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Sample records for tiv tlingit tok

  1. Central Council of the Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska- 2011 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Central Council of the Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska (CCTHITA or Central Council), headquartered in Juneau, Alaska, authorized a Level II energy audit of its Juneau facilities. The Level II audit was completed in August 2010.

  2. Project Reports for Central Council of the Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska- 2011 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Central Council of the Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska (CCTHITA or Central Council), headquartered in Juneau, Alaska, authorized a Level II energy audit of its Juneau facilities.

  3. Architektura GIS z pohledu tok dat Mgr. Toms Skopal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skopal, Tomas

    1 Architektura GIS z pohledu tok dat Mgr. Tomás Skopal Katedra informatiky, FEI VSB ­ Technická This article introduces original model of open software architecture for GIS, which should hit the intent ­ accelerate and improve GIS applications design. First part deals with the solution motivation, second part

  4. Project Reports for Central Council of the Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska: Tlingit and Haida Regional Housing Authority- 2011 Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Tlingit and Haida Regional Housing Authority (THRHA) will conduct a three-year project to provide energy efficiency audits, energy monitoring, energy usage assessments, and energy conservation proposed upgrades for approximately 51 low-income, multifamily residences (292 units) in 14 southeast Alaska communities and rural communities with extremely high energy costs; identify funding options for potential energy upgrades, if found to be viable, to implement the resultant project.

  5. e x ecu tiv e su mm a ry of accomp lishmen t s resea rch & development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    . Biswas) » Clean CoalTechnology Fund = $479,651 (R. Axelbaum) » Two NSF CAREER Awards: $400,000 (Y.-S. Jun is the first university to join the Advanced Coal Technology Consortia of the U.S.-China Clean Energy Researche x ecu tiv e su mm a ry of accomp lishmen t s resea rch & development » The Consortium for Clean

  6. A comparative study of precipitation effects in Ti only and Ti-V Ultra Low Carbon (ULC) strip steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ooi, S.W.; Fourlaris, G. . E-mail: g.fourlaris@swansea.ac.uk

    2006-04-15

    Two ULC steel grades were investigated, one based on combined vanadium and titanium additions and the other based on titanium only additions. It has been established that TiC formation during interphase precipitation retards grain growth of the {l_brace}111{r_brace} texture grains during continuous annealing and hence positively affects the r value of the Ti only steel. The formation of newly formed TiC precipitates on dislocations during continuous annealing has been found to result in an increase of the yield strength in both steel grades, as the annealing temperature is increased. It is also confirmed that VC particles formed during the coiling process dissolve during the continuous annealing cycles. Suitable continuous annealing cycles can be adopted to produce high formable steels with a bake hardening potential using the beneficial effects of combined Ti-V additions.

  7. Tokyo Ohka Kogyo TOK | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin Film Solar TechnologiesCFR 1201Energy Jump to:Tokyo Ohka Kogyo

  8. Project Reports for Central Council of the Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuildingBudget | DepartmentLogisticalProjectDepartment of Energyof

  9. Update XML Data by Using Graphical Languages Wei Ni and Tok Wang Ling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ling, Tok Wang

    system (DBMS) vendors have released their new products supporting XML data storing, publishing but also updates on data contents. Brief history of XML updates: XML update is not a new problem. Various been implemented on the base of an object-oriented DBMS. The prototype of the W3C's XML update

  10. The grammar of Q : Q-particles and the nature of Wh-fronting, as revealed by the Wh-questions of Tlingit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cable, Seth

    2007-01-01

    The central claim of this thesis is that the agent responsible for a variety of phenomena surrounding wh-operators is not those operators themselves, but rather a distinct element that we label a 'Q(uestion)-particle'. In ...

  11. The Amelia Bedelia effect: World knowledge and the goal bias in language acquisition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Mahesh; Barner, David

    2013-01-01

    Lorp a tail field food spaceship Functional Relation Itemsspaceship? tail? field? food? Functional Relation Items Fig.cooking Functional relation items ‘‘Tiv some food’’ Tiv is a

  12. FREE ELECTRON LASERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colson, W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Vinokurov and Shrinsky is the klystron FEL (sometimes calleda transverse optical klystron FEL, or TOK) where themore they devised an optical klystron so the multicomponent

  13. Alaska Gateway School District Adopts Combined Heat and Power...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Tok, Alaska, the economic impact of high fuel prices was crippling the community's economy, especially for the Alaska Gateway School District, with staff laid off and double...

