report Factsheets

  15. 2016 Billion-Ton Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Billion-Ton Report 2016 Billion-Ton Report Alison Goss Eng, of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office, Tim Theiss, Laboratory Relationship Manager of the Bioenergy Technologies Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Tim Rials, Director of the Tennessee Forest Products Center, provide background and their insights into the production and contents of the soon-to-be-released 2016 Billion-Ton Report. The 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving

  16. Rheology of petroleum coke-water slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, M.; Mall, B.K.; Mukherjee, A.

    1998-04-01

    This paper reports the results of the studies carried out on the optimization of particle size distribution, the theological characteristics and stability of highly loaded petroleum coke-water slurry using three additives. The solids loading achieved in the slurries were in the range of 65% to 75.6% depending on the additives used. Slurry viscosity varied between 267 to 424 mPas at 128 s{sup -1} shear rate. The petroleum coke-water slurries exhibited pseudoplastic characteristics with yield tending towards Bingham plastic as the solids loading progressively increased.

  17. Fundamental studies of coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The authors have examined the pyrolysis of Argonne samples of Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coal in argon, undecane, Tetralin, and water. The effects of the pyrolysis on individual particles of coal were monitored visually in a cell with diamond windows capable of operation to temperature and pressures in excess of 500{degrees}C and 3000 psi. The changes in the particles from ambient to 460{degrees}C were recorded in real time on video tape, and images were then taken from the tape record and analyzed. The study showed that in argon both coals developed tars at 350{degrees}-370{degrees}C. The tars then quickly evaporated, leaving core particles remarkably similar in size and shape to the initial particles. These observations suggest that coal does not melt nor become fully liquid when heated. Nor does the softened coal undergo crosslinking to generate coke. Rather the simple loss of volatiles leaves behind the core residue as coke. Contrary to the common view, there appears to be no link between the bond-breaking processes yielding tar and the interaction of the coal with H-donors leading to liquefaction. Water as a medium was surprising in its effect. Both coals began to shrink at 300{degrees}-350{degrees}C, with the effect appearing to be more of an erosion rather than a uniform loss of substance as seen in Tetralin. The Wyodak continued to shrink to 460{degrees}C to about half its initial size. With the Illinois No. 6 coal, however, the process reversed at around 420{degrees}C, and the particles appeared to grow with the evolution of a tar, continuing to 460{degrees}C. The authors submit that this final observation is evidence for hydrothermal synthesis of hydrocarbons at these conditions.

  18. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lennon, Dennis R.; Snedden, Richard B.; Foster, Edward P.; Bellas, George T.

    1990-05-15

    A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

  19. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-18

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended.

  20. Petroleum coke: A viable fuel for power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dymond, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    As the power generation industry struggles to meet the seemingly divergent goals of reduced emissions and increased electricity demand during the 1990s, petroleum coke`s use as a low cost BTU source should be seriously considered. Since this material is produced at petroleum refineries-thus affected by variables unfamiliar to most power generators-industry participants often do not understand what forces drive coke markets. This article will address these forces and provide some insight about petroleum coke`s future as a viable fuel for power generation.

  1. Petroleum coke: A viable fuel for power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dymond, R.E.

    1994-12-31

    As the power generation industry struggles to meet the seemingly divergent goals of reduced emissions and increased electricity demand during the 1990s, petroleum coke`s use as a low cost BTU source should be seriously considered. since this material is produced at petroleum refineries - thus affected by variables unfamiliar to most power generators - industry participants often do not understand what forces drive coke markets. This article will address these forces and provide some insight about petroleum coke`s future as a viable fuel for power generation.

  2. Reducing dust emissions at OAO Alchevskkoks coke battery 10A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.F. Trembach; E.N. Lanina

    2009-07-15

    Coke battery 10A with rammed batch is under construction at OAO Alchevskkoks. The design documentation developed by Giprokoks includes measures for reducing dust emissions to the atmosphere. Aspiration systems with dry dust trapping are employed in the new components of coke battery 10A and in the existing coke-sorting equipment. Two-stage purification of dusty air in cyclones and bag filters is employed for the coke-sorting equipment. This system considerably reduces coke-dust emissions to the atmosphere.

  3. Metal and coke deactivation of resid hydroprocessing catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartholdy, J.; Cooper, B.

    1993-12-31

    It is well established that residuum hydroprocessing catalysts are deactivated by both coke and metals. The traditional approach has been to relate the initial rapid deactivation with coke laydown and subsequent deactivation with deposition of metals from the residuum. This paper presents evidence of coke and metals deactivation throughout the life of the catalyst. By comparing tests made at constant temperature with tests made at constant conversion it is concluded that the extent of coke deactivation in related to the operating temperature. The extent of coke deactivation has further been estimated by regeneration of a fraction of the catalyst bed.

  4. Coal production, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-12-05

    Coal Production 1987 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data presented in this report were collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-275) as amended. The 1987 coal production and related data presented in this report were obtained from Form EIA-7A, ''Coal Production Report,'' from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1987. This survey originated at the Bureau of Mines, US Department of the Interior. In 1977, the responsibility for taking the survey was transferred to the EIA under the Department of Energy Organization Act (P.L. 95-91). The data cover 3667 of the 4770 US coal mining operations active in 1987. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 77 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1987. This issue is the 12th annual report published by EIA and continues the series formerly included as a chapter in the Minerals Yearbook published by the Bureau of Mines. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1988. This is the eighth annual summary on minable coal, pursuant to Section 801 of Public Law 95-620. 18 figs., 105 tabs.

  5. Residuum conversion using hydroprocessing with delayed coking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Chevron's Pascagoula Resid Conversion Project utilizes a combination of hydroprocessing and delayed coking. In conjunction with existing process units, this conversion capacity gives the Pascagoula Refinery flexibility to meet the light product demands while processing heavier and lower valued crude oils. Design concepts and considerations into the final process selection are discussed.

  6. RESIDUA UPGRADING EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT MODELS: COKE FORMATION PREDICTABILITY MAPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John F. Schabron; A. Troy Pauli; Joseph F. Rovani Jr.

    2002-05-01

    The dispersed particle solution model of petroleum residua structure was used to develop predictors for pyrolytic coke formation. Coking Indexes were developed in prior years that measure how near a pyrolysis system is to coke formation during the coke formation induction period. These have been demonstrated to be universally applicable for residua regardless of the source of the material. Coking onset is coincidental with the destruction of the ordered structure and the formation of a multiphase system. The amount of coke initially formed appears to be a function of the free solvent volume of the original residua. In the current work, three-dimensional coke make predictability maps were developed at 400 C, 450 C, and 500 C (752 F, 842 F, and 932 F). These relate residence time and free solvent volume to the amount of coke formed at a particular pyrolysis temperature. Activation energies for two apparent types of zero-order coke formation reactions were estimated. The results provide a new tool for ranking residua, gauging proximity to coke formation, and predicting initial coke make tendencies.

  7. Improved wastewater treatment at Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporations`s Steubenville East Coke Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goshe, A.J.; Nodianos, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation recently improved its wastewater treatment at it`s by-products coke plant. This has led to greatly improved effluent quality. Excess ammonia liquor, along with wastewater from the light oil recovery plant, desulfurization facility, and coal pile runoff, must be treated prior to being discharged into the Ohio River. This is accomplished using a biological wastewater treatment plant to remove 99.99% of the organic contaminants and ammonia. Biologically treated, clarified wastewater is now polished in the newly constructed tertiary treatment plant.

  8. Gary No. 13 blast furnace achieves 400 lbs/THM coal injection in 9 months

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, G.J.; Schuett, K.J.; White, D.G.; O`Donnell, E.M.

    1995-12-01

    Number 13 Blast Furnace at Gary began injecting Pulverized Coal in March 1993. The injection level was increased over the next nine months until a level off 409 lbs/THM was achieved for the month of December 1993. Several major areas were critical in achieving this high level of Pulverized coal injection (PCI) including furnace conditions, lance position, tuyere blockage, operating philosophy, and outages. The paper discusses the modifications made to achieve this level of injection. This injection level decreased charged dry coke rate from 750 lbs/THM to about 625 lbs/THM, while eliminating 150 lbs/THM of oil and 20 lbs/THM of natural gas. Assuming a 1.3 replacement ratio for an oil/natural gas mixture, overall coke replacement for the coal is about 0.87 lbs coke/lbs coal. Gary Works anticipates levels of 500 lbs/THM are conceivable.

  9. Department of Energy Releases New 'Billion-Ton' Study Highlighting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunities for Growth in Bioenergy Resources | Department of Energy New 'Billion-Ton' Study Highlighting Opportunities for Growth in Bioenergy Resources Department of Energy Releases New 'Billion-Ton' Study Highlighting Opportunities for Growth in Bioenergy Resources August 10, 2011 - 3:41pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy today released a report - 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry - detailing U.S. biomass

  10. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    U.S. Coal Consumption by End-Use Sector, 2008 - 2014 (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy ... independent power producers) comprises electricity-only and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) ...

  11. DOE-Supported Project Advances Clean Coal, Carbon Capture Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CO2 capture at less than 40 per metric ton--when integrated into a new or existing coal fired power plant. The successful test moves chemical-looping a step closer to full scale. ...

  12. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7. Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing U.S. Mines by Mine Production Range and Mine Type, 2014 (million short tons) Underground Surface Total Mine Production Range (thousand short tons) Recoverable Coal Reserves Average Recovery Percentage Recoverable Coal Reserves Average Recovery Percentage Recoverable Coal Reserves Average Recovery Percentage Over 1,000 6,295 63.56 10,599 91.28 16,894 80.95 Over 500 to 1,000 504 47.03 692 88.31 1,197 70.91 Over 200 to 500

  13. Moab Project Disposes 2 Million Tons of Uranium Mill Tailings...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project reached its primary American ... of schedule on Wednesday with the disposal of 2 million tons of uranium mill tailings. ...

  14. Department of Energy Releases New 'Billion-Ton' Study Highlighting...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Opportunities for Growth in Bioenergy Resources Department of Energy Releases New 'Billion-Ton' Study Highlighting Opportunities for Growth in Bioenergy Resources August 10, 2011 - ...

  15. DOE Announces Webinars on Building a Billion Ton Bioeconomy and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building a Billion Ton Bioeconomy and an Opportunity in ... from adopting the latest energy efficiency and renewable energy ... Tribal Energy Financing Models, and More DOE Announces ...

  16. Control of cooling losses at high pulverized coal injection rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonte, L.; Nieuwerburgh, H. Van

    1996-12-31

    One of the problems which is encountered by many blast furnace operators is the appropriate control of the cooling losses of the blast furnace. This problem has been aggravated by the introduction of pulverized coal injection. Even with equal burden and coke composition, both Sidmar furnaces behave differently with respect to the cooling losses. This phenomenon is possibly attributable to the different profile and cooling circuitry of the furnaces. Among other parameters the angles of bosh and stack may favor the formation of scabs or not. Some operators experience a decrease of their cooling losses, other operators have problems to limit their cooling losses to an acceptable level. As a result, different operating practices exist with respect to the burden distribution. The increase of the ore to coke ratio with pulverized coal injection suggests that the coke and sinter quality has to be monitored very carefully in order to avoid permeability problems.

  17. Model based control of a coke battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, P.M.; Srour, J.M.; Zulli, P.; Cunningham, R.; Hockings, K.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes a model-based strategy for coke battery control at BHP Steel`s operations in Pt Kembla, Australia. The strategy uses several models describing the battery thermal and coking behavior. A prototype controller has been installed on the Pt Kembla No. 6 Battery (PK6CO). In trials, the new controller has been well accepted by operators and has resulted in a clear improvement in battery thermal stability, with a halving of the standard deviation of average battery temperature. Along with other improvements to that battery`s operations, this implementation has contributed to a 10% decrease in specific battery energy consumption. A number of enhancements to the low level control systems on that battery are currently being undertaken in order to realize further benefits.

  18. Quarterly coal report July--September 1996, February 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the second quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  19. Cyanide treatment options in coke plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minak, H.P.; Lepke, P.

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses the formation of cyanides in coke oven gas and describes and compares waste processing options. These include desulfurization by aqueous ammonia solution, desulfurization using potash solution, desulfurization in oxide boxes, decomposition of NH{sub 3} and HCN for gas scrubbing. Waste water treatment methods include chemical oxidation, precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, and biological treatment. It is concluded that biological treatment is the most economical process, safe in operation and requires a minimum of manpower.

  20. Petroleum-derived additive reduces coke on hydrotreating catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-27

    Upgrading heavy oils is becoming increasingly important as the world crude slate gets heavier and demand for light products increases. But most upgrading processes must contend with problems related to coke formation during hydrotreating. Three researchers have found that materials having high radical-scavenging ability can reduce coke formation when applied to hydrotreating heavy oils. And these materials can be produced from heavy petroleum fractions. The paper discusses coke formation, the research program, and the pilot plant.

  1. Development of an Advanced Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System Utilizing Off-Gas from Coke Calcination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Coke calcination is a process that involves the heating of green petroleum coke in order to remove volatile material and purify the coke for further processing. Calcined coke is vital to the...

  2. Petroleum coke as a clean and reliable boiler fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molen, R.V.

    1994-12-31

    Petroleum coke is the solid residue left over after all valuable liquid and gaseous components have been extracted from crude oil. A typical integrated refinery flowsheet when a coker is used is illustrated. Coking is a process which {open_quotes}removes{close_quotes} excess carbon from the crude in order to obtain a better carbon-to-hydrogen ratio as required by refineries to produce the balance of products presently demanded by the marketplace. Three basic types of cokers exists. The current production from these is shown. Most delayed cokers use a batch operation in which the coke forms a layer on the walls and is usually removed by hydroblasting after processing of the batch. This coke is therefore sized irregularly and must be crushed prior to use. Another form of delayed coking, also a batch process, results in {open_quotes}shot{close_quotes} coke which looks like multi-sized BB`s. Delayed cokes are by far the largest produced cokes. A distant second in production is fluid coke which is produced in a continuous process fluidized bed. The rarely produced flexicoke comes from an entrained bed reactor.

  3. Nippon Coke and Engineering Sumitomo Corp JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: Nippon Coke and Engineering & Sumitomo Corp JV Place: Tokyo, Japan Zip: 135-6007 Product: Japan-based natural graphite base anode materials joint...

  4. Petroleum coke supply: present problems and future prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, H.H.

    1982-08-01

    Since the 1973 OPEC oil embargo, the coke market's strength has gradually shifted, for the most part, from the buyer to the seller. This general assessment is subject to localized exceptions and temporary reversals (such as the present market weakness due to the low level of primary aluminum production). However, there are two major factors which will influence the trend toward higher coke prices for anode use by aluminum producers: decreasing supplies of high-quality coke, and revised marketing strategies of coke producers.

  5. Lime addition to heavy crude oils prior to coking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kessick, M. A.; George, Z. M.; Schneider, L. G.

    1985-06-04

    The sulphur emissive capability, on combustion, of coke which is formed during upgrading of sulphur-containing heavy crude oils, including oil sands bitumen, or residua is decreased by the addition of slaked lime or calcium oxide to the heavy crude oil prior to coking. The presence of the slaked lime or calcium oxide leads to an increased yield of liquid distillates at coking temperatures of about 450/sup 0/ to about 500/sup 0/ C. Ash remaining after combustion of the coke may be leached to recover nickel and vanadium values therefrom.

  6. Dispersion modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels and production of coke in Tianjin, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu Tao; Xinrong Li; Yu Yang; Raymond M. Coveney, Jr.; Xiaoxia Lu; Haitao Chen; Weiran Shen

    2006-08-01

    A USEPA procedure, ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex Long-Term), was applied to model the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from various sources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and biomass into the atmosphere of Tianjin, China. Benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) were calculated for risk assessment. Model results were provisionally validated for concentrations and profiles based on the observed data at two monitoring stations. The dominant emission sources in the area were domestic coal combustion, coke production, and biomass burning. Mainly because of the difference in the emission heights, the contributions of various sources to the average concentrations at receptors differ from proportions emitted. The shares of domestic coal increased from {approximately} 43% at the sources to 56% at the receptors, while the contributions of coking industry decreased from {approximately} 23% at the sources to 7% at the receptors. The spatial distributions of gaseous and particulate PAHs were similar, with higher concentrations occurring within urban districts because of domestic coal combustion. With relatively smaller contributions, the other minor sources had limited influences on the overall spatial distribution. The calculated average BaPeq value in air was 2.54 {+-} 2.87 ng/m{sup 3} on an annual basis. Although only 2.3% of the area in Tianjin exceeded the national standard of 10 ng/m{sup 3}, 41% of the entire population lives within this area. 37 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes For Coal Derived Carbon Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Dady B. Dadyburjor; Gregory W. Hackett; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; Robert C. Svensson; John W. Zondlo

    2006-09-30

    In this reporting period, tonnage quantities of coal extract were produced but solid separation was not accomplished in a timely manner. It became clear that the originally selected filtration process would not be effective enough for a serious commercial process. Accordingly, centrifugation was investigated as a superior means for removing solids from the extract. Results show acceptable performance. Petrographic analysis of filtered solids was carried out by R and D Carbon Petrography under the auspices of Koppers and consultant Ken Krupinski. The general conclusion is that the material appears to be amenable to centrifugation. Filtered solids shows a substantial pitch component as well as some mesophase, resulting in increased viscosity. This is likely a contributing reason for the difficulty in filtering the material. Cost estimates were made for the hydotreatment and digestion reactors that would be needed for a 20,000 ton per year demonstration plants, with the aid of ChemTech Inc. The estimates show that the costs of scaling up the existing tank reactors are acceptable. However, a strong recommendation was made to consider pipe reactors, which are thought to be more cost effective and potentially higher performance in large scale systems. The alternate feedstocks for coke and carbon products were used to fabricate carbon electrodes as described in the last quarterly report. Gregory Hackett successfully defended his MS Thesis on the use of these electrodes in Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC), which is excerpted in Section 2.4 of this quarterly report.

  8. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9. Major U.S. Coal Mines, 2014 Rank Mine Name / Operating Company Mine Type State Production (short tons) 1 North Antelope Rochelle Mine / Peabody Powder River Mining LLC Surface Wyoming 117,965,515 2 Black Thunder / Thunder Basin Coal Company LLC Surface Wyoming 101,016,860 3 Cordero Mine / Cordero Mining LLC Surface Wyoming 34,809,101 4 Antelope Coal Mine / Antelope Coal LLC Surface Wyoming 33,646,960 5 Eagle Butte Mine / Alpha Coal West, Inc. Surface Wyoming 20,690,237 6 Spring Creek Coal

  9. Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Administration (EIA) Analysis & Projections ‹ See all Coal Reports U.S. Coal Supply and Demand: 2010 Year in Review Release Date: June 1, 2011 | Next Release Date: Periodically | full report Exports and Imports Exports Total U.S. coal exports for 2010 increased by 38.3 percent to 81.7 million short tons (Figure 8). Figure Data This increase was largely due to two factors. First, heavy rains and flooding in Australia, Indonesia, and Colombia reduced world coal supply and

  10. Coal production 1984. [USA; 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Coal Production 1984 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data were collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (PL 93-275) as amended. All data presented in this report, except the total production table presented in the Highlights section, the demonstrated reserve base data presented in Appendix A, and the 1983 coal preparation and shipments data presented in Appendix C, were obtained from Form EIA-7A, ''Coal Production Report,'' from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1984. These mining operations accounted for 99.4% of total US coal production and represented 76.3% of all US coal mining operations in 1984. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1984.

  11. Blast furnace injection of massive quantities of coal with enriched air or pure oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponghis, N.; Dufresne, P.; Vidal, R.; Poos, A. )

    1993-01-01

    An extensive study of the phenomena associated with the blast furnace injection of massive quantities of coal is described. Trials with conventional lances or oxy-coal injectors and hot blast at different oxygen contents - up to 40% - or with cold pure oxygen were realized at coal to oxygen ratios corresponding to a range of 150 to 440 kg. Pilot scale rigs, empty or filled with coke, as well as industrial blast furnaces were utilized.

  12. United States: coal's renaissance may be at hand. [Coal; 1970 to 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quenon, R.H.

    1980-11-01

    During the first half of 1980 steam coal exports from the United States to overseas customers increased nearly eight-fold to more than 5,100,000 tons. Total coal exports for the same period increased by 37 percent to 38,400,000 tons. Despite the recent growth in demand, the United States coal industry still finds itself a seriously demand-constrained industry. As a result, mines have been closed, miners put out of work, and expansion plans shelved. At present, the industry has the capacity to produce about 100,000,000 tons more coal each year than the market is absorbing. This situation exists largely because of capacity expansions begun in the early and mid-1970's following the oil embargo and the expectation of a much more rapid growth in coal use than actually occurred. This excess capacity can be brought on line quickly and additional capacity can be added if there is a greater demand for coal. Since the 1973 oil embargo, United States government policies designed to increase the use of coal have been largely offset by government actions increasing the costs of mining and using coal. In fact, while price and security of supply advantages lead to increased coal use, the rate of increase has been and will continue to be held down by government policies and requirements. The coal industry is continuing to work to bring about greater governmental and political awareness of actions which hold down the rate of increase in coal use. The National Coal Association identified 44 specific problem areas where government policies or requirements are impeding coal production and use. (LTN)

  13. 2016 Billion-Ton Report Factsheets | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report Factsheets 2016 Billion-Ton Report Factsheets 2016 Billion-Ton Report Factsheets 2016_billion_ton_report_preview_factsheet.pdf (1.13 MB) summary_and_comparison_factsheet_bt16.pdf (299.96 KB) forest_resources_factsheet_bt16.pdf (217.66 KB) agricultural_residues_facsheet_bt16.pdf (745.74 KB) municipal_solid_waste_factsheet_bt16.pdf (341.29 KB) algae_research_factsheet_bt16.pdf (364.99 KB) to_the_biorefinery_factsheet_bt16.pdf (325.45 KB) More Documents & Publications A Summary of the

  14. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-01

    Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal with particular reference to the coals from the Illinois Basin. Although this research is not yet completed the results to date support the following conclusions: (1) based on the results of computer modeling, lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois Basin, compare well in their injection properties with a variety of other bituminous coals, although the replacement ratio improves with increasing rank; (2) based on the results of petrographic analysis of material collected from an active blast furnace, it is clear the coal derived char is entering into the raceway of the blast furnace; (3) the results of reactivity experiments on a variety of coal chars at a variety of reaction temperatures show that lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois basin, yield chars with significantly higher reactivities in both air and CO{sub 2} than chars from higher rank Appalachian coals and blast furnace coke. These results indicate that the chars from the lower rank coals should have a superior burnout rate in the tuyere and should survive in the raceway environment for a shorter time. These coals, therefore, will have important advantages at high rates of injection that may overcome their slightly lower replacement rates.

