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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tion-carbon dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Permeation of argon, carbon dioxide, helium, nitrogen and oxygen through Mylar windows  

SciTech Connect

In secondary beam lines in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory, low mass vacuum windows are used to reduce background radiation near particle detectors. These windows are fabricated using Mylar films and are generally made as thin as possible. Mylar films as thin as 0.002 inch have been used as vacuum windows ranging in size up to 36 inch {times} 76 inch. When using Mylar for low mass window applications, permeation must be considered to achieve system design pressures. The permeation of several different gas species through both Mylar and aluminized Mylar films with thicknesses of 0.002`` and 0.005`` was studied. Testing was performed under high vacuum and a quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to identify and quantify gas species during the study. Permeability of argon, carbon dioxide, helium, nitrogen and oxygen were determined for Mylar from 20 up to 90C.

Mapes, M.; Hseuh, H.C.; Jiang, W.S.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

It's Elemental - The Element Helium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to the atmosphere through cracks in the crust. Helium is commercially recovered from natural gas deposits, mostly from Texas, Oklahoma and Kansas. Helium gas is used to inflate...

3

Helium dilution refrigeration system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.

Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.

1988-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

4

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Gateway Pages to Carbon Dioxide Data Modern records and ice core records back 2000 years 800,000 year records from ice cores Other...

5

Thermal integration of processes to recover helium  

SciTech Connect

New applications for helium have resulted in significant growth in helium demand in recent years. The primary source of helium in the USA is natural gas reservoirs. Typically natural gas reservoirs that contain helium also contain nitrogen. The presence of nitrogen requires that the heating value of the gas be upgraded using nitrogen rejection units (NRU). Thermal integration of the NRU process with the helium recovery process is described. Further integration of NRU and helium recovery process to produce cold helium gas suitable for use as a feed to a helium liquefier is also described. A key aspect of the integrated process is the use of refrigeration from the NRU to reduce power requirements, and capital cost for the helium recovery process.

Pahade, R.F.; Maloney, J.J.; Fisher, T.F. (Union Carbide Corp., Linde Div., Tonawanda, NY (US))

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Pulsed helium ionization detection system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

Ramsey, R.S.; Todd, R.A.

1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

7

Precision spectroscopy of the helium atom.  

SciTech Connect

Persistent efforts in both theory and experiment have yielded increasingly precise understanding of the helium atom. Because of its simplicity, the helium atom has long been a testing ground for relativistic and quantum electrodynamic effects in few-body atomic systems theoretically and experimentally. Comparison between theory and experiment of the helium spectroscopy in 1s2p{sup 3}P{sub J} can potentially extract a very precise value of the fine structure constant a. The helium atom can also be used to explore exotic nuclear structures. In this paper, we provide a brief review of the recent advances in precision calculations and measurements of the helium atom.

Hu, S.-M.; Lu, Z.-T.; Yan, Z.-C.; Physics; Univ. of Science and Technology of China; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of New Brunswick

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

High-temperature helium-loop facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The high-temperature helium loop is a facility for materials testing in ultrapure helium gas at high temperatures. The closed loop system is capable of recirculating high-purity helium or helium with controlled impurities. The gas loop maximum operating conditions are as follows: 300 psi pressure, 500 lb/h flow rate, and 2100/sup 0/F temperature. The two test sections can accept samples up to 3.5 in. diameter and 5 ft long. The gas loop is fully instrumented to continuously monitor all parameters of loop operation as well as helium impurities. The loop is fully automated to operate continuously and requires only a daily servicing by a qualified operator to replenish recorder charts and helium makeup gas. Because of its versatility and high degree of parameter control, the helium loop is applicable to many types of materials research. This report describes the test apparatus, operating parameters, peripheral systems, and instrumentation system.

Tokarz, R.D.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Carbon Dioxide Compression  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. © C opyright 2009 Carbon Dioxide Compression DOE – EPRI – NIST ... Greenhouse gas sequestration Page 5. 5 © C opyright 2009 ...

2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

10

In Beam Tests of Implanted Helium Targets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Targets consisting of 3,4He implanted into thin aluminum foils (approximately 100, 200 or 600 ug/cm^2) were prepared using intense (a few uA) helium beams at low energy (approximately 20, 40 or 100 keV). Uniformity of the implantation was achieved by a beam raster across a 12 mm diameter tantalum collimator at the rates of 0.1 Hz in the vertical direction and 1 Hz in the horizontal direction. Helium implantation into the very thin (approximately 80-100 ug/cm^2) aluminum foils failed to produce useful targets (with only approximately 10% of the helium retained) due to an under estimation of the range by the code SRIM. The range of low energy helium in aluminum predicted by Northcliffe and Shilling and the NIST online tabulation are observed on the other hand to over estimate the range of low energy helium ions in aluminum. An attempt to increase the amount of helium by implanting a second deeper layer was also carried out, but it did not significantly increase the helium content beyond the blistering limit (approximately 6 x 10^17 helium/cm^2). The implanted targets were bombarded with moderately intense 4He and 16O beams of 50-100 particle nA . Rutherford Back Scattering of 1.0 and 2.5 MeV proton beams and recoil helium from 15.0 MeV oxygen beams were used to study the helium content and profile before, during and after bombardments. We observed the helium content and profile to be very stable even after a prolonged bombardment (up to two days) with moderately intense beams of 16O or 4He. Helium implanted into thin (aluminum) foils is a good choice for thin helium targets needed, for example, for a measurement of the 3he(a,g)7Be reaction and the associated S34 astrophysical cross section factor (S-factor).

J. E. McDonald; R. H. France III; R. A. Jarvis; M. W. Ahmed; M. A. Blackston; Th. Delbar; M. Gai; T. J. Kading; Y. Parpottas; B. A. Perdue; R. M. Prior; D. A. Rubin; M. C. Spraker; J. D. Yeomans; L. Weissman; H. R. Weller; E. L. Wilds Jr; ;; UHartford; GCSU; LNS/UConn; TUNL/Duke; UCL/LLN; Yale; NGCSU

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

11

Iodine Stabilized Helium-Neon Laser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... stabilized lasers or spectral lamps that have been recommended for use by international consensus. The iodine stabilized helium-neon laser is just ...

12

Helium turbines for high-temperature reactors  

SciTech Connect

From joint meeting of the VDE and VDI; Dusseldorf, Ger. (17 Oct 1972). The designs of turbines with air and helium as working media are compared, and volume flow, mass flow, sound velocity, stage number, and other characteristics are individually dealt with. Similar comparisons are made regarding connecting lines and heat exchangers. The combination of the helium turbine with hightemperature reactors is described. Problems of the integrated and non- integrated method of single cycle plants and helium turbines, the use of dry cooling towers and the development of helium turbines are discussed. (GE)

Knuefer, H.

1973-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Fermilab Central Helium Liquefier Operations  

SciTech Connect

The Central Helium Liquefier (CHL), in conjunction with 24 satellite refrigerators, supplies refrigeration for the Fermilab superconducting accelerator. Liquid from the CHL is transported in a six kilometer circular transfer line and each satellite withdraws the amount required to boost its refrigeration capacity to the necessary level. Unused liquid is presently returned to compressor suction through a 250 kW calorimeter-heater. A helium gas flow of 1.1 kg/s is supplied to the cold box at 15 bars pressure. The gas flows through a demister and an oil adsorgber before it enters the cold box. In the cold box, manufactured by Koch Process Systems and Sulzer Brothers, Ltd., the gas is first cooled by liquid nitrogen and then the flow is split. Three quarters of the flow is further cooled by a series/parallel combination of three oil bearing turbines and then returned to the low pressure side of the heat exchangers. The return gas is used to cool the remaining high pressure gas which is then expanded to 3.5 bars in a 900 L receiver. From there the fluid is transferred into a distribution box, and then routed to either a collection dewar, directly to the ring, or to a heater. The liquid helium, which is utilized by the satellites to increase their cooling capacity, is warmed to near ambient temperature in the satellite heat exchangers. The satellite compressors return the excess inventory to the CHL via a 20 bar gas header. This gas is injected into the high pressure supply to the cold box. The system is shown.

Hodge, G.A.; Rihel, R.K.; Stone, M.E.; Walker, R.J.; /Fermilab

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

A Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal System Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: A Helium Isotope...

15

Focused helium ion beam milling and deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of a helium ion microscope with an integrated gas injection system for nanofabrication is explored by demonstrating the milling of fine features into single layered graphene and the controlled deposition of tungsten and platinum wires from gaseous ... Keywords: Beam-induced deposition, Focused ion beam, Gas injection system, Graphene, Helium ion microscope

S. A. Boden; Z. Moktadir; D. M. Bagnall; H. Mizuta; H. N. Rutt

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Modernizing helium liquefier G-3  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe the process for modernizing the existing liquefier with minimum alteration of its cooling block, that liquefier being helium expansion-type liquefier G-3, made at the Institute of Physical Problems, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, which operates at a stable output of 40 liters/h. A nitrogen tank and a pistontype expander in the preliminary cooling stages and a throttle in the liquefaction stages are used in G-3. Improving the efficiency of such a cooling cycle is limited by the fact that the optimal parameters of throttle stage of liquefaction do not match with the optimal parameters of the expander in the preliminary cooling stages. Thus, for improving cycle efficiency the pressure in the preliminary stages must be increased but reduced in the liquefaction stage. This paper also presents the solution to this problem. It is further demonstrated that the use of vapor-liquid expander in the liquefaction stage of helium cooling cycle helps increase the output of the unit by 40% in a relatively simple way.

Golikov, G.E.; Danilov, I.B.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Method for dissolving plutonium dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for dissolving plutonium dioxide comprises adding silver ions to a nitric acid-hydrofluoric acid solution to significantly speed up dissolution of difficultly soluble plutonium dioxide.

Tallent, Othar K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

CYCLIC CARBON DIOXIDE STIMULATION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CARBON DIOXIDE STIMULATION ("Huff-and-Puff') (A well-stimulation method) Cyclic CO 2 stimulation is a single-well operation that is developing as a method of rapidly producing oil....

19

Sulfur Dioxide Regulations (Ohio)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This chapter of the law establishes that the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency provides sulfur dioxide emission limits for every county, as well as regulations for the emission, monitoring and...

20

SRD 134 Carbon Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

> Return to SRD 134, Index of Semiconductor Process Gases. CARBON DIOXIDE. MW [1]. 44.010. NBP [1]. 194.75 K. TP [1]. 216.59 K. CO 2. Pc [1]. ...

2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tion-carbon dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

BEHAVIOR OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metallic Inclusions in Uranium Dioxide", LBL-11117 (1980).in Hypostoichiornetric Uranium Dioxide 11 , LBL-11095 (OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE Rosa L. Yang and

Yang, Rosa L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Dynamic Simulation of a Helium Liquefier  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic behavior of a helium liquefier has been studied in detail with a Cryogenic Process REal-time SimulaTor (C-PREST) at the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS). The C-PREST is being developed to integrate large-scale helium cryogenic plant design, operation and maintenance for optimum process establishment. As a first step of simulations of cooldown to 4.5 K with the helium liquefier model is conducted, which provides a plant-process validation platform. The helium liquefier consists of seven heat exchangers, a liquid-nitrogen (LN2) precooler, two expansion turbines and a liquid-helium (LHe) reservoir. Process simulations are fulfilled with sequence programs, which were implemented with C-PREST based on an existing liquefier operation. The interactions of a JT valve, a JT-bypass valve and a reservoir-return valve have been dynamically simulated. The paper discusses various aspects of refrigeration process simulation, including its difficulties such as a balance between complexity of the adopted models and CPU time.

Maekawa, R.; Ooba, K.; Mito, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan); Nobutoki, M. [Nippon Sanso Co., Kawasaki, Kanagawa, 210-0861 (Japan)

2004-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

23

Helium release from radioisotope heat sources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Diffusion of helium in /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fuel was characterized as a function of the heating rate and the fuel microstructure. The samples were thermally ramped in an induction furnace and the helium release rates measured with an automated mass spectrometer. The diffusion constants and activation energies were obtained from the data using a simple diffusion model. The release rates of helium were correlated with the fuel microstructure by metallographic examination of fuel samples. The release mechanism consists of four regimes, which are dependent upon the temperature. Initially, the release is controlled by movement of point defects combined with trapping along grain boundaries. This regime is followed by a process dominated by formation and growth of helium bubbles along grain boundaries. The third regime involves volume diffusion controlled by movement of oxygen vacancies. Finally, the release at the highest temperatures follows the diffusion rate of intragranular bubbles. The tendency for helium to be trapped within the grain boundaries diminishes with small grain sizes, slow thermal pulses, and older fuel.

Peterson, D.E.; Early, J.W.; Starzynski, J.S.; Land, C.C.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Depleted Uranium (DU) Dioxide Fill  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fill Depleted Uranium (DU) Dioxide Fill DU dioxide in the form of sand may be used to fill the void spaces in the waste package after the package is loaded with SNF. This...

25

METHOD OF SINTERING URANIUM DIOXIDE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This patent relates to a method of sintering uranium dioxide. Uranium dioxide bodies are heated to above 1200 nif- C in hydrogen, sintered in steam, and then cooled in hydrogen. (AEC)

Henderson, C.M.; Stavrolakis, J.A.

1963-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

26

Available Technologies: Acceleration of Carbon Dioxide ...  

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Carbon dioxide capture and sequestration; ADVANTAGES: Accelerated capture of carbon dioxide; Effective at extremely dilute (nanomolar ...

27

Helium-filled aluminum flight tubes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Helium-filled aluminum flight tubes. Helium-filled aluminum flight tubes. Detector housing for the CCD camera lens, mirror, and scintillator. For more information, contact Instrument Scientist: Hassina Bilheux, bilheuxhn@ornl.gov, 865.384.9630 neutrons.ornl.gov/instruments/HFIR/factsheets/Instrument-cg1d.pdf The CG-1D beam is used for neutron imaging measurements using a white beam. Apertures (with different diameters D (pinhole geometry) are used at the entrance of the helium-filled flight path to allow L/D variation from 400 to 800. L is the distance between the aperture and the detector (where the image is produced). Samples sit on a translation/ rotation stage for alignment and tomography purposes. Detectors for CG-1D include

28

SCREW COMPRESSOR CHARACTERISTICS FOR HELIUM REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

The oil injected screw compressors have practically replaced all other types of compressors in modern helium refrigeration systems due to their large displacement capacity, minimal vibration, reliability and capability of handling helium's high heat of compression.At the present state of compressor system designs for helium systems, typically two-thirds of the lost input power is due to the compression system. Therefore it is important to understand the isothermal and volumetric efficiencies of these machines to help properly design these compression systems to match the refrigeration process. This presentation summarizes separate tests that have been conducted on Sullair compressors at the Superconducting Super-Collider Laboratory (SSCL) in 1993, Howden compressors at Jefferson Lab (JLab) in 2006 and Howden compressors at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in 2006. This work is part of an ongoing study at JLab to understand the theoretical basis for these efficiencies and their loss

Ganni, Venkatarao; Knudsen, Peter; Creel, Jonathan; Arenius, Dana; Casagrande, Fabio; Howell, Matt

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Properties of hydrogen/helium accretion plasmas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We study the properties of impulsively-heated plasmas initially composed of hydrogen and helium. We follow the time-dependent behavior of the ion and electron temperatures, the pair density, and the densities of hydrogen, helium, and nuclei formed in fusion and breakup reactions. We also consider neutron production and escape, and calculate the 0.431 and 0.478 MeV line luminosities from ..cap alpha..-..cap alpha.. fusion reactions, and the 2.22 MeV line luminosity from neutron capture on protons. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Guessoum, N.; Dermer, C.D.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

The carbon dioxide dilemma  

SciTech Connect

The effect of burning fossil fuels on the global climate is discussed. It may be that as we produce carbon dioxide by burning fossil fuels, we create a greenhouse effect which causes temperatures on earth to rise. Implications of changes in global temperatures are discussed.

Edelson, E.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Carbon dioxide sensor  

SciTech Connect

The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

32

STUDY OF HELIUM RETENTION IN NANO-CAVITY ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

STUDY OF HELIUM RETENTION IN NANO-CAVITY TUNGSTEN AS A FIRST WALL IN A FUSION CHAMBER USING NEUTRON DEPTH ...

33

Search for the eta-mesic helium at COSY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review status and perspectives of the search of the eta-mesic helium at the cooler synchrotron COSY.

P. Moskal

2009-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

34

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is carbon dioxide? is carbon dioxide? CO2 Dipole Carbon Dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical name CO2) is a clear gas composed of one atom of carbon (C) and two atoms of oxygen (O). Carbon dioxide is one of many chemical forms of carbon on the Earth. It does not burn, and in standard temperature and pressure conditions it is stable, inert, and non-toxic. Carbon dioxide occurs naturally in small amounts (about 0.04%) in the Earth's atmosphere. The volume of CO2 in the atmosphere is equivalent to one individual in a crowd of 2,500. Carbon dioxide is produced naturally by processes deep within the Earth. This CO2 can be released at the surface by volcanoes or might be trapped in natural underground geologic CO2 deposits, similar to underground deposits of oil and natural gas. As a major greenhouse gas, CO2 helps create and

35

NETL: News Release - Bees, Balloons, Pollen Used as Novel Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9, 2009 9, 2009 Bees, Balloons, Pollen Used as Novel Carbon Dioxide Monitoring Approach Washington, D.C. - Researchers at the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have discovered an innovative way to use bees, pollen, and helium-filled balloons to verify that no carbon dioxide (CO2) leaks from carbon sequestration sites. These new methods are an excellent way to determine environmental impact without disrupting habitats surrounding sequestration sites and can ensure the effectiveness of carbon storage options used to prevent CO2, a greenhouse gas, from escaping into the atmosphere. The carousel, lifted by Apogee's balloon, carries sorbent tubes aloft to sample for tracer above the carbon dioxide injection area in this NETL research project.

36

CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

FUJITA,E.

2000-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

37

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a simple and inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Bicarbonates are regenerated to carbonates when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, electrobalance tests suggested that higher temperature calcination of trona leds to reduced carbonation activity in subsequent cycles, but that calcination in dry carbon dioxide did not result in decreased activity relative to calcination in helium. Following higher temperature calcination, sodium bicarbonate (SBC) No.3 has greater activity than either coarse or fine grades of trona. Fixed bed testing of calcined SBC No.3 at 70 C confirmed that high rates of carbon dioxide absorption are possible and that the resulting product is a mixture of Wegscheider's salt and sodium carbonate. In fluidized bed testing of supported potassium carbonate, very rapid carbonation rates were observed. Activity of the support material complicated the data analysis. A milled, spherical grade of SBC appeared to be similar in attrition and abrasion characteristics to an unmilled, less regularly shaped SBC. The calcination behavior, at 107 C, for the milled and unmilled materials was also similar.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P.Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Douglas P. Harrison

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Dioxide EmissionsCarbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program (Connecticut) Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide EmissionsCarbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program...

39

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the process through which carbon is cycled through the air, ground, plants, animals, and fossil fuels. People and animals inhale oxygen from the air and exhale carbon dioxide...

40

Sonochemical reduction of carbon dioxide.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and cement production are responsible for approximately 75% of the increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the… (more)

Koblov, Alexander

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tion-carbon dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Time dependence of liquid-helium fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

The time dependence of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) fluorescence following an ionizing radiation event in liquid helium is observed and studied in the temperature range from 250 mK to 1.8 K. The fluorescence exhibits significant structure including a short ({approx}10 ns) strong initial pulse followed by single photons whose emission rate decays exponentially with a 1.6-{mu}s time constant. At an even longer time scale, the emission rate varies as '1/time' (inversely proportional to the time after the initial pulse). The intensity of the '1/time' component from {beta} particles is significantly weaker than those from {alpha} particles or neutron capture on {sup 3}He. It is also found that for {alpha} particles, the intensity of this component depends on the temperature of the superfluid helium. Proposed models describing the observed fluorescence are discussed.

McKinsey, D.N.; Brome, C.R.; Dzhosyuk, S.N.; Mattoni, C.E.H.; Yang, L.; Doyle, J.M. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Golub, R.; Habicht, K.; Korobkina, E. [Hahn-Meitner Institut, Berlin-Wannsee (Germany); Huffman, P.R.; Thompson, A.K. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Lamoreaux, S.K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

Brown, Donald P. (Southold, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Studies of Helium Distribution in Metal Tritides  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of helium (3HE) in LiT, TiT2, and UT3, which are regarded as representative metal tritides, was investigated using pulse nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. Analyses of the NMR lineshapes and nuclear relaxation times indicate the 3He atoms are trapped in microscopic gas bubbles for each tritide. The effects of concentration and temperature on the 3He distributions were investigated as well.

Bowman, Jr., R. C.; Attalla, A.

1976-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

Brown, D.P.

1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

45

Hydrogen Production Using the Modular Helium Reactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The high-temperature characteristics of the Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) make it a strong candidate for the production of hydrogen using either thermochemical or high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) processes. Using heat from the MHR to drive a Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) thermochemical hydrogen process has been the subject of a DOE sponsored Nuclear Engineering Research Initiative (NERI) project lead by General Atomics, with participation from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Texas A&M University. While the focus of much of the initial work was on the S-I thermochemical production of hydrogen, recent activities have also included development of a preconceptual design for an integral HTE hydrogen production plant driven by the process heat and electricity produced by a 600 MWt MHR. This paper describes RELAP5-3D analyses performed to evaluate alternative primary system cooling configurations for the MHR to minimize peak reactor vessel and core temperatures while achieving core helium outlet temperatures in the range of 900 oC to 1000 oC, needed for the efficient production of hydrogen using either the S-I thermochemical or HTE process. The cooling schemes investigated are intended to ensure peak fuel temperatures do not exceed specified limits under normal or transient upset conditions, and that reactor vessel temperatures do not exceed ASME code limits for steady-state or transient conditions using standard LWR vessel materials. Preconceptual designs for both an S-I thermochemical and HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a 600 MWt MHR at helium outlet temperatures in the range of 900 oC to 1000 oC are described and compared. An initial SAPHIRE model to evaluate the reliability, maintainablility, and availability of the S-I hydrogen production plant is also discussed, and plans for future assessments of conceptual designs for both a S-I thermochemical and HTE hydrogen production plant coupled to a 600 MWt modular helium reactor are described.

E. A. Harvego; S. M. Reza; M. Richards; A. Shenoy

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

The Helium spectrum in erupting solar prominences  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Even quiescent solar prominences may become active and sometimes erupt. These events are occasionally linked to coronal mass ejections. However we know very little about the plasma properties during the activation and eruption processes. We present new computations of the helium line profiles emitted by an eruptive prominence. The prominence is modelled as a plane-parallel slab standing vertically above the solar surface and moving upward as a solid body. The helium spectrum is computed with a non local thermodynamic equilibrium radiative transfer code. The effect of Doppler dimming / brightening is investigated in the resonance lines of He I and He II formed in the EUV, as well as on the He I 10830 A and 5876 A lines. We focus on the line profile properties and the resulting integrated intensities. It is shown that the helium lines are very sensitive to Doppler dimming effects. We also study the effect of frequency redistribution in the formation mechanisms of the resonance lines and find that it is necessary to use partial redistribution in frequency for the resonance lines.

Nicolas Labrosse; Pierre Gouttebroze; Jean-Claude Vial

2006-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

47

Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes (State College, PA); Zhang, Yinzhi (State College, PA); Kuchta, Matthew E. (State College, PA); Andresen, John M. (State College, PA); Fauth, Dan J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

48

A Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal System Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: A Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal System Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Fluids from springs, fumaroles, and wells throughout Dixie Valley, NV were analyzed for noble gas abundances and isotopic compositions. The helium isotopic compositions of fluids produced from the Dixie Valley geothermal field range from 0.70 to 0.76 Ra, are among the highest values in the valley, and indicate that similar to 7.5% of the total helium is derived from the mantle. A lack of recent volcanics or other potential sources requires flow of mantle-derived helium up along the

49

Carbon dioxide and climate  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Trace Detection of Metastable Helium Molecules in Superfluid Helium by Laser-Induced Fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

We describe an approach to detecting ionizing radiation that combines the special properties of superfluid helium with the sensitivity of quantum optics techniques. Ionization in liquid helium results in the copious production of metastable He{sub 2} molecules, which can be detected by laser-induced fluorescence. Each molecule can be probed many times using a cycling transition, resulting in the detection of individual molecules with high signal to noise. This technique could be used to detect neutrinos, weakly interacting massive particles, and ultracold neutrons, and to image superfluid flow in liquid {sup 4}He.

McKinsey, D. N.; Lippincott, W.H.; Nikkel, J.A.; Rellergert, W.G. [Department of Physics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

2005-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

51

Photocatalytic Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The photocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to methanol was investigated. The procedure for the carbon dioxide conversion was carried out using a small scale… (more)

Okpo, Emmanuel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Figure 37. Carbon dioxide emissions from electricity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 37. Carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation in three cases, 2005-2040 (million metric tons carbon dioxide ...

53

China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces Title China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and...

54

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 January Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important...

55

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

56

The Potential of Helium as a Guide to Uranium Ore  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Martin Marietta Corp. and Earth Sciences, Inc., studied the effectiveness of helium surveying as a tool for uranium exploration. They generated basic data on the little-known distribution of helium in soils, tested various techniques for conducting surveys in the field, developed guidelines for helium surveys and interpretation, and stimulated interest, if it was warranted, in the further testing and application of promising approaches.

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Mantle Helium And Carbon Isotopes In Separation Creek Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mantle Helium And Carbon Isotopes In Separation Creek Geothermal Springs, Three Sisters Area, Central Oregon- Evidence For Renewed Volcanic Activity Or A Long Term Steady State...

58

The Helium-3 Supply Crisis – Alternative Techniques to ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Helium-3 is a by-product of tritium decay after 12 years. Due to the nonetheless encouraging reduction in stocks of tritium ...

2010-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

59

NIST Studies How New Helium Ion Microscope Measures Up  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... are studying helium ion microscopes to improve ... analogous to the scanning electron microscope, which was ... are far larger than electrons, they can ...

2012-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

60

Regional And Local Trends In Helium Isotopes, Basin And Range...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Superimposed on this general regional trend are isolated features with elevated helium isotope ratios (0.8-2.1 Ra) compared to the local background. Spring geochemistry and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tion-carbon dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Simulation program for central helium liquefier  

SciTech Connect

The computer program described here analyzes the performance of Fermilab Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) and predicts the values of the plant thermodynamic variables at all process points in the plant. To simulate CHL, this program is modified from the prototype program which was developed by Hitachi Ltd. a couple of years ago. This program takes care of only the steady state simulation and takes account of the change of the turbine efficiency, the pressure drops and the UA values of the heat exchangers. How to use the program is shown.

Kawamura, S.

1984-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

62

DIRECT EVALUATION OF THE HELIUM ABUNDANCES IN OMEGA CENTAURI  

SciTech Connect

A direct measure of the helium abundances from the near-infrared transition of He I at 1.08 {mu}m is obtained for two nearly identical red giant stars in the globular cluster Omega Centauri. One star exhibits the He I line; the line is weak or absent in the other star. Detailed non-local thermal equilibrium semi-empirical models including expansion in spherical geometry are developed to match the chromospheric H{alpha}, H{beta}, and Ca II K lines, in order to predict the helium profile and derive a helium abundance. The red giant spectra suggest a helium abundance of Y {<=} 0.22 (LEID 54064) and Y = 0.39-0.44 (LEID 54084) corresponding to a difference in the abundance {Delta}Y {>=} 0.17. Helium is enhanced in the giant star (LEID 54084) that also contains enhanced aluminum and magnesium. This direct evaluation of the helium abundances gives observational support to the theoretical conjecture that multiple populations harbor enhanced helium in addition to light elements that are products of high-temperature hydrogen burning. We demonstrate that the 1.08 {mu}m He I line can yield a helium abundance in cool stars when constraints on the semi-empirical chromospheric model are provided by other spectroscopic features.

Dupree, A. K.; Avrett, E. H., E-mail: dupree@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: eavrett@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

63

Liquid uranium alloy-helium fission reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention describes a nuclear fission reactor which has a core vessel and at least one tandem heat exchanger vessel coupled therewith across upper and lower passages to define a closed flow loop. Nuclear fuel such as a uranium alloy in its liquid phase fills these vessels and flow passages. Solid control elements in the reactor core vessel are adapted to be adjusted relative to one another to control fission reaction of the liquid fuel therein. Moderator elements in the other vessel and flow passages preclude fission reaction therein. An inert gas such as helium is bubbled upwardly through the heat exchanger vessel operable to move the liquid fuel upwardly therein and unidirectionally around the closed loop and downwardly through the core vessel. This helium gas is further directed to heat conversion means outside of the reactor vessels to utilize the heat from the fission reaction to generate useful output. The nuclear fuel operates in the 1200 to 1800/sup 0/C range, and even higher to 2500/sup 0/C.

Minkov, V.

1984-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

64

Liquid uranium alloy-helium fission reactor  

SciTech Connect

This invention teaches a nuclear fission reactor having a core vessel and at least one tandem heat exchanger vessel coupled therewith across upper and lower passages to define a closed flow loop. Nuclear fuel such as a uranium alloy in its liquid phase fills these vessels and flow passages. Solid control elements in the reactor core vessel are adapted to be adjusted relative to one another to control fission reaction of the liquid fuel therein. Moderator elements in the other vessel and flow passages preclude fission reaction therein. An inert gas such as helium is bubbled upwardly through the heat exchanger vessel operable to move the liquid fuel upwardly therein and unidirectionally around the closed loop and downwardly through the core vessel. This helium gas is further directed to heat conversion means outside of the reactor vessels to utilize the heat from the fission reaction to generate useful output. The nuclear fuel operates in the 1200.degree.-1800.degree. C. range, and even higher to 2500.degree. C., limited only by the thermal effectiveness of the structural materials, increasing the efficiency of power generation from the normal 30-35% with 300.degree.-500.degree. C. upper limit temperature to 50-65%. Irradiation of the circulating liquid fuel, as contrasted to only localized irradiation of a solid fuel, provides improved fuel utilization.