  14. abstract.log

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (/usr/share/texmf-texlive/tex/latex/base/article.cls Document Class: article ... UCS: Unicode global data ) \\uc@secondtry=\\count87 \\uc@combtoks=\\toks16 ...

  15. Sociolinguistic Aspects of Thai Politeness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bilmes, Leela

    2001-01-01

    e n resp o n d in g to d irec t q u e stio n s (Black refersp article na m akes th e d irec tiv e m ild er. Distributionr. B oth are used w ith d irec tiv e s to m ake th em less

  16. Environment, Health & Safety, University of California, San Diego Page 1 of 2 10/29/09 Reproductive Hazards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluwihare, Lihini

    ethoxyl ethanol 2ethoxyetyl acetate ethyl thiourea 2ethylhexanol formaldehyde alcohol Gasoline Goitrogens and antithyroid drugs Lead Lithium Methimazole Penicillamine ether propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate propylene oxide systhane TOK (herbicide

  17. Special Issue on the NEH/Mazer Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UCLA Center for the Study of Women

    2013-01-01

    ring the b o o m o f fe m inis m and LG BT ac tiv is m thatstocki n g l esbi an , fem inis t, a nd pr o gr e s s ive bo

  18. Lectures on special topics in legal anthropology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2008-03-10

    Anthropology. (1989) Some classic case studies Bohannan,P. Justice and Judgment among the Tiv (1957). Fallers,L.A. Law without Precedent (1969). Gluckman,M. The Judicial Process among the Barotse...(1955). Llewellyn K. & Hoebel, E.A...

  19. KT Monograph Section F01 Appendix

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bending, J

    2004-05-20

    I19/50 2802 Constr. IA IIf 18.2 1/ 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 40 46 1 0 0 5 0 0 0 13 I19/52 2802 Kiln MIA IIf 10.1 1/ 8 8 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 14 8 4 17 0 56 5 0 0 2 0 7 90 158 205 453 10 0 0 8 0 0 0 14 I19... lia cf .V ici ae rv ili a V. er vi lia /L ath yr us sa tiv us La th yr us sa tiv us cf .L ath yr us sa tiv us sm all 'L ath yr us sa tiv us Pi su m sa tiv um Pi su m sp . cf .P isu m Le ns sp . cf .L en ss p. Pi su m /L en s La rg el eg um ei nd et. 0...

  20. Microgrids: An emerging paradigm for meeting building electricity and heat requirements efficiently and with appropriate energy quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    4-9 June 2007 and power (CHP) technology, especially forwith power electronics and CHP, and by an urgent need tokW of DER including a 28 kW CHP plant, 35 kW of PV, and an

  1. A' Brief. History of the Tower Shielding Facility and Tower Shielding Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Equipment and Material Used for Experiments Waste Generation and Disposal Future #12;TOK?ZR SHIELDING Nuclear Propulsion Project 0 Requirements: Research in region free from ground and structure scattering COPPER RIDGE #12;#12;SERMT LINES - TOWER 4lWANGE4lENT SEE FIG. 6 GUY trerts Two-`4-h.&.TYf? 6+1.-41 w

  2. 3.0 Modular Program Pathway 3.1 Pathway Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    JT-60 SU ARIES-RS Scale (?) Ignitor-like Compact Tok., .(+AT) LHD, W7-AS, W7-X Base Fusion ScienceDraft 7/17/98 21 3.0 Modular Program Pathway 3.1 Pathway Overview The major issues in fusion R gain that have characteristics similar to those expected in a fusion energy source, (2) the achievement

  3. Structure and function of human cytochromes P450 enzymes: Xenobiotic metabolism by CYP2A and steroid biosynthesis by CYP17A1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeVore, Natasha M.