  15. VACASULF operation at Citizens Gas and Coke Utility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Currey, J.H.

    1995-12-01

    Citizens Gas and Coke Utility is a Public Charitable Trust which operates as the Department of Utilities of the City of Indianapolis, Indiana. Indianapolis Coke, the trade name for the Manufacturing Division of the Utility, operates a by-products coke plant in Indianapolis, Indiana. The facility produces both foundry and blast furnace coke. Surplus Coke Oven gas, generated by the process, is mixed with Natural Gas for sale to industrial and residential customers. In anticipation of regulatory developments, beginning in 1990, Indianapolis Coke undertook the task to develop an alternate Coke Oven Gas desulfurization technology for its facility. The new system was intended to perform primary desulfurization of the gas, dramatically extending the oxide bed life, thus reducing disposal liabilities. Citizens Gas chose the VACASULF technology for its primary desulfurization system. VACASULF requires a single purchased material, Potassium Hydroxide (KOH). The KOH reacts with Carbon Dioxide in the coke Oven Gas to form Potassium Carbonate (potash) which in turn absorbs the Hydrogen Sulfide. The rich solution releases the absorbed sulfide under strong vacuum in the desorber column. Operating costs are reduced through utilization of an inherent heat source which is transferred indirectly via attendant reboilers. The Hydrogen Sulfide is transported by the vacuum pumps to the Claus Kiln and Reactor for combustion, reaction, and elemental Sulfur recovery. Regenerated potash solution is returned to the Scrubber.

  16. Picture of the Week: The 100-Ton Test

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 The 100-Ton Test Before the historic Trinity test on July 16th, 1945, Los Alamos scientists conducted a host of other experiments designed to ensure that they would be ready to...

  17. Operational and maintenance manual, 100 ton hydraulic trailer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koons, B.M.

    1995-03-03

    The 100 ton hydraulic trailer is used to remove the mitigation pump from Tank 241SY101. This manual explains how to inspect, operate, and maintain the trailer in a state of readiness.

  18. 305 Building 2 ton bridge crane and monorail assembly analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Axup, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    The analyses in the appendix of this document evaluate the integrity of the existing bridge crane structure, as depicted on drawing H-3-34292, for a bridge crane and monorail assembly with a load rating of 2 tons. This bridge crane and monorail assembly is a modification of a 1 1/2 ton rated manipulator bridge crane which originally existed in the 305 building.

  19. Florida CFB demo plant yields low emissions on variety of coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has reported results of tests conducted at Jacksonville Electric Authority (JEA)'s Northside power plant using mid-to-low-sulfur coal, which indicate the facility is one of the cleanest burning coal-fired power plants in the world. A part of DOE's Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program, the JEA project is a repowering demonstration of the operating and environmental performance of Foster Wheeler's utility-scale circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFB) technology on a range of high-sulfur coals and blends of coal and high-sulfur petroleum coke. The 300 MW demonstration unit has a non-demonstration 300 MW twin unit.

  20. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, SynCoal{reg_sign} demonstration technology update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheldon, R.W.

    1997-12-31

    An Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) technology being demonstrated in eastern Montana (USA) at the heart of one of the world`s largest coal deposits is providing evidence that the molecular structure of low-rank coals can be altered successfully to produce a unique product for a variety of utility and industrial applications. The product is called SynCoal{reg_sign} and the process has been developed by the Rosebud SynCoal Partnership (RSCP) through the US Department of Energy`s multi-million dollar Clean Coal Technology Program. The ACCP demonstration process uses low-pressure, superheated gases to process coal in vibrating fluidized beds. Two vibratory fluidized processing stages are used to heat and convert the coal. This is followed by a water spray quench and a vibratory fluidized stage to cool the coal. Pneumatic separators remove the solid impurities from the dried coal. There are three major steps to the SynCoal{reg_sign} process: (1) thermal treatment of the coal in an inert atmosphere, (2) inert gas cooling of the hot coal, and (3) removal of ash minerals. When operated continuously, the demonstration plant produces over 1,000 tons per day (up to 300,000 tons per year) of SynCoal{reg_sign} with a 2% moisture content, approximately 11,800b Btu/lb and less than 1.0 pound of SO{sub 2} per million Btu. This product is obtained from Rosebud Mine sub-bituminous coal which starts with 25% moisture, 8,600 Btu/lb and approximately 1.6 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu.

  1. Determination of the effect of different additives in coking blends using a combination of in situ high-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miguel C. Diaz; Karen M. Steel; Trevor C. Drage; John W. Patrick; Colin E. Snape

    2005-12-01

    High-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry measurements were carried out on 4:1 wt/wt blends of a medium volatile bituminous coal with two anthracites, two petroleum cokes, charcoal, wood, a low-temperature coke breeze, tyre crumb, and active carbon to determine the effects on fluidity development to identify the parameters responsible for these effects during pyrolysis and to study possible relationships among the parameters derived from these techniques. Positive, negative, and neutral effects were identified on the concentration of fluid material. Small positive effects (ca. 5-6%) were caused by blending the coal with petroleum cokes. Charcoal, wood, and active carbon all exerted negative effects on concentration (18-27% reduction) and mobility (12-25% reduction in T2) of the fluid phase, which have been associated with the inert character and high surface areas of these additives that adsorb the fluid phase of the coal. One of the anthracites and the low-temperature coke breeze caused deleterious effects to a lesser extent on the concentration (7-12%) and mobility (13-17%) of the fluid material, possibly due to the high concentration of metals in these additives (ca. 11% ash). Despite the high fluid character of tyre crumb at the temperature of maximum fluidity of the coal (73%), the mobility of the fluid phase of the blend was lower than expected. The comparison of {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry results indicated that to account for the variations in minimum complex viscosity for all the blends, both the maximum concentration of fluid phase and the maximum mobility of the fluid material had to be considered. For individual blends, two exponential relationships have been found between the complex viscosity and the concentration of solid phase in both the softening and resolidification stages but the parameters are different for each blend. 30 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Pelletization of fine coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1995-12-31

    Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

  3. U.S. Coal Supply and Demand: 2010 Year in Review - Energy Information

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Administration U.S. Coal Supply and Demand: 2010 Year in Review Release Date: June 1, 2011 | Next Release Date: Periodically | full report Introduction Coal production in the United States in 2010 increased to a level of 1,085.3 million short tons according to preliminary data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), an increase of 1.0 percent, or 10.4 million short tons above the 2009 level of 1,074.9 million short tons (Table 1). In 2010 U.S. coal consumption increased in all

  4. Coal-Producing Region

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Coal Production by State (thousand short tons) Year to Date Coal-Producing Region and State January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change Alabama 2,446 2,298 4,022 2,446 4,022 -39.2 Alaska 310 328 265 310 265 16.7 Arizona 1,335 1,376 1,755 1,335 1,755 -23.9 Arkansas 11 18 21 11 21 -48.0 Colorado 2,482 3,258 5,263 2,482 5,263 -52.8 Illinois 11,312 11,886 16,779 11,312 16,779 -32.6 Indiana 7,224 7,264 9,463 7,224 9,463 -23.7 Kansas 27 55 53 27 53

  5. Estimation of Coal Reserves for UCG in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bialecka, Barbara

    2008-03-15

    One of the prospective methods of coal utilization, especially in case of coal resources which are not mineable by means of conventional methods, is underground coal gasification (UCG). This technology allows recovery of coal energy 'in situ' and thus avoid the health and safety risks related to people which are inseparable from traditional coal extraction techniques.In Poland most mining areas are characterized by numerous coal beds where extraction was ceased on account of technical and economic reasons or safety issues. This article presents estimates of Polish hard coal resources, broken down into individual mines, that can constitute the basis of raw materials for the gasification process. Five mines, representing more than 4 thousand tons, appear to be UCG candidates.

  6. Coal Markets

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Glossary FAQS Overview Data Coal Data Browser (interactive query tool with charting and mapping) Summary Prices Reserves Consumption Production Stocks Imports, exports ...

  7. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Mines by State, 2014 and 2013 (million short tons) 2014 2013 Coal-Producing State Recoverable Coal Reserves Average Recovery Percentage Recoverable Coal Reserves Average Recovery Percentage Percent Change Recoverable Coal Reserves Alabama 228 46.00 383 33.45 -40.4 Alaska 53 85.00 54 85.00 -3.0 Arizona 216 90.00 224 90.00 -3.6 Arkansas 25 60.00 25 60.00 -1.8 Colorado 333 76.35 371 76.01 -10.3 Illinois 2,463 59.16 2,552

  8. Highwall miners extract coal cost effectively

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-08-15

    Contour Mining Corp's Powellton site in West Virginia has produced over 60,000 tons of coal per month using the Terex Highwall Mining System (HWM). The HWM can use a lower or high-seam cutter module. MTS Systems' Sensors Division provides mobile hydraulic magnetostrictive sensors for the HWM system, to increase the accuracy and reliability of linear positioning. 1 photo.

  9. System to acquire and monitor operating machinery positions for horizontal coke oven batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bierbaum, D.; Teschner, W.

    1980-02-26

    In a horizontal coke oven battery with at least one coke receiving device movable along one longitudinal side of the battery and at least one coke driving device movable along an opposite longitudinal side of the battery, an apparatus is disclosed for determining the relative position of the coke receiving device with respect to the coke driving device and for activating the coke driving device when its position corresponds with that of the coke receiving device. A first wheel is mounted on the coke receiving device for rotation with the movement of the coke receiving device, a first angle encoder is connected to the first wheel for producing a first signal corresponding to the location of the first wheel and the position of the coke receiving device along the coke oven, and an input storage in the form of a magnetic disc is connected to the first angle encoder for recording and storing the signal. A second wheel is mounted on the coke driving device for rotation with the movement of the coke driving device and a second angle encoder is connected thereto for producing a second signal which corresponds to the rotation of the second wheel and the position of the coke driving device along the coke oven. A comparator is connected to the second signal encoder for receiving the second signal and a data link is provided between the comparator and the input storage of the coke receiving device so that the first signal from the coke receiving device can be impressed on the comparator. An activator is connected to the comparator for activating the coke driving device when the first signal corresponds to the second signal indicating a corresponding positional relationship between the coke receiving device and the coke driving device.

  10. Table 11.3 Methane Emissions, 1980-2009 (Million Metric Tons of Methane)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Methane Emissions, 1980-2009 (Million Metric Tons of Methane) Year Energy Sources Waste Management Agricultural Sources Industrial Processes 9 Total 5 Coal Mining Natural Gas Systems 1 Petroleum Systems 2 Mobile Com- bustion 3 Stationary Com- bustion 4 Total 5 Landfills Waste- water Treatment 6 Total 5 Enteric Fermen- tation 7 Animal Waste 8 Rice Cultivation Crop Residue Burning Total 5 1980 3.06 4.42 NA 0.28 0.45 8.20 10.52 0.52 11.04 5.47 2.87 0.48 0.04 8.86 0.17 28.27 1981 2.81 5.02 NA .27

  11. Coal Preparation Plant Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-25

    COALPREP assesses the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and mode of operation. It allows the user to simulate coal preparation plants to determine an optimum plant configuration for a given degree of cleaning. The user can compare the performance of alternative plant configurations as well as determine the impact of various modes of operation for a proposed configuration. The devices that can be modelled include froth flotationmore » devices, washers, dewatering equipment, thermal dryers, rotary breakers, roll crushers, classifiers, screens, blenders and splitters, and gravity thickeners. The user must specify the plant configuration and operating conditions and a description of the coal feed. COALPREP then determines the flowrates within the plant and a description of each flow stream (i.e. the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, BTU content, recoveries, and specific gravity of separation). COALPREP also includes a capability for calculating the cleaning cost per ton of coal. The IBM PC version contains two auxiliary programs, DATAPREP and FORLIST. DATAPREP is an interactive preprocessor for creating and editing COALPREP input data. FORLIST converts carriage-control characters in FORTRAN output data to ASCII line-feed (X''0A'') characters.« less

  12. Coal Preparation Plant Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-25

    COALPREP assesses the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and mode of operation. It allows the user to simulate coal preparation plants to determine an optimum plant configuration for a given degree of cleaning. The user can compare the performance of alternative plant configurations as well as determine the impact of various modes of operation for a proposed configuration. The devices that can be modelled include froth flotationmore » devices, washers, dewatering equipment, thermal dryers, rotary breakers, roll crushers, classifiers, screens, blenders and splitters, and gravity thickeners. The user must specify the plant configuration and operating conditions and a description of the coal feed. COALPREP then determines the flowrates within the plant and a description of each flow stream (i.e. the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, BTU content, recoveries, and specific gravity of separation). COALPREP also includes a capability for calculating the cleaning cost per ton of coal.« less

  13. Coal production, 1986. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-28

    Coal Production 1986 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data presented in this report were collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Aministration Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-275) as amended. The 1986 coal production and related data presented in this report were obtained from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1986. This survey originated at the Bureau of Mines, US Department of the Interior. This report also includes updated data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on both January 1, 1986 and January 1, 1987. This is the seventh annual summry on minable coal, pursuant to Sec. 801 of Public Law 95-620. 18 figs., 105 tabs.

  14. Catalytic hydrogenation of HyperCoal (ashless coal) and reusability of catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koji Koyano; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Ikuo Saito

    2009-07-15

    HyperCoal (HPC) is ashless coal obtained by a mild thermal extraction of coal to remove unextractable, heavy compounds, and minerals. The temperature and duration of HPC hydrogenation was systematically varied with and without solvent in an autoclave under hydrogen pressure. Unlike raw coal, hydrogenation of HPC in the absence of solvent proceeded without coke formation when the reaction was performed for 60 min at 450{sup o}C in 10 MPa hydrogen (initial pressure). The hydrogenation catalyst was recycled five times with no detection of deactivation. Longer reactions at slightly higher temperatures (120 min at 460{sup o}C), with replenishing the hydrogen, afforded a 90 wt % oil (hexane-soluble fraction) yield. 27 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Comprehensive Report to Congress Clean Coal Technology Program: Clean power from integrated coal/ore reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This report describes a clean coal program in which an iron making technology is paired with combined cycle power generation to produce 3300 tons per day of hot metal and 195 MWe of electricity. The COREX technology consists of a metal-pyrolyzer connected to a reduction shaft, in which the reducing gas comes directly from coal pyrolysis. The offgas is utilized to fuel a combined cycle power plant.

  16. RESIDUA UPGRADING EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT MODELS: WRI COKING INDEXES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Francis P. Miknis; Thomas F. Turner

    2003-06-01

    Pyrolysis experiments were conducted with three residua at 400 C (752 F) at various residence times. The wt % coke and gaseous products were measured for the product oils. The Western Research Institute (WRI) Coking Indexes were determined for the product oils. Measurements were made using techniques that might correlate with the Coking Indexes. These included spin-echo proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, heat capacity measurements at 280 C (536 F), and ultrasonic attenuation. The two immiscible liquid phases that form once coke formation begins were isolated and characterized for a Boscan residuum pyrolyzed at 400 C (752 F) for 55 minutes. These materials were analyzed for elemental composition (CHNS), porphyrins, and metals (Ni,V) content.

  17. New process to avoid emissions: Constant pressure in coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giertz, J.; Huhn, F.; Hofherr, K.

    1995-12-01

    A chamber pressure regulation (PROven), especially effective in regard to emission control problems of coke ovens is introduced for the first time. Because of the partial vacuum in the collecting main system, it is possible to keep the oven`s raw gas pressure constant on a low level over the full coking time. The individual pressure control for each chamber is assured directly as a function of the oven pressure by an immersion system controlling the flow resistance of the collecting main valve. The latter is a fixed-position design (system name ``FixCup``). By doing away with the interdependence of collecting main pressure and chamber pressure, a parameter seen as a coking constant could not be made variable. This opens a new way to reduce coke oven emissions and simultaneously to prevent the ovens from damage caused by air ingress into the oven.

  18. Methods for retarding coke formation during pyrolytic hydrocarbon processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-22

    A method is described for inhibiting the formation and deposition of pyrolytic coke on the heated metal surfaces in contact with a hydrocarbon feedstock which is undergoing pyrolytic processing to produce lower hydrocarbon fractions and said metal surfaces having a temperature of about 1,400 F or higher, consisting essentially of adding to said hydrocarbon feedstock being pyrolytically processed a coke inhibiting amount of hydroquinone.

  19. Reducing the moisture content of clean coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kehoe, D. )

    1992-12-01

    Coal moisture content can profoundly effect the cost of burning coal in utility boilers. Because of the large effect of coal moisture, the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO) contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute to investigate advanced coal dewatering methods at its Coal Quality Development Center. This report contains the test result on the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge, the second of four devices to be tested. The high-G solid-bowl centrifuge removes water for coal by spinning the coal/water mixture rapidly in a rotating bowl. This causes the coal to cling to the sides of the bowl where it can be removed, leaving the water behind. Testing was performed at the CQDC to evaluate the effect of four operating variables (G-ratio, feed solids concentration, dry solids feed rate, and differential RPM) on the performance of the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge. Two centrifuges of different bowl diameter were tested to establish the effect of scale-up of centrifuge performance. Testing of the two centrifuges occurred from 1985 through 1987. CQDC engineers performed 32 tests on the smaller of the two centrifuges, and 47 tests on the larger. Equations that predict the performance of the two centrifuges for solids recovery, moisture content of the produced coal, and motor torque were obtained. The equations predict the observed data well. Traditional techniques of establishing the performance of centrifuge of different scale did not work well with the two centrifuges, probably because of the large range of G-ratios used in the testing. Cost of operating a commercial size bank of centrifuges is approximately $1.72 per ton of clean coal. This compares well with thermal drying, which costs $1.82 per ton of clean coal.

  20. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coal Stocks at Other Industrial Plants by Census Division and State (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2014 Table 39. Coal Stocks at Other Industrial Plants by Census Division and State (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2014 Census Division and State June 30, 2014 March 31, 2014 June 30, 2013 Percent Change (June 30) 2014 versus 2013 New England 8 8 13 -34.3 Maine 2 2

  1. Sneak Peek to the 2016 Billion-Ton Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resource Analysis * Potential economic availability of biomass feedstocks under speci- fed market scenarios, including currently used resources * Cost of production, harvesting, and transportation; potential yield range, and economic supply for 30 candidate feedstocks (>1 billion dry tons/year) Resource Commercialization * Advanced feedstock supply system simulation, expansion of feedstock production over time in response to simulated markets. Volume 2 Environmental Sustainability Analysis

  2. EIS-0073: Solvent Refined Coal-I Demonstration Project, Daviess County, Kentucky

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement to assess the potential environmental, economic, and social impacts associated with construction and operation of a 6,000-tons-per-stream-day-capacity coal liquefaction facility in Newman, Kentucky, and the potential impacts of a future expansion of the proposed facility to an approximately 30,000 tons per stream day capacity.

  3. Scale-up of mild gasification to be a process development unit mildgas 24 ton/day PDU design report. Final report, November 1991--July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    From November 1991 to April 1996, Kerr McGee Coal Corporation (K-M Coal) led a project to develop the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) Mild Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program were to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scale-up; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The project team for the PDU development program consisted of: K-M Coal, IGT, Bechtel Corporation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC), General Motors (GM), Pellet Technology Corporation (PTC), LTV Steel, Armco Steel, Reilly Industries, and Auto Research.

  4. Illinois coal reserve assessment and database development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Treworgy, C.G.; Prussen, E.I.; Justice, M.A.; Chenoweth, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    The new demonstrated reserve base estimate of coal of Illinois is 105 billion short tons. This estimate is an increase from the 78 billion tons in the Energy Information Administration`s demonstrated reserve base of coal, as of January 1, 1994. The new estimate arises from revised resource calculations based on recent mapping in a number of countries, as well as significant adjustments for depletion due to past mining. The new estimate for identified resources is 199 billion tons, a revision of the previous estimate of 181 billion tons. The new estimates incorporate the available analyses of sulfur, heat content, and rank group appropriate for characterizing the remaining coal resources in Illinois. Coal-quality data were examined in conjunction with coal resource mapping. Analyses of samples from exploration drill holes, channel samples from mines and outcrops, and geologic trends were compiled and mapped to allocate coal resource quantities to ranges of sulfur, heat content, and rank group. The new allocations place almost 1% of the demonstrated reserve base of Illinois in the two lowest sulfur categories, in contrast to none in the previous allocation used by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The new allocations also place 89% of the demonstrated reserve base in the highest sulfur category, in contrast to the previous allocation of 69% in the highest category.

  5. Advanced progress concepts for direct coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.; Derbyshire, F.; Givens, E.

    1995-09-01

    Given the low cost of petroleum crude, direct coal liquefaction is still not an economically viable process. The DOE objectives are to further reduce the cost of coal liquefaction to a more competitive level. In this project the primary focus is on the use of low-rank coal feedstocks. A particular strength is the use of process-derived liquids rather than model compound solvents. The original concepts are illustrated in Figure 1, where they are shown on a schematic of the Wilsonville pilot plant operation. Wilsonville operating data have been used to define a base case scenario using run {number_sign}263J, and Wilsonville process materials have been used in experimental work. The CAER has investigated: low severity CO pretreatment of coal for oxygen rejection, increasing coal reactivity and mg inhibiting the propensity for regressive reactions; the application of more active. Low-cost Fe and Mo dispersed catalysts; and the possible use of fluid coking for solids rejection and to generate an overhead product for recycle. CONSOL has investigated: oil agglomeration for coal ash rejection, for the possible rejection of ash in the recycled resid, and for catalyst addition and recovery; and distillate dewaxing to remove naphthenes and paraffins, and to generate an improved quality feed for recycle distillate hydrogenation. At Sandia, research has been concerned with the production of active hydrogen donor distillate solvent fractions produced by the hydrogenation of dewaxed distillates and by fluid coking via low severity reaction with H{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2}O mixtures using hydrous metal oxide and other catalysts.

  6. Application of a catalyst deactivation model for hydrotreating solvent refined coal feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nalitham, R.V.

    1983-10-01

    A simple kinetic model, including a first-order catalyst deactivation rate, is applied to upgrading of coal-derived feedstocks prepared from two solvent refined coal fractions. A catalyst deactivation mechanism is proposed which involves the adsorption and surface reaction of coke precursors on catalytic active sites. The effect of feedstock composition, temperature and pressure on kinetic parameters, and in particular the catalyst deactivation rate, is determined.

  7. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-05-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses

  8. Gas-chromatographic determination of the main components of hard-coal tar and its fractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nabivach, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation was carried out into the composition of bituminous coal tars from several coking plants in the Ukraine using gas-liquid chromatography. It was shown that analytical data can be used for operational quality control of the fractions produced.

  9. Demonstrated reserve base for coal in New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, G.K.

    1995-02-01

    The new demonstrated reserve base estimate of coal for the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, is 11.28 billion short tons. This compares with 4.429 billion short tons in the Energy Information Administration`s demonstrated reserve base of coal as of January 1, 1992 for all of New Mexico and 2.806 billion short tons for the San Juan Basin. The new estimate includes revised resource calculations in the San Juan Basin, in San Juan, McKinley, Sandoval, Rio Arriba, Bernalillo and Cibola counties, but does not include the Raton Basin and smaller fields in New Mexico. These estimated {open_quotes}remaining{close_quotes} coal resource quantities, however, include significant adjustments for depletion due to past mining, and adjustments for accessibility and recoverability.