Minkov, Vladimir (Skokie, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Initial assessment of environmental effects on SiC/SiC composites in helium-cooled nuclear systems  

SciTech Connect

This report summarized the information available in the literature on the chemical reactivity of SiC/SiC composites and of their components in contact with the helium coolant used in HTGR, VHTR and GFR designs. In normal operation conditions, ultra-high purity helium will have chemically controlled impurities (water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, hydrogen) that will create a slightly oxidizing gas environment. Little is known from direct experiments on the reactivity of third generation (nuclear grade) SiC/SiC composites in contact with low concentrations of water or oxygen in inert gas, at high temperature. However, there is ample information about the oxidation in dry and moist air of SiC/SiC composites at high temperatures. This information is reviewed first in the next chapters. The emphasis is places on the improvement in material oxidation, thermal, and mechanical properties during three stages of development of SiC fibers and at least two stages of development of the fiber/matrix interphase. The chemical stability of SiC/SiC composites in contact with oxygen or steam at temperatures that may develop in off-normal reactor conditions supports the conclusion that most advanced composites (also known as nuclear grade SiC/SiC composites) have the chemical resistance that would allow them maintain mechanical properties at temperatures up to 1200 1300 oC in the extreme conditions of an air or water ingress accident scenario. Further research is needed to assess the long-term stability of advanced SiC/SiC composites in inert gas (helium) in presence of very low concentrations (traces) of water and oxygen at the temperatures of normal operation of helium-cooled reactors. Another aspect that needs to be investigated is the effect of fast neutron irradiation on the oxidation stability of advanced SiC/SiC composites in normal operation conditions.

Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL] ORNL

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) storage wells. The manual builds on lessons learned through NETL research; the experiences of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships' (RCSPs) carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) field tests; and the acquired knowledge of industries that have been actively drilling wells for more than 100 years. In addition, the BPM provides an overview of the well-

67

METHOD OF MAKING PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is presented For converting both trivalent and tetravalent plutonium oxalate to substantially pure plutonium dioxide. The plutonium oxalate is carefully dried in the temperature range of 130 to300DEC by raising the temperature gnadually throughout this range. The temperature is then raised to 600 C in the period of about 0.3 of an hour and held at this level for about the same length of time to obtain the plutonium dioxide.

Garner, C.S.

1959-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

68

Calculating the probability of injected carbon dioxide plumes encountering faults  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Change Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage,Probability of Injected Carbon Dioxide Plumes Encounteringthe probability of injected carbon dioxide encountering and

Jordan, P.D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon dioxide emissions index, we use conversion factors.conversion factor of pounds of carbon dioxide emitted perappropriate factors to arrive at carbon dioxide emissions.

Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon dioxide emissions index, we use conversion factors.into carbon dioxide emissions, we continue to use a factorappropriate factors to arrive at carbon dioxide emissions.

Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Superconducting cable cooling system by helium gas and a mixture of gas and liquid helium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Thermally contacting, oppositely streaming cryogenic fluid streams in the same enclosure in a closed cycle that changes from a cool high pressure helium gas to a cooler reduced pressure helium fluid comprised of a mixture of gas and boiling liquid so as to be near the same temperature but at different pressures respectively in go and return legs that are in thermal contact with each other and in thermal contact with a longitudinally extending superconducting transmission line enclosed in the same cable enclosure that insulates the line from the ambient at a temperature T.sub.1. By first circulating the fluid in a go leg from a refrigerator at one end of the line as a high pressure helium gas near the normal boiling temperature of helium; then circulating the gas through an expander at the other end of the line where the gas becomes a mixture of reduced pressure gas and boiling liquid at its boiling temperature; then by circulating the mixture in a return leg that is separated from but in thermal contact with the gas in the go leg and in the same enclosure therewith; and finally returning the resulting low pressure gas to the refrigerator for compression into a high pressure gas at T.sub.2 is a closed cycle, where T.sub.1 >T.sub.2, the temperature distribution is such that the line temperature is nearly constant along its length from the refrigerator to the expander due to the boiling of the liquid in the mixture. A heat exchanger between the go and return lines removes the gas from the liquid in the return leg while cooling the go leg.

Dean, John W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Testing CPT Invariance with Antiprotonic Helium Atoms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The structure of matter is related to symmetries at every level of study. CPT symmetry is one of the most important laws of field theory: it states the invariance of physical properties when one simultaneously changes the signs of the charge and of the spatial and time coordinates of free elementary particles. Although in general opinion CPT symmetry is not violated in Nature, there are theoretical attempts to develop CPT-violating models. The Antiproton Decelerator at CERN has been built to test CPT invariance. The ASACUSA experiment compares the properties of particles and antiparticles by studying the antiprotonic helium atom via laser spectroscopy and measuring the mass, charge and magnetic moment of the antiproton as compared to those of the proton.

Horvath, Dezso [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary and Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary)

2008-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

73

Compact hydrogen/helium isotope mass spectrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The compact hydrogen and helium isotope mass spectrometer of the present invention combines low mass-resolution ion mass spectrometry and beam-foil interaction technology to unambiguously detect and quantify deuterium (D), tritium (T), hydrogen molecule (H.sub.2, HD, D.sub.2, HT, DT, and T.sub.2), .sup.3 He, and .sup.4 He concentrations and concentration variations. The spectrometer provides real-time, high sensitivity, and high accuracy measurements. Currently, no fieldable D or molecular speciation detectors exist. Furthermore, the present spectrometer has a significant advantage over traditional T detectors: no confusion of the measurements by other beta-emitters, and complete separation of atomic and molecular species of equivalent atomic mass (e.g., HD and .sup.3 He).

Funsten, Herbert O. (Los Alamos, NM); McComas, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Scime, Earl E. (Morgantown, WV)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

ACOUSTIC SIGNATURES OF THE HELIUM CORE FLASH  

SciTech Connect

All evolved stars with masses M {approx}< 2 M{sub Sun} undergo an initiating off-center helium core flash in their M{sub c} Almost-Equal-To 0.48 M{sub Sun} He core as they ascend the red giant branch (RGB). This off-center flash is the first of a few successive helium shell subflashes that remove the core electron degeneracy over 2 Myr, converting the object into a He-burning star. Though characterized by Thomas over 40 years ago, this core flash phase has yet to be observationally probed. Using the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) code, we show that red giant asteroseismology enabled by space-based photometry (i.e., Kepler and CoRoT) can probe these stars during the flash. The rapid ({approx}< 10{sup 5} yr) contraction of the red giant envelope after the initiating flash dramatically improves the coupling of the p-modes to the core g-modes, making the detection of l = 1 mixed modes possible for these 2 Myr. This duration implies that 1 in 35 stars near the red clump in the H-R diagram will be in their core flash phase. During this time, the star has a g-mode period spacing of {Delta}P{sub g} Almost-Equal-To 70-100 s, lower than the {Delta}P{sub g} Almost-Equal-To 250 s of He-burning stars in the red clump, but higher than the RGB stars at the same luminosity. This places them in an underpopulated part of the large frequency spacing ({Delta}{nu}) versus {Delta}P{sub g} diagram that should ease their identification among the thousands of observed red giants.

Bildsten, Lars; Paxton, Bill; Moore, Kevin; Macias, Phillip J. [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics Kohn Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

75

Evolution of the Standard Helium Liquefier and Refrigerator Range designed by Air Liquide DTA, France  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evolution of the Standard Helium Liquefier and Refrigerator Range designed by Air Liquide DTA, France

Crispel, S; Caillaud, A; Delcayre, F; Grabie, V

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Transient Behaviour and Helium Discharge in Cryogenic Distribution Line (QRL) Headers Following Breakdown of Insulation Vacuum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transient Behaviour and Helium Discharge in Cryogenic Distribution Line (QRL) Headers Following Breakdown of Insulation Vacuum

Chorowski, M

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Weyburn Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Weyburn Carbon DioxiDe SequeStration Weyburn Carbon DioxiDe SequeStration ProjeCt Background Since September 2000, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has been transported from the Dakota Gasification Plant in North Dakota through a 320-km pipeline and injected into the Weyburn oilfield in Saskatchewan, Canada. The CO 2 has given the Weyburn field, discovered 50 years ago, a new life: 155 million gross barrels of incremental oil are slated to be recovered by 2035 and the field is projected to be able to store 30 million tonnes of CO 2 over 30 years. CO 2 injection began in October of 2005 at the adjacent Midale oilfield, and an additional 45-60 million barrels of oil are expected to be recovered during 30 years of continued operation. A significant monitoring project associated with the Weyburn and Midale commercial

78

Reaction products of chlorine dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Concern over the presence of trihalomethanes and other chlorinated by-products in chlorinedisinfected drinking water has led to extensive investigations of treatment options for controlling these by-products. Among these treatment options is the use of an alternative disinfectant such as chlorine dioxide. Although chlorine dioxide does not react to produce trihalomethanes, considerable evidence does exist that chlorine dioxide, like chlorine, will produce other organic by-products. The literature describes chlorinated and nonchlorinated derivatives including acids, epoxides, quinones, aldehydes, disulfides, and sulfonic acids that are products of reactions carried out under conditions that are vastly different from those experienced during drinking water treatment. Evidence is beginning to emerge, however, that some by-products in these categories may be produced. Certain specific volatile aldehydes and halogenated derivatives as determined by the total organic halogen parameter are among those by-products that have been measured.

Alan A. Stevens

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Mantle Helium And Carbon Isotopes In Separation Creek Geothermal Springs,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mantle Helium And Carbon Isotopes In Separation Creek Geothermal Springs, Mantle Helium And Carbon Isotopes In Separation Creek Geothermal Springs, Three Sisters Area, Central Oregon- Evidence For Renewed Volcanic Activity Or A Long Term Steady State System(Question) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Paper: Mantle Helium And Carbon Isotopes In Separation Creek Geothermal Springs, Three Sisters Area, Central Oregon- Evidence For Renewed Volcanic Activity Or A Long Term Steady State System(Question) Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Here we present the helium and carbon isotope results from the initial study of a fluid chemistry-monitoring program started in the summer of 2001 near the South Sister volcano in central Oregon. The Separation Creek area which is several miles due west of the volcano is the locus of

80

SRS upgrades helium recovery system | National Nuclear Security  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

upgrades helium recovery system | National Nuclear Security upgrades helium recovery system | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > NNSA Blog > SRS upgrades helium recovery system SRS upgrades helium recovery system Posted By Office of Public Affairs Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Programs recently completed a project to design, build and relocate a new system for separating and capturing

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tion-carbon dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Shock Experiments on Pre-Compressed Fluid Helium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We summarize current methods and results for coupling laser-induced shocks into pre-compressed Helium contained in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). We are able to load helium, hydrogen, deuterium, and helium-hydrogen mixtures into a DAC and propagate a laser-generated shock into the pre-compressed sample. This technique has allowed us to measure the Hugoniot for helium at initial densities ranging from 1 to 3.5 times liquid density. We have developed and used a methodology whereby all of our measurements are referenced to crystalline quartz, which allows us to update our results as the properties of quartz are refined in the future. We also report the identification and elimination of severe electro-magnetic pulses (EMP) associated with plasma stagnation associated with ablation in a DAC.

Eggert, J. H.; Celliers, P. M.; Hicks, D. G.; Rygg, J. R.; Collins, G. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA (United States); Brygoo, S.; Loubeyre, P. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); McWilliams, R. S.; Spaulding, D.; Jeanloz, R. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Boehly, T. R. [University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States)

2009-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

82

The Liquefaction of Hydrogen and Helium Using Small Coolers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

because the J-T valve and heat exchanger clogged because ofseparate J-T valve and J-T heat exchanger had to be used. Itadded J-T circuit and heat exchanger, to liquefy helium have

Green, Michael A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Helium Pumping Wall for a Liquid Lithium Tokamak Richard Majeski...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is that a permeable wall is used to separate out helium produced as ash by a burning fusion reactor. This would replace the divertor structure and associated pumps in a...

84

SEPARATING PROTOACTINIUM WITH MANGANESE DIOXIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The preparation of U/sup 235/ and an improved method for isolating Pa/ sup 233/ from foreign products present in neutronirradiated thorium is described. The method comprises forming a solution of neutron-irradiated thorium together with a manganous salt, then adding potassium permanganate to precipitate the manganese as manganese dioxide whereby protoactinium is carried down with the nnanganese dioxide dissolving the precipitate, adding a soluble zirconium salt, and adding phosphate ion to precipitate zirconium phosphate whereby protoactinium is then carried down with the zirconium phosphate to effect a further concentration.

Seaborg, G.T.; Gofman, J.W.; Stoughton, R.W.

1958-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

85

Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide layers prepared by magnetron sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, and thermal growth has been investigated by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and diffusion coefficients have been extracted from simulations based on Fick's second law of diffusion. Erbium diffusion in magnetron sputtered silicon dioxide from buried erbium distributions has in particular been studied, and in this case a simple Arrhenius law can describe the diffusivity with an activation energy of 5.3{+-}0.1 eV. Within a factor of two, the erbium diffusion coefficients at a given temperature are identical for all investigated matrices.

Lu Yingwei; Julsgaard, B.; Petersen, M. Christian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Jensen, R. V. Skougaard [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, DK-9220 Aalborg O (Denmark); Pedersen, T. Garm; Pedersen, K. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, DK-9220 Aalborg O (Denmark); Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center-iNANO, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Larsen, A. Nylandsted [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center-iNANO, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2010-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

86

OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE Kee Chul Kim Ph.D.727-366; Figure 1. Oxygen-uranium phase-equilibrium _ystem [18]. uranium dioxide powders and 18 0 enriched carbon

Kim, Kee Chul

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emissions Carbon Dioxide Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Consumption and Cement Manufacture, (2011) Kyoto-Related Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emission...

88

Operations aspects of the Fermilab Central Helium Liquefier Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Fermilab Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) facility consists of helium and nitrogen reliquefier plants operated 24 hours-a-day to supply LHe at 4.6{degrees}K and LN{sub 2} for the Fermilab Tevatron superconducting proton-antiproton collider ring and to recover warm return gases. Operating aspects of CHL, including different equipment and systems reliability, availability, maintenance experience, safety concerns, and economics aspects are discussed.

Geynisman, M.G.; Makara, J.N.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Operations aspects of the Fermilab Central Helium Liquefier facility  

SciTech Connect

The Fermilab Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) facility consists of helium and nitrogen reliquefier plants operated 24 hours-a-day to supply LHe at 4.6 K and LN{sub 2} for the Fermilab Tevatron superconducting proton-antiproton collider ring and to recover warm return gases. Operating aspects of CHL, including different equipment and systems reliability, availability, maintenance experience, safety concerns, and economics aspects are discussed.

Geynisman, M.G.; Makara, J.N.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Recovery of purified helium or hydrogen from gas mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the removal of helium or hydrogen from gaseous mixtures also containing contaminants. The gaseous mixture is contacted with a liquid fluorocarbon in an absorption zone maintained at superatomspheric pressure to preferentially absorb the contaminants in the fluorocarbon. Unabsorbed gas enriched in hydrogen or helium is withdrawn from the absorption zone as product. Liquid fluorocarbon enriched in contaminants is withdrawn separately from the absorption zone. (10 claims)

Merriman, J.R.; Pashley, J.H.; Stephenson, M.J.; Dunthorn, D.I.

1974-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

Flame Inhibition by Ferrocene, Carbon Dioxide, and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flame Inhibition by Ferrocene, Carbon Dioxide, and Trifluoromethane Blends: Synergistic ... a straight sided schlieren image which is captured by a ...

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

92

Method for dissolving plutonium dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The fluoride-catalyzed, non-oxidative dissolution of plutonium dioxide in HNO.sub.3 is significantly enhanced in rate by oxidizing dissolved plutonium ions. It is believed that the oxidation of dissolved plutonium releases fluoride ions from a soluble plutonium-fluoride complex for further catalytic action.

Tallent, Othar K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The current status and outlook for carbon dioxide in the immediate future has been examined by Kenneth M. Stern of Chem Systems Inc. Stern. Most of the tonnage carbon dioxide being used for EOR comes from natural gas wells. Major projects are now in progress to develop natural carbon dioxide sources and to transport the gas via pipeline to the injection region. These projects and the maximum permissible cost of carbon dioxide at current petroleum prices are discussed. Potential sources include exhaust gases from power plants, natural gas processing plants, chemical plants, and natural carbon dioxide wells.

Not Available

1986-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

94

David Lee, Douglas Osheroff, Superfluidity, and Helium 3  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

David Lee, Douglas Osheroff, Superfluidity, and Helium 3 David Lee, Douglas Osheroff, Superfluidity, and Helium 3 Resources with Additional Information David M. Lee and Douglas D. Osheroff received the 1996 Nobel Prize in Physics for 'their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3'. "In 1976, Lee shared with Richardson and Osheroff their earliest recognition for studies of superfluidity, the Simon Memorial Prize of the British Physical Society. The Buckley Prize of the American Physical Society followed for the trio in 1981. ... Douglas D. Osheroff Douglas D. Osheroff Courtesy AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives, AIP Meggers Gallery of Nobel Laureates David Lee David M. Lee Photo by Janerik Henriksson, Courtesy AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archievs, W.F. Meggers Gallery of Nobel Laureate From 1966-67, Lee was a visiting scientist at Brookhaven National Laboratory ... ."1 His research at Cornell University includes " Low Temperature Physics: Normal and superfluid 3He, studies of the orientation of solid helium by optical birefringence, solid 3He and 4He, lambda phase diagram of 3He - 4He mixtures, quasiparticle tunneling in superconductors, magnetic resonance and ultrasound techniques, cooling by adiabatic demagnetization and the Pomeranchuk technique, spin waves in spin polarized hydrogen gas, high concentrations of hydrogen and nitrogen atons via matrix isolation by impurity-helium solids, magnetism, electron spin resonance."2

95

Method for Sequestering Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Utilizing a Plurality of Waste Streams  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sequestering Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Sequestering Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Utilizing a Plurality of Waste Streams Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,922,792 entitled "Method for Sequestering Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Utilizing a Plurality of Waste Streams." Disclosed in this patent is the invention of a neutralization/sequestration method that concomitantly treats bauxite residues from aluminum production processes, as well as brine wastewater from oil and gas production processes. The method uses an integrated approach that coincidentally treats multiple industrial waste by-product streams. The end results include neutralizing caustic

96

Reductive Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reductive Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Reductive Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide T. Mill (ted.mill@sri.com; 650-859-3605) SRI, PS273 333 Ravenswood Menlo Park, CA 94025 D. Ross (dsross3@yahoo.com; 650-327-3842) U.S. Geological Survey, Bldg 15 MS 999 345 Middlefield Rd. Menlo Park, CA 94025 Introduction The United States currently meets 80% of its energy needs by burning fossil fuels to form CO 2 . The combustion-based production of CO 2 has evolved into a major environmental challenge that extends beyond national borders and the issue has become as politically charged as it is technologically demanding. Whereas CO 2 levels in the atmosphere had remained stable over the 10,000 years preceeding the industrial revolution, that event initiated rapid growth in CO 2 levels over the past 150 years (Stevens, 2000). The resulting accelerating accumulation of

97

IEP - Carbon Dioxide: Regulatory Drivers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IEP - Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Regulatory Drivers In July 7, 2009 testimony before the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, Secretary of Energy Steven Chu made the following statements:1 "...Overwhelming scientific evidence shows that carbon dioxide from human activity has increased the atmospheric level of CO2 by roughly 40 percent, a level one- third higher than any time in the last 800,000 years. There is also a consensus that CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions have caused our planet to change. Already, we have seen the loss of about half of the summer arctic polar ice cap since the 1950s, a dramatically accelerating rise in sea level, and the loss of over two thousand cubic miles of glacial ice, not on geological time scales but over a mere hundred years.

98

Capturing Carbon Dioxide From Air  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capturing Carbon Dioxide From Air Capturing Carbon Dioxide From Air Klaus S. Lackner (kl2010@columbia.edu; 212-854-0304) Columbia University 500 West 120th Street New York, NY 10027 Patrick Grimes (pgrimes@worldnet.att.net; 908-232-1134) Grimes Associates Scotch Plains, NJ 07076 Hans-J. Ziock (ziock@lanl.gov; 505-667-7265) Los Alamos National Laboratory P.O.Box 1663 Los Alamos, NM 87544 Abstract The goal of carbon sequestration is to take CO 2 that would otherwise accumulate in the atmosphere and put it in safe and permanent storage. Most proposed methods would capture CO 2 from concentrated sources like power plants. Indeed, on-site capture is the most sensible approach for large sources and initially offers the most cost-effective avenue to sequestration. For distributed, mobile sources like cars, on-board capture at affordable cost would not be

99

Carbon Dioxide Compression and Transportation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the state of the art regarding carbon dioxide CO2 compression and transportation in the United States and Canada. The primary focus of the report was on CO2 compression because it is a significant cost and energy penalty in carbon capture and storage CCS. The secondary focus of the report was to document the state of the art of CO2 pipeline transportation in the United States and Canada.

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

100

Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving PBR Efficiency and Testing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Generation IV reactors will need to be intrinsically safe, having a proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and several advantages relative to existing light water reactor (LWR). They, however, must still overcome certain technical issues and the cost barrier before it can be built in the U.S. The establishment of a nuclear power cost goal of 3.3 cents/kWh is desirable in order to compete with fossil combined-cycle, gas turbine power generation. This goal requires approximately a 30 percent reduction in power cost for stateof-the-art nuclear plants. It has been demonstrated that this large cost differential can be overcome only by technology improvements that lead to a combination of better efficiency and more compatible reactor materials. The objectives of this research are (1) to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle in the secondary power conversion side that can be applied to the Very-High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR), (2) to improve the plant net efficiency by using the carbon dioxide Brayton cycle, and (3) to test material compatibility at high temperatures and pressures. The reduced volumetric flow rate of carbon dioxide due to higher density compared to helium will reduce compression work, which

Chang H. Oh; Thomas Lillo; William Windes; Terry Totemeier; Bradley Ward; Richard Moore; Robert Barner; Chang H. Oh; Thomas Lillo; William Windes; Terry Totemeier; Bradley Ward; Richard Moore; Robert Barner

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tion-carbon dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Carbon Dioxide: Threat or Opportunity?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the past century, fossil fuel consumption has added carbon dioxide to the atmosphere at rapidly increasing rates. The prospect of further acceleration of this rate by turning from petroleum to coal has alarmed climatologists because of possible catastrophic long term effects on world climate. An alternative to discharging carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is to find new uses. One possible use is in 'Biofactories'. Biofactories may be achieved by exploiting two new developing technologies: Solar (Photosynthesis) energy, and genetic engineering. Some exciting new developments in genetic engineering will be touched on together with established bio-engineering-aquaculture, hydroponics, yeast, pharmaceutical production, fermentation, single cell protein, etc. A 'bio-factory' will be described, with a feed stream of carbon dioxide, water, nutrients containing sulfur, nitrogen, phosphorus and trace elements, and living culture interacting with light under controlled conditions to yield food and raw materials. Candidate products will be suggested and a few of the problems anticipated. Engineering and logistic requirements will be outlined and the economic impact assessed.

McKinney, A. R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Lessons Learned From Gen I Carbon Dioxide Cooled Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper provides a review of early gas cooled reactors including the Magnox reactors originating in the United Kingdom and the subsequent development of the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGR). These early gas cooled reactors shared a common coolant medium, namely carbon dioxide (CO2). A framework of information is provided about these early reactors and identifies unique problems/opportunities associated with use of CO2 as a coolant. Reactor designers successfully rose to these challenges. After years of successful use of the CO2 gas cooled reactors in Europe, the succeeding generation of reactors, called the High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGR), were designed with Helium gas as the coolant. Again, in the 21st century, with the latest reactor designs under investigation in Generation IV, there is a revived interest in developing Gas Cooled Fast Reactors that use CO2 as the reactor coolant. This paper provides a historical perspective on the 52 CO2 reactors and the reactor programs that developed them. The Magnox and AGR design features and safety characteristics were reviewed, as well as the technologies associated with fuel storage, reprocessing, and disposal. Lessons-learned from these programs are noted to benefit the designs of future generations of gas cooled nuclear reactors.

David E. Shropshire

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Isotope Effects and Helium Retention Behavior in Vanadium Tritide  

SciTech Connect

The relaxation times of the H, T, and 3He nuclei have been measured in vanadium hydride and tritide samples. Substantial isotope effects in both the phase transition temperatures and diffusion parameters have been found. When compared to hydrides, the tritide samples have lower transition temperatures and faster mobilities. The differences in the occupancies of the interstitial sites are largely responsible for these isotope effects. Most of the helium atoms generated by tritium decay remain trapped in microscopic bubbles formed with the VTx lattice. Evidence is presented for the gradual growth of the helium bubbles over periods of hundreds of days.

Bowman, Jr., R. C.; Attalla, A., and Craft, B. D.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Carbon dioxide and climate: a bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography with abstracts presents 394 citations retrieved from the Energy Data Base of the Department of Energy Technical Information Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The citations cover all aspects of the climatic effects of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. These include carbon cycling, temperature effects, carbon dioxide control technologies, paleoclimatology, carbon dioxide sources and sinks, mathematical models, energy policies, greenhouse effect, and the role of the oceans and terrestrial forests.

Ringe, A.C. (ed.)

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

TABLE OF CONTENTS Carbon Dioxide Reduction Metallurgy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical Utilization of Sequestered Carbon Dioxide as a. Booster of Hydrogen ... CO2 Capture and Sequestration – Implications for the Metals. Industry.

106

Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a non-technical review of the problems associated with atmospheric carbon dioxide and the resulting greenhouse effect. (TEM)

Firestine, M.W. (ed.)

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Carbon Ion Pump for Carbon Dioxide Removal  

coal fired power plants; oil or gas fired power plants; cement production; bio-fuel combustion; Separation of carbon dioxide from other combustion ...

108

Carbon Dioxide Transportation and Sequestration Act (Illinois...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

process for the issuance of a certificate of authority by an owner or operator of a pipeline designed, constructed, and operated to transport and to sequester carbon dioxide...

109

Scientists Crack Materials Mystery of Vanadium Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dec 1, 2010 ... Using a condensed physics theory to explain the observed phase behaviors of vanadium dioxide, ORNL scientists have discovered that the ...

110

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Nonfuel uses of fossil fuels (for purposes other than their energy value) create carbon dioxide emissions and also sequester carbon in nonfuel products, ...

111

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

available free of charge - include estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and land-use changes; records of atmospheric concentrations of carbon...

112

A liquid helium cryogenic system design for the GEM magnet  

SciTech Connect

The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Gammas, Electrons, Muons (GEM) magnet is a large superconducting solenoid with a total mass of 1.05 {times} 10{sup 6} kg and a stored energy of 2.5 G. A cryogenic system to cool and to maintain the GEM magnet to liquid helium temperature is described. The system is designed to operate effectively under a variety of operating conditions, including cooldown/warm-up, steady state operations, and quench. Primary cooling during steady-state operation is based on natural circulation thermosiphon flow through cooling tubes in the solenoid support bobbin. Additional cooling loops are included for lead and joint cooling and conductor stabilization. A helium refrigerator/liquefier rated at 2 kill and 20 g/s will be specified to meet the refrigeration requirements. Cooldown of the magnet from 300 K to liquid nitrogen temperatures is accomplished using a counterflow helium-to-liquid-nitrogen heat exchanger independent of the helium refrigerator. The system incorporates provisions for maintenance access during accelerator beam operation.

Deis, G.; Warren, R.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Richied, D.E.; Martovetsky, N.N.; Krupczak, J.J.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.; Pace, J.R.; Collins, C.A. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

The Liquefaction of Hydrogen and Helium Using Small Coolers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report discusses the history of the liquefaction of hydrogen and helium using small coolers. This history dates form the 1960's when two stage GM coolers capable of reaching 7 K were used to liquefy helium and hydrogen by suing an added compressor and J-T circuit. Liquefaction using the added circuit failed to become mainstream because the J-T valve and heat exchanger clogged because of impurities in the gas being liquefied. Liquefaction using a GM cooler without an added J-T circuit proved to be difficult because the first stage was not used to pre-cool the gas coming to the second stage of the cooler. Once the gas being liquefied was pre-cooled using the cooler first stage, improvements in the liquefaction rates were noted. The advent of low temperature pulse tube cooler (down to 2.5 K) permitted one to achieve dramatic improvement is the liquefactions rates for helium. Similar but less dramatic improvements are expected for hydrogen as well. Using the PT-415 cooler, one can expect liquefaction rates of 15 to 20 liters per day for helium or hydrogen provided the heat leak into the cooler and the storage vessel is low. A hydrogen liquefier for MICE is presented at the end of this report.

Green, Michael A.

2006-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

114

Etching of Graphene Devices with a Helium Ion Beam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IM microscope image in Figure 2a, was He ion etched by sequen- tial imaging in high resolution. The grapheneEtching of Graphene Devices with a Helium Ion Beam Max C. Lemme, David C. Bell,,§ James R. Williams as for pos- sible nanoelectronics applications.1 3 Many experiments in the field are targeted at graphene

Lukin, Mikhail

115

Charge Distribution about an Ionizing Electron Track in Liquid Helium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dependence on an applied electric field of the ionization current produced by an energetic electron stopped in liquid helium can be used to determine the spatial distribution of secondary electrons with respect to their geminate partners. An analytic expression relating the current and distribution is derived. The distribution is found to be non-Gaussian with a long tail at larger distances.

