National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for tire mfg nankang

  1. Mfg & Tech Services | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCentermillionStockpile Stewardship NationalMEMS:Mfg & Tech

  2. Scrap tire recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

    1997-03-01

    As the automobile tire technology has grown and met the need for safer and more durable tires, stronger reinforcement and more chemically resistant rubber compounds have made recycling tires more difficult. In an effort to resolve this problem, techniques and equipment were developed to grind tires into small pieces, and new markets were sought to utilize the crumb rubber product streams from ground tires. Industrial combustion processes were modified to accept scrap tires as fuel. These efforts have been beneficial, steadily increasing the percentage of scrap tires recycled to about 10% in 1985, and reaching 72% in 1995. By the end of 1997, fully 100% of tires generated in the U.S. are expected to be recycled.

  3. Burning tires for fuel and tire pyrolysis: air implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, C.; Meardon, K.; Russell, D.

    1991-12-01

    The document was developed in response to increasing inquiries into the environmental impacts of burning waste tires in process equipment. The document provides information on the use of whole, scrap tires and tire-derived-fuel (TDF) as combustion fuel and on the pyrolysis of scrap tires. The use of whole tires and TDF as a primary fuel is discussed for dedicated tire-to-energy facilities. The use of whole tires and TDF as a supplemental fuel is discussed for cement manufacturing plants, electric utilities, pulp and paper mills, and other industrial processes. The focus of the document is on the impact of burning whole tires and TDF on air emissions. Test data are presented and, in most instances, compared with emissions under baseline conditions (no tires or TDF in the fuel). The control devices used in these industries are discussed and, where possible, their effectiveness in controlling emissions from the burning of whole tires or TDF is described. In addition, the report provides information on the processes themselves that use whole tires or TDF, the modifications to the processes that allowed the use of whole tires or TDF, and the operational experiences of several facilities using whole tires or TDF. The economic feasibility of using whole tires and TDF for the surveyed industries is discussed. Finally, contacts for State waste tire programs are presented.

  4. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  5. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  6. Scrap tires: a resource and technology evaluation of tire pyrolysis and other selected alternate technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodds, J.; Domenico, W.F.; Evans, D.R.; Fish, L.W.; Lassahn, P.L.; Toth, W.J.

    1983-11-01

    The results of a technical and economic evaluation of scrap tire pyrolysis are presented and some other alternative uses for scrap tires are discussed. A scrap tire, by definition in this report, is one for which there is no economic end use. Information is presented on the scrap tire resource, pyrolysis processes, pyrolysis products (char, oil, and gas), markets for these products, and the economics of tire pyrolysis. A discussion is presented on alternative ideas for using scrap tires as an energy resource.

  7. Forthcoming, IIE Transactions Special Issue on Distributed Decentralized Control of Mfg. Systems, 2000 AUCTION-THEORETIC COORDINATION OF PRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, David

    , 2000 AUCTION-THEORETIC COORDINATION OF PRODUCTION PLANNING IN THE SUPPLY CHAIN Kadir Ertogral S. David in supply chain production planning. Experimental results show that the proposed auction mechanism provides1 Forthcoming, IIE Transactions Special Issue on Distributed Decentralized Control of Mfg. Systems

  8. Evaluation of tire pressure, tire construction, axle configuration, and axle load on flexible pavement performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamy, Ahmad Najeeb

    1991-01-01

    as to style and content by: obe L. Lytton (Ch ' of Committee) mm el G. Fernando (Member) 01 a J Pendleton (Member) J es T. P. Yao (Head of Department) August 1991 ABSTRACT Evaluation of Tire Pressure, Tire Construction, Axle Configuration, and Axle...=triple) Tire = number of tires ( 1=single, 2=dual) Es = subgrade modulus (psi) asphalt concrete thickness (inches) tire inflation pressure (psi) MODEL SELECTION NETHOD Multiple regression analysis was done on SAS. The maximum R' (squared 24...

  9. Improving Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Through Tire Design, Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Through Tire Design, Materials, and Reduced Weight Improving Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Through Tire Design, Materials, and Reduced Weight 2012 DOE Hydrogen...

  10. Vacuum pyrolysis of used tires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, C.; Darmstadt, H.; Benallal, B.; Chaala, A.; Schwerdtfeger, A.E.

    1995-11-01

    The vacuum pyrolysis of used tires enables the recovery of useful products, such as pyrolytic oil and pyrolytic carbon black (CB{sub P}). The light part of the pyrolytic oil contains dl-limonene which has a high price on the market. The naphtha fraction can be used as a high octane number component for gasoline. The middle distillate demonstrated mechanical and lubricating properties similar to those of the commercial aromatic oil Dutrex R 729. The heavy oil was tested as a feedstock for the production of needle coke. It was found that the surface morphology of CB{sub P} produced by vacuum pyrolysis resembles that of commercial carbon black. The CB{sub P} contains a higher concentration of inorganic compounds (especially ZnO and S) than commercial carbon black. The pyrolysis process feasibility looks promising. One old tire can generate upon vacuum pyrolysis, incomes of at least $2.25 US with a potential of up to $4.83 US/tire upon further product improvement. The process has been licensed to McDermott Marketing Servicing Inc. (Houston) for its exploitation in the US.

  11. Scrap tire utilization via surface modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauman, B.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is developing a novel approach to reusing scrap tire rubber, which will be described in this presentation. In addition to consuming scrap tires, this technology represents a new approach to material engineering. Furthermore, this method of rubber recycle is most efficient in terms of energy recovery. 4 figs.

  12. Dynamics and Stability of Rolling Viscoelastic Tires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, Trevor

    2013-04-30

    Current steady state rolling tire calculations often do not include treads because treads destroy the rotational symmetry of the tire. We describe two methodologies to compute time periodic solutions of a two-dimensional viscoelastic tire with treads: solving a minimization problem and solving a system of equations. We also expand on work by Oden and Lin on free spinning rolling elastic tires in which they disovered a hierachy of N-peak steady state standing wave solutions. In addition to discovering a two-dimensional hierarchy of standing wave solutions that includes their N-peak hiearchy, we consider the eects of viscoelasticity on the standing wave solutions. Finally, a commonplace model of viscoelasticity used in our numerical experiments led to non-physical elastic energy growth for large tire speeds. We show that a viscoelastic model of Govindjee and Reese remedies the problem.

  13. A finite element analysis of pneumatic-tire/sand interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    A finite element analysis of pneumatic-tire/sand interactions during off-road vehicle travel M pneumatic tire and sand during off-road vehicle travel. Keywords Finite element analysis, Road vehicles and for other tire/sand combinations. Since the finite element analysis of the tire/sand interaction enables

  14. Scrap tire management in the mid south region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumenthal, M.

    1996-08-01

    The Scrap Tire Management Council (STMC) is a North American tire manufacturer-sponsored advocacy organization, created to identify and promote environmentally and economically sound markets for scrap tires. This presentation gives a national overview of the scrap tire situation, and focuses on the Tennessee and Mid-south region. National generation rates and markets for scrap tires are discussed, and markets for scrap tires are described. The major markets identified are fuel, rubber products, and civil engineering applications. Three technologies that may have an impact on scrap tire recycling are discussed: pyrolysis, gasification, and devulcanization.

  15. Scrap tire pyrolysis: Experiment and modelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napoli, A.; Soudais, Y.; Lecomte, D.; Castillo, S.

    1997-12-01

    Pyrolysis of waste, usually organic solids like tires, plastics or composite materials, is an alternative thermal waste treatment technology. Three main physical and chemical mechanisms - i.e.: chemical kinetics, internal heat transfer and external heat transfer - have to be considered when modelling the degradation of solid waste particles. Because of the lack of physical properties for wastes most of the models described in the literature use basic data obtained on the pyrolysis of coal, wood and biomass. In this work, the authors report basic information on the thermal degradation of tire samples at small scale: Thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), as well as direct and indirect measurements of thermal and physical properties (thermal conductivity of the tire and of the char, porosity, density, specific heat). Pyrolysis experiments on tire samples are performed in an imaging furnace. The experimental results are compared to theoretical values deduced from models that take into account physical property measurements.

  16. Mechanical properties of radial truck tires 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wasti, Mansoor-ul-Hassan

    1992-01-01

    MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF RADIAL TRUCK TIRES A Thesis by MANSOOR-UL-HASSAN WASTI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992... Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF RADIAL TRUCK TIRES A Thesis by Mansoor-ul-Hassan Wasti Approved as to style and content by: R. . Alexander (Chair of Committee) C. . Hough (Member) Donal ayl (M mber) W. L. radley...

  17. Tire gassification and combustion system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nance, D.; Towne, G.A.

    1992-04-07

    This patent describes a system for disposing of a material such as vehicle tires and similar substantially organic matter and generating useful heat therefrom. It comprises gasification means for holding an amount of the material to be disposed while the material is allowed to partially combust and for containing combustible gas produced thereby, the gasification means comprising a substantially air tight gasification chamber having at least one access way for inserting the material therein; inlet means for receiving a controlled amount of oxygen containing gas into the gasification means, the inlet means comprising a tuyere disposed in the air tight gasification chamber and a blower connected to the tuyere; removal means for removing the combustible gas from the gasification means, the removal means comprising a gas outlet located above the tuyere in the gasification chamber such that substantially amounts of the combustible gases produced by the partially combusted material exits through the gas outlet; primary combustion means for receiving and mixing the combustible gas removed from the gasification means with an oxygen containing gas and burning the combustible gas; and means for directing the combustion products to a heat utilizing device.

  18. Parallel Implementation of a Vehicle-Tire-Terrain Interaction Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Negrut, Dan

    (VTTIM) · Three components o Vehicle o Tire o Terrain/Soil mechanics · Two interfaces o Vehicle support for ANCF `tire' 9 #12;Types of Soil Mechanics Models · Empirical Methods o WES numerics, Bekker of Tire Models · Rigid o Simple to implement in parallel o Only accurate if deformation of soil is much

  19. Tire Development for Effective Transportation and Utilization of Used Tires, CRADA 01-N044, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Maley

    2004-03-31

    Scrap tires represent a significant disposal and recycling challenge for the United States. Over 280 million tires are generated on an annual basis, and several states have large stockpiles or abandoned tire piles that are slated for remediation. While most states have programs to address the accumulation and generation of scrap tires, most of these states struggle with creating and sustaining recycling or beneficial end use markets. One of the major issues with market development has been the costs associated with transporting and processing the tires into material for recycling or disposal. According to a report by the Rubber Manufactures Association tire-derived fuel (TDF) represents the largest market for scrap tires, and approximately 115 million tires were consumed in 2001 as TDF (U.S. Scrap Tire Markets, 2001, December 2002, www.rma.org/scraptires). This market is supported primarily by cement kilns, followed by various industries including companies that operate utility and industrial boilers. However the use of TDF has not increased and the amount of TDF used by boiler operators has declined. The work completed through this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) has shown the potential of a mobile tire shredding unit to economically produce TDF and to provide an alterative low cost fuel to suitable coal-fired power systems. This novel system addresses the economic barriers by processing the tires at the retailer, thereby eliminating the costs associated with hauling whole tires. The equipment incorporated into the design allow for small 1-inch chunks of TDF to be produced in a timely fashion. The TDF can then be co-fired with coal in suitable combustion systems, such as a fluidized bed. Proper use of TDF has been shown to boost efficiency and reduce emissions from power generation systems, which is beneficial to coal utilization in existing power plants. Since the original scope of work outlined in the CRADA could not be completed because of lack of progress by the CRADA members, the agreement was not extended beyond February 2004. The work completed included the detailed design of the mobile unit, a general economic analysis of the operating the system, and outreach activities.

  20. Passive tire pressure sensor and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Williams, Robert Leslie; Waldschmidt, Robert Lee; Morgan, Catherine Hook

    2006-08-29

    A surface acoustic wave device includes a micro-machined pressure transducer for monitoring tire pressure. The device is configured having a micro-machined cavity that is sealed with a flexible conductive membrane. When an external tire pressure equivalent to the cavity pressure is detected, the membrane makes contact with ridges on the backside of the surface acoustic wave device. The ridges are electrically connected to conductive fingers of the device. When the detected pressure is correct, selected fingers on the device will be grounded producing patterned acoustic reflections to an impulse RF signal. When the external tire pressure is less than the cavity reference pressure, a reduced reflected signal to the receiver results. The sensor may further be constructed so as to identify itself by a unique reflected identification pulse series.

  1. Passive tire pressure sensor and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent Bryant (Los Lunas, NM); Williams, Robert Leslie (Albuquerque, NM); Waldschmidt, Robert Lee (Calgary, CA); Morgan, Catherine Hook (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2007-09-04

    A surface acoustic wave device includes a micro-machined pressure transducer for monitoring tire pressure. The device is configured having a micro-machined cavity that is sealed with a flexible conductive membrane. When an external tire pressure equivalent to the cavity pressure is detected, the membrane makes contact with ridges on the backside of the surface acoustic wave device. The ridges are electrically connected to conductive fingers of the device. When the detected pressure is correct, selected fingers on the device will be grounded producing patterned acoustic reflections to an impulse RF signal. When the external tire pressure is less than the cavity reference pressure, a reduced reflected signal to the receiver results. The sensor may further be constructed so as to identify itself by a unique reflected identification pulse series.

  2. An unresolved riddle: Tire chips, two roadbeds, and spontaneous reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nightingale, D.E.B.; Green, W.P.

    1997-12-31

    Experience with road fills in Washington State constructed with thick layers of tire chips spontaneously burning has led to a decrease in tire chip use nationally. The field measurements and samples taken indicate that a pyrolitic reaction occurred at two roadfill sites in Washington State based on a comparison to know pyrolytic reactions in controlled settings. Pyrolysis in roadbeds containing tire chips is a new phenomena previously only found in open piles of processed tire chips. Because water and nutrients were introduced, iron oxidation, microbial digestion, and chemical oxidation are possible factors contributing to the pyrolytic reactions at the two Washington State sites. A new heat ignition theory from Japanese experiments suggests a theoretical answer to practical design depth limits in roadbeds and tire chip piles may be climate (air temperature) and depth dependent.

  3. Reprocessing of used tires into activated carbon and other products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teng, H.; Serio, M.A.; Wojtowicz, M.A.; Bassilakis, R.; Solomon, P.R.

    1995-09-01

    Landfilling used tires which are generated each year in the US is increasingly becoming an unacceptable solution. A better approach, from an environmental and economic standpoint, is to thermally reprocess the tires into valuable products such as activated carbon, other solid carbon forms (carbon black, graphite, and carbon fibers), and liquid fuels. In this study, high surface area activated carbons (> 800 m{sup 2}/g solid product) were produced in relatively high yields by pyrolysis of tires at up to 900 C, followed by activation in CO{sub 2} at the same temperature. The surface areas of these materials are comparable with those of commercial activated carbons. The efficiency of the activation process (gain in specific surface area/loss in mass) was greatest (up to 138 m{sup 2}/g original tire) when large pieces of tire material were used ({approximately} 170 mg). Oxygen pretreatment of tires was found to enhance both the yield and the surface area of the carbon product. High-pressure treatment of tires at low temperatures (< 400 C) is an alternative approach if the recovery of carbon black or fuel oils is the primary objective.

  4. Fluidized-bed combustion of scrap tires: Technical note

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, J.Y.; Mei, J.S.; Notestein, J.E.

    1981-10-01

    An introduction to fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is presented in Section 2.0. Based on this discussion of its technical development, FBC is then presented as a means of scrap tire disposal. In Section 3.0, scrap tire disposal is reviewed in the categories of (1) physical applications, (2) chemical applications, (3) pyrolysis, and (4) incineration for thermal energy recovery. Scrap tire disposal is reviewed on the basis of (1) environmental acceptability, (2) conservation of resources, (3) impact on existing industries, (4) operational feasibility, and (5) special features. The focus of this report is the fluidized-bed incineration of scrap tires for thermal energy recovery. The factors that affect scrap tire combustion are discussed in Section 4.0. These factors are (1) agitation, (2) temperature, (3) excess air, (4) residence time, (5) feed uniformity, (6) solid waste handling, and (7) pollutants emission control. In reviewing these incineration processes, (1) fuel flexibility, (2) environmental acceptability, (3) combustion efficiency, and (4) operational reliability are discussed. The results from a tire incineration experiment conducted at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center are presented in Section 5.0, and a conceptual fluidized-bed combustor is discussed in Section 6.0. Future considerations in the FBC of scrap tires are discussed in Section 7.0. 8 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Tire Remanufacturing and Energy Savings Avid Boustani1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutowski, Timothy

    ;3 applications (cement industry, pulp and paper industry, industrial boilers), electricity co- generation advocates and industry officials to take critical steps towards saving energy, minimizing emissions, and commercial aviation. The tire retreading industry is reportedly the largest sector of remanufacturing

  6. Firm eyes savings from tires-to-fuel system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, J.

    1983-01-31

    A $600,000 pyrolysis system to convert tire scraps into methane will eliminate a tire retreading company's landfill and boiler fuel costs and achieve a five-year payback. The process also yields steel belts, fibers, and carbon black byproducts that can be sold for additional revenue. Heat from the hot exhaust gases will be recycled to the combustion chamber. A 10% federal energy tax credit and a 10% investment tax credit lowered the capital costs for $480,000. (DCK)

  7. Recovery of commercially valuable products from scrap tires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, C.

    1993-07-20

    A process is described for producing carbon black by vacuum pyrolysis of used rubber tires, which comprises pyrolysing used rubber tire material at a temperature in the range of about 490 C to about 510 C under an absolute pressure of less than about 5 kPa, and recovering a solid carbonaceous material containing carbon black having an iodine adsorption number of about 130 to about 150 mg/g.

  8. Waste tires as auxiliary fuel for cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodds, J.

    1987-01-01

    The subject I have been asked to speak about is the utilization of scrap tires as an auxiliary fuel for cement kilns. My experience with scrap tires began five years ago when we performed a technical and economic evaluation for tire pyrolysis. I work for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory which is supported by the Department of Energy. My interest in scrap tires continued; in 1984 the Department of Energy and the Portland Cement Association jointly sponsored a conference on the utilization of scrap tires in cement kilns. Most of my remarks today are based upon that conference along with some current information in the US. Mr. Sladek requested that I speak on the combustion process, the progress to date, and the factors that impede or encourage implementation of using scrap tires in cement kilns. For discussion purposes it would help if we had a common understanding of the cement manufacturing process. Cement is made by heating a mixture of finely ground limestone and silica from clay or sand to about 1450/degree/C in a large rotating kiln. The heat causes the limestone to decarbonate and subsequently react with the silica to form calcium silicates. 5 figs.

  9. Recovery and evaluation of the solid products produced by thermocatalytic decomposition of tire rubber compounds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Lan

    2007-04-25

    A thermal catalytic decomposition process has been developed to recycle used tire rubber. This process enables the recovery of useful products, such as hydrocarbons and carbon blacks. During the catalytic decomposition process, the tire rubber...

  10. EERE Energy Impacts: Self-Inflating Tires Could Save You Money...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in tires so you dont have to. | Graphic courtesy of Goodyear Goodyear's new Air Maintenance Technology-also called the self-regulating tire-automatically manages...

  11. LARGE SCALE DIRECT SHEAR TESTING WITH TIRE BALES By: Christopher J. LaRocque1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    and light truck tires into a 2 cubic yard, 1-ton bale. Each bale is fastened with galvanized or stainless

  12. Disposal techniques with energy recovery for scrapped vehicle tires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sladek, T.A.; Demos, E.K.

    1987-06-01

    The scrap tire disposal problem is serious and widespread. However there are a number of promising management options, especially using the rubber as a supplemental fuel for existing combustors. The most cost-effective approach to dealing with Denver's tire stockpile appears to be shredding to a coarse size range, storing the shreds in a secure area, and marketing the rubber to nearby cement kilns, lime kilns, and boilers. This interim step would greatly reduce the volume of the pile, facilitate the Superfund evaluation, reduce fire and disease hazards, and simplify subsequent materials handling. Further processing to obtain rubber chips or crumbs may also be practical. However the industry and the markets would have to emerge over time. New power plants or pyrolysis facilities would be impeded by the low energy prices in Denver and the need for elaborate pollution controls. Landfilling could be considered as a last resort. Landfilling costs would be minimized if the tires are shredded. Chapter 2 discusses the tire disposal problem and the general options for tire management. Chapter 3 describes the methodology used to analyze Denver's situation and presents the results and conclusions obtained. This includes evaluation of strategies to implement the more promising resource recovery options in the Denver area. Chapter 4 summarizes the lessons learned and identifies impediments and uncertainties that need to be addressed in any future studies. The Appendix contains additional acknowledgments, a list of references, definitions for the acronyms and units used in the text, the agenda for the tire workshop, and a brief description of a stockpile fire near Denver in June 1987. 111 refs., 6 tabs.

  13. Vacuum pyrolyzed tire oil as a coal solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orr, E.C.; Shi, Y.; Ji, Q.

    1995-12-31

    Coal liquefaction is highly dependent upon the type of coal liquefaction solvent used. The solvent must readily solubilize the coal and must act as an effective hydrogen donor or shuttler. Oil derived from the vacuum pyrolysis of used rubber tires has recently been used as a coal solvent with good conversion of coal to liquids in a hydrogen atmosphere. All experiments were completed in shaken tubing reactors at 450{degrees}C utilizing a bituminous coal. Results show the effectiveness of the pyrolyzed tire oil as a coal liquefaction solvent depends upon hydrogen pressure. Electron probe microanalysis data reveal good dispersion of the molybdenum catalyst in coal particles taken from liquefaction experiments.

  14. Combustion and inorganic emissions of ground waste tires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levendis, Y.A.; Atal, A.; Steciak, J.

    1995-12-31

    An experimental study was undertaken to assess the combustion characteristics and emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} gases from ground waste tires. Results were contrasted with those obtained from burning pulverized coal. Laboratory bench-scale experiments were conducted in a drop-tube, laminar-flow furnace, in air at fuel-lean conditions, at gas temperatures ranging from 1300 K to 1600 K. Two particle size cuts were burned from both materials, 75-90 {mu}m and 180-212 {mu}m. Blends of coal and tire particles, at equal weight ratios, were also burned. Pyrometric and cinematographic observations revealed that the coal particles exhibited distinct volatile and char combustion phases, while tire particles exhibited a distinct primary volatile phase followed by a char combustion phase, which was accompanied by burning of secondary pyrolysis products. SO{sub 2} emissions of burning ground tires increased from 160 to 500 ppm as the temperature increased from 1300 K to 1600 K. Combustion of coal produced SO{sub 2} emissions in the neighborhood of 200-300 ppm (corresponding to 40 to 60 wt% of its sulfur content) independent of the gas temperature. The blend of coal and tire particles (equal mass ratios) exhibited SO{sub 2} values which fell in between the above. NO{sub x} emissions were constant at approximately 175 ppm for tire crumb (corresponding to approximately 45 wt% of its fuel nitrogen content) and 625 ppm for coal (corresponding to 55 wt% of its fuel nitrogen content) in the temperature range studied. CO{sub 2} emissions from tire were 8-9 molar %, while for coal particles they were 5-7 molar %; the upper limits corresponded to approximately 100% combustion efficiency. As a means to reduce the SO{sub 2} emissions, pulverized coal and tire crumb were fluidized together with particles of a calcium bearing sorbent - calcium magnesium acetate (CMA). CMA has been identified as an effective SO{sub 2} scrubbing agent in previous studies.

  15. An investigation of the use of tire rubber in asphalt 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koo, Heamo Lee

    1996-01-01

    , and Exxon AC-5. With respect to rubber type, the Rouse rubber was determined to improve Theological properties of the asphalt-rubber binder more than the Tire-Gator rubber. The curing process was also shown to increase the breakdown of the rubber...

  16. The use of scrap tires in rotary cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumenthal, M.

    1996-12-31

    The use of scrap tires as a supplemental fuel in the United States Portland cement industry has increased significantly in the past six years. In 1990, there were two kilns using tire-derived fuel (TDF), today 30 kilns use TDF. The outlook for continued and expanded use of TDF in the U.S. cement industry should be considered favorable, with 15 kilns conducting tests to determine TDF`s applicability or in the permitting process. The Council`s estimates are that by the end of 1996, the cement industry could be consuming some 75-100 million of the 253 million annually generated scrap tires in the United States. This level of TDF usage will make the cement industry the largest market segments for scrap tires in the United States. While the long-term outlook is at present positive, there are a series of factors that have, and will likely continue to adversely impact the near-term usage of TDF. These issues, as well as the factors that are likely to positively impact the cement kiln TDF market are the subject of this presentation.

  17. SIMULATION OF A TIRE INSPECTION SYSTEM W. H. GRAY1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abidi, Mongi A.

    is a key component for efficient machine vision building. A quality control system by artificial vision when designing an inspection system based upon machine vision. The tire inspection system uses thermal. For any vision system, the placement of the camera(s) determines the effectiveness of the defect detection

  18. Demonstration of improved vehicle fuel efficiency through innovative tire design, materials, and weight reduction technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donley, Tim

    2014-12-31

    Cooper completed an investigation into new tire technology using a novel approach to develop and demonstrate a new class of fuel efficient tires using innovative materials technology and tire design concepts. The objective of this work was to develop a new class of fuel efficient tires, focused on the “replacement market” that would improve overall passenger vehicle fuel efficiency by 3% while lowering the overall tire weight by 20%. A further goal of this project was to accomplish the objectives while maintaining the traction and wear performance of the control tire. This program was designed to build on what has already been accomplished in the tire industry for rolling resistance based on the knowledge and general principles developed over the past decades. Cooper’s CS4 (Figure #1) premium broadline tire was chosen as the control tire for this program. For Cooper to achieve the goals of this project, the development of multiple technologies was necessary. Six technologies were chosen that are not currently being used in the tire industry at any significant level, but that showed excellent prospects in preliminary research. This development was divided into two phases. Phase I investigated six different technologies as individual components. Phase II then took a holistic approach by combining all the technologies that showed positive results during phase one development.

  19. Method for recycling tires and similarly compounded materials to recover usable constituents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letsch, W.

    1980-12-23

    A processing plant and method are described for processing scrap tires and similar materials containing a mixture of technical rubber, scrap metal and tire cord in which the plant is essentially vehicular and thus eliminates the necessity of hauling accumulated tires long distances with the accompanying costs. The plant includes means for directing mixed tire sizes to a cyrogenic section where the technical rubber is reduced to a sufficient temperature making it brittle so that initial separation of reusable technical rubber is accomplished; the plant is operated essentially on the reusable by-products of pyrolytic reduction of the tires so that hydrocarbons and heated gas are utilized and additional commercial by-products such as commercial soots, metal and tire beads are obtained.

  20. Numerical model for the vacuum pyrolysis of scrap tires in batch reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, J.; Tanguy, P.A.; Roy, C.

    1995-06-01

    A quantitative model for scrap tire pyrolysis in a batch scale reactor developed comprises the following basic phenomena: conduction inside tire particles; conduction, convection, and radiation between the feedstock particles or between the fluids and the particles; tire pyrolysis reaction; exothermicity and endothermicity caused by tire decomposition and volatilization; and the variation of the composition and the thermal properties of tire particles. This model was used to predict the transient temperature and density distributions in the bed of particles, the volatile product evolution rate, the mass change, the energy consumption during the pyrolysis process, and the pressure history in a tire pyrolysis reactor with a load of 1 kg. The model predictions agree well with independent experimental data.

  1. Scrap tire recycling: Promising high value applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauman, B.D.; Leskovyansky, P.J.; Drela, H.

    1993-11-01

    Surface modification of scrap tire rubber (rubber particles treated with chlorine gas) show promise for ameliorating the scrap tire problem (the treated rubber can be used as a component in high- performance, expensive polymer systems). The process has been proven in Phase I. Phase II covers market/applications, process development (Forberg-design mixer reactor was chosen), plant design, capital cost estimate, economics environmental/safety/health, and energy impact. Almost of the small amount of chlorine is consumed. The capital costs for a rubber particle treatment facility are attractive, being at least two orders of magnitude less than that of facilities for making new polymer materials. Large volume markets using treated rubber are needed. The amount of scrap rubber available is small compared to the polymers available for replacement. 7 tabs, 16 figs.

  2. Evaluation of synergy in tire rubber-coal coprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastral, A.M.; Mayoral, M.C.; Murillo, R.; Callen, M.; Garcia, T.; Tejero, M.P.; Torres, N.

    1998-09-01

    The tire rubber-coal synergy is evaluated through the different roles that rubber can have in coprocessing systems. For that, two different experimental designs were used: a swept fixed-bed reactor and tubing bomb minireactors. In this way, coal was coprocessed with rubber liquids from rubber pyrolysis and rubber hydrogenation, in a hydrogen atmosphere at 400 C. Coal was mixed as well with rubber in different proportions and hydrogenated at 375, 400, and 425 C, and oils obtained were characterized by thin-layer chromatography to obtain hydrocarbon type composition. Rubber behavior was compared to each of the main components of tires, and all the results indicated that the slight synergy found can be due to the small free radicals from vulcanized rubber decomposition, which are able to stabilize coal radicals to light products.

  3. Assessment of Tire Technologies and Practices for Potential Waste and Energy Use Reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Regnier, Justin; Burke, Andy; Melaina, Marc W; Bremson, Joel; Keteltas, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Managements Life Cycle Assessments: Principles andand R. Stark, 1999. “Life Cycle Assessment of a Car Tire. ”portal/themes/esh/life_cycle_assessments_en/dow nload/life_

  4. Characterization of chars from coal-tire copyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastral, A.M.; Callen, M.S.; Murillo, R.; Alvarez, R.; Clemente, C.