  10. Final TEchnical REport Two 175 ton geothermal chiller heat pumps...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... was generated by coal-fired plants, producing approximately 900 grams of C02 per kWh. ... Exposure to the working chiller plant (see images 1, 4, and 5) provided valuable ...

  11. Coal pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  12. Process for producing fluid fuel from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hyde, Richard W.; Reber, Stephen A.; Schutte, August H.; Nadkarni, Ravindra M.

    1977-01-01

    Process for producing fluid fuel from coal. Moisture-free coal in particulate form is slurried with a hydrogen-donor solvent and the heated slurry is charged into a drum wherein the pressure is so regulated as to maintain a portion of the solvent in liquid form. During extraction of the hydrocarbons from the coal, additional solvent is added to agitate the drum mass and keep it up to temperature. Subsequently, the pressure is released to vaporize the solvent and at least a portion of the hydrocarbons extracted. The temperature of the mass in the drum is then raised under conditions required to crack the hydrocarbons in the drum and to produce, after subsequent stripping, a solid coke residue. The hydrocarbon products are removed and fractionated into several cuts, one of which is hydrotreated to form the required hydrogen-donor solvent while other fractions can be hydrotreated or hydrocracked to produce a synthetic crude product. The heaviest fraction can be used to produce ash-free coke especially adapted for hydrogen manufacture. The process can be made self-sufficient in hydrogen and furnishes as a by-product a solid carbonaceous material with a useful heating value.

  13. Activities of the Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal at Zabrze

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dreszer, K.

    1995-12-31

    The Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal at Zabrze was established in 1955. The works on carbochemical technologies have been, therefore, carried out at the Institute for 40 years. The targets of the Institute`s activities are research, scientific and developing works regarding a sensible utilization of fuels via their processing into more refined forms, safe environment, highly efficient use of energy carriers and technological products of special quality. The Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal has been dealing with the following: optimized use of home hard coals; improvement of classic coal coking technologies, processing and utilization of volatile coking products; production technologies of low emission rate fuels for communal management; analyses of coal processing technologies; new technologies aimed at increasing the efficiency of coal utilization for energy-generating purposes, especially in industry and studies on the ecological aspects of these processes; production technologies of sorbents and carbon activating agents and technologies of the utilization; rationalization of water and wastes management in the metallurgical and chemical industries in connection with removal of pollution especially dangerous to the environment from wastes; utilization technologies of refined materials (electrode cokes, binders, impregnating agents) for making electrodes, refractories and new generation construction carbon materials; production technologies of high quality bituminous and bituminous and resin coating, anti-corrosive and insulation materials; environmentally friendly utilization technologies for power station, mine and other wastes, and dedusting processes in industrial gas streams.

  14. The place of hard coal in energy supply pattern of Turkey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yilmaz, A.O.; Aydiner, K.

    2009-07-01

    Lignite and hard coal are the major sources of domestic energy sources of Turkey. Hard coal is produced at only one district in the country. Zonguldak Hard Coal Basin is the major power for development of the Turkish steel-making industry. It is the only hard coal basin in the country and it has, to date, supplied approximately 400 million tons of run-of-mine hard coal. This article investigates the potential of hard coal as an energy source and discusses the measures to activate the region for the future energy supply objectives of the country.

  15. THERMAL MODELING ANALYSIS OF SRS 70 TON CASK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.; Jordan, J.; Hensel, S.

    2011-03-08

    The primary objective of this work was to perform the thermal calculations to evaluate the Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel assembly temperatures inside the SRS 70-Ton Cask loaded with various bundle powers. MTR fuel consists of HFBR, MURR, MIT, and NIST. The MURR fuel was used to develop a bounding case since it is the fuel with the highest heat load. The results will be provided for technical input for the SRS 70 Ton Cask Onsite Safety Assessment. The calculation results show that for the SRS 70 ton dry cask with 2750 watts total heat source with a maximum bundle heat of 670 watts and 9 bundles of MURR bounding fuel, the highest fuel assembly temperatures are below about 263 C. Maximum top surface temperature of the plastic cover is about 112 C, much lower than its melting temperature 260 C. For 12 bundles of MURR bounding fuel with 2750 watts total heat and a maximum fuel bundle of 482 watts, the highest fuel assembly temperatures are bounded by the 9 bundle case. The component temperatures of the cask were calculated by a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach. The modeling calculations were performed by considering daily-averaged solar heat flux.

  16. The evaluation of the Nippon Steel Corporation reactivity and post-reaction-strength test for coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    A systematic investigation was made of the factors influencing the reactivity of coke, including test temperature, coke structural properties, mineral inclusions and additives, and the inert content of the charge.

  17. Beneficial use of coal combustion products continues to grow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, M.

    2008-07-01

    In August 2007 the American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) released results of the Coal Combustion Products Production (CCP) and use survey. Production was 124,795,000 tons while beneficial use was 54,203,000 tons, a utilization rate of over 43%, 3% higher than in 2005. The article includes graphs of 40 years of CCP production and use and projected trade of CCP utilization until 2011. It also gives 2006 figures for Production and use of fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, FGD gypsum and other FGD products, and FBC ash. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  18. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-05-18

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  19. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  20. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-11-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil are reported. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  1. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-04-23

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  2. Development and installation of a high strength insulating castable for use behind buckstays and jambs of a 6-meter coke battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, F.S. ); Sich, G. ); Gladfelder, L.

    1993-01-01

    The 6-meter coke oven batteries at Armco Steel Company, L.P.'s Middletown Works experienced stand pipe base failure and numerous door fires with the original hammer-type double knife edge door design. These events resulted in deformation of the battery buckstay, armoring, tie rod, and jamb system. In 1983, these issues were addressed by releasing the jamb from the interlocking armor, replacing the jamb casting, and strengthening the buckstays in place through minimum capital expenditures. End flue refractory condition at that time was good, and little movement was measured. The 1983 repairs did not eliminate heating wall movement, and the heating wall refractories gradually deteriorated. The end flues required special maintenance attention. Broken brickwork from the refractory shapes surrounding the coke side inspection port inside the end flues blocked air ports and gas nozzles. Open brick joints between the nose brick allowed gas and heat to escape the flue toward the buckstays and jambs. This heat loss deformed jambs and reduced end flue temperatures. Jamb movement resulted in partial loss of contact between the top of the jambs and the lintel area above the jambs, resulting in some loss of brick above the jamb area. Improper coking of the coal charge at the end flues reduced yield and affected coke quality. Door emissions and pushing emissions became more difficult to control. A task group explored several strategies for solving these refractory problems. The strategies that were investigated varied widely in scope and cost. One low cost alternative explored (and the one eventually adopted) was to repair the coke side of the batteries. The scope of the repair included three components. Install a new jamb; Reseal the lintel area above the jamb with a castable refractory; and Reseal the area between the end flue and the buckstay/armor/jamb system with a castable refractory. This paper describes the project.

  3. Coal liquefaction with subsequent bottoms pyrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walchuk, George P.

    1978-01-01

    In a coal liquefaction process wherein heavy bottoms produced in a liquefaction zone are upgraded by coking or a similar pyrolysis step, pyrolysis liquids boiling in excess of about 1000.degree. F. are further reacted with molecular hydrogen in a reaction zone external of the liquefaction zone, the resulting effluent is fractionated to produce one or more distillate fractions and a bottoms fraction, a portion of this bottoms fraction is recycled to the reaction zone, and the remaining portion of the bottoms fraction is recycled to the pyrolysis step.

  4. Coal liquefaction and hydroprocessing of petroleum oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenthal, J.W.; Dahlberg, A.J.

    1983-12-27

    This invention comprises a process for hydroprocessing a petroleum oil containing soluble metals compounds while suppressing the accumulation of coke within the hydroprocessing zone, comprising the steps of forming a mixture comprising particulate coal and a petroleum oil containing soluble metal compounds to form a feed slurry; and contacting said feed slurry with added hydrogen in said hydroprocessing zone under hydroprocessing conditions to produce an effluent comprising a normally liquid portion having a reduced soluble metals concentration and undissolved solids containing metal from said soluble metals compounds in said petroleum oil.

  5. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.; Case, E.R.

    1993-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. During the first phase of this project a number of the objectives were realized, specifically: (1) a blast furnace sampling system was developed and used successfully to collect samples inside an active furnace; (2) two sets of blast furnace samples were collected and petrographic analysis showed that char derived from injected coal is entering the reduction zone of the furnace; (3) a coal/char sampling probe was designed and fabricated; (4) the completion of a program of reactivity experiments on the injected coal char, blast furnace coke and Herrin No. 6 char. The results of the reactivity experiments indicate that Herrin No. 6 coal is similar or even superior to coals now being used in blast furnace injection and that additional testing is warranted.

  6. New packing in absorption systems for trapping benzene from coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.V. Grabko; V.M. Li; T.A. Shevchenko; M.A. Solov'ev

    2009-07-15

    The efficiency of benzene removal from coke-oven gas in absorption units OAO Alchevskkoks with new packing is assessed.

  7. EIA - Coal Distribution

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report > Annual Coal Distribution Archives Annual Coal Distribution Archive Release Date: February 17, 2011 Next Release Date: December 2011 Domestic coal ...

  8. Study on rheological characteristics of petroleum coke residual oil slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shou Weiyi; Xu Xiaoming; Cao Xinyu

    1997-07-01

    We have embarked on a program to develop petroleum coke residual oil slurry (POS) as an alternative fuel for existing oil-fired boilers. The industrial application of petroleum coke residual oil slurry requires full knowledge of its flow behavior. This paper will present the results of an experimental investigation undertaken to study the Theological properties using a rotating viscometer at shear rate up to 996 s{sup -1}. The effects of temperature, concentration, particle size distribution and additives are also investigated. The experiments show that petroleum coke residual oil slurry exhibits pseudoplastic behavior, which has favorable viscosity property under a certain condition and has broad prospect to be applied on oil-fired boilers.

  9. Pulverized coal injection at Hoogovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paramanathan, B.K.; Toxopeus, H.L

    1994-12-31

    The Armco/Babcock and Wilcox-type Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) System, installed at Hoogovens Ijmuiden in 1982/83, consists of two pulverizing lines, each of 30 t/h capacity. Due to the increased demand for pulverized fuel to the Blast Furnaces (Nos. 6 and 7), the PCI system has been revised extensively such that the grinding capacity has been increased, thereby achieving a higher average injection rate to both Blast Furnaces of some 140 kg/THM. The use of soft and dry coals, coupled to modifications to the System, has resulted in an annual consumption of pulverized coal of more than 750,000 tons, some 80% more than that envisaged initially. The installation operates very successfully, downtime having been minimal over the years. Several trials, at high rates of coal injection, have been carried out in the past. The most recent trials, performed over a period of nine months in 1992, showed that smooth and stable Blast Furnace operation was possible even with very high rates of pulverized coal injection (more than 200 kg/THM).

  10. Chemical cleaning of coal by molten caustic leaching after pretreatment by low-temperature devolatilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chriswell, Colin D.; Kaushik, Surender M.; Shah, Navin D.; Markuszewski, Richard

    1989-08-22

    Pretreatment of coal by devolatization at temperatures ranging from about 420.degree. C. to about 450.degree. C. for from about 10 minutes to about 30 minutes before leaching with molten caustic leads to a significant reduction in carbonate formation, greatly reducing the cost of cleaning coal on a per ton basis.

  11. A story of revival: United Coal's East Gulf preparation plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-04-15

    Some say beauty is in the eye of the beholder, but when United Coal purchased the assets of White Mountain Mining in late 2005, the attractiveness of the acquired assets did not require much debate. Whilst the Pocahontas Coal reserves included in the acquisition were very desirable for producing coke, the East Gulf preparation plant was in poor condition. In order to minimize cost, maintenance and manpower whilst increasing production, the circuits in the existing plant were modified and the Barvoy Vessel was replaced with a single, pump fed, 30-inch Krebs HM cyclone. A spiral circuit was added as were screen bowl centrifuges. Finally the plant was given a structural upgrade and a new siding was installed. With the East Gulf restoration project complete, the United Coal Co. (UCC) and Pocahontas Coal are now considering expanding the Affinity complex. 2 figs., 6 photos.

  12. Sixth clean coal technology conference: Proceedings. Volume 2: Technical papers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-01

    The Sixth Clean Coal Technology Conference focused on the ability of clean coal technologies (CCTs) to meet increasingly demanding environmental requirements while simultaneously remaining competitive in both international and domestic markets. Conference speakers assessed environmental, economic, and technical issues and identified approaches that will help enable CCTs to be deployed in an era of competing, interrelated demands for energy, economic growth, and environmental protection. Recognition was given to the dynamic changes that will result from increasing competition in electricity and fuel markets and industry restructuring, both domestically and internationally. Volume 2 contains 28 papers related to fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification for combined cycle power plants, the Liquid Phase Methanol Process, use of coal in iron making, air pollution control of nitrogen oxides, coke making, and hot gas cleanup.

  13. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Productive Capacity and Capacity Utilization of Underground Coal Mines by State and Mining Method, 2014 (thousand short tons) Continuous 1 Conventional and Other 2 Longwall 3 Total Coal-Producing State Productive Capacity Capacity Utilization Percent Productive Capacity Capacity Utilization Percent Productive Capacity Capacity Utilization Percent Productive Capacity Capacity Utilization Percent Alabama 510 85.35 - - 13,405 90.12 13,915 89.95 Arkansas 240 36.25 - - - - 240 36.25 Colorado 1,000

  14. Current trends in coal combustion product (CCPs) production and use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, B.

    1998-12-31

    CCPs (Coal Combustion Products) are engineering materials that are similar in use to virgin, processed and manufactured materials. CCPs are produced when coal is burned in a boiler to generate electricity. The four types of CCPs produced by electric utility boilers are fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag and FGD (Flue Gas Desulfurization) material. CCPs rank behind only sand and gravel, and crushed stone as a produced mineral commodity, and rank ahead of Portland cement and iron ore. In 1997, 55% of the electricity was produced by coal fired electric utilities. This number is projected to remain fairly constant to the year 2015. Almost 90% of the coal used in the United States, is burned to generate electricity. During 1997, 898.5 million metric tons (870 million short tons) of coal were burned by electric utilities to generate electricity. As a result, over 95 million tons (105 million short tons) of CCPs were generated by the electric utilities. This figure promises to increase in the future, owing mostly to the anticipated rise in FGD material generation. The American Coal Ash Association, Inc. (ACAA) is a trade association representing the CCP Industry. ACAA promotes the use in CCPs in numerous applications that are technically sound, commercially competitive and environmentally safe. The data presented in this paper has been taken from the Annual Survey of CCP production and use by ACAA. ACAA conducts an annual voluntary, confidential, survey of US coal fired electric utilities to gather data about the production and use of CCPs. In 1997, the survey data collected accounts for approximately 80% of the coal burned by electric utilities. Information from previous ACAA surveys or US Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) data were used to estimate CCP production and use for utilities that did not respond to the survey. None of the data used was older than 1995.

  15. A coke/soot formation model for multiphase reacting flow simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Petrick, M.; Zhou, C.Q. |

    1997-03-01

    Coke is a by-product in petroleum fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) processes. The concentration of coke in an FCC riser reactor is a critical parameter used to evaluate the riser performance. A coke formation and transport model was developed. It was incorporated into a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) computer code, ICRKFLO, to simulate the coke formation processes in an FCC riser reactor. Based on a similar process, a soot formation model can be derived from the coke formation model and used for diesel combustion processes, where soot is emitted as one of the primary pollutants.

  16. Formation of coke from heavy crude oils in the presence of calcium carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kessick, M. A.; George, Z. M.; Schneider, L. G.

    1985-06-04

    The sulphur emissive capability, on combustion, of coke which is formed during upgrading of sulphur-containing heavy crude oils, including oil sands bitumen, and residua, is decreased by the addition of calcium carbonate, preferably in the form of limestone, to the heavy crude oil prior to coking. The presence of the limestone leads to an increased yield of liquid distillates from the coking process under preferred coking conditions. Ash remaining after combustion of the coke may be leached to recover nickel and vanadium values therefrom.

  17. DOE to Remove 200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from U.S. Nuclear Weapons Stockpile DOE to Remove 200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from U.S. Nuclear Weapons Stockpile ...

  18. U.S. Manufacturers Save $1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. Manufacturers Save 1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through Energy Efficiency Investments U.S. Manufacturers Save 1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through Energy...

  19. NETL: Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal In response to concerns of climate change, the United States is contemplating a complete and rapid transformation of the way it both produces and consumes energy to significantly reduce its carbon emissions. The integrated Coal Program focuses on retaining the benefits of continuing to use coal to produce electric power. This strategy can help us depend less on foreign sources of energy, respond to the world's growing climate concerns, and compete economically. It also will ensure that our

  20. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals. Volume I. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the bituminous coal resources of the United States, identifies those resources which are potentially amenable to Underground Coal Gasification (UCG), identifies products and markets in the vicinity of selected target areas, identifies UCG concepts, describes the state of the art of UCG in bituminous coal, and presents three R and D programs for development of the technology to the point of commercial viability. Of the 670 billion tons of bituminous coal remaining in-place as identified by the National Coal Data System, 32.2 billion tons or 4.8% of the total are potentially amenable to UCG technology. The identified amenable resource was located in ten states: Alabama, Colorado, Illinois, Kentucky, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Utah, Virginia, and West Virginia. The principal criteria which eliminated 87.3% of the resource was the minimum thickness (42 inches). Three R and D programs were developed using three different concepts at two different sites. Open Borehole, Hydraulic Fracture, and Electrolinking concepts were developed. The total program costs for each concept were not significantly different. The study concludes that much of the historical information based on UCG in bituminous coals is not usable due to the poor siting of the early field tests and a lack of adequate diagnostic equipment. This information gap requires that much of the early work be redone in view of the much improved understanding of the role of geology and hydrology in the process and the recent development of analytical tools and methods.

  1. In Milestone, Energy Department Projects Safely and Permanently Store 10 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Carbon Capture and Storage projects supported by the Department reached a milestone of 10 million tons of carbon dioxide.

  2. Moab Project Disposes 2 Million Tons of Uranium Mill Tailings with Recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Act Funds | Department of Energy Moab Project Disposes 2 Million Tons of Uranium Mill Tailings with Recovery Act Funds Moab Project Disposes 2 Million Tons of Uranium Mill Tailings with Recovery Act Funds The Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project reached its primary American Recovery and Reinvestment Act milestone ahead of schedule on Wednesday with the disposal of 2 million tons of uranium mill tailings. The project had originally planned to ship 2 million tons of tailings with

  3. U.S. Coal Flow, 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Flow, 2015 million short tons Notes: * Production categories are estimated; all data are preliminary. * Values are derived from source data prior to rounding for publication. * Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. Sources: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Monthly Energy Review (April 2016), Tables 6.1 and 6.2; and EIA estimates based on U.S. Department of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Form 7000-2, "Quarterly Mine Employment

  4. Study of deactivation and regeneration of catalysts used in the LC-fining of solvent refined coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, C.W. (Auburn Univ., AL); Guin, J.A.; Nalitham, R.; mohsin, A.; Tarrer, A.R.; Potts, J.D.; Hastings, K.E.

    1981-03-29

    Batch experiments as well as results from LC-Fining catalytic upgrading of coal extracts indicate deactivation of the Shell 324 Ni/Mo catalyst in the presence of solvent refined coal (SRC). At increased levels of SRC loading, deactivation increases. The chief cause of catalyst deactivation appears to be coking. The Shell 324 catalyst can be substantially regenerated after the upgrading reaction by medium temperature ashing followed by presulfiding.

  5. "End Use","for Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coke and Breeze)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.8;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,"Distillate" ,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" ,"Net Demand","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal" "End Use","for Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coke and Breeze

  6. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industry | Department of Energy Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry An update to the 2005 report, "Biomass as a Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply" For the most recent report, view the 2016 Billion-Ton Report. billion_ton_update.pdf (6.41 MB) More Documents & Publications 2016

  7. Acceptance test report for the Westinghouse 100 ton hydraulic trailer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, R.A.

    1995-03-06

    The SY-101 Equipment Removal System 100 Ton Hydraulic Trailer was designed and built by KAMP Systems, Inc. Performance of the Acceptance Test Procedure at KAMP`s facility in Ontario, California (termed Phase 1 in this report) was interrupted by discrepancies noted with the main hydraulic cylinder. The main cylinder was removed and sent to REMCO for repair while the trailer was sent to Lampson`s facility in Pasco, Washington. The Acceptance Test Procedure was modified and performance resumed at Lampson (termed Phase 2 in this report) after receipt of the repaired cylinder. At the successful conclusion of Phase 2 testing the trailer was accepted as meeting all the performance criteria specified.

  8. Neutrino physics with multi-ton scale liquid xenon detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baudis, L.; Ferella, A.; Kish, A.; Manalaysay, A.; Undagoitia, T. Marrodn; Schumann, M., E-mail: laura.baudis@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: alfredo.ferella@lngs.infn.it, E-mail: alexkish@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: aaronm@ucdavis.edu, E-mail: marrodan@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: marc.schumann@lhep.unibe.ch [Physik Institut, University of Zrich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, Zrich, CH-8057 (Switzerland)

    2014-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of large-scale xenon detectors to low-energy solar neutrinos, to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering and to neutrinoless double beta decay. As a concrete example, we consider the xenon part of the proposed DARWIN (Dark Matter WIMP Search with Noble Liquids) experiment. We perform detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the expected backgrounds, considering realistic energy resolutions and thresholds in the detector. In a low-energy window of 230 keV, where the sensitivity to solar pp and {sup 7}Be-neutrinos is highest, an integrated pp-neutrino rate of 5900 events can be reached in a fiducial mass of 14 tons of natural xenon, after 5 years of data. The pp-neutrino flux could thus be measured with a statistical uncertainty around 1%, reaching the precision of solar model predictions. These low-energy solar neutrinos will be the limiting background to the dark matter search channel for WIMP-nucleon cross sections below ? 2 10{sup ?48} cm{sup 2} and WIMP masses around 50 GeV?c{sup ?2}, for an assumed 99.5% rejection of electronic recoils due to elastic neutrino-electron scatters. Nuclear recoils from coherent scattering of solar neutrinos will limit the sensitivity to WIMP masses below ? 6 GeV?c{sup ?2} to cross sections above ? 4 10{sup ?45}cm{sup 2}. DARWIN could reach a competitive half-life sensitivity of 5.6 10{sup 26} y to the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe after 5 years of data, using 6 tons of natural xenon in the central detector region.

  9. Transportation system benefits of early deployment of a 75-ton multipurpose canister system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wankerl, M.W.; Schmid, S.P.