G. M. Seidel; T. M. Ito; A. Ghosh; B. Sethumadhavan

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

116

TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY STUDY OF HELIUM BEARING FUSION WELDS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study was conducted to characterize the helium bubble distributions in tritium-charged-and-aged 304L and 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn stainless steel fusion welds containing approximately 150 appm helium-3. TEM foils were prepared from C-shaped fracture toughness test specimens containing {delta} ferrite levels ranging from 4 to 33 volume percent. The weld microstructures in the low ferrite welds consisted mostly of austenite and discontinuous, skeletal {delta} ferrite. In welds with higher levels of {delta} ferrite, the ferrite was more continuous and, in some areas of the 33 volume percent sample, was the matrix/majority phase. The helium bubble microstructures observed were similar in all samples. Bubbles were found in the austenite but not in the {delta} ferrite. In the austenite, bubbles had nucleated homogeneously in the grain interiors and heterogeneously on dislocations. Bubbles were not found on any austenite/austenite grain boundaries or at the austenite/{delta} ferrite interphase interfaces. Bubbles were not observed in the {delta} ferrite because of the combined effects of the low solubility and rapid diffusion of tritium through the {delta} ferrite which limited the amount of helium present to form visible bubbles.

Tosten, M; Michael Morgan, M

2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

117

PULSATIONS IN HYDROGEN BURNING LOW-MASS HELIUM WHITE DWARFS  

SciTech Connect

Helium core white dwarfs (WDs) with mass M {approx}< 0.20 M {sub sun} undergo several Gyr of stable hydrogen burning as they evolve. We show that in a certain range of WD and hydrogen envelope masses, these WDs may exhibit g-mode pulsations similar to their passively cooling, more massive carbon/oxygen core counterparts, the ZZ Cetis. Our models with stably burning hydrogen envelopes on helium cores yield g-mode periods and period spacings longer than the canonical ZZ Cetis by nearly a factor of 2. We show that core composition and structure can be probed using seismology since the g-mode eigenfunctions predominantly reside in the helium core. Though we have not carried out a fully nonadiabatic stability analysis, the scaling of the thermal time in the convective zone with surface gravity highlights several low-mass helium WDs that should be observed in search of pulsations: NLTT 11748, SDSS J0822+2753, and the companion to PSR J1012+5307. Seismological studies of these He core WDs may prove especially fruitful, as their luminosity is related (via stable hydrogen burning) to the hydrogen envelope mass, which eliminates one model parameter.

Steinfadt, Justin D. R. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Bildsten, Lars [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Kohn Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Arras, Phil, E-mail: jdrs@physics.ucsb.ed, E-mail: bildsten@kitp.ucsb.ed, E-mail: arras@virginia.ed [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

118

Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt executive summary Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) referS to the Set of technologies developed to capture carbon dioxide (Co2) gas from the exhausts raises new issues of liability and risk. the focus of this briefing paper is on the storage of carbon

119

ORNL DAAC, Effects of Increased Carbon Dioxide, Dec. 11, 2002  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Increased Carbon Dioxide on Vegetation The ORNL DAAC announces the release of a data set entitled "Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on Litter Chemistry and Decomposition." The...

120

Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Field Projects Supported by DOE...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Field Projects Supported by DOE's Sequestration Program Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Field Projects Supported by DOE's Sequestration Program...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tion-carbon dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Recovery Act: Re-utilization of Industrial Carbon Dioxide for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Re-utilization of Industrial Carbon Dioxide for Algae Production Using a Phase Change Material Background Worldwide carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from human activity have...

122

EA-1336: Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

6: Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania EA-1336: Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania...

123

Haverford Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer August 1, 2012 | Tags: Basic Energy...

124

Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Power Generation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

on Facebook icon Twitter icon Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Power Generation Jump to: navigation, search Name Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide...

125

Changes related to "Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide Capture...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

icon Changes related to "Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Power Generation" Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Power Generation...

126

Why do carbon dioxide emissions weigh more than the ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Why do carbon dioxide emissions weigh more than the original fuel? Carbon dioxide emissions weigh more than the original fuel because during complete ...

127

Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color Roofing Research Project Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color...

128

THE HIGH TEMPERATURE BEHAVIOR OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Products in Irradiated Uranium Dioxide," UKAEA Report AERE-OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE Rosa Lu Yang (Chemical State of Irradiated Uranium- Plutonium Oxide Fuel

Yang, Rosa Lu.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California and Spatial Disaggregated Estimate of Energy-related Carbon Dioxide for California...

130

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California Title Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in...

131

Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry Title Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction...

132

Carbon Dioxide Capture/Sequestration Tax Deduction (Kansas) ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Dioxide CaptureSequestration Tax Deduction (Kansas) Carbon Dioxide CaptureSequestration Tax Deduction (Kansas) Eligibility Commercial Industrial Utility Program...

133

Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility General Service Helium System Design Description  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this System Design Description (SDD) is to describe the characteristics of the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility general service helium system. The general service helium system is a general service facility process support system, but does include safety-class structures, systems and components (SSCs) providing protection to the offsite public. The general service helium system also performs safety-significant functions that provide protection to onsite workers. The general helium system essential function is to provide helium (He) to support process functions during all phases of facility operations. General service helium is used to purge the cask and the MCO in order to maintain their internal atmospheres below hydrogen flammability concentrations. The general service helium system also supplies helium to purge the process water conditioning (PWC) lines and components and the vacuum purge system (VPS) vacuum pump. The general service helium system, if available following an Safety Class Instrument and Control System (SCIC) Isolation and Purge (IS0 and PURGE) Trip, can provide an alternate general service helium system source to supply the Safety-Class Helium (SCHe) System.

SHAPLEY, B.J.

2000-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

134

Carbon dioxide disposal in solid form  

SciTech Connect

Coal reserves can provide for the world`s energy needs for centuries. However, coal`s long term use may be severely curtailed if the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is not eliminated. We present a safe and permanent method of carbon dioxide disposal that is based on combining carbon dioxide chemically with abundant raw materials to form stable carbonate minerals. We discuss the availability of raw materials and potential process designs. We consider our initial rough cost estimate of about 3{cents}/kWh encouraging. The availability of a carbon dioxide fixation technology would serve as insurance in case global warming, or the perception of global warming, causes severe restrictions on carbon dioxide emissions. If the increased energy demand of a growing world population is to be satisfied from coal, the implementation of such a technology would quite likely be unavoidable.

Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Sharp, D.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wendt, C.H. [Auxon Corp., (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

135

carbon dioxide emissions | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

dioxide emissions dioxide emissions Dataset Summary Description Total annual carbon dioxide emissions by country, 2005 to 2009 (million metric tons). Compiled by Energy Information Administration (EIA). Source EIA Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords carbon dioxide emissions EIA world Data text/csv icon total_carbon_dioxide_emissions_from_the_consumption_of_energy_2005_2009million_metric_tons.csv (csv, 12.3 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 2005 - 2009 License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote Usefulness of the dataset Average vote Your vote Ease of access Average vote Your vote Overall rating

136

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2.1. Total carbon dioxide emissions Annual U.S. carbon dioxide emissions fell by 419 million metric tons in 2009 (7.1 percent), to 5,447 million metric tons (Figure 9 and Table 6). The annual decrease-the largest over the 19-year period beginning with the 1990 baseline-puts 2009 emissions 608 million metric tons below the 2005 level, which is the Obama Administration's benchmark year for its goal of reducing U.S. emissions by 17 percent by 2020. The key factors contributing to the decrease in carbon dioxide emissions in 2009 included an economy in recession with a decrease in gross domestic product of 2.6 percent, a decrease in the energy intensity of the economy of 2.2 percent, and a decrease in the carbon intensity of energy supply of

137

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is the greenhouse effect? is the greenhouse effect? Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect is used to describe the phenomenon whereby the Earth's atmosphere traps solar radiation, caused by the presence of gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and water vapor (H2O), in the atmosphere that allow incoming sunlight to pass through but absorb heat radiated back from the Earth's surface, resulting in higher temperatures. The greenhouse effect gets its name from what actually happens in a greenhouse. In a greenhouse, short wavelength visible sunlight shines through the glass panes and warms the air and the plants inside. The radiation emitted from the heated objects is of longer wavelength and is unable to pass through the glass barrier, maintaining a warm temperature

138

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

The authors' long term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure and adsorbent types. The major objectives of the project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coal being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals, to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. The specific accomplishments of this project during this reporting period are summarized below in three broad categories outlining experimentation, model development, and coal characterization. (1) Experimental Work: Our adsorption apparatus was reassembled, and all instruments were tested and calibrated. Having confirmed the viability of the experimental apparatus and procedures used, adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on wet Fruitland coal were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia). These measurements showed good agreement with our previous data and yielded an expected uncertainty of about 2%. Preparations are underway to measure adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on two other coals. (2) Model Development: The experimental data were used to evaluate the predictive capabilities of various adsorption models, including the Langmuir/loading ratio correlation, two-dimensional cubic equations of state, and the local density model. In general, all models performed well for Type I adsorption exhibited by methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide up to 8.3 MPa (average deviations within 2%). However, for pressures higher than 8.3 MPa (1200 psia), carbon dioxide produced multilayer adsorption behavior similar to Type IV adsorption. Our results to date indicate that the SLD model may be a suitable choice for modeling multilayer coalbed gas adsorption. However, model improvements are required to (a) account for coal heterogeneity and structure complexity, and (b) provide for more accurate density predictions. (3) Coal Characterization: We have identified several well-characterized coals for use in our adsorption studies. The criteria for coal selection has been guided by the need for coals that (a) span the spectrum of properties encountered in coalbed methane production (such as variation in rank), and (b) originate from coalbed methane recovery sites (e.g., San Juan Basin, Black Warrior Basin, etc.). At Pennsylvania State University, we have completed calibrating our instruments using a well-characterized activated carbon. In addition, we have conducted CO{sub 2} and methane uptakes on four samples, including (a) a widely used commercial activated carbon, BPL from Calgon Carbon Corp.; (b) an Illinois No.6 bituminous coal from the Argonne Premium Coal sample bank; (c) a Fruitland Intermediate coal sample; (d) a dry Fruitland sample. The results are as expected, except for a greater sensitivity to the outgassing temperature. ''Standard'' outgassing conditions (e.g., 383.2 K, overnight), which are often used, may not be appropriate for gas storage in coalbeds. Conditions that are more representative of in-situ coal (approximately 313.2 K) may be much more appropriate. In addition, our results highlight the importance of assessing the degree of approach to adsorption equilibrium.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

139

Pulsed extraction of ionization from helium buffer gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The migration of intense ionization created in helium buffer gas under the influence of applied electric fields is considered. First the chemical evolution of the ionization created by fast heavy-ion beams is described. Straight forward estimates of the lifetimes for charge exchange indicate a clear suppression of charge exchange during ion migration in low pressure helium. Then self-consistent calculations of the migration of the ions in the electric field of a gas-filled cell at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) using a Particle-In-Cell computer code are presented. The results of the calculations are compared to measurements of the extracted ion current caused by beam pulses injected into the NSCL gas cell.

D. J. Morrissey; G. Bollen; M. Facina; S. Schwarz

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

140

Satellite spectra for helium-like titanium. Part II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

K/sup ..cap alpha../ x-ray spectra of helium-like titanium, Ti XXI, from Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) plasmas have been observed with a high resolution crystal spectrometer and have been used as a diagnostic of central plasma parameters. The data allow detailed comparison with recent theoretical predictions for the Ti XXI helium-like lines and the associated satellite spectrum in the wavelength range from 2.6000 to 2.6400 A. Improved values for the excitation rate coefficients of the Ti XXI resonance line, the intercombination lines and the forbidden line, and new theoretical results on the wavelengths and transition probabilities for beryllium-like satellites due to transitions of the type 1s/sup 2/ 2lnl' - 1s2p2l'' nl'' with n = 2-4 have been calculated.

Bitter, M.; Hill, K.W.; Zarnstorff, M.; von Goeler, S.; Hulse, R.; Johnson, L.C.; Sauthoff, N.R.; Sesnic, S.; Young, K.M.; Tavernier, M.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tion-carbon dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Metastable Helium Molecules as Tracers in Superfluid {sup 4}He  

SciTech Connect

Metastable helium molecules generated in a discharge near a sharp tungsten tip immersed in superfluid {sup 4}He are imaged using a laser-induced-fluorescence technique. By pulsing the tip, a small cloud of He{sub 2}* molecules is produced. We can determine the normal-fluid velocity in a heat-induced counterflow by tracing the position of a single molecule cloud. As we run the tip in continuous field-emission mode, a normal-fluid jet from the tip is generated and molecules are entrained in the jet. A focused 910 nm pump laser pulse is used to drive a small group of molecules to the first excited vibrational level of the triplet ground state. Subsequent imaging of the tagged molecules with an expanded 925 nm probe laser pulse allows us to measure the flow velocity of the jet. The techniques we developed provide new tools in quantitatively studying the normal fluid flow in superfluid helium.

Guo, W.; Wright, J. D.; Cahn, S. B.; Nikkel, J. A.; McKinsey, D. N. [Physics Department, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06515 (United States)

2009-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

142

Helium-ion-induced release of hydrogen from graphite  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ion-induced release of hydrogen from AXF-5Q graphite was studied for 350-eV helium ions. The hydrogen was implanted into the graphite with a low energy (approx.200 eV) and to a high fluence. This achieved a thin (approx.10-nm), saturated near-surface region. The release of hydrogen was measured as a function of helium fluence. A model that includes ion-induced detrapping, retrapping, and surface recombination was used to analyze the experimental data. A value of (1.65 +- 0.2) x 10/sup -16/ cm/sup 2/ was obtained from the detrapping cross section, and a value of (0.5 to 4) x 10/sup -14/ cm/sup 4//atoms was obtained for the recombination coefficient. 11 refs., 4 figs.

Langley, R.A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Shock Wave Structure for Argon, Helium, and Nitrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compare the thickness of shock wave fronts at different Mach numbers, modeled via Navier-Stokes (NS) and Quasi-gasdynamic (QGD) equations, with experimental results from the literature. Monoatomic argon and helium, and diatomic nitrogen, are considered. In this modeling a finite-difference scheme with second-order spatial accuracy is employed. For argon the density thickness calculated via QGD and NS models are in good agreement with each other, and with the experimental results. For helium QGD and NS results agree well with those from the bimodal model. For nitrogen, the QGD results are closer to the experimental data than NS results. The QGD-based algorithm converges to the steady state solution faster than the NS-based one.

T. G. Elizarova; I. A. Shirokov; S. Montero

2004-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

144

A High Reliability Gas-driven Helium Cryogenic Centrifugal Compressor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A helium cryogenic compressor was developed and tested in real conditions in 1996. The achieved objective was to compress 0.018 kg/s Helium at 4 K @ 1000 Pa (10 mbar) up to 3000 Pa (30 mbar). This project was an opportunity to develop and test an interesting new concept in view of future needs. The main features of this new specific technology are described. Particular attention is paid to the gas bearing supported rotor and to the pneumatic driver. Trade off between existing technologies and the present work are presented with special stress on the bearing system and the driver. The advantages are discussed, essentially focused on life time and high reliability without maintenance as well as non pollution characteristic. Practical operational modes are also described together with the experimental performances of the compressor. The article concludes with a brief outlook of future work.

Bonneton, M; Gistau-Baguer, Guy M; Turcat, F; Viennot, P

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Stimulated Brillouin Scattering from Helium-Hydrogen Plasmas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An extensive study of the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in helium-hydrogen plasmas has been performed using a gas jet at the Janus Laser Facility. We observe three regions of reflectivity by varying the probe intensity from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 16}: saturated region, linear region, and near SBS threshold region. In the linear regime, adding small amounts of H to a He plasma reduces the SBS reflectivity by a factor of 4.

Froula, D H; Divol, L; Price, D; Gregori, G; Williams, E A; Glenzer, S H

2003-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

146

Open Questions in Stellar Helium Burning Addressed With Real Photons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The outcome of helium burning is the formation of the two elements, carbon and oxygen. The ratio of carbon to oxygen at the end of helium burning is crucial for understanding the final fate of a progenitor star and the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in Type II supernova, with oxygen rich star predicted to collapse to a black hole, and a carbon rich star to a neutron star. Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) are used as standard candles for measuring cosmological distances with the use of an empirical light curve-luminosity stretching factor. It is essential to understand helium burning that yields the carbon/oxygen white dwarf and thus the initial stage of SNeIa. Since the triple alpha-particle capture reaction, $^{8}Be(\\alpha,\\gamma)^{12}C$, the first burning stage in helium burning, is well understood, one must extract the cross section of the $^{12}C(\\alpha,\\gamma)^{16}O$ reaction at the Gamow window (300 keV) with high accuracy of approximately 10% or better. This goal has not been achieved despite repeated strong statements that appeared in the literature. In particular constraint from the beta-delayed alpha-particle emission of $^{16}N$ were shown to not sufficiently restrict the p-wave cross section factor; e.g. a low value of $S_{E1}(300)$ can not be ruled out. Measurements at low energies, are thus mandatory for determining the elusive cross section factor for the $^{12}C(\\alpha,\\gamma)^{16}O$ reaction. We are constructing a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) for use with high intensity photon beams extracted from the HI$\\gamma$S/TUNL facility at Duke University to study the $^{16}O(\\gamma,\\alpha)^{12}C$ reaction, and thus the direct reaction at energies as low as 0.7 MeV. This work is in progress.

Moshe Gai

2003-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

147

Semiclassical description of antiproton capture on atomic helium  

SciTech Connect

A semiclassical, many-body atomic model incorporating a momentum-dependent Heisenberg core to stabilize atomic electrons is used to study antiproton capture on helium. Details of the antiproton collisions leading to eventual capture are presented, including the energy and angular-momentum states of incident antiprotons which result in capture via single- or double-electron ionization, i.e., into He[sup 2+][ital [bar p

Beck, W.A. (Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States) Quantum Medical Systems, Issaquah, Washington 98027 (United States)); Wilets, L. (Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)); Alberg, M.A. (Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States) Department of Physics, Seattle University, Seattle, Washington 98122 (United States))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Mathematical modeling of a Fermilab helium liquefier coldbox  

SciTech Connect

Fermilab Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) facility is operated 24 hours-a-day to supply 4.6{degrees}K for the Fermilab Tevatron superconducting proton-antiproton collider Ring and to recover warm return gases. The centerpieces of the CHL are two independent cold boxes rated at 4000 and 5400 liters/hour with LN{sub 2} precool. These coldboxes are Claude cycle and have identical heat exchangers trains, but different turbo-expanders. The Tevatron cryogenics demand for higher helium supply from CHL was the driving force to investigate an installation of an expansion engine in place of the Joule-Thompson valve. A mathematical model was developed to describe the thermo- and gas-dynamic processes for the equipment included in the helium coldbox. The model is based on a finite element approach, opposite to a global variables approach, thus providing for higher accuracy and conversion stability. Though the coefficients used in thermo- and gas-dynamic equations are unique for a given coldbox, the general approach, the equations, the methods of computations, and most of the subroutines written in FORTRAN can be readily applied to different coldboxes. The simulation results are compared against actual operating data to demonstrate applicability of the model.

Geynisman, M.G.; Walker, R.J.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

UCN production by multiphonon processes in superfluid Helium under pressure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cold neutrons are converted to ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) by the excitation of a single phonon or multiphonons in superfluid helium. The dynamic scattering function S(q, omega) of the superfluid helium strongly depends on pressure, leading to a pressure- dependent differential UCN production rate. A phenomenological expression for the multiphonon part of the scattering function s(lambda) describing UCN production has been derived from inelastic neutron scattering data. When combined with the production rate from single phonon processes this allows us to calculate the UCN production for any incident neutron flux. For calculations of the UCN production from single phonon processes we propose to use the values for S*(SVP) = 0.118(8) and S*(20 bar) = 0.066(6). As an example we will calculate the expected UCN production rate at the cold neutron beam for fundamental physics PF1b at the Institut Laue Langevin. We conclude that UCN production in superfluid helium under pressure is not attractive.

P. Schmidt-Wellenburg; K. H. Andersen; O. Zimmer

2008-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

150

On the Evolution of Helium in Blue Compact Galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the chemical evolution of dwarf irregular and blue compact galaxies in light of recent data, new stellar yields and chemical evolution models. We examine the abundance data for evidence of HII region self-enrichment effects, which would lead to correlations in the scatter of helium, nitrogen, and oxygen abundances around their mean trends. The observed helium abundance trends show no such correlations, though the nitrogen--oxygen trend does show strong evidence for real scatter beyond observational error. We construct simple models for the chemical evolution of these galaxies, using the most recent yields of \\he4, C, N and O in intermediate- and high-mass stars. The effects of galactic outflows, which can arise both from bulk heating and evaporation of the ISM, and from the partial escape of enriched supernova ejecta are included. In agreement with other studies, we find that supernova-enriched outflows can roughly reproduce the observed He, C, N, and O trends; however, in models that fit N versus O, the slopes $\\Delta Y/\\Delta$O and $\\Delta Y/\\Delta$N consistently fall more than $2\\sigma$ below the fit to observations. We discuss the role of the models and their uncertainties in the extrapolation of primordial helium from the data. We also explore the model dependence arising nucleosynthesis uncertainties associated with nitrogen yields in intermediate mass stars, the fate of $8-11 \\msol$ stars, and massive star winds.

Brian D. Fields; Keith A. Olive

1998-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

151

Helium-Based Soundwave Chiller: Trillium: A Helium-Based Sonic Chiller- Tons of Freezing with 0 GWP Refrigerants  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Penn State is designing a freezer that substitutes the use of sound waves and environmentally benign refrigerant for synthetic refrigerants found in conventional freezers. Called a thermoacoustic chiller, the technology is based on the fact that the pressure oscillations in a sound wave result in temperature changes. Areas of higher pressure raise temperatures and areas of low pressure decrease temperatures. By carefully arranging a series of heat exchangers in a sound field, the chiller is able to isolate the hot and cold regions of the sound waves. Penn State’s chiller uses helium gas to replace synthetic refrigerants. Because helium does not burn, explode or combine with other chemicals, it is an environmentally-friendly alternative to other polluting refrigerants. Penn State is working to apply this technology on a large scale.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Canada, carbon dioxide and the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

One of the major contributors to the greenhouse effect is carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas. Even with its low population density, Canada, on a per capita basis, has the dubious distinction of being the world's fourth largest producer of carbon from carbon dioxide. This paper considers the impact of Canadian carbon dioxide emissions on the greenhouse effect in light of the 1988 Conference on the Changing Atmosphere's recommendations. A computer model has been developed that, when using anticipated Canadian fossil fuel demands, shows that unless steps are taken immediately, Canada will not be able to meet the conference's proposed carbon dioxide reduction of 20 percent of 1988 levels by the year 2005, let alone meet any more substantial cuts that may be required in the future.

Hughes, L.; Scott, S. (Dept. of Mathematics and Computing Science, Saint Mary' s Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3C3 (CA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Latest Estimates Latest Estimates Atmos CO2 Level 397.31 ppm Fossil CO2 Emissions 9,167 MMT Carbon Global Temp Anomaly +0.56°C / +1.01°F Global Sea Level Rise +2.9 ± 0.4 mm/y Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) is the primary climate-change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). CDIAC is located at DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and includes the World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases. CDIAC's data holdings include estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and land-use changes; records of atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active trace gases; carbon cycle and terrestrial carbon management datasets and analyses; and

154

Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide in Coal Seams  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide in Coal Seams K. Schroeder (schroede@netl.doe.gov; 412.386.5910) U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236...

155

Carbon Dioxide Variability and Atmospheric Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hourly values of the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide at Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) formed the basis for an investigation of concentration fluctuations on daily to monthly time scales. In agreement with earlier studies we found no ...

James C. Sadler; Colin S. Ramage; Arnold M. Hori

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Turning unwanted carbon dioxide into electricity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and use it as a tool to boost electric power. Turning unwanted carbon dioxide into electricity Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov High Resolution Image The...

157

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

William Watson

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Regulating carbon dioxide capture and storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This essay examines several legal, regulatory and organizational issues that need to be addressed to create an effective regulatory regime for carbon dioxide capture and storage ("CCS"). Legal, regulatory, and organizational ...

De Figueiredo, Mark A.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Production of carbon monoxide-free hydrogen and helium from a high-purity source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides vacuum swing adsorption processes that produce an essentially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen or helium gas stream from, respectively, a high-purity (e.g., pipeline grade) hydrogen or helium gas stream using one or two adsorber beds. By using physical adsorbents with high heats of nitrogen adsorption, intermediate heats of carbon monoxide adsorption, and low heats of hydrogen and helium adsorption, and by using vacuum purging and high feed stream pressures (e.g., pressures of as high as around 1,000 bar), pipeline grade hydrogen or helium can purified to produce essentially carbon monoxide -free hydrogen and helium, or carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane-free hydrogen and helium.

Golden, Timothy Christopher (Allentown, PA); Farris, Thomas Stephen (Bethlehem, PA)

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

160

Helium Recovery in the LHC Cryogenic System following Magnet Resistive Transitions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A resistive transition (quench) of the Large Hadron Collider magnets provokes the expulsion of helium from the magnet cryostats to the helium recovery system. A high-volume, vacuum-insulated recovery line connected to several uninsulated medium-pressure gas storage tanks, forms the main constituents of the system. Besides a dedicated hardware configuration, helium recovery also implies specific procedures that should follow a quench, in order to conserve the discharged helium and possibly make use of its refrigeration capability. The amount of energy transferred after a quench from the magnets to the helium leaving the cold mass has been estimated on the basis of experimental data. Based on these data, the helium thermodynamic state in the recovery system is calculated using a lumped parameter approach. The LHC magnet quenches are classified ina parametric way from their cryogenic consequences and procedures that should follow the quench are proposed.

Chorowski, M; Serio, L; Tavian, L; Wagner, U; Van Weelderen, R

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tion-carbon dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Thorium dioxide: properties and nuclear applications  

SciTech Connect

This is the sixth book on reactor materials published under sponsorship of the Naval Reactors Office of the United States Department of Energy, formerly the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This book presents a comprehensive compilation of the most significant properties of thorium dioxide, much like the book Uranium Dioxide: Properties and Nuclear Applications presented information on the fuel material used in the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor core.

Belle, J.; Berman, R.M. (eds.)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Copper mercaptides as sulfur dioxide indicators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Organophosphine copper(I) mercaptide complexes are useful as convenient and semiquantitative visual sulfur dioxide gas indicators. The air-stable complexes form 1:1 adducts in the presence of low concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas, with an associated color change from nearly colorless to yellow-orange. The mercaptides are made by mixing stoichiometric amounts of the appropriate copper(I) mercaptide and phosphine in an inert organic solvent.

Eller, Phillip G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kubas, Gregory J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

During the present reporting period, six complementary tasks involving experimentation, model development, and coal characterization were undertaken to meet our project objectives: (1) A second adsorption apparatus, utilizing equipment donated by BP Amoco, was assembled. Having confirmed the reliability of this additional experimental apparatus and procedures, adsorption isotherms for CO{sub 2}, methane, ethane, and nitrogen on wet Fruitland coal and on activated carbon were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia). These measurements showed good agreement with our previous data and yielded an expected uncertainty of about 3%. The addition of this new facility has allowed us to essentially double our rate of data production. (2) Adsorption isotherms for pure CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen on wet Illinois-6 coal and on activated carbon were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia) on our first apparatus. The activated carbon measurements showed good agreement with literature data and with measurements obtained on our second apparatus. The expected uncertainty of the data is about 3%. The Illinois-6 adsorption measurements are a new addition to the existing database. Preparations are underway to measure adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on DESC-8 coal. (3) Adsorption from binary mixtures of methane, nitrogen and CO{sub 2} at a series of compositions was also measured on the wet Fruitland coal at 319.3 K (115 F), using our first apparatus. The nominal compositions of these mixtures are 20%/80%, 40%/60%, 60%/40%, and 80%/20%. The experiments were conducted at pressures from 100 psia to 1800 psia. The expected uncertainty for these binary mixture data varies from 2 to 9%. (4) A study was completed to address the previously-reported rise in the CO{sub 2} absolute adsorption on wet Fruitland coal at 115 F and pressures exceeding 1200 psia. Our additional adsorption measurements on Fruitland coal and on activated carbon show that: (a) the Gibbs adsorption isotherm for CO{sub 2} under study exhibits typical adsorption behavior for supercritical gas adsorption, and (b) a slight variation from Type I absolute adsorption may be observed for CO{sub 2}, but the variation is sensitive to the estimates used for adsorbed phase density. (5) The experimental data were used to evaluate the predictive capabilities of various adsorption models, including the Langmuir/loading ratio correlation, a two-dimensional cubic equation of state (EOS), a new two-dimensional (2-D) segment-segment interactions equation of state, and the simplified local density model (SLD). Our model development efforts have focused on developing the 2-D analog to the Park-Gasem-Robinson (PGR) EOS and an improved form of the SLD model. The new PGR EOS offers two advantages: (a) it has a more accurate repulsive term, which is important for reliable adsorption predictions, and (b) it is a segment-segment interactions model, which should more closely describe the gas-coal interactions during the adsorption process. In addition, a slit form of the SLD model was refined to account more precisely for heterogeneity of the coal surface and matrix swelling. In general, all models performed well for the Type I adsorption exhibited by methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide up to 8.3 MPa (average deviations within 2%). In comparison, the SLD model represented the adsorption behavior of all fluids considered within 5% average deviations, including the near-critical behavior of carbon dioxide beyond 8.3 MPa (1200 psia). Work is in progress to (a) derive and implement the biporous form of the SLD model, which would expand the number of structural geometries used to represent the heterogeneity of coal surface; and (b) extend the SLD model to mixture predictions. (6) Proper reduction of our adsorption data requires accurate gas-phase compressibility (Z) factors for methane, ethane, nitrogen and carbon dioxide and their mixtures to properly analyze our experimental adsorption data. A careful evaluation of t

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

164

Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility General Service Helium System Design Description  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility general service helium system (GSHe). The GSHe is a general service facility process support system, but does include safety-class systems, structures and components providing protection to the offsite public. The GSHe also performs safety-significant functions that provide protection to onsite workers. The GSHe essential function is to provide helium to support process functions during all phases of facility operations. GSHe helium is used to purge the cask and the MCO in order to maintain their internal atmospheres below hydrogen flammability concentrations. The GSHe also supplies helium to purge the PWC lines and components and the VPS vacuum pump.

FARWICK, C.C.