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this work is the characterization of the solid conversion product from coal-tire copyrolysis because, nowadays, any new process should be faced without resolving the problem of the subproducts generated. A low-rank coal and a nonspecific mixture of scrap automotive tires, 50/50 w/w, have been coprocessed at 400 C for 30 min at different H{sub 2} pressures and atmospheres. Once the most valuable conversion products, the liquids, were recovered by tetrahydrofuran extraction, a complementary battery of analytical techniques was applied to characterize the solids or chars, looking for their possible use. {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, immediate and ultimate analyses, ASA, and scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry were performed on them. By X-ray diffractometry the presence of sphalerite, pyrrhotite, and anhydrite was detected. Thermogravimetric studies demonstrated that the combustion induction temperature is 400 C. Char combustion tests at 900 C with discussion of NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions are included. Mineral matter behaves as if only coal is processed with the Zn exception, from ZnO in the tire, which is converted into ZnS. It is shown that the char organic component has a higher aromaticity than the one from coal.

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office 2013 Merit Review: A System for Automatically Maintaining Pressure in a Commercial Truck Tire

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    A presentation given by PPG during the 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting on a system for automatically maintaining tire pressure in commercial truck tires.

  6. THERMAL RESPONSE OF A TIRE SHRED-SOIL EMBANKMENT By: Hailey L. Wappett1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    THERMAL RESPONSE OF A TIRE SHRED-SOIL EMBANKMENT By: Hailey L. Wappett1 and J.G. Zornberg2 to the thermal properties of tires that can potentially trigger exothermic reactions with the structures. Despite of this research is to define design recommendations through the evaluation of the thermal response of different

  7. Pyrolysis of scrap tires: Can it be profitable?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojtowicz, M.A.; Serio, M.A.

    1996-10-01

    Pyrolysis--the thermal degradation in the absence of oxygen--is one way to reprocess scrap tires. The products are fuel gas, oils, and a solid residue (char), which contains appreciable quantities of mineral matter and low-grade carbon black. The three products have comparable yields by weight. The two most important factors affecting process economics are the tipping fees charged for tire disposal and the selling prices of the products. Selling prices of the products yield low returns because of the low market value of the fuels and the low quality of the recovered char or carbon black. Therefore, to obtain a positive cash flow, it would be desirable to develop a process based on the recovery of value-added products such as high-grade carbon black, activated carbon, or valuable chemicals (e.g., benzene, toluene, and xylene). The authors believe that significant improvement in the economics can be accomplished by upgrading the primary pyrolysis products to secondary products of higher value.

  8. Chemi-microbial processing of waste tire rubber: A project overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romine, R.A.; Snowden-Swan, L.

    1993-12-01

    PNL is developing a method to use thiophillic microorganisms to devulcanize (biodesulfurize) the surface of ground rubber particles, which will improve the bonding and adhesion of the ground tire rubber into the virgin tire rubber matrix. The Chemi-microbial processing approach, introduced in this paper, is targeted at alleviating the waste tire problem in an environmentally conscious manner; it may also be applied to improve asphaltic materials and rubber and polymeric wastes to facilite their recycling. This paper outlines the logic and technical methods that will be used.

  9. Vacuum pyrolyzed tire oil as a coal solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orr, E.C.; Shi, Yanlong; Ji, Qin; Anderson, L.L.; Eyring, E.M.

    1995-12-31

    Recent interest in coprocessing coal with hydrogen rich waste materials in order to produce liquid transportation fuels has given rise to interesting twists on standard coal liquefaction. In general, coprocessing coal with a waste material has been approached with the idea that the waste material would be mixed with the coal under liquefaction conditions with little or no preliminary processing of the waste material other than shredding into smaller size particles. Mixing the waste material with the coal would occur in the primary stage of liquefaction. The primary stage would accomplish the dissolution of the coal and breakdown of the waste material. The products would then be introduced into the secondary stage where upgrading of product would occur. This paper describes the usefulness of oil derived from pyrolysis of waste rubber tires as a reactant in coal coprocessing or coal liquefaction.

  10. Optimization of scrap tire pyrolysis using a continuous-feed steam environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrell, T.W.; Frank, S.R.; Rich, M.L.

    1995-12-01

    Estimates of the generation of scrap tires produced in the United States are on the order of 2 million tons per year. Although these tires contain a high percentage of useful hydrocarbons, steel and carbon black, approximately 70% are not effectively recycled. Recently, pyrolytic recycling of scrap tire (thermal decomposition in the absence of O{sub 2}) is receiving renewed interest because of its ability to produce valuable hydrocarbon products. We have developed a process which permits a continuous feed processing of scrap tires in a non-combustible stream environment. This system utilizes a soft seal system that operates at atmospheric pressures while minimizing any fugitive emissions. This process increases the efficiency and control of present approaches by lowering the energy requirements while maximizing the collection of valuable products. Initial bench-scale results will be presented.

  11. Design of a bench-scale apparatus for processing carbon black derived from scrap tires 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodrow, Philip Travis

    1996-01-01

    The focus of this work is to design a bench-scale apparatus, for laboratory applications, that will perform solid processing operations for carbon black obtained through the thermal catalytic depolymerization of scrap tires. These operations...

  12. Pyrolysis of scrap tires and conversion of chars to activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merchant, A.A.; Petrich, M.A. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-08-01

    The primary objective of this work was to demonstrate the conversion of scrap tires to activated carbon. The authors have been successful in this endeavor, producing carbons with surface areas greater than 500 m[sup 2]/g and significant micropore volumes. Tire shreddings were pyrolyzed in batch reactors, and the pyrolysis chars activated by reaction with superheated steam. Solid products of pyrolysis and activation were studied with nitrogen adsorption techniques. They find that the porosity development during steam activation of tire pyrolysis char is similar to that reported for various other chars. A maximum in micropore volume is observed as a function of conversion, but the total surface area increases monotonically with conversion. They suggest that the activation process consists of micropore formation, followed by pore enlargement. The process conditions used in this study are a good starting point from which to optimize a process to convert tires to activated carbon.

  13. Formation of dl-limonene in used tire vacuum pyrolysis oils. [dipentene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pakdel, H.; Roy, C.; Aubin, H.; Jean, G. ); Coulombe, S. )

    1991-09-01

    Tire recycling has become an important environmental issue recently due to the huge piles of tires that threaten the environment. Thermal decomposition of tire, a synthetic rubber material, enables the recovery of carbon black and liquid hydrocarbon oils. Both have potential economic values. Pyrolysis oils obtained under vacuum conditions contain a significant portion of a volatile, naptha-like fraction with an octane number similar to petroleum naphtha fraction, in addition, contains approximately 15% limonene. Potential applications of vacuum pyrolysis oil and carbon black have been investigated. However, the process economics is greatly influenced by the quality of the oil and carbon black products. This paper discusses limonene formation during used tire vacuum pyrolysis and its postulated reaction mechanism. The limonene separation method from pyrolysis oil, as well as its purification in laboratory scale, and structural characterization are discussed. Large-scale limonene separation and purification is under investigation.

  14. Fact #763: January 21, 2013 Eighty-four Percent of Scrapped Tires...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the recycled tires were used to make fuel for industries such as pulp and paper mills, cement kilns, and electric utilities. Ground rubber, which is used for sports surfacing,...

  15. Fact #826: June 23, 2014 The Effect of Tire Pressure on Fuel Economy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently conducted a study that measured the effect of tire pressure on fuel economy at speeds ranging from 40 to 80 miles per hour. The figure below...

  16. Goodyear Testing Self-Inflating Tire Systems in U.S. Trucking...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    in U.S. Trucking Fleets April 7, 2015 - 4:52pm Addthis This graphic shows how Goodyear's new Air Maintenance Technology -- also called the self-regulating tire -- works. | Graphic...

  17. Vacuum pyrolysis of waste tires with basic additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Xinghua; Wang Tiejun Ma Longlong; Chang Jie

    2008-11-15

    Granules of waste tires were pyrolyzed under vacuum (3.5-10 kPa) conditions, and the effects of temperature and basic additives (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, NaOH) on the properties of pyrolysis were thoroughly investigated. It was obvious that with or without basic additives, pyrolysis oil yield increased gradually to a maximum and subsequently decreased with a temperature increase from 450 deg. C to 600 deg. C, irrespective of the addition of basic additives to the reactor. The addition of NaOH facilitated pyrolysis dramatically, as a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 48 wt% was achieved at 550 deg. C without the addition of basic additives, while a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 50 wt% was achieved at 480 deg. C by adding 3 wt% (w/w, powder/waste tire granules) of NaOH powder. The composition analysis of pyrolytic naphtha (i.b.p. (initial boiling point) {approx}205 deg. C) distilled from pyrolysis oil showed that more dl-limonene was obtained with basic additives and the maximal content of dl-limonene in pyrolysis oil was 12.39 wt%, which is a valuable and widely-used fine chemical. However, no improvement in pyrolysis was observed with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} addition. Pyrolysis gas was mainly composed of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. Pyrolytic char had a surface area comparable to commercial carbon black, but its proportion of ash (above 11.5 wt%) was much higher.

  18. Energy Efficiency in Heavy Vehicle Tires, Drivetrains, and Braking Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter J. Blau

    2000-04-26

    This document was prepared to support the primary goals of the Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. These were recently stated as follows: ''Develop by 2004 the enabling technologies for a class 7-8 truck with a fuel efficiency of 10 mpg (at 65 mph) which will meet prevailing emission standards. For Class 3-6 trucks operating on an urban driving cycle, develop by 2004 commercially viable vehicles that achieve at least double the fuel economy of comparable current vehicles (1999), and as a research goal, reduce criteria pollutants to 30% below EPA standards. Develop by 2004 the diesel engine enabling technologies to support large-scale industry dieselization of Class 1 and 2 trucks, achieving a 35 % fuel efficiency improvement over comparable gasoline-fueled trucks, while meeting applicable emissions standards.'' The enabling technologies for improving the fuel efficiency of trucks, include not only engine technologies but also technologies involved with lowering the rolling resistance of tires, reducing vehicle aerodynamic drag, improving thermal management, and reducing parasitic frictional losses in drive train components. Opportunities also exist for making better use of the energy that might ordinarily be dissipated during vehicle braking. Braking systems must be included in this evaluation since safety in truck operations is vital, and braking requirements are greater for vehicles having lowered resistance to rolling. The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has initiated a program to improve the aerodynamics of heavy vehicles through wind tunnel testing, computational modeling, and on-road evaluations. That activity is described in a separate multi-year plan; therefore, emphasis in this document will be on tires, drive trains, and braking systems. Recent, dramatic fluctuations in diesel fuel prices have emphasized the importance of effecting savings in truck fuel economy by implementing new component designs and materials.

  19. Coprocessing of 4-(1-napthylmethyl)bibenzyl with waste tires using finely dispersed iron and molybdenum catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Y.; Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ, AL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Coliquefaction of waste tires with coal is a feasible method for upgrading both materials. To evaluate the effect of waste tires on reactions that occur during liquefaction, waste tire and carbon black, a component of tires, were reacted in the presence of 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl (NMBB), a model coal compound known to hydrocrack at liquefaction conditions. Waste tires promoted NMBB hydrocracking compared to no additive although carbon black, introduced at the level present in waste tires increased hydrocracking more. Combining Mo naphthenate with waste tire or carbon black had a higher activity for hydrocracking than the corresponding combinations with Fe naphthenate. Selectivity for NMBB cleavage was also different with the two different catalysts. The addition of S increased the activity of Fe naphthenate with waste tire but decreased that of Mo naphthenate. Increased NMBB hydrocracking of 79.9% was obtained by combining Mo naphthenate and carbon black. Combining Fe naphthenate with carbon black or Mo naphthenate did not increase NMBB hydrocracking compared to the values obtained with the individual materials.

  20. Pyrolysis kinetics of scrap tire rubbers. 1: Using DTG and TGA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.; Park, J.K.; Chun, H.D.

    1995-07-01

    Tire pyrolysis kinetics was investigated to explore an economically viable design for the pyrolysis process. Derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were found to provide valuable information on pyrolysis kinetics and mechanisms of a heterogeneous compound like scrap tire rubbers. Kinetic parameters of each compositional compound were obtained by analyzing DTG and TGA results with a series of mathematical methods proposed in this study. The pyrolysis kinetics of the scrap tire rubbers tested was well accounted for by the first-order irreversible independent reactions of three compositional compounds. The sidewall and tread rubber exhibited different thermal degradation patterns, suggesting a compositional difference between them. Isothermal pyrolysis results showed that the sidewall rubber would hardly be degraded at low temperature regions (<600 K), whereas it would be more rapidly degraded than the tread rubber at higher temperatures ({>=}746 K). Because of the shorter pyrolysis time, the higher isothermal pyrolysis temperature appeared to be more economically favorable.

  1. Evaluation of products recovered from scrap tires for use as asphalt modifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKay, J.

    1992-05-01

    Western Research Institute performed rheological tests and water sensitivity tests on asphalt cements that had been modified with carbonous residues obtained from the pyrolysis of scrap tires and waste motor oil. These tests are part of an ongoing program at the University of Wyoming Chemical Engineering Department to evaluate, as asphalt additives, solid carbonous products recovered from the scrap tire and waste motor oil pyrolysis experiments conducted at the University. The tests showed that carbonous residues increased the viscosity and decreased the elasticity of AC-10 and AC-20 asphalts. The tests also indicatedthat asphalt cements modified with carbonous residues were less sensitive to water damage and age embrittlement than unmodified asphalt cements.

  2. Extraction and identification of fillers and pigments from pyrolyzed rubber and tire samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadhukhan, P.; Zimmerman, J.B.

    1996-12-31

    Rubber stocks, specially tires, are composed of natural rubber and synthetic polymers and also of several compounding ingredients, such as carbon black, silica, zinc oxide etc. These are generally mixed and vulcanized with additional curing agents, mainly organic in nature, to achieve certain {open_quotes}designing properties{close_quotes} including wear, traction, rolling resistance and handling of tires. Considerable importance is, therefore, attached both by the manufacturers and their competitors to be able to extract, identify and characterize various types of fillers and pigments. Several analytical procedures have been in use to extract, preferentially, these fillers and pigments and subsequently identify and characterize them under a transmission electron microscope.

  3. Tailored Recovery of Carbons from Waste Tires for Enhanced Performance as Anodes in Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naskar, Amit K; Bi,; Saha, Dipendu; Chi, Miaofang; Bridges, Craig A; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2014-01-01

    Morphologically tailored pyrolysis-recovered carbon black is utilized in lithium-ion batteries as a potential solution for adding value to waste tire-rubber-derived materials. Micronized tire rubber was digested in a hot oleum bath to yield a sulfonated rubber slurry that was then filtered, washed, and compressed into a solid cake. Carbon was recovered from the modified rubber cake by pyrolysis in a nitrogen atmosphere. The chemical pretreatment of rubber produced a carbon monolith with higher yield than that from the control (a fluffy tire-rubber-derived carbon black). The carbon monolith showed a very small volume fraction of pores of widths 3 4 nm, reduced specific surface area, and an ordered assembly of graphitic domains. Electrochemical studies on the recovered-carbon-based anode revealed an improved Li-ion battery performance with higher reversible capacity than that of commercial carbon materials. Anodes made with a sulfonated tire-rubber-derived carbon and a control tire-rubber-derived carbon, respectively, exhibited an initial coulombic efficiency of 80% and 45%, respectively. The reversible capacity of the cell with the sulfonated carbon as anode was 400 mAh/g after 100 cycles, with nearly 100% coulombic efficiency. Our success in producing higher performance carbon material from waste tire rubber for potential use in energy storage applications adds a new avenue to tire rubber recycling.

  4. Security and Privacy Vulnerabilities of In-Car Wireless Networks: A Tire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Wenyuan

    Security and Privacy Vulnerabilities of In-Car Wireless Networks: A Tire Pressure Monitoring System companies to collect data ­ "iChange" controls the car via an iPhone ­ More in-car wireless sensor networks. Virtually, all new cars sold or manufactured after 2007 in US are equipped with wireless TPMS. Computer

  5. Clogging Potential of Tire Shred-Drainage Layer in Landfill Cover Systems Krishna R. Reddy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    systems. Tests were also conducted by placing a geotextile filter between the soil and the shredded tire and weighed. If a geotextile was used, it was also removed, dried and weighed. The mass of the soil from 4 to 15%, depending on the presence of a geotextile and the thickness of the soil layer. Despite

  6. On bicycle tire tracks geometry, hatchet planimeter, Menzin's conjecture and oscillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tabachnikov, Sergei

    On bicycle tire tracks geometry, hatchet planimeter, Menzin's conjecture and oscillation of unicycle tracks Mark Levi and Serge Tabachnikov April 13, 2008 Abstract The model of a bicycle is a unit wheel is fixed on the bicycle frame); the same model describes the hatchet planimeter. The trajectory

  7. Tractrices, Bicycle Tire Tracks, Hatchet Planimeters, and a 100-year-old Conjecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foote, Robert L.

    Tractrices, Bicycle Tire Tracks, Hatchet Planimeters, and a 100-year-old Conjecture Robert Foote, Mark Levi, and Serge Tabachnikov Abstract. We study a simple model of bicycle motion: A bicycle measuring area of plane domains. The trajectory of the front wheel and the initial position of the bicycle

  8. Tractrices, Bicycle Tire Tracks, Hatchet Planimeters, and a 100-year-old Conjecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tabachnikov, Sergei

    Tractrices, Bicycle Tire Tracks, Hatchet Planimeters, and a 100-year-old Conjecture R. L. Foote M. Levi S. Tabachnikov 1 Introduction The geometry of the tracks left by a bicycle has received much of a bicycle and that of a curious device known as a hatchet planimeter, and we will prove a conjecture about

  9. Tiree Energy Pulse: Exploring Renewable Energy Forecasts on the Edge of the Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Mark

    Tiree Energy Pulse: Exploring Renewable Energy Forecasts on the Edge of the Grid Will Simm1 , Maria energy consumption with supply, and together built a prototype renewable energy forecast display. A num local renewable energy was expected to be available, despite having no financial in- centive to do so

  10. Product formulations using recycled tire crumb rubber. Final report/project accomplishments summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-02-01

    The objective of this project was to combine crumb rubber and synthetic fiber obtained from scrap tires with thermoplastic polymers and convert these materials into commercially useful, high-value products. A specific goal was to use these materials for roofing, while remaining cognizance of other potential applications.

  11. Subsurface flow constructed wetland: treatment of domestic wastewater by gravel and tire chip media and ultraviolet disinfection of effluent 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Amanda Yvette

    2002-01-01

    spray application, wetland effluent must be disinfected (traditionally by chlorine). This study determines the treatment efficiency of SFCWs filled with gravel or tire chip media to treat domestic wastewater and the effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV...

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Improving Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Through Tire Design, Materials, and Reduced Weight

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Cooper Tire at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about improving vehicle fuel efficiency...

  13. Dainippon Screen Mfg Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (UtilityInstruments Inc Jump to:67-2006-12Dabbrook ServicesDaggett

  14. Wave transmission and mooring-force characteristics of pipe-tire floating breakwaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harms, Volker W.; Westerink, Joannes J.

    1980-10-01

    The results are presented of a series of prototype scale tests of a floating breakwater that incorporates massive cylindrical members (steel or concrete pipes, telephone poles, etc.) in a matrix of scrap truck or automobile tires, referred to as the Pipe-Tire Breakwater (PT-Breakwater). Tests were conducted in the large wave tank at the US Army Coastal Engineering Research Center (CERC). Breakwater modules were preassembled at SUNY in Buffalo, New York, and then transported to CERC by truck, where final assembly on location was again performed by SUNY personnel. Wave-tank tests were conducted jointly by CERC and SUNY personnel. A series of wave-tank experiments and mooring system load-deflection tests were performed, and are described. Wave-transmission and mooring-load characteristics, based on 402 separate tests, were established and are reported. (LCL)

  15. Thermal plasma pyrolysis of used old tires for production of syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, J.S.; Gu, B.W.; Looy, P.C.; Chu, F.Y.; Simpson, C.J.

    1996-08-01

    Thermal plasma pyrolysis of used tires for the production of syngaswas investigated experimentally and the following conclusions wereobtained: 1. A series of experiments have shown that tire waste can bepyrolyzed in a plasma reactor to produce combustible gas, such asC{sub 2}H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, CO. The combustion heat value of the produced gas is about 4-7 MJ/m{sup 3}, which is higher than that of blast furnace gas and reforming gas from coals. 2. Zinc oxidecan be captured during pyrolysis by both high temperature filters andlow temperature filters in the quenching chamber. The pollution gases,such as SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, are at relatively low levels, about 100-300ppm. 3. Increasing the tire injection quantity will increase theconcentration of hydrocarbons, increase the combustion heat of thepyrolysis product, and decrease the concentration of metal oxide. Withsteam injection, it produced a large quantity of hydrogen and carbonmonoxide with lower concentrations of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. The combustion heatis slightly lower with steam injection than that without it. 4. Neitherpolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) nor p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) weredetected in the ashes. 8 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Passive tire pressure sensor and method (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeeding access to(Conference)Connect Passivation EffectsPassive tire

  17. Pyrolysis of tire rubber: Porosity and adsorption characteristics of the pyrolytic chars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miguel, G.S.; Fowler, G.D.; Sollars, C.J.

    1998-06-01

    Tire rubber has been pyrolyzed at various temperatures under a nitrogen atmosphere. The resulting chars have been analyzed for their porosity using nitrogen gas adsorption and for their aqueous adsorption characteristics using phenol, methylene blue, and the reactive dyes Procion Turquoise H-A and Procion Red H-E3B. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms were modeled to the BET and Dubinin-Astakhov (DA) equations to determine effective surface areas, mesopore volumes, and micropore volumes. Results showed that pyrolysis of tire rubber was essentially complete at 500 C and resulted in a char yield of approximately 42 wt%. Pyrolytic chars exhibited BET surface areas up to 85 m{sup 2}/g and micropore volumes up to 0.04 mL/g. Owing to their poorly developed micropore structure, the pyrolytic chars exhibited limited aqueous adsorption capacity for compounds of small molecular weight, such as phenol. However, the chars possessed significantly greater adsorption capacity for species of large molecular weight which was attributed to the presence of large mesopore volumes (up to 0.19 mL/g).

  18. Reduction of carbon content in waste-tire combustion ashes by bio-thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C.C.; Lee, W.J.; Shih, S.I.; Mou, J.L.

    2009-07-01

    Application of bio-catalyst (NOE-7F) in thermal treatment can adequately dispose dark-black fly ashes from co-combustion of both waste tires and coal. After thermal treatment of fly ashes by adding 10% NOE-7F, the carbon contents reduced by 37.6% and the weight losses increased by 405%, compared with the fly ashes without mixing with NOE-7F. The combustion behaviors of wasted tires combustion fly ashes with NOE-7F were also investigated by both thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results verify that NOE-7F has positive effects on the combustion of residual carbon and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) enhance the energy release and reduce the toxicity during the process of thermal treatment. Furthermore, using NOE-7F to dispose high-carbon content fly ashes did improve the compressive strength of fly ashes and concrete mixtures. Therefore, NOE-7F is a promising additive which could decrease treatment cost of high-carbon content fly ashes and reduce the amount of survival toxic PAHs.

  19. Tired of changing light bulbs AND want to save money? Still using 100 year-old technology?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    Tired of changing light bulbs AND want to save money? Still using 100 year-old technology? TAKE THE COMPACT FLUORESCENT LIGHT BULB CHALLENGE! · A 23 W Compact bulb gives the same light as a 100W regular?) ·Fine print: You will also reduce Global Warming pollution. Over its lifetime, a "100W" Compact

  20. Feasibility study for thermal treatment of solid tire wastes in Bangladesh by using pyrolysis technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Islam, M.R.; Joardder, M.U.H.; Hasan, S.M.; Takai, K.; Haniu, H.

    2011-09-15

    In this study on the basis of lab data and available resources in Bangladesh, feasibility study has been carried out for pyrolysis process converting solid tire wastes into pyrolysis oils, solid char and gases. The process considered for detailed analysis was fixed-bed fire-tube heating pyrolysis reactor system. The comparative techno-economic assessment was carried out in US$ for three different sizes plants: medium commercial scale (144 tons/day), small commercial scale (36 tons/day), pilot scale (3.6 tons/day). The assessment showed that medium commercial scale plant was economically feasible, with the lowest unit production cost than small commercial and pilot scale plants for the production of crude pyrolysis oil that could be used as boiler fuel oil and for the production of upgraded liquid-products.

  1. Development of statistical wet weather model to evaluate frictional properties at the pavement-tire interface on hot mix asphalt concrete 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bedi, Harpreet

    2001-01-01

    Skid resistance on wet pavements is influenced by friction at the tire-pavement interface as well as overall hot mix asphalt (HMA) performance. It is important to control aggregate, asphalt, and mix properties to achieve desirable frictional...

  2. TEM study of PM2.5 emitted from coal and tire combustion in a thermal power station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reto Giere; Mark Blackford; Katherine Smith

    2006-10-15

    The research presented here was conducted within the scope of an experiment investigating technical feasibility and environmental impacts of tire combustion in a coal-fired power station. Previous work has shown that combustion of a coal + tire blend rather than pure coal increased bulk emissions of various elements (e.g., Zn, As, Sb, Pb). The aim of this study is to characterize the chemical and structural properties of emitted single particles with dimensions <2.5 {mu}m (PM2.5). This transmission electron microscope (TEM)-based study revealed that, in addition to phases typical of coal fly ash (e.g., aluminum-silicate glass, mullite), the emitted PM2.5 contains amorphous selenium particles and three types of crystalline metal sulfates never reported before from stack emissions. Anglesite, PbSO{sub 4}, is ubiquitous in the PM2.5 derived from both fuels and contains nearly all Pb present in the PM. Gunningite, ZnSO{sub 4}H{sub 2}O, is the main host for Zn and only occurs in the PM derived from the coal + tire blend, whereas yavapaiite, KFe{sup 3+}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}, is present only when pure coal was combusted. It is concluded that these metal sulfates precipitated from the flue gas may be globally abundant aerosols and have, through hydration or dissolution, a major environmental and health impact. 66 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Curvature pressure in a cosmology with a tired-light redshift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David F. Crawford

    1999-09-06

    A hypothesis of curvature pressure is used to derive a static and stable cosmology with a tired-light redshift. The idea is that the high energy particles in the inter-galactic medium do not travel along geodesics because of the strong electrostatic forces. The result is a reaction back on the medium that is seen as an additional pressure. Combined with the explanation of the Hubble redshift as a gravitational interaction results in a static and stable cosmology. The predicted Hubble constant is 60.2 km/s/Mpc, the predicted background microwave temperature is 3 degrees and quasar luminosity functions and angular size distributions are shown to be consistent with the model. Since most observations that imply dark matter rely on redshift data it is argued that there is no dark matter. Observations of quasar absorption lines, supernovae light curves and the Butcher-Oemler effect are discussed. The curvature pressure is important for stellar structure and may explain the solar neutrino deficiency.

  4. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Rhinehart Tire Fire Dump, Operable Unit 2, Winchester, VA. (Second remedial action), September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-29

    The Rhinehart Tire Fire Dump site is located in a 22-acre drainage area of a sparsely populated rural area in western Frederick County, Virginia. Surface water runoff flows into a north-south tributary that discharges to Hogue Creek, which is 4,000 feet downstream. Bedrock is noted to be highly fractured, and the ground water flow in the overburden aquifer is toward Massey Run. From 1972 to 1983, the site owner conducted a tire disposal operation, which consisted of transporting discarded tires from various locations and storing them on a 5-acre wooded slope behind his home. An estimated 5 to 7 million tires that had been accumulated caught on fire in October 1983 and burned until July 1984. As a result of the fire, a free-flowing oily-tar, which contained anthracene, benzene, cadmium, chromium, ethylbenzene, napthalene, nickel, pyrene, toluene, and zinc, began to seep out of the tire pile into Massey Run and on to Hogue Creek.

  5. Health assessment for Rhinehart (Aka Winchester) Tire Fire National Priorities List (NPL) Site, Frederick County, Virginia, Region 3. CERCLIS No. VAD980831796. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-17

    The Rhinehart (aka Winchester) Tire Fire Site is located near the town of Winchester in Frederick County, Virginia. In October 1983, a fire was started in the tires disposed of on the site. Hot oil was released from the melting and pyrolysis of the tires. This oil made its way to Massey Run, a nearby surface water body. The fire was brought under control within a few days, but continued to smolder for six months. The migration of the oil and the residue from the fire have contaminated the site. The site is of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse human health effects. Human exposure to heavy metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds may occur via ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption of contaminated groundwater, surface water, sediments and soils.