    1995-12-31

    In 1993 the US Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) began developing two multipurpose canister (MPC) systems to provide a standardized method for interim storage and transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at commercial nuclear power plants. One is a 75-ton concept with an estimated payload of about 6 metric tons (t) of SNF, and the other is a 125-ton concept with an estimated payload of nearly 11 t of SNF. These payloads are two to three times the payloads of the largest currently certified US rail transport casks, the IF-300. Although is it recognized that a fully developed 125-ton MPC system is likely to provide a greater cost benefit, and radiation exposure benefit than the lower-capacity 75-ton MPC, the authors of this paper suggest that development and deployment of the 75-ton MPC prior to developing and deploying a 125-ton MPC is a desirable strategy. Reasons that support this are discussed in this paper.

  10. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Average Sales Price of Coal by State and Coal Rank, 2014 (dollars per short ton) Coal-Producing State Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Anthracite Total Alabama 87.17 - - - 87.17 Alaska - w - - w Arizona w - - - w Arkansas w - - - w Colorado w w - - 38.64 Illinois 47.11 - - - 47.11 Indiana 48.41 - - - 48.41 Kansas w - - - w Kentucky Total 57.62 - - - 57.62 Kentucky (East) 66.97 - - - 66.97 Kentucky (West) 49.58 - - - 49.58 Louisiana - - w - w Maryland 50.62 - - - 50.62 Mississippi - - w - w

  11. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Coal Production and Number of Mines by State and Coal Rank, 2014 (thousand short tons) Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Anthracite Total Coal-Producing State and Region 1 Number of Mines Production Number of Mines Production Number of Mines Production Number of Mines Production Number of Mines Production Alabama 36 16,363 - - - - - - 36 16,363 Alaska - - 1 1,502 - - - - 1 1,502 Arizona 1 8,051 - - - - - - 1 8,051 Arkansas 2 94 - - - - - - 2 94 Colorado 8 19,582 2 4,425 - - - - 10 24,007

  12. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    A new use for Illinois coal is as fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as first step in steel production. Because of cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. Purpose of this study is to evaluate combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a pilot plant test facility. (Limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high S and Cl contents are suitable for blast furnace injection.) This proposal is intended to complete the study under way with Armco and Inland and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for injection. Main feature of current work is testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s pilot plant coal combustion facility. During this quarter, two additional 300-pound samples of coal (IBCSP-110 Springfield No. 5 and an Appalachian coal) were delivered. Six Illinois Basin coals were analyzed with the CANMET model and compared with other bituminous coals from the Appalachians, France, Poland, South Africa, and Colombia. Based on computer modeling, lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois Basin, compare well in injection with a variety of other bituminous coals.

  13. Factors which affect the transportation of low rank coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leilich, R.

    1998-12-31

    The good news is that rail transportation costs have dropped by approximately 50 percent in real terms since the passage of the 1980 Stagger`s Rail Act. It has opened up and expanded the markets for each coal producer. The bad news is that rail transportation costs have dropped by approximately 50 percent and opened up and expanded the market for each coal producer`s competitors. At one time, many coal producers had the fortune of limited competition because high transportation costs kept others out of some of their markets. The flip side, of course, is that it also kept them out of other markets. The lowering of transportation rates has increased competition among coal producers. In the author`s opinion, the opportunity to serve new markets has not made up for competitively induced price reductions in the selling price of coal. He believes that many coal producers were better off when coal transportation costs were high for everyone. At least it limited the encroachment of coal competitors. Of course, using a half full, half empty glass analogy, one could argue that high transportation costs limited encroachment on competitors. Aside from the competitive aspects, not all producers benefit equally from a uniform reduction in transportation ton-mile costs. A reduction in transportation costs across the board on a per ton-mile basis favors producers of high Btu coal which ship long distance. Producers of low rank coal receive distinctly less benefit, upsetting competitive relationships. He illustrates this with an example of a low rank producer whose principal competitor is 300 miles to the west. He assumes four combinations of high and low cost coal and high and low cost transportation, plus two destinations 200 and 500 miles away from the low rank producer.

  14. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Processing Coal Plants and Commercial and Institutional Coal Users" and Form EIA-7A, "Coal Production and Preparation Report." Appendix A Assigning Missing Data to EIA-923...

  15. Coal industry annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, distribution, coal stocks, quality, prices, coal production information, and emissions for a wide audience.

  16. Development of advanced technology of coke oven gas drainage treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higashi, Tadayuki; Yamaguchi, Akikazu; Ikai, Kyozou; Kamiyama, Hisarou; Muto, Hiroshi

    1996-12-31

    In April 1994, commercial-scale application of ozone oxidation to ammonia liquor (which is primarily the water condensing from coke oven gas) to reduce its chemical oxygen demand (COD) was started at the Nagoya Works of Nippon Steel Corporation. This paper deals with the results of technical studies on the optimization of process operating conditions and the enlargement of equipment size and the operating purification system.

  17. Low-coke rate operation under high PCI at Kobe No. 3 BF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuo, Tadasu; Kanazuka, Yasuo; Hoshino, Koichi; Yoshida, Yasuo; Kitayama, Syuji; Ishiwaki, Shiro

    1997-12-31

    Kobe No. 3 blast furnace (BF) suffered tremendous damage when the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake rocked the area on January 17, 1995. However, working as quickly as possible to dig out of the burden and rehabilitate various facilities, the company managed to restart the No. 3 BF on April 2. After the restart, which went smoothly, production was shifted into the low coke rate operation which was being promoted before the disaster. In October, 1995, only seven months after the restart, the nation record of 296 kg/t low coke rate could be achieved. Subsequently, in January, 1996, coke rate reached 290 kg/t and the low coke rate operation was renewed. Since that time the same level of coke rate has been maintained. The paper discusses how low coke rate operation was achieved.

  18. On the utilization of coking plant surface runoff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evzel'man, I.B.; Kagasov, V.M.; Maiskii, S.V.; Pimenov, I.V.; Rod'kin, S.P.; Ushakov, E.B.

    1983-01-01

    Surface runoff from the industrial sites of coking plants in the East and Center of the USSR is usually diverted into a storm sewer in a mixture with the conditionally pure water. General data on the contamination of this mixture (industrial stormwater) and the snow cover at a number of coking plants in this region are tabulated. Our data on the quality of industrial stormwater show that schemes for utilization of surface runoff must include pretreatment to remove suspended matter and oils. For example, the oil concentration in melt water is 2-10 times greater than the concentration in industrial phenol-containing effluent (2). When the biochemical facilities receive surface runoff containing up to 40 g/l suspended solids, which occurs in periods of snowmelt, without treatment to remove these solids, there are difficulties with the discharge of tar from the secondary sedimenters of the biochemical treatment plant. An analysis of the literature materials (3-9) showed that the maximum allowable concentration of suspended solids in make-up water for the closed-cycle heat exchange water cooling system should apparently not exceed 25 mg/l. The level of this parameter in the make-up water of these systems at coke plants requires correction.

  19. The new Kaiserstuhl coking plant: The heating system -- Design, construction and initial operating experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strunk, J.

    1996-12-31

    At the end of 1992 the new coke plant Kaiserstuhl in Dortmund/Germany with presently the largest coke ovens world-wide started its production operation in close linkage to the Krupp-Hoesch Metallurgical Works after about 35 months construction time. This plant incorporating comprehensive equipment geared to improve environmental protection is also considered as the most modern coke plant of the world. The heating-system and first results of operation will be presented.

  20. Heating control methodology in coke oven battery at Rourkela Steel Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandyopadhyay, S.S.; Parthasarathy, L.; Gupta, A.; Bose, P.R.; Mishra, U.

    1996-12-31

    A methodology of heating control was evolved incorporating temperature data generated through infra-red sensor at quenching station and thermocouples specially installed in the gooseneck of coke oven battery No. 3 of RSP. Average temperature of the red-hot coke as pushed helps in diagnosis of the abnormal ovens and in setting the targeted battery temperature. A concept of coke readiness factor (Q) was introduced which on optimization resulted in lowering the specific heat consumption by 30 KCal/Kg.

  1. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2007-03-17

    hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates that the coal derived material has more trace metals related to coal than petroleum, as seen in previous runs. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. The co-coking of the runs with the new coal have begun, with the coke yield similar to previous runs, but the gas yield is lower and the liquid yield is higher. Characterization of the products continues. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking.

  2. Table 11.2d Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Transportation Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    d Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Transportation Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Retail Elec- tricity 7 Total 2 Biomass 2 Aviation Gasoline Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Jet Fuel LPG 5 Lubricants Motor Gasoline 6 Residual Fuel Oil Total Fuel Ethanol 8 Biodiesel Total 1949 161 NA 12 30 NA (s) 4 306 91 443 6 611 NA NA NA 1950 146 7 14 35 NA (s) 5 332 95 481 6 640 NA NA NA 1951 129 11 18 42 NA (s) 6 360 102 529 7 675 NA NA NA

  3. AmeriFlux US-Ton Tonzi Ranch

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ton Tonzi Ranch. Site Description - Located in the lower foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, the Tonzi Ranch site is classified as an oak savanna woodland on privately owned land. Managed by local rancher, Russell Tonzi, brush has been periodically removed for cattle grazing. The overstory is dominated by blue oak trees (40% of total vegetation) with intermittent grey pine trees (3 trees/ha). Understory species include a variety of grasses and herbs, including purple false brome, smooth cat's ear, and rose clover. These two distinctive layers operate in and out from one another. Growing season of the understory is confined to the wet season only, typically from October to early May. In contrast, the deciduous blue oak trees are dormant during the rainy winter months and reach maximum LAI in April. The blue oak ecosystem rings the Great Central Valley of California, inhabiting the lower reaches of the Sierra Nevada foothills.

  4. Using Coke Oven Gas in a Blast Furnace Saves Over $6 Million Annually at a Steel Mill (U.S. Steel Edgar Thompson Plant)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-12-01

    Like most steel companies, U.S. Steel (USS) had been using coke oven gas (COG), a by-product of coke manufacturing, as a fuel in their coke ovens, boilers, and reheat furnaces.

  5. Low-sulfur coal usage alters transportation strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, H.

    1995-07-01

    As electricity production has grown, so has the amount of coal burned by US utilities. In order to comply with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), many utilities have changed from high-sulfur coal to lower-sulfur coal to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions. The primary mode of transporting coal to utilities remains the railroad, and coal represents the largest freight tonnage shipped - two out of every five tons. Since coal is so important to the railroads, it is logical that as utilities have changed their coal-buying strategies, the railroads` strategies have also changed. The increased demand for Western coal has caused rail lines some capacity problems which they are attempting to meet head-on by buying new railcars and locomotives and expanding track capacities. The new railcars typically have aluminum bodies to reduce empty weight, enabling them to carry larger loads of coal. Train locomotives are also undergoing upgrade changes. Most new locomotives have as motors to drive the wheels which deliver more motive power (traction) to the wheel trucks. In fact the motors are up to 30% more efficient at getting the traction to the trucks. Trackage is also being expanded to alleviate serious congestion on the tracks when moving Western coal.

  6. Exploratory research on solvent refined coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1-June 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Exploratory Research on Solvent Refined Coal Liquefaction project by The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Company's Merriam Laboratory for the period April 1, 1979 through June 30, 1979. Experimental work included a number of short residence time runs, but discussion of that work has been delayed until a later report. Experimental work reported focuses on an investigation of the decline in solvent quality experienced by the Wilsonville Pilot Plant during runs in support of the SRC I Demonstration Plant. A four run series was initiated with Wilsonville solvent; both the coal used at Wilsonville (Kentucky 6/11 - Pyro Mine) and Kentucky 9/14 coal from the Colonial Mine were used. The effect of pyrite addition to the Pyro Mine coal was investigated. No solvent quality or coking problems were experienced in the Merriam runs. Significant changes in solvent composition were apparent and equilibrated solvent samples were returned to Wilsonville for solvent quality testing.

  7. DOE Will Dispose of 34 Metric Tons of Plutonium by Turning it into Fuel for

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Civilian Reactors | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Will Dispose of 34 Metric Tons of Plutonium by Turning it into Fuel for Civilian Reactors DOE Will Dispose of 34 Metric Tons of Plutonium by Turning it into Fuel for Civi Washington, DC Secretary Abraham announced that DOE will dispose of 34 metric tons of surplus weapons grade plutonium by turning the material into mixed oxide fuel (MOX) for use in nuclear reactors. The decision follows an exhaustive Administration review

  8. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bioeconomy | Department of Energy Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy, Volume I Download the full interactive report to view visualizations of potential energy crop production, agricultural residues, forestry production and other scenarios on the BioenergyKDF. 2016_billion_ton_report.pdf (29.08 MB) More

  9. A Summary of the Results of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy, Vol. 1 | Department of Energy A Summary of the Results of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy, Vol. 1 A Summary of the Results of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy, Vol. 1 bt16_webinar_20160721.pdf (3.32 MB) More Documents & Publications Biomass Econ 101: Measuring the Technological Improvements on Feedstocks Costs 2016 Billion-Ton Report Factsheets

  10. Keystone coal industry manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The 1994 Keystone Coal Industry Manual is presented. Keystone has served as the one industry reference authority for the many diverse organizations concerned with the supply and utilization of coal in the USA and Canada. Through the continuing efforts of coal producers, buyers, users, sellers, and equipment designers and manufacturers, the coal industry supplies an abundant and economical fuel that is indispensable in meeting the expanding energy needs of North America. The manual is divided into the following sections: coal sales companies, coal export, transportation of coal, consumer directories, coal associations and groups, consulting and financial firms, buyers guide, industry statistics and ownership, coal preparation, coal mine directory, and coal seams.

  11. Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Coal-Biomass to Liquids Turning coal into liquid fuels like gasoline, diesel and jet fuel, with biomass to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, is the main goal of the Coal and ...

  12. Removal of 1,082-Ton Reactor Among Richland Operations Office...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from groundwater across the site ahead of schedule and pumped a record volume of water through treatment facilities to remove contamination, with more than 130 tons of...

  13. U.S. Billion-Ton Update. Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-08-01

    This report is an update to the 2005 Billion-Ton Study that addresses shotcomings and questions that arose from the original report..

  14. DOE-Sponsored Mississippi Project Hits 1-Million-Ton Milestone for Injected CO2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A large-scale carbon dioxide storage project in Mississippi has become the fifth worldwide to reach the important milestone of more than 1 million tons injected.

  15. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Alabama ...

  16. Determination of the effects caused by different polymers on coal fluidity during carbonization using high-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miguel Castro Diaz; Lucky Edecki; Karen M. Steel; John W. Patrick; Colin E. Snape

    2008-01-15

    The effects of blending polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET), a flexible polyurethane (FPU), and a car shredded fluff waste (CSF) on fluidity development of a bituminous coal during carbonization have been studied by means of high-torque, small-amplitude controlled-strain rheometry and in situ high-temperature {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The most detrimental effects were caused by PET and PS, which completely destroyed the fluidity of the coal. The CSF had a deleterious effect on coal fluidity similar to that of PET, although the deleterious effect on the viscoelastic properties of the coal were less pronounced than those of PET and PS. On the contrary, the addition of 10 wt % PE caused a slight reduction in the concentration of fluid hydrogen and an increase in the minimum complex viscosity, and the addition of 10 wt % FPU reduced the concentration of fluid hydrogen without changing the viscoelastic properties of the coal. Although these results suggest that these two plastics could potentially be used as additives in coking blends without compromising coke porosity, it was found that the semicoke strengths were reduced by adding 2 wt % FPU and 5 wt % PE. Therefore, it is unlikely that more than 2 wt % of a plastic waste could be added to a coal blend without deterioration in coke quality. 35 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. The Wyodak-Anderson coal assessment, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana -- An ArcView project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flores, R.M.; Gunther, G.; Ochs, A.; Ellis, M.E.; Stricker, G.D.; Bader, L.R.

    1998-12-31

    In 1997, more than 305 million short tons of clean and compliant coal were produced from the Wyodak-Anderson and associated coal beds and zones of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. To date, all coal produced from the Wyodak-Anderson, which averages 0.47 percent sulfur and 6.44 percent ash, has met regulatory compliance standards. Twenty-eight percent of the total US coal production in 1997 was from the Wyodak-Anderson coal. Based on the current consumption rates and forecast by the Energy Information Administration (1996), the Wyodak-Anderson coal is projected to produce 413 million short tons by the year 2016. In addition, this coal deposit as well as other Fort Union coals have recently been targeted for exploration and development of methane gas. New US Geological Survey (USGS) digital products could provide valuable assistance in future mining and gas development in the Powder River Basin. An interactive format, with querying tools, using ArcView software will display the digital products of the resource assessment of Wyodak-Anderson coal, a part of the USGS National Coal Resource Assessment of the Powder River Basin. This ArcView project includes coverages of the data point distribution; land use; surface and subsurface ownerships; coal geology, stratigraphy, quality and geochemistry; and preliminary coal resource calculations. These coverages are displayed as map views, cross sections, tables, and charts.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Madhavi Nallani-Chakravartula; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-27

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-08

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  20. Use of selective oxidation of petroleum residue for production of low-sulfur coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hairudinov, I.R.; Kul`chitskaya, O.V.; Imashev, U.B.

    1995-12-10

    The chemical nature of liquid-phase oxidation of sulfurous petroleum residues by cumene hydroperoxide was studied by a tracer technique. Sulfur compounds are selectively oxidized in the presence of catalytic additives of molybdenum salts. Desulfurization of distillate products and coke during coking of preoxidized raw materials was revealed.

  1. Spontaneous combustion prediction of coal by C80 and ARC techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qingsong Wang; Song Guo; Jinhua Sun

    2009-09-15

    Many coal fires were caused by spontaneous combustion in coal mines or coal storehouses, which resulted in a great loss and energy wastage. To identify and evaluate the hazardous degree of coal stockpile, a C80 microcalorimeter and accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) were employed in this work. The coal samples undergo an exothermal process start at 80 {sup o}C with heat generation of -75.1 J g{sup -1} (mean value) detected by C80 experiment. The activation energies of the first exothermal process were calculated for the three experiments, and the mean value is 80.76 kJ mol{sup -1}, which is lower than that of obtained from the ARC result, 127.0 kJ mol{sup -1}. For a 300 tons coal stockpile, the self-heating oxidation temperatures (SHOT) were calculated as 164, 60, 90, and 68{sup o}C based on the ARC experiment and three C80 experiments, respectively. Further research on the mass effect on SHOT shows that if the coal mass is less than 12 tons, the danger of thermal spontaneous combustion is less. However, if the mass amount is more than 12000 tons, the danger of thermal spontaneous combustion is difficult to avoid even at ambient temperature if no special measures are taken. 38 refs., 9 figs.

  2. DOE Partner Begins Injecting 50,000 Tons of CO2 in Michigan Basin

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Building on an initial injection project of 10,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide into a Michigan geologic formation, a U.S. Department of Energy team of regional partners has begun injecting 50,000 additional tons into the formation, which is believed capable of storing hundreds of years worth of CO2, a greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change.

  3. Teamwork in planning and carrying out the first inspection of the coke dry quenching (CDQ) plant of the Kaiserstuhl Coking Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burchardt, G.

    1996-12-31

    The coke plant Kaiserstuhl operates a coke dry quenching (CDQ) plant with a downstream installed waste heat boiler to satisfy statutory pollution control rules and requirements. This CDQ which went on stream in March 1993 cools the whole coke production output from the Kaiserstuhl coke plant in counterflow to an inert cooling gas. This brief overview on the whole CDQ plant should elucidate the complex of problems posed when trying to make an exact plant revision plan. After all it was impossible to evaluate or to assess all the interior process technology relevant components during the planning stage as the plant was in operation. The revision data for the first interior check was determined and fixed by the statutory rule for steam boilers and pressure vessels. The relevant terms for this check are mandatorily prescribed. In liaison with the testing agency (RW TUEV) the date for the first revision was fixed for April 1995, that means two years after the first commissioning.

  4. New additive retards coke formation in ethylene furnace tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-09

    Adding relatively small amounts of a new additive to the feed stream of a steam cracker can inhibit coke formation on the metal surfaces of processing equipment and increase furnace run time. The additive comprises a variable mixture of four to six inorganic salts in aqueous solution. The components of the additive mixture can be varied, as needed, for processing heavy feed materials such as heavy naphtha and gas oil. The process was first tested at a Korean petrochemical plant and is now operating successfully at a commercial facility in Russia. The results of the Korean trial are presented here.

  5. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Coal Consumers in the Manufacturing and Coke Sectors, 2014 Company Name Plant Location Top Ten Manufacturers American Crystal Sugar Co MN, ND Archer Daniels Midland IA, IL, MN, NE Carmeuse Lime Stone Inc AL, IN, KY, MI, OH, PA, TN, WI Cemex Inc AL, CA, CO, FL, GA, KY, OH, TN, TX Dakota Gasification Company ND Eastman Chemical Company TN Georgia-Pacific Consumer Products LP AL, GA, OK, VA, WI Holcim (US) Inc AL, CO, MD, MO, MT, OK, SC, TX, UT NewPage Corporation MD, MI, WI U S Steel

  6. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992-93 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. Steel Company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals for such use. During this quarter samples of two feed coals and the IBCSP 112 (Herrin No. 6) were prepared for reactivity testing and compared to blast furnace coke, and char fines taken from an active blast furnace. As the initial part of a broad reactivity analysis program, these same samples were also analyzed on a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to determine their combustion and reactivity properties.

  7. EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - Coal Distribution Quarterly Coal Distribution Archives Release Date: August 17, 2016 Next Release Date: December 22, 2016 The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed quarterly data on U.S. domestic coal distribution by coal origin, coal destination, mode of transportation and consuming sector. All data are preliminary and superseded by the final Coal Distribution - Annual Report. Year/Quarters By origin State By destination State Report Data File Report Data File 2009

  8. RESEARCH ON CARBON PRODUCTS FROM COAL USING AN EXTRACTIVE PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo; Chong Chen; Brian Bland; David Fenton

    2002-03-31

    This report presents the results of a one-year effort directed at the exploration of the use of coal as a feedstock for a variety of industrially-relevant carbon products. The work was basically divided into three focus areas. The first area dealt with the acquisition of laboratory equipment to aid in the analysis and characterization of both the raw coal and the coal-derived feedstocks. Improvements were also made on the coal-extraction pilot plant which will now allow larger quantities of feedstock to be produced. Mass and energy balances were also performed on the pilot plant in an attempt to evaluate the scale-up potential of the process. The second focus area dealt with exploring hydrogenation conditions specifically aimed at testing several less-expensive candidate hydrogen-donor solvents. Through a process of filtration and vacuum distillation, viable pitch products were produced and evaluated. Moreover, a recycle solvent was also isolated so that the overall solvent balance in the system could be maintained. The effect of variables such as gas pressure and gas atmosphere were evaluated. The pitch product was analyzed and showed low ash content, reasonable yield, good coking value and a coke with anisotropic optical texture. A unique plot of coke yield vs. pitch softening point was discovered to be independent of reaction conditions or hydrogen-donor solvent. The third area of research centered on the investigation of alternate extraction solvents and processing conditions for the solvent extraction step. A wide variety of solvents, co-solvents and enhancement additives were tested with varying degrees of success. For the extraction of raw coal, the efficacy of the alternate solvents when compared to the benchmark solvent, N-methyl pyrrolidone, was not good. However when the same coal was partially hydrogenated prior to solvent extraction, all solvents showed excellent results even for extractions performed at room temperature. Standard analyses of the

  9. Resource recovery from coal residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G. Jr.; Canon, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Several processes are being developed to recover metals from coal combustion and conversion residues. Methods to obtain substantial amounts of aluminum, iron, and titanium from these wastes are presented. The primary purpose of our investigation is to find a process that is economically sound or one that at least will partially defray the costs of waste processing. A cursory look at the content of fly ash enables one to see the merits of recovery of these huge quantities of valuable resources. The major constituents of fly ash of most interest are aluminum (14.8%), iron (7.5%), and titanium (1.0%). If these major elements could be recovered from the fly ash produced in the United States (60 million tons/year), bauxite would not have to be imported, iron ore production could be increased, and titanium production could be doubled.