1999-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

165

Interim Report on the Optimization and Feasibility Studies for the Neutron Detection without Helium-3 Project  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the status and results of the first year's effort in modeling and simulation to investigate alternatives to helium-3 for neutron detection in safeguards applications.

Ely, James H.

2012-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

166

EPRI NMAC Maintainability Review of the International Gas-Turbine Modular Helium Reactor Power Conversion Unit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides information of interest to the designers of modular helium-reactor-driven gas turbines and persons considering the purchase of this type of plant.

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Ultra high vacuum pumping system and high sensitivity helium leak detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved helium leak detection method and apparatus are disclosed which increase the leak detection sensitivity to 10{sup {minus}13} atm cc/s. The leak detection sensitivity is improved over conventional leak detectors by completely eliminating the use of o-rings, equipping the system with oil-free pumping systems, and by introducing measured flows of nitrogen at the entrances of both the turbo pump and backing pump to keep the system free of helium background. The addition of dry nitrogen flows to the system reduces back streaming of atmospheric helium through the pumping system as a result of the limited compression ratios of the pumps for helium. 2 figs.

Myneni, G.R.

1997-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

168

Ultra high vacuum pumping system and high sensitivity helium leak detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved helium leak detection method and apparatus are disclosed which increase the leak detection sensitivity to 10.sup.-13 atm cc s.sup.-1. The leak detection sensitivity is improved over conventional leak detectors by completely eliminating the use of o-rings, equipping the system with oil-free pumping systems, and by introducing measured flows of nitrogen at the entrances of both the turbo pump and backing pump to keep the system free of helium background. The addition of dry nitrogen flows to the system reduces backstreaming of atmospheric helium through the pumping system as a result of the limited compression ratios of the pumps for helium.

Myneni, Ganapati Rao (Yorktown, VA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

THE CONSTRUCTION AND TESTING OF A DOUBLE ACTING BELLOWS LIQUID HELIUM PUMP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Helium Pump (Without Heat Exchanger S Control Dewar) (LIQUIDcavities from the exit heat exchanger. Both of these valvescopper tube split flow heat exchanger which shares a common

Burns, W.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by rhenium and manganese polypyridyl catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for reduction of carbon dioxide. IR-SpectroelectrochemicalElectrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide mediated by Re(Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Carbon Monoxide Mediated by (

Smieja, Jonathan Mark

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Thermal dissociation behavior and dissociation enthalpies of methane-carbon dioxide mixed hydrates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Methane– Title: Carbon Dioxide Mixed Hydrates Tae-Hyukof methane with carbon dioxide in hydrate has been proposedsequestration of carbon dioxide ( CO 2 ) and/or production

Kwon, T.H.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4: April 9, 2007 4: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on AddThis.com... Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transportation sector began to

173

Gas Diffusion in Metals: Fundamental Study of Helium-Point Defect Interactions in Iron and Kinetics of Hydrogen Desorption from Zirconium Hydride  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas Diffusion in Metals: Fundamental Study of Helium-PointGas Diffusion in Metals: Fundamental Study of Helium-Point138 8.1.1 Fundamental study of helium-point defect

Hu, Xunxiang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Helium measurements of pore-fluids obtained from SAFOD drillcore  

SciTech Connect

{sup 4}He accumulated in fluids is a well established geochemical tracer used to study crustal fluid dynamics. Direct fluid samples are not always collectable; therefore, a method to extract rare gases from matrix fluids of whole rocks by diffusion has been adapted. Helium was measured on matrix fluids extracted from sandstones and mudstones recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling in California, USA. Samples were typically collected as subcores or from drillcore fragments. Helium concentration and isotope ratios were measured 4-6 times on each sample, and indicate a bulk {sup 4}He diffusion coefficient of 3.5 {+-} 1.3 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} at 21 C, compared to previously published diffusion coefficients of 1.2 x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (21 C) to 3.0 x 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (150 C) in the sands and clays. Correcting the diffusion coefficient of {sup 4}He{sub water} for matrix porosity ({approx}3%) and tortuosity ({approx}6-13) produces effective diffusion coefficients of 1 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (21 C) and 1 x 10{sup -7} (120 C), effectively isolating pore fluid {sup 4}He from the {sup 4}He contained in the rock matrix. Model calculations indicate that <6% of helium initially dissolved in pore fluids was lost during the sampling process. Complete and quantitative extraction of the pore fluids provide minimum in situ porosity values for sandstones 2.8 {+-} 0.4% (SD, n=4) and mudstones 3.1 {+-} 0.8% (SD, n=4).

Ali, S.; Stute, M.; Torgersen, T.; Winckler, G.; Kennedy, B.M.

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

175

A pencil beam algorithm for helium ion beam therapy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To develop a flexible pencil beam algorithm for helium ion beam therapy. Dose distributions were calculated using the newly developed pencil beam algorithm and validated using Monte Carlo (MC) methods. Methods: The algorithm was based on the established theory of fluence weighted elemental pencil beam (PB) kernels. Using a new real-time splitting approach, a minimization routine selects the optimal shape for each sub-beam. Dose depositions along the beam path were determined using a look-up table (LUT). Data for LUT generation were derived from MC simulations in water using GATE 6.1. For materials other than water, dose depositions were calculated by the algorithm using water-equivalent depth scaling. Lateral beam spreading caused by multiple scattering has been accounted for by implementing a non-local scattering formula developed by Gottschalk. A new nuclear correction was modelled using a Voigt function and implemented by a LUT approach. Validation simulations have been performed using a phantom filled with homogeneous materials or heterogeneous slabs of up to 3 cm. The beams were incident perpendicular to the phantoms surface with initial particle energies ranging from 50 to 250 MeV/A with a total number of 10{sup 7} ions per beam. For comparison a special evaluation software was developed calculating the gamma indices for dose distributions. Results: In homogeneous phantoms, maximum range deviations between PB and MC of less than 1.1% and differences in the width of the distal energy falloff of the Bragg-Peak from 80% to 20% of less than 0.1 mm were found. Heterogeneous phantoms using layered slabs satisfied a {gamma}-index criterion of 2%/2mm of the local value except for some single voxels. For more complex phantoms using laterally arranged bone-air slabs, the {gamma}-index criterion was exceeded in some areas giving a maximum {gamma}-index of 1.75 and 4.9% of the voxels showed {gamma}-index values larger than one. The calculation precision of the presented algorithm was considered to be sufficient for clinical practice. Although only data for helium beams was presented, the performance of the pencil beam algorithm for proton beams was comparable. Conclusions: The pencil beam algorithm developed for helium ions presents a suitable tool for dose calculations. Its calculation speed was evaluated to be similar to other published pencil beam algorithms. The flexible design allows easy customization of measured depth-dose distributions and use of varying beam profiles, thus making it a promising candidate for integration into future treatment planning systems. Current work in progress deals with RBE effects of helium ions to complete the model.

Fuchs, Hermann; Stroebele, Julia; Schreiner, Thomas; Hirtl, Albert; Georg, Dietmar [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna/AKH Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria) and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna/AKH Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna/AKH Vienna (Austria) and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna/AKH Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); PEG MedAustron, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna/AKH Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria) and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna/AKH Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

176

Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Hoffman, James S. (Library, PA)

2002-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

177

Gas Diffusion in Metals: Fundamental Study of Helium-Point Defect Interactions in Iron and Kinetics of Hydrogen Desorption from Zirconium Hydride  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ullmaier. Helium and hydrogen effects on the embrittlementT. Troev. The effect of hydrogen and helium on microvoidp. 1-51. M. Steinbruck. Hydrogen absorption by zirconium

Hu, Xunxiang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF A DUAL-CHANNEL, HELIUM-COOLED, TUNGSTEN HEAT EXCHANGER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF A DUAL-CHANNEL, HELIUM-COOLED, TUNGSTEN HEAT EXCHANGER Dennis L. Youchison-cooled, refractory heat exchangers are now under consideration for first wall and divertor applications-channel, helium-cooled heat exchanger made almost entirely of tungsten was designed and fabricated by Thermacore

California at Los Angeles, University of

179

The Solar Wind Helium Abundance: Variation with Wind Speed and the Solar Cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Solar Wind Helium Abundance: Variation with Wind Speed and the Solar Cycle Matthias R. Aellig Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM 87545 Abstract We investigate the helium abundance in the solar wind of 1994 and early 2000 are analyzed. In agreement with similar work for previous solar cycles, we find

Richardson, John

180

Helium-Cooled Refractory Alloys First Wall and Blanket Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under the APEX program the He-cooled system design task is to evaluate and recommend high power density refractory alloy first wall and blanket designs and to recommend and initiate tests to address critical issues. We completed the preliminary design of a helium-cooled, W-5Re alloy, lithium breeder design and the results are reported in this paper. Many areas of the design were assessed, including material selection, helium impurity control, and mechanical, nuclear and thermal hydraulics design, and waste disposal, tritium and safety design. System study results show that at a closed cycle gas turbine (CCGT) gross thermal efficiency of 57.5%, a superconducting coil tokamak reactor, with an aspect ratio of 4, and an output power of 2 GWe, can be projected to have a cost of electricity at 54.6 mill/kWh. Critical issues were identified and we plan to continue the design on some of the critical issues during the next phase of the APEX design study.

Wong, C.P.C.; Nygren, R.E.; Baxi, C.B.; Fogarty, P.; Ghoniem, N.; Khater, H.; McCarthy, K.; Merrill, B.; Nelson, B.; Reis, E.E.; Sharafat, S.; Schleicher, R.; Sze, D.K.; Ulrickson, M.; Willms, S.; Youssef, M.; Zinkel, S.

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tion-carbon dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project has developed, an important additional objective has been added to the above original list. Namely, we have been encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we have participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, have also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project during the current reporting period are summarized in three broad categories outlining experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

2003-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

182

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure, and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project developed, an important additional objective was added to the above original list. Namely, we were encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project are summarized below in three broad categories: experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; J.E. Fitzgerald; Z. Pan; M. Sudibandriyo

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

183

A Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations Kevin T. Raterman (ratekt@inel.gov; 208-526-5444) Michael McKellar (mgq@inel.gov; 208-526-1346) Anna Podgorney (poloak@inel.gov; 208-526-0064) Douglas Stacey (stacde@inel.gov; 208-526-3938) Terry Turner (tdt@inel.gov; 208-526-8623) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory P.O. Box 1625 Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415-2110 Brian Stokes (bxs9@pge.com; 415-972-5591) John Vranicar (jjv2@pge.com; 415-972-5591) Pacific Gas & Electric Company 123 Mission Street San Francisco, CA 94105 Introduction Many analysts 1,2,3 identify carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and separation as a major roadblock in efforts to cost effectively mitigate greenhouse gas emissions via sequestration. An assessment 4 conducted by the International Energy Agency (IEA)

184

sulfur dioxide emissions | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

sulfur dioxide emissions sulfur dioxide emissions Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. Source NREL Date Released April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords buildings carbon dioxide emissions carbon footprinting CO2 commercial buildings electricity emission factors ERCOT hourly emission factors interconnect nitrogen oxides

185

Polymers for metal extractions in carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition useful for the extraction of metals and metalloids comprises (a) carbon dioxide fluid (preferably liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide); and (b) a polymer in the carbon dioxide, the polymer having bound thereto a ligand that binds the metal or metalloid; with the ligand bound to the polymer at a plurality of locations along the chain length thereof (i.e., a plurality of ligands are bound at a plurality of locations along the chain length of the polymer). The polymer is preferably a copolymer, and the polymer is preferably a fluoropolymer such as a fluoroacrylate polymer. The extraction method comprises the steps of contacting a first composition containing a metal or metalloid to be extracted with a second composition, the second composition being as described above; and then extracting the metal or metalloid from the first composition into the second composition.

DeSimone, Joseph M. (7315 Crescent Ridge Dr., Chapel Hill, NC 27516); Tumas, William (1130 Big Rock Loop, Los Alamos, NM 87544); Powell, Kimberly R. (103 Timber Hollow Ct. Apartment 323, Chapel Hill, NC 27514); McCleskey, T. Mark (1930 Camino Mora, Los Alamos, NM 87544); Romack, Timothy J. (5810 Forest Ridge Dr., Durham, NC 27713); McClain, James B. (8530 Sommersweet La., Raleigh, NC 27612); Birnbaum, Eva R. (1930 Camino Mora, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

CHLORINE DIOXIDE AND CHLORITE Chlorine Dioxide CAS # 10049-04-4  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions (FAQs) about chlorine dioxide and chlorite. For more information, call the ATSDR Information Center at 1-888-422-8737. This fact sheet is one in a series of summaries about hazardous substances and their health effects. It is important you understand this information because these substances may harm you. The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are present. HIGHLIGHTS: Chlorine dioxide is a gas that does not occur naturally in the environment. It is used to disinfect drinking water and make it safe to drink. Chlorite is formed when chlorine dioxide reacts with water. High levels of chlorine dioxide can be irritating to the nose, eyes, throat, and lungs. Chlorine dioxide and chlorite have not been found in any of the 1,647 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). What are chlorine dioxide and chlorite? Chlorine dioxide is a yellow to reddish-yellow manufactured gas. It does not occur naturally in the environment. When

Chlorite Cas

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Unique method for liquid nitrogen precooling of a plate fin heat exchanger in a helium refrigeration cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Unique method for liquid nitrogen precooling of a plate fin heat exchanger in a helium refrigeration cycle

Weber, T B; Howell, G; Racine, M; Weisend, J G

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Regional And Local Trends In Helium Isotopes, Basin And Range Province,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

And Local Trends In Helium Isotopes, Basin And Range Province, And Local Trends In Helium Isotopes, Basin And Range Province, Western North America- Evidence For Deep Permeable Pathways Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Paper: Regional And Local Trends In Helium Isotopes, Basin And Range Province, Western North America- Evidence For Deep Permeable Pathways Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Fluids from the western margin of the Basin and Range have helium isotope ratios as high as ~6-7 Ra, indicating a strong mantle melt influence and consistent with recent and current volcanic activity. Moving away from these areas, helium isotope ratios decrease rapidly to 'background' values of around 0.6 Ra, and then gradually decrease toward the east to low values of ~0.1 Ra at the eastern margin of the Basin and

189

Magnesium/manganese dioxide electrochemical cell  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a magnesium/manganese dioxide electrochemical cell that has been stored following partial usage and including an alloy of magnesium as the anode, a moist cathode mix of carbon black, manganese dioxide, magnesium hydroxide, barium chromate and lithium chromate as the cathode, and 3.5 to 4.0 normal magnesium perchlorate as the electrolyte. The improvement involves increasing the moisture content of the cathode mix from 34 to 38 percent at the time of making the cell to reduce the self discharge and increase the operating capacity after the cell has been stored following partial usage.

Jarvis, L.P.; Brundage, M.T.; Atwater, T.B.

1989-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

190

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2007 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Relaated Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Relaated Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2007 Chapter 7 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2004, non-OECD emissions of carbon dioxide were greater than OECD emissions for the first time. In 2030, carbon dioxide emissions from the non-OECD countries are projected to exceed those from the OECD countries by 57 percent. Figure 77. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Region, 2003-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center on 202-585-8800. Figure Data Figure 78. World energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Carbon dioxide is the most abundant anthropogenic (human-caused) greenhouse

191

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2008-Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2008 Chapter 7 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2005, non-OECD emissions of carbon dioxide exceeded OECD emissions by 7 percent. In 2030, carbon dioxide emissions from the non-OECD countries are projected to exceed those from the OECD countries by 72 percent. Figure 75. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2005-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 76. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 77. Average Annual Growth in Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the OECD Economies, 2005-2030 (Percent per Year). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

192

Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics May 20, 2013 - 1:31pm Addthis Novomers thermoplastic pellets incorporate waste CO2 into a...

193

Dry process fluorination of uranium dioxide using ammonium bifluoride  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study was conducted to determine the practicality of various unit operations for fluorination of uranium dioxide. The objective was to prepare ammonium uranium fluoride double salts from uranium dioxide and ...

Yeamans, Charles Burnett, 1978-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

New Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground New Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground February 5, 2013 - 12:05pm Addthis The Air Products and...

195

How much carbon dioxide is produced by burning gasoline and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

How much carbon dioxide is produced by burning gasoline and diesel fuel? About 19.64 pounds of carbon dioxide (CO 2) are produced from burning a gallon of gasoline ...

196

Carbon Dioxide Capture/Sequestration Tax Deduction (Kansas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Carbon Dioxide Capture/Sequestration Tax Deduction allows a taxpayer a deduction to adjusted gross income with respect to the amortization of the amortizable costs of carbon dioxide capture,...

197

Calculating Residential Carbon Dioxide Emissions --A New Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Calculating Residential Carbon Dioxide Emissions -- A New Approach Larry Hughes, Kathleen Bohan to submit an annual national greenhouse gas inventory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate different sectors and their associated greenhouse gas emissions (principally carbon dioxide, methane

Hughes, Larry

198

Fluid Dynamics of Carbon Dioxide Disposal into Saline Aquifers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon dioxide can be less than the viscosity of the aqueous phase by a factorcarbon dioxide can be less than the viscosity of the aqueous phase by a factor

Garcia, Julio Enrique

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in energy-intensive industries in key developing countries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Structural Factors Affecting Energy Use and Carbon DioxideStructural Factors Affecting Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide

Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Carbon Dioxide as Cushion Gas for Natural Gas Storage  

Carbon dioxide injection during carbon sequestration with enhanced gas recovery can be carried out to produce the methane while

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tion-carbon dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gas Reduction Metallurgy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Symposium. Meeting, 2011 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium, Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gas Reduction Metallurgy - 2011.

202

Evaluation and Optimization of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Conversion Cycle for Nuclear Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There have been a number of studies involving the use of gases operating in the supercritical mode for power production and process heat applications. Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) is particularly attractive because it is capable of achieving relatively high power conversion cycle efficiencies in the temperature range between 550°C and 750°C. Therefore, it has the potential for use with any type of high-temperature nuclear reactor concept, assuming reactor core outlet temperatures of at least 550°C. The particular power cycle investigated in this paper is a supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle. The CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle can be used as either a direct or indirect power conversion cycle, depending on the reactor type and reactor outlet temperature. The advantage of this cycle when compared to the helium Brayton Cycle is the lower required operating temperature; 550°C versus 850°C. However, the supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle requires an operating pressure in the range of 20 MPa, which is considerably higher than the required helium Brayton cycle operating pressure of 8 MPa. This paper presents results of analyses performed using the UniSim process analyses software to evaluate the performance of the supercritical CO2 Brayton Recompression Cycle for different reactor outlet temperatures. The UniSim model assumed a 600 MWt reactor power source, which provides heat to the power cycle at a maximum temperature of between 550°C and 750°C. The UniSim model used realistic component parameters and operating conditions to model the complete power conversion system. CO2 properties were evaluated, and the operating range for the cycle was adjusted to take advantage of the rapidly changing conditions near the critical point. The UniSim model was then optimized to maximize the power cycle thermal efficiency at the different maximum power cycle operating temperatures. The results of the analyses showed that power cycle thermal efficiencies in the range of 40 to 50% can be achieved.

Edwin A. Harvego; Michael G. McKellar

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

FLAME DENITRATION AND REDUCTION OF URANIUM NITRATE TO URANIUM DIOXIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is given for converting uranyl nitrate solution to uranium dioxide. The process comprises spraying fine droplets of aqueous uranyl nitrate solution into a hightemperature hydrocarbon flame, said flame being deficient in oxygen approximately 30%, retaining the feed in the flame for a sufficient length of time to reduce the nitrate to the dioxide, and recovering uranium dioxide. (AEC)

Hedley, W.H.; Roehrs, R.J.; Henderson, C.M.

1962-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

204

Recovery Act: Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsion for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide-Water Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsion for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Background The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) distributed a portion of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds to advance technologies for chemical conversion of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) captured from industrial sources. The focus of the research projects is permanent sequestration of CO 2 through mineralization or development

205

Cation Adsorption on Manganese Dioxide Impregnated Fibers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The complete removal of radioactive cations by standard mixed-bed ion-exchange resins is sometimes not achieved in liquid radwaste systems. This report documents an alternative ion adsorption process for the purification of liquid wastes, specifically, the use of manganese dioxide (MnO2) impregnated fibers to remove selected cations from PWR liquid waste streams.

1993-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

206

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis May 2005 MIT LFEE 2005. LFEE 2005-002 Report #12;#12;i ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal (PC), integrated coal gasification combined cycle

207

Improved magnesium/manganese dioxide electrochemical cell  

SciTech Connect

A magnesium/manganese dioxide electrochemical cell, stored following partial usage, is improved by increasing the cathode moisture content at the time of making the cell to reduce the self-discharge and increase the operating capacity after the cell has been stored following partial usage.

Jarvis, L.P.; Brundage, M.T.; Atwater, T.B.

1988-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

208

Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Anderson, SC)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Synthetic fuels, carbon dioxide and climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The observed increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has been attributed to the use of fossil fuels. There is concern that the generation and use of synthetic fuels derived from oil shale and coal will accelerate the increase of CO2.

Alex R. Sapre; John R. Hummel; Ruth A. Reck

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Pion Electroproduction form Helium 3, Deuterium, and Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of measurements for pion electroproduction from helium-3, deuterium, and hydrogen were completed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility by the NucPi Collaboration. E91003 began taking data in February 1998 and was completed in April 1998. The longitudinal and transverse parts of the differential cross section were extracted, by means of a Rosenbluth type separation, in the direction parallel to the virtual photon, at Q 2 = 0.4 GeV 2 , for W = 1.15 and W = 1.6 GeV. The mass dependence of the longitudinal cross section should provide insight into the surprising apparent absence of any significant cross section enhancement due to excess pions in the nuclear medium.

S. Avery

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Ionization of hydrogen and ionized helium by slow antiprotons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the ionization process involving antiproton and hydrogen in the energy range between 0.1 keV to 500 keV, using single center close coupling approximation. We construct the scattering wave function using B-spline bases. The results obtained for ionization of atomic hydrogen are compared with other existing theoretical calculations as well as with the available experimental data. The present results are found to be encouraging. We also employed this method to study the ionization of ionized helium in the energy range between 1 and 500 keV. On comparision, the present results are found to interpret well the cross section values calculated using other theories.

Sahoo, S; Walters, H R J

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Nuclear fusion in muonic deuterium-helium complex  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental study of the nuclear fusion reaction in charge-asymmetrical d-mu-3He complex is presented. The 14.6 MeV protons were detected by three pairs of Si(dE-E) telescopes placed around the cryogenic target filled with the deuterium + helium-3 gas at 34 K. The 6.85 keV gamma rays emitted during the de-excitation of d-mu-3He complex were detected by a germanium detector. The measurements were performed at two target densities, 0.0585 and 0.169 (relative to liquid hydrogen density) with an atomic concentration of 3He c=0.0469. The values of the effective rate of nuclear fusion in d-mu-3He was obtained for the first time, and the J=0 nuclear fusion rate in d-mu-3He was derived.

V. M. Bystritsky; M. Filipowicz; V. V. Gerasimov; P. E. Knowles; F. Mulhauser; N. P. Popov; V. A. Stolupin; V. P. Volnykh; J. Wozniak

2005-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

213

Optimization and Comparison of Direct and Indirect Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Plant Cycles for Nuclear Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There have been a number of studies involving the use of gases operating in the supercritical mode for power production and process heat applications. Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) is particularly attractive because it is capable of achieving relatively high power conversion cycle efficiencies in the temperature range between 550 C and 750 C. Therefore, it has the potential for use with any type of high-temperature nuclear reactor concept, assuming reactor core outlet temperatures of at least 550 C. The particular power cycle investigated in this paper is a supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle. The CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle can be used as either a direct or indirect power conversion cycle, depending on the reactor type and reactor outlet temperature. The advantage of this cycle when compared to the helium Brayton cycle is the lower required operating temperature; 550 C versus 850 C. However, the supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle requires an operating pressure in the range of 20 MPa, which is considerably higher than the required helium Brayton cycle operating pressure of 8 MPa. This paper presents results of analyses performed using the UniSim process analyses software to evaluate the performance of both a direct and indirect supercritical CO2 Brayton Recompression cycle for different reactor outlet temperatures. The direct supercritical CO2 cycle transferred heat directly from a 600 MWt reactor to the supercritical CO2 working fluid supplied to the turbine generator at approximately 20 MPa. The indirect supercritical CO2 cycle assumed a helium-cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), operating at a primary system pressure of approximately 7.0 MPa, delivered heat through an intermediate heat exchanger to the secondary indirect supercritical CO2 Brayton Recompression cycle, again operating at a pressure of about 20 MPa. For both the direct and indirect cycles, sensitivity calculations were performed for reactor outlet temperature between 550 C and 850 C. The UniSim models used realistic component parameters and operating conditions to model the complete reactor and power conversion systems. CO2 properties were evaluated, and the operating ranges of the cycles were adjusted to take advantage of the rapidly changing properties of CO2 near the critical point. The results of the analyses showed that, for the direct supercritical CO2 power cycle, thermal efficiencies in the range of 40 to 50% can be achieved. For the indirect supercritical CO2 power cycle, thermal efficiencies were approximately 10% lower than those obtained for the direct cycle over the same reactor outlet temperature range.

Edwin A. Harvego; Michael G. McKellar

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Superconducting cable cooling system by helium gas at two pressures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Thermally contacting, oppositely streaming, cryogenic fluid streams in the same enclosure in a closed cycle that changes the fluid from a cool high pressure helium gas to a cooler reduced pressure helium gas in an expander so as to be at different temperature ranges and pressures respectively in go and return legs that are in thermal contact with each other and in thermal contact with a longitudinally extending superconducting transmission line enclosed in the same cable enclosure that insulates the line from the ambient at a temperature T.sub.1. By first circulating the fluid from a refrigerator at one end of the line as a cool gas at a temperature range T.sub.2 to T.sub.3 in the go leg, then circulating the gas through an expander at the other end of the line where the gas becomes a cooler gas at a reduced pressure and at a reduced temperature T.sub.4 and finally by circulating the cooler gas back again to the refrigerator in a return leg at a temperature range T.sub.4 to T.sub.5, while in thermal contact with the gas in the go leg, and in the same enclosure therewith for compression into a higher pressure gas at T.sub.2 in a closed cycle, where T.sub.2 >T.sub.3 and T.sub.5 >T.sub.4, the fluid leaves the enclosure in the go leg as a gas at its coldest point in the go leg, and the temperature distribution is such that the line temperature decreases along its length from the refrigerator due to the cooling from the gas in the return leg.

Dean, John W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Helium measurements of pore-fluids obtained from SAFOD drillcore  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

{sup 4}He accumulated in fluids is a well established geochemical tracer used to study crustal fluid dynamics. Direct fluid samples are not always collectable; therefore, a method to extract rare gases from matrix fluids of whole rocks by diffusion has been adapted. Helium was measured on matrix fluids extracted from sandstones and mudstones recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling in California, USA. Samples were typically collected as subcores or from drillcore fragments. Helium concentration and isotope ratios were measured 4-6 times on each sample, and indicate a bulk {sup 4}He diffusion coefficient of 3.5 {+-} 1.3 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} at 21 C, compared to previously published diffusion coefficients of 1.2 x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (21 C) to 3.0 x 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (150 C) in the sands and clays. Correcting the diffusion coefficient of {sup 4}He{sub water} for matrix porosity ({approx}3%) and tortuosity ({approx}6-13) produces effective diffusion coefficients of 1 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (21 C) and 1 x 10{sup -7} (120 C), effectively isolating pore fluid {sup 4}He from the {sup 4}He contained in the rock matrix. Model calculations indicate that fluids was lost during the sampling process. Complete and quantitative extraction of the pore fluids provide minimum in situ porosity values for sandstones 2.8 {+-} 0.4% (SD, n=4) and mudstones 3.1 {+-} 0.8% (SD, n=4).

Ali, S.; Stute, M.; Torgersen, T.; Winckler, G.; Kennedy, B.M.

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

216

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport, and Storage Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport, and Storage Project Summary Full Title: Techno-Economic Models for Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport, and Storage & Correlations for Estimating Carbon Dioxide Density and Viscosity Project ID: 195 Principal Investigator: David McCollum Brief Description: This project addresses several components of carbon capture and storage (CCS) costs, provides technical models for determining the engineering and infrastructure requirements of CCS, and describes some correlations for estimating CO2 density and viscosity. Keywords: Pipeline, transportation, greenhouse gases (GHG), costs, technoeconomic analysis Purpose Estimate costs of carbon dioxide capture, compression, transport, storage, etc., and provide some technical models for determining the engineering and

217

Forced flow supercritical helium in a closed heat transfer loop subjected to pulsed heat loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The superconducting magnets of the tokamak JT-60SA are cooled by means of forced flows of supercritical helium at 4.4 K and 0.5 MPa. The closed loops transfer heat from the magnets to the refrigerator through heat exchangers immersed into a saturated liquid helium bath. An experimental loop was designed to represent a 1/20 scaled down mock-up of JT-60SA central solenoid cooling circuits. This design for keeping the same transit times in the helium circuits

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Apparatus to measure liquid helium boil-off from low-loss superconducting current leads  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A low-loss liquid helium dewar was constructed to measure the liquid helium boil-off rate from high-temperature superconducting current leads. The dewar has a measured background heat leakage rate of 12 mW. Equations calculating the heat leakage rate from the measured vapor mass flow rate in liquid helium boil-off experiments are derived. Parameters that affect the experiments, such as density ratio, absolute pressure, and rate of pressure variation, are discussed. This study is important as superconducting current leads may be used in superconducting magnetic energy storage systems.

Cha, Y.S.; Niemann, R.C.; Hull, J.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

DEUTERIUM, TRITIUM, AND HELIUM DESORPTION FROM AGED TITANIUM TRITIDES. PART I.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Six new samples of tritium-aged bulk titanium have been examined by thermal desorption and isotope exchange chemistry. The discovery of a lower temperature hydrogen desorption state in these materials, previously reported, has been confirmed in one of the new samples. The helium release of the samples shows the more severe effects obtained from longer aging periods, i.e. higher initial He/M ratios. Several of the more aged samples were spontaneously releasing helium. Part I will discuss the new results on the new lower temperature hydrogen desorption state found in one more extensively studied sample. Part II will discuss the hydrogen/helium release behavior of the remaining samples.