  6. Fuel Economy and Emissions Effects of Low Tire Pressure, Open Windows, Roof Top and Hitch-Mounted Cargo, and Trailer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the fuel economy (FE) effect of some common vehicle accessories or alterations, a compact passenger sedan and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) were subjected to SAE J2263 coastdown procedures. Coastdowns were conducted with low tire pressure, all windows open, with a roof top or hitch-mounted cargo carrier, and with the SUV pulling an enclosed cargo trailer. From these coastdowns, vehicle dynamometer coefficients were developed which enabled the execution of vehicle dynamometer experiments to determine the effect of these changes on vehicle FE and emissions over standard drive cycles and at steady highway speeds. The FE penalty associated with the rooftop cargo box mounted on the compact sedan was as high as 25-27% at higher speeds, where the aerodynamic drag is most pronounced. For both vehicles, use of a hitch mounted cargo tray carrying a similar load resulted in very small FE penalties, unlike the rooftop cargo box. The results for the SUV pulling a 3500 pound enclosed cargo trailer were rather dramatic, resulting in FE penalties ranging from 30%, for the city cycle, to 50% at 80 mph, at which point significant CO generation indicated protective enrichment due to high load. Low tire pressure cases resulted in negligible to 10% FE penalty depending on the specific case and test point. Driving with all four windows open decreased FE by 4-8.5% for the compact sedan, and 1-4% for the SUV.

  7. Tuori Solar Energy Equipment Mfg Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013)OpenEnergyTrailTrosky,EnergyTullahassee,TunicaTunnel JumpTuori

  8. LPO5-002-Proj-Poster-SLR-MFG-1366

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    manufacturing processes, 1366 Technologies aims to produce higher-quality, lower-cost silicon wafers for solar cells. INVESTING in AMERICAN ENERGY OWNER 1366 Technologies,...

  9. mfg@nist.gov www.nist.gov/mep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Agriculture. E3's GREEN SUPPLIERS NETWORK. Manufacturers wishing to target their supply chains turn to E3's Green Suppliers Network. The Green Suppliers Network is a green global marketplace that helps. For each supplier facility, the Green Suppliers Network team conducts a customized technical assessment

  10. Pihsiang Machinery Mfg Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII JumpQuarterly SmartDB-2, Blue Mountain Geothermal Prospect,(RedirectedMachinery

  11. LPO5-002-Proj-Poster-SLR-MFG-1366

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPA PublicLED ADOPTION REPORT LED8-14 LMBLUE MOUNTAINTo6

  12. Acetylene from the co-pyrolysis of biomass and waste tires or coal in the H{sub 2}/Ar plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bao, W.; Cao, Q.; Lv, Y.; Chang, L.

    2008-07-01

    Acetylene from carbon-containing materials via plasma pyrolysis is not only simple but also environmentally friendly. In this article, the acetylene produced from co-pyrolyzing biomass with waste tire or coal under the conditions of H{sub 2}/Ar DC arc plasma jet was investigated. The experimental results showed that the co-pyrolysis of mixture with biomass and waste tire or coal can improve largely the acetylene relative volume fraction (RVF) in gaseous products and the corresponding yield of acetylene. The change trends for the acetylene yield of plasma pyrolysis from mixture with raw sample properties were the same as relevant RVF. But the yield change trend with feeding rate is different from its RVF. The effects of the feeding rate of raw materials and the electric current of plasmatron on acetylene formation are also discussed.

  13. Pulmonary function and symptoms of Nigerian workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire factories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oleru, U.G.; Elegbeleye, O.O.; Enu, C.C.; Olumide, Y.M.

    1983-02-01

    The pulmonary function and symptoms of 125 workers exposed to carbon black in dry cell battery and tire manufacturing plants were investigated. There was no significant difference in the pulmonary function of the subjects in the two plants. There was good agreement in the symptoms reported in the two different factories: cough with phlegm production, tiredness, chest pain, catarrh, headache, and skin irritation. The symptoms also corroborate those reported in the few studies on the pulmonary effects of carbon black. The suspended particulate levels in the dry cell battery plant ranged from 25 to 34 mg/m/sup 3/ and the subjects with the highest probable exposure level had the most impaired pulmonary function. The pulmonary function of the exposed subjects was significantly lower than that of a control, nonindustrially exposed population. The drop in the lung function from the expected value per year of age was relatively constant for all the study subgroups but the drop per year of duration of employment was more severe in the earlier years of employment. This study has underscored the need for occupational health regulations in the industries of developing countries.

  14. Changing Regroved Tires 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    ppb and 140ppb. In order to understand the basic process of formulation of HgCl2 and Hg0 a numerical model is developed in the current work to simulate in the detail i) heating ii) transient pyrolysis of coal and evolution of mercury and chlorine, iii...

  15. DESIGNING AND OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2004-06-01

    During the period July 1, 2000-March 31, 2004, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) conducted an extensive demonstration of woody biomass cofiring at its Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. This demonstration, cofunded by USDOE and Allegheny, and supported by the Biomass Interest Group (BIG) of EPRI, evaluated the impacts of sawdust cofiring in both cyclone boilers and tangentially-fired pulverized coal boilers. The cofiring in the cyclone boiler--Willow Island Generating Station Unit No.2--evaluated the impacts of sawdust alone, and sawdust blended with tire-derived fuel. The biomass was blended with the coal on its way to the combustion system. The cofiring in the pulverized coal boiler--Albright Generating Station--evaluated the impact of cofiring on emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) when the sawdust was injected separately into the furnace. The demonstration of woody biomass cofiring involved design, construction, and testing at each site. The results addressed impacts associated with operational issues--capacity, efficiency, and operability--as well as formation and control of airborne emissions such as NO{sub x}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}2), opacity, and mercury. The results of this extensive program are detailed in this report.

  16. Modular Permanent Magnet Machine Based on Soft Magnetic *** Burgess-Norton Mfg.Co.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipo, Thomas

    . The rotor structure can be designed with surface permanent magnet (SPM) or internal permanent magnet (IPM

  17. Kicking the Tires | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    been doing and would like to do on superconducting radiofrequency cavities, on electron guns and on cryogenic engineering for the ILC. The team also provided a tour, which was...

  18. Liste des tches (provisoire et non exhaustive) Dernire mise jour le 09/10/2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    d'Orléans, Université

    formation ­ COFO (MFG) - astuce (AL) - CAES CNRS (MFG) Groupes - communication (AB, LDe, TH, CLu, CLo, SM

  19. Technical Report #98T-010, Department of Industrial & Mfg. Systems Egnieering, Lehigh Univerisity COORDINATION PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORTATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, David

    . David Wu and Laura I. Burke The Manufacturing Logistics Institute Department of Industrial and logistic functions across facilities and companies is key to supply chain integration. In this paper, we decisions, and the value of integration. #12;-1- 1. Introduction Supply chain management attracts central

  20. A statistical analysis of tire tread wear 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperberg, Ronald Leigh

    1965-01-01

    S Tea'Ds. . . . . . SS The hyyiieability ef Statistiea1 hna1gsis te the Tive Xn4nntry. . . ' ~. . . '. . . . SS Sane ' ef Ce88tVnQtken o e o':e ?. e ' o e o e Meaning ef the "f" Seexes. Xapertn@ee ef the Reeegaitien ef the ' VnxiahXISISe' ' e' o e...' ehich can enlight ata and 'saoaet nightie On Same nea "Xn'in%ice~ Of "4at yxeeentation. wee data analysis and'pxeeentation technIL@des xxi3. l, of nenessitj, be dev'sloyd if the moxd eoyhisticated technixlues-yx'oynsed in this thesis a'ie m...

  1. Carnot Cycle at Finite Power: Attainability of Maximal Efficiency Armen E. Allahverdyan,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona), Spain 3 Ural Federal University, Mira Street 19, Yekaterinburg 620002, Russia 4 Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (Received 28 March 2013

  2. A Materials Approach to Fuel-Efficient Tires

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  3. Goodyear Tire Plant Gains Traction on Energy Savings After Completing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural Gas Consumption After Energy Assessment Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R....

  4. Improving Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Through Tire Design, Materials, and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancingREnergyDepartment of EnergyEdition |Edition |Reduced

  5. System for Automatically Maintaining Pressure in a Commercial Truck Tire |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergyPlan | Department ofSUPPLEMENTSwitzerland 2012System Planning

  6. General Davis kicks the tires on a Safeguards Transporter | National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article)ForthcomingGENERALProblems ISecurityGeneAccountingNuclear

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Rolling Resistance Tires

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Digg FindPortsasIdle ReductionLight-Duty Vehicle

  8. Getting Involved in Manufacturing Day – College Educators Edition Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar will help address questions on why and how community colleges, universities, and technical schools can get involved with MFG DAY.  Led by MFG DAY Co-Producers, the webinar will also...

  9. Executive Board Minutes February 14, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilchrist, James F.

    manufacturing lab for additive mfg, 3D printing, rapid prototyping, etc. This ties in to current gov't , Lehigh

  10. Integrated Graduate Education & Research Traineeships: Transportation Technology & Policy Final Grant Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mokhtarian, Patricia L; Tolentino, Joan

    2005-01-01

    maintenance, repair, fuel, lubricants, tires, parts,maintenance, repair, fuel, lubricants, tires, parts,

  11. Integrated Graduate Education & Research Traineeships (IGERT): Transportation Technology & Policy Final Grant Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mokhtarian, Patricia L; Tolentino, Joan S.

    2005-01-01

    maintenance, repair, fuel, lubricants, tires, parts,maintenance, repair, fuel, lubricants, tires, parts,

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: A Materials Approach to Fuel-Efficient Tires

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by PPG Industries at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about a materials approach to fuel...

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: System for Automatically Maintaining Pressure in a Commercial Truck Tire

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Goodyear at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about a system for automatically...

  14. Improving Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Through Tire Design, Materials, and Reduced Weight

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  15. WAVE TRANSMISSION AND MOORING-FORCE CHARACTERISTICS OF PIPE-TIRE FLOATING BREAKWATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harms, Volker W.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental Results Wave~Transmission Data Page a. PT-1Appendix C - Detailed Wave-Transmission Diagrams . 121 Listing dynamics and load-transmission characteristics. Goodyear

  16. Materials Data on TiRe (SG:221) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  17. WAVE TRANSMISSION AND MOORING-FORCE CHARACTERISTICS OF PIPE-TIRE FLOATING BREAKWATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harms, Volker W.

    2013-01-01

    Facility and Instrumentation a. Wave Tank . b. Have Gauge c.Procedures Experimental Results Wave~Transmission Data Page112 Appendix C - Detailed Wave-Transmission Diagrams . 121

  18. On bicycle tire tracks geometry, hatchet planimeter, Menzin's conjecture and oscillation of unicycle tracks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, M

    2008-01-01

    The model of a bicycle is a unit segment AB that can move in the plane so that it remains tangent to the trajectory of point A (the rear wheel is fixed on the bicycle frame); the same model describes the hatchet planimeter. The trajectory of the front wheel and the initial position of the bicycle uniquely determine its motion and its terminal position; the monodromy map sending the initial position to the terminal one arises. According to R. Foote's theorem, this mapping of a circle to a circle is a Moebius transformation. We extend this result to multi-dimensional setting. Moebius transformations belong to one of the three types: elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic. We prove a 100 years old Menzin's conjecture: if the front wheel track is an oval with area at least pi then the respective monodromy is hyperbolic. We also study bicycle motions introduced by D. Finn in which the rear wheel follows the track of the front wheel. Such a ''unicycle" track becomes more and more oscillatory in forward direction. We pr...

  19. GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-196 Sudden Oak Death Bike Tire Scrubber1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    transport by humans. Key words: Phytophthora ramorum, invasive species, mountain bikes 1 An abstract to 21, 2005, Monterey, California. 2 Department of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Dominican University of California, San Rafael, California 94901; for correspondence: Peter.Thut@wwu.edu 3 Department

  20. Design and Development of a Miniaturized Embedded UHF RFID Tag for Automotive Tire Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    . Basat (1) , M.M. Tentzeris (1) , J. Laskar (1) (1) School of ECE, Georgia Institute of Technology 85 or pet tracking. In these applications data are contact-free transferred to a local querying system based IC packaging process and the miniaturized antenna is built in the lead frame. Passive ICs

  1. Design and Development of a Miniaturized Embedded UHF RFID Tag for Automotive Tire Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    . Basat, K. Lim, I. Kim, M.M. Tentzeris, J. Laskar School of ECE, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta or pet tracking. In these applications data are contact-free transferred to a local querying system based IC packaging process and the miniaturized antenna is built in the lead frame. Passive ICs

  2. Assessment of Tire Technologies and Practices for Potential Waste and Energy Use Reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Regnier, Justin; Burke, Andy; Melaina, Marc W; Bremson, Joel; Keteltas, Michael

    2006-01-01

    of mixing silica and silicone butadiene rubber compounds toeconomically limited to butadiene, styrene, and isoprene. Asthe chemistry of the butadiene by adding neodymium (Nd) or

  3. Goodyear Tire Plant Gains Traction on Energy Savings After Completing Save

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRD Report11, SolarMat 4"Gloria B.CharlesEnergy Now Assessment

  4. 54.5 MPG and Beyond: New Tire Technology Pumps Up Fuel Savings | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOffice | DepartmentVery1, in: A.R.RulemakingsDepartment ofof

  5. A Materials Approach to Fuel-Efficient Tires | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOffice | DepartmentVery1, in: Statement ofAEnergyA LIMITEDAAA

  6. EERE Energy Impacts: Self-Inflating Tires Could Save You Money on Gas,

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i FramingBecker andfindingEnergy roof ofJune 26, 2015July 27,Improve

  7. High Value Scrap Tire Recycle (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers (Journal Article)SciTech Connect High RateTechnical Report:

  8. High Value Scrap Tire Recycle (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers (Journal Article)SciTech Connect High RateTechnical

  9. Passive tire pressure sensor and method (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeeding access to(Conference)Connect Passivation EffectsPassive

  10. Fact #763: January 21, 2013 Eighty-four Percent of Scrapped Tires Are

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015Executive Order14, 20111,FY 2007 FeeFederalFirst2Decisions RM

  11. Microsoft Word - Final Scientific - Technical Report_DE-EE0005390_Cooper_Tire_Submitted

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework uses concrete7 Assessment of the Performance of COBRA-TF for

  12. Goodyear Testing Self-Inflating Tire Systems in U.S. Trucking Fleets |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof Energy Services »Information1Department of Energy Goodyear Testing

  13. Establishing Greener Products and Manufacturing Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linke, Barbara; Dornfeld, David; Huang, Yu-Chu

    2011-01-01

    Precision Manufacturing, LCA, Machining, SustainabilityNOMENCLATURE API = CMOS = GWP = LCA = LCI = Mfg = MRR = RoHSLife Cycle Assessment (LCA). The following sections will

  14. Interseismic crustal deformation in the Taiwan plate boundary zone revealed by GPS observations, seismicity, and earthquake focal mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Mark

    a , Horng-Yue Chen a a Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 1-55, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan fully explain the distribution of maximum contraction and compressive axes in Taiwan. Distribution; while to the south, the South China Sea block of the EUP subducts beneath the PHP (Fig. 1). The Taiwan

  15. Diversity, Distribution, and Molecular Systematics of Octocorals (Coelenterata: Anthozoa) of the Penghu Archipelago, Taiwan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benayahu, Yehuda

    ) of the Penghu Archipelago, Taiwan Yehuda Benayahu1, *, Leendert Pieter van Ofwegen2 , Chang-feng Dai3 , Ming Biodiversity Center, PO Box 9517, Leiden 2300 RA, the Netherlands 3 Institute of Oceanography, National Taiwan Univ., Taipei 106, Taiwan 4 Research Center for Biodiversity, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115

  16. Strain and stress eld in Taiwan oblique convergent system: constraints from GPS observation and tectonic data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jian-Cheng

    Strain and stress ˘eld in Taiwan oblique convergent system: constraints from GPS observation, Taiwan b Institute of Geophysics, National Central University, Chungli 320, Taiwan c Laboratoire de Sciences, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 1-55, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan Received 20 January 2003; received

  17. TAIWAN INTERNATIONAL GRADUATE PROGRAM GRADUATE STUDENT ASSOCIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TAIWAN INTERNATIONAL GRADUATE PROGRAM GRADUATE STUDENT ASSOCIATION (TIGP-GSA) GRADUATE STUDENT, 128 ACADEMIA ROAD, SECTION 2, NANKANG, TAIPEI 115, TAIWAN, R. O. C. Email: gsa.tigp@gmail.com; Website: http://gsa.tigp.sinica.edu.tw/ ABOUT TIGP GRADUATE STUDENT ASSOCIATION (TIGP GSA) Introduction Taiwan

  18. Relocation of the 2006 Pingtung Earthquake sequence and seismotectonics in Southern Taiwan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yih-Min

    Relocation of the 2006 Pingtung Earthquake sequence and seismotectonics in Southern Taiwan Yih a Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan b Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan c Central Weather Bureau, Taipei 100, Taiwan d Institute

  19. TAO, Vol. 14, No. 3, 289-298, September 2003 Earthquake Clustering Relative to Lunar Phases in Taiwan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yuh-Ing

    in Taiwan Cheng-Horng Lin 1, *, Yih-Hsiung Yeh 1 , Yuh-Ing Chen 2 , Jann-Yeng Liu 3 , and Kuang-Jung Chen 4, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC 2 Institute of Statistics, National Central University, Chungli, Taiwan, ROC 3 Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Chungli, Taiwan, ROC 4

  20. Identification of mantle reflections from a dense linear seismic array: Tectonic implications to the Taiwan orogeny

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Cheng-Horng

    to the Taiwan orogeny Cheng-Horng Lin Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan Foothills to study deep crustal structures across central Taiwan, where significant mountain later phases generated by one earthquake (ML = 4.3) in eastern Taiwan and recorded by the linear seismic

  1. Scaling functions of interfacial tensions for a class of Ising cylinders Department of Physics, Chung-Yuan Christian University, Chungli 320, Taiwan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Physics, Chung-Yuan Christian University, Chungli 320, Taiwan and Computing Centre and Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang 115, Taiwan M. C. Huang Department of Physics, Chung-Yuan Christian University, Chungli 320, Taiwan S. C. Lin Department of Physics, Chung-Yuan Christian University, Chungli 320

  2. The Radio Outburst of j Carinae S. M. White

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Stephen

    , Academica Sinica, PO Box 1­87, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan 115 S. A. Drake Lab. for High Energy Astrophysics--infrared emission in the sky outside the solar system. It is thought to be one of the most massive and luminous a Wolf--Rayet star. Massive stars in this evolutionary state are known as ``Luminous Blue Variables

  3. 1 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 9/9/2011 eere.energy.gov FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patent Growth Index[1] shows that fuel cell patents lead in the clean energy field with nearly 1,000 fuel/Market Assumptions: · $1,300/kW initial mfg cost (Battelle), $4,200/kW retail price. · Shipments reach 3,300 annually (construction/ expansion of mfg capacity, installation & infrastructure) & on-going jobs (manufacturing, O

  4. Feasibility of operating a solideliquid bioreactor with used automobile tires as the sequestering phase for the biodegradation of inhibitory compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daugulis, Andrew J.

    has opened the door to the identification of other waste plastics suitable for use in TPPBs agricultural wastes (char carbons, coconut husk carbons) and biosorbents (microbial biomass) were employed-treatment and steel and fiber separation, as the sequestering phase in a Two Phase Partitioning Bioreactor (TPPB

  5. An investigation of the thermal degradation mechanisms of a waste tire through chemical analysis including hydrocarbons, benzene derivatives, and Polycyclic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    including hydrocarbons, benzene derivatives, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) at high temperature a GC/MS. Significant Volatile Organic Carbons (VOCs) including benzene derivatives, PAHs, and Hetero

  6. Recently Michelin has been developing a new airless, integrated tire and wheel combination called the Tweel 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    to end-of-life scenarios and rolling resistance estimates that will affect the LCA. Nevertheless, some Cycle Analysis (LCA). LCA is the essential tool required by businesses in order to understand the total to the life cycle analysis (LCA) standard ISO 14040, LCA is defined as "a systematic set of procedures

  7. J. expo Bioi. 140, 51-63 (/988) Primed in Greal Britain Tire Compan)' of Bioiogisis Limiter! IIJ&'J

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirschvink, Joseph L.

    in connective tissue from the ethmoid region of the skull of adult (4-year-old) sockeye salmon. The ontogenetic closely matched those of magnetite particles extracted from the ethmoid tissue of the adult fish. We of which may be magnetite. appear almost exclusively in adults and so would not be useful in magnetor

  8. Uncovering and avoiding failure modes in driveline and tire/wheel NVH using a computational meta-model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braunwart, Paul R

    2007-01-01

    The automotive industry has undergone significant changes in recent years with increased competition and the introduction of new manufacturers into the market. With this changing market, a more efficient approach to Noise ...

  9. An investigation of the thermal degradation mechanisms of a waste tire through chemical analysis including hydrocarbons, benzene derivatives, and Polycyclic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    including hydrocarbons, benzene derivatives, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) at high temperature-to-Energy, Volatile Organic Carbons (VOCs), Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Hetero-N containing PAH

  10. Compositional Design of Analog Systems Using Contracts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Xuening

    2011-01-01

    The tire as an intelligent sensor,” Trans. Comp. -Aided Des.information from complex intelligent sensors located insidea number of complex intelligent sensors inside the tire that

  11. JCS PHEV System Development-USABC

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Area Progress 1.0 Higher Energy Materials 30-45% 2.0 Electrode Processing & Design Optimization 3.0 Increased Voltage 4.0 Mechanical Design & Advanced Mfg. 5.0 Abuse Tolerance...

  12. 14655 Section J

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    321 Wood Product Manufacturing (321991 Mobile Home Mfg) 8,000,000.00 0.14% 531 Real Estate (531190 Lessors of Other Real Estate Property) 3,300,000.00 0.06% 532 Rental and...

  13. Midea Washing Appliance: Order (2011-CE-1903)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Midea Washing Appliance Mfg. Co., Ltd. to pay a $6,000 civil penalty after finding Midea Washing Appliance had failed to certify that certain models of dishwashers comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  14. Midea Washing Appliance: Proposed Penalty (2011-CE-1903)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Midea Washing Appliances Mfg. Co., Ltd. failed to certify a variety of dishwashers as compliant with the applicable water and energy conservation standards.

  15. SASproperty8_3_09

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    349.95 S17644 CONTROLLER POWER REA COMPU CABLE MFG KVM-601PR-OSD 369.43 0000017722 COMPUTER LAPTOP DELL PP01L - C610 2,115.00 0000022217 KEY DRIVE MINI FLASH SUPER TALENT...

  16. Energy Efficiency Opportunities in California Food Processing Facilities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, T.; Kazama, D; Wang, J.

    2008-01-01

    .5 Cheese Mfg. (L) 8.5 - $531.3 Cheese Mfg. (L) 2 2 $155.5 Brewery Co (L) 8 - $144.5 Beef Co (L) 0.5 3 $139.6 Avg 8 $376 Juice Bottling 16 18 $400 Instant Noodles 10 23 $180 Olive Co 17 10 $204 Creamery 23.5 3.4 $145 Avg 16.6 $232 ESL-IE-08...

  17. A Visual Servoing System for an Amphibious Legged Robot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dudek, Gregory

    servoing field trials in Barbados; Chris Prahacs and Shane Saunderson for working tire- lessly behind

  18. Online Motion Segmentation using Dynamic Label Propagation Ali Elqursh Ahmed Elgammal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Kuang-Yu

    available, with the only solution typically being to reprocess the en- tire video from the beginning

  19. Goodyear Tire Plant Gains Traction on Energy Savings After Completing Save Energy Now Assessment; Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) Save Energy Now Case Study (Brochure)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide to Tapping STD-1128-2013 April 2013 DOE STANDARD GOODForGoodyear

  20. An approach to rollover stability in vehicles using suspension relative position sensors and lateral acceleration sensors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vittal Rao, Narahari

    2006-04-12

    steering procedures and steering angle as the input, the lateral tire forces are generated. These tire forces serve as input to the Dymola model which is integrated into a Simulink model. The lateral acceleration and suspension relative position sensor...

  1. Low resonant frequency beam design for a piezoelectric energy harvesting device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, John A. (John Adam)

    2005-01-01

    The TREAD Act of 2000 proposed rules that will soon make tire pressure sensors standard on all automobiles. The trend seems to be for small chips that can be imbedded in tires and perform sensing, signal processing, and ...

  2. You're sick. Here's what to do!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    weak and tired afterwards You are contagious one day before symptoms begin & 24 hours after your fever may feel more weak and tired afterwards You are contagious one day before symptoms begin & 24 hours

  3. An [imaginary time] Schr\\"odinger approach to mean field games

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swiecicki, Igor; Ullmo, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Mean Field Games (MFG) provide a theoretical frame to model socio-economic systems. In this letter, we study a particular class of MFG which shows strong analogies with the {\\em non-linear Schr\\"odinger and Gross-Pitaevski equations} introduced in physics to describe a variety of physical phenomena ranging from deep-water waves to interacting bosons. Using this bridge many results and techniques developed along the years in the latter context can be transferred to the former. As an illustration, we study in some details an example in which the "players" in the mean field game are under a strong incentive to coordinate themselves.

  4. Amelia Rosselli: poesia e guerra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Re, Lucia

    2007-01-01

    a dirigere tutte le sue energie verso tire il poesia, senzamol- tiplicava le proprie energie creative anche grazie sua

  5. Climate and Transportation Solutions: Findings from the 2009 Asilomar Conference on Transportation and Energy Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Daniel; Cannon, James S.

    2010-01-01

    truck ef?ciency gain, beyond the fuel and engine, involve changes to the powertrain, hybridization, wheel and tires, aerodynamics,

  6. ZONES TO MANAGE HEART FAILURE Discharge Weight: __________ Doctor's Name: ______________________

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    of breath More swelling in your feet, ankles, legs, or stomach Feeling more tired New or unusual coughing

  7. Assembly Bill No. 844 CHAPTER 645

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuel Efficient Tire Report: Volume 1,'' energy efficient tires have the potential to significantly. Replacement Tire Efficiency Program. Existing law, with respect to energy conservation and development, states of petroleum use and to establish a state transportation energy policy that results in the least environmental

  8. Method and apparatus for ultrasonic characterization through the thickness direction of a moving web

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Theodore (Atlanta, GA); Hall, Maclin S. (Marietta, GA)

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the caliper and/or the ultrasonic transit time through the thickness direction of a moving web of material using ultrasonic pulses generated by a rotatable wheel ultrasound apparatus. The apparatus includes a first liquid-filled tire and either a second liquid-filled tire forming a nip or a rotatable cylinder that supports a thin moving web of material such as a moving web of paper and forms a nip with the first liquid-filled tire. The components of ultrasonic transit time through the tires and fluid held within the tires may be resolved and separately employed to determine the separate contributions of the two tire thicknesses and the two fluid paths to the total path length that lies between two ultrasonic transducer surfaces contained within the tires in support of caliper measurements. The present invention provides the benefit of obtaining a transit time and caliper measurement at any point in time as a specimen passes through the nip of rotating tires and eliminates inaccuracies arising from nonuniform tire circumferential thickness by accurately retaining point-to-point specimen transit time and caliper variation information, rather than an average obtained through one or more tire rotations. Morever, ultrasonic transit time through the thickness direction of a moving web may be determined independent of small variations in the wheel axle spacing, tire thickness, and liquid and tire temperatures.

  9. TRANSPORTATION SERVICES VEHICLE RENTAL FEES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) $120.00 PARTS + 10% BRAKE SHOE REPLACEMENT (REAR) $180.00 PARTS + 10% ENGINE FLUSH $60.00 OIL CHANGE $60.00 QM HEAVY EQUIPMENT & OTHERS QM VEHICLES $250.00 SAFETY CHECK $20.00 TIRE SERVICE HEAVY EQUIPMENT TIRE SERVICE FLAT REPAIR $30.00 TIRE SERVICE REPLACEMENT

  10. wNov. 6, 1997 I L L I N O I SVolume 17

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bashir, Rashid

    the sidewall. When the tire is serviced, these weakened areascanrupture,releasingahigh-pressure blast of air an ultrasonic transducer to inject a sound wave into the side of the tire. The ultrasonic pulse then propagates to retreading. For safety rea- sons, we don't want to use bad tires; but, for economic and ecological reasons

  11. Retractable barrier strip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marts, D.J.; Barker, S.G.; McQueen, M.A.

    1996-04-16

    A portable barrier strip is described having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use. 13 figs.

  12. Commercial Fertilizers in 1918-19. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1919-01-01

    Fertilizer Co ............................. 1 Houston County Cotton Oil Mill and Mfg . Co ..... 2 Houston Pack~ng Co ............................ 1 Longview Cotton Oil Co ........................ 3 Marshall Fertilizer Factory ...................... 3... &rings Acid and Fertilizer Co ............ 7 .................................... Swift&Co 84 Tennessee Coal . Iron and Railroad Co ............ 1 ............. ...... Union Seed and Feitilizer Co : 10 ................... Virginia-Carolina Chemical Co...