  10. Converting coal to liquid fuels. [US DOE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    Liquid fuels play a vital role in the US economy. Oil represents about 40 percent of the energy consumed each year in this country. In many cases, it fills needs for which other energy forms cannot substitute efficiently or economically - in transportation, for example. Despite a current world-wide surplus of oil, conventional petroleum is a depletable resource. It inevitably will become harder and more expensive to extract. Already in the US, most of the cheap, easily reached oil has been found and extracted. Even under optimistic projections of new discoveries, domestic oil production, particularly in the lower 48 states, will most likely continue to drop. A future alternative to conventional petroleum could be liquid fuels made from coal. The technique is called coal liquefaction. From 1 to 3 barrels of oil can be made from each ton of coal. The basic technology is known; the major obstacles in the US have been the high costs of the synthetic oil and the risks of building large, multi-billion dollar first-of-a-kind plants. Yet, as natural petroleum becomes less plentiful and more expensive, oil made from abundant coal could someday become an increasingly important energy option. To prepare for that day, the US government is working with private industries and universities to establish a sound base of technical knowledge in coal liquefaction.

  11. Ammonia removal process upgrade to the Acme Steel Coke Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, J.L.

    1995-12-01

    The need to upgrade the ammonia removal process at the Acme Steel Coke Plant developed with the installation of the benzene NESHAP (National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants) equipment, specifically the replacement of the final cooler. At Acme Steel it was decided to replace the existing open cooling tower type final cooler with a closed loop direct spray tar/water final cooler. This new cooler has greatly reduced the emissions of benzene, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide to the atmosphere, bringing them into environmental compliance. At the time of its installation it was not fully recognized as to the effect this would have on the coke oven gas composition. In the late seventies the decision had been made at Acme Steel to stop the production of ammonia sulfate salt crystals. The direction chosen was to make a liquid ammonia sulfate solution. This product was used as a pickle liquor at first and then as a liquid fertilizer as more markets were developed. In the fall of 1986 the ammonia still was brought on line. The vapors generated from the operation of the stripping still are directed to the inlet of the ammonia absorber. At that point in time it was decided that an improvement to the cyclical ammonia removal process was needed. The improvements made were minimal yet allowed the circulation of solution through the ammonia absorber on a continuous basis. The paper describes the original batch process and the modifications made which allowed continuous removal.

  12. Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.J.; Long, S.

    1991-11-22

    The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT's. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT's in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT's introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT's in a number of countries.

  13. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  14. Coking and rheological measurements using Exxon donor solvent materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, D.D.; Wilson, J.H.; Sams, T.L.; Johnson, J.K.; Rodgers, B.R.

    1984-02-01

    This report describes a study made under contract with Exxon Research and Engineering Company to investigate the rheology and density of Exxon-supplied slurries of Illinois and Wyodak coals, solvents, and bottoms in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Coal Liquids Flow System. The rheological data were taken between 478 and 700/sup 0/K at 28-K increments at three shear rates at each temperature. Density was measured at 478, 533, 589, 644, 672, and 700/sup 0/K at one mass flow rate. The slurry compositions studied included Illinois No. 6 coal with two different solvents and recycle bottoms at solvent-to-coal-to-bottoms weight ratios of 2.0/1.0/0.5, 1.2/1.0/0.5, 1.6/1.0/0.5, and Wyodak solvent, coal, and bottoms at a 1.6/1.0/0.5 ratio. The rheology measurements showed that the behavior of the Wyodak slurries below 589/sup 0/K was almost Newtonian, and above 589/sup 0/K it was very non-Newtonian. The Illinois-coal slurries showed a greater deviation from Newtonian character than did the Wyodak slurries. The peaks in the plots of viscosity vs temperature for the slurries varied with solvent type, mass flow rate, and solvent-to-coal-to-bottoms ratio. The data and results from this study will be useful in comparing physical properties of these coals and slurries with others and in building up the coal-slurry data base. 4 references, 36 figures, 15 tables.

  15. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection; [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1993-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. steel company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals f or such use.

  16. Criticality safety review of 2 1/2 -, 10-, and 14-ton UF sub 6 cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broadhead, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    The US regulations governing the packaging and transportation of UF{sub 6} cylinders are contained in the publication 10CFR71. Under the current 10CFR71 regulations, packages are classified according to Fissile Class I, II, or III and a corresponding transport index (TI). UF{sub 6} cylinders designed to contain 2{1/2}-tons of UF{sub 6} are classified as Fissile Class II packages with a TI of 5 for the purpose of transportation. The 10-ton UF{sub 6} cylinders are classified as Fissile Class I with no TI assigned for transportation. The 14-ton cylinders are not certified for transport with enrichments greater than 1 wt % since they have no approved overpack. This work reviews the suitability of 2{1/2}-ton UF{sub 6} packages for reclassification as Fissile Class I with a maximum {sup 235}U enrichment of 5 wt %. Additionally, the 10- and 14-ton cylinders are reviewed to address a change in maximum {sup 235}U enrichment from 4.5 to 5 wt %. Based on this evaluation, the 2{1/2}-ton UF{sub 6} cylinders meet the 10CFR71 criteria for Fissile Class I packages, and no TI is needed for criticality safety purposes. Similarly, the 10- and 14-ton UF{sub 6} packages appear suitable for a maximum enrichment rating change to 5 wt % {sup 235}U. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  18. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 1, Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, C.W.; Gutterman, C.; Chander, S.

    1994-12-31

    The overall objective of this project was to develop a new approach for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrated coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, liquefaction, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. Heterofunctional solvents were the most effective in swelling coals. Also solvent blends such as isopropanol/water were more effective than pure solvents alone. Impregnating slurry catalysts simultaneously during coal swelling showed that better uptake was achieved with nonswelling solvent and higher impregnation temperature. Some enhancement in initial coal conversion was seen liquefying SO{sub 2}-treated Black Thunder coal with slurry catalysts, and also when hydrogen donor liquefaction solvents were used. Noncatalytic reactions showed no benefit from SO{sub 2} treatment. Coupling coal swelling and SO{sub 2} treatment with slurry catalysts was also not beneficial, although high conversion was seen with continuous operation and long residence time, however, similar high conversion was observed with untreated coal. SO{sub 2} treatment is not economically attractive unless it provides about 17% increase in coal reactivity. In most cases, the best results were obtained when the coal was untreated and the slurry catalyst was added directly into the reactor. Foster Wheeler`s ASCOT process had better average liquid yields than either Wilsonville`s vacuum tower/ROSE combination or delayed coking process. This liquid product also had good quality.

  19. Table 13. Coal Production, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Production, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million short tons)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",999,1021,1041,1051,1056,1066,1073,1081,1087,1098,1107,1122,1121,1128,1143,1173,1201,1223 "AEO 1995",,1006,1010,1011,1016,1017,1021,1027,1033,1040,1051,1066,1076,1083,1090,1108,1122,1137 "AEO

  20. Repowering a small coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miell, R.

    2007-11-15

    The Arkansas River Power Authority (ARPA) Lamar Repowering Project is moving forward. The new generator, capable of producing 18 MW of electricity, is scheduled to be online in June 2008 bringing the total generation to 43 MW. New coal handling equipment, with infrared fire detectors, is almost complete. The new 18 MW steam turbine will be cooled by an air-cooled condenser. Coal will be delivered in a railroad spur to an unloading site then be unloaded onto a conveyor under the tracks and conveyed to two storage domes each holding 6000 tons of coal. It will be drawn out of these through an underground conveyor system, brought into a crusher, conveyed through overhead conveyors and fed into the new coal- fired fluidized bed boilers. 1 photo.

  1. Laser ultrasonic furnace tube coke monitor. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, May 1--August 1, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-08-15

    The overall aim of the project is to demonstrate the performance and practical use of a laser ultrasonic probe for measuring the thickness of coke deposits located within the high temperature tubes of a thermal cracking furnace. This aim will be met by constructing an optical probe that will be tested using simulated coke deposits that are positioned inside of a bench-scale furnace. Successful development of the optical coke detector will provide industry with the only available method for on-line measurement of coke deposits. The optical coke detector will have numerous uses in the refining and petrochemical sectors including monitoring of visbreakers, hydrotreaters, delayed coking units, vacuum tower heaters, and various other heavy oil heating applications where coke formation is a problem. The coke detector will particularly benefit the olefins industry where high temperature thermal crackers are used to produce ethylene, propylene, butylene and other important olefin intermediates. The ethylene industry requires development of an on-line method for gauging the thickness of coke deposits in cracking furnaces because the current lack of detailed knowledge of coke deposition profiles introduces the single greatest uncertainty in the simulation and control of modern cracking furnaces. The laser ultrasonic coke detector will provide operators with valuable new information allowing them to better optimize the decoking turnaround schedule and therefore maximize production capacity.

  2. Billion-Ton Update: Home-Grown Energy Resources Across the Nation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Billion-Ton Update: Home-Grown Energy Resources Across the Nation Billion-Ton Update: Home-Grown Energy Resources Across the Nation August 11, 2011 - 3:59pm Addthis Total potential biomass resources by county in the contiguous U.S. from the baseline scenario of the Update (Figure 6.4, page 159) | Map from Billion-Ton Update Total potential biomass resources by county in the contiguous U.S. from the baseline scenario of the Update (Figure 6.4, page 159) | Map from

  3. A supply chain network design model for biomass co-firing in coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Md. S. Roni; Sandra D. Eksioglu; Erin Searcy; Krishna Jha

    2014-01-01

    We propose a framework for designing the supply chain network for biomass co-firing in coal-fired power plants. This framework is inspired by existing practices with products with similar physical characteristics to biomass. We present a hub-and-spoke supply chain network design model for long-haul delivery of biomass. This model is a mixed integer linear program solved using benders decomposition algorithm. Numerical analysis indicates that 100 million tons of biomass are located within 75 miles from a coal plant and could be delivered at $8.53/dry-ton; 60 million tons of biomass are located beyond 75 miles and could be delivered at $36/dry-ton.

  4. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Coal Mining Productivity by State, Mine Type, and Mine Production Range, 2014 (short tons produced per employee hour) Mine Production Range (thousand short tons) Coal-Producing State, Region 1 and Mine Type Above 1,000 Above 500 to 1,000 Above 200 to 500 Above 100 to 200 Above 50 to 100 Above 10 to 50 10 or Under Total 2 Alabama 1.97 - 2.19 1.59 1.59 2.48 2.19 1.88 Underground 1.97 - - 1.10 1.01 - - 1.84 Surface - - 2.19 1.92 1.78 2.48 2.19 2.02 Alaska 5.43 - - - - - - 5.43 Surface 5.43 - - -

  5. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Average Sales Price of Coal by State, County, and Number of Mines, 2014 Coal-Producing State and County Number of Mines Sales (thousand short tons) Average Sales Price (dollars per short ton) Alabama 32 17,359 87.17 Bibb 1 w w Franklin 2 w w Jefferson 9 5,764 103.31 Shelby 2 w w Tuscaloosa 6 8,693 79.37 Walker 10 1,886 79.19 Winston 2 w w Alaska 1 w w Denali 1 w w Arizona 1 w w Navajo 1 w w Arkansas 1 w w Sebastian 1 w w Colorado 9 24,536 38.64 Delta 1 w w Gunnison 1 w w La Plata 1 w w Moffat

  6. Development of automatic operation system for coke oven machines at Yawata Works of Nippon Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsunaga, Masao; Uematsu, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Yoji; Ishiharaguchi, Yuji

    1995-12-01

    The coke plant is a working environment involving heavy dust emissions, high heat and demanding physical labor. The labor-saving operation of the coke plant is an essential issue from the standpoints of not only improvement in working environment, but also reduction in fixed cost by enhancement of labor productivity. Under these circumstances, Nippon Steel has implemented the automation of coke oven machines. The first automatic operation system for coke oven machinery entered service at Oita Works in 1992, followed by the second system at the No. 5 coke oven battery of the coke plant at Yawata Works. The Yawata automatic operation system is characterized by the installation of coke oven machinery to push as many as 140 ovens per day within a short cycle time, such as a preliminary ascension pipe cap opening car and cycle time simulator by the manned operation of the pusher, which is advantageous from the standpoint of investment efficiency, and by the monitoring of other oven machines by the pusher. These measures helped to reduce the manpower requirement to 2 persons per shift from 4 persons per shift. The system entered commercial operation in March, 1994 and has been smoothly working with an average total automatic rate of 97%. Results from the startup to recent operation of the system are reported below.

  7. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li

    2006-07-15

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  8. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9. Year-end coal stocks, 2000-2010 (million short tons) Figure 9. Year-End Coal Stocks, 2000-2010 * All other consumers category includes coke plants, other industrial, and commercial & institutional sectors. Sources: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December, DOE/EIA-0121, various issues.

  9. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9. Average Sales Price of Coal by State and Underground Mining Method, 2014 (dollars per short ton) Coal-Producing State Continuous 1 Conventional and Other 2 Longwall 3 Total Alabama w - w 89.68 Arkansas w - - w Colorado w - w 37.28 Illinois 44.23 w 49.05 w Indiana 49.52 - - 49.52 Kentucky Total w w - 57.12 Kentucky (East) w w - 70.93 Kentucky (West) w w - 50.29 Maryland w - - w Montana - - w w New Mexico - - w w Ohio w - w 50.61 Oklahoma w - - w Pennsylvania Total 69.41 w 59.51 w Pennsylvania

  10. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Destination State ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal

  11. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Origin State ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal

  12. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D.; Chen, James M.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

  13. "Code(a)","End Use","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(f)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.2;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,"Distillate" ,,,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" "NAICS",,,"Net","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal" "Code(a)","End Use","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coke and Breeze)&

  14. Organophosphorus compounds as coke inhibitors during naphtha pyrolysis. Effect of benzyl diethyl phosphite and triphenylphosphine sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, P.; Prasad, S.; Kunztu, D.

    1992-09-01

    This paper reports that significant reduction in the rate of coke formation during naphtha pyrolysis was achieved by adding benzyl diethyl phosphite or triphenylphosphine sulfide to the feed. Although the yield of carbon oxides was reduced, there was no effect of these additives on the hydrocarbon yields. Addition of these organophosphorus compounds significantly reduced the concentration of metals, such as iron, nickel, and chromium, incorporated in the coke. A previously proposed model for coke inhibition due to the formation of a passivating metal-phosphorus complex could satisfactorily correlate the data.

  15. Glass-coating and cleaning system to prevent carbon deposition on coke oven walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahira, Takuya; Ando, Takeshi; Kasaoka, Shizuki; Yamauchi, Yutaka

    1997-12-31

    The new technology for protecting the coking chamber bricks from damage by hard-pushing is described. The technology consists of the glass coating on the wall bricks and a wall cleaner to blow deposited carbon. For the glass coating, a specially developed glaze is sprayed onto the wall bricks by a spraying device developed to completely spray one coking chamber in a few minutes. The wall cleaner is installed on a pusher ram in the facility to automatically blow air at a sonic speed during coke pushing. The life of the glazed layer is estimated to be over two years.

  16. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. [Quarterly] technical report, 1 March 1993--31 May 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.; Case, E.R.

    1993-09-01

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. The basic program is designed to determine the reactivity of both coal and its derived char under blast furnace conditions and to compare the results to similar properties of blast furnace coke. The results of the first two experiments in which coal char pyrolyzed in nitrogen at 1000{degrees}C in an EPR were reacted isothermally in air at 1000{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. The reactivity values of the same char in these two experiments were different by an order of magnitude. The char reactivity at 1000{degrees}C was 9.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} grams per minute while the reactivity. of the char at 1200{degrees}C was 1.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} grams per minute. These results suggest that the temperature of the blast air in the tuyere may be critical in achieving complete carbon burnout.

  17. DOE Moab Project Safely Removes 7 Million Tons of Mill Tailings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    (Grand Junction, CO) ― The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has safely moved another million tons of uranium mill tailings from the Moab site in Utah under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project.

  18. Long-term Decline of Aggregate Fuel Use per Cargo-ton-mile of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Long-term Decline of Aggregate Fuel Use per Cargo-ton-mile of Commercial Trucking; A Key Enabler of Expanded U.S. Trade and Economic Growth Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel ...

  19. Hanford Landfill Reaches 15 Million Tons Disposed- Waste Disposal Mark Shows Success Cleaning Up River Corridor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, Wash. – The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors have disposed of 15 million tons of contaminated material at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) since the facility began operations in 1996.

  20. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproduct...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and Bioproducts Industry An update to the 2005 report, "Biomass as a Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply" ...

  1. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre' Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-09-17

    from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking. Investigation of coal extraction as a method to produce RCO continues; the reactor modifications to filter the products hot and to do multi-stage extraction improve extraction yields from {approx}50 % to {approx}70%. Carbon characterization of co-cokes for use as various carbon artifacts continues.

  2. Annual Coal Distribution Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report Release Date: April 16, 2015 | Next Release Date: March 2016 | full report | RevisionCorrection Revision to the Annual Coal Distribution Report ...

  3. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables...

  4. NETL: Coal Gasification Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gasification Systems Coal Gasification is a process that can turn coal into clean power, chemicals, hydrogen and transportation fuels, and can be used to capture the carbon from ...

  5. NNSA Eliminates 100 Metric Tons Of Weapons-Grade Nuclear Material |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Eliminates 100 Metric Tons Of Weapons-Grade Nuclear Material August 25, 2008 WASHINGTON, D.C. -Today the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) announced that it successfully eliminated 100 metric tons of U.S. highly enriched uranium (HEU), enough for thousands of nuclear weapons. For the last decade, the U.S. HEU disposition program has eliminated surplus HEU from the nuclear weapons program by downblending

  6. Two 175 ton geothermal chiller heat pumps for leed platinum building

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    technology demonstration project. Operation data, data collection and marketing (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Two 175 ton geothermal chiller heat pumps for leed platinum building technology demonstration project. Operation data, data collection and marketing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Two 175 ton geothermal chiller heat pumps for leed platinum building technology demonstration project. Operation data, data collection and marketing The activities funded by this grant

  7. DOE Announces Webinars on Building a Billion Ton Bioeconomy and an

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunity in Innovative Sensors | Department of Energy Building a Billion Ton Bioeconomy and an Opportunity in Innovative Sensors DOE Announces Webinars on Building a Billion Ton Bioeconomy and an Opportunity in Innovative Sensors May 5, 2016 - 9:06am Addthis EERE offers webinars to the public on a range of subjects, from adopting the latest energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, to training for the clean energy workforce. Webinars are free; however, advanced registration is

  8. Future Bioeconomy Supported by More Than One Billion Tons of Biomass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potential | Department of Energy Future Bioeconomy Supported by More Than One Billion Tons of Biomass Potential Future Bioeconomy Supported by More Than One Billion Tons of Biomass Potential July 12, 2016 - 2:15pm Addthis Within 25 years, the United States could produce enough biomass to support a bioeconomy, including renewable aquatic and terrestrial biomass resources that could be used for energy and to develop products for economic, environmental, social, and national security benefits.

  9. Trace elements in coal by glow discharge mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, M.L.; Wilson, C.R.; Pestovich, J. Jr.

    1995-08-01

    A need and a demand exist for determining trace elements in coal and coal related by-products, especially those elements which may potentially be a health hazard. The provisions of the 1990 clean air act require that the EPA evaluate the emissions of electric utilities for trace elements and other potentially hazardous organic compounds. The coal fired electric utility industry supplies roughly 60% of the total generating capacity of 2,882,525 million kilowatt hours (nearly 3 trillion kilowatt hours) generated in the U.S. This is accomplished by 414 power plants scattered across the country that burned 813,508,000 short tons of coal in 1993. The relative volatility of some inorganic constituents in coal makes them more prone to be emitted to the atmosphere following combustion. The production of analytical data for trace elements is known to be a difficult task in coal and by-products of coal combustion (fly ash, bottom ash, gas streams, etc.), in terms of both sample collection and analytical determinations. There are several common analytical methods available to the analyst to determine trace elements in coal and coal by-products. In general analytical germs, the material to be analyzed can be totally solubilized (or extracted), or the elements analytes can be determined in the material as a solid. A relatively new elemental technique, Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS) can be used with solids as well. This new analytical technique had never before been applied directly to coal. The radio frequency-glow discharge quadropole mass spectrometer was used to analyze coal directly for the first time ever by rf-GDMS. The rf-GDMS technique is described.

  10. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2008-03-31

    for natural gas/fuel oil, and determining the boiler performance when firing the five fuels. Two different co-processed fuel oils were tested: one that had been partially hydrotreated, and the other a product of fractionation before hydrotreating. Task 5 focused on examining refining methods that would utilize coal and produce thermally stable jet fuel, included delayed coking and solvent extraction. Delayed coking was done on blends of decant oil and coal, with the goal to produce a premium carbon product and liquid fuels. Coking was done on bench scale and large laboratory scale cokers. Two coals were examined for co-coking, using Pittsburgh seam coal and Marfork coal product. Reactions in the large, laboratory scaled coker were reproducible in yields of products and in quality of products. While the co-coke produced from both coals was of sponge coke quality, minerals left in the coke made it unacceptable for use as anode or graphite grade filler.

  11. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic

  12. EIS-0069: Solvent Refined Coal-II Demonstration Project, Fort Martin, Monongalia County, West Virginia

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement to assess the potential environmental, economic and social impacts associated with the construction and short-term operation of a 6,000-tons-per-stream-day-capacity facility that will demonstrate the technical operability, economic viability, and environmental acceptability of the solvent refined coal process at Fort Martin, West Virginia.