Shanahan, K; Jeffrey Holder, J

2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

220

DEUTERIUM, TRITIUM, AND HELIUM DESORPTION FROM AGED TITANIUM TRITIDES. PART II.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Six new samples of tritium-aged bulk titanium have been examined by thermal desorption and isotope exchange chemistry. The discovery of a lower temperature hydrogen desorption state in these materials, previously reported, has been confirmed in one of the new samples. The helium release of the samples shows the more severe effects obtained from longer aging periods, i.e. higher initial He/M ratios. Several of the more aged samples were spontaneously releasing helium. Part I discussed the new results on the new lower temperature hydrogen desorption state found in one more extensively studied sample. Part II will discuss the hydrogen/helium release behavior of the remaining samples.

Shanahan, K; Jeffrey Holder, J

2006-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tion-carbon dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Effects of helium content of microstructural development in Type 316 stainless steel under neutron irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work investigated the sensitivity of microstructural evolution, particularly precipitate development, to increased helium content during thermal aging and during neutron irradiation. Helium (110 at. ppM) was cold preinjected into solution annealed (SA) DO-heat type 316 stainess steel (316) via cyclotron irradiation. These specimens were then exposed side by side with uninjected samples. Continuous helium generation was increased considerably relative to EBR-II irradiation by irradiation in HFIR. Data were obtained from quantitative analytical electron microscopy (AEM) in thin foils and on extraction replicas. 480 refs., 86 figs., 19 tabs.

Maziasz, P.J.

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

EIA - 2010 International Energy Outlook - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2010 Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2007, non-OECD energy-related emissions of carbon dioxide exceeded OECD emissions by 17 percent. In the IEO2010 Reference case, energy-related carbon dioxide emissions from non-OECD countries in 2035 are about double those from OECD countries. Overview Because anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result primarily from the combustion of fossil fuels, world energy use continues to be at the center of the climate change debate. In the IEO2010 Reference case, world energy-related carbon dioxide emissions29 grow from 29.7 billion metric tons in 2007 to 33.8 billion metric tons in 2020 and 42.4 billion metric tons in 2035 (Table 18).30

223

SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Systems Components Competitive Awards CSP Research & Development Thermal Storage CSP Recovery Act Baseload CSP SunShot Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative

224

International Energy Outlook 2006 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Eneregy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Eneregy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2006 Chapter 7: Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In the coming decades, actions to limit greenhouse gas emissions could affect patterns of energy use around the world and alter the level and composition of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by energy source. Figure 65. World Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Region, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 66. World Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1980-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Carbon dioxide is one of the most prevalent greenhouse gases in the

225

Helium isotopes in geothermal systems- Iceland, The Geysers, Raft River and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Helium isotopes in geothermal systems- Iceland, The Geysers, Raft River and Helium isotopes in geothermal systems- Iceland, The Geysers, Raft River and Steamboat Springs Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Helium isotopes in geothermal systems- Iceland, The Geysers, Raft River and Steamboat Springs Details Activities (3) Areas (3) Regions (0) Abstract: Helium isotope ratios have been measured in geothermal fluids from Iceland, The Geysers, Raft River, Steamboat Springs and Hawaii. These ratios have been interpreted in terms of the processes which supply He in distinct isotopic ratios (i.e. magmatic He, ~10 Ra; atmospheric He, R,sub>a; and crustal He, ~0.1 Ra) and in terms of the processes which can alter the isotopic ratio (hydrologic mixing, U-Th series alpha production and weathering release of crustal He, magma aging and

226

Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United States, I, Regional Variability And Magmatic Origin Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United States, I, Regional Variability And Magmatic Origin Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Helium isotope ratios in gases of thirty hot springs and geothermal wells and of five natural gas wells in the western United States show no relationship to regional conductive heat flow, but do show a correlation with magma-based thermal activity and reservoir fluid temperature (or total convective heat discharge). Gases from high-T (> 200°C) reservoirs have 3He/4He > 2 _ the atmospheric value, with high He

227

Flow of mantle fluids through the ductile lower crust: Helium isotope trends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

super-imposed on regional trends can identify potentialCrust: Helium Isotope Trends I B. Mack Kennedyl andlMatthijsin the west, a regional trend that correlates with the rates

Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Helium and lead isotope geochemistry of oceanic volcanic rocks from the East Pacific and South Atlantic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The isotopic evolution of helium and lead in the Earth is coupled by virtue of their common radioactive parents uranium and thorium. The isotopic signatures in oceanic volcanic rocks provide constraints on the temporal ...

Graham, David W. (David William)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Flow of mantle fluids through the ductile lower crust: Helium isotope trends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the latter is the Dixie Valley thermal system (Figure 2),that crossed through Dixie Valley revealed a zone of lowsuggesting that the Dixie Valley helium anomaly rellects a

Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Helium/Hydrogen Effects on the Properties of Materials for the APT Target/Blanket Region  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper provides a technical basis to rationalize potential synergistic effects among displacement damage and the hydrogen and helium embrittlement processes and suggests that such synergistic effects may be of significant importance to component performance in intense spallation neutron sources.

Louthan, M.R.

1999-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

231

Nanostructuring of molybdenum and tungsten surfaces by low-energy helium ions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The formation of metallic nanostructures by exposure of molybdenum and tungsten surfaces to high fluxes of low energy helium ions is studied as a function of the ion energy, plasma exposure time, and surface temperature. Helium plasma exposure leads to the formation of nanoscopic filaments on the surface of both metals. The size of the helium-induced nanostructure increases with increasing surface temperature while the thickness of the modified layer increases with time. In addition, the growth rate of the nanostructured layer also depends on the surface temperature. The size of the nanostructure appears linked with the size of the near-surface voids induced by the low energy ions. The results presented here thus demonstrate that surface processing by low-energy helium ions provides an efficient route for the formation of porous metallic nanostructures.

De Temmerman, Gregory; Bystrov, Kirill; Zielinski, Jakub J.; Balden, Martin; Matern, Gabriele; Arnas, Cecile; Marot, Laurent [FOM Institute DIFFER, Ducth Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, 85748 Garching (Germany); Laboratoire PIIM, CNRS/Aix-Marseille Universit, 13397 Marseille (France); Department of Physics, University of Basel, Basel, CH-4056 (Switzerland)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

232

Coal Bed Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

COAL BED SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE COAL BED SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE R. Stanton (rstanton@usgs.gov; 703-648-6462) U.S. Geological Survey MS 956 National Center Reston, VA 20192 R. Flores (rflores@usgs.gov; 303-236-7774) U.S. Geological Survey MS 939, Denver Federal Center Denver, CO 80225 P.D. Warwick (pwarwick@usgs.gov; 703-648-6469) H. Gluskoter (halg@usgs.gov; 703-648-6429) U.S. Geological Survey MS 956 National Center Reston, VA 20192 G.D. Stricker (303-236-7763) U.S. Geological Survey MS 939, Denver Federal Center Denver, CO 80225 Introduction Geologic sequestration of CO 2 generated from fossil fuel combustion may be an environmentally attractive method to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Of the geologic options, sequestering CO

233

Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Industrialized Countries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Industrialized Countries Extended discussion here Carbon emissions per capita 1973 vs. 1991 by major end use. (Denmark comparison is 1972 and 1991) With the third Conference of the Parties (COP-3) in Kyoto approaching, there is a great deal of excitement over policies designed to reduce future carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuels. At COP-3, more than 130 nations will meet to create legally binding targets for CO2 reductions. Accordingly, we have analyzed the patterns of emissions arising from the end uses of energy (and electricity production) in ten industrialized countries, with surprising and, in some cases, worrisome results. The surprise is that emissions in many countries in the early 1990s were lower than in the 1970s in an absolute sense and on a per capita basis; the worry

234

Carbon Dioxide Capture Process with Regenerable Sorbents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dioxide Capture Process with Regenerable Sorbents Dioxide Capture Process with Regenerable Sorbents sorbent material. Additionally, the design of the system incorporates a cross- flow moving-bed reactor where the gas flows horizontally through a "panel" of solid sorbent that is slowly moving down-wards under gravity flow. With the expanded use of fossil fuels expected throughout the world, the increase in CO 2 emissions may prove to contribute even more significantly to global climate change. To address this problem, carbon sequestration scientists and engineers have proposed a number of methods to remove CO 2 from gas streams, such as chemical absorption with a solvent, membrane separation, and cryogenic fractionation. However, all of these methods are expensive and possibly cost-prohibitive for a specific application.

235

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Record from Mauna Loa  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SIO Air Sampling Network » Mauna Loa SIO Air Sampling Network » Mauna Loa Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Record from Mauna Loa DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.035 graphics Graphics data Data Investigators R.F. Keeling, S.C. Piper, A.F. Bollenbacher and J.S. Walker Carbon Dioxide Research Group Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California La Jolla, California 92093-0444, U.S.A. Period of Record 1958-2008 Methods Air samples at Mauna Loa are collected continuously from air intakes at the top of four 7-m towers and one 27-m tower. Four air samples are collected each hour for the purpose of determining the CO2 concentration. Determinations of CO2 are made by using a Siemens Ultramat 3 nondispersive infrared gas analyzer with a water vapor freeze trap. This analyzer registers the concentration of CO2 in a stream of air flowing at ~0.5

236

Carbon dioxide utilization and seaweed production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

dioxide utilization and seaweed production dioxide utilization and seaweed production V.R.P.Sinha World Bank Project Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute, Mymensingh, Bangladesh e-mails; vrpsinha@ mymensingh.net, vidyut_s@hotmail.com Lowell Fraley L.D. Fraley & Associates, LLC, P.O. Box 1525, Sugarland, TX 77487, USA, e-mail idf@hia.net BS Chowdhry ISS Consultants, Inc. 13111 Westheimer, Suite 303, Houston, Texas 77077, USA, e-mail bsc@issci.com Abstract: Stronger growth in many plants stimulated by increased CO 2 concentration should lead to greater biological productivity with an expected increase in the photosynthetic storage of carbon. Thus, the biosphere will serve as a sink for CO 2 , though it will also act as a source too, because of respiration. Normally net photosynthesis dominates in summer and

237

Solubilities of phenols in supercritical carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Equilibrium solubilities of pure anthracene at 50 C, 1-naphthol at 35, 45, and 55 C, and hydroquinone at 35 and 45 C in supercritical carbon dioxide over a pressure range of about 85--300 bar have been measured using a supercritical fluid extractor coupled with an external high-pressure liquid chromatographer. The solubility results, along with those for other phenols reported in the literature, are correlated with the translated-modified Peng Robinson equation of state.

Coutsikos, P.; Magoulas, K.; Tassios, D. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Carburization of austenitic alloys by gaseous impurities in helium  

SciTech Connect

The carburization behavior of Alloy 800H, Inconel Alloy 617 and Hastelloy Alloy X in helium containing various amounts of H/sub 2/, CO, CH/sub 4/, H/sub 2/O and CO/sub 2/ was studied. Corrosion tests were conducted in a temperature range from 649 to 1000/sup 0/C (1200 to 1832/sup 0/F) for exposure time up to 10,000 h. Four different helium environments, identified as A, B, C, and D, were investigated. Concentrations of gaseous impurities were 1500 ..mu..atm H/sub 2/, 450 ..mu..atm CO, 50 ..mu..atm CH/sub 4/ and 50 ..mu..atm H/sub 2/O for Environment A; 200 ..mu..atm H/sub 2/, 100 ..mu..atm CO, 20 ..mu..atm CH/sub 4/, 50 ..mu..atm H/sub 2/O and 5 ..mu..atm CO/sub 2/ for Environment B; 500 ..mu..atm H/sub 2/, 50 ..mu..atm CO, 50 ..mu..atm CH/sub 4/ and < 0.5 ..mu..atm H/sub 2/O for Environment C; and 500 ..mu..atm H/sub 2/, 50 ..mu..atm CO, 50 ..mu..atm CH/sub 4/ and 1.5 ..mu..atm H/sub 2/O for Environment D. Environments A and B were characteristic of high-oxygen potential, while C and D were characteristic of low-oxygen potential. The results showed that the carburization kinetics in low-oxygen potential environments (C and D) were significantly higher, approximately an order of magnitude higher at high temperatures, than those in high-oxygen potential environments (A and B) for all three alloys. Thermodynamic analyses indicated no significant differences in the thermodynamic carburization potential between low- and high-oxygen potential environments. It is thus believed that the enhanced carburization kinetics observed in the low-oxygen potential environments were related to kinetic effects. A qualitatively mechanistic model was proposed to explain the enhanced kinetics. The present results further suggest that controlling the oxygen potential of the service environment can be an effective means of reducing carburization of alloys.

Lai, G.Y.; Johnson, W.R.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY. IV. HELIUM AND CARBON RECOMBINATION LINES  

SciTech Connect

The Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS) found hundreds of previously unknown Galactic regions of massive star formation by detecting hydrogen radio recombination line (RRL) emission from candidate H II region targets. Since the HRDS nebulae lie at large distances from the Sun, they are located in previously unprobed zones of the Galactic disk. Here, we derive the properties of helium and carbon RRL emission from HRDS nebulae. Our target sample is the subset of the HRDS that has visible helium or carbon RRLs. This criterion gives a total of 84 velocity components (14% of the HRDS) with helium emission and 52 (9%) with carbon emission. For our highest quality sources, the average {sup 4}He{sup +}/H{sup +} abundance ratio by number, (y {sup +}), is 0.068 {+-} 0.023(1{sigma}). This is the same ratio as that measured for the sample of previously known Galactic H II regions. Nebulae without detected helium emission give robust y {sup +} upper limits. There are 5 RRL emission components with y {sup +} less than 0.04 and another 12 with upper limits below this value. These H II regions must have either a very low {sup 4}He abundance or contain a significant amount of neutral helium. The HRDS has 20 nebulae with carbon RRL emission but no helium emission at its sensitivity level. There is no correlation between the carbon RRL parameters and the 8 {mu}m mid-infrared morphology of these nebulae.

Wenger, Trey V.; Bania, T. M. [Astronomy Department, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)] [Astronomy Department, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Balser, Dana S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA, 22903-2475 (United States)] [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA, 22903-2475 (United States); Anderson, L. D. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)] [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

2013-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

240

Theory and modelling of helium enrichment in plasma experiments with pump limiters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Helium enrichment in the exhaust gas stream flowing from a hydrogen-helium plasma is studied using an analytical theory and Monte Carlo simulations. To provide a sensitive experimental test in a tokamak, an unusual configuration, inverted from traditional designs, is proposed for a pump limiter. The principle can be tested in other plasma devices as well. The theory suggests that for typical plasma edge conditions in a confinement device, namely, n = 10/sup 13/cm/sup -3/ and T/sub i/ = T/sub e/ approx. = 5-30eV, helium enrichment in the neutral gas exhaust stream can be very high, in the range 5 to 7, relative to the helium-hydrogen ratio in the plasma. Such high enrichment factors are achieved by exploiting the difference between the ionization rates of hydrogen and helium and the negligible helium charge exchange rate at these plasma conditions. A limiter arrangement is proposed in which the natural curvature of the toroidal magnetic field is used to isolate, using the plasma itself, the point of plasma neutralization from the location of the gas exhaust. The plasma region then acts to preferentially screen the recycling hydrogen by the processes of ionization and of charge-exchange-induced losses at open boundaries. The theory and analysis suggests that an experiment can provide a sensitive test of modules used to describe the plasma edge and of atomic and surface physics data used in these models.

Prinja, A.K.; Conn, R.W.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tion-carbon dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Conditions For Successful Helium Detonations In Astrophysical Environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Several models for type Ia-like supernovae events rely on the production of a self-sustained detonation powered by nuclear reactions.In the absence of hydrogen, the fuel that powers these detonations typically consists of either pure helium (He) or a mixture of carbon and oxygen (C/O). Studies that systematically determine the conditions required to initiate detonations in C/O material exist, but until now no analogous investigation of degenerate He matter has been conducted. We perform one-dimensional reactive hydrodynamical simulations at a variety of initial density and temperature combinations and find critical length scales for the initiation of He detonations that range between 1 -- $10^{10}$ cm. These sizes are consistently smaller than the corresponding Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) length scales by a factor of ~100, providing opportunities for thermonuclear explosions in a wider range of low mass white dwarfs (WDs) than previously thought possible. We find that virialized WDs with as little mass as 0.24 $M_\\o...

Holcomb, Cole; De Colle, Fabio; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Once-ionized helium in superstrong magnetic fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is generally believed that magnetic fields of some neutron stars, the so-called magnetars, are enormously strong, up to 10^{14} - 10^{15} G. Recent investigations have shown that the atmospheres of magnetars are possibly composed of helium. We calculate the structure and bound-bound radiative transitions of the He^+ ion in superstrong fields, including the effects caused by the coupling of the ion's internal degrees of freedom to its center-of-mass motion. We show that He^+ in superstrong magnetic fields can produce spectral lines with energies of up to about 3 keV, and it may be responsible for absorption features detected recently in the soft X-ray spectra of several radio-quiet isolated neutron stars. Quantization of the ion's motion across a magnetic field results in a fine structure of spectral lines, with a typical spacing of tens electron-volts in magnetar-scale fields. It also gives rise to ion cyclotron transitions, whose energies and oscillator strengths depend on the state of the bound ion.

George G. Pavlov; Victor G. Bezchastnov

2005-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

243

USE OF THE MODULAR HELIUM REACTOR FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

OAK-B135 A significant ''Hydrogen Economy'' is predicted that will reduce our dependence on petroleum imports and reduce pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels, but contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels. The author has recently completed a three-year project for the US Department of Energy (DOE) whose objective was to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source''. Thermochemical water-slitting, a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen, met this objective. The goal of the first phase of this study was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen, and to select one for further detailed consideration. They selected the Sulfur-Iodine cycle. In the second phase, they reviewed all the basic reactor types for suitability to provide the high temperature heat needed by the selected thermochemical water splitting cycle and chose the helium gas-cooled reactor. In the third phase they designed the chemical flowsheet for the thermochemical process and estimated the efficiency and cost of the process and the projected cost of producing hydrogen. These results are summarized in this report.

SCHULTZ,KR

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Helium Behavior in Oxide Nuclear Fuels: First Principles Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

UO2 and (U, Pu)O2 solid solutions (the so-called MOX) nowadays are used as commercial nuclear fuels in many countries. One of the safety issues during the storage of these fuels is related to their self-irradiation that produces and accumulates point defects and helium therein. We present density functional theory (DFT) calculations for UO2, PuO2 and MOX containing He atoms in octahedral interstitial positions. In particular, we calculated basic MOX properties and He incorporation energies as functions of Pu concentration within the spin-polarized, generalized gradient approximation (GGA) DFT calculations. We also included the on-site electron correlation corrections using the Hubbard model (in the framework of the so-called DFT + U approach). We found that PuO2 remains semiconducting with He in the octahedral position while UO2 requires a specific lattice distortion. Both materials reveal a positive energy for He incorporation, which, therefore, is an exothermic process. The He incorporation energy increases with the Pu concentration in the MOX fuel.

Gryaznov, D.; Rashkeev, Sergey N.; Kotomin, E. A.; Heifets, Eugene; Zhukovskii, Yuri F.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ozawa Meida. 2001. “Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Globalpost-combustion capture of carbon dioxide. ” InternationalIPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage:

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Improving Repository Performance by Using DU Dioxide Fill  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DU Dioxide Fill DU Dioxide Fill Improving Repository Performance by Using DU Dioxide Fill Fills may improve repository performance by acting as sacrificial materials, which delay the degradation of SNF uranium dioxide. Because fill and SNF have the same chemical form of uranium (uranium dioxide), the DU dioxide in a repository is the only fill which has the same behavior as that of the SNF. In the natural environment, some uranium ore deposits have remained intact for very long periods of time. The outer parts of the ore deposit degrade while the inner parts of the deposit are protected. The same approach is proposed herein for protecting SNF. The application could use half or more of the DU inventory in the United States. Behavior of Uranium and Potential Behavior of a Waste Package with SNF and Fill

247

Building Technologies Office: Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nano-Enabled Titanium Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color Roofing Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color Roofing Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color Roofing Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color Roofing Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color Roofing Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide

248

EA-1336: Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

336: Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment, 336: Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania EA-1336: Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's proposal to participate with a group of international organizations in an experiment to evaluate the dispersion and diffusion of liquid carbon dioxide droplets in ocean waters. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD May 4, 2001 EA-1336: Finding of No Significant Impact Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment May 4, 2001 EA-1336: Final Environmental Assessment Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment

249

Method of immobilizing carbon dioxide from gas streams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a method for rapidly and continuously immobilizing carbon dioxide contained in various industrial off-gas streams, the carbon dioxide being immobilized as dry, stable, and substantially water-insoluble particulates. Briefly, the method comprises passing the gas stream through a fixed or fluidized bed of hydrated barium hydroxide to remove and immobilize the carbon dioxide by converting the bed to barium carbonate. The method has several important advantages: it can be conducted effectively at ambient temperature; it provides a very rapid reaction rate over a wide range of carbon dioxide concentrations; it provides high decontamination factors; and it has a high capacity for carbon dioxide. The invention is especially well suited for the removal of radioactive carbon dioxide from off-gases generated by nuclear-fuel reprocessing facilities and nuclear power plants.

Holladay, David W. (Knoxville, TN); Haag, Gary L. (Oliver Springs, TN)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Background Although alkanolamine solvents, such as monoethanolamine (MEA), and solvent blends have been developed as commercially-viable options for the absorption of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from waste gases, natural gas, and hydrogen streams, further process improvements are required to cost-effectively capture CO 2 from power plant flue gas. The promotion of potassium carbonate (K

251

Organoclay Sorbent for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas ...  

Organoclay Sorbent for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas ... required for sequestration, an area of research identified as a high priority

252

Segregation of Ru to Edge Dislocations in Uranium Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Segregation of Ru to Edge Dislocations in Uranium Dioxide. Author(s), Anuj Goyal, Bowen Deng, Minki Hong, Aleksandr Chernatynskiy, ...

253

Carbon Ion Pump for Carbon Dioxide Removal - Energy Innovation ...  

coal fired power plants; oil or gas fired power plants; cement production; bio-fuel combustion; Separation of carbon dioxide from other combustion ...

254

Geomechanical risks in coal bed carbon dioxide sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SAF. 1958. The strength of coal in triaxial compression.Geomechanical Risks in Coal Bed Carbon Dioxide Sequestrationof leakage of CO 2 from coal bed sequestration projects. The

Myer, Larry R.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Figure 18. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions in three ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 18. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions in three cases, 2005-2040 (million metric tons) Extended Policies No Sunset

256

Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained in the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oceanographic Institution Woods Hole, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Prepared by Alexander Kozyr Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge,...

257

Dissociation of carbon dioxide in atmospheric pressure microchannel plasma devices.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Plasma discharge of carbon dioxide at atmospheric pressure was successfully demonstrated in microchannel plasma devices at breakdown voltages lower than 1 kVRMS. Optical emissions of… (more)

Oh, Taegon

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hole Oceanographic Institution Woods Hole, Massachusetts Prepared by Alexander Kozyr Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge,...

259

Benchmark Results for TraPPE Carbon Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Benchmark results for TraPPE Carbon Dioxide. The purpose of these pages is to provide some explicit results from Monte ...

2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

260

Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

**Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla, California Prepared by Alexander Kozyr*** Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tion-carbon dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Development of Geologic Storage Estimates for Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Storage Estimates for Carbon Dioxide Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Carbon Storage Program September 2010 Summary of the...

262

Synchrotron X-ray Studies of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide/ Reservoir...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Synchrotron X-ray Studies of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock Interfaces Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to:...

263

Average prices for spot sulfur dioxide emissions allowances at ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The weighted average spot price for sulfur dioxide (SO 2) emissions allowances awarded to winning bidders at Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) annual auction on ...

264

The Structure of Uranium Dioxide Grain Boundaries and its ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The atomic structures of symmetric ?5 tilt, ?5 twist, and amorphous grain boundaries in uranium dioxide are explored in this work using empirical potentials and ...

265

Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion ...  

Biomass and Biofuels; Building Energy Efficiency; ... Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures United States Patent ...

266

EA-1846: Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

46: Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration of Steam Methane Reforming Process Gas Used for Large-Scale Hydrogen Production, Port Arthur, Texas EA-1846:...

267

Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Marine Environmental Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. Prepared by Alexander Kozyr1 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis...

268

Bulk separation of carbon dioxide from natural gas  

SciTech Connect

In the bulk separation of carbon dioxide from feedstocks containing same in admixture with relatively nonsorbable gases using a zeolitic molecular sieve to adsorb selectively the carbon dioxide, higher product purity is attained by terminating the adsorption stroke using the feedstock while the bed still has capacity to adsorb more carbon dioxide at the same conditions, then purging the void space hydrocarbons from the bed using product carbon dioxide at a high partial pressure, and finally desorbing the bed by pressure reduction. (3 claims)

Collins, J.J.

1973-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

269

Historical Carbon Dioxide Record from the Vostok Ice Core  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vostok Ice Core Historical Carbon Dioxide Record from the Vostok Ice Core graphics Graphics data Data Investigators J.-M. Barnola, D. Raynaud, C. Lorius Laboratoire de Glaciologie...

270

Historical Carbon Dioxide Record from the Siple Station Ice Core  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Siple Station Ice Core Historical Carbon Dioxide Record from the Siple Station Ice Core graphics Graphics data Data Investigators A. Neftel, H. Friedli, E. Moor, H. Ltscher, H....

271

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Record from Flask Measurements at...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Island Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Record from Flask Measurements at Lampedusa Island graphics Graphics data Data Investigators Paolo Chamard, Luigi Ciattaglia, Alcide di Sarra,...

272

Polyaniline-Based Membranes for Separating Carbon Dioxide and Methane  

Berkeley Lab researchers have optimized polymer membrane technology to more efficiently remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from natural gas. The invention ...

273

Available Technologies: Carbon Dioxide Capture at a Reduced Cost  

Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed a method that reduces the expense of capturing carbon dioxide generated by the combustion of fossil fuels. This technology ...

274

Carbon Dioxide Capture at a Reduced Cost - Energy Innovation ...  

Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed a method that reduces the expense of capturing carbon dioxide generated by the combustion of fossil fuels. This technology ...

275

Amine Enriched Solid Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capture Opportunity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laboratory is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 6,547,854 entitled "Amine Enriched Solid Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capture."...

276

EPA's Proposed Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule for Carbon Dioxide...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EPA's Proposed Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule for Carbon Dioxide Injection and Geologic Sequestration Mark de Figueiredo U.S. Environmental Protection Agency RCSP Annual Review...

277

Louisiana Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Act (Louisiana...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

industrial, or other uses, including the use of carbon dioxide for enhanced recovery of oil and gas. The mandates a coordinated statewide program related to the storage...

278

Hartree-Fock calculations for the photoionisation of helium and helium-like ions in neutron star magnetic fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive the photoionisation cross section in dipole approximation for many-electron atoms and ions for neutron star magnetic field strengths in the range of 10^7 to 10^9 T. Both bound and continuum states are treated in adiabatic approximation in a self-consistent way. Bound states are calculated by solving the Hartree-Fock-Roothaan equations using finite-element and B-spline techniques while the continuum orbital is calculated by direct integration of the Hartree-Fock equations in the mean-field potential of the remaining bound orbitals. We take into account mass and photon density in the neutron star's atmosphere as well as thermal occupation of the levels. The data are of importance for the quantitative interpretation of observed x-ray spectra that originate from the thermal emission of isolated neutron stars. They can serve as input for modeling neutron star atmospheres as regards chemical composition, magnetic field strength, temperature, and redshift. Our main focus in this paper lies on helium, heliu...

Kersting, Thorsten; Diemand, Peter; Wunner, Günter

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

D0 Silicon Upgrade: Commissioning Test Results for D-Zero's Helium Refrigerator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The test objectives are: (1) Make liquid helium and measure refrigerator capacity; (2) Measure liquid helium dewar heat leak, transfer line heat leak, and liquid nitrogen consumption rates; (3) Operate all cryogenic transfer lines; (4) Get some running time on all components; (5) Debug mechanical components, instrumentation, DMACs user interface, tune loops, and otherwise shake out any problems; (6) Get some operating time in to get familiar with system behavior; (7) Revise and/or improve operating procedures to actual practice; and (8) Identify areas for future improvement. D-Zero's stand alone helium refrigerator (STAR) liquified helium at a rate of 114 L/hr. This is consistent with other STAR installations. Refrigeration capacity was not measured due to lack of a calibrated heat load. Measured heat leaks were within design values. The helium dewar loss was measured at 2 to 4 watts or 9% per day, the solenoid and VLPC helium transfer lines had a heat leak of about 20 watts each. The liquid nitrogen consumption rates of the mobile purifier, STAR, and LN2 subcooler were measured at 20 gph, 20 to 64 gph, and 3 gph respectively. All cryogenic transfer lines including the solenoid and visible light photon counter (VLPC) transfer lines were cooled to their cryogenic operating temperatures. This included independent cooling of nitrogen shields and liquid helium components. No major problems were observed. The system ran quite well. Many problems were identified and corrected as they came up. Areas for improvement were noted and will be implemented in the future. The instrumentation and control system operated commendably during the test. The commissioning test run was a worthwhile and successful venture.

Rucinski, Russ; /Fermilab

1997-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

280

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide from the post-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-intensive and would lower the thermal efficiency of coal gasification power plants. Selective separation membrane from the post- combustion flue gas of a steam-electric power plant or from the synthesis gas fuel of a coal gasification power plant. The separated carbon dioxide can be compressed and transported

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tion-carbon dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Method for Extracting and Sequestering Carbon Dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO2 from a gaseous environment.

Rau, Gregory H.; Caldeira, Kenneth G.