  13. Organigramme du MAPMO au 22/06/2010 (Ass : MF. Grespier)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    d'Orléans, Université

    Organigramme du MAPMO au 22/06/2010 CNRS A. FUCHS FD Poisson G. BARLES (Ass : MF. Grespier) PUCVL. CORDIER (ass : MFG, AL) Com. Expert Disciplinaire CED : R. ABRAHAM (ass : AL) Département : J. RENAULT (ass : MLP) Responsables Bibliothčque : H. PFITZNER (ass : MW ) Communication : P. GRILLOT (ass : MW

  14. Context Objectives Methodology : Thermo-environomic optimization -Systematic framework for process analysis design and optimization.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahrendt, Wolfgang

    improvements identification 90% Post-combustion CO2 capture in natural gas fuelled power plant Q+ LP Q+ reheat recompression integration Pre-combustion CO2 capture in biomass fed power plant System No MVR MVR tot [%] 27 Physical model CO2 capture model Generic reheat GT model T, P, Xi, MFG Q+ Q- Natural gas Biomass Natural

  15. David E. Fly, P.E. page 1 of 3 David Edward Fly, P.E.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Mingshen

    Christian Gausman, Implementing Lean Manufacturing and Design for Mfg. 2008 Rebecca Anderson, Design in the area he teaches, mechanics of materials and manufacturing processes. His strengths and interest, research in additive manufacturing and composites. He has owned and operated an engineering company

  16. An Incentive Compatible Mechanism for Distributed Resource Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, David

    @engr.uark.edu and S. David Wu Manufacturing Logistics Institute Department of Industrial and Mfg. Systems Engineering collaborative resource planning arises when resource managers need to coordinate their schedule with a group overlooked subject not only in operations management but also in the distributed decisions literature. In any

  17. Boston University College of Engineering Division of Materials Science & Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xi

    535 Green Manufacturing MS 545/ME 545 Electrochemistry of Fuel Cells & Batteries MS 573 Solar Energy Simulation of Physical Processes MS 534/ME 534 Matls Technology for Microelectronics MS 573/EC 573 Solar Energy Systems MS 579/ME 579/EC 579 Microelectronic Device Mfg MS 580/ME 580 Theory of Elasticity MS 783

  18. Waste-to-Energy and Fuel Cell T h l i O i

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Our Energy Future #12;In 2009 NREL Performed a Study for the Los Alamitos Joint Forces Training Base, 2011 Capital Hilton Hotel Washington, DC NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy hardware Technology EvaluatedTechnology Evaluated · Inductive gasification (Pyromex, German technology, mfg

  19. Retractable barrier strip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marts, Donna J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Barker, Stacey G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wowczuk, Andrew (Wheeling, WV); Vellenoweth, Thomas E. (Wheeling, WV)

    2002-01-01

    A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture spikes for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture spikes have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture spikes removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The plurality of barrier blocks hare hingedly interconnected by complementary hinges integrally formed into the side of each barrier block which allow the strip to be rolled for easy storage and retrieval, but which prevent irregular or back bending of the strip. The shafts of adjacent barrier blocks are pivotally interconnected via a double hinged universal joint to accommodate irregularities in a roadway surface and to transmit torsional motion of the shaft from block to block. A single flexshaft cable is connected to the shaft of an end block to allow a user to selectively cause the shafts of a plurality of adjacently connected barrier blocks to rotate the tire-puncture spikes to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire, and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. The flexshaft is provided with a resiliently biased retracting mechanism, and a release latch for allowing the spikes to be quickly retracted after the intended vehicle tire is punctured.

  20. Dogs Have Masters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cero-Atl, Todd Franklin

    2008-04-28

    sometimes self-destructive loyalty, confronting the human condition, which is visualy explained by a piling of discarded tires that have been packed with red earth and then polished clean. The tires represent forward momentum, human ingenuity, adventure..., escape and fredom. Visualy they are the surface exteriors of the human experience. The iron-rich clay, desicated, drawn and cracked, is packed into the tires? interiors and retains the memory of its maker. This encapsulated earth acknowledges our bond...

  1. Prediction of Reflection Cracking in Hot Mix Asphalt Overlays 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Fang-Ling

    2011-02-22

    Distribution ??????????????????????????????? 64 3.4.5 Number of Axle Types per Vehicle ???????????????????????????????????? 65 3.5 Tire Patch Length and Cumulative Axle Load Distribution ???????????????? 70 3.5.1 Tire Patch Length... ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 70 3.5.2 Determination of Cumulative Axle Load Distribution on Tire Length ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 71 3.5.3 Modeling of Cumulative Axle Load Distribution (CALD) ????????? 76 3.6 Determination of Hourly Number...

  2. Fermilab Today - Safety Tip of the Week Archive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    With use and aging, the risk of tire failure and accidents increase. George Davidson, head of Fermilab's Transportation Services Department, advises you to routinely inspect...

  3. Challenges and opportunities in accounting for non-energy use CO2 emissions: an editorial comment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-01-01

    recovery from waste ?ows of polymers and tires might lead to net GHG emissions reductions by offsetting fuels such as coal,

  4. International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    of waste plastics and waste oils maximizes the beneficialcatalyst waste from oil refining, and waste foundry sands (Tires Petcoke, plastic, and waste oil Petcoke, sunflower

  5. Life-Cycle Evaluation of Concrete Building Construction as a Strategy for Sustainable Cities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadel, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    of scrap tires, solvents, and waste oils show considerablySolid waste: other Water emissions: oils, phenols, COD, N, Pdiesel) oil preheater kiln Natural gas Petcoke Wastes

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office 2013 Merit Review: A System for Automatica...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Commercial Truck Tire A presentation given by PPG during the 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: A Materials Approach...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fuel-Efficient Tires Presentation given by PPG Industries at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

  8. Final report on reliability and lifetime prediction.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Wise, Jonathan; Jones, Gary D.; Causa, Al G.; Terrill, Edward R.; Borowczak, Marc

    2012-12-01

    This document highlights the important results obtained from the subtask of the Goodyear CRADA devoted to better understanding reliability of tires and to developing better lifetime prediction methods. The overall objective was to establish the chemical and physical basis for the degradation of tires using standard as well as unique models and experimental techniques. Of particular interest was the potential application of our unique modulus profiling apparatus for assessing tire properties and for following tire degradation. During the course of this complex investigation, extensive relevant information was generated, including experimental results, data analyses and development of models and instruments. Detailed descriptions of the findings are included in this report.

  9. Keith Hellman November 1, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ?) . . . raspberry pi yet? Keith Hellman, CSM Trailhead:BSc in CS 5/20 2 #12;(yawn) Tired of Vanilla Linux? Consider

  10. Secretary Moniz's Remarks at the Washington Auto Show -- As Delivered...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    20 coming from advances in the engines and additional improvements coming from better aerodynamics, reduced weight, high-efficiency tires, technologies that limit idle time and...

  11. Research by BNL investigators was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with smaller contributions from tire dust, plant fragments, natural gas combustion aerosol, and cigarette smoke to four air quality monitoring sites in Southern California using atmospheric organic compound

  12. Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Food Processing Plant Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural Gas Consumption After Energy Assessment Goodyear Tire Plant Gains Traction on Energy...

  13. Save Energy Now Assessment Helps Expand Energy Management Program...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Documents & Publications Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural Gas Consumption After Energy Assessment Goodyear Tire Plant Gains Traction on Energy...

  14. Microsoft Word - Goodyear_Presentation to DOE on ATVMLP.doc

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Brain Riley Date: October 31, 2008 U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Loan Program 1 GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER COMPANY Submitted by: Brain Riley Date:...

  15. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Air Conditioning (HVAC) * Lighting * Air System, General * Axles, Wheels, and Drive Shaft * Tires The systems with the highest percentage of maintenance costs for the fuel cell...

  16. Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications Biomass Boiler Uses a Combination of Wood Waste and Tire-Derived Fuel In 2011, the...

  17. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    timing, gasoline direct injection, cylinder deactivation),spd auto, AMT), Gasoline direct injection (GDI), Tires (lowtechnologies are gasoline direct injection, lower rolling

  18. Companies List Career Connection November 2014 No CompanyName Website MajorSeek TypeOfApp Citizen Degreelevel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    ://www.excelitas.com MFG, ME FT US BS 36 Sterling Engineering http://www.sterling- engineering.com CE, CIS, CS, EE, ITM, ME://admiralheating.com CM FT, PT, FTC, FTI PR BS 11 Terra Engineering LTD. http://www.terraengineering.com CE FT, PT, FTC Engineering Inc. http://www.patrickengineering.co m/ EE FT US, PR BS 18 Ageatia Technology http

  19. Screw Type Steam Compressors for Mechanical Vapor Recompression (MVR) Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawamura, K.; Apaloo, Thomas-L.

    1986-01-01

    hand, is not affected by such problem. No special mist separator is required and, at the same time, the wet or saturated vapor compression is possible, and does not affect the efficiency of the SSHP. (3) Stability of performance for a wide... COMPRESSORS FOR MECHANICAL VAPOR RECOMPRESSION (MVR) SYSTEMS K. KAWAMURA AND THOMAS-L. APALOO MYCOM CORPORATION, LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA MATSUDA, MAYEKAWA MFG. CO., TOKYO, JAPAN ABSTRACT In processes of evaporation, distillation or drying, steam...

  20. The Investigation of Extensional Rheology using the Sentmanat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    C OH O CH3 yx NaOH toluene:n-butanol solvent 80 şC This is the lab-scale procedure. Commercially://www.engineershandbook.com/MfgMethods/blowmol.gif #12;LDPE and Ionomers LDPE (Low Density Polyethylene) Ethylene-Methacrylic Acid Ionomers CH2 CH2 CH2 C.0 12 19 = = = #12;SER with Ionomers 15 wt % methacrylic- acid. 51% of that acid is neutralize

  1. Off-Road Vehicle Impact on Sediment Displacement and Disruption at Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Labude, Brian

    2012-08-15

    -scale impact. This study quantifies the sediment disturbance made by tire tracks, as well as the tire track form, width, depth, and evolution with relation to the number of vehicle passes and location on the beach at Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS...

  2. CATEGORY/BUYER LISTING BUYERS: Darlene Smith, Richard Wagner Page 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Michelle

    -8729 *AIRCN AIR CONDITIONERS-SEE ALSO HVAC: AIR CONDITIONING EQUIP AND ACCESSORIES ROBERT LOZIER (614) 292 & SUPP: ANTIFREEZE, OIL, TIRES, SPARK PLUGS, BATTERIES, BRAKES, HOSES, FLUID, WHEELS, RIMS, FILTERS, ETC SERVICE AND REPAIR RICHARD WAGNER (614) 688-3678 AUTSP AUTOMOTIVE SHOP EQUIP: BATTERY CHARGERS, TIRE

  3. A thermodynamic approach for compaction of asphaltic composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koneru, Saradhi

    2009-05-15

    Binder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 C. Compaction Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1. Field Compaction Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 a. Static Steel Wheel Rollers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 b. Pneumatic Tire... the desired density level and meet the specifications ? To provide the roadway with a smooth surface. The compaction equipment can be divided into three general categories; static steel wheel rollers, pneumatic tire rollers, and vibratory steel wheel rollers...

  4. An evaluation of permanent deformation properties of crumb rubber modified (CRM) asphalt concrete mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makunike, Danai Ellarin

    1995-01-01

    The disposal of waste car and truck tires in the U.S. is becoming increasingly problematic, as is true for all forms of non-biodegradable solid waste. Over 200 million tires are discarded annually, of which only 34 percent are recycled in various...

  5. Off the road & into the boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce, B.

    1995-07-01

    This article addresses the use of discarded automobile tires as fuel in a thermal power plant. The details of Nebraska Public Power`s efforts with tire-derived fuel are outlined, as are the efforts of Wisconsin Power and Light.

  6. Heavy Truck Duty Cycle (HTDC) Project The Heavy Truck Duty Cycle (HTDC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , location/direction/speed/time-of-day, fuel consumption, real-time weight, precipitation/ road condition in studying the effects on fuel consumption of their New Generation Single Wide-Based Tires (NGSWBTs) compared to standard dual tires. Two east-west runs were conducted from Kalamazoo, Michigan to Portland, Oregon

  7. Hurricane Preparedness for Livestock 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paschal, Joseph C.

    2002-08-12

    floor mats, safe tires, a spare tire, and working lights. Take along your extra feed, hay, water and veterinary supplies. Don?t plan to return until the storm has passed and it is safe to do so. If large livestock can not be evacuated, turn them loose... feed and hay are well protected from wind and water. Move hay bales to high ground or stack them on posts or tires. Cover bales to pre- vent water damage. Do not put yourself at risk by checking on live- stock during a storm, but do check on them imme...

  8. Thermoelastic Properties of Particle Reinforced Composites at the Micro and Macro Scales 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gudlur, Pradeep

    2010-01-14

    Particle reinforced composites are widely used in tires, heat exchangers, thermal barrier coatings and many other applications, as they have good strength to weight ratio, excellent thermal insulation, ease of manufacturing ...

  9. Using finite element analysis of retroreflective raised pavement markers to recommend testing procedures for simulating their field performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agrawal, Ravi Prakash

    2006-08-16

    procedures that can better simulate field conditions. This requires identifying critical locations and magnitudes of stresses inside the markers during the tire-marker impacts that happen on roads. The goal of this research was to identify critical magnitudes...

  10. Soon after joining the University of Hawai`i (UH), a Thai colleague (Dr. Woraphat Arthayukti) asked Professor Antal to deliver a lecture in Bangkok on improving the yields of charcoal from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ), and synthetic materials (e.g., shredded automobile tires). Our early work employed a lab-scale reactor initiated studies of the pyrolysis of biomass in pure oxygen at elevated pressure in sealed vessels. Some & Applied Pyrolysis in Birmingham, UK

  11. Commanding lateral acceleration: a natural paradigm for automobile steering 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenny, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    This thesis describes a joystick automobile steering phics. controller which allows the driver to command the lateral acceleration of the vehicle directly, as opposed to controlling the front tire angle. The purpose of the controller is to improve...

  12. An elusive species with many different traits.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giesen, Thomas

    the astronomer, where he lectured with much applause in the lecture-room, How soon, unaccountable, I became tired-Pase detection of HSOH: Synthesis by Flash Vacuum Pyrolysis of ditert-butyl-sulfoxide and rotational- torsional

  13. The Radiance Process: Water and Chemical Free Cleaning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robison, J. H.

    1998-01-01

    the removed contaminant itself. The Process is inexpensive and readily adaptable to many manufacturing products ranging from computer chips, hard disks, and night vision goggles to tire molds. The Process is covered by 29 patents issued in the U...

  14. Pesticide Disposal Pick Up Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Waste No Ammunition No Tires No Biological Waste No Contaminated Waste No Paint No Oil No Fertilizer Pesticides Weed and Feed Pesticide Rinsate Pesticide Dilutions Not Acceptable No Medical Waste No Radioactive

  15. The Forensic Application of Soil: Clandestine Graves and Human Remains Detection Dogs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Michael Benjamin

    2014-12-12

    The use of soil in forensic applications is widespread from mud left on tires and shoes to the examination of soil for pollens endemic to specific areas. The research presented examined 1) the role of soil texture in ...

  16. Radical reuse : from the superfluous to the exquisite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marraccini, Marco

    2006-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the systematic possibilities for the intricate architectural reuse and reconfiguration of the radial tire and the PET plastic bottle. Both waste products demonstrate significant structural and ...

  17. GCOE Seminar Series CCeenntteerr ffoorr MMeeddiiccaall SSyysstteemm IInnnnoovvaattiioonn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Hirosuke

    ) is a non-petrochemical process that directly addresses the lack of supply and price instability led to the manufacture of prototype passenger car tires demonstrating the functional process from

  18. ORNL researchers probe chemistry, topography and mechanics with...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fundamental questions about product performance. If a polymer blend-in a rubber tire or plastic bottle-is failing, why is it failing? In a stressed area, how are nanomechanical...

  19. Commercialization and Licensing | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aug. 27, 2014 - Recycled tires could see new life in lithium-ion batteries that provide power to plug-in electric vehicles and store energy produced by wind and solar, say...

  20. 2014 ORNL Press Releases | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aug. 27, 2014 - Recycled tires could see new life in lithium-ion batteries that provide power to plug-in electric vehicles and store energy produced by wind and solar, say...

  1. Introduction of Shougang Group Introduction of Shougang Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    technology like mold powder design, watering modeling and defects control Material design like high, bearing, spring, non-tempering, and etc. Wire for welding, stranded wire, tire cord, fastener part

  2. Robust yaw stability controller design and hardware-in-the-loop testing for a road vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guvenc, Levent

    Unsymmetrical loading on a car like mu-split braking, side wind forces, or unilateral loss of tire pressure results in unexpected yaw disturbances that require yaw stabilization either by the driver or by an automatic ...

  3. National Weather Service Wichita, KS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) Flashlight and extra batteries, or ones that generate their own energy by shaking them Battery operated and extra batteries Maps Small First Aid Kit White Distress Flag Tire Repair kit Winter supplies

  4. FOCUS July 1998 1 The Departments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    . Blast fur- nace slags, mine tailings, contaminated soils, scrap tires, glass, plastic--more than 4 and drying, car- bonation, and acid rain. In one test, six hours of pressure and pounding in a giant Instron

  5. Northern New Mexico Citi- zens' Advisory Board...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fall 2014 Volume II, Issue IV National Chairs Meeting-Idaho Falls, Idaho Northern New Mexico Citizens' Advisory Board Newsletter M r. Valerio re- tired from the New Mexico Envi-...

  6. Wireless Roadside Inspection (WRI) Every year the number of trucks on the road, and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    carrier/coach USDOT number Shipping document ID Equipment (e.g., trailer) ID Vehicle Measures Brakes Tire warning Container Coupling Driver performance Emissions Exhaust system Fuel system Steering Suspension

  7. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars and Light Trucks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A vehicle footprint is the area defined by the four points where the tires touch the ground. It is calculated as the product of the wheelbase and the average track width of the vehicle. The...

  8. The Community Seismic Network and Quake-Catcher Network: enabling structural health monitoring through instrumentation by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heaton, Thomas H.

    , and allows for 24/7 moni- toring at sites that would otherwise shut down their computers after working hours- tire communities, facility managers, and emergency response groups. Keywords: CSN, QCN, cloud services

  9. Saving Money with Air and Gas Leak Surveys 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodruff, D.

    2010-01-01

    Specialty Chemicals ?Celanese Chemicals ? Columbian Chemicals ? Citgo ?ConocoPhillips, Inc. ? Cooper Tire & Rubber Co. ? Dow Chemical Company ?Daikin America ? Exxon Mobil ? EKA ?Frontier Refining Inc ?GEO Specialty Chemicals ?G E Plastics...

  10. Lateral control of articulated vehicles for automated highway systems under uncertainty in vehicle parameters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daud, Omar

    1998-01-01

    is first developed and then the steering controller is augmented with an independent braking controller which provides differential torque for directly controlling the trailer yaw motion by applying unilateral tire braking on the trailer rear wheels...

  11. Recent Developments in Integrated Methods for Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    ­ Filtering, domain consistency maintenance ­ Passes reduced domains to next constraint (constraint · Cellular frequency assignment · Nurse scheduling · Shift planning · Maintenance planning · Airline crew;· Production scheduling chemicals aviation oil refining steel lumber photographic plates tires · Transport

  12. 2011 Nelnet, Inc. All rights reserved. Nelnet is a registered service mark of Nelnet, Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dinner for yourself Rent movies Go to the movies in the afternoon rather than in the evening Visit local Regularly have your oil changed and use coupons for auto maintenance Make sure your tires are properly

  13. Missouri School District Charges Up

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Missouri's Lee's Summit R-7 school district's distribution fleet was tired. Many of the vehicles had racked up more than 300,000 miles and made frequent trips to the shop to repair the 20 plus-year-old parts.

  14. The Application of Critical Race Feminism to the Anti-Lynching Movement: Black Women's Fight against Race and Gender Ideology, 1892-1920

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnard, Amii Larkin

    1993-01-01

    ANTI-L YNCHING MOVEMENT race to fight together, particularlycommon ground from which to fight lynching. Importantly, theJOURNAL [Vol. 3:1 tirely to the fight against lynching. ' 9°

  15. Lifecycle Analysis of Air Quality Impacts of Hydrogen and Gasoline Transportation Fuel Pathways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Guihua

    2008-01-01

    involved in the full fuel cycle, including producing,2000). The concept of a full fuel cycle is illustrated inand tire wear. The full fuel cycle is also called well-to-

  16. Development, parameterization, and validation of a visco-plastic material model for sand with different

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    Roy2 , and R R Skaggs2 1 International Center for Automotive Research CU-ICAR, Department) and Lagrangian solvers (used to represent vehi- cles/platforms, tires, and soil), have allowed simula- tions

  17. CX-004401: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Use of Scrap Tires for Oil Well StimulationCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 11/08/2010Location(s): Waynesburg, PennsylvaniaOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  18. Xebra Electric Vehicle ZAP stands for Zero Air Pollution.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    among existing EVs. ZAP's Chinese manufacturing partner currently has the manufacturing capacity was carrying no additional load. New tires were installed to make the suspension harder and to minimize

  19. Honey, Did You Plug in the Prius? | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in my trunk, and smoothly drove off. Nestled in my vehicle's spare tire well, a 200-pound lithium-ion battery pack allowed me to go up to 30 miles on electric power before...

  20. Fleet Evaluation and Factory Installation of Aerodynamic Heavy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of refinement. The fleet test undertaken showed an improvement of 5.5 - 7.8% fuel economy with the devices (This does not include tire contribution). Authors: Beck, Jason ;...

  1. Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GlaxoSmithKline 8 Harris Foundation 8 Milliken & Company 8 Shell Oil Company Foundation 8 Wells Fargo Alliance 7 Corvid Technologies, Inc. 7 Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co 7 ABCO Automation Inc. 7 BASF Corporation

  2. What Eco-Driving Techniques Do You Use on the Road?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    What eco-driving techniques do you use on the road? Simple measures such as observing the speed limit, planning your trips, and keeping your tires properly inflated can make a big difference in your savings.

  3. CX-007943: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A System for Automatically Maintaining Pressure in a Commercial Truck Tire CX(s) Applied: C Date: 02/13/2012 Location(s): Kansas Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  4. Lecture Notes for 6.824, Artificial Itelligence fl1992 David McAllester, all rights reserved Rev. November, 1992

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAllester, David

    to understand the properties of carbon dioxide or tires on wet pavement. 1 #12; 1 Categorial Grammar In both, one should understand properties of ideal gases, or frictionless plains, before attempting

  5. SuperTruck Team Achieves 115% Freight Efficiency Improvement...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    low-rolling resistance tires, a long-haul hybrid system, and engine waste heat recovery. Many of the technologies build on VTO's research in a number of areas such as...

  6. Integrating Answer Set Programming and POMDPs for Knowledge Representation and Reasoning in Robotics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sridharan, Mohan

    and our family. Finally and most importantly, I would like to thank my parents. Whenever I feel tired Collaboration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.8 Other Related Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 5.4 Convolutional Policy of POMDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 5.5 Directed R

  7. Vision for the Multi-Function Dynamics Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ervin, Elizabeth K.

    maintenance? · Wash at abutments ­ only known issue #12;Eastgate Bridge Field Test C E Deck: AM Single Lane Results · Settlement at expansion joints · Frequency Domain Car 1 Car 2 Tire impacts visible in trace

  8. Using finite element structural analysis to study retroreflective raised pavement markers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tong, Jiaxin

    2009-06-02

    This thesis investigates the stress inside Retroreflective Raised Pavement Markers (RRPMs) under tire-marker impact and laboratory testing scenarios. Many RRPMs have poor durability although they meet certain standards of the existing laboratory...

  9. Stay informed with current announcements from the Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO).

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Leads DOE’s New HPC for Manufacturing Program Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is collaborating with Lawrence Berkeley and Oak Ridge National Laboratories (LBNL and ORNL) to lead a new US Department of Energy (DOE) program designed to fund and foster public-private R&D projects that enhance US competitiveness in clean energy manufacturing. The High Performance Computing for Manufacturing Program (HPC4Mfg) was announced by David Danielson, DOE assistant secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, during the third annual American Energy and Manufacturing Competitiveness Summit (AEMC).

  10. Michael C Zarnstorff | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCentermillionStockpile Stewardship NationalMEMS:Mfg &

  11. Michael Dopheide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCentermillionStockpile Stewardship NationalMEMS:Mfg &Michael

  12. Michael E. Dorcas | Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCentermillionStockpile Stewardship NationalMEMS:Mfg

  13. Michael Gross | Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCentermillionStockpile Stewardship NationalMEMS:MfgMichael Gross

  14. Michael Himmel - Research Fellow | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCentermillionStockpile Stewardship NationalMEMS:MfgMichael

  15. Michael J. Banda

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCentermillionStockpile Stewardship NationalMEMS:MfgMichaelMichael

  16. Dehumidification Grain Dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-05-13

    A new technique developed during this project dries grain with mildly heated, dehumidified air in a closed-loop process. This proposed technique uses about one-tenth the energy and dries grain at a lower temperature, producing less damage to the kernels.Approximately 250 million automotive and truck tires are discarded each year in the U.S. The very properties that ensure a safe ride and long service life make the disposal of these scrap tires difficult. In spite of this, scrap tire recycling/reuse has rapidly grown from 10% in 1985 to over 90% today. The majority of scrap tires that are recycled/reused are burned for fuel in power plants and cement kilns. Since tires have somewhat higher heating value than coal, this would at first seem to be an acceptable option. But burning scrap tires recovers only 25% of the energy originally used to manufacture the rubber. An alternative is to use the scrap tires in the form of crumb rubber, by which 98% of the original energy is recovered. This project sought to explore potential formulations of crumb rubber with various thermoplastic binders, with one goal being developing a material for a low-cost, high-performance roofing composition. What was the state-of-the-art of the product/process prior to initiation of the project? Why was the project needed (e.g., performance, quality, cost, time to market)? Describe the strengths and interests of each party and how they are complementary with respect to the project. What KCP expertise was needed and how did it complement the partner's capabilities?

  17. Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, J.C.; Tilley, F.H.

    1983-06-14

    Pieces of shredded tires are fed into the top of a vertical pyrolyzing furnace in a measured amount using a weighing hopper feed mechanism. Heated gas is introduced through inlet and pyrolyzing the tire pieces on a countercurrent flow principle to produce useful hydrocarbon volatiles and residues. The pyrolyzed residue including tire reinforcing wires are efficiently removed from the furnace by a plurality of downwardly inclined screw conveyors disposed in troughs. Each screw conveyor extends into an inclined conduit and discharges into a vertical branch conduit disposed at least partially within the cross-section of the furnace so that even discharge of the pyrolyzed residue is ensured by the combined action of gravity and the screw conveyors.

  18. Intern experience at the Andersons: an internship report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norman, Bill Mack, 1954-

    2013-03-13

    is probably the most visible and recognized of the company's operations in the eyes of local consumers. The division consists of three General Stores located adja? cent to the major complexes, four Tire Shops in the Toledo area, a Garden Store in Toledo... contacted such as IBM and Honeywell, among others, and proposals for various systems were received. A major con? sideration in analyzing the proposals was future expansion of the system. Located near the General Store were the Service Shop and the Tire...

  19. Force characterization of flexible couplings for rotordynamic simulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Gerald Geoffrey

    2002-01-01

    and this model were used to determine the reduction of lost torque a Holeset coupling provides over a tire type elastomer coupling. The data collected, the programs used to collect the data, and the simulation programs are presented. One of the test rigs may...

  20. An Investigation of Hydrological Aspects of Water Harvesting 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, O.; Runkles, J.; Wendt, C.

    1972-01-01

    of runoff. To prevent erosion, channel slopes should not exceed 0.005. Catchment surfaces should be wetted by rain or by sprinkling before rolling. Surfaces should be rolled with a rubber-tired roller for 1.5 to 3 hrs per ac. Drop structures should...

  1. We've Lost our Leader 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodenough, Harry [writer of accompanying material

    2012-03-05

    . How do you like this close weather - it makes one feel proper tired - My Trivett is much better again. My cold still bad but will be better soon. Hope you will keep feeling fit - so thumbs up for present - with fondest love from Your Always Affect. son...