  13. Coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D.

    1985-01-01

    In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

  14. PRODUCTION OF FOAMS, FIBERS AND PITCHES USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Pete G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-06-20

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed processes for converting coal feedstocks to carbon products, including coal-derived pitch, coke foams and fibers based on solvent extraction processes. A key technology is the use of hydrogenation accomplished at elevated temperatures and pressures to obtain a synthetic coal pitch. Hydrogenation, or partial direct liquefaction of coal, is used to modify the properties of raw coal such that a molten synthetic pitch can be obtained. The amount of hydrogen required to produce a synthetic pitch is about an order of magnitude less than the amount required to produce synthetic crude oil. Hence the conditions for synthetic pitch production consume very little hydrogen and can be accomplished at substantially lower pressure. In the molten state, hot filtration or centrifugation can be used to separate dissolved coal chemicals from mineral matter and insolubles (inertinite), resulting in the production of a purified hydrocarbon pitch. Alternatively, if hydrogenation is not used, aromatic hydrocarbon liquids appropriate for use as precursors to carbon products can obtained by dissolving coal in a solvent. As in the case for partial direct liquefaction pitches, undissolved coal is removed via hot filtration or centrifugation. Excess solvent is boiled off and recovered. The resultant solid material, referred to as Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore or SECO, has been used successfully to produce artificial graphite and carbon foam.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Mark Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; James Mayberry; Alfred Stiller; Joseph Stoffa; Christopher Yurchick; John Zondlo

    2009-12-31

    This NETL sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous technologies for the production of carbon products, which may be thought of as the heavier products currently produced from refining of crude petroleum and coal tars obtained from metallurgical grade coke ovens. This effort took binder grade pitch, produced from liquefaction of West Virginia bituminous grade coal, all the way to commercial demonstration in a state of the art arc furnace. Other products, such as crude oil, anode grade coke and metallurgical grade coke were demonstrated successfully at the bench scale. The technology developed herein diverged from the previous state of the art in direct liquefaction (also referred to as the Bergius process), in two major respects. First, direct liquefaction was accomplished with less than a percent of hydrogen per unit mass of product, or about 3 pound per barrel or less. By contrast, other variants of the Bergius process require the use of 15 pounds or more of hydrogen per barrel, resulting in an inherent materials cost. Second, the conventional Bergius process requires high pressure, in the range of 1500 psig to 3000 psig. The WVU process variant has been carried out at pressures below 400 psig, a significant difference. Thanks mainly to DOE sponsorship, the WVU process has been licensed to a Canadian Company, Quantex Energy Inc, with a commercial demonstration unit plant scheduled to be erected in 2011.

  16. Eastman, AP start on coal unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-25

    Eastman Chemical and Air Products and Chemicals (AP) have started construction of a $214-million, coal-to-methanol demonstration unit at Eastmans site in Kingsport, TN. The project is part of the Department of Energy`s clean coal technology program and is receiving $93 million in federal support. The demonstration unit-which will have a methanol capacity of 260 tons/day-will use novel catalyst technology for converting coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas) to methanol. Unlike conventional technology that processes syngas through a fixed bed of dry catalyst particles, the liquid-phase methanol process converts the syngas in a single vessel containing catalysts suspended in mineral oil. The companies say the innovation allows the process to better able handle the gases from coal gasifiers and is more stable and reliable than existing processes. Eastman says it will use the methanol produced by the plant as a chemical feedstock. It currently uses methanol as an intermediate in making acetic anhydride and dimethyl terephthalate. In addition, the companies say the methanol will be evaluated as a feedstock in making methyl tert-butyl ether for reformulated fuels. Eastman also says it will evaluate coproducing dimethyl ether (DME) with the methanol. DME can be used as a fuel additive or blended with methanol for a chemical feedstock, according to Eastman.

  17. Cryogenic fractionator gas as stripping gas of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeorge, Charles W.

    1981-01-01

    In an integrated coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped with a stripping gas to remove acidic gases, at least a portion of the stripping gas comprises a gas comprising hydrogen, nitrogen and methane separated from the coker products.

  18. The Videofil probe, a novel instrument to extend the coke oven service life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaillet, J.P.; Isler, D.

    1997-12-31

    To prolong the service life of coke oven batteries, the Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau developed the Videofil probe, a novel instrument to conduct diagnoses and to help repair operations of coke ovens. The Videofil probe is a flexible non-water-cooled endoscope which is used to locate flue wall damage and estimate its importance, to define the oven zones to repair and guide the repair work and to control the quality of the repair work and its durability.

  19. Coke gasification: the influence and behavior of inherent catalytic mineral matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihaela Grigore; Richard Sakurovs; David French; Veena Sahajwalla

    2009-04-15

    Gasification of coke contributes to its degradation in the blast furnace. In this study, the effect of gasification on the inherent catalytic minerals in cokes and their reciprocal influence on gasification are investigated. The catalytic mineral phases identified in the cokes used in this study were metallic iron, iron sulfides, and iron oxides. Metallic iron and pyrrhotite were rapidly oxidized during gasification to iron oxide. The catalysts had a strong influence on the apparent rates at the initial stages of reaction. As gasification proceeds, their effect on the reaction rate diminishes as a result of reducing the surface contact between catalyst and carbon matrix because of carbon consumption around the catalyst particles; with extended burnout the reactivity of the coke becomes increasingly dependent on surface area. The reaction rate in the initial stages was also influenced by the particle size of the catalytic minerals; for a given catalytic iron level, the cokes whose catalytic minerals were more finely dispersed had a higher apparent reaction rate than cokes containing larger catalytic particles. Iron, sodium, and potassium in the amorphous phase did not appear to affect the reaction rate. 40 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Annual Coal Distribution

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2016-01-01

    The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing state. All data for the report year are final and this report supersedes all data in the quarterly distribution reports.

  1. Coal production 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-11-22

    Coal Production 1988 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1989. 5 figs., 45 tabs.

  2. Annual Coal Distribution

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing state. All data for the report year are final and this report supersedes all data in the quarterly distribution reports.

  3. The Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    This reports presents the operating results for Run 252 at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. This run operated in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode (CC-ITSL) using Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. The primary run objective was demonstration of unit and system operability in the CC-ITSL mode with catalytic-catalytic reactors and with ash recycle. Run 252 began on 26 November 1986 and continued through 3 February 1987. During this period 214.4 MF tons of Illinois No. 6 coal were fed in 1250 hours of operation. 3 refs., 29 figs., 18 tabs.

  4. Effect of coal quality on maintenance costs at utility plants. Final report. [Effect of ash and sulfur content of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holt, E.C. Jr.

    1980-06-01

    In an attempt to determine if correlation exists between coal quality, as measured by its ash and sulfur contents, and the maintenance cost at utility plants, an examination was made of the actual maintenance cost experience of selected portions of five TVA coal-fired power plants as a function of the fuel quality consumed during an extended period of time. The results indicate that, according to our decision rules developed in compliance with accepted statistical practices, correlation does exist in many portions of the coal-fired plants for which sufficient maintenance cost records were available. The degree of correlation varies significantly among the individual portions of a particular plant as well as among the various plants. However, the indicators are sufficient to confirm that a change (within the design constraints of the unit) in the ash and/or sulfur content of the coal being consumed by a utility boiler will have a proportionate effect on the maintenance cost at the plant. In the cases examined, each percent variation in ash content could have a monetary effect of from $0.05 to $0.10 per ton of coal consumed. Similarly, each percent variation in sulfur content could influence maintenance costs from $0.30 to $0.50 per ton of coal. Since these values are based on preliminary analysis of limited data, they must be approached with caution and not removed from the context in which they are presented. However, if borne out by further study, the potential magnitude of such savings may be sufficient to justify the acquisition of superior coal supplies, either by changing the source and/or using preparation to obtain a lower ash and sulfur fuel.

  5. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Program update 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program) is a $7.14 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT program are creating the technology base that allows the nation to meet its energy and environmental goals efficiently and reliably. The fact that most of the demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under conditions typical of commercial operations allows the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. The technologies are categorized into four market sectors: advanced electric power generation systems; environmental control devices; coal processing equipment for clean fuels; and industrial technologies. Sections of this report describe the following: Role of the Program; Program implementation; Funding and costs; The road to commercial realization; Results from completed projects; Results and accomplishments from ongoing projects; and Project fact sheets. Projects include fluidized-bed combustion, integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants, advanced combustion and heat engines, nitrogen oxide control technologies, sulfur dioxide control technologies, combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} technologies, coal preparation techniques, mild gasification, and indirect liquefaction. Industrial applications include injection systems for blast furnaces, coke oven gas cleaning systems, power generation from coal/ore reduction, a cyclone combustor with S, N, and ash control, cement kiln flue gas scrubber, and pulse combustion for steam coal gasification.

  6. Operational results for high pulverized coal injection rate at Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, Hiromitsu; Matsunaga, Shin`ichi; Kakuichi, Kazumoto; Amano, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Kazuyoshi

    1995-12-01

    In order to further develop the technology for high-rate pulverized coal injection (PCI), namely over 200 kg/t-pig, Nippon Steel performed a high injection rate test at the Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace in November, 1993. The paper describes PCI equipment; the operational design of the test, including blast conditions, reducibility of sinter, coke strength and burden distribution; and test results. These results include a discussion of the transition of operation, burden distribution control, replacement ratio of coke, permeability at upper and lower parts of the furnace, reducibility at lower part of the furnace, accumulation of fines in the deadman, and generation and accumulation of unburnt char. Stable operation was achieved at a PCI rate of 190 kg/t-pig. With injection rates between 200--300 kg/t-pig, the problem becomes how to improve the reduction-meltdown behavior in the lower part of the furnace.

  7. A study of kinetics and mechanisms of iron ore reduction in ore/coal composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, S.; Lu, W.K.

    1996-12-31

    Blast furnace ironmaking technology, by far the most important ironmaking process, is based on coke and iron ore pellets (or sinter) to produce liquid iron. However, there has been a worldwide effort searching for a more economical and environmental friendly alternative process for the production of liquid iron. The essential requirement is that it should be minimized in the usage of metallurgical coke and agglomerate of iron ore concentrates. With iron ore concentrate and coal as raw materials, there are two approaches: (a) Smelting reduction; melting the ore before reduction; (b) Reduction of the ore in solid state followed by melting. The present work is on the fundamentals of the latter. It consists of a better designed experimental study including pressure gradient measurement, and a more rigorous non-isothermal and non-isobaric mathematical model. Results of this work may be applied to carbothermic processes, such as FASTMET and LB processes, as well as recycling of fines in steel plants.

  8. Report to the United States Congress clean coal technology export markets and financing mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This report responds to a Congressional Conference Report that requests that $625,000 in funding provided will be used by the Department to identify potential markets for clean coal technologies in developing countries and countries with economies in transition from nonmarket economies and to identify existing, or new, financial mechanisms or financial support to be provided by the Federal government that will enhance the ability of US industry to participate in these markets. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects world coal consumption to increase by 30 percent between 1990 and 2010, from 5.1 to 6.5 billion short tons. Five regions stand out as major foreign markets for the export of US clean coal technologies: China; The Pacific Rim (other than China); South Asia (primarily India); Transitional Economies (Central Europe and the Newly Independent States); and Other Markets (the Americas and Southern Africa). Nearly two-thirds of the expected worldwide growth in coal utilization will occur in China, one quarter in the United States. EIA forecasts nearly a billion tons per year of additional coal consumption in China between 1990 and 2010, a virtual doubling of that country`s coal consumption. A 30-percent increase in coal consumption is projected in other developing countries over that same period. This increase in coal consumption will be accompanied by an increase in demand for technologies for burning coal cost-effectively, efficiently and cleanly. In the Pacific Rim and South Asia, rapid economic growth coupled with substantial indigenous coal supplies combine to create a large potential market for CCTS. In Central Europe and the Newly Independent States, the challenge will be to correct the damage of decades of environmental neglect without adding to already-considerable economic disruption. Though the situation varies, all these countries share the basic need to use indigenous low-quality coal cleanly and efficiently.

  9. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  10. Geologic map and coal sections of the Pine Ridge quadrangle, Moffat County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prost, G.L.; Brownfield, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Pine Ridge quadrangle was mapped as part of the US Geological Survey's program of classifying and evaluating mineral lands in the public domain. Coal is the primary resource of econmic interest within the quadrangle and occurs in the Lance and Fort Union Formations. Several unsuccessful oil-and-gas wells have been drilled within the quadrangle. Possible uranium deposits may be found in the Browns Park Formation. Sand and gravel are also present in the quadrangle. The main coal zone in the Lance Formation is found near the middle and contains coal beds ranging in thickness from 0.17 to 0.94 m. These coal beds are discontinuous, grading laterally and vertically into carbonaceous shales. The middle coal zone in the Lance Formation appears to be continuous from east to west across the quadrangle. Coal beds approximately 0.1 m thick occur locally just above the base of the Lance. There are no coal mines or prospects within the formation. Coal beds in the Fort Union Formation, although generally thicker than the Lance coals, are extremely lenticular and irregular in distribution. The Fort Union coal zone is 22 to 51 m thick and the lowermost coal bed is 36 to 177 m above the basal Fort Union contact. Coal beds pinch and swell, are split by shale and sandstone partings, are cut out by river-channel sandstones, and grade laterally and vertically into carbonaceous shales. Inferred coal resources were calculated for the Fort Union Formation coals. An estimated 3278 ha are underlain by approximately 195 million metric tons. Resources were not calculated for coal beds in the Lance Formation.

  11. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. [Quarterly] technical report, 1 December 1993--28 February 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1994-06-01

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1992--1993 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco Inc. Steel Company and to initiate a new cooperative study along somewhat similar lines with the Inland Steel Company. The results of this study will lead to the development of a testing and evaluation protocol that will give a unique and much needed understanding of the behavior of coal in the injection process and prove the potential of Illinois coals for such use. During this quarter a sample of the feed coal that is being used for injection into the No. 7 Blast Furnace of Inland Steel has been analyzed petrographically and compared to both the Herrin No. 6 coal and Armco feed coal. Additional characterization is underway and an advanced program of pyrolysis and reactivity testing has been initiated.

  12. Production and gasification tests of coal fines/coal tar extrudate. Final report June 1982-December 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furman, A.; Rib, D.; Smith, D.; Waslo, D.

    1984-01-01

    Gasification is a fuels conversion technology that permits the production of clean synthetic gas from coal and other carbonaceous fuels. Of the various gasifier types, however, the fixed bed is the only system currently being offered on a commercial basis. While this reactor type offers proven performance in terms of reliability and thermal efficiency, it requires a sized feedstock. This means that up to 30% of the incoming run-of-mine coal could be rejected as fines. Direct extrusion of this - 1/8-inch coal fines fraction with a tar binder offers a potentially attractive solution to this problem by consolidating the fines and, at the same time, providing a feed mechanism to the pressurized reactor. Work is described on a recently completed extrudate evaluation program conducted at the General Electric Research and Development Center in Schenectady under GRI and NYSERDA sponsorship. A 6-inch, single screw extruder was used to produce 88 tons of Illinois No. 6 coal extrudate with tar binder, which was then successfully gasified in General Electric's 1-ton/hr, Process Evaluation Facility (PEF) scale, fixed-bed reactor. Performance data on the extrusion process and on gasification testing are presented. The test results indicate that the extrudate makes a satisfactory gasifier feedstock in terms of both thermal and mechanical performance.

  13. Combined processing of coal and heavy resids. Progress report, July 16-October 15, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, C.W.; Guin, J.A.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    This quarter's work dealt primarily with the effect of the petroleum solvent on coprocessing and the effect on the solvent of processing at coprocessing conditions. Catalytic upgrading of the petroleum residuum at coprocessing conditions resulted in upgrading by decreasing the heteroatom content, upgrading asphaltenes, and decreasing the viscosity and Conradson Carbon residue percent of the solvents to produce more fluid and less likely to coke materials. Pretreatment of the different petroleum residua by catalytic hydrotreatment followed by extraction improves the amount of coal conversion achieved during coprocessing. For some residua, the hydrotreatment results in an improved solvent yielding high levels, approx. 50%, oil production. As would be expected higher catalyst loading produces higher oil yields for both the original and pretreated residua. Coal conversion is affected by catalyst loading and by the condition of the solvent. In coprocessing, the solvent to coal ratio influences the upgrading of the petroleum material and the conversion of coal. An optimal range of coal concentration between 30 and 50% is observed for both coal conversion and oil production. In catalytic coprocessing, coal has been shown to be upgraded to oil. In some instances, as much as 40% of the coal is converted to oil and 80 to 90% of the oil produced in the coprocessing reaction is made from coal. The composition of the solvent has definite effects on coal conversion and oil yields. When tetralin is added at a 1.5% donable hydrogen level, substantive coal conversion is obtained even in a nitrogen atmosphere. In summary, the petroleum crude or residuum used in the coprocessing reaction is an important factor in the final product obtained. Selection of the proper processing conditions is crucial in achieving product selectivity. 6 references, 17 figures, 17 tables.

  14. Development of an Advanced Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System Utilizing Off-Gas from Coke Calcination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process.

  15. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Major U.S. Coal Producers, 2014 Rank Controlling Company Name Production (thousand short tons) Percent of Total Production 1 Peabody Energy Corp 189,531 19.0 2 Arch Coal Inc 135,801 13.6 3 Cloud Peak Energy 85,794 8.6 4 Alpha Natural Resources 80,153 8.0 5 Murray Energy Corp 62,815 6.3 6 Alliance Resource Partners LP 40,964 4.1 7 Westmoreland Coal Company 35,580 3.6 8 CONSOL Energy Inc 32,191 3.2 9 NACCO Industries Inc 31,618 3.2 10 Energy Future Holdings Corporation 29,715 3.0 11 Coalfield

  16. Ash reduction in clean coal spiral product circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzik, P.

    2007-04-15

    The article describes the Derrick Corporation's Stack Sizer{trademark} technology for high capacity fine wet cleaning with long-lasting high open-area urethane screen panels. After field trials, a Stack Sizer fitted with a 100-micron urethane panel is currently processing approximately 40 stph of clean coal spiral product having about 20% ash at McCoy-Elkhorn's Bevin Branch coal preparation plant in Kentucky, USA. Product yield is about 32.5 short tons per hour with 10% ash. The material is then fed to screen bowl centrifuges for further processing. At Blue Diamond Coal's Leatherwood preparation plant similar Stacker Sizers are achieving the same results. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 2 photo.

  17. Application of process safety management to the coke industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mentzer, W.P. (USX Corp., Clairton, PA (United States))

    1994-09-01

    OSHA's Process Safety Management (PSM) standard went into effect on May 26, 1992. Explosions at various industrial facilities that claimed the lives of workers over the past several years were the catalyst for the new federal regulations. The new PSM standard deals with 130 specific chemicals along with flammable liquids and gases used at nearly 25,000 worksites. The performance-based PSM standard consists of 14 elements that establish goals and describe basic program elements to fulfill these goals. The PSM standard requires employers to conduct a process hazard analysis to examine potential problems and determine what preventative measures should be taken. Key elements include employee training, written operating procedures, safety reviews and maintenance requirements to insure the mechanical integrity of critical components. The presentation will cover the evolution of OSHA's PSM standard, the requirements of the 14 elements in the PSM standard and discuss the significant achievements in the development and implementation of the PSM process at US Steel's Clairton coke plant.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dady B. Dadyburjor; Mark E. Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; J. Joshua Maybury; Alfred H. Stiller; Joseph M. Stoffa; John W. Zondlo

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, and porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, hydrotreatment of solvent was completed in preparation for pitch fabrication for graphite electrodes. Coal digestion has lagged but is expected to be complete by next quarter. Studies are reported on coal dissolution, pitch production, foam synthesis using physical blowing agents, and alternate coking techniques.

  19. Proof of concept and performance optimization of high gravity batch type centrifuge for dewatering fine coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, L.B.; Durney, T.E. Jr.

    1991-04-23

    Coal Technology Corporation (CTC) believes that the new CTC high gravity, high production, batch type centrifugal dryer technology can play a significant role in improving the product quality as well as costs of operation in coal processing plants. It is further believed that the new centrifugal dryer technology can form an important part in systems used to clean up millions of tons of coal fines in refuse piles and ponds. It is anticipated that the new centrifuge can become an important ancillary to the advanced deep cleaning processes for coal. Because of these convictions, CTC has been engaged in a pioneering research effort into the new art of drying fine clean coal in high gravity, high production, batch type of centrifuge, since 1981. This work has progressed to the point where the new centrifugal dryer technology is nearly ready for commercialization. It promises to provide needed fine coal drying capability at somewhat lower capital costs and at substantially lower operating costs than competitive systems. It also promises to do so with no detrimental effects on either the coal quality or the environment. The primary objective of this project is to prove the concept of a high gravity batch centrifuge for drying coal fines in a commercial coal processing plant environment. The proof of concept tests also include testing with a variety of coals from different regions. A further objective is to optimize the efficiency and the cost effectiveness of the new centrifugal dryer technology. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Support EM LA Airport Landfill Cover Project by providing 40000 tons of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    soil | Department of Energy Support EM LA Airport Landfill Cover Project by providing 40000 tons of soil Support EM LA Airport Landfill Cover Project by providing 40000 tons of soil DE-DT0010454-Task-Order-4 Airport Landfill Construction Activities The purpose of this task order (TO) is to support the EM-LA Field Office in replacing the cover at the Los Alamos County Airport Landfill. The new cover design is an evapotranspiration (ET) cover. Contractor: TSAY Corporation DOE Contracting

  1. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry U.S. BILLI N-TON UPDATE U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry A Study Sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy Energy Effciency and Renewable Energy Offce of the Biomass Program August 2011 Prepared by OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6335 managed by UT-Battelle, LLC for the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 This report was prepared as an account of

  2. Y-12's rough roads smoothed over with 23,000 tons of recycled asphalt |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) 's rough roads smoothed over with 23,000 tons of recycled asphalt Tuesday, December 29, 2015 - 12:00am NNSA Blog Some 23,000 tons of asphalt removed during this summer's UPF site work have been put to use throughout the site. Potholes and gravel roads are now "paved" with the recycled asphalt that has been ground into a material called base course. Unlike gravel, the material tends to rebind into a solid form as it is packed down,

  3. REGIONAL FEEDSTOCK PARTNERSHIP SUMMARY REPORT Enabling the Billion-Ton Vision

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FEEDSTOCK PARTNERSHIP SUMMARY REPORT Enabling the Billion-Ton Vision July 2016 Regional Feedstock Partnership Report | i Regional Feedstock Partnership Summary Report: Enabling the Billion-Ton Vision A Study Sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office July 2016 Prepared by Managed by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy Under Contract DE-AC07-015D14517 This report was prepared as an account of

  4. DOE to Remove 200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from U.S. Nuclear

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Weapons Stockpile | Department of Energy to Remove 200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from U.S. Nuclear Weapons Stockpile DOE to Remove 200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from U.S. Nuclear Weapons Stockpile November 7, 2005 - 12:38pm Addthis Will Be Redirected to Naval Reactors, Down-blended or Used for Space Programs WASHINGTON, DC - Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today announced that the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) will

  5. Coal underlying Federal lands in the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alex W. Karlsen; John R. SanFilipo; Peter D. Warwick

    2002-09-01

    About 6% of the total coa resource was selected for assessment in the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain region of the NCRA project underlies federally proclaimed management areas. Of the approximately 11 billion short tons of coal in this category, approximately 37 percent are estimated to be federally owned. Much of the coal in these categories may not be available for mining, and much of it is probably not economically recoverable. The dispersed nature of Federal holdings, the complicated nature of surface and mineral estate ownership, and the existence of various legal and technological restrictions may remove a significant portion of this coal resource from consideration for development. Continuing work by USGS scientists suggests that potentially viable energy resources of coal-bed methane are present within both Federal and non-Federal areas of the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain coal-bearing region. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly report, January--March, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Neal, G.W.