    2011-05-31

    modifications for an inhibitor with increased interactions with the CYP17A1 protein. Future directions include the determination of structure with TOK-001, TAK-700, and at least one substrate. These structures will also aid in the rational design of inhibitors...

  4. 2001 4232 -0 Aerospace EngineeringBokadia and Valasek SEV ER E W EATH ER AV O ID AN C E

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valasek, John

    ESEAR C H O BJEC TIV ES Cockpit Data Fusion with Fixed-base Simulation Validation for Free Traffic Agent Weather Agent Flight Plan Info. Weather Radar Data ADS-B Ground Weather Service Other Weather Info. ... ATC Radar Other Traffic Info... Overall Architecture of Agent Based Hierarchical System

  5. The School Business: Rethinking Educational Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urban, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    s of h ealth care a n d p riso n s.103 This is sig nificanta b ilita tio n , so th at p riso n ers w ill sp e n d m oreoverall p o p u latio n of p riso n ers. The lack of m o tiv

  6. 30 Scientific American, June 2012 The Science of Health by Philip T. B. Starks and Brittany L. Slabach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Starks, Philip

    in Europe until the 19th century, and some societies, such as the Tiv tribe of Nigeria, still rely is that soil contains minerals, such as calcium, sodium and iron, which support energy production and other's diet does not provide enough minerals or when the challenges of the environment demand extra energy

  7. An investigation of the linear ion accelerator as a mass analyzer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tatum, Freeman A.

    1951-01-01

    H rNOV IWNSI TOK WG> hVTR DYEEVOSI rGE wNPw EVIGWYSNGO? >wNWV SwV WTSSVE VRq ZWGHI EVWTSN-VWH RYDw wNPwVE hVTR DYEEVOSI >NSw ITRZWNOP rGE GOWH T IRTWW rETDSNGO Gr SGSTW SNRVC xGE DGRZWVSVOVII? T hENVr EV-NV> Gr VTDw Gr SwV rN-V EVZGESVK SHZVI NI PN... TDDVWVETSGE TI T RTII TOTWH2VE KG OGS ZEVKNDS EVIYWSI DGRZTEThWV SG SwV VWVDSEGRTPOVSND TOTWH2VEI? NO -NV> Gr SwV KNrrNDYWSH Gr T DGRZWVSV SwVGEVSNDTW NO-VISNPTSNGO? TOK hVDTYIV Gr SwV NODEVTINOP NRZGESTODV Gr VdZWGENOP TWW RVTOI Gr RTII TOTWHIVI NO Sw...

  8. CAMAC Interface Control Room

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Optic Patch Rack CSS-EE-954 Junction Area Crates 19, 9 COH1-EE-651 FCPC 1St. Flr. Crates 20, 11 COH3-EE 51 1 2 O EPICS1 Link Map 8/12/14 J. Wertenbaker Note: Many EPICS1 link cables are still labelled "TOK Page 2 O Link Bypass Adapter CSS-EE-954 Junction Area 5 CDAR-EE-709 DARM See Page 2 O Page 1 E Link

  9. Under the Radar: The Effects of Computer Games on Investigative Self-efficacy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbus, Yolanda RoChelle Debose

    2012-02-14

    en t 80 (U nd er g ra du at e s) S oc ia l C og ni tiv e Th eo ry H ea lth y- ea tin g se lf- ef fic ac y 14 it em s (a da pt ed ) 0. 87 P la y C om pu te r G am e (T rt) ; O bs... unknown. Future research should employ theory to systematically document and define the context in which the game is delivered, incorporate assessments built into the game instead of using surveys, include incentives for student participation...

  10. Objectively measured physical activity in pregnancy: a study in obese and overweight women.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McParlin, Catherine; Robson, Stephen C.; Tennant, Peter W. G.; Besson, Herve; Rankin, Judith; Adamson, Ashley J.; Pearce, Mark S.; Bell, Ruth

    2010-11-29

    participating in first and third trimester data collection ‡ Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire[30] 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Week 13 Week 36 M ea n M od er at e or V igo ur ou s Ac tiv ity (M in ut es ) Gestation Figure 2 Change in objectively... . Nohr EA, Vaeth M, Baker JL, Sorensen TIA, Olsen J, Rasmussen KM: Combined associations of prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with the outcome of pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008, 87:1750-1759. 11. Sorensen TK...