  2. 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, WeinheimAdv. Mater. 2011, XX, 14 1 www.advmat.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    ) is designed to transfer such energy into electric energy by the piezoelectric effect.[8­14] The fundamental important for the safe operation of the transportation tool, but also for saving energy. In this work, a NG Wang* A Nanogenerator for Energy Harvesting from a Rotating Tire and its Application as a Self

  3. Facilitating Transformations in a Human Genome Project Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennsylvania, University of

    to express data transforma- tions and constraints. The goal of the Human Genome Project (HGP) is to sequence- tire genome (3 billion bases) at one time. Consequently the HGP has set mapping the chromosomes of the major problems faced in HGP databases is rapid schema evolution and the resulting need to mod- ify

  4. 2006 Raj JainCSE574sWashington University in St. Louis Radio FrequencyRadio Frequency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Raj

    18-1 ©2006 Raj JainCSE574sWashington University in St. Louis Radio FrequencyRadio Frequency;18-3 ©2006 Raj JainCSE574sWashington University in St. Louis What is RFID?What is RFID? ! Radio Frequency #. 96-bit block of read- only storage (ROM). " Read-write memory. " Tags may have embedded sensors (tire

  5. Vehicle Speed Estimation using Acoustic Wave Patterns Volkan Cevher, Member, IEEE, Rama Chellappa, Fellow, IEEE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cevher, Volkan

    1 Vehicle Speed Estimation using Acoustic Wave Patterns Volkan Cevher, Member, IEEE, Rama Chellappa length, and tire track length by jointly estimating its acoustic wave pattern with a single passive acoustic sensor that records the vehicle's drive-by noise. The acoustic wave pattern is determined using

  6. Concurrent multiscale computational modeling for dense dry granular materials interfacing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regueiro, Richard A.

    of interfacial mechanics between granular soil and tire, tool, or penetrometer, while properly representing far computational modeling of interfacial mechanics between granular materials and deformable solid bodies, agricultural grains (in silo flows), dry soils (sand, silt, gravel), and lunar and martian regolith (soil found

  7. Polymer Communication Cryogenic mechanical alloying as an alternative strategy for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polymer Communication Cryogenic mechanical alloying as an alternative strategy for the recycling 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Polymer recycling; Cryogenic mechanical for a signi®cant fraction of the world-wide polymer consumption [1]. Thus, while we focus on tire recycling

  8. SNORKEL PRO-66 DAILY INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE CHECKLIST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelfond, Michael

    (installation, condition) 6 Battery terminals Visually inspect ( corrosion) 7 Battery fluid level Check fluid Oil leaks Visually inspect (hoses, tubes, fittings) 10 Tires Visually inspect (condition) 11 Bolts) 13 Guard rails Visually inspect condition 14 Platform gravity gate Visually inspect (operation) 15

  9. CATEGORY/BUYER LISTING BUYERS: Darlene Smith, Richard Wagner Page 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Michelle

    CONDITIONING EQUIP AND ACCESSORIES ROBERT LOZIER (614) 292-9959 AIRCP AIRCRAFT PARTS & SUPP: AIRCRAFT EQUIP PLUGS, BATTERIES, BRAKES, HOSES, FLUID, WHEELS, RIMS, FILTERS, ETC SERVICE AND REPAIR RICHARD WAGNER (614) 688-3678 AUTSP AUTOMOTIVE SHOP EQUIP: BATTERY CHARGERS, TIRE CHANGING EQUIP. ETC JOHN MALONEY

  10. Published in Journal of Engineering Valuation and Cost Analysis, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 173-187, 2000. Milliken Research Fellow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Kemper E.

    in multiple environments. For instance, consider the design of a race car. The car must perform well on turns to differences in speed, aerodynamic forces and tire performance. Race teams want their car to perform wellPublished in Journal of Engineering Valuation and Cost Analysis, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 173-187, 2000

  11. Haeyong Chung Computer Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motorcycles Race cars Chassis components Tires Springs, dampers, bushings,... Scope #12;5Haeyong Chung www of Mechanical Engineering Director, VTPL Virginia Tech #12;3Haeyong Chung www.me.vt.edu/VTPL John Ferris www www.me.vt.edu/VTPL Vehicles Passenger cars and trucks Commercial off-road and military vehicles

  12. MN4602 Crouch 2004 REASSESSING WEAPON SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cars on the track at all times throughout each 500 mile race. Pit stops for gas and tire changes you surround yourself with a group of newly graduated NPS engineers and begin to plan your racing team to ensure we can keep 6 cars on the track for the entire season? 3. How many pit stops can we make per race

  13. Name ________________________________ Lab 11. Solid Waste Lab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perfect, Ed

    clippings to old sofas, computers, tires, and refrigerators. It does not include industrial, hazardous;2 Looking at Figure 2, what percent of MSW was recycled in 2006? Has the general trend been toward more or less recycling since 1985? #12;3 Looking at Figure 3, what is the most recycled material? Why

  14. Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    significant NOx emissions reductions. From additional analysis with other pollutants, both technologies did, Diesel Equipment, Grader, Rubber Tire Loader, Excavator, Exhaust Emissions, NOx, Emissions Reduction of emission reduction technologies and emission control measures practiced by the state of Texas and other

  15. Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Equipment, Grader, Rubber Tire Loader, Excavator, Exhaust Emissions, NOx, Emissions Reduction, PEMS TestingDOT non-road diesel equipment emissions. This document presents literature reviews of emissions reduction of TxDOT non-road equipment and emissions reduction technologies for emissions testing, and shows

  16. WELDING RESEARCH -S125WELDING JOURNAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DuPont, John N.

    WELDING RESEARCH -S125WELDING JOURNAL ABSTRACT. Microstructural evolution and solidification cracking susceptibility of dissimilar metal welds between AL- 6XN super austenitic stainless steel and two, differential thermal analysis, and Varestraint testing tech- niques. Welds were prepared over the en- tire

  17. Apparatus for weighing and identifying characteristics of a moving vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Clinton, TN); Jordan, John K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tobin, Jr., Kenneth W. (Harriman, TN); LaForge, John V. (Knoxville, TN)

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for weighing a vehicle in motion is provided by employing a plurality of elongated fiber-optic sensors defined by an optical fiber embedded in an encasement of elastomeric material and disposed parallel to each other on the roadway in the path of moving vehicles. Each fiber-optic sensor is provided with contact grid means which can be selectively altered to provide the fiber-optic sensors with sensitivities to vehicular weight different from each other for weighing vehicles in an extended weight range. Switch means are used in conjunction with the fiber-optic sensors to provide signals indicative of the speed of the moving vehicle, the number of axles on the vehicle, weight distribution, tire position, and the wheelbase of the vehicle. The use of a generally N-shaped configuration of switch means also provides a determination of the number of tires on each axle and the tire footprint. When switch means in this configuration are formed of optical fibers, the extent of light transmission through the fibers during contact with the tires of the vehicle is indicative of the vehicle weight.

  18. Apparatus for weighing and identifying characteristics of a moving vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muhs, J.D.; Jordan, J.K.; Tobin, K.W. Jr.; LaForge, J.V.

    1993-11-09

    Apparatus for weighing a vehicle in motion is provided by employing a plurality of elongated fiber-optic sensors defined by an optical fiber embedded in an encasement of elastomeric material and disposed parallel to each other on the roadway in the path of moving vehicles. Each fiber-optic sensor is provided with contact grid means which can be selectively altered to provide the fiber-optic sensors with sensitivities to vehicular weight different from each other for weighing vehicles in an extended weight range. Switch means are used in conjunction with the fiber-optic sensors to provide signals indicative of the speed of the moving vehicle, the number of axles on the vehicle, weight distribution, tire position, and the wheelbase of the vehicle. The use of a generally N-shaped configuration of switch means also provides a determination of the number of tires on each axle and the tire footprint. When switch means in this configuration are formed of optical fibers, the extent of light transmission through the fibers during contact with the tires of the vehicle is indicative of the vehicle weight. 15 figures.

  19. Ultrasonic search wheel probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mikesell, Charles R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1978-01-01

    A device is provided for reducing internal reflections from the tire of an ultrasonic search wheel probe or from within the material being examined. The device includes a liner with an anechoic chamber within which is an ultrasonic transducer. The liner is positioned within the wheel and includes an aperture through which the ultrasonic sound from the transducer is directed.

  20. Seeking New Challenges: Re-Energizing a Career John Boll considers his year in the Executive MBA program at the University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    Seeking New Challenges: Re-Energizing a Career John Boll considers his year in the Executive MBA wrong, but, still, I was tired in my thinking, feeling complacent, and I needed something that could re-energize MBAs will be exceptionally well-equipped to step in and re- energize those companies." #12;

  1. Section 1, Page 1 [This is my section of a 3-person project on bus rapid transit. This section, Section 1, is an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfson, Sabina

    1 : (1) bus stations with amenities, (2) well designed vehicles, (3) a mechanism for rapid fare provide a high level of transit service using vehicles with rubber tires. The above features allow) Reduced pollution due to less fuel use per person. (4) Increased land development and value around

  2. Vrme-och strmningsteknik Thermal and Flow Engineering Processteknikens grunder (PTG) 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    such that in 1 second the pressure is reduced to ambient 0.1 MPa, = 100 kPa. The volume of the tire is constant: värmegenomgĺngstal U (W/(m2 ·K)) beror inte pĺ temperaturskillnaden T. 1104. In a simple, double-tube heat exchanger reversed, giving a parallel flow heat exchanger. Calculate the final temperature of the benzene. Note

  3. Chemical Education Today www.JCE.DivCHED.org Vol. 82 No. 5 May 2005 Journal of Chemical Education 673

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    of an earlier talk presented at An- chor Steam Brewery, San Francisco (see photograph be- low), and it can of how its volume changes with pressure and temperature. But foam does not fill its container. Moreover: the recovery of oil from tired oil wells in which bubbles are injected to help lift heavier crude

  4. VECTOR CONTROL, PEST MANAGEMENT, RESISTANCE, REPELLENTS Effects of Larval Habitat Substrate on Pyriproxyfen Efficacy Against

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VECTOR CONTROL, PEST MANAGEMENT, RESISTANCE, REPELLENTS Effects of Larval Habitat SubstrateŢcial containers. Tires, battery boxes, waste containers, earthenware, paper cups, discarded metaldrums,coconutshells,leafaxils,andglassbottles were key larval habitats of dengue vectors Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in industrial, urban

  5. SCIENTIFIC NOTE AN UNUSUAL LARVAL COLLECTION AND SURVIVAL OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (ca. 57 liter) at an industrial construction site, we collected 655 (86.0%) Orthopodomyia signifera of organic debris moderates temperatures for diapausing larvae (Kitching 2001, Crans 2004). Waste tires for integrated mosquito management (Focks and Sackett 1985). However, many Toxorhynchites are also cannibalistic

  6. Compressed Air System Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R.

    1999-01-01

    Several years ago I went to a gas station and noticed that my car's tires were low on air. I saw the gas station had an air compressor, but it cost a quarter to use the compressor. I paid my quarter and used the compressor. I realized...

  7. People's Physics Book 3e A-1 Appendix A: Answers to Selected Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    . f1= µkm1gcos; f2 = µkm2gcos 36c. Ma 36d TA= (m1 + m2) (a + µcos) and TB = m2a + µm2cos 36e. Solve. 5700 N 32d. Friction between the tires and the ground 32e. Fuel, engine, or equal and opposite reaction

  8. Quantifying E. coli Discharge from Failing Onsite Sewage Facilities in the Dickinson Bayou Watershed, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrison, Derek

    2014-07-24

    tires typically surround the distribution pipes, while a geotextile membrane is set on top of this layer to separate it from a layer of loamy soil placed near the surface (TAMAE, 2008). Native soil is added on top of the layer of loamy soil, a typical...

  9. A low cost adaptive optics system using a membrane mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dainty, Chris

    A low cost adaptive optics system using a membrane mirror C. Paterson, I. Munro and J. C. Dainty 2BZ, UK carlp@ic.ac.uk Abstract: A low cost adaptive optics system constructed almost en- tirely a diffractive wavefront generator based on a ferroelectric spatial light modulator. This is used to produce

  10. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 41494161, 2011 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/11/4149/2011/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Survey, Cambridge, CB3, 0ET, UK 3Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology to modulate the gravity-wave field of the middle atmosphere and consequently modulate the fluxes of gravity-wave energy and momentum that drives the en- tire global circulation of the upper middle atmosphere (e

  11. Mapping of cardiac electrical activation with electromechanical wave imaging: An in silicoin vivo reciprocity study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konofagou, Elisa E.

    Mapping of cardiac electrical activation with electromechanical wave imaging: An in silico­in vivo Electromechanical wave imaging (EWI) is an en- tirely noninvasive, ultrasound-based imaging method capable of mapping the electromechanical activation sequence of the ventri- cles in vivo. Given the broad

  12. New Catalyst Might Expand Bio-Ethanol's Possible uses: fuel additives, rubber and solvents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and solvents RESULTS To turn bio-ethanol into chemicals that are typically made from petroleum, re- searchers-boosting gas and fuel ad- ditives, bio-based rubber for tires and a safer solvent for the chemicals industry Univer- sity have potentially found a renewable path to fuel additives, rubber and solvents. Scientists

  13. 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim 1 www.advmat.de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    limita- tions of traditional power supplies by providing a supplemen- tary electric power source appliances, such as washing machines and refrigera- tors, to bouncing automobile tires on a gravel road harvesting have been limited to transductions based on piezo- electric effect,[1­5] electromagnetic effect,[6

  14. GUO ET AL. VOL. XXX ' NO. XX ' 000000 ' XXXX www.acsnano.org

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    mechanical motion, is ubiquitous in daily life, from operating household appliances, such as washing machines and electric fan, to auto- mobile tires running on a road. Over the past decades, it has become an attractive demonstrated to harvest the rotational kinetic energy and their electric output per- formances are superior

  15. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Constructed Wetland Media 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Weaver, Richard; Richter, Amanda; O'Neill, Courtney

    2005-02-19

    or installer may know where to buy them. If not, the Texas Commission for Environmental Quality maintains a list of tire-chip processors on its Web site at: http://www.tceq.state.tx.us/assets/pub lic/comm_exec/pubs/sfr/069_03.pdf Configuration Wetland beds can...

  16. 22 University Parking Stories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Devoret, Michel H.

    York's CitiBike bikeshare. Smart Lock vs. Smart Dock Smart lock or smart bike refers to the factMaio, bikeshare program manager for the City of Arlington, Va., and co-founder of MetroBike. Not only was Paul-tired bicycle from the City of Copenhagen's ByCyklen (City Bike) program in tow. We had a brain- storming

  17. Compression Progress, Pseudorandomness, & Hyperbolic Discounting Moshe Looks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortes, Corinna

    time t, h( t), may be encoded in a program p that generates the data h( t) as output by exploiting said generator (PRNG) using an unknown but accessible random seed, n bits long. Assuming that the PRNG is of high highly compressed), and en- tirely unpredictable (incompressible and not expected to yield to compression

  18. Animating Sand, Mud, and Snow Robert W. Sumner James F. O'Brien Jessica K. Hodgins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, James F.

    Animating Sand, Mud, and Snow Robert W. Sumner James F. O'Brien Jessica K. Hodgins College footprints made by a runner in sand, mud, and snow as well as bicycle tire tracks, a bicycle crash- sulting motion, we compare the simulated footprints to video footage of human footprints in sand. Keywords

  19. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 30333043, 2008 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/8/3033/2008/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    ­ Accepted: 15 May 2008 ­ Published: 18 June 2008 Abstract. Erythemaly weighted UV and total UV-A irra simultaneously to compare UV irradiances on vertical and horizontal planes. The en- tire range of such relative, then for vitamin D3 weighed UV irradiance. The minima of relative exposure (0.20­ 0.30) are almost the same for all

  20. ICSE-18 Window on the World Editor-in-Chief: Bashar Nuseibeh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nuseibeh, Bashar

    WOW staff was labouring on a caffeine and pizza high, setting new standards in literary excellence (as. How late, you might ask, did this labour of love last? Tuesday was easiest, with a 01:30 wrap time-processing by Sabine Lem- bke. Ken Wong was unavailable for the pose. Not So Small Ad Tired? Stressed? Can't Sleep

  1. An Ultra-Low-Power Power Management IC for Wireless Sensor Nodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Seth

    -averaged power consumption of 6 µW. Peak powers of several mW are required. The performance of a self-powered WSN while minimizing power consumption. The converters achieve efficiencies approaching 80%. I. INTRODUCTION at very low duty cycles to minimize power consumption. In the TPS application, tire pressure is measured

  2. e n g e n i o u s f a l l 2 0 0 1 i d e a f l o w

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haile, Sossina M.

    Turbine Partnership, Head of the Division of Aeronautics, Fluids, Energy, and Turbomachinery, and a Fellow the modeling and control of instabilities in gas turbine combustors, road-tire interaction noise, helicopter noise, sound/vortex interaction, and the vibra- tion of towed underwater structures. She is a consultant

  3. A novel method to collect "Action" video shots from the Web Fully-automatic and unsupervised

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanai, Keiji

    fix+tire 67 skate 37 blow+candle 29 basketball+dribble 64 swim+crawl 36 wash+face 29 blow-dry+hair 64+money 33 catch+fish 28 curl+bicep 58 paint+wall 33 drive+car 28 (1) Six-action experiments under various

  4. Seminar (Winter '10) 16th ARC Conference Events Archive ARC Collaborative Research Seminar Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    Debevec, PhD We will present our work in building virtual humans at the ICT. We will cover new technology with preliminary validation and validation plans. Dynamic tire model for real-time human-in-the-loop driving we are developing to create life-like animations that can be controlled dynamically by an artificial

  5. 2/24/2014 Meet the TinyWindmills That Could Charge Your Phone Someday http://www.kleanindustries.com/s/environmental_market_industry_news.asp?ReportID=619696 1/1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    | Specialized Tire & Plastic Recycling Equipment | Waste to Energy Technology Supplier ----- Tweet Resources potentially be connected to a phone to gather energy from natural wind or from waving the phone in the air-windmills might be used," Rao said in a statement. 0Like Corporate Info Business Activities Plant Quotations Klean

  6. Volume II, Issue 4 your connection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    us choose our direction as a community for responsible energy, water, and materials consumption oil, scrap metals, automotive batteries, electronics, fluorescent bulbs, cutting oils, tires, printer the mid-1990s. In each of the last 5 years, the Lab's water consumption total was approximately half

  7. Micro Hydro 1 Micro Hydro Power.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Micro Hydro 1 Micro Hydro Power. Andrew Cannard, Andrew Gonzales, Candace Kaiser. Using recycled materials we will be building a Mini Micro hydro system. Using a rear bicycle tire for the turbine we and implementation of permanent micro hydro systems on campus. Renewable energy is a key aspect of any plan to make

  8. Graduate Studies in the Mechanical, Industrial and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolaidis, Efstratios

    &D, Conceptual Design Management CAD, drafting Operations, labor #12;2. Why MIME · One of the best departments, NREL, NSF ­ Industry: Bell Helicopter Textron, Chrysler, Cooper Tire and Rubber, Eaton, Ford, GM and MEMS Material Joining Laboratory Precision Micromachining Wind Turbine Research High Performance

  9. Know before you go. Don't get left out in the cold. Prepare your vehicle for winter weather.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanagh, Karen L.

    Know before you go. Don't get left out in the cold. Prepare your vehicle for winter weather. Do you drive during winter? Winter weather is hard on your vehicle and its engine. Here are some tips to help tire air pressure frequently, as it decreases in cold weather. 2. Get your car winter ready

  10. The Size of the Sensitization Zone in 304 Stainless Steel Welds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    ) ) viS i tf. f. t ~ I~ i \\ ! l The Size of the Sensitization Zone in 304 Stainless Steel Welds N stainless steel welds have been studied through a swtistical/y desigm·d experimellt. Tire resuits indicate stainless steel plates using argon shielding gas. The chemical com- position of the stainless steel is given

  11. RF-System-On-Package (SOP) for Wireless Communications I Kyutae Lim, Stephane Pinel, Mekita Davis, Albert Sutono, Chang-Ho Lee, Deukhyoun Heo,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    Tummala A new industrial revolution, often called the "third wave" or information technology (IT), is in the mak- ing. The products of this revolution will require en- tirely different systems hardware design and packaging have been established as key technologies of this revolution. The demand

  12. Effects of the furnace temperature on the CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and unburned hydrocarbon emissions from the combustion of coal and alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levendis, Y.A.; Atal, A.; Courtemanche, B.

    1999-07-01

    Results are presented on the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), unburned aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from the combustion of pulverized bituminous coal, tire-derived fuel and, for a limited number of runs, waste plastics-derived fuel. The particle size cuts of pulverized coal, tire and plastics were 63--75 {micro}m and 180--300 {micro}m, respectively. Combustion experiments were conducted in a laboratory-scale drop-tube furnace at gas temperatures, in the range of 1,300--1,600 K, and several fuel mass loadings in the furnace, expressed in terms of global equivalence ratios in the range of 0.4--2.4. The CO, CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions were monitored continuously with infrared absorption and chemiluminescent instruments. Up to sixty 2-7 ring polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were detected by capillary gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. Results showed that the PAH emission yields (mg/g fuel introduced) increased drastically with increasing bulk equivalence ratio (in the aforementioned range), at fixed furnace temperatures. This was also true for the CO yields, while the CO{sub 2} yields increased with increasing {o}, reached a maximum around stoichiometry and then decreased mildly. NO{sub x} yields decreased precipitously with increasing equivalence ratio. The CO and, especially, the PAH yields from tire-derived and plastics-derived fuels were much higher than those from coal, but the relative amounts of individual PAH components were remarkably similar in the combustion effluent of all fuels. The CO{sub 2} emissions and, especially, the NO{sub x} emissions from tire crumb were lower than those from coal. The CO{sub 2} emissions from plastics were comparable to those from coal, but their NO {sub x} emissions were much lower than those from tire. At fixed bulk equivalence ratios, however, as the furnace gas temperature increased the PAH yields from coal, tire crumb, and plastics decreased drastically, while the CO emission yields increased. At the highest temperature tested herein, 1,600 K ({approx}1,300 C), the effluent of the combustion of the fuels appeared to be devoid of PAHs. No{sub x} yields increased mildly with temperature. The influence of temperature, in this range, on the CO{sub 2} emissions was not significant. 65 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Waste oils utilized as coal liquefaction solvents on differing ranks of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orr, E.C.; Shi, Y.; Liang, J.

    1995-12-31

    To determine the feasibility of using different waste oils as solvent media for coals of differing rank, oil from automobile crankcases, oil derived from the vacuum pyrolysis of waste rubber tires, and oil derived from the vacuum pyrolysis of waste plastics, have been heated to 430{degrees}C with coal in tubing reactors a hydrotreated for 1 hour. Analysis of the solvents indicates the presence of heavy metals in the waste automobile oil. Analysis of the plastic oil shows the presence of iron and calcium. The analysis of the tire oil shows the presence of zinc. Conversion yields are compared and results of analysis for the presence of metals in the liquid products are reported.

  14. Chemical reclamation of scrap rubber. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazier, G.C.; Chan, S.M.; Culberson, O.L.; Perona, J.J.; Larsen, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    A conceptual, commercial-scale plant design was formulated for processing 22,500 t/yr of scrap rubber tires to hydrocarbon fuel gases, oils, petrochemicals (principally ethylene and aromatic liquids), and carbon black. The process is based upon molten salt (zinc chloride) pyrolysis of the rubber, and pyrolysis data obtained in a bench-scale flow apparatus. An economic assessment of the plant was made in terms of late 1979 dollars, for ranges in scrap tire costs and prices for the principal products: carbon black and the fuel gases and oil. Profitability at these 1979 costs and prices is somewhat modest by chemical processing industry standards for new processes, but any increases in energy and carbon black prices would cause favorable changes in this assessment.

  15. Analysis and optimization of an active damping vehicle suspension subjected to random roadway disturbances 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coker, Christopher Franklin

    1992-01-01

    square stroke. rate at w 'c in r hi h ' creasing passive damp g damping reduces the 0. 5 1 Ba/Ban ""i"- K/Kn 2 2. 5 K n s usrs stroke vs. Bs snd Fig. 9 y- Sk -hook model mean square s nofBaan, o d K, h lding Bp constant at Bpn. a h of stroke as a... of passive damping, variations in active damp' g in have little influence on tire- force variation. 1. 4 F/Fn 1. 2 0. 8 K/Kn 0. 5 ', 1 1. 5 ' 1 Ba/Bpn 2 Flg. tz Sky-frock model mean square tire force variation vs. Ba and K Figure 12 is a graph...

  16. Ridge station eases Florida's waste-disposal problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanekamp, R.

    1994-10-01

    Two results of Florida's continuing population growth are (1) a critical need for electricity, and (2) a solid-waste disposal crisis. During a recent winter cold snap, electric demand in one service territory surged 25% over generating capacity and 10% over net system capability. Rolling blackouts ensued. At the same time, Florida's fragile wetlands environment is suffering from years of unfettered development. Groundwater sources are contaminated, landfill space is scarce, and illegal tire dumps blight the landscape. The recently constructed Ridge generating station in Polk County, Fla. is addressing both the state's electrical and environmental needs. Ridge, which entered commercial operation in May, burns a unique mix of urban woodwaste and scrap tires to provide 45 MW of critically needed electricity while keeping large quantities of solid waste out of landfills. When pipeline construction at an adjacent landfill is completed, the facility also will burn the methane gases produced when garbage decomposes.

  17. Mechanisms of Organic-inorganic Interactions in Soils and Aqueous Environments Elucidated using Calorimetric Techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvey, Omar R.

    2011-08-08

    : bacteria, viruses and spores; roads, tire and brake abrasions; and fine soil particles [20]. Secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) are formed through condensation of VOCs in the atmosphere [20]. Estimates of atmospheric organic matter production are very... of the biochar formed during pyrolysis is dependent on combustion conditions (eg. temperature, combustion duration and oxygen supply) and the chemistry of the original plant tissues. As combustion temperature increases transformation of plant tissues occur via...

  18. Cooperative Research Program in Coal-Waste Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald Huffman

    2000-03-31

    The results of a feasibility study for a demonstration plant for the liquefaction of waste plastic and tires and the coprocessing of these waste polymers with coal are presented. The study was conducted by a committee that included nine representatives from the CFFS, six from the U.S. Department of Energy - Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), and four from Burns and Roe, Inc. The study included: (1) An assessment of current recycling practices, particularly feedstock recycling in Germany; (2) A review of pertinent research, and a survey of feedstock availability for various types of waste polymers; and (3) A conceptual design for a demonstration plant was developed and an economic analysis for various feedstock mixes. The base case for feedstock scenarios was chosen to be 200 tons per day of waste plastic and 100 tons per day of waste tires. For this base case with oil priced at $20 per barrel, the return on investment (ROI) was found to range from 9% to 20%, using tipping fees for waste plastic and tires typical of those existing in the U.S. The most profitable feedstock appeared to waste plastic alone, with a plant processing 300 t/d of plastic yielding ROI's from 13 to 27 %, depending on the tipping fees for waste plastic. Feedstock recycling of tires was highly dependent on the price that could be obtained for recovered carbon. Addition of even relatively small amounts (20 t/d) of coal to waste plastic and/or coal feeds lowered the ROI's substantially. It should also be noted that increasing the size of the plant significantly improved all ROI's. For example, increasing plant size from 300 t/d to1200 t/d approximately doubles the estimated ROI's for a waste plastic feedstock.

  19. The Response of Honey Mesqite to Herbicides. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bovey, R.W.; Meyer, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    not only reduces production and utilization of herbaceous forage but also makes handling and locating of livestock difIicult. Mes- quite also produces thorns injurious to humans, live- stock, and pneumatic-tire vehicles. Mesquite is presently...- scribed above (26). Therefore, the combination of pic- loram and 2,4,5-T is generally more effective than either herbicide applied alone. More recently, Bovey and Mayuex (16) studied the effectiveness and transport of 2,4,5-T, picloram, tri- clopyr...

  20. Permeability decline due to flow of dilute suspensions through porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasr-El-Din, H.A. [Lab R& D Center, Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31

    Suspension flow in porous media is encountered in many industrial applications. In the oil industry, suspended solids present in injected waters cart cause significant damage around the wellbore or deep in the formation. Depending on tire physical properties of tire solid particles, the porous medium, and operating conditions, solids can form external or internal filter cake, or just flow through the media without causing any damage. External filter cake formation causes a fast and sharp drop in permeability or injectivity of the formation. Reversing the flow direction can recover some of the damaged permeability. Internal filter cake formation cases a gradual or steady drop in permeability. Reversing the flow direction will not recover tire damaged permeability. Increasing solids concentration or particle size will cause more damage to formation. Injection of low-salinity water into sandstone reservoirs can trigger fines migration and clay swelling. Both factors can damage the formation. Injection of water that is incompatible with the formation brine may cause precipitation of insoluble sulfates that cart plug the formation. Stimulation (or acidizing) the formation cart also produce solid particles that can damage the formation. Corrosion by-products (e.g., iron sulfide) cart block the flow paths and reduce the permeability of the formation. Many experimental and modeling studies to predict formation damage due to flow of suspensions in porous media are discussed in this chapter. Solids can be present in injected waters or be generated in the formation. More research is needed to predict flow of suspensions in porous media when solid particles invade and are generated in tire formation simultaneously. 71 refs., 19 figs.

  1. Detection of contraband using microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toth, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM); Loubriel, Guillermo M. (Albuquerque, NM); Bacon, Larry D. (Albuquerque, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and system for using microwave radiation to detect contraband hidden inside of a non-metallic container, such as a pneumatic vehicle tire. The method relies on the attenuation, retardation, time delay, or phase shift of microwave radiation as it passes through the container plus the contraband. The method is non-invasive, non-destructive, low power, and does not require physical contact with the container.

  2. Unwinding the Spin on Variable Speed Drive Air Compressors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beals, C. E.

    2006-01-01

    – The Elimination of Moisture” 9 Industries Audited Aircraft Fasteners Aluminum Cans Aluminum Can Lids Automotive Batteries Automotive Dashboards Automotive Door Panels Automotive Frames Automotive Seating Automotive Tires Bottle Blowing... of expertise or experience in the industry. n clients have asked us to review these “free When clients have asked us to review these “free audit” reports we generally find that the salesperson has misinterpreted the data, the proposals are incomplete...

  3. Self-assembly of synthetic and biological components in water using cucurbit[8]uril

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zayed, Jameel Majed

    2012-02-07

    fellow Welshman, who, like me, made it through the harsh, English-ruled marshlands of Cambridgeshire without getting tired of hearing the sheep joke; I thank you for keeping the fish tank, and its numerous Amazonian fish, in spick and span condition... solvents, as well as in nonpolar solvents. The use of alkyl- poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) groups provides an elegant example of molecular design, ensuring water solubility while providing hydrophobic pockets69 that help shield the water-sensitive H...

  4. Development and Demonstration of a Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-01

    Burns & McDonnell Engineering Company, in collaboration with Frito-Lay, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, CPL Systems, Inc., Alpha Boilers, and Kansas State University will demonstrate use of a biomass boiler in the food processing industry. The 60,000 lb/hr innovative biomass boiler system utilizing a combination of wood waste and tire-derived fuel (TDF) waste will offset all natural gas consumption at Frito-Lay's Topeka, Kansas, processing facility.

  5. Energy Management Pathfinding: Understanding Manufacturers' Ability and Desire to Implement Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, C.