    1996-04-01

    Determination of the best furnace for a commercial coke plant is underway. A shuttle or tunnel kiln has economic advantage over a rotary hearth design. Production of 20 tons of coke in a small shuttle kiln is near completion which will provide experience for this design. Twenty tons of CTC continuous coke are being produced for testing at a General Motors` foundry. The production is approximately 75 percent complete. During this production, variables of the process are being studied to aid in design of a commercial coke plant. Raw material composition, blending, briquetting variables, and calcining heat profile are the major areas of interest. Western SynCoal Company produces a dried coal product from sub-bituminous coal. This upgraded product was evaluated for producing coke products by blending char from this coal product with the coal product along with suitable binders. The green briquettes were then calcined to produce coke. The resulting coke was judged to be usable as part of a cupola coke charge or as a fuel in cement kilns and sugar beet furnaces.

  7. Coal feed lock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinkel, I. Irving

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  8. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  9. Coal slurry pipelines: Blach Mesa and future projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brolick, H.J.

    1998-12-31

    Pipeline System. The Black Mesa Pipeline is a 273 mile (439 km) long, 18-inch (457 mm) coal/water slurry pipeline, originating on the Black Mesa in the Northeastern part of Arizona, USA. The system delivers coal from the Peabody Coal Company`s Black Mesa open pit mine to the Mohave Generating Station which is a 1580 MW steam powered electric generating plant located in Laughlin, Nevada. Black Mesa Pipeline began commercial operation in November, 1970 and has transported in excess of 110,000,000 tons (99,800,000 metric tons) of coal with an availability factor of 99%.

  10. Coal-based clean fuel for international residential markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jozewicz, W.

    1996-12-31

    Acurex Environmental Corporation is conducting a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to establish a company that will ultimately supply energy to residences throughout Eastern Europe. Initially it will manufacture a new load priced, but environmentally friendly fuel (Clean Fuel) in Krakow, Poland. As acceptance and profitability is proven, manufacturing will be extended to other regions of Poland, the Czech Republic, Germany, and the Ukraine. Currently, apartments and individual homes are heated with expensive and polluting raw coal. Acurex Environmental Corporation has developed and patented a Clean Fuel that is manufactured from inexpensively raw material--coal fines, a waste byproduct of the coal mining industry. This material is readily available, inexpensive, and substantially polluting if used in its raw state. When mixed with the proprietary binder and pressed into fuel pellets, or briquettes, it has been proven to have substantially less pollutants than high grade coal (70% reduction). Acurex Environmental Corporation will be able to offer a home heating fuel that is similar in form and function to raw coal, but is environmentally friendly and lower in cost. The market for Clean Fuel is essentially limitless. The initial intent of this new company is to focus on the city of Krakow, Poland and its neighboring province of Katowice. This area consumes about 686,000 tons/yr in the fourth year of commercial operation. Price competitiveness will be met by pricing Clean Fuel below the price of chunk coal.

  11. Pelletization of fine coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1991-09-01

    The present research project attempts to provide a basis to determine the pelletizability of fine coals, to ascertain the role of additives and binders and to establish a basis for binder selection. Currently, there are no established techniques for determining the quality of coal pellets. Our research is intended to develop a series of tests on coal pellets to measure their storage characteristics, transportability, ease of gasification and rate of combustion. Information developed from this research should be valuable for making knowledgeable decisions for on-time plant design, occasional binder selection and frequent process control during the pelletization of coal fines. During the last quarter, we continued the batch pelletization studies on Upper Freeport coal. The results as presented in that last quarterly report (April 1991) indicated that the surface conditions on the coal particle influenced the pelletizing growth rates. For example, a fresh (run of mine) sample of coal will display different pelletizing growth kinetics than a weathered sample of the same coal. Since coal is a heterogeneous material, the oxidized product of coal is equally variable. We found it to be logistically difficult to consistently produce large quantities of artificially oxidized coal for experimental purposes and as such we have used a naturally weathered coal. We have plans to oxidize coals under controlled oxidizing conditions and be able to establish their pelletizing behavior. The next phase of experiments were directed to study the effect of surface modification, introduced during the coal cleaning steps, on pelletizing kinetics. Accordingly, we initiated studies with two additives commonly used during the flotation of coal: dextrin (coal depressant) and dodecane (coal collector).

  12. Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.J.; Long, S.

    1991-11-22

    The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT`s. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT`s in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT`s introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT`s in a number of countries.

  13. Energy Department Project Captures and Stores One Million Metric Tons of Carbon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As part of President Obama’s all-of-the-above energy strategy, the Department of Energy announced today that its Illinois Basin-Decatur Project successfully captured and stored one million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) and injected it into a deep saline formation.

  14. 6 Million Tons of Mill Tailings Removed From DOE Moab Project Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    (Grand Junction, CO) ― Today, the Department of Energy (DOE) announced that 6 million tons of uranium mill tailings have been shipped from Moab, Utah, under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project to an engineered disposal cell near Crescent Junction, Utah.

  15. U.S. Energy Information Administration | State Energy Data 2014: Prices and Expenditures

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 Coal prices are developed for the following three categories: coking coal; steam coal (all noncoking coal); and coal coke imports and exports. Coking coal, used in the industrial sector only, is a high-quality bituminous coal that is used to make coal coke. Steam coal, which may be used by all sectors, includes anthracite, bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, and lignite. In the industrial sector, coal consumption is the sum of coking coal and steam coal. The industrial coal price is the

  16. International perspectives on coal preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  17. Measures used to tackle environmental problems related to global warming and climate change resulting from the use of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Environmental issues continue to play a major role in strategic planning associated with the use of coal for power generation. Problems, such as Acid Rain resulting from SO{sub 2} emissions produced from the sulfur content of coal during coal combustion, have recently cornered the attention of policy makers and planners. More recently the carbon content of coal, which provides for most of the coals heating value, has been identified as the major contributor to the production of CO{sub 2} and other emissions associated with Global Warming and Climate Change. Total world carbon emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels were approximately 6 billion metric tons in 1990, of which 44% were from the consumption of oil, 39% from coal, and 17% from natural gas. Assuming no change in current regulations, carbon emissions are anticipated to grow by 1.5% per year, and are predicted to reach more than 8 billion tons by the year 2010. Most of this increase in carbon emissions is expected to come from developing countries in the Asian Pacific Region such as China where coal use dominates the power production industry and accounts for 71% of its total CO{sub 2} emissions. Asian Pacific coal demand is expected to double over the next 15 years accounting for a 46% increase in total primary energy demand, and China currently produces approximately 11% of the world`s global greenhouse gas emissions which is expected to grow to 15% by the year 2010.

  18. Coal combustion products: trash or treasure?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, T.

    2006-07-15

    Coal combustion by-products can be a valuable resource to various industries. The American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) collects data on production and uses of coal combustion products (CCPs). 122.5 million tons of CCPs were produced in 2004. The article discusses the results of the ACCA's 2004 survey. Fly ash is predominantly used as a substitute for Portland cement; bottom ash for structural fill, embankments and paved road cases. Synthetic gypsum from the FGD process is commonly used in wallboard. Plant owners are only likely to have a buyer for a portion of their CCPs. Although sale of hot water (from Antelope Valley Station) from condensers for use in a fish farm to raise tilapia proved unviable, the Great Plains Synfuels Plant which manufactures natural gas from lignite produces a wide range of products including anhydrous ammonia, phenol, krypton, carbon dioxide (for enhanced oil recovery), tar oils and liquid nitrogen. ACCA's goal is to educate people about CCPs and how to make them into useful products, and market them, in order to reduce waste disposal and enhance revenue. The article lists members of the ACCA. 2 photos., 1 tab.

  19. Indonesian coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-11-15

    The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, Gerald W.; Lewis, Susan N.

    1990-01-01

    This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

  1. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4Q 2009 April 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 4Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal...

  2. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal...

  3. "Annual Coal Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual Coal Report Data Released: January 20, 2015 Data for: 2013 Re-Release Date: April 23, 2015 (CORRECTION) Annual Coal Report 2013 CorrectionUpdate April 23, 2015 The Annual ...

  4. Co-production of electricity and alternate fuels from coal. Final report, August 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    The Calderon process and its process development unit, PDU, were originally conceived to produce two useful products from a bituminous coal: a desulfurized medium BTU gas containing primarily CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O; and a desulfurized low BTU gas containing these same constituents plus N{sub 2} from the air used to provide heat for the process through the combustion of a portion of the fuel. The process was viewed as a means for providing both a synthesis gas for liquid fuel production (perhaps CH{sub 3}OH, alternatively CH{sub 4} or NH{sub 3}) and a pressurized, low BTU fuel gas, for gas turbine based power generation. The Calderon coal process comprises three principle sections which perform the following functions: coal pyrolysis in a continuous, steady flow unit based on coke oven technology; air blown, slagging, coke gasification in a moving bed unit based on a blast furnace technology; and a novel, lime pebble based, product gas processing in which a variety of functions are accomplished including the cracking of hydrocarbons and the removal of sulfur, H{sub 2}S, and of particulates from both the medium and low BTU gases. The product gas processing unit, based on multiple moving beds, has also been conceived to regenerate the lime pebbles and recover sulfur as elemental S.

  5. Coal gasification apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagy, Charles K.

    1982-01-01

    Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

  6. Coal Fleet Aging Meeting

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7, 2016 MEMORANDUM TO: Dr. Ian Mead Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis Jim Diefenderfer Director, Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis FROM: Coal and Uranium Analysis Team SUBJECT: Notes from the Coal Fleet Aging Meeting held on June 14, 2016 Attendees (36) *Indicates attendance via WebEx. 2 Framing the question This adjunct meeting of the AEO Coal Working Group (CWG) was held as a follow up to the previous Future Operating and Maintenance Considerations for the

  7. Method for fluorinating coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huston, John L.; Scott, Robert G.; Studier, Martin H.

    1978-01-01

    Coal is fluorinated by contact with fluorine gas at low pressure. After pial fluorination, when the reaction rate has slowed, the pressure is slowly increased until fluorination is complete, forming a solid fluorinated coal of approximate composition CF.sub.1.55 H.sub.0.15. The fluorinated coal and a solid distillate resulting from vacuum pyrolysis of the fluorinated coal are useful as an internal standard for mass spectrometric unit mass assignments from about 100 to over 1500.

  8. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Technical report, 1 December 1992--28 February 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.; Case, E.R.

    1993-05-01

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This proposed study is unique in that it will be the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. The Amanda furnace of Armco is the only one in North America currently using coal injection and is, therefore, the only full scale testing facility available. During this quarter complete petrographic analyses of all of the samples so far collected were completed.

  9. Automatic coke oven heating control system at Burns Harbor for normal and repair operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battle, E.T.; Chen, K.L.

    1997-12-31

    An automatic heating control system for coke oven batteries was developed in 1985 for the Burns Harbor No. 1 battery and reported in the 1989 Ironmaking Conference Proceedings. The original system was designed to maintain a target coke temperature at a given production level under normal operating conditions. Since 1989, enhancements have been made to this control system so that it can also control the battery heating when the battery is under repair. The new control system has improved heating control capability because it adjusts the heat input to the battery in response to anticipated changes in the production schedule. During a recent repair of this 82 oven battery, the pushing schedule changed from 102 ovens/day to 88 ovens/day, then back to 102 ovens/day, then to 107 ovens/day. During this repair, the control system was able to maintain the coke temperature average standard deviation at 44 F, with a maximum 75 F.

  10. Coal production 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  11. Flash hydrogenation of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manowitz, Bernard; Steinberg, Meyer; Sheehan, Thomas V.; Winsche, Warren E.; Raseman, Chad J.

    1976-01-01

    A process for the hydrogenation of coal comprising the contacting of powdered coal with hydrogen in a rotating fluidized bed reactor. A rotating fluidized bed reactor suitable for use in this process is also disclosed. The coal residence time in the reactor is limited to less than 5 seconds while the hydrogen contact time is not in excess of 0.2 seconds.

  12. Coal Combustion Products

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge.

  13. Alaska coal gasification feasibility studies - Healy coal-to-liquids plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence Van Bibber; Charles Thomas; Robert Chaney

    2007-07-15

    The Alaska Coal Gasification Feasibility Study entailed a two-phase analysis of the prospects for greater use of Alaska's abundant coal resources in industrial applications. Phase 1, Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study (Report DOE/NETL 2006/1248) assessed the feasibility of using gasification technology to convert the Agrium fertilizer plant in Nikiski, Alaska, from natural gas to coal feedstock. The Phase 1 analysis evaluated coals from the Beluga field near Anchorage and from the Usibelli Coal Mine near Healy, both of which are low in sulfur and high in moisture. This study expands the results of Phase 1 by evaluating a similar sized gasification facility at the Usibelli Coal mine to supply Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquids to central Alaska. The plant considered in this study is small (14,640 barrels per day, bbl/d) compared to the recommended commercial size of 50,000 bbl/d for coal-to-liquid plants. The coal supply requirements for the Phase 1 analysis, four million tons per year, were assumed for the Phase 2 analysis to match the probable capacity of the Usibelli mining operations. Alaska refineries are of sufficient size to use all of the product, eliminating the need for F-T exports out of the state. The plant could produce marketable by-products such as sulfur as well as electric power. Slag would be used as backfill at the mine site and CO{sub 2} could be vented, captured or used for enhanced coalbed methane recovery. The unexpected curtailment of oil production from Prudhoe Bay in August 2006 highlighted the dependency of Alaskan refineries (with the exception of the Tesoro facility in Nikiski) on Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude. If the flow of oil from the North Slope declines, these refineries may not be able to meet the in-state needs for diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel. Additional reliable sources of essential fuel products would be beneficial. 36 refs., 14 figs., 29 tabs., 3 apps.

  14. Fuel Tables.indd

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    7: Coal Consumption Estimates and Imports and Exports of Coal Coke, 2014 State Coal Coal Coke Residential a Commercial Industrial Electric Power Total Residential a Commercial ...

  15. Fuel Tables.indd

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8: Coal Price and Expenditure Estimates and Imports and Exports of Coal Coke, 2014 State Coal Coal Coke Prices Expenditures Prices Expenditures Residential Commercial Industrial ...

  16. Proof of concept and performance optimization of high gravity batch type centrifuge for dewatering fine coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, L.B.; Durney, T.E. Jr.

    1990-10-24

    Coal Technology Corporation (CTC) believes that the new CTC high gravity, high production, batch type centrifugal dryer technology can play a significant role in improving the product quality as well as costs of operation in coal processing plants. It is further believed that the new centrifugal dryer technology can form an important part in systems used to clean up the millions of tons of coal fines in refuse piles and ponds. Work has progressed to the point where the new centrifugal dryer technology is nearly ready for commercialization. The primary objective of this project is to prove the concept in a commercial coal processing plant environment. The proof of concept tests will include testing with a variety of coals from different regions. A further objective will be to optimize the efficiency and the cost effectiveness of the new centrifugal dryer technology. To supply some perspective on the ability of the new centrifuges to successfully dry a variety of coals from various coal fields, it was decided that coals ranging from very fine to course size consists and with both low and high inherent moistures would be tested. Coals tested include: Pittsburgh no. 8 seam (Pennsylvania), Pittsburgh no. 8 seam (West Virginia), and Blue Creek Seam (Alabama). 6 figs.

  17. Proof of concept and performance optimization of high gravity batch type centrifuge for dewatering fine coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, L.B.; Durney, T.E. Jr.

    1990-07-24

    Coal Technology Corporation (CTC) believes that the new CTC high gravity, high production, batch type centrifugal dryer technology can play a significant role in improving the product quality as well as costs of operation in coal processing plants. It is further believed that the new centrifugal dryer technology can form an important part in systems used to clean up the millions of tons of coal fines in refuse piles and ponds. It is anticipated that the new centrifuge can become an important ancillary to the advanced deep cleaning processes for coal. Because of these convictions, CTC has been engaged in a pioneering research effort into the new art of drying fine clean coal in high gravity, high production, batch type centrifuges, since 1981. This work has progressed to the point where the new centrifugal dryer technology is nearly ready for commercialization. It promises to provide needed fine coal drying capability at somewhat lower capital costs and at substantially lower operating costs than competitive systems. It also promises to do so with no detrimental effects on either the coal quality or the evironment. The primary objective of this project is to prove the concept in a commercial coal processing plant environment. The proof of concept tests will also include testing with a variety of coals from different regions. A further objective will be to optimize the efficiency and the cost effectiveness of the new centrifugal dryer technology.

  18. Coal Study Guide for Elementary School

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Focuses on the basics of coal, history of coal use, conversion of coal into electricity, and climate change concerns.

  19. Light oil yield improvement project at Granite City Division Coke/By-Product Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holloran, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    Light oil removal from coke oven gas is a process that has long been proven and utilized throughout many North American Coke/By-Products Plants. The procedures, processes, and equipment requirements to maximize light oil recovery at the Granite City By-Products Plant will be discussed. The Light Oil Yield Improvement Project initially began in July, 1993 and was well into the final phase by February, 1994. Problem solving techniques, along with utilizing proven theoretical recovery standards were applied in this project. Process equipment improvements and implementation of Operator/Maintenance Standard Practices resulted in an average yield increase of 0.4 Gals./NTDC by the end of 1993.

  20. Fundamental studies in production of C[sub 2]-C[sub 4] hydrocarbons from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, W.H.; Oblad, A.G.

    1993-03-01

    The following conclusions can be drawn from the result obtained in this kinetic study of single stage coal gasification to hydrocarbon (HC) gases high in C[sub 2]-C[sub 4] hydrocarbons. It was observed that the direct conversion of coal to HC gases involves two steps. The first step is thermal cleavage of the coal structure to produce liquids with small amounts of gases and coke. The second step is conversion of liquids to gases. Coal to liquids occurs very rapidly and was completed within 10 minutes. Liquids to gases is the rate-determining step of the overall process. The conversion of liquids to gases was observed to follow first order kinetics. The first order kinetics treatment of the data by isothermal approximation gave an apparent activation energy of approximately 23 kcal/mol. The first order kinetics treatment of the data by a more rigorous non-isothermal method gave an activation energy of 26 kcal/mol. The quantity of HC gases produced directly from coal reached a constant value of about l0% of the dmmf coal at a reaction time of 10 miutes. Most of the HC gases were produced from the liquids. The study of model compounds shows that conversion of liquids to HC gases.proceeds through a carbonium ion mechanism, and this accounts for the production of C[sub 2]-C[sub 4] gases. Liquid to gases occurs by a catalytic hydrocracking reaction.

  1. Coal Data: A reference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-26

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  2. Coal recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Good, Robert J.; Badgujar, Mohan

    1992-01-01

    A method for the beneficiation of coal by selective agglomeration and the beneficiated coal product thereof is disclosed wherein coal, comprising impurities, is comminuted to a particle size sufficient to allow impurities contained therein to disperse in water, an aqueous slurry is formed with the comminuted coal particles, treated with a compound, such as a polysaccharide and/or disaccharide, to increase the relative hydrophilicity of hydrophilic components, and thereafter the slurry is treated with sufficient liquid agglomerant to form a coagulum comprising reduced impurity coal.

  3. Table 18. U.S. Coal Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. U.S. Coal Imports (short tons) Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 240,168 341,205 171,698 240,168 171,698 39.9 Canada 239,440 341,189 171,631 239,440 171,631 39.5 Mexico 728 16 67 728 67 NM South America Total 2,196,295 2,163,485 2,347,074 2,196,295 2,347,074 -6.4 Colombia 2,190,869 2,133,033 2,299,716 2,190,869 2,299,716 -4.7 Peru 5,426 30,452 11,661 5,426 11,661 -53.5

  4. Table 20. Coal Imports by Customs District

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Coal Imports by Customs District (short tons) Year to Date Customs District January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change Eastern Total 312,200 225,584 520,059 312,200 520,059 -40.0 Baltimore, MD - 10,410 - - - - Boston, MA 278,171 102,581 396,373 278,171 396,373 -29.8 Buffalo, NY 71 - 9 71 9 NM New York City, NY 773 44 443 773 443 74.5 Portland, ME - 85,166 93,061 - 93,061 - Providence, RI 33,185 27,383 30,173 33,185 30,173 10.0 Southern Total

  5. Table 7. U.S. Coal Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7. U.S. Coal Exports (short tons) Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 1,373,100 2,359,203 1,865,247 1,373,100 1,865,247 -26.4 Canada* 608,869 1,671,121 715,703 608,869 715,703 -14.9 Dominican Republic 19 - 1,745 19 1,745 -98.9 Guatemala - 39,683 59 - 59 - Honduras 35,825 34,337 34,651 35,825 34,651 3.4 Jamaica 36,375 36,410 36,101 36,375 36,101 0.8 Mexico 691,800 576,651

  6. Texas CO2 Capture Demonstration Project Hits Three Million Metric Ton Milestone

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On June 30, Allentown, PA-based Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. successfully captured and transported, via pipeline, its 3 millionth metric ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) to be used for enhanced oil recovery. This achievement highlights the ongoing success of a carbon capture and storage (CCS) project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).

  7. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarrer, Arthur R.; Shridharani, Ketan G.

    1983-01-01

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

  8. Reducing the moisture content of clean coals. Volume 2, High-G solid-bowl centrifuge: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kehoe, D.

    1992-12-01

    Coal moisture content can profoundly effect the cost of burning coal in utility boilers. Because of the large effect of coal moisture, the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO) contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute to investigate advanced coal dewatering methods at its Coal Quality Development Center. This report contains the test result on the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge, the second of four devices to be tested. The high-G solid-bowl centrifuge removes water for coal by spinning the coal/water mixture rapidly in a rotating bowl. This causes the coal to cling to the sides of the bowl where it can be removed, leaving the water behind. Testing was performed at the CQDC to evaluate the effect of four operating variables (G-ratio, feed solids concentration, dry solids feed rate, and differential RPM) on the performance of the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge. Two centrifuges of different bowl diameter were tested to establish the effect of scale-up of centrifuge performance. Testing of the two centrifuges occurred from 1985 through 1987. CQDC engineers performed 32 tests on the smaller of the two centrifuges, and 47 tests on the larger. Equations that predict the performance of the two centrifuges for solids recovery, moisture content of the produced coal, and motor torque were obtained. The equations predict the observed data well. Traditional techniques of establishing the performance of centrifuge of different scale did not work well with the two centrifuges, probably because of the large range of G-ratios used in the testing. Cost of operating a commercial size bank of centrifuges is approximately $1.72 per ton of clean coal. This compares well with thermal drying, which costs $1.82 per ton of clean coal.