2005-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

282

ALTERNATIVES TO HELIUM-3 FOR NEUTRON MULTIPLICITY DETECTORS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Collaboration between the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is underway to evaluate neutron detection technologies that might replace the high-pressure helium (3He) tubes currently used in neutron multiplicity counter for safeguards applications. The current stockpile of 3He is diminishing and alternatives are needed for a variety of neutron detection applications including multiplicity counters. The first phase of this investigation uses a series of Monte Carlo calculations to simulate the performance of an existing neutron multiplicity counter configuration by replacing the 3He tubes in a model for that counter with candidate alternative technologies. These alternative technologies are initially placed in approximately the same configuration as the 3He tubes to establish a reference level of performance against the 3He-based system. After these reference-level results are established, the configurations of the alternative models will be further modified for performance optimization. The 3He model for these simulations is the one used by LANL to develop and benchmark the Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC) detector, as documented by H.O. Menlove, et al. in the 2004 LANL report LA-14088. The alternative technologies being evaluated are the boron-tri-fluoride-filled proportional tubes, boron-lined tubes, and lithium coated materials previously tested as possible replacements in portal monitor screening applications, as documented by R.T. Kouzes, et al. in the 2010 PNNL report PNNL-72544 and NIM A 623 (2010) 1035–1045. The models and methods used for these comparative calculations will be described and preliminary results shown

Ely, James H.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

283

Helium-cooled molten-salt fusion breeder  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a new conceptual design for a fusion reactor blanket that is intended to produce fissile material for fission power plants. Fast fission is suppressed by using beryllium instead of uranium to multiply neutrons. Thermal fission is suppressed by minimizing the fissile inventory. The molten-salt breeding medium (LiF + BeF/sub 2/ + ThF/sub 4/) is circulated through the blanket and to the on-line processing system where /sup 233/U and tritium are continuously removed. Helium cools the blanket and the austenitic steel tubes that contain the molten salt. Austenitic steel was chosen because of its ease of fabrication, adequate radiation-damage lifetime, and low corrosion by molten salt. We estimate that a breeder having 3000 MW of fusion power will produce 6500 kg of /sup 233/U per year. This amount is enough to provide makeup for 20 GWe of light-water reactors per year or twice that many high-temperature gas-cooled reactors or Canadian heavy-water reactors. Safety is enhanced because the afterheat is low and blanket materials do not react with air or water. The fusion breeder based on a pre-MARS tandem mirror is estimated to cost $4.9B or 2.35 times a light-water reactor of the same power. The estimated cost of the /sup 233/U produced is $40/g for fusion plants costing 2.35 times that of a light-water reactor if utility owned or $16/g if government owned.

Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Fulton, F.J.; Huegel, F.; Neef, W.S. Jr.; Sherwood, A.E.; Berwald, D.H.; Whitley, R.H.; Wong, C.P.C.; Devan, J.H.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Hydrogen and helium traces in type Ib-c supernovae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The spectroscopic properties of a selected optical photospheric spectra of core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are investigated.Special attention is devoted to traces of hydrogen at early phases. The generated spectra are found to match the observed ones reasonably well, including a list of only 23 candidate ions. Guided by SN Ib 1990I, the observed trough near 6300\\AA is attributed to H$\\alpha$ in almost all Type Ib events, although in some objects it becomes too weak to be discernible, especially at later phases. Alternative line identifications are discussed. Differences in the way hydrogen manifests its presence within CCSNe are highlighted. In Type Ib SNe, the H$\\alpha$ contrast velocity (i.e. line velocity minus the photospheric velocity) seems to increase with time at early epochs, reaching values as high as 8000 km s$^{-1}$ around 15-20 days after maximum and then remains almost constant. The derived photospheric velocities, indicate a lower velocity for Type II SNe 1987A and 1999em as compared to SN Ic 1994I and SN IIb 1993J, while Type Ib events display a somewhat larger variation. The scatter, around day 20, is measured to be $\\sim$5000 km s$^{-1}$. Following two simple approaches, rough estimates of ejecta and hydrogen masses are given. A mass of hydrogen of approximately 0.02 $M_\\odot$ is obtained for SN 1990I, while SNe 1983N and 2000H ejected $\\sim$0.008 $M_\\odot$ and $\\sim$0.08 $M_\\odot$ of hydrogen, respectively. SN 1993J has a higher hydrogen mass, $\\sim 0.7$ $M_\\odot$ with a large uncertainty. A low mass and thin hydrogen layer with very high ejection velocities above the helium shell, is thus the most likely scenario for Type Ib SNe. Some interesting and curious issues relating to oxygen lines suggest future investigations.

A. Elmhamdi; I. J. Danziger; D. Branch; B. Leibundgut; E. Baron; R. P. Kirshner

2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

285

China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2010. ” AugustChina’s Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in ManufacturingChina’s Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing

Lu, Hongyou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Structural and electronic studies of complexes relevant to the electrocatalyic reduction of carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1981) Facile reduction of carbon dioxide by anionic Group 6bReduction of Carbon Dioxide on Mercury Electrode.in Reduction of Carbon-Dioxide. J. Chem. Soc. -Chem.

Benson, Eric Edward

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Pressure buildup during supercritical carbon dioxide injection from a partially penetrating borehole into gas reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

interface solution for carbon dioxide injection into porousJ.E. Fluid Dynamics of Carbon Dioxide Disposal into SalineGeologic storage of carbon dioxide as a climate change

Mukhopadhyay, S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Application of gaseous disinfectants ozone and chlorine dioxide for inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An assessment of ozone and chlorine dioxide for treatment ofAston, R. ; Synan, J. , “Chlorine dioxide as a bactericide62, 80. 14. Keane, T. , “ Chlorine dioxide – why all the

Aydogan, Ahmet

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Lessons Learned from Natural and Industrial Analogues for Storage of Carbon Dioxide in Deep Geological Formations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and E.R. Slatick, Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal,oxygen-deficiency is a factor. CARBON DIOXIDE - CO 2 MSDS (Carbon Dioxide will be reached before oxygen-deficiency is a factor.

Benson, Sally M.; Hepple, Robert; Apps, John; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Lippmann, Marcelo

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Assessment of Embrittlement of VHTR Structural Alloys in Impure Helium Environments  

SciTech Connect

The helium coolant in high-temperature reactors inevitably contains low levels of impurities during steady-state operation, primarily consisting of small amounts of H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} from a variety of sources in the reactor circuit. These impurities are problematic because they can cause significant long-term corrosion in the structural alloys used in the heat exchangers at elevated temperatures. Currently, the primary candidate materials for intermediate heat exchangers are Alloy 617, Haynes 230, Alloy 800H, and Hastelloy X. This project will evaluate the role of impurities in helium coolant on the stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack growth in candidate alloys at elevated temperatures. The project team will: • Evaluate stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack initiation and crack growth in the temperature range of 500-850°C in a prototypical helium environment. • Evaluate the effects of oxygen partial pressure on stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack growth in impure helium at 500°C, 700°C, and 850°C respectively. • Characterize the microstructure of candidate alloys after long-term exposure to an impure helium environment in order to understand the correlation between stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation, creep crack growth, material composition, and impurities in the helium coolant. • Evaluate grain boundary engineering as a method to mitigate stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack growth of candidate alloys in impure helium. The maximum primary helium coolant temperature in the high-temperature reactor is expected to be 850-1,000°C.Corrosion may involve oxidation, carburization, or decarburization mechanisms depending on the temperature, oxygen partial pressure, carbon activity, and alloy composition. These corrosion reactions can substantially affect long-term mechanical properties such as crack- growth rate and fracture toughness, creep rupture, and fatigue. Although there are some studies on the effects of impurities in helium coolant on creep rupture and fatigue strength, very little is known about their effects on creep crack initiation and crack growth rate at elevated temperatures.

Crone, Wendy; Cao, Guoping; Sridhara, Kumar

2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

291

Estimation of tritium and helium inventory in the tritium handling system in Korea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Korea, the Wolsong Tritium Removal Facility (WTRF) is under construction to reduce the amount of tritium present in the moderator and coolant of the CANDU type Wolsong nuclear power plants. Recently, a study on the tritium handling system for recovery of the tritium collected from the WTRF was started. Some tritium would enter the steel of the container walls and subsequently decay to helium. This helium can deteriorate the mechanical properties of the material of the tritium handling system. To evaluate the tritium and helium inventory in the stainless steel wall of this system, the time-dependent diffusion equation was developed, solved and the results are presented in this paper. These results were compared to previous work that evaluated the tritium inventory in the stainless steel wall of 50-L tritium containers. Tritium and helium concentration profiles and the corresponding inventories were evaluated with respect to the various parameters such as exposure time, temperature, and partial pressure. After 24 years, the helium inventory in the wall of the tritium handling system exceeds the tritium inventory. (authors)

Yook, D.; Lee, S.; Lee, K. [Dept. of Nuclear Eng., KAIST, 373-1, Kusong-dong, Yusong-gu, Daejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Song, K. M.; Shon, S. H. [KEPRI, 103-16 Munji-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, 305-380 (Korea, Republic of)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

292

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2009-Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2009 Chapter 8 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2006, non-OECD energy-related emissions of carbon dioxide exceeded OECD emissions by 14 percent. In 2030, energy-related carbon dioxide emissions from the non-OECD countries are projected to exceed those from the OECD countries by 77 percent. Figure 80. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2006-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 81. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 82. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel in IEO2008 and IEO2009, 2006, 2015, and 2030 (billion metric tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

293

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration with Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Gypsum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbonation of industrial alkaline residues can be used as a CO2 sequestration technology to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. In this study, alkaline Ca-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum samples were carbonated to a varying extent. These materials ... Keywords: FGD gypsum, carbonation, carbon dioxide

Hongqi Wang; Ningning Sun; Rona J. Donahoe

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

A monitoring and diagnostic expert system for carbon dioxide capture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The research objective is to design and construct a knowledge-based decision support system for monitoring, control and diagnosis of the carbon dioxide capture process, which is a complicated task involving manipulation of sixteen components and their ... Keywords: Carbon dioxide capture, Diagnosis, Knowledge-based decision support system, Monitoring

Q. Zhou; C. W. Chan; P. Tontiwachiwuthikul

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

Magdalena Pelc; Radoslaw Osuch

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

296

Analysis of data for the carbon dioxide capture domain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To tackle the global concern for adverse impact of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the post combustion carbon dioxide (CO"2) capture technology is commonly adopted for reducing industrial CO"2 emissions, for example, from power generation plants. The ... Keywords: Carbon dioxide capture, Data modeling, Expert validation, Neural networks, Sensitivity analysis

Yuxiang Wu; Christine W. Chan

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PNNL-14537 Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results S.J. Smith E;PNNL-14537 Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results PNNL Research Report Joint Global Change Research Institute 8400 Baltimore Avenue College Park, Maryland 20740 #12;PNNL-14537

Hultman, Nathan E.

298

Reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by mineral carbonation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study investigates the technologies that have the potential to provide feasible reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) from a reference power plant. Particular focus has been given to mineral carbonation (at 1 bar) in which magnesium (Mg) and/or ... Keywords: carbon dioxide, emissions, mineral carbonation

C. J. Sturgeon; M. G. Rasul; Ashfaque Ahmed Chowdhury

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Pages that link to "Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide Capture...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

icon Pages that link to "Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Power Generation" Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Power Generation...

300

Solar Thermo-Chemical Splitting of Carbon Dioxide by Metal Oxide ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Solar Thermo-Chemical Splitting of Carbon Dioxide by Metal ... which can split carbon dioxide as well as water molecules by abstracting ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tion-carbon dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Mechanistic Modeling of an Underbalanced Drilling Operation Utilizing Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Mechanistic modeling of an underbalanced drilling operation using carbon dioxide has been developed in this research. The use of carbon dioxide in an underbalanced drilling… (more)

ALAdwani, Faisal Abdullah

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

HELIUM SHELL DETONATIONS ON LOW-MASS WHITE DWARFS AS A POSSIBLE EXPLANATION FOR SN 2005E  

SciTech Connect

Recently, several Type Ib supernovae (SNe; with the prototypical SN 2005E) have been shown to have atypical properties. These SNe are faint (absolute peak magnitude of {approx} - 15) and fast SNe that show unique composition. They are inferred to have low ejecta mass (a few tenths of a solar mass) and to be highly enriched in calcium, but poor in silicon elements and nickel. These SNe were therefore suggested to belong to a new class of calcium-rich faint SNe explosions. Their properties were proposed to be the result of helium detonations that may occur on helium accreting white dwarfs. In this paper, we theoretically study the scenario of helium detonations and focus on the results of detonations in accreted helium layers on low-mass carbon-oxygen (CO) cores. We present new results from one-dimensional simulations of such explosions, including their light curves and spectra. We find that when the density of the helium layer is low enough the helium detonation produces large amounts of intermediate elements, such as calcium and titanium, together with a large amount of unburnt helium. Alternatively, enough carbon enrichment of the accreted helium as a result of convective undershoot at the early stages of the runaway can avoid the production of iron group elements as the alpha particles are consumed avoiding iron production. Our results suggest that the properties of calcium-rich faint SNe could indeed be consistent with the helium-detonation scenario on small CO cores. Above a certain density (larger CO cores) the detonation leaves mainly {sup 56}Ni and unburnt helium, and the predicted spectrum will unlikely fit the unique features of this class of SNe. Finally, none of our studied models reproduces the bright, fast-evolving light curves of another type of peculiar SNe suggested to originate in helium detonations (SNe 1885A, 1939B, and 2002bj).

Waldman, Roni; Livne, Eli; Glasner, Ami [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Sauer, Daniel [Stockholm University, Department for Astronomy, AlbaNova University Center, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Perets, Hagai [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mazzali, Paolo [Max-Planck Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Truran, James W. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Gal-Yam, Avishay [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Innovative Concepts for Beneficial Reuse of Carbon Dioxide | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Innovative Concepts for Beneficial Reuse of Carbon Dioxide Innovative Concepts for Beneficial Reuse of Carbon Dioxide Innovative Concepts for Beneficial Reuse of Carbon Dioxide Funding for 12 projects to test innovative concepts for the beneficial use of carbon dioxide (CO2) was announced by the U.S. Department of Energy. The awards are part of $1.4 billion in funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) for projects that will capture carbon dioxide from industrial sources. These 12 projects will engage in a first phase feasibility study that will examine beneficial uses in a variety of ways, including mineralization to carbonates directly through conversion of CO2 in flue gas; the use of CO2 from power plants or industrial applications to grow algae/biomass; and conversion of CO2 to fuels and chemicals. Each project will be subject to

304

Haverford Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Haverford College Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer August 1, 2012 | Tags: Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Chemistry, Hopper Rebecca Raber, rraber@haverford.edu, +1 610 896 1038 gtoc.jpg Carbon dioxide gas separation is important for many environmental and energy applications. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to characterize a two-dimensional hydrocarbon polymer, PG-ES1, that uses a combination of surface adsorption and narrow pores to separate carbon dioxide from nitrogen, oxygen, and methane gases. Image by Joshua Schrier, Haverford College. Carbon dioxide is the primary greenhouse gas emitted through human activities, such as the combustion of fossil fuels for energy and

305

Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emerging Technologies » Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Emerging Technologies » Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into carbon dioxide (CO2) heat pump water heaters. This project will employ innovative techniques to adapt water heating technology to meet U.S. market requirements, including specifications, cost, and performance targets. Carbon dioxide is a refrigerant with a global warming potential (GWP) of 1. The CO2 heat pump water heater research seeks to develop an improved life cycle climate performance compared to conventional refrigerants. For example, R134a, another type of refrigerant, has a GWP of 1,300. Project Description This project seeks to develop a CO2-based heat pump water heater (HPWH)

306

Microbial Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide and Subsequent Conversion to Methane  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide and Subsequent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide and Subsequent conversion to Methane By Nirupam Pal Associate Professor California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 Email : npal@calpoly.edu Phone : (805) 756-1355 INTRODUCTION The rising level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been of growing concern in recent years. The increasing levels of carbon dioxide, the most dominant component of greenhouse gases, contribute to global warming and changing global weather patterns which could potentially lead to catastrophic events that could threaten life in every form on this planet. The level of carbon dioxide in the worlds atmosphere has increased from about 280 ppm in 1850 to the current level of approximately 350 ppm. There are several natural sources and sinks of

307

DOE Report Assesses Potential for Carbon Dioxide Storage Beneath Federal  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Report Assesses Potential for Carbon Dioxide Storage Beneath Report Assesses Potential for Carbon Dioxide Storage Beneath Federal Lands DOE Report Assesses Potential for Carbon Dioxide Storage Beneath Federal Lands May 14, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - As a complementary document to the U.S. Department of Energy's Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada issued in November 2008, the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory has now released a report that provides an initial estimate of the potential to store carbon dioxide (CO2) underneath millions of acres of Federal lands. The report, Storage of Captured Carbon Dioxide Beneath Federal Lands, estimates and characterizes the storage potential that lies beneath some of the more than 400 million acres of Federal land available for lease.

308

Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides an amino-siloxane composition comprising at least one of structures I, II, III, IV or V said compositions being useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from gas streams such as power plant flue gases. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane compositions are provided. Also provided are methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide. The reaction of the amino-siloxane compositions provided by the present invention with carbon dioxide is reversible and thus, the method provides for multicycle use of said compositions.

Perry, Robert James (Niskayuna, NY); Lewis, Larry Neil (Scotia, NY); O' Brien, Michael Joseph (Clifton Park, NY); Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY); Kniajanski, Sergei (Clifton Park, NY); Lam, Tunchiao Hubert (Clifton Park, NY); Lee, Julia Lam (Niskayuna, NY); Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona (Ballston Spa, NY)

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

309

Neutron-induced dpa, transmutations, gas production, and helium embrittlement of fusion materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a fusion reactor materials will be subjected to significant fluxes of high-energy neutrons. As well as causing radiation damage, the neutrons also initiate nuclear reactions leading to changes in the chemical composition of materials (transmutation). Many of these reactions produce gases, particularly helium, which cause additional swelling and embrittlement of materials. This paper investigates, using a combination of neutron-transport and inventory calculations, the variation in displacements per atom (dpa) and helium production levels as a function of position within the high flux regions of a recent conceptual model for the "next-step" fusion device DEMO. Subsequently, the gas production rates are used to provide revised estimates, based on new density-functional-theory results, for the critical component lifetimes associated with the helium-induced grain-boundary embrittlement of materials. The revised estimates give more optimistic projections for the lifetimes of materials in a fusion power plant co...

Gilbert, M R; Nguyen-Manh, D; Zheng, S; Packer, L W; Sublet, J -Ch

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Flow Of Mantle Fluids Through The Ductile Lower Crust- Helium Isotope  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Of Mantle Fluids Through The Ductile Lower Crust- Helium Isotope Of Mantle Fluids Through The Ductile Lower Crust- Helium Isotope Trends Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Flow Of Mantle Fluids Through The Ductile Lower Crust- Helium Isotope Trends Details Activities (5) Areas (5) Regions (0) Abstract: Heat and mass are injected into the shallow crust when mantle fluids are able to flow through the ductile lower crust. Minimum He-3/He-4 ratios in surface fluids from the northern Basin and Range Province, western North America, increase systematically from low crustal values in the east to high mantle values in the west, a regional trend that correlates with the rates of active crustal deformation. The highest ratios occur where the extension and shear strain rates are greatest. The

311

Cooling Strings of Superconducting Devices below 2 K the Helium II Bayonet Heat Exchanger  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-energy particle accelerators and colliders contain long strings of superconducting devices - acceleration RF cavities and magnets - operating at high field, which may require cooling in helium II below 2 K. In order to maintain adequate operating conditions, the applied or generated heat loads must be extracted and transported with minimum temperature difference. Conventional cooling schemes based on conductive or convective heat transport in pressurized helium II very soon reach their intrinsic limits of thermal impedance over extended lengths. We present the concept of helium II bayonet heat exchanger, which has been developed at CERN for the magnet cooling scheme of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and describe its specific advantages as a slim, quasi-isothermal heat sink. Experimental results obtained on several test set-ups, and a prototype magnet string have permitted to validate its performance and sizing rules, for transporting linear heat loads in the W.m-1 range over distances of several tens o...

Lebrun, P; Tavian, L; Van Weelderen, R

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Preliminary Study on Utilization of Carbon Dioxide as a Coolant of High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor with MOX and Minor Actinides Fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) is an uranium oxide (UO2) fuel, graphite moderator and helium gas-cooled reactor with 30 MW in thermal output and outlet coolant temperature of 950 deg. C. Instead of using helium gas, we have utilized carbon dioxide as a coolant in the present study. Beside that, uranium and plutonium oxide (mixed oxide, MOX) and minor actinides have been employed as a new fuel type of HTTR. Utilization of plutonium and minor actinide is one of the support system to non-proliferation issue in the nuclear development. The enrichment for uranium oxide has been varied of 6-20% with plutonium and minor actinides concentration of 10%. In this study, burnup period is 1100 days. The reactor cell calculation was performed by using SRAC 2002 code, with nuclear data library was derived from JENDL3.2. Reactor core calculation was done by using CITATION module. The result shows that HTTR can achieve its criticality condition with 14% of {sup 235}U enrichment.

Fauzia, A. F.; Waris, A.; Novitrian [Bosscha Laboratory, Department of Physics, Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, INDONESIA Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

313

Helium and Hydrogen Release Measurements on Various Alloys Irradiated in SINQ  

SciTech Connect

Three irradiations have been performed in the Swiss Spallation Neutron Source (SINQ) to establish a materials database for mixed proton and neutron fluxes for future spallation neutron and other accelerator sources. Materials included in the second irradiation, STIP-II, included mainly austenitic and martensitic steels. Samples of 316LN, F82H, Al, and Zircaloy-2 from STIP ?II have been analyzed for their total helium and hydrogen contents and their release characteristics. In terms of total gas content, the helium and hydrogen results are similar to those observed earlier from STIP-I. Specifically, the helium contents tended to be somewhat higher (up to 50%) than calculated for both low and high dose samples. 3He/4He ratios were generally in agreement with expectations except for the Ziracaloy-2 which showed very low values, likely from increased 3He generation from decay of irradiation-generated tritium. Hydrogen contents on the other hand tended inversely with dose, suggesting increased hydrogen loss at the higher dose (and higher temperature) locations from diffusion. Hydrogen levels in the Zircaloy were considerably higher than expected ({approx}10,000 to 25,000 appm), suggesting additional pickup of hydrogen from the irradiation environment. Hydrogen levels in the aluminum were similar to predicted. Helium and hydrogen release measurements from the temperature ramp experiments showed considerable levels of deuterium and tritium species which generally mirrored those of hydrogen. Hydrogen release occurred from about 300 for the aluminum to about 800 C for the Zircaloy-2. For the Zircaloy-2 and the steels, helium release began to occur at about 1100 C, which is consistent with previous measurements on irradiated steels. For the aluminum, helium release began at just under 600 C.

Oliver, Brian M.; Dai, Yong; Causey, Rion A.

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

314

SOLAR WIND HELIUM ABUNDANCE AS A FUNCTION OF SPEED AND HELIOGRAPHIC LATITUDE: VARIATION THROUGH A SOLAR CYCLE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SOLAR WIND HELIUM ABUNDANCE AS A FUNCTION OF SPEED AND HELIOGRAPHIC LATITUDE: VARIATION THROUGH A SOLAR CYCLE Justin C. Kasper,1 Michael L. Stevens, and Alan J. Lazarus Kavli Institute for Astrophysics of the variation of the relative abundance of helium to hydrogen in the solar wind as a function of solar wind

Richardson, John

315

Experimental measurement methods and data on irradiation of functional design materials by helium ions in linear accelerator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The experimental research on the irradiation of the functional design materials by the Helium ions in the linear accelerator is conducted. The experimental measurements techniques and data on the irradiation of the functional design materials by the Helium ions with the energy up to 4 MeV, including the detailed scheme of experimental measurements setup, are presented. The new design of accelerating structure of the IH-type such as POS-4, using the method of alternate-phase focusing with the step-by-step change of the synchronous phase along the focusing periods in a linear accelerator, is developed with the aim to irradiate the functional design materials by the Helium ions. The new design of the injector of the charged Helium ions with the energy of 120 KeV at the output of an accelerating tube and the accelerating structure of the type of POS-4 for the one time charged Helium ions acceleration in the linear accelerator are researched and developed. The special chamber for the irradiation of functional design materials by the Helium ions is also created. In the process of experiment, the temperature of a sample, the magnitude of current of Helium ions beam and the irradiation dose of sample are measured precisely. The experimental measurement setup and techniques are fully tested and optimized in the course of the research on the electro-physical properties of irradiated samples and the thermal-desorption of Helium ions in a wide range of temperatures

R. A. Anokhin; V. N. Voyevodin; S. N. Dubnyuk; A. M. Egorov; B. V. Zaitsev; A. F. Kobets; O. P. Ledenyov; K. V. Pavliy; V. V. Ruzhitsky; G. D. Tolstolutskaya

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

316

Solutions for Liquid Nitrogen Pre-Cooling in Helium Refrigeration Cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pre-cooling of helium by means of liquid nitrogen is the oldest and one of the most common process features used in helium liquefiers and refrigerators. Its two principle tasks are to allow or increase the rate of pure liquefaction, and to permit the initial cool-down of large masses to about 80 K. Several arrangements for the pre-cooling process are possible depending on the desired application. Each arrangement has its proper advantages and drawbacks. The aim of this paper is to review the possible process solutions for liquid nitrogen pre-cooling and their particularities.

Wagner, U

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Detection and Imaging of He{sub 2} Molecules in Superfluid Helium  

SciTech Connect

We present data that show a cycling transition can be used to detect and image metastable He{sub 2} triplet molecules in superfluid helium. We demonstrate that limitations on the cycling efficiency due to the vibrational structure of the molecule can be mitigated by the use of repumping lasers. Images of the molecules obtained using the method are also shown. This technique gives rise to a new kind of ionizing radiation detector. The use of He{sub 2} triplet molecules as tracer particles in the superfluid promises to be a powerful tool for visualization of both quantum and classical turbulence in liquid helium.

Rellergert, W. G.; Cahn, S. B.; Garvan, A.; Hanson, J. C.; Lippincott, W. H.; Nikkel, J. A.; McKinsey, D. N. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

2008-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

318

Particle Detection in Superfluid Helium: R&D for Low Energy Solar Neutrinos  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents a summary of the results from R&D conducted as a feasibility study in the Department of Physics of Brown University for detection of low energy solar neutrinos utilizing a superfluid helium target. The report outlines the results in several areas: 1) development of experimental facilities, 2) energy deposition by electrons and alphas in superfluid helium, 3) development of wafer and metallic magnetic calorimeters, 4) background studies, 5) coded apertures and conceptual design, 6) Detection of single electrons and 7) a simulation of expected performance of a full scale device. Recommendations for possible future work are also presented. A bibliography of published papers and unpublished doctoral theses is included.

Lanou, Robert E., Jr.

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

319

Nanometer-scale tunnel formation in metallic glass by helium ion irradiation  

SciTech Connect

We have shown that upon high fluence helium ion irradiation, metallic glass Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 45}Ti{sub 5} becomes highly porous at the depth of the helium projected range. The resulting porous region is characterized by the formation of a tunnel like structure and self-linkage of nanometer size gas bubbles. Furthermore, the irradiation leads to the formation of nanometer size Cu{sub x}Zr{sub y} crystals that are randomly distributed. The results of this study indicate that the He-filled bubbles have attractive interactions and experience considerable mobility. Movement of the bubbles is believed to be assisted by ballistic collisions.

Shao Lin [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Gorman, Brian P. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Aitkaliyeva, Assel [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); David Theodore, N. [CHD-Fab, Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Chandler, Arizona 85224 (United States); Xie Guoqiang [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2012-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

320

High-temperature gas-cooled reactor helium compatibility studies: results of 10,000-hour exposure of selected alloys in simulated reactor helium  

SciTech Connect

Work on the HTGR Helium Compatibility Task accomplished during the period March 31, 1977 through September 30, 1979, is documented in this report. Emphasis is on the results and analyses of creep data to 10,000 h and the detailed metallurgical evaluations performed on candidate alloy specimens tested for up to 10,000 h. Long-term creep and unstressed aging data in controlled-impurity helium and in air at 800, 900, and 1000/sup 0/C are reported for alloys included in the program in FY-76, including the wrought solid-solution-strengthened alloys, Hastelloy X, Hastelloy S, RA 333, and HD 556, and the centrifugally cast austenitic alloys, HK 40, Supertherm, Manaurite 36X, Manaurite 36XS, and Manaurite 900.

Lechtenberg, T.A.; Stevenson, R.D.; Johnson, W.R.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tion-carbon dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geologic Coal Formations  

SciTech Connect

BP Corporation North America, Inc. (BP) currently operates a nitrogen enhanced recovery project for coal bed methane at the Tiffany Field in the San Juan Basin, Colorado. The project is the largest and most significant of its kind wherein gas is injected into a coal seam to recover methane by competitive adsorption and stripping. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and BP both recognize that this process also holds significant promise for the sequestration of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, while economically enhancing the recovery of methane from coal. BP proposes to conduct a CO2 injection pilot at the tiffany Field to assess CO2 sequestration potential in coal. For its part the INEEL will analyze information from this pilot with the intent to define the Co2 sequestration capacity of coal and its ultimate role in ameliorating the adverse effects of global warming on the nation and the world.

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

322

Coiled tubing drilling with supercritical carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for increasing the efficiency of drilling operations by using a drilling fluid material that exists as supercritical fluid or a dense gas at temperature and pressure conditions existing at a drill site. The material can be used to reduce mechanical drilling forces, to remove cuttings, or to jet erode a substrate. In one embodiment, carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) is used as the material for drilling within wells in the earth, where the normal temperature and pressure conditions cause CO.sub.2 to exist as a supercritical fluid. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) is preferably used with coiled tube (CT) drilling equipment. The very low viscosity SC--CO.sub.2 provides efficient cooling of the drill head, and efficient cuttings removal. Further, the diffusivity of SC--CO.sub.2 within the pores of petroleum formations is significantly higher than that of water, making jet erosion using SC--CO.sub.2 much more effective than water jet erosion. SC--CO.sub.2 jets can be used to assist mechanical drilling, for erosion drilling, or for scale removal. A choke manifold at the well head or mud cap drilling equipment can be used to control the pressure within the borehole, to ensure that the temperature and pressure conditions necessary for CO.sub.2 to exist as either a supercritical fluid or a dense gas occur at the drill site. Spent CO.sub.2 can be vented to the atmosphere, collected for reuse, or directed into the formation to aid in the recovery of petroleum.