    2005-01-01

    for virtually all procedures at DuPont. • Who Decides to Act? A Six Sigma culture at DuPont is the incentive for all staff to seek improvement projects. • Organization: A corporate energy management team assists plants by providing technical assistance... engineers?to improve operations through application of Six Sigma. CONTINENTAL TIRE • Authority & Leadership: A Facilities Engineer takes nominal leadership of an in-plant energy team. Key supervisory engineers enforce energy discipline largely...

  6. Pricing and Proposal Model for the SNOW Automobile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henry, Shawn P.

    2012-07-27

    ) The United States Defense Acquisition University even has a detailed handbook calculating their PFD estimations for many applications. (Defense Acquisition University 2010) These ranges show how difficult it can be to select an accurate PFD allowance... the following steps are used to implement the model for ongoing use: ? Quick selection of tires with operational options; ? Selection of materials of various construction and thicknesses; ? Six cells to enter miscellaneous percentage or dollar values...

  7. Make-buy decisions in the face of radical innovations.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perrons, Robert Kirby

    2004-10-26

    Connect DEC Digital Equipment Corporation DVD Digital Video Disc EM Expectation Maximization GDP Gross Domestic Product GE General Electric GM General Motors IBM International Business Machines IP Intellectual Property... ______________________________________________________________________________ Make-Buy Decisions in the Face of Radical Innovations 5 Balloon Tire Bicycle,” the “Aero Cycle,” and the built-in “Cycle Lock” brought about a quantum leap in the industry. Instead of outsourcing the production of the parts for his bicycles as had been...

  8. Toxic species emissions from controlled combustion of selected automotive rubber components 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shalkowski, Mark Henry

    1993-01-01

    for Material HHO-12 . . Table IX. Smoke Mass Test Results for Material HHN-13 . . . . . . . 33 . . . . 34 . . . 35 Table X Comparison of Coeiftcients of Variation. . . . . 37 Table XI. Percentage Smoke Mass Based on Initial Sample Weight for Rubber...). . . . . . 90 . . . 91 Table XXXIII. Preliminary Gas Component Screening Data for Rubber Tire Material (RT-11) 92 Table XXXIV. Preliminary Gas Component Screening Data for Old Heater Hose (HHO-12) . 93 Table XXXV. Preliminary Gas Component Screening Data...

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeVehicle Replacement Vouchers The TexasStateNaturalHeavy-DutyTire

  10. Fossil fuel and hydrocarbon conversion using hydrogen-rich plasmas. Topical report February 1994--February 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-02-01

    Experiments were made on use of H and CH plasmas for converting waste materials and heavy oils to H-rich transportation fuels. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted with an industrial microwave generator and a commercial microwave oven. A continuously circulating reactor was constructed for conducting experiments on flowing oils. Experiments on decomposition of scrap tires showed that microwave plasmas can be used to decompose scrap tires into potentially useful liquid products. In a batch experiment using a commercial microwave oven, about 20% of the tire was converted to liquid products in about 9 minutes. Methane was decomposed in a microwave plasma to yield a liquid products composed of various compound types; GC/MS analyses identified unsaturated compounds including benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, methyl and ethyl naphthalene, small amounts of larger aromatic rings, and olefinic compounds. Experiments on a crude oil in a continuously flowing reactor showed that distillate materials are produced using H and CH plasmas. Also, the recycle oils had an overall carbon aromaticity lower than that of starting feed material, indicating that some hydrogenation and methanation had taken place in the recycle oils.

  11. Analysis of the University of Texas at Austin compressed natural gas demonstration bus. Interim research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, C.M.; Matthews, R.; Euritt, M.

    1994-06-01

    A demonstration compressed natural gas (CNG) bus has been operating on The University of Texas at Austin shuttle system since 1992. This CNG vehicle, provided by the Blue Bird Company, was an opportunity for the University to evaluate the effectiveness of a CNG bus for shuttle operations. Three basic operating comparisons were made: (1) fuel consumption, (2) tire wear, and (3) vehicle performance. The bus was equipped with a data logger, which was downloaded regularly, for trip reports. Tire wear was monitored regularly, and performance tests were conducted at the Natural Gas Vehicle Technology Center. Overall, the data suggest that fuel costs for the CNG bus are comparable to those for University diesel buses. This is a result of the lower fuel price for natural gas. Actual natural gas fuel consumption was higher for the CNG buses than for the diesel buses. Due to weight differences, tire wear was much less on the CNG buses. Finally, after installation of a closed-loop system, the CNG bus out-performed the diesel bus on acceleration, grade climbing ability, and speed.

  12. Comparing urban solid waste recycling from the viewpoint of urban metabolism based on physical input-output model: A case of Suzhou in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang Sai; Zhang Tianzhu

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impacts of solid waste recycling on Suzhou's urban metabolism in 2015 are analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technical levels of reusing scrap tires and food wastes should be improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary wastes from reusing food wastes and sludge should be concerned. - Abstract: Investigating impacts of urban solid waste recycling on urban metabolism contributes to sustainable urban solid waste management and urban sustainability. Using a physical input-output model and scenario analysis, urban metabolism of Suzhou in 2015 is predicted and impacts of four categories of solid waste recycling on urban metabolism are illustrated: scrap tire recycling, food waste recycling, fly ash recycling and sludge recycling. Sludge recycling has positive effects on reducing all material flows. Thus, sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Moreover, technical levels of scrap tire recycling and food waste recycling should be improved to produce positive effects on reducing more material flows. Fly ash recycling for cement production has negative effects on reducing all material flows except solid wastes. Thus, other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. In addition, the utilization and treatment of secondary wastes from food waste recycling and sludge recycling should be concerned.

  13. Functionalized Materials From Elastomers to High Performance Thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laura Ann Salazar

    2003-05-31

    Synthesis and incorporation of functionalized materials continues to generate significant research interest in academia and in industry. If chosen correctly, a functional group when incorporated into a polymer can deliver enhanced properties, such as adhesion, water solubility, thermal stability, etc. The utility of these new materials has been demonstrated in drug-delivery systems, coatings, membranes and compatibilizers. Two approaches exist to functionalize a material. The desired moiety can be added to the monomer either before or after polymerization. The polymers used range from low glass transition temperature elastomers to high glass transition temperature, high performance materials. One industrial example of the first approach is the synthesis of Teflon(reg. sign). Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE or Teflon(reg. sign)) is synthesized from tetrafluoroethylene, a functionalized monomer. The resulting material has significant property differences from the parent, poly(ethylene). Due to the fluorine in the polymer, PTFE has excellent solvent and heat resistance, a low surface energy and a low coefficient of friction. This allows the material to be used in high temperature applications where the surface needs to be nonabrasive and nonstick. This material has a wide spread use in the cooking industry because it allows for ease of cooking and cleaning as a nonstick coating on cookware. One of the best examples of the second approach, functionalization after polymerization, is the vulcanization process used to make tires. Natural rubber (from the Hevea brasiliensis) has a very low glass transition temperature, is very tacky and would not be useful to make tires without synthetic alteration. Goodyear's invention was the vulcanization of polyisoprene by crosslinking the material with sulfur to create a rubber that was tough enough to withstand the elements of weather and road conditions. Due to the development of polymerization techniques to make cis-polyisoprene, natural rubber is no longer needed for the manufacturing of tires, but vulcanization is still utilized.

  14. Registrations and vehicle miles of travel of light duty vehicles, 1985--1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, P.S.; Davis, S.C.; Schmoyer, R.L.

    1998-02-01

    To obtain vehicle registration data that consistently and accurately reflect the distinction between automobiles and light-duty trucks, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was asked by FHWA to estimate the current and historical vehicle registration numbers of automobiles and of other two-axle four-tire vehicles (i.e., light-duty trucks), and their associated travel. The term automobile is synonymous with passenger car. Passenger cars are defined as all sedans, coupes, and station wagons manufactured primarily for the purpose of carrying passengers. This includes taxicabs, rental cars, and ambulances and hearses on an automobile chassis. Light-duty trucks refer to all two-axle four-tire vehicles other than passenger cars. They include pickup trucks, panel trucks, delivery and passenger vans, and other vehicles such as campers, motor homes, ambulances on a truck chassis, hearses on a truck chassis, and carryalls. In this study, light-duty trucks include four major types: (1) pickup truck, (2) van, (3) sport utility vehicle, and (4) other 2-axle 4-tire truck. Specifically, this project re-estimates statistics that appeared in Tables MV-1 and MV-9 of the 1995 Highway Statistics. Given the complexity of the approach developed in this effort and the incompleteness and inconsistency of the state-submitted data, it is recommended that alternatives be considered by FHWA to obtain vehicle registration data. One alternative is the Polk`s NVPP data (via the US Department of Transportation`s annual subscription to Polk). The second alternative is to obtain raw registration files from individual states` Departments of Motor Vehicles and to decode individual VINs.

  15. General contact mechanics theory for randomly rough surfaces with application to rubber friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michele Scaraggi; Bo N. J. Persson

    2015-06-23

    We generalize the Persson contact mechanics and rubber friction theory to the case where both surfaces have surface roughness. The solids can be rigid, elastic or viscoelastic, and can be homogeneous or layered. We calculate the contact area, the viscoelastic contribution to the friction force, and the average interfacial separation as a function of the sliding speed and the nominal contact pressure. We illustrate the theory with numerical results for a rubber block sliding on a road surface. We find that with increasing sliding speed, the influence of the roughness on the rubber block decreases, and for typical sliding speeds involved in tire dynamics it can be neglected.

  16. Tyre curve estimation in slip-controlled braking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Jonathan I.; Cebon, David

    2015-06-09

    identifying a Kalman filter observer for vehicle handling dynamics. IMECHE Part D – J. of Auto. Eng. 2006; 220: 1063–1072. 27. Yi J et al. Emergency braking control with an observer-based dynamic tire/road friction model and wheel angular velocity... also used by Shim et al.15, and Hong et al.16 Unsal and Kachroo17 compared an EKF with a sliding mode observer to estimate vehicle velocity, using this estimated velocity with a nominal slip-friction curve to determine the braking force. The authors...

  17. Variations on a Theme Issue 8 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piacentini, Valerie; Clark, Sheila

    1984-01-01

    lot of the farm animals went wild, too, when the people left .. l1 "I'm not sure I like the sound of that," McCoy said dubiously. "Wild country, scattered population, possibly dangerous animals roaming around ... It "Just like Vulcan," k:irk said..., Sheila Clark, Valerie Piacentini Printing of masters - Janet Quartan Printing - Warped Out Publications Distracting - Shan a (Don't you get tired of playing with paper?) Var-iations on a Theme 8, in which Kirk and Spack find their leave less r...

  18. Variations on a Theme Issue 1 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piacentini, Valerie; Clark, Sheila

    1977-01-01

    and suffering were etched deeply on his face. Livid bruises stood out clearly on his arms and shoulders, and the half-healed m2,rks of a vlhip crossed his chest - in the two days since he had last seem Kirk the Captain had repeated his assault. Seating.... "Pleaso, sir ?. ~ not ag8.in,tt he murmured. "I'm ... so tired ... please, just let me sloep." The weary desolation in his voice almost unnerved the Commodore; gently but firmly ho pulled Kirk's hands from his face. "Jim, look at me," he said...

  19. Angel in the Dark 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas

    2013-11-27

    of the books Doyle kept in the shelf by the window. "What's this, then? Roman myths?" He nodded sagely and put the book back on the shelf. "I thought you went in for poetry, Keats, that sort of thing." Putting a hand to his breast, he struck a pose... time. He put his hands behind his head. "Maybe I'm tired of using people, that's all." "Or being used?" "Yeah. Maybe." Bodie nodded. "That explains it." "Explains what?" "Why you've been moping around for weeks?" **Not moping. Working." "You...

  20. Three dimensional stress vector sensor array and method therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Rudnick, Thomas Jeffery

    2005-07-05

    A sensor array is configured based upon capacitive sensor techniques to measure stresses at various positions in a sheet simultaneously and allow a stress map to be obtained in near real-time. The device consists of single capacitive elements applied in a one or two dimensional array to measure the distribution of stresses across a mat surface in real-time as a function of position for manufacturing and test applications. In-plane and normal stresses in rolling bodies such as tires may thus be monitored.

  1. Effects of Planter Attachments and Seed Treatment on Stands of Cotton. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrom, Mills H. (Mills Herbert); Smith, H. P. (Harris Pearson)

    1942-01-01

    slightly higher per- *Numbers introduced thus throughout this bulletin refer to references on last page of this bulletin. EFFECT OF A4TTACHilfENTB AKD SEED TREAT'MBXT ON STAPU'DB OF CO'TTON 11 centage of emergence at College Station than the regular... shown in figure 1. The open center press wheel (Fig. 2), the rubber tired press wheel (Fig. 3), and the narrow wood press wheel (Fig. 4) were used on both types of planters and with each type of fur- row opener. Shovel type covering equipment was used...

  2. Prediction of Weld-Metal Composition During Flux-Shielded Welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    . ·due tn tire slrarr n·actian times and farge tlrcrma{ gra,fients inherent in the process. Nonetheless. In the .tint. a series (~r a1·cr one !rune/red H·dd.1. ll'itlr initialmwrgcrnt·sc l'(lrying from 0.01 pet to 3.1 pet. siliconmryi11g.from 0.002 rwt to3.2 pet. a11el lmsicin· index nrrrillg.fi·nm 0.2 to -1.0. 11·cre

  3. The displacement of oil from porous media by in-situ combustion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corcoran, John Thomas

    1970-01-01

    THE DISPLACEMENT OF OIL FROM POROUS MEDIA BY IN-SITU COMBUSTION A Thesis by JOHN T. CORCORAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AgcM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December... f970 Major Subject: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING TIRE DISPLACEMENT OF OIL FROM POROUS MEDIA BY IN-SITU COMBUSTION A Thesis JOHN T. CORCORAN Approved as to style and content by: (C i man of Committee) ( em er (Hea. d of Department (Member) December...

  4. Summary of the issues with regard to the carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and exposure of polycyclic organic matter (POM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-04-01

    Polycyclic organic matter (POM) is emitted from a variety of sources in the environment. Evidence of the carcinogenicity of emissions from coke production, motor vehicles (includes tire wear), asphalt roofing, paving, and air blowing, catalytic cracking residential coal combustion, industrial/utility coal combustion, carbon black, and iron and steel processes is presented. The contribution of the POM fraction to the carcinogenicity of the mixture is evaluated for gasoline engine exhaust condensate and coal combustion effluent and appears to contribute the majority of the carcinogenic potential for those mixtures. Evidence of the mutagenicity of emissions from coke production, motor vehicles (including tire wear), industrial/utility coal combustion, carbon black, iron and steel processes, forest fires and open burning, residential solid fuel (wood) combustion, commercial and other incineration, commercial/industrial oil combustion, residential oil combustion, and asphalt roofing, paving, and air blowing is also presented. The problem in the use of a chemical surrogate to sample for POM-containing emissions is discussed. A discussion of the problems in evaluating the carcinogenic potential of different POM-containing mixtures is also presented.

  5. Special relativity as the limit of an Aristotelian universal friction theory under Reye's assumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Minguzzi

    2014-11-28

    This work explores a classical mechanical theory under two further assumptions: (a) there is a universal dry friction force (Aristotelian mechanics), and (b) the variation of the mass of a body due to wear is proportional to the work done by the friction force on the body (Reye's hypothesis). It is shown that mass depends on velocity as in Special Relativity, and that the velocity is constant for a particular characteristic value. In the limit of vanishing friction the theory satisfies a relativity principle as bodies do not decelerate and, therefore, the absolute frame becomes unobservable. However, the limit theory is not Newtonian mechanics, with its Galilei group symmetry, but rather Special Relativity. This result suggests to regard Special Relativity as the limit of a theory presenting universal friction and exchange of mass-energy with a reservoir (vacuum). Thus, quite surprisingly, Special Relativity follows from the absolute space (ether) concept and could have been discovered following studies of Aristotelian mechanics and friction. We end the work confronting the full theory with observations. It predicts the Hubble law through tired light, and hence it is incompatible with supernova light curves unless both mechanisms of tired light (locally) and universe expansion (non-locally) are at work. It also nicely accounts for some challenging numerical coincidences involving phenomena under low acceleration.

  6. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (with Record of Technical Change No.1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-09

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Active Unit 490 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (FTA); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area; 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard; and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area. These CASs are located at the Tonopah Test Range near Areas 3 and 9. Historically, the FTA was used for training exercises where tires and wood were ignited with diesel fuel. Records indicate that water and carbon dioxide were the only extinguishing agents used during these training exercises. The Station 44 Burn Area was used for fire training exercises and consisted of two wooden structures. The two burn areas (ignition of tires, wood, and wooden structures with diesel fuel and water) were limited to the building footprints (10 ft by 10 ft each). The Sandia Service Yard was used for storage (i.e., wood, tires, metal, electronic and office equipment, construction debris, and drums of oil/grease) from approximately 1979 to 1993. The Gun Propellant Burn Area was used from the 1960s to 1980s to burn excess artillery gun propellant, solid-fuel rocket motors, black powder, and deteriorated explosives; additionally, the area was used for the disposal of experimental explosive items. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to: (1) determine the presence of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) at each CAS, (2) determine if any COPCs exceed field-screening levels and/or preliminary action levels, and (3) determine the nature and extent of contamination with enough certainty to support selection of corrective action alternatives for each CAS. The scope of this CAIP is to resolve the question of whether or not potentially hazardous wastes were generated at three of the four CASs within CAU 490, and whether or not potentially hazardous and radioactive wastes were generated at the fourth CAS in CAU 490 (CAS 09-54-001-09L2). Suspected CAS-specific COPCs include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, explosives, and uranium and plutonium isotopes. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  8. Fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sowards, N.K.; Murphy, M.L.

    1991-10-29

    This patent describes a vessel. It comprises a fluid bed for continuously incinerating fuel comprising tire segments and the like which comprise metallic wire tramp and for concurrently removing tramp and bed materials at a bottom effluent exit means of the vessel, the vessel further comprising static air distributor means at the periphery of the bed comprising a substantially centrally unobstructed relatively large central region in which the fluid bed and fuel only are disposed and through which bed material and tramp migrate without obstruction to and through the effluent exit means, downwardly and inwardly stepped lower vessel wall means and a plurality of peripherally located centrally directed vertically and horizontally offset spaced air influent means surrounding the central region and associated with the stepped lower vessel wall means by which the bed is supported and fluidized.

  9. The effect of adding axial freedom to the blades of a two bladed helicopter rotor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oradat, Frank Robert

    1953-01-01

    &&ring of the hei art- ment of Ilecnariical Err& neerin:. Nr. E. E. Brush, Nr. P. E. Weick, Nr. R. B. Hulet, Mr. B. B. Ha&sr&sr, i~u-. Te&i Neiller, arid iMr. G. A. Ii?tn oi' tris I egart- ment of Aer&n?utical EnHineerinS. Nr. W. D. Scoates and Nr. W, P. Meads...? the dray nin=e, vith tne fl, &g g in!- ri n. "e on tne nla?e; tnus tne efi'ect of fl q pine. on pitch voulc! be eli, ~in?ted. Insteaa of 'isin, a I ericil on inie ?ynanic vibrats on indic&itor, the ?sf le t3 orr sr&oui? be f. . d to tire y lates oi' iri...

  10. The Elgin Plaques from the Treasury of Atreus: Evidence for a New Reconstruction of the Façade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Younger, John G.

    1987-01-01

    they were actually scuipted in Crete and transported later to Mycenae or only 139 rT a IIC Bl'1 A56 I'Tl-ie Gallooinq Bullrt . of .r .al -cr--- is 20.00 cn ar i '-,. . o"_ lne shalfow relirf ui-"h lts undulat,in3 surfaces l: '31'1 .{55. View of the righl... comer 1s chiseled - for a clean rfghc- ,V angle edge --/--> BIt A57 (not to scale) marks of the clav & flat (ln. 3-3.5 cn.) chis el //// \\\\\\ /// recent obv, running dri1l 1 groove as profile hnnf nrnfila incised on ledge 2I \\at tire rev. edgeare remaans...

  11. Effects of pesticides on black-tailed jackrabbits in the Presidio Basin, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanselka, C. Wayne

    1968-01-01

    brain of ja!. krabbits collected tiircugho t. the study ar a. There was a graduai increase ii! residues in the stomach co. . tents over tt. e . , -", in of t'. !e yei- until : higi. of 10, 0 ppm was reachen in June. By . '!ugu t this co!!c. ntration...iac'~-tailer' j ac! la'o a a tr1zcugI1 tire. 32 350 300 2 5Q o' (e 200 J 150 100 50 L~ M . L. ~~ n ~ n n~~. J J A S 0 N D J F &I A M J J A NOI'ITH Fif nre Ha. Lens IIelght distribution of 304 jackrabbits. IOP- VE GSK YEI-IALIN AIJQi TSL...

  12. Ann bay lodyans 7 / se Bryant Freeman ("Tonton Liben") ki pare ti liv sa a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freeman, Bryant C.

    2000-01-01

    la. Ti nonm Ian pa souke ko I tou. Wa a mete de men nan tet pou I rele. Konsa Wa a fe yo pran Malis, yo mete I nan yon sak, yo pandye I nan yon pyebwa annatandan yo voye I nan lanme. Malis t ap kalkile kisa pou I ta fe pou I chape, le de vole...." De vole yo tire oso, e se vole ki pi malen an ki antre nan sak la. Se konsa Malis rive chape anko. Sa gen kek jou depi yo te voye sak la nan lanme. Wa a t ap fe yon pwomnad, li pase devan kay Malis. Le I voye je I nan lakou a, sezisman manke touye...

  13. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, May 1, 1993--April 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, G.P.

    1994-10-01

    Accomplishments for the past year are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts some of the highlights are: very promising results have been obtained from the liquefaction of plastics, rubber tires, paper and other wastes, and the coliquefaction of wastes with coal; a number of water soluble coal liquefaction catalysts, iron, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum, have been comparatively tested; mossbauer spectroscopy, XAFS spectroscopy, TEM and XPS have been used to characterize a variety of catalysts and other samples from numerous consortium and DOE liquefaction projects and in situ ESR measurements of the free radical density have been conducted at temperatures from 100 to 600{degrees}C and H{sub 2} pressures up to 600 psi.

  14. Steam turbine upgrading: low-hanging fruit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peltier, R.

    2006-04-15

    The thermodynamic performance of the steam turbine, more than any other plant component, determines overall plant efficiency. Upgrading steam path components and using computerized design tools and manufacturing techniques to minimise internal leaks are two ways to give tired steam turbines a new lease on life. The article presents three case studies that illustrate how to do that. These are at Unit 1 of Dairyland's J.P. Madgett Station in Alma, WI, a coal-fired subcritical steam plant; the four units at AmerenUE's 600 MW coal-fired Labadie plant west of St. Louis; and Unit 3 of KeyPlan Corp's Northport Power Station on Long Island. 8 figs.

  15. A summary of the report on prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and Department of Energy cleanup wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaven, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. In the past twenty years, advances in the engineering of pyrolysis systems and in sorting and feeding technologies for solid waste industries have ensured consistent feedstocks and system performance. Some vendors now offer complete pyrolysis systems with performance warranties. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates the four most promising pyrolytic systems for their readiness, applicability to regional waste management needs and conformity with DOE environmental restoration and waste management requirements. This summary characterizes the engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications and markets for these pyrolysis systems.

  16. Method and appartus for converting static in-ground vehicle scales into weigh-in-motion systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenior City, TN); Scudiere, Matthew B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Jordan, John K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for converting in-ground static weighing scales for vehicles to weigh-in-motion systems. The apparatus upon conversion includes the existing in-ground static scale, peripheral switches and an electronic module for automatic computation of the weight. By monitoring the velocity, tire position, axle spacing, and real time output from existing static scales as a vehicle drives over the scales, the system determines when an axle of a vehicle is on the scale at a given time, monitors the combined weight output from any given axle combination on the scale(s) at any given time, and from these measurements automatically computes the weight of each individual axle and gross vehicle weight by an integration, integration approximation, and/or signal averaging technique.

  17. Structuring small projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pistole, C.O.

    1995-11-01

    One of the most difficult hurdles facing small project developers is obtaining financing. Many major banks and institutional investors are unwilling to become involved in projects valued at less than $25 million. To gain the interest of small project investors, developers will want to present a well-considered plan and an attractive rate of return. Waste-to-energy projects are one type that can offer diversified revenue sources that assure maximum profitability. The Ripe Touch Greenhouse project, a $14.5 million waste tire-to-energy facility in Colorado, provides a case study of how combining the strengths of the project partners can help gain community and regulatory acceptance and maximize profit opportunities.

  18. Incinerator thermal release valve risk assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, J.B.

    1998-12-31

    Human health risk assessments were conducted on emissions from several types of incinerators--a hazardous waste combustor, a medical waste/tire combustor, and a refuse derived fuel combustor in three different states. As part of these studies, the short-term emissions from thermal release valves operating during upset conditions were additionally evaluated. The latter assessments addressed two specific risk-related questions: (1) what are the incremental long-term risks/hazards associated with these short-term emissions; (2) what are the acute health hazards associated with these emissions? For each study, emission estimates for both the incinerator stack and the thermal release valve were obtained from the facility. Stack testing was utilized to obtain stack gas concentrations of emissions at one facility; engineering estimates were used to ascertain emissions from the thermal release valve. The two facilities were proposed incinerators, so literature-derived emissions were used throughout.

  19. Constraints on Lorentz violation from gravitational Cherenkov radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostelecky, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Limits on gravitational Cherenkov radiation by cosmic rays are obtained and used to constrain coefficients for Lorentz violation in the gravity sector associated with operators of even mass dimensions, including orientation-dependent effects. We use existing data from cosmic-ray telescopes to obtain conservative two-sided constraints on 80 distinct Lorentz-violating operators of dimensions four, six, and eight, along with conservative one-sided constraints on three others. Existing limits on the nine minimal operators at dimension four are improved by factors of up to a billion, while 74 of our explicit limits represent stringent first constraints on nonminimal operators. Prospects are discussed for future analyses incorporating effects of Lorentz violation in the matter sector, the role of gravitational Cherenkov radiation by high-energy photons, data from gravitational-wave observatories, the tired-light effect, and electromagnetic Cherenkov radiation by gravitons.

  20. Expanding Earth and Static Universe: Two Papers of 1935

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kragh, Helge

    2015-01-01

    The German-born astronomer Jacob K. E. Halm (1866-1944) wrote in 1935 two papers on quite different subjects, one an astrophysically based argument for the expanding Earth and the other a no less original attempt to explain the galactic redshifts on the basis of a static universe. Of course, Halm was wrong in both cases. The second of the papers is reproduced in toto and compared to other early attempts to avoid the expansion of the universe by means of "tired light" explanations of the redshifts. Although often referred to in the literature on the expanding Earth, the content of Halm's first paper is not well known. This article also provides a brief account of Halm's life and scientific career, which included important studies of the solar spectrum (the "limb effect") and the first version of the mass-luminosity relation for stars.

  1. Fuel Economy Standards for New Light Trucks (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    In March 2006, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) finalized Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards requiring higher fuel economy performance for light-duty trucks in model year (MY) 2008 through 2011. Unlike the proposed CAFE standards discussed in Annual Energy Outlook 2006, which would have established minimum fuel economy requirements by six footprint size classes, the final reformed CAFE standards specify a continuous mathematical function that determines minimum fuel economy requirements by vehicle footprint, defined as the wheelbase (the distance from the front axle to the center of the rear axle) times the average track width (the distance between the center lines of the tires) of the vehicle in square feet.

  2. An Alternative Explanation for Cosmological Redshift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Schuster

    2008-05-09

    The first and most compelling evidence of the universe's expansion was, and continues to be, the observed redshift of spectra from distant objects. This paper plays "devil's advocate" by providing an alternative explanation with elementary physics. I assume a steady-state universe that is infinite in both expanse and age, with the observed redshifts caused by particle interactions creating an overall index of refraction of the universe. The cumulative effects of these interactions over long distances cause not only the shifts that we observe, but also the monotonically increasing redshifts as more distant objects are observed. This is a novel explanation for the phenomenon known as "tired light" which has been discussed for decades.

  3. System and method for weighing and characterizing moving or stationary vehicles and cargo

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beshears, David L [Knoxville, TN; Scudiere, Matthew B [Oak Ridge, TN; White, Clifford P [Seymour, TN

    2008-05-20

    A weigh-in-motion device and method having at least one transducer pad, each transducer pad having at least one transducer group with transducers positioned essentially perpendicular to the direction of travel. At least one pad microcomputer is provided on each transducer pad having a means for calculating first output signal indicative of weight, second output signal indicative of time, and third output signal indicative of speed. At least one host microcomputer is in electronic communication with each pad microcomputer, and having a means for calculating at least one unknown selected from the group consisting of individual tire weight, individual axle weight, axle spacing, speed profile, longitudinal center of balance, and transverse center of balance.

  4. On the difference between stiff and soft membranes: Capillary Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaksch, Sebastian; Ohl, Michael; Frielinghaus, Henrich

    2015-01-01

    One problem of non-crystalline condensed matter (soft matter) is creating the right equilibrium between elasticity and viscosity, referred to as viscoelasticity. Manifestations of that can be found in everyday live, where the viscoelasticity in a tire needs to be balanced so it is still flexible and can dissipate shock-energy, yet hard enough for energy-saving operation. Similarly, the cartilage in joints needs to absorb shocks while operating at low- level friction with high elasticity. Two such examples with a biological applicability are stiff membranes, which allow for the sliding of joints and therefore maintain their function over the lifetime of the corresponding individual (decades) and the softening of cell membranes, for example for antimicrobial effects by dissolution in the case of bacteria (seconds). While the first should allow for low- friction operation at high elasticity, in the second scenario energy dissipated into the membrane eventually leads to membrane destruction. Here we address the i...