  9. How well will ton-scale dark matter direct detection experiments constrain minimal supersymmetry?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akrami, Yashar; Savage, Christopher; Scott, Pat; Conrad, Jan; Edsj, Joakim E-mail: savage@fysik.su.se E-mail: conrad@fysik.su.se

    2011-04-01

    Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are amongst the most interesting dark matter (DM) candidates. Many DM candidates naturally arise in theories beyond the standard model (SM) of particle physics, like weak-scale supersymmetry (SUSY). Experiments aim to detect WIMPs by scattering, annihilation or direct production, and thereby determine the underlying theory to which they belong, along with its parameters. Here we examine the prospects for further constraining the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (CMSSM) with future ton-scale direct detection experiments. We consider ton-scale extrapolations of three current experiments: CDMS, XENON and COUPP, with 1000 kg-years of raw exposure each. We assume energy resolutions, energy ranges and efficiencies similar to the current versions of the experiments, and include backgrounds at target levels. Our analysis is based on full likelihood constructions for the experiments. We also take into account present uncertainties on hadronic matrix elements for neutralino-quark couplings, and on halo model parameters. We generate synthetic data based on four benchmark points and scan over the CMSSM parameter space using nested sampling. We construct both Bayesian posterior PDFs and frequentist profile likelihoods for the model parameters, as well as the mass and various cross-sections of the lightest neutralino. Future ton-scale experiments will help substantially in constraining supersymmetry, especially when results of experiments primarily targeting spin-dependent nuclear scattering are combined with those directed more toward spin-independent interactions.

  10. Assessment of H-Coal process developments: impact on the performance and economics of a proposed commercial plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talib, A.; Gray, D.; Neuworth, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report assesses the performance of the H-Coal process, a catalytic direct liquefaction process, at a process development and large pilot-plant scale of operation. The assessment focused on the evaluation of operating results from selected long-term successful process development unit (PDU) and pilot plant runs made on Illinois No. 6 coal. The pilot plant has largely duplicated the product yield structure obtained during the PDU runs. Also, the quality of products, particularly liquid products, produced during the pilot plant run is quite comparable to that produced during the PDU runs. This confirms the scalability of the H-Coal ebullated-bed reactor system from a PDU-scale, 3 tons of coal per day, to a large pilot scale, 220 tons of coal per day, plant. The minor product yield differences, such as higher yields of C/sub 3/, C/sub 4/, and naphtha fractions, and lower yields of distillate oils obtained during pilot plant runs as compared to the PDU runs, will not impact the projected technical and economic performance of a first-of-a-kind commercial H-Coal plant. Thus, the process yield and operating data collected during the PDU operations provided an adequate basis for projecting the technical and economic performance of the proposed H-Coal commercial plant. 18 references, 9 figures, 56 tables.

  11. Who lives near coke plants and oil refineries An exploration of the environmental inequity hypothesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, J.D.; Beaulieu, N.D.; Sussman, D.; Sadowitz, M.; Li, Y.C. )

    1999-04-01

    Facility-specific information on pollution was obtained for 36 coke plants and 46 oil refineries in the US and matched with information on populations surrounding these 82 facilities. These data were analyzed to determine whether environmental inequities were present, whether they were more economic or racial in nature, and whether the racial composition of nearby communities has changed significantly since plants began operations. The Census tracts near coke plants have a disproportionate share of poor and nonwhite residents. Multivariate analyses suggest that existing inequities are primarily economic in nature. The findings for oil refineries are not strongly supportive of the environmental inequity hypothesis. Rank ordering of facilities by race, poverty, and pollution produces limited (although not consistent) evidence that the more risky facilities tend to be operating in communities with above-median proportions of nonwhite residents (near coke plants) and Hispanic residents (near oil refineries). Over time, the radical makeup of many communities near facilities has changed significantly, particularly in the case of coke plants sited in the early 1900s. Further risk-oriented studies of multiple manufacturing facilities in various industrial sectors of the economy are recommended.

  12. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Volume 1, Public design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-24

    This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design -information for the ``Innovative Coke Oven Gas Cleaning System for Retrofit Applications`` Demonstration Project at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s Sparrows Point, Maryland coke oven by-product facilities. This project demonstrates, for the first time in the United States, the feasibility of integrating four commercially available technologies (processes) for cleaning coke oven gas. The four technologies are: Secondary Gas Cooling, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Removal, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Recovery, and Ammonia Destruction and Sulfur Recovery. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project and the role of the US Department of,Energy are briefly discussed. Actual plant capital and projected operating costs are also presented. An overview of the integration (retrofit) of the processes into the existing plant is presented and is followed by detailed non-proprietary descriptions of the four technologies and their overall effect on reducing the emissions of ammonia, sulfur, and other pollutants from coke oven gas. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions, catalyst and chemical requirements, and utility requirements are given for each unit. Plant startup provisions, environmental considerations and control monitoring, and safety considerations are also addressed for each process.

  13. Geology and chemical analyses of coal, Mesaverde Group (Cretaceous), Lower White River coal field, Moffat and Rio Blanco Counties, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hildebrand, R.T.; Garrigues, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    The Lower White River coal field comprises an area of approximately 930 square miles underlain by coal-bearing strata in Moffat and Rio Blanco Counties, northwestern Colorado (Landis, 1959; Hornbaker and others, 1976). The field lies along the northwestern edge of the Piceance Creek basin near the Utah border. Significant coal deposits in the Lower White River field occur in the Mesaverda Group of Late Cretaceous age; original resources are estimated to be as much as 11,763 million short tons to a depth of 6000 feet (Hornbaker and others, 1976). A total of 13 samples of coal (10 core samples and 3 samples of drill cuttings) were collected from five drill holes in the northwestern part of the Lower White River field during exploratory drilling conducted by the US Geological Survey in 1976 (see Garrigues, 1976; Barnum and others, 1977). These samples represent several coal beds in the middle part of the Mesaverde Group. Table 1 gives brief descriptions of the samples; the general geology of the area and sample localities are shown in figure 2.

  14. Microbial solubilization of coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, J.A.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Stewart, D.L.; Thomas, B.L.; McCulloch, M.; Wilson, B.W.; Bean, R.M.

    1988-11-01

    Microbial solubilization of coal may serve as a first step in a process to convert low-rank coals or coal-derived products to other fuels or products. For solubilization of coal to be an economically viable technology, a mechanistic understanding of the process is essential. Leonardite, a highly oxidized, low-rank coal, has been solubilized by the intact microorganism, cell-free filtrate, and cell-free enzyme of /ital Coriolus versicolor/. A spectrophotometric conversion assay was developed to quantify the amount of biosolubilized coal. In addition, a bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6, was solubilized by a species of /ital Penicillium/, but only after the coal had been preoxidized in air. Model compounds containing coal-related functionalities have been incubated with the leonardite-degrading fungus, its cell-free filtrate, and purified enzyme. The amount of degradation was determined by gas chromatography and the degradation products were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We have also separated the cell-free filtrate of /ital C. versicolor/ into a <10,000 MW and >10,000 MW fraction by ultrafiltration techniques. Most of the coal biosolubilization activity is contained in the <10,000 MW fraction while the model compound degradation occurs in the >10,000 MW fraction. The >10,000 MW fraction appears to contain an enzyme with laccase-like activity. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Table 12. Total Coal Consumption, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Coal Consumption, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million short tons)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",920,928,933,938,943,948,953,958,962,967,978,990,987,992,1006,1035,1061,1079 "AEO 1995",,935,940,941,947,948,951,954,958,963,971,984,992,996,1002,1013,1025,1039 "AEO

  16. Table 12. Total Coal Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Coal Consumption, Projected vs. Actual Projected (million short tons) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 920 928 933 938 943 948 953 958 962 967 978 990 987 992 1006 1035 1061 1079 AEO 1995 935 940 941 947 948 951 954 958 963 971 984 992 996 1002 1013 1025 1039 AEO 1996 937 942 954 962 983 990 1004 1017 1027 1033 1046 1067 1070 1071 1074 1082 1087 1094 1103 AEO 1997 948 970 987 1003 1017 1020 1025 1034 1041

  17. Table 13. Coal Production, Projected vs. Actual Projected

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Production, Projected vs. Actual Projected (million short tons) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 999 1021 1041 1051 1056 1066 1073 1081 1087 1098 1107 1122 1121 1128 1143 1173 1201 1223 AEO 1995 1006 1010 1011 1016 1017 1021 1027 1033 1040 1051 1066 1076 1083 1090 1108 1122 1137 AEO 1996 1037 1044 1041 1045 1061 1070 1086 1100 1112 1121 1135 1156 1161 1167 1173 1184 1190 1203 1215 AEO 1997 1028 1052 1072 1088

  18. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9. Average Number of Employees at Underground and Surface Mines by State and Mine Production Range, 2014 Mine Production Range (thousand short tons) Coal-Producing State, Region 1 and Mine Type Above 1,000 Above 500 to 1,000 Above 200 to 500 Above 100 to 200 Above 50 to 100 Above 10 to 50 Above 0 to 10 Zero 2 Total Number of Employees Alabama 2,585 - 447 312 141 50 25 134 3,694 Underground 2,585 - - 113 41 - - 113 2,852 Surface - - 447 199 100 50 25 21 842 Alaska 120 - - - - - - - 120 Surface

  19. The value of coal combustion products: an economic assessment of CCP unitization for the US economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, A.

    2005-07-01

    The recently released study by the American Coal Council (ACC) on 'The Value of Coal Combustion Products' provides a detailed economic assessment of CCP utilization for US markets and the US economy. Over 125 million tons of CCPs are produced in the US each year. The projected growth in the nation's utility-coal industry will result in the production of even greater volumes of CCPs. The ACC study details: how CCPs are currently being utilized; what factors are affecting utilization growth; what are the economic benefits of avoiding disposal costs; what is the annual revenue potential of CCP utilization; what direct economic benefits in employment and tax revenues can be gained; and what indirect economic benefits are available for support industries, coal consumers and the building industry. 9 refs., 16 tabs.

  20. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smit, Frank J; Schields, Gene L; Jha, Mehesh C; Moro, Nick

    1997-09-26

    The ash in six common bituminous coals, Taggart, Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Indiana VII, Sunnyside and Hiawatha, could be liberated by fine grinding to allow preparation of clean coal meeting premium fuel specifications (< 1- 2 lb/ MBtu ash and <0.6 lb/ MBtu sulfur) by laboratory and bench- scale column flotation or selective agglomeration. Over 2,100 tons of coal were cleaned in the PDU at feed rates between 2,500 and 6,000 lb/ h by Microcel™ column flotation and by selective agglomeration using recycled heptane as the bridging liquid. Parametric testing of each process and 72- hr productions runs were completed on each of the three test coals. The following results were achieved after optimization of the operating parameters: The primary objective was to develop the design base for commercial fine coal cleaning facilities for producing ultra- clean coals which can be converted into coal-water slurry premium fuel. The coal cleaning technologies to be developed were advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration, and the goal was to produce fuel meeting the following specifications.

  1. Potential for Coal-to-Liquids Conversion in the U.S.-Resource Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croft, Gregory D.; Patzek, Tad W.

    2009-09-15

    By applying the multi-Hubbert curve analysis to coal production in the United States, we demonstrate that anthracite production can be modeled with a single Hubbert curve that extends to the practical end of commercial production of this highest-rank coal. The production of bituminous coal from existing mines is about 80% complete and can be carried out at the current rate for the next 20 years. The production of subbituminous coal from existing mines can be carried out at the current rate for 40-45 years. Significant new investment to extend the existing mines and build new ones would have to commence in 2009 to sustain the current rate of coal production, 1 billion tons per year, in 2029. In view of the existing data, we conclude that there is no spare coal production capacity of the size required for massive coal conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Our analysis is independent of other factors that will prevent large-scale coal liquefaction projects: the inefficiency of the process and either emissions of greenhouse gases or energy cost of sequestration.

  2. Pellet property requirements for future blast-furnace operations and other new ironmaking processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, A.K.; Oshnock, T.W.

    1995-12-01

    The requirements for the physical, chemical and metallurgical properties of pellets have continued to become more stringent as blast-furnace productivity and coke rate have been rapidly improved during the last decade. In addition, the age and deterioration of the North American coke batteries, the lack of capital to sufficiently rebuild them, and the threat of increasingly more stringent environmental controls for the coke batteries has forced North American ironmakers to begin implementing pulverized coal injection to minimize the coke requirements for the blast furnace and to seriously investigate developing other ironmaking processes that use coal instead of coke. Therefore, the next major step in North American ironmaking has included injecting pulverized coal (PC) at 200 kilograms per ton of hot metal (kg/ton) [400 pounds per net ton of hot metal (lb/NTHM)] or greater which will result in the coke rate decreasing to less than 300 kg/ton (600 lb/NTHM) or less. As a result, the pellets will spend more time in the furnace and will be required to support more total weight. Pellets can also be a major iron unit source for other cokeless ironmaking processes such as the COREX process or the AISI direct ironmaking process. This paper will explore the pellet property requirements for future blast-furnace operations and cokeless ironmaking processes.

  3. Clean coal technology demonstration program: Program update 1996-97

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (known as the CCT Program) reached a significant milestone in 1996 with the completion of 20 of the 39 active projects. The CCT Program is responding to a need to demonstrate and deploy a portfolio of technologies that will assure the U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 297 billion tons could continue to supply the nation`s energy needs economically and in a manner that meets the nation`s environmental objectives. This portfolio of technologies includes environmental control devices that contributed to meeting the accords on transboundary air pollution recommended by the Special Envoys on Acid Rain in 1986. Operational, technical, environmental, and economic performance information and data are now flowing from highly efficient, low-emission, advanced power generation technologies that will enable coal to retain its prominent role into the next millennium. Further, advanced technologies are emerging that will enhance the competitive use of coal in the industrial sector, such as in steelmaking. Coal processing technologies will enable the entire coal resource base to be used while complying with environmental requirements. These technologies are producing products used by utilities and industrial processes. The capability to coproduce products, such as liquid and solid fuels, electricity, and chemicals, is being demonstrated at a commercial scale by projects in the CCT Program. In summary, this portfolio of technologies is satisfying the national need to maintain a multifuel energy mix in which coal is a key component because of its low-cost, availability, and abundant supply within the nation`s borders.

  4. Baseload coal investment decisions under uncertain carbon legislation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joule A. Bergerson; Lester B. Lave

    2007-05-15

    More than 50% of electricity in the U.S. is generated by coal. The U.S. has large coal resources, the cheapest fuel in most areas. Coal fired power plants are likely to continue to provide much of U.S. electricity. However, the type of power plant that should be built is unclear. Technology can reduce pollutant discharges and capture and sequester the CO{sub 2} from coal-fired generation. The U.S. Energy Policy Act of 2005 provides incentives for large scale commercial deployment of Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems (e.g., loan guarantees and project tax credits). This analysis examines whether a new coal plant should be pulverized coal (PC) or IGCC. Do stricter emissions standards (PM, SO{sub 2}, NOx, Hg) justify the higher costs of IGCC over PC? How does potential future carbon legislation affect the decision to add carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology? Finally, can the impact of uncertain carbon legislation be minimized? We find that SO{sub 2}, NOx, PM, and Hg emission standards would have to be far more stringent than twice current standards to justify the increased costs of the IGCC system. A CO{sub 2} tax less than $29/ton would lead companies to continuing to choose PC, paying the tax for emitted CO{sub 2}. The earlier a decision-maker believes the carbon tax will be imposed and the higher the tax, the more likely companies will choose IGCC with CCS. Having government announce the date and level of a carbon tax would promote more sensible decisions, but government would have to use a tax or subsidy to induce companies to choose the technology that is best for society. 14 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Capture and Use of Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deborah Kosmack

    2008-10-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., in conjunction with MEGTEC Systems, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, designed, built, and operated a commercial-size thermal flow reversal reactor (TFRR) to evaluate its suitability to oxidize coal mine ventilation air methane (VAM). Coal mining, and particularly coal mine ventilation air, is a major source of anthropogenic methane emissions, a greenhouse gas. Ventilation air volumes are large and the concentration of methane in the ventilation air is low; thus making it difficult to use or abate these emissions. This test program was conducted with simulated coal mine VAM in advance of deploying the technology on active coal mine ventilation fans. The demonstration project team installed and operated a 30,000 cfm MEGTEC VOCSIDIZER oxidation system on an inactive coal mine in West Liberty, WV. The performance of the unit was monitored and evaluated during months of unmanned operation at mostly constant conditions. The operating and maintenance history and how it impacts the implementation of the technology on mine fans were investigated. Emission tests showed very low levels of all criteria pollutants at the stack. Parametric studies showed that the equipment can successfully operate at the design specification limits. The results verified the ability of the TFRR to oxidize {ge}95% of the low and variable concentration of methane in the ventilation air. This technology provides new opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the reduction of methane emissions from coal mine ventilation air. A large commercial-size installation (180,000 cfm) on a single typical mine ventilation bleeder fan would reduce methane emissions by 11,000 to 22,100 short tons per year (the equivalent of 183,000 to 366,000 metric tonnes carbon dioxide).

  6. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) - U.S. Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (EIA) Frequently Asked Questions Coal Does EIA have county-level energy production data? Does EIA have projections for energy production, consumption, and prices for individual states? Does EIA publish coking coal prices? From what country does the United States import the most coal? How do I convert between short tons and metric tons? How large are U.S. coal reserves? How many power plants are there in the United States? How much coal, natural gas, or petroleum is used to generate a

  7. Economic analysis of coal-fired cogeneration plants for Air Force bases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, R.S.; Griffin, F.P.

    1990-10-01

    The Defense Appropriations Act of 1986 requires the Department of Defense to use an additional 1,600,000 tons/year of coal at their US facilities by 1995 and also states that the most economical fuel should be used at each facility. In a previous study of Air Force heating plants burning gas or oil, Oak Ridge National Laboratory found that only a small fraction of this target 1,600,000 tons/year could be achieved by converting the plants where coal is economically viable. To identify projects that would use greater amounts of coal, the economic benefits of installing coal-fired cogeneration plants at 7 candidate Air Force bases were examined in this study. A life-cycle cost analysis was performed that included two types of financing (Air Force and private) and three levels of energy escalation for a total of six economic scenarios. Hill, McGuire, and Plattsburgh Air Force Bases were identified as the facilities with the best potential for coal-fired cogeneration, but the actual cost savings will depend strongly on how the projects are financed and to a lesser extent on future energy escalation rates. 10 refs., 11 figs., 27 tabs.

  8. Coal combustion products (CCPs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge. When properly managed, CCPs offer society environmental and economic benefits without harm to public health and safety. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) has made an

  9. Pulverized coal fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rini, Michael J.; Towle, David P.

    1992-01-01

    A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

  10. Integrated coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Effron, Edward

    1978-01-01

    In a process for the liquefaction of coal in which coal liquids containing phenols and other oxygenated compounds are produced during the liquefaction step and later hydrogenated, oxygenated compounds are removed from at least part of the coal liquids in the naphtha and gas oil boiling range prior to the hydrogenation step and employed as a feed stream for the manufacture of a synthesis gas or for other purposes.

  11. Criticality Safety Review of 2 1/2-, 10-, and 14-Ton UF(Sub 6) Cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broadhead, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    Currently, UF{sub 6} cylinders designed to contain 2 1/2 tons of UF{sub 6} are classified as Fissile Class II packages with a transport index (TI) of 5 for the purpose of transportation. The 10-ton UF{sub 6} cylinders are classified as Fissile Class I with no TI assigned for transportation. The 14-ton cylinders, although not certified for transport with enrichments greater than 1 wt % because they have no approved overpack, can be used in on-site operations for enrichments greater than 1 wt %. The maximum 235U enrichments for these cylinders are 5.0 wt % for the 2 1/2-ton cylinder and 4.5 wt % for the 10- and 14-ton cylinders. This work reviews the suitability for reclassification of the 2 1/2-ton UF{sub 6} packages as Fissile Class I with a maximum {sup 235}U enrichment of 5 wt %. Additionally, the 10- and 14-ton cylinders are reviewed to address a change in maximum {sup 235}U enrichment from 4.5 to 5 wt %. Based on this evaluation, the 2 1/2-ton UF{sub 6} cylinders meet the 10 CFR.71 criteria for Fissile Class I packages, and no TI is needed for criticality safety purposes; however, a TI may be required based on radiation from the packages. Similarly, the 10- and 14-ton UF{sub 6} packages appear acceptable for a maximum enrichment rating change to 5 wt % {sup 235}U.

  12. Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology Step 1 (Estimate total amount of weekly U.S. coal production) U.S. coal production for the current week is estimated using a ratio ...

  13. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Recurring Reserves Stocks All reports Browse by Tag Alphabetical Frequency Tag Cloud Data For: 2001 Next Release Date: October 2003 U. S. Coal-Producing Districts...

  14. Coal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Assuming no additional constraints on CO2 emissions, coal remains the largest source of electricity generation in the AEO2011 Reference case because of continued reliance on...

  15. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    TF RailroadVesselShip Fuel It is also noted that Destination State code of "X Export" indicates movements to foreign destinations. 1 68 Domestic Coal Distribution...

  16. Coal Market Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The use of coals with sub- optimal characteristics carries with it penalties in operating efficiency, maintenance cost, and system reliability. Such penalties range from the...

  17. Balancing coal pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earley, D.; Kirkenir, B.

    2009-11-15

    Balancing coal flow to the burners to optimise combustion by using real-time measurement systems (such as microwave mass measurement) is discussed. 3 figs.

  18. British coal privatization procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The form in which British Coal is to be privatized has finally been announced. Offers are to be invited for the operating underground and opencast mines which will be grouped into five regionally based companies. Additionally, offers will be invited for a number of collieries which are currently under care and maintenance. The five Regional Coal Companies to be formed are Central North, which will comprise the assets in the Yorkshire and Durham coalfields, including the five collieries in the Selby Complex; Central South, which will contain the assets located in the Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, Derbyshire, and Warwickshire coalfields; North East, which has four opencast sites, Scotland, which has nine operating open-cast sites and a single underground mine, Longannet; and South Wales with its nine operating opencast sites. Tower colliery, the last underground mine in South Wales, was finally put on care and maintenance on April 20, 1994. Details of the five Regional Coal Companies are given. A new public sector body, the Coal Authority will be set up to which all British Coal's title to unworked coal and coal mines will be transferred. All the relevant property rights and liabilities of British Coal will be transferred into the Regional Coal Companies prior to their sun.

  19. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is...

  20. COAL & POWER SYSTEMS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... stitutions * InternationalCoal Technology Export C&PS ... * Systems Integration * Plant Designs Central Power ... Boiler System - Indirect Fired Cycles - Pressurized ...