Kolle , Jack J. (Seattle, WA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

Johnson, Richard (Shirley, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Model  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Description of the procedures for estimating carbon dioxide emissions in the Short-Term Energy Outlook

Information Center

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

326

The Role of Manganese Dioxide (MnO2) Deposition in Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the role of manganese dioxide (MnO2) in microbiologically influenced corrosion.

2004-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

327

First-principles calculations of the stability and incorporation of helium, xenon and krypton in uranium  

SciTech Connect

While metallic fuels have a long history of reactor use, their fundamental physical and thermodynamic properties are not well understood. Many metallic nuclear fuels are body-centered cubic alloys of uranium that swell under fission conditions, creating fission product gases such as helium, xenon and krypton. In this paper, helium, xenon, and krypton point defects are investigated in the a and ? phases of metallic uranium using first principles calculations. A density functional theory (DFT) framework is utilized with projector augmented-wave (PAW) pseudopotentials. Formation and incorporation energies of He, Xe, and Kr are calculated at various defect positions for the prediction of fission gas behavior in uranium. In most cases, defect energies follow a size effect, with helium incorporation and formation energies being the smallest. The most likely position for the larger Xe and Kr atoms in uranium is the substitutional site. Helium atoms are likely to be found in a wide variety of defect positions due to the comparable formation energies of all defect configurations analyzed. This is the first detailed study of the stability and incorporation of fission gases in uranium.

B. Beeler; B. Good; S. Rashkeev; M. Baskes; M. Okuniewski

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

A Concept for A Dark Matter Detector Using Liquid Helium-4  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct searches for light dark matter particles (mass $<10$ GeV) are especially challenging because of the low energies transferred in elastic scattering to typical heavy nuclear targets. We investigate the possibility of using liquid Helium-4 as a target material, taking advantage of the favorable kinematic matching of the Helium nucleus to light dark matter particles. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to calculate the charge, scintillation, and triplet helium molecule signals produced by recoil He ions, for a variety of energies and electric fields. We show that excellent background rejection can be achieved based on the ratios between different signal channels. We also present some concepts for a liquid-helium-based dark matter detector. Key to the proposed approach is the use of a large electric field to extract electrons from the event site, and the amplification of this charge signal, through proportional scintillation, liquid electroluminescence, or roton emission. The sensitivity of the proposed detector to light dark matter particles is estimated for various electric fields and light collection efficiencies.

Wei Guo; Daniel N. McKinsey

2013-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

329

Helium Adsorption in Silica Aerogel near the Liquid-Vapor Critical Point  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have investigated the adsorption and desorption of helium near its liquid-vapor critical point in silica aerogels with porosities between 95 % and 98%. We used a capacitive measurement technique which allowed us to probe the helium density inside the aerogel directly, even though the samples were surrounded by bulk helium. The aerogel’s very low thermal conductivity resulted in long equilibration times so we monitored the pressure and the helium density, both inside the aerogel and in the surrounding bulk, and waited at each point until all had stabilized. Our measurements were made at temperatures far from the critical point, where a well defined liquid-vapor interface exists, and at temperatures up to the bulk critical point. Hysteresis between adsorption and desorption isotherms persisted to temperatures close to the liquid-vapor critical point and there was no sign of an equilibrium liquid-vapor transition once the hysteresis disappeared. Many features of our isotherms can be described in terms of capillary condensation, although this picture becomes less applicable as the liquid-vapor critical point is approached and it is unclear how it can be applied to aerogels, whose tenuous structure includes a wide range of length scales. I.

Tobias Herman; James Day; John Beamish

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

A temperature-controlled device for volumetric measurements of Helium adsorption in porous  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a set-up for studying adsorption of helium in silica aerogels, where the adsorbed amount is easily- dation experiments and a first application to aerogels. This device is well adapted to study hysteresis, such as grafoil, carbon nanotubes, or silica glasses. The case of silica aerogels has attracted attention

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

331

Helium adsorption in silica aerogel near the liquid-vapor critical point  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have investigated the adsorption and desorption of helium near its liquid-vapor critical point in silica aerogels with porosities between 95% and 98%. We used a capacitive measurement technique which allowed us to probe the helium density inside the aerogel directly, even though the samples were surrounded by bulk helium. The aerogel's very low thermal conductivity resulted in long equilibration times so we monitored the pressure and the helium density, both inside the aerogel and in the surrounding bulk, and waited at each point until all had stabilized. Our measurements were made at temperatures far from the critical point, where a well defined liquid-vapor interface exists, and at temperatures up to the bulk critical point. Hysteresis between adsorption and desorption isotherms persisted to temperatures close to the liquid-vapor critical point and there was no sign of an equilibrium liquid-vapor transition once the hysteresis disappeared. Many features of our isotherms can be described in terms of capillary condensation, although this picture becomes less applicable as the liquid-vapor critical point is approached and it is unclear how it can be applied to aerogels, whose tenuous structure includes a wide range of length scales.

Tobias Herman; James Day; John Beamish

2005-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

332

Direct evidence of mismatching effect on H emission in laser-induced atmospheric helium gas plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A time-resolved orthogonal double pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with helium surrounding gas is developed for the explicit demonstration of time mismatch between the passage of fast moving impurity hydrogen atoms and the formation of thermal shock wave plasma generated by the relatively slow moving major host atoms of much greater masses ablated from the same sample. Although this so-called 'mismatching effect' has been consistently shown to be responsible for the gas pressure induced intensity diminution of hydrogen emission in a number of LIBS measurements using different ambient gases, its explicit demonstration has yet to be reported. The previously reported helium assisted excitation process has made possible the use of surrounding helium gas in our experimental set-up for showing that the ablated hydrogen atoms indeed move faster than the simultaneously ablated much heavier major host atoms as signaled by the earlier H emission in the helium plasma generated by a separate laser prior to the laser ablation. This conclusion is further substantiated by the observed dominant distribution of H atoms in the forward cone-shaped target plasma.

Zener Sukra Lie; Koo Hendrik Kurniawan [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); May On Tjia [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Physics of Magnetism and Photonics Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, 10 Ganesha, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Rinda, Hedwig [Department of Computer Engineering, Bina Nusantara University, 9 K.H. Syahdan, Jakarta 14810 (Indonesia); Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha [Research Center for Physics, Indonesia Institute of Sciences, Kawasan PUSPIPTEK, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15314, Banten (Indonesia); Syahrun Nur Abdulmadjid; Nasrullah Idris [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, NAD (Indonesia); Alion Mangasi Marpaung [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Jakarta State University, Rawamangun, Jakarta 12440 (Indonesia); Marincan Pardede [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Pelita Harapan, 1100 M.H. Thamrin Boulevard, Lippo Village, Tangerang 15811 (Indonesia); Jobiliong, Eric [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Pelita Harapan, 1100 M.H. Thamrin Boulevard, Lippo Village, Tangerang 15811 (Indonesia); Muliadi Ramli [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, NAD (Indonesia); Heri Suyanto [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University, Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Denpasar 80361, Bali (Indonesia); Fukumoto, Kenichi; Kagawa, Kiichiro [Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan)

2013-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

333

Electron-impact excitation-autoionization of helium in the S-wave limit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Excitation of the autoionizing states of helium by electron impact is shown in calculations in the s-wave limit to leave a clear signature in the singly differential cross section for the (e,2e) process. It is suggested that such behavior should be seen generally in (e,2e) experiments on atoms that measure the single differential cross section.

Horner, Daniel A.; McCurdy, C. William; Rescigno, Thomas N.

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

RECONCILING THE GALACTIC BULGE TURNOFF AGE DISCREPANCY WITH ENHANCED HELIUM ENRICHMENT  

SciTech Connect

We show that the factor {approx}2 discrepancy between spectroscopic and photometric age determinations of the Galactic bulge main-sequence turnoff can be naturally explained by positing an elevated helium enrichment for the bulge relative to that assumed by standard isochrones. Helium enhancement relative to standard isochrones is confirmed at the 2.3{sigma} level. We obtain an upper bound on the helium enrichment for the metal-rich ([Fe/H] Almost-Equal-To +0.30) stars of {Delta}Y Almost-Equal-To +0.11 relative to canonical expectations, given the requirement that the spectroscopic and photometric ages be consistent and the limiting condition of instantaneous star formation. We discuss phenomenological evidence that the bulge may have had a chemical evolution that is distinct from the solar neighborhood in this manner, and we make several testable predictions. Should this emerging picture of the bulge as helium-enhanced hold, it will require the development of new isochrones, new model atmospheres, and modified analysis and cosmological interpretation of the integrated light of other bulges and elliptical galaxies.

Nataf, David M.; Gould, Andrew P. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Helium, Iron and Electron Particle Transport and Energy Transport Studies on the TFTR Tokamak  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

Results from helium, iron, and electron transport on TFTR in L-mode and Supershot deuterium plasmas with the same toroidal field, plasma current, and neutral beam heating power are presented. They are compared to results from thermal transport analysis based on power balance. Particle diffusivities and thermal conductivities are radially hollow and larger than neoclassical values, except possibly near the magnetic axis. The ion channel dominates over the electron channel in both particle and thermal diffusion. A peaked helium profile, supported by inward convection that is stronger than predicted by neoclassical theory, is measured in the Supershot The helium profile shape is consistent with predictions from quasilinear electrostatic drift-wave theory. While the perturbative particle diffusion coefficients of all three species are similar in the Supershot, differences are found in the L-Mode. Quasilinear theory calculations of the ratios of impurity diffusivities are in good accord with measurements. Theory estimates indicate that the ion heat flux should be larger than the electron heat flux, consistent with power balance analysis. However, theoretical values of the ratio of the ion to electron heat flux can be more than a factor of three larger than experimental values. A correlation between helium diffusion and ion thermal transport is observed and has favorable implications for sustained ignition of a tokamak fusion reactor.

Synakowski, E. J.; Efthimion, P. C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B. C.; Tang, W. M.; Grek, B.; Hill, K. W.; Hulse, R. A.; Johnson, D .W.; Mansfield, D. K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Park, H. K.; Ramsey, A. T.; Redi, M. H.; Scott, S. D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M. C. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.); Kissick, M. W. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States))

1993-03-00T23:59:59.000Z

336

Neutron-induced dpa, transmutations, gas production, and helium embrittlement of fusion materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a fusion reactor materials will be subjected to significant fluxes of high-energy neutrons. As well as causing radiation damage, the neutrons also initiate nuclear reactions leading to changes in the chemical composition of materials (transmutation). Many of these reactions produce gases, particularly helium, which cause additional swelling and embrittlement of materials. This paper investigates, using a combination of neutron-transport and inventory calculations, the variation in displacements per atom (dpa) and helium production levels as a function of position within the high flux regions of a recent conceptual model for the "next-step" fusion device DEMO. Subsequently, the gas production rates are used to provide revised estimates, based on new density-functional-theory results, for the critical component lifetimes associated with the helium-induced grain-boundary embrittlement of materials. The revised estimates give more optimistic projections for the lifetimes of materials in a fusion power plant compared to a previous study, while at the same time indicating that helium embrittlement remains one of the most significant factors controlling the structural integrity of fusion power plant components.

M. R. Gilbert; S. L. Dudarev; D. Nguyen-Manh; S. Zheng; L. W. Packer; J. -Ch. Sublet

2013-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

337

Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

338

Depleted Uranium Dioxide as SNF Waste Package Fill: A Disposal...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DEPLETED URANIUM DIOXIDE AS SNF WASTE PACKAGE FILL: A DISPOSAL OPTION Charles W. Forsberg Oak Ridge National Laboratory * P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6179 Tel: (865)...

339

Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Demonstration in Developing Countries:  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Demonstration in Developing Countries: Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Demonstration in Developing Countries: Analysis of Key Policy Issues and Barriers Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Demonstration in Developing Countries: Analysis of Key Policy Issues and Barriers Focus Area: Clean Fossil Energy Topics: Potentials & Scenarios Website: cdn.globalccsinstitute.com/sites/default/files/publications/15536/carb Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/carbon-dioxide-capture-and-storage-de Policies: "Deployment Programs,Financial Incentives" is not in the list of possible values (Deployment Programs, Financial Incentives, Regulations) for this property. DeploymentPrograms: Technical Assistance This report discusses the value of carbon capture and storage (CCS)

340

New and Underutilized Technology: Carbon Dioxide Demand Ventilation Control  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Dioxide Demand Ventilation Carbon Dioxide Demand Ventilation Control New and Underutilized Technology: Carbon Dioxide Demand Ventilation Control October 4, 2013 - 4:23pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for carbon dioxide (CO2) demand ventilation control within the Federal sector. Benefits Demand ventilation control systems modulate ventilation levels based on current building occupancy, saving energy while still maintaining proper indoor air quality (IAQ). CO2 sensors are commonly used, but a multiple-parameter approach using total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), particulate matter (PM), formaldehyde, and relative humidity (RH) levels can also be used. CO2 sensors control the outside air damper to reduce the amount of outside air that needs to be conditioned and supplied to the building when

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341

Innovative Geothermal Startup Will Put Carbon Dioxide To Good Use |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Geothermal Startup Will Put Carbon Dioxide To Good Use Geothermal Startup Will Put Carbon Dioxide To Good Use Innovative Geothermal Startup Will Put Carbon Dioxide To Good Use March 17, 2011 - 2:09pm Addthis A basic overview of GreenFire's process to convert CO2 into electricity. | Photo courtesy of GreenFire. A basic overview of GreenFire's process to convert CO2 into electricity. | Photo courtesy of GreenFire. JoAnn Milliken What does this project do? GreenFire Energy will conduct the first field demonstration of a CO2-based geothermal system. Getting geothermal power with CO2 instead of water would be particularly beneficial in the arid Southwestern U.S., where water is scarce. Geothermal power holds enormous opportunities to provide affordable, clean energy that avoids greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2). That's

342

Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic Sources Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic Sources Agency/Company /Organization: United States Environmental Protection Agency Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Biomass, - Biomass Combustion, - Biomass Gasification, - Biomass Pyrolysis, - Biofuels, - Landfill Gas, - Waste to Energy, Greenhouse Gas Phase: Evaluate Options Resource Type: Publications, Guide/manual User Interface: Website Website: www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/biogenic_emissions.html Cost: Free References: EPA, 40 CFR Part 60[1] Tailoring Rule[2] Biogenic Emissions[3] The 'EPA Climate Change - Green House Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide

343

Annual Energy Outlook 2006 with Projections to 2030 - Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Carbon Dioxide Emissions Carbon Dioxide Emissions Annual Energy Outlook 2006 with Projections to 2030 Higher Energy Consumption Forecast Increases Carbon Dioxide Emissions Figure 107. Carbn dioxide emissions by sector and fuel, 2004 and 2030 (million metric tons). Having problems, call our National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800 for help. Figure data CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels are proportional to fuel consumption. Among fossil fuel types, coal has the highest carbon content, natural gas the lowest, and petroleum in between. In the AEO2006 reference case, the shares of these fuels change slightly from 2004 to 2030, with more coal and less petroleum and natural gas. The combined share of carbon-neutral renewable and nuclear energy is stable from 2004 to 2030 at

344

DOE Seeks Applications for Tracking Carbon Dioxide Storage in Geologic  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Applications for Tracking Carbon Dioxide Storage in Applications for Tracking Carbon Dioxide Storage in Geologic Formations DOE Seeks Applications for Tracking Carbon Dioxide Storage in Geologic Formations February 19, 2009 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) to enhance the capability to simulate, track, and evaluate the potential risks of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in geologic formations. Geologic storage is considered to be a key technological solution to mitigate CO2 emissions and combat climate change. DOE anticipates making multiple project awards under this FOA and, depending on fiscal year 2009 appropriations, may be able to provide up to $24 million to be distributed among selected recipients. This investment is

345

Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics May 20, 2013 - 1:31pm Addthis Novomer’s thermoplastic pellets incorporate waste CO2 into a variety of consumer products. Novomer's thermoplastic pellets incorporate waste CO2 into a variety of consumer products. Why is this important? By using CO2 that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere, the process has the potential to cut greenhouse gas emissions while simultaneously reducing petroleum consumption and producing useful products for American consumers. The world's first successful large-scale production of a polypropylene carbonate (PPC) polymer using waste carbon dioxide (CO2) as a key raw material has resulted from a projected funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy.

346

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration (West Virginia) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Dioxide Sequestration (West Virginia) Dioxide Sequestration (West Virginia) Carbon Dioxide Sequestration (West Virginia) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Program Info State West Virginia Program Type Environmental Regulations Fees Safety and Operational Guidelines Siting and Permitting The purpose of this law is to: Establish a legal and regulatory framework for the permitting of carbon dioxide sequestration operations; Designate a state agency responsible for establishing standards and

347

Control strategies for supercritical carbon dioxide power conversion systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-C02) recompression cycle is a promising advanced power conversion cycle which couples well to numerous advanced nuclear reactor designs. This thesis investigates the dynamic simulation ...

Carstens, Nathan, 1978-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

NETL: News Release - DOE Study Monitors Carbon Dioxide Storage...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1, 2009 DOE Study Monitors Carbon Dioxide Storage in Norway's Offshore Sleipner Gas Field U.S. World-Acclaimed Marine Institutes Partner with Europeans in North Sea Washington,...

349

Table 21. Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual Projected (million metric tons) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008...

350

Figure 5. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions in four ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Reference High Oil/Gas Resouce CO2$15 CO2$15HR Released: May 2, 2013 Figure 5. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions in four ...

351

Ownership of Carbon Dioxide Captured by Clean Coal Project (Texas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This legislation stipulates that the Railroad Commission of Texas automatically acquires the title to any carbon dioxide captured by a clean coal project in the state. The Bureau of Economic...

352

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes research conducted between October 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Two supported sorbents were tested in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor system. The sorbents were prepared by impregnation of sodium carbonate on to an inert support at a commercial catalyst manufacturing facility. One sorbent, tested through five cycles of carbon dioxide sorption in an atmosphere of 3% water vapor and 0.8 to 3% carbon dioxide showed consistent reactivity with sodium carbonate utilization of 7 to 14%. A second, similarly prepared material, showed comparable reactivity in one cycle of testing. Batches of 5 other materials were prepared in laboratory scale quantities (primarily by spray drying). These materials generally have significantly greater surface areas than calcined sodium bicarbonate. Small scale testing showed no significant adsorption of mercury on representative carbon dioxide sorbent materials under expected flue gas conditions.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Thomas Nelson; Raghubir P. Gupta

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Cardiac Responses to Carbon Dioxide in Developing Zebrafish (Danio rerio) .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The ontogeny of carbon dioxide (CO2) sensing in zebrafish (Danio rerio) has not been studied. In this thesis, CO2-mediated increases in heart rate were used… (more)

Miller, Scott

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Formation of rare earth carbonates using supercritical carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a process for the rapid, high yield conversion of select rare earth oxides or hydroxides, to their corresponding carbonates by contact with supercritical carbon dioxide.

Fernando, Quintus (Tucson, AZ); Yanagihara, Naohisa (Zacopan, MX); Dyke, James T. (Santa Fe, NM); Vemulapalli, Krishna (Tuscon, AZ)

1991-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

355

World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Emissions of carbon dioxide form combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

Schmalensee, Richard

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

Schmalensee, Richard.; Stoker, Thomas M.; Judson, Ruth A.

357

Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions down in 2011 - Today ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Annual energy-related carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions fell 2.4% in 2011 compared to the level in 2010. Several factors combined to produce this drop, including slower ...

358

Synthesis of Amides and Lactams in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Supercritical carbon dioxide can be employed as an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional organic solvents for the synthesis of a variety of carboxylic amides. The addition of amines to ketenes generated in ...

Mak, Xiao Yin

359

Short-Term Energy Carbon Dioxide Emissions Forecasts August 2009  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Supplement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook. Short-term projections for U.S. carbon dioxide emissions of the three fossil fuels: coal, natural gas, and petroleum.

Information Center

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

360

U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2012 October 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 October 2013 U.S. Energy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tion-carbon dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into carbon dioxide (CO2) heat pump water heaters. This project will employ innovative techniques to adapt water heating technology to...

362

Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions declined in 2012 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy-related carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions in 2012 were the lowest in the United States since 1994, at 5.3 billion metric tons of CO 2 (see figure above).

363

Thermophysical Properties of Carbon Dioxide and CO2-Rich Mixtures...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions; and will help maintain the nation's leader- ship in the export of gas turbine equipment. In this NETL-managed project, the National Institute of...

364

DEVELOPMENT AND INTEGRATION OF NEW PROCESSES CONSUMING CARBON DIOXIDE IN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Estimation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions....................................... 6 2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions........................................................ 8 C. Carbon Dioxide ­ A Greenhouse Gas................................................ 9 1. Sources............................................................... 3 B. Greenhouse Effect and Climate Change............................................. 4 1

Pike, Ralph W.

365

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236 412-386-4966 jose.figueroa@netl.doe.gov Carbon DioxiDe Capture from flue Gas usinG Dry reGenerable sorbents Background Currently...

366

Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide by Microwave Solid State Method and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, titanium dioxide was synthetized by microwave solid-state ... Properties of Low-Carbon High-strength and Low-yield Ratio Bainitic Steels ... New Methodology of Enhancing Etching Factor of Copper Pattern for Advanced Packages.

367

Survey of helium in soils and soil gases and mercury in soils at Roosevelt Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resource Area, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The concentrations of helium and mercury in soils and of helium in soil gases were surveyed in part of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resource Area to see what relationship helium and mercury concentrations might have to geothermal features of the area. High concentrations of helium occurred over the producing geothermal field, in an area of high temperature gradients. Low concentrations of helium in soils occurred over an area of visible hydrotheormal activity. High concentrations of mercury coincided with areas of high thermal gradients and low resistivity.

Hinkle, M.E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Catalytic Transformation of Waste Carbon Dioxide into Valuable Products  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalytic Transformation of Waste Catalytic Transformation of Waste Carbon Dioxide into Valuable Products Background Many industrial processes contribute large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to the earth's atmosphere. In an effort to reduce the amount of CO 2 released to the atmosphere, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is funding efforts to develop CO 2 capture and storage technologies. In addition to permanent storage of CO 2 in underground reservoirs, some

369

DOE/NETL CarbON DiOxiDE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CarbON DiOxiDE CapTurE aND STOragE rD&D rOaDmap DECEmbEr 2010 ii u.S. DEparTmENT Of ENErgy CarbON DiOxiDE CapTurE aND STOragE rD&D rOaDmap Disclaimer This report was prepared as an...

370

Zinc-catalyzed copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The zinc-catalyzed copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide, which is one of the promising reactions for the utilization of carbon dioxide, has been investigated from various aspects. Above all, considering that supercritical carbon dioxide has recently been paid attention in the field of extraction, separation, and reaction medium, its aptitude for both a reaction solvent and a reactant was examined in zinc glutarate-catalyzed reactions. As a result, it was proved that supercritical carbon dioxide was a suitable substitute for organic solvents in the copolymerization reactions. Great diffusivity of supercritical carbon dioxide into polymer segments was thought to promote carbon dioxide supply to the active sites of the zinc species and to afford alternating polycarbonate production. Low reaction temperature appeared to be advantageous to polycarbonate and cyclic carbonate formation. Apart from zinc glutarate catalyst whose detailed mechanistic studies were hard to perform due to its insolubility, some other zinc compounds were studied. A homogeneous catalyst, bis(ethyl fumarato)zinc, showed similar polycarbonate yield to zinc glutarate, and the method of the catalyst preparation affected its catalytic activity. Only a small amount of the catalyst was considered to be active in the copolymerization process even in the homogeneous systems. In the zinc dicarboxylate complexes, the carbon number between two carboxyl groups and the steric nature in the vicinity of the zinc atom might be important factors for the copolymerization catalysis.

Katsurao, Takumi

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Carbon dioxide sequestration: When and how much  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze carbon dioxide (CO sequestration as a strategy to manage future climate change in an optimal economic growth framework. We approach the problem in two ways: first, by using a simple analytical model, and second, by using a numerical optimization model which allows us to explore the problem in a more realistic setting. CO sequestration is not a perfect substitute for avoiding CO2 production because CO2 leaks back to the atmosphere and hence imposes future costs. The “efficiency factor ” of CO2 sequestration can be expressed as the ratio of the avoided emissions to the economically equivalent amount of sequestered CO2 emissions. A simple analytical model in terms of a net-present value criterion suggests that short-term sequestration methods such as afforestation can be somewhat ( 60 %) efficient, while long term sequestration (such as deep aquifer or deep ocean sequestration) can be very ( 90%) efficient. A numerical study indicates that CO2 sequestration methods at a cost within the range of present estimates reduce the economically optimal CO2 concentrations and climate related damages. The potential savings associated with CO2 sequestration is equivalent in our utilitarian model to a one-time investment of several percent of present gross world product. 1 1

Klaus Keller; Zili Yang; Matt Hall; David F. Bradford

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project involves the use of an innovative new invention ? Particle Stabilized Emulsions (PSEs) of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water and Water-in-Carbon Dioxide for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. The EOR emulsion would be injected into a semi-depleted oil reservoir such as Dover 33 in Otsego County, Michigan. It is expected that the emulsion would dislocate the stranded heavy crude oil from the rock granule surfaces, reduce its viscosity, and increase its mobility. The advancing emulsion front should provide viscosity control which drives the reduced-viscosity oil toward the production wells. The make-up of the emulsion would be subsequently changed so it interacts with the surrounding rock minerals in order to enhance mineralization, thereby providing permanent sequestration of the injected CO{sub 2}. In Phase 1 of the project, the following tasks were accomplished: 1. Perform laboratory scale (mL/min) refinements on existing procedures for producing liquid carbon dioxide-in-water (C/W) and water-in-liquid carbon dioxide (W/C) emulsion stabilized by hydrophilic and hydrophobic fine particles, respectively, using a Kenics-type static mixer. 2. Design and cost evaluate scaled up (gal/min) C/W and W/C emulsification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 at the Otsego County semi-depleted oil field. 3. Design the modifications necessary to the present CO{sub 2} flooding system at Otsego County for emulsion injection. 4. Design monitoring and verification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 for measuring potential leakage of CO{sub 2} after emulsion injection. 5. Design production protocol to assess enhanced oil recovery with emulsion injection compared to present recovery with neat CO{sub 2} flooding. 6. Obtain Federal and State permits for emulsion injection. Initial research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions with the smallest possible globule size so that the emulsion can penetrate even low-permeability crude oilcontaining formations or saline aquifers. The term ?globule? refers to the water or liquid carbon dioxide droplets sheathed with ultrafine particles dispersed in the continuous external medium, liquid CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O, respectively. The key to obtaining very small globules is the shear force acting on the two intermixing fluids, and the use of ultrafine stabilizing particles or nanoparticles. We found that using Kenics-type static mixers with a shear rate in the range of 2700 to 9800 s{sup -1} and nanoparticles between 100-300 nm produced globule sizes in the 10 to 20 ?m range. Particle stabilized emulsions with that kind of globule size should easily penetrate oil-bearing formations or saline aquifers where the pore and throat size can be on the order of 50 ?m or larger. Subsequent research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions that are deemed particularly suitable for Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. Based on a survey of the literature an emulsion consisting of 70% by volume of water, 30% by volume of liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide, and 2% by weight of finely pulverized limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) was selected as the most promising agent for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2}. In order to assure penetration of the emulsion into tight formations of sandstone or other silicate rocks and carbonate or dolomite rock, it is necessary to use an emulsion consisting of the smallest possible globule size. In previous reports we described a high shear static mixer that can create such small globules. In addition to the high shear mixer, it is also necessary that the emulsion stabilizing particles be in the submicron size, preferably in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 ?m (100 to 200 nm) size. We found a commercial source of such pulverized limestone particles, in addition we purchased under this DOE Project a particle grinding apparatus that can provide particles in the desired size range. Additional work focused on attempts to generate particle stabilized emulsions with a flow through, static mixer based apparatus under a variety

Ryan, David; Golomb, Dan; Shi, Guang; Shih, Cherry; Lewczuk, Rob; Miksch, Joshua; Manmode, Rahul; Mulagapati, Srihariraju; Malepati, Chetankurmar

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

373

Plant Design and Cost Estimation of a Natural Circulation Lead-Bismuth Reactor with Helium Power Conversion Cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The analysis of an indirect helium power conversion system with lead-bismuth natural circulation primary system has been performed. The work of this report is focused on 1) identifying the allowable design region for the ...

Kim, D.

374

Time damping of non-adiabatic magnetohydrodynamic waves in a partially ionized prominence plasma: Effect of helium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Prominences are partially ionized, magnetized plasmas embedded in the solar corona. Damped oscillations and propagating waves are commonly observed. These oscillations have been interpreted in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. Ion-neutral collisions and non-adiabatic effects (radiation losses and thermal conduction) have been proposed as damping mechanisms. We study the effect of the presence of helium on the time damping of non-adiabatic MHD waves in a plasma composed by electrons, protons, neutral hydrogen, neutral helium (He I), and singly ionized helium (He II) in the single-fluid approximation. The dispersion relation of linear non-adiabatic MHD waves in a homogeneous, unbounded, and partially ionized prominence medium is derived. The period and the damping time of Alfven, slow, fast, and thermal waves are computed. A parametric study of the ratio of the damping time to the period with respect to the helium abundance is performed. The efficiency of ion-neutral collisions as well as thermal conduc...