  5. Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grady, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Chen, Guang Jiong (Fayetteville, AR)

    1998-01-01

    A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404.

  6. Bioconversion of waste biomass to useful products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grady, J.L.; Chen, G.J.

    1998-10-13

    A process is provided for converting waste biomass to useful products by gasifying the biomass to produce synthesis gas and converting the synthesis gas substrate to one or more useful products. The present invention is directed to the conversion of biomass wastes including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, plastic, tires, agricultural residues and the like, as well as coal, to useful products such as hydrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. The overall process includes the steps of gasifying the waste biomass to produce raw synthesis gas, cooling the synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas to the desired product or products using anaerobic bioconversion, and then recovering the product or products. In accordance with a particular embodiment of the present invention, waste biomass is converted to synthesis gas containing carbon monoxide and, then, the carbon monoxide is converted to hydrogen by an anaerobic microorganism ERIH2, Bacillus smithii ATCC No. 55404. 82 figs.

  7. Evaluation of a New Remote Handling Design for High Throughput Annular Centrifugal Contactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David H. Meikrantz; Troy G. Garn; Jack D. Law; Lawrence L. Macaluso

    2009-09-01

    Advanced designs of nuclear fuel recycling plants are expected to include more ambitious goals for aqueous based separations including; higher separations efficiency, high-level waste minimization, and a greater focus on continuous processes to minimize cost and footprint. Therefore, Annular Centrifugal Contactors (ACCs) are destined to play a more important role for such future processing schemes. Previous efforts defined and characterized the performance of commercial 5 cm and 12.5 cm single-stage ACCs in a “cold” environment. The next logical step, the design and evaluation of remote capable pilot scale ACCs in a “hot” or radioactive environment was reported earlier. This report includes the development of remote designs for ACCs that can process the large throughput rates needed in future nuclear fuel recycling plants. Novel designs were developed for the remote interconnection of contactor units, clean-in-place and drain connections, and a new solids removal collection chamber. A three stage, 12.5 cm diameter rotor module has been constructed and evaluated for operational function and remote handling in highly radioactive environments. This design is scalable to commercial CINC ACC models from V-05 to V-20 with total throughput rates ranging from 20 to 650 liters per minute. The V-05R three stage prototype was manufactured by the commercial vendor for ACCs in the U.S., CINC mfg. It employs three standard V-05 clean-in-place (CIP) units modified for remote service and replacement via new methods of connection for solution inlets, outlets, drain and CIP. Hydraulic testing and functional checks were successfully conducted and then the prototype was evaluated for remote handling and maintenance suitability. Removal and replacement of the center position V-05R ACC unit in the three stage prototype was demonstrated using an overhead rail mounted PaR manipulator. This evaluation confirmed the efficacy of this innovative design for interconnecting and cleaning individual stages while retaining the benefits of commercially reliable ACC equipment for remote applications in the nuclear industry. Minor modifications and suggestions for improved manual remote servicing by the remote handling specialists were provided but successful removal and replacement was demonstrated in the first prototype.

  8. Screening of low cost sorbents for arsenic and mercury capture in gasification systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cedric Charpenteau; Revata Seneviratne; Anthe George; Marcos Millan; Denis R. Dugwell; Rafael Kandiyoti

    2007-09-15

    A novel laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor has been developed to investigate trace metal capture on selected sorbents for cleaning the hot raw gas in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants. The new reactor design is presented, together with initial results for mercury and arsenic capture on five sorbents. It was expected that the capture efficiency of sorbents would decrease with increasing temperature. However, a commercial activated carbon, Norit Darco 'Hg', and a pyrolysis char prepared from scrap tire rubber exhibit similar efficiencies for arsenic at 200 and at 400{sup o}C (70% and 50%, respectively). Meta-kaolinite and fly ash both exhibit an efficiency of around 50% at 200{sup o}C, which then dropped as the test temperature was increased to 400{sup o}C. Activated scrap tire char performed better at 200{sup o}C than the pyrolysis char showing an arsenic capture capacity similar to that of commercial Norit Darco 'Hg'; however, efficiency dropped to below 40% at 400{sup o}C. These results suggest that the capture mechanism of arsenic (As4) is more complex than purely physical adsorption onto the sorbents. Certain elements within the sorbents may have significant importance for chemical adsorption, in addition to the effect of surface area, as determined by the BET method. This was indeed the case for the mercury capture efficiency for all four sorbents tested. Three of the sorbents tested retained 90% of the mercury when operated at 100{sup o}C. As the temperature increased, the efficiency of activated carbon and pyrolysis char reduced significantly. Curiously, despite having the smallest Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area, a pf-combustion ash was the most effective in capturing mercury over the temperature range studied. These observations suggest that the observed mercury capture was not purely physical adsorption but a combination of physical and chemical processes. 27 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Ranking low cost sorbents for mercury capture from simulated flue gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Revata Seneviratne; Cedric Charpenteau; Anthe George; Marcos Millan; Denis R. Dugwell; Rafael Kandiyoti

    2007-12-15

    Coal fired utility boilers are the largest anthropogenic source of mercury release to the atmosphere, and mercury abatement legislation is already in place in the USA. The present study aimed to rank low cost mercury sorbents (char and activated carbon from the pyrolysis of scrap tire rubber and two coal fly ashes from UK power plants) against Norit Darco HgTM for mercury retention by using a novel bench-scale reactor. In this scheme, a fixed sorbent bed was tested for mercury capture efficiency from a simulated flue gas stream. Experiments with a gas stream of only mercury and nitrogen showed that while the coal ashes were the most effective in mercury capture, char from the pyrolysis of scrap tire rubber was as effective as the commercial sorbent Norit Darco HgTM. Tests conducted at 150{sup o}C, with a simulated flue gas mix that included N{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and HCl, showed that all the sorbents captured approximately 100% of the mercury in the gas stream. The introduction of NO and NO{sub 2} was found to significantly improve the mercury capture, possibly by reactions between NOx and the mercury. Since the sorbents' efficiency decreased with increasing test temperature, physical sorption could be the initial step in the mercury capture process. As the sorbents were only exposed to 64 ng of mercury in the gas stream, the mercury loadings on the samples were significantly less than their equilibrium capacities. The larger capacities of the activated carbons due to their more microporous structure were therefore not utilized. Although the sorbents have been characterized by BET surface area analysis and XRD analysis, further analysis is needed in order to obtain a more conclusive correlation of how the characteristics of the different sorbents correlate with the observed variations in mercury capture ability. 34 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Englar

    2000-06-19

    Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model.

  11. AN ELECTROMAGNETIC PNEUMO CAPSULE SYSTEM FOR CONVEYING MINERALS AND MINE WASTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry Liu; Charles W. Lenau

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of using a new and advanced pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) system for transporting minerals and mine wastes. The new system is different from conventional PCPs in two main respects: (1) it uses linear induction motors (LIMs) instead of blowers (fans) at the inlet of the pipeline to drive (pump) the capsules and the air through the pipeline; and (2) the capsules in the PCP have steel wheels running on steel rails as opposed to capsules in conventional systems, which use wheels with rubber tires running inside a pipe without rail. The advantage of using LIM pump instead of blower is that the former is non-intrusive and hence does not block the passage of capsules, enabling the system to run continuously without having to make the capsules bypass the pump. This not only simplifies the system but also enables the system to achieve much larger cargo throughput than that of PCPs using blowers, and use of LIMs as booster pumps which enables the system to have any length or to be used for transporting cargoes over practically any distance, say even one thousand kilometers or miles. An advantage of using steel wheels rolling on steel rails instead of using rubber tires rolling inside a pipeline is that the rolling friction coefficient and hence the use of energy is greatly reduced from that of conventional PCP systems. Moreover, rails enable easy control of capsule motion, such as switching capsules to a branch line by using railroad switching equipment. The advanced PCP system studied under this project uses rectangular conduits instead of circular pipe, having cross-sectional areas of 1 m by 1 m approximately. The system can be used for various transportation distances, and it can transport up to 50 million tonnes (metric tons) of cargo annually--the throughput of the largest mines in the world. Both an aboveground and an underground system were investigated and compared. The technical feasibility of this new PCP system was determined by designing the details of the system and conducting a detail analysis of the system--both steady and unsteady analyses. Through the detailed design and analyses, it was found that no technical problem or hurdle exist that would otherwise prevent commercial use of the system today. Still, since it is a new technology, it will be prudent and advantageous to run a demonstration project before this technology is used.

  12. Co-Firing Oil Shale with Coal and Other Fuels for Improved Efficiency and Multi-Pollutant Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert A. Carrington; William C. Hecker; Reed Clayson

    2008-06-01

    Oil shale is an abundant, undeveloped natural resource which has natural sorbent properties, and its ash has natural cementitious properties. Oil shale may be blended with coal, biomass, municipal wastes, waste tires, or other waste feedstock materials to provide the joint benefit of adding energy content while adsorbing and removing sulfur, halides, and volatile metal pollutants, and while also reducing nitrogen oxide pollutants. Oil shale depolymerization-pyrolysis-devolatilization and sorption scoping studies indicate oil shale particle sorption rates and sorption capacity can be comparable to limestone sorbents for capture of SO2 and SO3. Additionally, kerogen released from the shale was shown to have the potential to reduce NOx emissions through the well established “reburning” chemistry similar to natural gas, fuel oil, and micronized coal. Productive mercury adsorption is also possible by the oil shale particles as a result of residual fixed-carbon and other observed mercury capture sorbent properties. Sorption properties were found to be a function particle heating rate, peak particle temperature, residence time, and gas-phase stoichmetry. High surface area sorbents with high calcium reactivity and with some adsorbent fixed/activated carbon can be produced in the corresponding reaction zones that exist in a standard pulverized-coal or in a fluidized-bed combustor.

  13. A CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF COAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.A. Robbins; R.A. Winschel; S.D. Brandes

    1999-05-01

    This is the first Annual Technical Report of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. Activities from the first three quarters of the fiscal 1998 year were reported previously as Quarterly Technical Progress Reports (DOE/PC93054-57, DOE/PC93054-61, and DOE/PC93054-66). Activities for the period July 1 through September 30, 1998, are reported here. This report describes CONSOL's characterization of process-derived samples obtained from HTI Run PB-08. These samples were derived from operations with Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal, simulated mixed waste plastics, and pyrolysis oils derived from waste plastics and waste tires. Comparison of characteristics among the PB-08 samples was made to ascertain the effects of feed composition changes. A comparison also was made to samples from a previous test (Run PB-06) made in the same processing unit, with Black Thunder Mine coal, and in one run condition with co-fed mixed plastics.

  14. Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaven, S.J.

    1994-12-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The solid carbon char has existing markets as an ingredient in many manufactured goods, and as an adsorbent or filter to sequester certain hazardous wastes. Pyrolytic gases may be burned as fuel by utilities, or liquefied for use as chemical feedstocks, or low-pollution motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates for the four most promising pyrolytic systems their technological and commercial readiness, their applicability to regional waste management needs, and their conformity with DOE requirements for environmental restoration and waste management. This summary characterizes their engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications, and markets. Because it can effectively treat those wastes that are inadequately addressed by current systems, pyrolysis can play an important complementing role in the region`s existing waste management strategy. Its role could be even more significant if the region moves away from existing commitments to incineration and MSW composting. Either way, Long Island could become the center for a pyrolysis-based recovery services industry serving global markets in municipal solid waste treatment and hazardous waste cleanup. 162 refs.

  15. Emerging technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shin-yee

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Emerging Technologies thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is to help individuals establish technology areas that have national and commercial impact, and are outside the scope of the existing thrust areas. We continue to encourage innovative ideas that bring quality results to existing programs. We also take as our mission the encouragement of investment in new technology areas that are important to the economic competitiveness of this nation. In fiscal year 1992, we have focused on nine projects, summarized in this report: (1) Tire, Accident, Handling, and Roadway Safety; (2) EXTRANSYT: An Expert System for Advanced Traffic Management; (3) Odin: A High-Power, Underwater, Acoustic Transmitter for Surveillance Applications; (4) Passive Seismic Reservoir Monitoring: Signal Processing Innovations; (5) Paste Extrudable Explosive Aft Charge for Multi-Stage Munitions; (6) A Continuum Model for Reinforced Concrete at High Pressures and Strain Rates: Interim Report; (7) Benchmarking of the Criticality Evaluation Code COG; (8) Fast Algorithm for Large-Scale Consensus DNA Sequence Assembly; and (9) Using Electrical Heating to Enhance the Extraction of Volatile Organic Compounds from Soil.

  16. Factors affecting degradation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) during pre-flotation conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caparanga, Alvin R. Basilia, Blessie A.; Dagbay, Kevin B.; Salvacion, Jonathan W.L.

    2009-09-15

    In general, plastics are exposed to different degrading agents in every procedure involved in their recovery from waste mixture and from subsequent recycling. In this study, two methods of pre-flotation conditioning were used to determine how these methods affect the general properties of the pre-conditioned PET particles to be recovered from the PET-PVC mixture. The first method comprised the conditioning of PET samples using an alkaline solution of nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) based on the patent by the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company. The second method, developed in this study, was a conditioning process which used an alkali-less solution of the same nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) used in the first method. The following analytical methods were used to characterize properties of the pre-conditioned PET samples that were correlated to relative degradation of the samples: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), for thermal behavior of the samples; FT-IR spectroscopy, for functional groups present in the samples; and, Pohl's method, for carboxyl end-group concentration count. Results show that in addition to water the presence of NaOH in the conditioning solution contributes to the further degradation of the polymer.

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of Pavements: A Critical Review of Existing Literature and Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santero, Nicholas; Masanet, Eric; Horvath, Arpad

    2010-04-20

    This report provides a critical review of existing literature and modeling tools related to life-cycle assessment (LCA) applied to pavements. The review finds that pavement LCA is an expanding but still limited research topic in the literature, and that the existing body of work exhibits methodological deficiencies and incompatibilities that serve as barriers to the widespread utilization of LCA by pavement engineers and policy makers. This review identifies five key issues in the current body of work: inconsistent functional units, improper system boundaries, imbalanced data for asphalt and cement, use of limited inventory and impact assessment categories, and poor overall utility. This review also identifies common data and modeling gaps in pavement LCAs that should be addressed in future work. These gaps include: the use phase (rolling resistance, albedo, carbonation, lighting, leachate, and tire wear and emissions), asphalt fumes, feedstock energy of bitumen, traffic delay, the maintenance phase, and the end-of-life phase. This review concludes with a comprehensive list of recommendations for future research, which shed light on where improvements in knowledge can be made that will benefit the accuracy and comprehensiveness of pavement LCAs moving forward.

  18. Final report for the Advanced Natural Gas Vehicle Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Wozniak

    1999-02-16

    The project objective was to develop the technologies necessary to prototype a dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) powered, mid-size automobile with operational capabilities comparable to gasoline automobiles. A system approach was used to design and develop the engine, gas storage system and vehicle packaging. The 2.4-liter DOHC engine was optimized for natural gas operation with high-compression pistons, hardened exhaust valves, a methane-specific catalytic converter and multi-point gaseous injection. The chassis was repackaging to increase space for fuel storage with a custom-designed, cast-aluminum, semi-trailing arm rear suspension system, a revised flat trunk sheet-metal floorpan and by equipping the car with run-flat tires. An Integrated Storage system (ISS) was developed using all-composite, small-diameter cylinders encapsulated within a high-strength fiberglass shell with impact-absorbing foam. The prototypes achieved the target goals of a city/highway driving range of 300 miles, ample trunk capacity, gasoline vehicle performance and ultra low exhaust emissions.

  19. An intuitive approach to quantum circuit simulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sensarn, Steven

    2013-02-22

    [)i&i the lier) r. &rout&i into llx i?nul;&tor, &ru] o[)(e&)i' that &lie ?&it[)ut(, r rec. ()I. N ?rll lie[)e[ull( i, rie the Ie&in&n ' mirie Iru iti&ilenti en&a&"h ti) e&rn ii & J c i [) n? I (I u ?' ? ac I i (& tc (Ic lu n " I i)i) I [[[ N[[(fl I, X f..., &t u L. uu1ot &L'n)L'n1[1c& fnce[L)OL (fu:uitum in&)i i 'I'hii ['olio((i [&on) the no-cl()nul" [[leo&'i'n1 lo&' Lfu, u&ILOO il. , &li'i [I)] ()L. ') ne(L'I C(&f&&L'L tire I ?L' (CL t(? L'LCL'f&l I? i(? I tl&L' I rt('L (? IL&??? /Cr? it ? i I(? &r...

  20. Shot loading trainer analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, T.K.

    1995-02-15

    This document presents the results from the analysis of the shot loading trainer (SLT). This device will be used to test the procedure for installing shot into the annulus of the Project W-320 shipping container. To ensure that the shot is installed uniformly around the container, vibrators will be used to settle the shot. The SLT was analyzed to ensure that it would not jeopardize worker safety during operation. The results from the static analysis of the SLT under deadweight and vibrator operating loads show that the stresses in the SLT are below code allowables. The results from the modal analysis show that the natural frequencies of the SLT are far below the operating frequencies of the vibrators, provided the SLT is mounted on pneumatic tires. The SLT was also analyzed for wind, seismic, deadweight, and moving/transporting loads. Analysis of the SLT is in accordance with SDC-4.1 for safety class 3 structures (DOE-RL 1993) and the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of Steel Construction (AISC 1989).

  1. Co-firing a pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system with coal and refuse derived fuels and/or sludges. Task 16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLallo, M.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1994-01-01

    The co-firing of waste materials with coal in utility scale power plants has emerged as an effective approach to produce energy and manage municipal waste. Leading this approach, the atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) has demonstrated its commercial acceptance in the utility market as a reliable source of power burning a variety of waste and alternative fuels. The fluidized bed, with its stability of combustion, reduces the amount of thermochemical transients and provides for easier process control. The application of pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) technology, although relatively new, can provide significant enhancements to the efficient production of electricity while maintaining the waste management benefits of AFBC. A study was undertaken to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of co-firing a PFBC with coal and municipal and industrial wastes. Focus was placed on the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of wastes for application in central power station and distributed locations. Wastes considered for co-firing include municipal solid waste (MSW), tire-derived fuel (TDF), sewage sludge, and industrial de-inking sludge. Issues concerning waste material preparation and feed, PFBC operation, plant emissions, and regulations are addressed. This paper describes the results of this investigation, presents conclusions on the key issues, and provides recommendations for further evaluation.

  2. Processing and mechanical behavior of hypereutectoid steel wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sherby, O.D.; Kim, D.K.

    1996-06-25

    Hypereutectoid steels have the potential for dramatically increasing the strength of wire used in tire cord and in other high strength wire applications. The basis for this possible breakthrough is the elimination of a brittle proeutectoid network that can form along grain boundaries if appropriate processing procedures and alloy additions are used. A review is made of work done by Japanese and other researchers on eutectoid and mildly hypereutectoid wires. A linear extrapolation of the tensile strength of fine wires predicts higher strengths at higher carbon contents. The influence of processing, alloy additions and carbon content in optimizing the strength, ductility and fracture behavior of hypereutectoid steels is presented. It is proposed that the tensile strength of pearlitic wires is dictated by the fracture strength of the carbide lamella at grain boundary locations in the carbide. Methods to improve the strength of carbide grain boundaries and to decrease the carbide plate thickness will contribute to enhancing the ultrahigh strength obtainable in hypereutectoid steel wires. 23 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  3. PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jay R. Gunderson; Michael J. Holmes; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Mackenzie; Michelle R. Olderbak; John H. Pavlish; Li Yan; Ye Zhuang

    2005-02-01

    The overall objective of the project was to develop advanced innovative mercury control technologies to reduce mercury emissions by 50%-90% in flue gases typically found in North Dakota lignite-fired power plants at costs from one-half to three-quarters of current estimated costs. Power plants firing North Dakota lignite produce flue gases that contain >85% elemental mercury, which is difficult to collect. The specific objectives were focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The approach to developing Hg control technologies for North Dakota lignites involved examining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg capture upstream of an ESP using sorbent enhancement, Hg oxidation and control using dry scrubbers, enhanced oxidation at a full-scale power plant using tire-derived fuel and oxidizing catalysts, and testing of Hg control technologies in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter.

  4. FEED SYSTEM INNOVATION FOR GASIFICATION OF LOCALLY ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE FUELS (FIGLEAF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Swanson; Mark A. Musich; Darren D. Schmidt; Joseph K. Schultz

    2003-02-01

    The Feed System Innovation for Gasification of Locally Economical Alternative Fuels (FIGLEAF) project was conducted by the Energy & Environmental Research Center and Gasification Engineering Corporation of Houston, Texas (a subsidiary of Global Energy Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio), with 80% cofunding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of the project was to identify and evaluate low-value fuels that could serve as alternative feedstocks and to develop a feed system to facilitate their use in integrated gasification combined-cycle and gasification coproduction facilities. The long-term goal, to be accomplished in a subsequent project, is to install a feed system for the selected fuel(s) at Global Energy's commercial-scale 262-MW Wabash River Coal Gasification Facility in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The feasibility study undertaken for the project consisted of identifying and evaluating the economic feasibility of potential fuel sources, developing a feed system design capable of providing a fuel at 400 psig to the second stage of the E-Gas (Destec) gasifier to be cogasified with coal, performing bench- and pilot-scale testing to verify concepts and clarify decision-based options, reviewing information on high-pressure feed system designs, and determining the economics of cofeeding alternative feedstocks with the conceptual feed system design. A preliminary assessment of feedstock availability within Indiana and Illinois was conducted. Feedstocks evaluated included those with potential tipping fees to offset processing cost: sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, used railroad ties, urban wood waste (UWW), and used tires/tire-derived fuel. Agricultural residues and dedicated energy crop fuels were not considered since they would have a net positive cost to the plant. Based on the feedstock assessment, sewage sludge was selected as the primary feedstock for consideration at the Wabash River Plant. Because of the limited waste heat available for drying and the ability of the gasifier to operate with alternative feedstocks at up to 80% moisture, a decision was made to investigate a pumping system for delivering the as-received fuel across the pressure boundary into the second stage of the gasifier. A high-pressure feed pump and fuel dispersion nozzles were tested for their ability to cross the pressure boundary and adequately disperse the sludge into the second stage of the gasifier. These results suggest that it is technically feasible to get the sludge dispersed to an appropriate size into the second stage of the gasifier although the recycle syngas pressure needed to disperse the sludge would be higher than originally desired. A preliminary design was prepared for a sludge-receiving, storage, and high-pressure feeding system at the Wabash River Plant. The installed capital costs were estimated at approximately $9.7 million, within an accuracy of {+-}10%. An economic analysis using DOE's IGCC Model, Version 3 spreadsheet indicates that in order to justify the additional capital cost of the system, Global Energy would have to receive a tipping fee of $12.40 per wet ton of municipal sludge delivered. This is based on operation with petroleum coke as the primary fuel. Similarly, with coal as the primary fuel, a minimum tipping of $16.70 would be required. The availability of delivered sludge from Indianapolis, Indiana, in this tipping-fee range is unlikely; however, given the higher treatment costs associated with sludge treatment in Chicago, Illinois, delivery of sludge from Chicago, given adequate rail access, might be economically viable.

  5. FEED SYSTEM INNOVATION FOR GASIFICATION OF LOCALLY ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE FUELS (FIGLEAF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Swanson; Mark A. Musich; Darren D. Schmidt

    2001-11-01

    The Feed System Innovation for Gasification of Locally Economical Alternative Fuels (FIGLEAF) project is being conducted by the Energy and Environmental Research Center and Gasification Engineering Corporation of Houston, Texas (a subsidiary of Global Energy Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio), with 80% cofunding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The goal of the project is to identify and evaluate low-value fuels that could serve as alternative feedstocks and to develop a feed system to facilitate their use in integrated gasification combined cycle and gasification coproduction facilities. The long-term goal, to be accomplished in a subsequent project, is to install a feed system for the selected fuels at Global Energy's commercial-scale 262-MW Wabash River Coal Gasification Facility in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The feasibility study undertaken for the project consists of identifying and evaluating the economic feasibility of potential fuel sources, developing a feed system design capable of providing a fuel at 400 psig to the second stage of the E-Gas (Destec) gasifier to be cogasified with coal at up to 30% on a Btu basis, performing bench- and pilot-scale testing to verify concepts and clarify decision-based options, reviewing prior art with respect to high-pressure feed system designs, and determining the economics of cofeeding alternative feedstocks with the conceptual feed system design. Activities and results thus far include the following. Several potential alternative fuels have been obtained for evaluation and testing as potential feedstocks, including sewage sludge, used railroad ties, urban wood waste, municipal solid waste, and used waste tires/tire-derived fuel. Only fuels with potential tipping fees were considered; potential energy crop fuels were not considered since they would have a net positive cost to the plant. Based on the feedstock assessment, sewage sludge has been selected as one of the primary feedstocks for consideration at the Wabash plant. Because of the limited waste heat available for drying and the ability of the gasifier to operate with alternative feedstocks at up to 80% moisture, a decision was made to investigate a pumping system for delivering the as-received fuel across the pressure boundary. High-temperature drop-tube furnace tests were conducted to determine if explosive fragmentation of high-moisture sludge droplets could be expected, but showed that these droplets underwent a shrinking and densification process that implies that the sludge will have to be well dispersed when injected into the gasifier. Fuel dispersion nozzles have been obtained for measuring how well the sludge can be dispersed in the second stage of the gasifier. Future work will include leasing a Schwing America pump to test pumping sewage sludge against 400 psig. In addition, sludge dispersion testing will be completed using two different dispersion nozzles to determine their ability to generate sludge particles small enough to be entrained out of the E-Gas entrained-flow gasifier.

  6. Smart Infrared Inspection System Field Operational Test Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    The Smart InfraRed Inspection System (SIRIS) is a tool designed to assist inspectors in determining which vehicles passing through the SIRIS system are in need of further inspection by measuring the thermal data from the wheel components. As a vehicle enters the system, infrared cameras on the road measure temperatures of the brakes, tires, and wheel bearings on both wheel ends of commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in motion. This thermal data is then presented to enforcement personal inside of the inspection station on a user friendly interface. Vehicles that are suspected to have a violation are automatically alerted to the enforcement staff. The main goal of the SIRIS field operational test (FOT) was to collect data to evaluate the performance of the prototype system and determine the viability of such a system being used for commercial motor vehicle enforcement. From March 2010 to September 2010, ORNL facilitated the SIRIS FOT at the Greene County Inspection Station (IS) in Greeneville, Tennessee. During the course of the FOT, 413 CMVs were given a North American Standard (NAS) Level-1 inspection. Of those 413 CMVs, 384 were subjected to a SIRIS screening. A total of 36 (9.38%) of the vehicles were flagged by SIRIS as having one or more thermal issues; with brakes issues making up 33 (91.67%) of those. Of the 36 vehicles flagged as having thermal issues, 31 (86.11%) were found to have a violation and 30 (83.33%) of those vehicles were placed out-of-service (OOS). Overall the enforcement personnel who have used SIRIS for screening purposes have had positive feedback on the potential of SIRIS. With improvements in detection algorithms and stability, the system will be beneficial to the CMV enforcement community and increase overall trooper productivity by accurately identifying a higher percentage of CMVs to be placed OOS with minimal error. No future evaluation of SIRIS has been deemed necessary and specifications for a production system will soon be drafted.

  7. Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Defects Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL

    2012-12-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), along with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), has an interest in overweight commercial motor vehicles, how they affect infrastructure, and their impact on safety on the nation s highways. To assist both FHWA and FMCSA in obtaining more information related to this interest, data was collected and analyzed from two separate sources. A large scale nationwide data collection effort was facilitated by the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance as part of a special study on overweight vehicles and an additional, smaller set, of data was collected from the state of Tennessee which included a much more detailed set of data. Over a six-month period, 1,873 Level I inspections were performed in 18 different states that volunteered to be a part of this study. Of the 1,873 inspections, a vehicle out-of-service (OOS) violation was found on 44.79% of the vehicles, a rate significantly higher than the national OOS rate of 27.23%. The main cause of a vehicle being placed OOS was brake-related defects, with approximately 30% of all vehicles having an OOS brake violation. Only about 4% of vehicles had an OOS tire violation, and even fewer had suspension and wheel violations. Vehicle weight violations were most common on an axle group as opposed to a gross vehicle weight violation. About two thirds of the vehicles cited with a weight violation were overweight on an axle group with an average amount of weight over the legal limit of about 2,000 lbs. Data collection is scheduled to continue through January 2014, with more potentially more states volunteering to collect data. More detailed data collections similar to the Tennessee data collection will also be performed in multiple states.