  11. Quantitative description of ion transport via plasma membrane of yeast and small cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vadim Volkov

    2012-12-18

    Modelling of ion transport via plasma membrane needs identification and quantitative understanding of the involved processes. Brief characterisation of ion transport systems of a yeast cell (Pma1, Ena1, TOK1, Nha1, Trk1, Trk2, non-selective cation conductance) and estimates concerning the number of molecules of each transporter per a cell allow predicting the corresponding ion flows. Comparison of ion transport in small yeast cell and several animal cell types is provided and importance of cell volume to surface ratio is stressed. Role of cell wall and lipid rafts is discussed in aspect of required increase in spatial and temporary resolution of measurements. Conclusions are formulated to describe specific features of ion transport in a yeast cell. Potential directions of future research are outlined based on the assumptions.

  12. Reveille V - 4 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2006-01-01

    .......................................................................... ...... 69 Bibliography .......................................................................... 77 1 .4 ?49LcM?n.M?y4 yx MLL k?4L.g ?y4 .eeLkLg.Myg .c . f.cc .4.k15Lg ?4MgyABeM?y4 MwV NODEVTINOP YIV NO EVDVOS HVTEI Gr SwV RTII IZVDq SEGRVSVE? OGS... SwVEVrGEV SwV ZYEZGIV Gr SwNI ZTZVE SG EVZGES YZGO IGRV Gr SwV RTII IVWVDSNGO ZEGZVESNVI Gr SwV WNOVTE NGO C TDDVWVETSGE TI KVSVERNOVK VdZVENRVOSTWWH hH DGOISEYDSNGO TOK SVISNOP Gr IYDw TO VmYNZRVOSC MlL k?4L.g ?y4 .eeLkLg.Myg LkLeMgyAL c1cMLf MwV...

  13. Simulation of Lidar Return Signals Associated with Water Clouds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Jianxu

    2010-01-14

    depolarization is not shown and the sensitivity studies on the empirical relationship are not very clear. Thus more details are needed for further research. This thesis will present another way to derive the multiple-scattering lidar equa- tion reported by Rakovi....0?m when 10 million photons are sampled. The idea is from Winker and Poole [9]. 38 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Ef fec tiv eM ult ipl eS cat ter ing Fa cto r?? Integrated Volume Depolarization Ratio ?acc 3?m4?m 6?m8?m 15?m20?m (1??acc...

  14. Nonlinear elastic analysis of arbitrarily loaded shells of revolution by the matrix displacement method 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haisler, Walter E

    1968-01-01

    relating [q} and [u} for an element 1 f 3 coefficients in expansion for slope matrix relating [q} and [e} for. an element C2 02 D E t/(1-v v ) s sB Bs E t/(1-v v ) sB Bs 2v E t/(I-v v ) sB s E t /[12(1-v v )] 3 s sB Ba 3 E t /[12(1-v v )] sB Bs... of ao element in the norma-', meridional, and circumferential directions are represented by poly- nomials in the meridional d'stance, s, and a Vouri er series in the circumferential angle, 6 IA (ni ~ ois + ois2 + ois3) cosi6 1 2 3 IB ( sl i=0 + o...

  15. %&$')(10243 5)(16 &$7$8 9 @A B C D)0)E1F(2 8 6( G$HI2 9 C EI0)3 6& $GG %P$0)712 9 C 6( Q)6 &)DEI6 HI')HI($RS%&$T C %)&)'U(1V$W 6& Q)F)DH 3 2 X

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biederman, Irving

    ¦(2 8 6( G$HI2 9 C EI0)3 6& $GG %¦P$0)712 9 C 6( Q)6 &)DEI6 HI')HI($RS%¦&$T C %)&)'U(1V$W 6& Q)F)D¦H 3 2 X Ya` b c d e f c g46 h¦i p qr s t s u v tIv u w u h ixy ¦s v s ru ¦i 1$r it uI4 u x ip uIu h i vp qh t x p qs s w t 4s t x x sS HI13 qrI4 q u ¦i ) v t$ u h u vt x w 4s it iq h t x 4 u x

  16. Improved DC Gun Insulator Assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sah, R.; Dudas, A.; Neubauer, M. L.; Poelker, M.; Surles-Law, K. E.L.