  8. BEAM DYNAMICS IN NS-FFAG EMMAWITH DYNAMICAL MAPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giboudot, Y; Edgecock, R; Wolski, A

    2010-01-01

    The Non Scal­ing Fixed Field Al­ter­nat­ing Gra­di­ent EMMA has a com­pact lin­ear lat­tice. Ef­fect of Fringe Field on the beam has to be stud­ied care­ful­ly. A nu­mer­i­cal mag­net­ic field map is gen­er­at­ed by mag­net mea­sure­ments or mag­net de­sign soft­wares. We de­vel­oped a tech­nique that pro­duces from the nu­mer­i­cal field map, a dy­nam­i­cal map for a par­ti­cle trav­el­ling in the en­tire EMMA cell for a ref­er­ence en­er­gy with­out ac­cel­er­a­tion. Since the beam dy­nam­ics change with en­er­gy, a set of maps have been pro­duce with dif­fer­ent ref­er­ence en­er­gies be­tween 10 and 20MeV. For each ref­er­ence en­er­gy, sim­u­lat­ed tune and time of flight (TOF) have been com­pared with re­sults in Zgoubi - track­ing di­rect­ly through nu­mer­i­cal field map. The range of va­lid­i­ty of a sin­gle map has been in­ves­ti­gat­ed by track­ing par­ti­cle with large en­er­gy de­vi­a­tion. From that, a ...

  9. Bluff Body Flow Simulation Using a Vortex Element Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony Leonard; Phillippe Chatelain; Michael Rebel

    2004-09-30

    Heavy ground vehicles, especially those involved in long-haul freight transportation, consume a significant part of our nation's energy supply. it is therefore of utmost importance to improve their efficiency, both to reduce emissions and to decrease reliance on imported oil. At highway speeds, more than half of the power consumed by a typical semi truck goes into overcoming aerodynamic drag, a fraction which increases with speed and crosswind. Thanks to better tools and increased awareness, recent years have seen substantial aerodynamic improvements by the truck industry, such as tractor/trailer height matching, radiator area reduction, and swept fairings. However, there remains substantial room for improvement as understanding of turbulent fluid dynamics grows. The group's research effort focused on vortex particle methods, a novel approach for computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Where common CFD methods solve or model the Navier-Stokes equations on a grid which stretches from the truck surface outward, vortex particle methods solve the vorticity equation on a Lagrangian basis of smooth particles and do not require a grid. They worked to advance the state of the art in vortex particle methods, improving their ability to handle the complicated, high Reynolds number flow around heavy vehicles. Specific challenges that they have addressed include finding strategies to accurate capture vorticity generation and resultant forces at the truck wall, handling the aerodynamics of spinning bodies such as tires, application of the method to the GTS model, computation time reduction through improved integration methods, a closest point transform for particle method in complex geometrics, and work on large eddy simulation (LES) turbulence modeling.

  10. Development of Sensors and Sensing Technology for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brosha, E L; Sekhar, P K; Mukundan, R; Williamson, T; Garzon, F H; Woo, L Y; Glass, R R

    2010-01-06

    One related area of hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (FCV) development that cannot be overlooked is the anticipated requirement for new sensors for both the monitoring and control of the fuel cell's systems and for those devices that will be required for safety. Present day automobiles have dozens of sensors on-board including those for IC engine management/control, sensors for state-of-health monitoring/control of emissions systems, sensors for control of active safety systems, sensors for triggering passive safety systems, and sensors for more mundane tasks such as fluids level monitoring to name the more obvious. The number of sensors continues to grow every few years as a result of safety mandates but also in response to consumer demands for new conveniences and safety features. Some of these devices (e.g. yaw sensors for dynamic stability control systems or tire presure warning RF-based devices) may be used on fuel cell vehicles without any modification. However the use of hydrogen as a fuel will dictate the development of completely new technologies for such requirements as the detection of hydrogen leaks, sensors and systems to continuously monitor hydrogen fuel purity and protect the fuel cell stack from poisoning, and for the important, yet often taken for granted, tasks such as determining the state of charge of the hydrogen fuel storage and delivery system. Two such sensors that rely on different transduction mechanisms will be highlighted in this presentation. The first is an electrochemical device for monitoring hydrogen levels in air. The other technology covered in this work, is an acoustic-based approach to determine the state of charge of a hydride storage system.

  11. On the difference between stiff and soft membranes: Capillary Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastian Jaksch; Olaf Holderer; Michael Ohl; Henrich Frielinghaus

    2015-08-14

    One problem of non-crystalline condensed matter (soft matter) is creating the right equilibrium between elasticity and viscosity, referred to as viscoelasticity. Manifestations of that can be found in everyday live, where the viscoelasticity in a tire needs to be balanced so it is still flexible and can dissipate shock-energy, yet hard enough for energy-saving operation. Similarly, the cartilage in joints needs to absorb shocks while operating at low- level friction with high elasticity. Two such examples with a biological applicability are stiff membranes, which allow for the sliding of joints and therefore maintain their function over the lifetime of the corresponding individual (decades) and the softening of cell membranes, for example for antimicrobial effects by dissolution in the case of bacteria (seconds). While the first should allow for low- friction operation at high elasticity, in the second scenario energy dissipated into the membrane eventually leads to membrane destruction. Here we address the intrinsic difference between these two types of membranes, differing in stiffness and displaying different relaxation behavior on the nanosecond time scale. The harder membranes show additional elastic modes, capillary waves, that indicate the high degree of elasticity necessary for instance in cartilage or red blood cells. The energy of these modes is in the order of 1 micro-eV. As model systems we chose a hard phospholipidmembrane of SoyPC lipids and a D2O/C10E4/decane microemulsion system representing soft surfactant membranes. Our results help to explain properties observed for many membranes in nature, where hard membranes lubricate joints or stay intact as red blood particles in tiniest capillaries, both with extremely long lifetimes. Contrarily, softened membranes can be destroyed easily under little shear stress within seconds.

  12. Research, Development and Demonstration of Bio-Mass Boiler for Food Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, Steve; Knapp, David

    2012-03-31

    Frito-Lay is working to reduce carbon emissions from their manufacturing plants. As part of this effort, they invested in a â??biomass-firedâ?ť boiler at the Topeka, Kansas, plant. Frito-Lay partnered with Burns & McDonnell Engineering, Inc. and CPL Systems, Inc., to design and construct a steam producing boiler using â??carbon neutralâ?ť fuels such as wood wastes (e.g. tree bark), shipping pallets, and used rubber vehicle tires. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joined with Frito-Lay, Burns & McDonnell, and CPL to analyze the reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions that result from use of biomass-fired boilers in the food manufacturing environment. DOE support provided for the data collection and analysis, and reporting necessary to evaluate boiler efficiencies and reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions. The Frito-Lay biomass-fired boiler has resulted in significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions from the Topeka production facility. The use of natural gas has been reduced by 400 to 420 million standard cubic feet per year with corresponding reductions of 24,000 to 25,000 tons of CO{sub 2}. The boiler does require auxiliary â??functions,â?ť however, that are unnecessary for a gas-fired boiler. These include heavy motors and fans for moving fuel and firing the boiler, trucks and equipment for delivering the fuel and moving at the boiler plant, and chippers for preparing the fuel prior to delivery. Each of these operations requires the combustion of fossil fuels or electricity and has associated CO{sub 2} emissions. Even after accounting for each of these auxiliary processes, however, the biomass-fired boiler results in net emission reductions of 22,500 to 23,500 tons of CO{sub 2} per year.

  13. Lifecycle-analysis for heavy vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, L.

    1998-04-16

    Various alternative fuels and improved engine and vehicle systems have been proposed in order to reduce emissions and energy use associated with heavy vehicles (predominantly trucks). For example, oil companies have proposed improved methods for converting natural gas to zero-aromatics, zero-sulfur diesel fuel via the Fischer-Tropsch process. Major heavy-duty diesel engine companies are working on ways to simultaneously reduce particulate-matter and NOX emissions. The trend in heavy vehicles is toward use of lightweight materials, tires with lower rolling resistance, and treatments to reduce aerodynamic drag. In this paper, we compare the Mecycle energy use and emissions from trucks using selected alternatives, such as Fisher-Tropsch diesel fuel and advanced fuel-efficient engines. We consider heavy-duty, Class 8 tractor-semitrailer combinations for this analysis. The total life cycle includes production and recycling of the vehicle itself, extraction, processing, and transportation of the fuel itself, and vehicle operation and maintenance. Energy use is considered in toto, as well as those portions that are imported, domestic, and renewable. Emissions of interest include greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants. Angonne's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is used to generate per-vehicle fuel cycle impacts. Energy use and emissions for materials manufacturing and vehicle disposal are estimated by means of materials information from Argonne studies. We conclude that there are trade-offs among impacts. For example, the lowest fossil energy use does not necessarily result in lowest total energy use, and lower tailpipe emissions may not necessarily result in lower lifecycle emissions of all criteria pollutants.

  14. PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jay R. Gunderson; Mike J. Holmes; Jason D. Laumb; Michelle R. Olderbak; John H. Pavlish; Li Yan; Ye Zhuang; Jill M. Zola

    2004-02-01

    North Dakota lignite-fired power plants have shown a limited ability to control mercury emissions in currently installed electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), dry scrubbers, and wet scrubbers (1). This low level of control can be attributed to the high proportions of Hg{sup 0} present in the flue gas. Speciation of Hg in flue gases analyzed as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) information collection request (ICR) for Hg data showed that Hg{sup 0} ranged from 56% to 96% and oxidized mercury ranged from 4% to 44%. The Hg emitted from power plants firing North Dakota lignites ranged from 45% to 91% of the total Hg, with the emitted Hg being greater than 85% elemental. The higher levels of oxidized mercury were only found in a fluidized-bed combustion system. Typically, the form of Hg in the pulverized and cyclone-fired units was dominated by Hg{sup 0} at greater than 85%, and the average amount of Hg{sup 0} emitted from North Dakota power plants was 6.7 lb/TBtu (1, 2). The overall objective of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project is to develop and evaluate advanced and innovative concepts for controlling Hg emissions from North Dakota lignite-fired power plants by 50%-90% at costs of one-half to three-fourths of current estimated costs. The specific objectives are focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in wet and dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in ESPs and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The scientific approach to solving the problems associated with controlling Hg emissions from lignite-fired power plants involves conducting testing of the following processes and technologies that have shown promise on a bench, pilot, or field scale: (1) activated carbon injection (ACI) upstream of an ESP combined with sorbent enhancement, (2) Hg oxidation and control using wet and dry scrubbers, (3) enhanced oxidation at a full-scale power plant using tire-derived fuel (TDF) and oxidizing catalysts, and (4) testing of Hg control technologies in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter insert.

  15. Exposure Evaluation for Benzene, Lead and Noise in Vehicle and Equipment Repair Shops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeney, Lynn C.

    2013-04-10

    An exposure assessment was performed at the equipment and vehicle maintenance repair shops operating at the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford site, in Richland, Washington. The maintenance shops repair and maintain vehicles and equipment used in support of the Hanford cleanup mission. There are three general mechanic shops and one auto body repair shop. The mechanics work on heavy equipment used in construction, cranes, commercial motor vehicles, passenger-type vehicles in addition to air compressors, generators, and farm equipment. Services include part fabrication, installation of equipment, repair and maintenance work in the engine compartment, and tire and brake services. Work performed at the auto body shop includes painting and surface preparation which involves applying body filler and sanding. 8-hour time-weighted-average samples were collected for benzene and noise exposure and task-based samples were collected for lead dust work activities involving painted metal surfaces. Benzene samples were obtained using 3M™ 3520 sampling badges and were analyzed for additional volatile organic compounds. These compounds were selected based on material safety data sheet information for the aerosol products used by the mechanics for each day of sampling. The compounds included acetone, ethyl ether, toluene, xylene, VM&P naphtha, methyl ethyl ketone, and trichloroethylene. Laboratory data for benzene, VM&P naphtha, methyl ethyl ketone and trichloroethylene were all below the reporting detection limit. Airborne concentrations for acetone, ethyl ether, toluene and xylene were all less than 10% of their occupational exposure limit. The task-based samples obtained for lead dusts were submitted for a metal scan analysis to identify other metals that might be present. Laboratory results for lead dusts were all below the reporting detection limit and airborne concentration for the other metals observed in the samples were less than 10% of the occupational exposure limit. Noise dosimetry sampling was performed on a random basis and was representative of the different work activities within the four shops. Twenty three percent of the noise samples exceeded the occupational exposure limit of 85 decibels for an 8-hour time-weightedaverage. Work activities where noise levels were higher included use of impact wrenches and grinding wheels.

  16. Commercial viability of hybrid vehicles : best household use and cross national considerations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D. J.; Vyas, A. D.

    1999-07-16

    Japanese automakers have introduced hybrid passenger cars in Japan and will soon do so in the US. In this paper, we report how we used early computer simulation model results to compare the commercial viability of a hypothetical near-term (next decade) hybrid mid-size passenger car configuration under varying fuel price and driving patterns. The fuel prices and driving patterns evaluated are designed to span likely values for major OECD nations. Two types of models are used. One allows the ''design'' of a hybrid to a specified set of performance requirements and the prediction of fuel economy under a number of possible driving patterns (called driving cycles). Another provides an estimate of the incremental cost of the hybrid in comparison to a comparably performing conventional vehicle. In this paper, the models are applied to predict the NPV cost of conventional gasoline-fueled vehicles vs. parallel hybrid vehicles. The parallel hybrids are assumed to (1) be produced at high volume, (2) use nickel metal hydride battery packs, and (3) have high-strength steel bodies. The conventional vehicle also is assumed to have a high-strength steel body. The simulated vehicles are held constant in many respects, including 0-60 time, engine type, aerodynamic drag coefficient, tire rolling resistance, and frontal area. The hybrids analyzed use the minimum size battery pack and motor to meet specified 0-60 times. A key characteristic affecting commercial viability is noted and quantified: that hybrids achieve the most pronounced fuel economy increase (best use) in slow, average-speed, stop-and-go driving, but when households consistently drive these vehicles under these conditions, they tend to travel fewer miles than average vehicles. We find that hours driven is a more valuable measure than miles. Estimates are developed concerning hours of use of household vehicles versus driving cycle, and the pattern of minimum NPV incremental cost (or benefit) of selecting the hybrid over the conventional vehicle at various fuel prices is illustrated. These results are based on data from various OECD motions on fuel price, annual miles of travel per vehicle, and driving cycles assumed to be applicable in those nations. Scatter in results plotted as a function of average speed, related to details of driving cycles and the vehicles selected for analysis, is discussed.

  17. Agricultural pathogen decontamination technology-reducing the threat of infectious agent spread.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betty, Rita G.; Bieker, Jill Marie; Tucker, Mark David

    2005-10-01

    Outbreaks of infectious agricultural diseases, whether natural occurring or introduced intentionally, could have catastrophic impacts on the U.S. economy. Examples of such agricultural pathogens include foot and mouth disease (FMD), avian influenza (AI), citrus canker, wheat and soy rust, etc. Current approaches to mitigate the spread of agricultural pathogens include quarantine, development of vaccines for animal diseases, and development of pathogen resistant crop strains in the case of plant diseases. None of these approaches is rapid, and none address the potential persistence of the pathogen in the environment, which could lead to further spread of the agent and damage after quarantine is lifted. Pathogen spread in agricultural environments commonly occurs via transfer on agricultural equipment (transportation trailers, tractors, trucks, combines, etc.), having components made from a broad range of materials (galvanized and painted steel, rubber tires, glass and Plexiglas shields, etc), and under conditions of heavy organic load (mud, soil, feces, litter, etc). A key element of stemming the spread of an outbreak is to ensure complete inactivation of the pathogens in the agricultural environment and on the equipment used in those environments. Through the combination of enhanced agricultural pathogen decontamination chemistry and a validated inactivation verification methodology, important technologies for incorporation as components of a robust response capability will be enabled. Because of the potentially devastating economic impact that could result from the spread of infectious agricultural diseases, the proposed capability components will promote critical infrastructure protection and greater border and food supply security. We investigated and developed agricultural pathogen decontamination technologies to reduce the threat of infectious-agent spread, and thus enhance agricultural biosecurity. Specifically, enhanced detergency versions of the patented Sandia decontamination chemistry were developed and tested against a few surrogate pathogens under conditions of relatively heavy organic load. Tests were conducted on surfaces commonly found in agricultural environments. Wide spectrum decontamination efficacy, low corrosivity, and biodegradability issues were addressed in developing an enhanced detergency formulation. A method for rapid assessment of loss of pathogenic activity (inactivation) was also assessed. This enhanced technology will enable rapid assessment of contamination following an intentional event, and will also be extremely useful in routine assessment of agricultural environments. The primary effort during the second year was progress towards a demonstration of both decontamination and viral inactivation technologies of Foot and Mouth virus (FMDv) using the modified SNL chemistry developed through this project. Lab studies using a surrogate virus (bovine enterovirus) were conducted using DF200, modified DF200 chemistry, and decontaminants currently recommended for use in heavily loaded organic, agricultural environments (VirkonS, 10% bleach, sodium hydroxide and citric acid). Tests using actual FMD virus will be performed at the Department of Homeland Security's Plum Island facilities in the fall of 2005. Success and the insight gained from this project will lead to enhanced response capability, which will benefit agencies such as USDA, DHS, DOD, and the agricultural industry.

  18. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Federal Fleet Use of Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mindy Kirpatrick; J. E. Francfort

    2003-11-01

    Per Executive Order 13031, “Federal Alternative Fueled Vehicle Leadership,” the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity provided $998,300 in incremental funding to support the deployment of 220 electric vehicles in 36 Federal fleets. The 145 electric Ford Ranger pickups and 75 electric Chrysler EPIC (Electric Powered Interurban Commuter) minivans were operated in 14 states and the District of Columbia. The 220 vehicles were driven an estimated average of 700,000 miles annually. The annual estimated use of the 220 electric vehicles contributed to 39,000 fewer gallons of petroleum being used by Federal fleets and the reduction in emissions of 1,450 pounds of smog-forming pollution. Numerous attempts were made to obtain information from all 36 fleets. Information responses were received from 25 fleets (69% response rate), as some Federal fleet personnel that were originally involved with the Incremental Funding Project were transferred, retired, or simply could not be found. In addition, many of the Department of Defense fleets indicated that they were supporting operations in Iraq and unable to provide information for the foreseeable future. It should be noted that the opinions of the 25 fleets is based on operating 179 of the 220 electric vehicles (81% response rate). The data from the 25 fleets is summarized in this report. Twenty-two of the 25 fleets reported numerous problems with the vehicles, including mechanical, traction battery, and charging problems. Some of these problems, however, may have resulted from attempting to operate the vehicles beyond their capabilities. The majority of fleets reported that most of the vehicles were driven by numerous drivers each week, with most vehicles used for numerous trips per day. The vehicles were driven on average from 4 to 50 miles per day on a single charge. However, the majority of the fleets reported needing gasoline vehicles for missions beyond the capabilities of the electric vehicles, usually because of range limitations. Twelve fleets reported experiencing at least one charge depletion while driving, whereas nine fleets reported not having this problem. Twenty-four of the 25 fleets responded that the electric vehicles were easy to use and 22 fleets indicated that the payload was adequate. Thirteen fleets reported charging problems; eleven fleets reported no charging problems. Nine fleets reported the vehicles broke down while driving; 14 fleets reported no onroad breakdowns. Some of the breakdowns while driving, however, appear to include normal flat tires and idiot lights coming on. In spite of operation and charging problems, 59% of the fleets responded that they were satisfied, very satisfied, or extremely satisfied with the performance of the electric vehicles. As of September 2003, 74 of the electric vehicles were still being used and 107 had been returned to the manufacturers because the leases had concluded.

  19. Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David E. Ramey; Shang-Tian Yang

    2005-08-25

    Environmental Energy Inc has shown that BUTANOL REPLACES GASOLINE - 100 pct and has no pollution problems, and further proved it is possible to produce 2.5 gallons of butanol per bushel corn at a production cost of less than $1.00 per gallon. There are 25 pct more Btu-s available and an additional 17 pct more from hydrogen given off, from the same corn when making butanol instead of ethanol that is 42 pct more Btu-s more energy out than it takes to make - that is the plow to tire equation is positive for butanol. Butanol is far safer to handle than gasoline or ethanol. Butanol when substituted for gasoline gives better gas mileage and does not pollute as attested to in 10 states. Butanol should now receive the same recognition as a fuel alcohol in U.S. legislation as ethanol. There are many benefits to this technology in that Butanol replaces gasoline gallon for gallon as demonstrated in a 10,000 miles trip across the United States July-August 2005. No modifications at all were made to a 1992 Buick Park Avenue; essentially your family car can go down the road on Butanol today with no modifications, Butanol replaces gasoline. It is that simple. Since Butanol replaces gasoline more Butanol needs to be made. There are many small farms across America which can grow energy crops and they can easily apply this technology. There is also an abundance of plant biomass present as low-value agricultural commodities or processing wastes requiring proper disposal to avoid pollution problems. One example is in the corn refinery industry with 10 million metric tons of corn byproducts that pose significant environmental problems. Whey lactose presents another waste management problem, 123,000 metric tons US, which can now be turned into automobile fuel. The fibrous bed bioreactor - FBB - with cells immobilized in the fibrous matrix packed in the reactor has been successfully used for several organic acid fermentations, including butyric and propionic acids with greatly increased reactor productivity, final product concentration, and product yield. Other advantages of the FBB include efficient and continuous operation without requiring repeated inoculation, elimination of cell lag phase, good long-term stability, self cleaning and easier downstream processing. The excellent reactor performance of the FBB can be attributed to the high viable cell density maintained in the bioreactor as a result of the unique cell immobilization mechanism within the porous fibrous matrix Since Butanol replaces gasoline in any car today - right now, its manufacturing from biomass is the focus of EEI and in the long term production of our transportation fuel from biomass will stabilize the cost of our fuel - the underpinning of all commerce. As a Strategic Chemical Butanol has a ready market as an industrial solvent used primarily as paint thinner which sells for twice the price of gasoline and is one entry point for the Company into an established market. However, butanol has demonstrated it is an excellent replacement for gasoline-gallon for gallon. The EEI process has made the economics of producing butanol from biomass for both uses very compelling. With the current costs for gasoline at $3.00 per gallon various size farmstead turn-key Butanol BioRefineries are proposed for 50-1,000 acre farms, to produce butanol as a fuel locally and sold locally. All butanol supplies worldwide are currently being produced from petroleum for $1.50 per gallon and selling for $3.80 wholesale. With the increasing price of gasoline it becomes feasible to manufacture and sell Butanol as a clean-safe replacement for gasoline. Grown locally - sold locally at gas prices. A 500 acre farm at 120 bushels corn per acre would make $150,000 at $2.50 per bushel for its corn, when turned into 150,000 gallons Butanol per year at 2.5 gallons per bushel the gross income would be $430,000. Butanol-s advantage is the fact that no other agricultural product made can be put directly into your gas tank without modifying your car. The farmer making and selling locally has no overhead for shippi

  20. Retrofiting survivability of military vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canavan, Gregory H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In Iraq the terrain was such that vehicles could be distributed horizontally, which reduced the effectiveness of mines. In the mountainous terrain of Pakistan and Afghanistan vehicles are forced to use the few, passable roads, which are dirt and easily seeded with plentiful, cheap, intelligent mines. It is desirable to reduce the losses to such mines, preferably by retrofit means that do not greatly increase weight or cost or reduce maneuverability. V-bottom vehicles - A known approach to reducing vulnerability is the Buffalo, a large vehicle developed by South Africa to address mine warfare. It has large tires, high axles, and a reinforced, v-shaped bottom that deflects the blast from explosions below. It is developed and tested in combat, but is expensive and has reduced off-road mobility. The domestic MRAP has similar cost and mobility issue. The addition of v-shaped blast deflectors to vehicles such as Humvees could act much as the deflector on a Buffalo, but a Humvee is closer to the ground, so the explosive's expansion would be reduced. The deflector would also reduce a Humvee's clearance for rough terrain, and a deflector of adequate thickness to address the blast by itself could further increase cost and reduce mobility. Reactive armor is developed and has proven effective against shaped and explosive charges from side or top attack. It detects their approach, detonates, and defeats them by interfering with jet formation. If the threat was a shaped charge from below, they would be a logical choice. But the bulk of the damage to Humvees appears to be from the blast from high explosive mines for which the colliding shock from reactive armor could increase that from the explosive. Porous materials such as sand can strongly attenuate the kinetic energy and pressure of a strong shock. Figure 1 shows the kinetic energy (KE), momentum (Mu), velocity (u), and mass (M) of a spherically expanding shock as functions of radius for a material with a porosity of 0.5. Over the range from 0.5 to 4.5 cm the shock KE is attenuated by a factor of {approx}70, while its momentum is changed little. The shock and particle velocity falls by a factor of 200 while the mass increases by a factor of 730. In the limit of very porous media u {approx} 1/M, so KE {approx} 1/M, which falls by a factor of {approx}600, while momentum Mu does not change at all. Figure 2 shows the KE, Mu, u, and M for a material with a porosity of 1.05, for which the KE changes little. In the limit of media of very low porosity, u {approx} 1/{radical}M, so KE is constant while Mu {approx} {radical}M, which increases by a factor of 15. Thus, if the goal is to reduce the peak pressure from strong explosions below, very porous materials, which strongly reduce pressure but do not increase momentum, are preferred to non-porous materials, which amplify momentum but do not decrease pressure. These predictions are in qualitative accord with the results of experiments at Los Alamos in which projectiles from high velocity, large caliber cannons were stopped by one to two sandbags. The studies were performed primarily to determine the effectiveness of sand in stopping fragments of various sizes, but could be extended to study sand's effectiveness in attenuating blast pressure. It would also be useful to test the above predictions on the effectiveness of media with higher porosity. Water barriers have been discussed but not deployed in previous retrofit survivability studies for overseas embassies. They would detect the flash from the mine detonation below, trigger a thin layer of explosive above a layer of water, and drive water droplets into the approaching blast wave. The blast loses energy in evaporating the droplets and loses momentum in slowing them. Under favorable conditions that could attenuate the pressure in the blast enough to prevent the penetration or disruption of the vehicle. However, such barriers would depend on prompt and reliable detonation detection and water droplet dispersal, which have not been tested. There is a large literature on the theoretical effec

  1. Cle Elum Supplementation and Research Facility : Monthly Progress Report November 2008.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cle Elum Supplementation and Research Facility

    2008-12-09

    FISH PRODUCTION: Final shocking of eggs was finished in the incubation. Egg enumeration for the 2008 brood was completed and the eggs are being incubated in 38 degree Fahrenheit chilled water. Don Larsen of NOAA made a request of eggs for research purposes and was able to acquire supplemental line eggs 10,555. Estimated density at the time of ponding in Mid-March of 2009 is approximately 43,869 fry per raceway after calculating an average fry loss of 2%. The end of the month totals for the 2007 brood reports 773,807 juveniles on hand with an overall average of 31.4 fish per pound. Tagging continues on the 2007 brood and is on pace to wrap up in early December. FISH CULTURE: Ponds are cleaned as needed and due to the colder water temperatures, the feeding frequency has been changed to three days a week. All ponds are sampled at the end of the month. Growth for production fish are adjusted accordingly as temperature dictates feeding levels. Torrential rain on the 12th turned the Yakima River extremely turbid. Fish tagging operations were halted and the ensuing conditions at the facility intake screens became a concern. Water flow to the wet well became restricted so the decision was made to shut the surface water (river) pumps down and turn on well pumps No.1, No.4 and No.6 to run water to the facility head box. This operation continued for twenty-four hours at which point normal operations were optimal and fish tagging resumed, although the river didn't clear up enough to feed the fish until the 17th. WATER PRODUCTION: The current combined well and river water supply to the complex is 14,822 gallons/minute. Well No.2 is pumping water at a rate of 530 gallons per minute. All four river pumps are in operation and pumping 14,292 gallons/minute. ACCLIMATION SITES: Cle Elum staff has been working to prep the acclimation sites for the upcoming fish transfer before the snow falls. Thermographs at each site are changed weekly. AMB Tools performed routine maintenance on the compressor and Brown and Jackson pumped out the septic tank at the Jack Creek acclimation site. VEHICLE MAINTENANCE: Snow tires are now on all vehicles and snow blowers were installed on the John Deere tractor and lawn tractor. The snowplow was also installed on the Ford one ton. The four Snowmobiles were serviced by Yamaha Jacks of Ellensburg. MAINTENANCE BUILDING MAINTENANCE: Clean up occurs on Fridays of each week. HATCHERY BUILDING MAINTENANCE: Water has been turned on to vertical incubator islands one and two. After eggs were transferred to vertical stacks cleaning of troughs began. WDFW crew inventoried eggs from isolettes and then transferred them to the vertical incubators. RIVER PUMP STATION MAINTENANCE: All four pumps are in operation and supplying the facility with 14,292 gallons/minute of water to rearing ponds. WELL FIELD MAINTENANCE: Well pumps No.1, No.4 and No.6 were turned on to supplement water flow to the facility as mentioned previously. Well No.5 was powered up but a winterizing valve malfunction wouldn't allow operation, we are currently working on it at this time. Well No.2 is pumping 530 gallons per minute and supplies well water to incubation and chiller. The pumps meter is recorded weekly. Test holes are monitored weekly and results are faxed to CH2MHILL afterward. SAFETY AND TRAINING: Ice melt and sand bags are popular items at the facility this month as freezing temperatures cause ground to become slippery and hazardous. GROUNDS: Van Alden's Plumbing installed a new commode in resident house No.411 and also inspected a plumbing problem at resident No.1131. Cle Elum staff along with WDFW staff worked to locate the spawning channel building back to the position it was at to have Greg Wallace of Wallace Electric hook electricity back up to the spawning shed. MEETINGS AND TOURS: Charlie attended a policy meeting at Cle Elum on the 18th. The Internal projects annual review took place at Cle Elum on the 19th and 20th. Bill Bosch continues to visit monthly to incorporate data into the YKFP data base. PERSONNEL: IHS employees traveled to Cle