    2010-05-23

    Many user fa­cil­i­ties such as syn­chrotron ra­di­a­tion light sources and free elec­tron lasers re­quire ac­cel­er­at­ing struc­tures that sup­port elec­tric fields of 10-100 MV/m, es­pe­cial­ly at the start of the ac­cel­er­a­tor chain where ce­ram­ic in­su­la­tors are used for very high gra­di­ent DC guns. These in­su­la­tors are dif­fi­cult to man­u­fac­ture, re­quire long com­mis­sion­ing times, and often ex­hib­it poor re­li­a­bil­i­ty. Two tech­ni­cal ap­proach­es to solv­ing this prob­lem will be in­ves­ti­gat­ed. First­ly, in­vert­ed ce­ram­ics offer so­lu­tions for re­duced gra­di­ents be­tween the elec­trodes and ground. An in­vert­ed de­sign will be pre­sent­ed for 350 kV, with max­i­mum gra­di­ents in the range of 5-10 MV/m. Sec­ond­ly, novel ce­ram­ic man­u­fac­tur­ing pro­cess­es will be stud­ied, in order to pro­tect triple junc­tion lo­ca­tions from emis­sion, by ap­ply­ing a coat­ing with a bulk re­sis­tiv­i­ty. The pro­cess­es for cre­at­ing this coat­ing will be op­ti­mized to pro­vide pro­tec­tion as well as be used to coat a ce­ram­ic with an ap­pro­pri­ate gra­di­ent in bulk re­sis­tiv­i­ty from the vac­u­um side to the air side of an HV stand­off ce­ram­ic cylin­der. Ex­am­ple in­su­la­tor de­signs are being com­put­er mod­elled, and in­su­la­tor sam­ples are being man­u­fac­tured and test­ed

  17. Cast alumina forming austenitic stainless steels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Brady, Michael P

    2013-04-30

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy consisting essentially of, in terms of weight percent ranges 0.15-0.5C; 8-37Ni; 10-25Cr; 2.5-5Al; greater than 0.6, up to 2.5 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta; up to 3Mo; up to 3Co; up to 1W; up to 3Cu; up to 15Mn; up to 2Si; up to 0.15B; up to 0.05P; up to 1 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; <0.3Ti+V; <0.03N; and, balance Fe, where the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale comprising alumina, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure, the austenitic matrix being essentially delta-ferrite free and essentially BCC-phase-free. A method of making austenitic stainless steel alloys is also disclosed.

  18. High Mn austenitic stainless steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Yukinori (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Santella, Michael L (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Brady, Michael P (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Liu, Chain-tsuan (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2010-07-13

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy includes, in weight percent: >4 to 15 Mn; 8 to 15 Ni; 14 to 16 Cr; 2.4 to 3 Al; 0.4 to 1 total of at least one of Nb and Ta; 0.05 to 0.2 C; 0.01 to 0.02 B; no more than 0.3 of combined Ti+V; up to 3 Mo; up to 3 Co; up to 1W; up to 3 Cu; up to 1 Si; up to 0.05 P; up to 1 total of at least one of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; less than 0.05 N; and base Fe, wherein the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale including alumina, nanometer scale sized particles distributed throughout the microstructure, the particles including at least one of NbC and TaC, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure that is essentially delta-ferrite-free and essentially BCC-phase-free.

  19. High Nb, Ta, and Al creep- and oxidation-resistant austenitic stainless steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Michael P (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Santella, Michael L (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Yamamoto, Yukinori (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Liu, Chain-tsuan (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-07-13

    An austenitic stainless steel HTUPS alloy includes, in weight percent: 15 to 30 Ni; 10 to 15 Cr; 2 to 5 Al; 0.6 to 5 total of at least one of Nb and Ta; no more than 0.3 of combined Ti+V; up to 3 Mo; up to 3 Co; up to 1 W; up to 0.5 Cu; up to 4 Mn; up to 1 Si; 0.05 to 0.15 C; up to 0.15 B; up to 0.05 P; up to 1 total of at least one of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; less than 0.05 N; and base Fe, wherein the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni wherein said alloy forms an external continuous scale comprising alumina, nanometer scale sized particles distributed throughout the microstructure, said particles comprising at least one composition selected from the group consisting of NbC and TaC, and a stable essentially single phase fcc austenitic matrix microstructure, said austenitic matrix being essentially delta-ferrite-free and essentially BCC-phase-free.

  20. Quantitative multiplex detection of biomarkers on a waveguide-based biosensor using quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Hongzhi; Mukundan, Harshini; Martinez, Jennifer S; Swanson, Basil I; Anderson, Aaron S; Grace, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The quantitative, simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity is critical for biomedical diagnostics, drug discovery and biomarker characterization [Wilson 2006, Tok 2006, Straub 2005, Joos 2002, Jani 2000]. Detection systems relying on optical signal transduction are, in general, advantageous because they are fast, portable, inexpensive, sensitive, and have the potential for multiplex detection of analytes of interest. However, conventional immunoassays for the detection of biomarkers, such as the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assays (ELISAs) are semi-quantitative, time consuming and insensitive. ELISA assays are also limited by high non-specific binding, especially when used with complex biological samples such as serum and urine (REF). Organic fluorophores that are commonly used in such applications lack photostability and possess a narrow Stoke's shift that makes simultaneous detection of multiple fluorophores with a single excitation source difficult, thereby restricting their use in multiplex assays. The above limitations with traditional assay platforms have resulted in the increased use of nanotechnology-based tools and techniques in the fields of medical imaging [ref], targeted drug delivery [Caruthers 2007, Liu 2007], and sensing [ref]. One such area of increasing interest is the use of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) for biomedical research and diagnostics [Gao and Cui 2004, Voura 2004, Michalet 2005, Chan 2002, Jaiswal 2004, Gao 2005, Medintz 2005, So 2006 2006, Wu 2003]. Compared to organic dyes, QDs provide several advantages for use in immunoassay platforms, including broad absorption bands with high extinction coefficients, narrow and symmetric emission bands with high quantum yields, high photostablility, and a large Stokes shift [Michalet 2005, Gu 2002]. These features prompted the use of QDs as probes in biodetection [Michalet 2005, Medintz 2005]. For example, Jaiswal et al. reported long term multiple color imaging of live cells using QD-bioconjugates [Jaiswal 2003]. Gao [Gao 2004] and So [So 2006] have used QDs as probes for in-vivo cancer targeting and imaging. Medintz et al. reported self-assembled QD-based biosensors for detection of analytes based on energy transfer [Medintz 2003]. Others have developed an approach for multiplex optical encoding of biomolecules using QDs [Han 2001]. Immunoassays have also benefited from the advantages of QDs. Recently, dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) capped-QDs have been attached to antibodies and used as fluorescence reporters in plate-based multiplex immunoassays [Goodman 2004]. However, DHLA-QDs are associated with low quantum efficiency and are unstable at neutral pH. These problems limit the application of this technology to the sensitive detection of biomolecules, especially in complex biological samples. Thus, the development of a rapid, sensitive, quantitative, and specific multiplex platform for the detection of biomarkers in difficult samples remains an elusive target. The goal stated above has applications in many fields including medical diagnostics, biological research, and threat reduction. The current decade alone has seen the development of a need to rapidly and accurately detect potential biological warfare agents. For example, current methods for the detection of anthrax are grossly inadequate for a variety of reasons including long incubation time (5 days from time of exposure to onset of symptoms) and non-specific ('flu-like') symptoms. When five employees of the United State Senate were exposed to B. anthracis in the mail (2001), only one patient had a confirmed diagnosis before death. Since then, sandwich immunoassays using both colorimetric and fluorescence detectors have been developed for key components of the anthrax lethal toxin, namely protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and the edema factor [Mourez 2001]. While these platforms were successful in assays against anthrax toxins, the sensitivity was poor. Furthermore, no single platform exists for the simultaneous and quantitative detection of mul