Soler, R; Ballester, J L

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Condensation of helium in aerogels as an experimental realization of the out-of-equilibrium Random Field Ising Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Condensation of helium in aerogels as an experimental realization of the out-of-equilibrium Random that the condensation of 4He in base-catalysed silica aerogels of large porosity presents a similar out

Recanati, Catherine

376

Condensation of helium in aerogels as an experimental realization of the out-of-equilibrium Random Field Ising Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Condensation of helium in aerogels as an experimental realization of the out-of-equilibrium Random-catalysed silica aerogels of large porosity presents a similar out-of-equilibrium behavior when the temperature

377

Ionic Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Separation  

SciTech Connect

Recent scientific studies are rapidly advancing novel technological improvements and engineering developments that demonstrate the ability to minimize, eliminate, or facilitate the removal of various contaminants and green house gas emissions in power generation. The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) shows promise for carbon dioxide mitigation not only because of its higher efficiency as compared to conventional coal firing plants, but also due to a higher driving force in the form of high partial pressure. One of the novel technological concepts currently being developed and investigated is membranes for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation, due to simplicity and ease of scaling. A challenge in using membranes for CO2 capture in IGCC is the possibility of failure at elevated temperatures or pressures. Our earlier research studies examined the use of ionic liquids on various supports for CO2 separation over the temperature range, 37°C-300°C. The ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3methylimidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([hmim][Tf2N]), was chosen for our initial studies with the following supports: polysulfone (PSF), poly(ether sulfone) (PES), and cross-linked nylon. The PSF and PES supports had similar performance at room temperature, but increasing temperature caused the supported membranes to fail. The ionic liquid with the PES support greatly affected the glass transition temperature, while with the PSF, the glass transition temperature was only slightly depressed. The cross-linked nylon support maintained performance without degradation over the temperature range 37-300°C with respect to its permeability and selectivity. However, while the cross-linked nylon support was able to withstand temperatures, the permeability continued to increase and the selectivity decreased with increasing temperature. Our studies indicated that further testing should examine the use of other ionic liquids, including those that form chemical complexes with CO2 based on amine interactions. The hypothesis is that the performance at the elevated temperatures could be improved by allowing a facilitated transport mechanism to become dominant. Several amine-based ionic liquids were tested on the cross-linked nylon support. It was found that using the amine-based ionic liquid did improve selectivity and permeability at higher temperature. The hypothesis was confirmed, and it was determined that the type of amine used also played a role in facilitated transport. Given the appropriate aminated ionic liquid with the cross-linked nylon support, it is possible to have a membrane capable of separating CO2 at IGCC conditions. With this being the case, the research has expanded to include separation of other constituents besides CO2 (CO, H2S, etc.) and if they play a role in membrane poisoning or degradation. This communication will discuss the operation of the recently fabricated ionic liquid membranes and the impact of gaseous components other than CO2 on their performance and stability.

Myers, C.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2008-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

378

Carbon-dioxide-controlled ventilation study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The In-House Energy Management (IHEM) Program has been established by the U.S. Department of Energy to provide funds to federal laboratories to conduct research on energy-efficient technology. The Energy Sciences Department of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was tasked by IHEM to research the energy savings potential associated with reducing outdoor-air ventilation of buildings. By monitoring carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels in a building, outdoor air provided by the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system can be reduced to the percentage required to maintain satisfactory CO{sub 2} levels rather than ventilating with a higher outdoor-air percentage based on an arbitrary minimum outdoor-air setting. During summer months, warm outdoor air brought into a building for ventilation must be cooled to meet the appropriate cooling supply-air temperature, and during winter months, cold outdoor air must be heated. By minimizing the amount of hot or cold outdoor air brought into the HVAC system, the supply air requires less cooling or heating, saving energy and money. Additionally, the CO{sub 2} levels in a building can be monitored to ensure that adequate outdoor air is supplied to a building to maintain air quality levels. The two main considerations prior to implementing CO{sub 2}-based ventilation control are its impact on energy consumption and the adequacy of indoor air quality (IAQ) and occupant comfort. To address these considerations, six portable CO{sub 2} monitors were placed in several Hanford Site buildings to estimate the adequacy of office/workspace ventilation. The monitors assessed the potential for reducing the flow of outdoor-air to the buildings. A candidate building was also identified to monitor various ventilation control strategies for use in developing a plan for implementing and assessing energy savings.

McMordie, K.L.; Carroll, D.M.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

A Liquid-Helium-Cooled Absolute Reference Cold Load forLong-Wavelength Radiometric Calibration  

SciTech Connect

We describe a large (78-cm) diameter liquid-helium-cooled black-body absolute reference cold load for the calibration of microwave radiometers. The load provides an absolute calibration near the liquid helium (LHe) boiling point, accurate to better than 30 mK for wavelengths from 2.5 to 25 cm (12-1.2 GHz). The emission (from non-LHe temperature parts of the cold load) and reflection are small and well determined. Total corrections to the LHe boiling point temperature are {le} 50 mK over the operating range. This cold load has been used at several wavelengths at the South Pole and at the White Mountain Research Station. In operation, the average LHe loss rate was {le} 4.4 l/hr. Design considerations, radiometric and thermal performance and operational aspects are discussed. A comparison with other LHe-cooled reference loads including the predecessor of this cold load is given.

Bensadoun, M.; Witebsky, C.; Smoot, George F.; De Amici,Giovanni; Kogut, A.; Levin, S.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Assessment of methods for analyzing gaseous mixtures of hydrogen isotopes and helium  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Mass spectrographic methods have served well in the past to analyze gaseous mixtures of the hydrogen isotopes. Alternate methods of analyses are reviewed which offer wider ranges and variety of isotopic determinations. This report describes possible improvements of the mass spectrographic determinations, gas chromatography, anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, microwave-induced optical emission spectroscopy, and methods of measuring tritium using radiation detection devices. Precision, accuracy, limitations, and costs are included for some of the methods mentioned. Costs range from $70,000 for the anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy equipment, which can determine hydrogen isotopes but not helium, to less than $10,000 for the gas chromatographic equipment, which can determine hydrogen isotopes and helium with precision and accuracy comparable to those of the mass spectrometer.

Attalla, A.; Bishop, C.T.; Bohl, D.R.; Buxton, T.L.; Sprague, R.E.; Warner, D.K.

1976-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tion-carbon dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Laser spectroscopy of the antiprotonic helium atom – its energy levels and state lifetimes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The antiprotonic atom is a three-body exotic system consisting of an antiproton, an electron and a helium nucleus. Its surprising longevity was found and has been studied for more than 10 years. In this work, transition energies and lifetimes of this exotic atom were systematically studied by using the antiproton beam of AD(Antiproton Decelerator) facility at CERN, with an RFQ antiproton decelerator, a narrow-bandwidth laser, Cerenkov counters with fast-response photomultiplier tubes, and cryogenic helium target systems. Thirteen transition energies were determined with precisions of better than 200 ppb by a laser spectroscopy method, together with the elimination of the shift effect caused by collisions with surrounding atoms. Fifteen lifetimes (decay rates) of short-lived states were determined from the time distributions of the antiproton-annihilation signals and the resonance widths of the atomic spectral lines. The relation between the magnitude of the decay rates and the transition multipolarity was inv...

Hidetoshi, Yamaguchi

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Final Technical Report for the Neutron Detection without Helium-3 Project  

SciTech Connect

This report details the results of the research and development work accomplished for the ‘Neutron Detection without Helium-3’ project conducted during the 2011-2013 fiscal years. The primary focus of the project was to investigate commercially available technologies that might be used in safeguards applications in the relatively near term. Other technologies that are being developed may be more applicable in the future, but were outside the scope of this study.

Ely, James H.; Bliss, Mary; Kouzes, Richard T.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Robinson, Sean M.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Measurement of the magnetic fine structure of the 10G and 10H states of helium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The magnetic fine-structure intervals separating the four members of the 10G and 10H manifolds of helium have been measured with a precision of 0.1% using a fast-beam microwave-optical resonance technique. The results are found to be in good agreement with theory, illustrating that the two-electron wave function is very nearly hydrogenic. The measurements are also used to determine the small exchange energies of the 10G and 10H states.

Hessels, E.A.; Sturrus, W.G.; Lundeen, S.R.; Cok, D.R.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

A Simulation Study for the Virtual Commissioning of the CERN Central Helium Liquefier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the implication of dynamic simulation in cryogenics processes. The simulation aims to prepare plant commissioning and operation, and to validate the efficiency of the new process control logic. PLC programs have been tested on a process simulator integrating physical models of valves, heat exchangers, turbines, phase separator, and helium data. The model has shown the capacity to reproduce cold-box dynamic behaviour, from 300 K to 4.5 K.

Rogez, E; Moraux, A; Pezzetti, M; Gayet, P; Coppier, H

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Modeling and Simulation Optimization and Feasibility Studies for the Neutron Detection without Helium-3 Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report details the results of the modeling and simulation work accomplished for the ‘Neutron Detection without Helium-3’ project during the 2011 and 2012 fiscal years. The primary focus of the project is to investigate commercially available technologies that might be used in safeguards applications in the relatively near term. Other technologies that are being developed may be more applicable in the future, but are outside the scope of this study.

Ely, James H.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Lintereur, Azaree T.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

SUPERBURST MODELS FOR NEUTRON STARS WITH HYDROGEN- AND HELIUM-RICH ATMOSPHERES  

SciTech Connect

Superbursts are rare day-long type I X-ray bursts due to carbon flashes on accreting neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries. They heat the neutron star envelope such that the burning of accreted hydrogen and helium becomes stable, and the common shorter X-ray bursts are quenched. Short bursts reappear only after the envelope cools down. We study multi-zone one-dimensional models of the neutron star envelope, in which we follow carbon burning during the superburst, and we include hydrogen and helium burning in the atmosphere above. We investigate the cases of both a solar-composition and a helium-rich atmosphere. This allows us to study for the first time a wide variety of thermonuclear burning behavior as well as the transitions between the different regimes in a self-consistent manner. For solar composition, burst quenching ends much sooner than previously expected. This is because of the complex interplay between the 3{alpha}, hot CNO, and CNO breakout reactions. Stable burning of hydrogen and helium transitions via marginally stable burning (mHz quasi-periodic oscillations) to less energetic bursts with short recurrence times. We find a short-lived bursting mode where weaker and stronger bursts alternate. Eventually the bursting behavior changes back to that of the pre-superburst bursts. Because of the scarcity of observations, this transition has not been directly detected after a superburst. Using the MINBAR burst catalog we identify the shortest upper limit on the quenching time for 4U 1636-536, and derive further constraints on the timescale on which bursts return.

Keek, L. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Heger, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); In 't Zand, J. J. M., E-mail: keek@nscl.msu.edu [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

387

Factors influencing helium measurements for detection of control rod failures in BWR  

SciTech Connect

Much effort has been made to minimize the number and consequences of fuel failures at nuclear power plants. The consequences of control rod failures have also gained an increased attention. In this paper we introduce a system for on-line surveillance of control rod integrity which has several advantages comparing to the surveillance methods available today in boiling water reactors (BWRs). This system measures the helium released from failed control rods containing boron carbide (B4C). However, there are a number of factors that might influence measurements, which have to be taken into consideration when evaluating the measured data. These factors can be separated into two groups: 1) local adjustments, made on the sampling line connecting the detector to the off-gas system, and 2) plant operational parameters. The adjustments of the sample line conditions include variation of gas flow rate and gas pressure in the line. Plant operational factors that may influence helium measurements can vary from plant to plant. The factors studied at Leibstadt nuclear power plant (KKL) were helium impurities in injected hydrogen gas, variation of the total off-gas flow and regular water refill. In this paper we discuss these factors and their significance and present experimental results of measurements at KKL. (authors)

Larsson, I.; Sihver, L. [Div. of Nuclear Engineering, Dept. of Applied Physics, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Loner, H.; Ledergerber, G. [Kernkraftwerk Leibstadt, CH-5325 Leibstadt (Switzerland); Schnurr, B. [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, D-84049 Essenbach (Germany)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

A systematic regional trend in helium isotopes across the northernbasin and range province, Western North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An extensive study of helium isotopes in fluids collectedfrom surface springs, fumaroles and wells across the northern Basin andRange Province reveals a systematic trend of decreasing 3He/4He ratiosfrom west to east. The western margin of the Basin and Range ischaracterized by mantle-like ratios (6-8 Ra) associated with active orrecently active crustal magma systems (e.g., Coso, Long Valley,Steamboat, and the Cascade volcanic complex). Moving towards the east,the ratios decline systematically to a background value of ~;0.1 Ra. Theregional trend is consistent with extensive mantle melting concentratedalong the western margin and is coincident with an east-to-west increasein the magnitude of northwest strain. The increase in shear strainenhances crustal permeability resulting in high vertical fluid flow ratesthat preserve the high helium isotope ratios at the surface. Superimposedon the regional trend are "helium spikes," local anomalies in the heliumisotope composition. These "spikes" reflect either local zones of mantlemelting or locally enhanced crustal permeability. In the case of theDixie Valley hydrothermal system, it appears to be a combination ofboth.

Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

FLOATING PRESSURE CONVERSION AND EQUIPMENT UPGRADES OF TWO 3.5KW, 20K, HELIUM REFRIGERATORS  

SciTech Connect

Two helium refrigerators, each rated for 3.5 KW at 20 K, are used at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Building No. 32 to provide cryogenic-pumping within two large thermal-vacuum chambers. These refrigerators were originally commissioned in 1996. New changes to the controls of these refrigerators were recently completed. This paper describes some of the control issues that necessitated the controls change-over. It will describe the modifications and the new process control which allows the refrigerators to take advantage of the Ganni Cycle “floating pressure” control technology. The controls philosophy change-over to the floating pressure control technology was the first application on a helium gas refrigeration system. Previous implementations of the floating pressure technology have been on 4 K liquefaction and refrigeration systems, which have stored liquid helium volumes that have level indications used for varying the pressure levels (charge) in the system for capacity modulation. The upgrades have greatly improved the performance, stability, and efficiency of these two refrigerators. The upgrades have also given the operators more information and details about the operational status of the main components (compressors, expanders etc.) of the refrigerators at all operating conditions (i.e. at various loads in the vacuum chambers). The performance data of the two systems, pre and post upgrading are presented.

J. Homan, V. Ganni, A. Sidi-Yekhlef, J. Creel, R. Norton, R. Linza, G. Vargas, J. Lauterbach, J. Urbin, D. Howe

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Determination of tritium permeation rate through T-22 in GCFR helium environment  

SciTech Connect

Measurements were made on tritium permeation rates through T-22 tubular samples in the temperature range of 300/sup 0/ to 550/sup 0/C. The tritium source consists of tritium in helium containing hydrogen at 6 vol % and sufficient water vapor to maintain a hydrogen-to-water-pressure ratio of 10, the total pressure being 1.01 x 10/sup 5/ Pa (1 atm). Two tritium sources at specific activities of 2.6 x 10/sup -3/ and 3.1 x 10/sup -2/ ..mu..Ci/std cc, respectively, were used for determining how the permeation rate varies with tritium concentration. The T-22 tubular samples have a wall thickness of 0.437 x 10/sup -2/ m (0.172 in.), and two samples are used for checking the reproducibility of the results. During the measurements, the tritium diffusing through the wall of the sample is swept out with a helium-steam mixture by bubbling helium at atmospheric pressure through a water reservoir maintained at 90/sup 0/C.

Yang, L.; Baugh, W.A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Underground storage of natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

storage of natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, and carbon storage of natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide (Louisiana) Underground storage of natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide (Louisiana) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Utility Program Info State Louisiana Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality regulates the underground storage of natural gas or liquid hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide. Prior to the use of any underground reservoir for the storage of natural gas and prior to the exercise of eminent domain by any person, firm, or corporation having such right under laws of the state of Louisiana, the commissioner, shall have found all of the following:

392

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions Jump to: navigation, search Geothermal Lab Call Projects for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions Loading map... {"format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"limit":200,"offset":0,"link":"all","sort":[""],"order":[],"headers":"show","mainlabel":"","intro":"","outro":"","searchlabel":"\u2026 further results","default":"","geoservice":"google","zoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","forceshow":true,"showtitle":true,"hidenamespace":false,"template":false,"title":"","label":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"locations":[{"text":"

393

New Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground New Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground February 5, 2013 - 12:05pm Addthis The Air Products and Chemicals hydrogen production facilities in Port Arthur, Texas, is funded by the Energy Department through the 2009 Recovery Act. It is managed by the Office of Fossil Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. | Photo credit Air Products and Chemicals hydrogen production facilities. The Air Products and Chemicals hydrogen production facilities in Port Arthur, Texas, is funded by the Energy Department through the 2009 Recovery Act. It is managed by the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. | Photo credit Air Products and Chemicals hydrogen

394

NETL: News Release - DOE Report Assesses Potential for Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4, 2009 4, 2009 DOE Report Assesses Potential for Carbon Dioxide Storage Beneath Federal Lands Newly Released Document Complements 2008 Carbon Sequestration Atlas Washington, D.C. - As a complementary document to the U.S. Department of Energy's Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada issued in November 2008, the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory has now released a report that provides an initial estimate of the potential to store carbon dioxide (CO2) underneath millions of acres of Federal lands. MORE INFO Read the report The report, Storage of Captured Carbon Dioxide Beneath Federal Lands, estimates and characterizes the storage potential that lies beneath some of the more than 400 million acres of Federal land available for lease.

395

New Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground New Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground New Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground February 5, 2013 - 12:05pm Addthis The Air Products and Chemicals hydrogen production facilities in Port Arthur, Texas, is funded by the Energy Department through the 2009 Recovery Act. It is managed by the Office of Fossil Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. | Photo credit Air Products and Chemicals hydrogen production facilities. The Air Products and Chemicals hydrogen production facilities in Port Arthur, Texas, is funded by the Energy Department through the 2009 Recovery Act. It is managed by the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. | Photo credit Air Products and Chemicals hydrogen

396

Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Field Projects Supported by DOE's  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Field Projects Supported by DOE's Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Field Projects Supported by DOE's Sequestration Program Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Field Projects Supported by DOE's Sequestration Program Background: The U.S. DOE's Sequestration Program began with a small appropriation of $1M in 1997 and has grown to be the largest most comprehensive CCS R&D program in the world. The U.S. DOE's sequestration program has supported a number of projects implementing CO2 injection in the United States and other countries including, Canada, Algeria, Norway, Australia, and Germany. The program has also been supporting a number of complementary R&D projects investigating the science of storage, simulation, risk assessment, and monitoring the fate of the injected CO2 in the subsurface.

397

Total Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Nitrate Measurements in the  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Total Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Nitrate Measurements in the Southwest Pacific during Austral Autumn, 1990: Results from NOAA/PMEL CGC-90 Cruise. Total Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Nitrate Measurements in the Southwest Pacific during Austral Autumn, 1990: Results from NOAA/PMEL CGC-90 Cruise. NDP-052 (1995) data Download the Data and ASCII Documentation files of NDP-052 PDF Download a PDF of NDP-052 image Contributed by Marilyn F. Lamb and Richard A. Feely Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory Seattle, Washington and Lloyd Moore and Donald K. Atwood Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory Miami, Florida Prepared by Alexander Kozyr* Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. *Energy, Environment, and Resources Center The University of Tennessee Knoxville, Tennessee Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 4420 Date Published: September 1995

398

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2004 and June 30, 2004 on the preparation and use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Support materials and supported sorbents were prepared by spray drying. Sorbents consisting of 20 to 50% sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were prepared by spray drying in batches of approximately 300 grams. The supported sorbents exhibited greater carbon dioxide capture rates than unsupported calcined sodium bicarbonate in laboratory tests. Preliminary process design and cost estimation for a retrofit application suggested that costs of a dry regenerable sodium carbonate-based process could be lower than those of a monoethanolamine absorption system. In both cases, the greatest part of the process costs come from power plant output reductions due to parasitic consumption of steam for recovery of carbon dioxide from the capture medium.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Means and method for reducing carbon dioxide to a product  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for reducing carbon dioxide to a product comprising the steps of: providing carbon dioxide to a catholyte chamber of a reaction cell; providing water to an anolyte section of the reaction cell, forming a passageway through the reaction cell with a dual porosity cathode between the passageway and catholyte chamber and with a porous anode between the passageway and anolyte chamber; provides an electrolyte in a manner so that it passes through the passageway; and provides a direct current voltage across the dual porosity cathode and anode so as to cause a reduction of the carbon dioxide in cooperation with the electrolyte and hydrogen ions passing through the anode. This passes to a product contained within the electrolyte and causes oxygen to be emitted from the anolyte chamber.

Ang, P.G.P.; Sammels, A.F.

1987-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

400

LATERALLY PROPAGATING DETONATIONS IN THIN HELIUM LAYERS ON ACCRETING WHITE DWARFS  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical work has shown that intermediate mass (0.01 M{sub Sun} < M{sub He} < 0.1 M{sub Sun }) helium shells will unstably ignite on the accreting white dwarf (WD) in an AM CVn binary. For more massive (M > 0.8 M{sub Sun }) WDs, these helium shells can be dense enough (>5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} g cm{sup -3}) that the convectively burning region runs away on a timescale comparable to the sound travel time across the shell, raising the possibility for an explosive outcome rather than an Eddington limited helium novae. The nature of the explosion (i.e., deflagration or detonation) remains ambiguous, is certainly density dependent, and likely breaks spherical symmetry. In the case of detonation, this causes a laterally propagating front whose properties in these geometrically thin and low-density shells we begin to study here. Our calculations show that the radial expansion time of <0.1 s leads to incomplete helium burning, in agreement with recent work by Sim and collaborators, but that the nuclear energy released is still adequate to realize a self-sustaining laterally propagating detonation. These detonations are slower than the Chapman-Jouguet speed of 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} cm s{sup -1}, but still fast enough at 0.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} cm s{sup -1} to go around the star prior to the transit through the star of the inwardly propagating weak shock. Our simulations resolve the subsonic region behind the reaction front in the detonation wave. The two-dimensional nucleosynthesis is shown to be consistent with a truncated one-dimensional Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doering calculation at the slower detonation speed. The ashes from the lateral detonation are typically He rich, and consist of predominantly {sup 44}Ti, {sup 48}Cr, along with a small amount of {sup 52}Fe, with very little {sup 56}Ni and with significant {sup 40}Ca in carbon-enriched layers. If this helium detonation results in a Type Ia supernova, its spectral signatures would appear for the first few days after explosion.

Townsley, Dean M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0324 (United States); Moore, Kevin; Bildsten, Lars, E-mail: Dean.M.Townsley@ua.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States)

2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tion-carbon dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide-Based Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on AddThis.com...

402

SunShot Initiative: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Systems Components

403

Global Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Soils on a 0...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Potter. 1996. Global Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Soils on a 0.5 Degree Grid Cell Basis. DB-1015. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, U.S. Department of...

404

THE PATH OF CARBON IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS. X. CARBON DIOXIDE ASSIMILATION IN PLANTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

48 The Fath of Carbon i n Photosynthesis X. Carbon Dioxide658 THE PATH O CBRBQM I N PHOTOSYNTHESIS F x CA~ON DIOXIDEr e a c t i o n s of photosynthesis (phosphoglycera t e and

1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

A heat exchanger between forced flow helium gas at 14 to 18 K and liquid hydrogen at 20 K circulated by natural convection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-53719 A HEAT EXCHANGER BETWEEN FORCED FLOW HELIUM GAShydrogen absorber and the heat exchanger between the liquidpasses through the heat exchanger in the absorber shell. The

Green, M.A.; Ishimoto, S.; Lau, W.; Yang, S.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

of carbon dioxide containing 12 but the low concentration of 14  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of carbon dioxide containing 12 C and 13 C, but the low concentration of 14 C has made its measurement in carbon dioxide extremely difficult. Using an ultrasensitive technique called saturated carbon at values well below radiocarbon's natural abundance in carbon dioxide. In their technique

Zare, Richard N.

407

Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System Comments submitted by Grant County Public Utility District  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System Comments submitted by Grant County Public paper: Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System, dated September 13, 2007. The Grant done a very thorough job of assessing the current and future carbon dioxide footprints of the Northwest

408

Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel : Renewable Energy News  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel : Renewable Energy News TUESDAY 25 MAY, 2010 | | Solar Power To Help Convert Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel by Energy Matters Microbiologist Derek Lovley dioxide into transportation fuels, with the help of special micro-organisms and solar power. The team

Lovley, Derek

409

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2008-Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 8 Figure 75. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2005-2030 Figure 75 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 76. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 Figure 76 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 77. Average Annual Growth in Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the OECD Economies, 2005-2030 Figure 77 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 78. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioide Emissions in IEO2007 and IEO2008, 2005-2030 Figure 78 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 79. Average Annual Growth in Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the Non-OECD Economies, 2005-2030 Figure 79 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

410

Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Project Type / Topic 1 Laboratory Call for Submission of Applications for Research, Development and Analysis of Geothermal Technologies Project Type / Topic 2 Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions Project Description Supercritical CO2 is currently becoming a more common fluid for extracting volatile oil and fragrance compounds from various raw materials that are used in perfumery. Furthermore, its use as a heat transmission fluid is very attractive because of the greater uptake capability of heat from hot reservoir rock, compared with that of water. However, one concern was the reactivity of CO2 with clay and rock minerals in aqueous and non-aqueous environments. So if this reaction leads to the formation of water-soluble carbonates, such formation could be detrimental to the integrity of wellbore infrastructure.

411

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2007-Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 Figure 77. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Region, 2003-2030 Figure 77 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 78. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 Figure 78 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 79. Average Annual Growth in Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the OECD Economies, 2004-2030 Figure 79 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 80. Average Annual Growth in Energy-Related Carbon Dioide Emissions in the Non-OECD Economies, 2004-2030 Figure 80 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 81. World Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Liquids Combustion by Region, 1990-2030 Figure 81 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

412

Groundwater Chemistry Changes as a Result of Carbon Dioxide Injection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides final results from a combined field, laboratory, and modeling investigation into whether carbon dioxide (CO2) can have an adverse impact on potable groundwater. The investigation was undertaken by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, United States Geological Survey (USGS), and Montana State University (MSU).

2009-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

413

Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

Rathke, Jerome W. (Lockport, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Westmount, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or biodiesel use in Europe. Nevertheless, the EU directive sets a target for the use of biofuels15 II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17 The previous chapter analysed mandatory blends and utilization targets as policy measures that can provide incentives for expanded

415

Phase relation between global temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause for temperature variations. In this paper we discuss this assumption and analyze it on basis of bi-centenary measurements and using a relaxation model which causes phase shifts and delays.

Stallinga, Peter

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

417

Corrosion of various engineering alloys in supercritical carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The corrosion resistance of ten engineering alloys were tested in a supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO 2) environment for up to 3000 hours at 610°C and 20MPa. The purpose of this work was to evaluate each alloy as a potential ...

Gibbs, Jonathan Paul

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Regulation and Permitting of Carbon Dioxide Geologic Sequestration Wells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides an update of the United States’ regulations and project experiences associated with permitting injection wells used for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). This report is an update of a previous Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) study on this subject published in December 2008 when the draft regulations governing geologic sequestration were first published.BackgroundSeparating ...

2013-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

419

Carbon dioxide flash-freezing applied to ice cream production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) Carbon dioxide is recompressed from 1.97 x 106 Pa (285 psi) to 3.96 x 106 Pa (575 psi). The process is scaled by increasing the number of nozzles to accommodate the desired flow rate. Only 165 nozzles are required ...

Peters, Teresa Baker, 1981-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.

1993-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tion-carbon dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Visual representation of carbon dioxide adsorption in a low-volatile bituminous coal molecular model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide can be sequestered in unmineable coal seams to aid in mitigating global climate change, while concurrently CH{sub 4} can be desorbed from the coal seam and used as a domestic energy source. In this work, a previously constructed molecular representation was used to simulate several processes that occur during sequestration, such as sorption capacities of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}-induced swelling, contraction because of CH{sub 4} and water loss, and the pore-blocking role of moisture. This is carried out by calculating the energy minima of the molecular model with different amounts of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2}O. The model used is large (>2000 atoms) and contains a molecular-weight distribution, so that it has the flexibility to be used by other researchers and for other purposes in the future. In the low-level molecular modeling presented here, it was anticipated that CO{sub 2} would be adsorbed more readily than CH{sub 4}, that swelling would be anisotropic, greater perpendicular to the bedding plane because of the rank of this coal, and finally, that, with the addition of moisture, CO{sub 2} capacity in the coal would be reduced. As expected with this high-rank coal, there was swelling when CO{sub 2} perturbed the structure of approximately 5%. It was found that, on the basis of the interconnected pore structure and molecular sizes, CO{sub 2} was able to access 12.4% more of the pore volume (as defined by helium) than CH{sub 4}, in the rigid molecular representation. With water as stationary molecules, mostly hydrogen bound to the coal oxygen functionality, pore access decreased by 5.1% of the pore volume for CO{sub 2} accessibility and 4.7% of the pore volume for CH{sub 4} accessibility. 36 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Marielle R. Narkiewicz; Jonathan P. Mathews [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Department of Energy and Minerals Engineering

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

422

A passively-safe fusion reactor blanket with helium coolant and steel structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Helium is attractive for use as a fusion blanket coolant for a number of reasons. It is neutronically and chemically inert, nonmagnetic, and will not change phase during any off-normal or accident condition. A significant disadvantage of helium, however, is its low density and volumetric heat capacity. This disadvantage manifests itself most clearly during undercooling accident conditions such as a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) or a loss of flow accident (LOFA). This thesis describes a new helium-cooled tritium breeding blanket concept which performs significantly better during such accidents than current designs. The proposed blanket uses reduced-activation ferritic steel as a structural material and is designed for neutron wall loads exceeding 4 MW/m{sup 2}. The proposed geometry is based on the nested-shell concept developed by Wong, but some novel features are used to reduce the severity of the first wall temperature excursion. These features include the following: (1) A ``beryllium-joint`` concept is introduced, which allows solid beryllium slabs to be used as a thermal conduction path from the first wall to the cooler portions of the blanket. The joint concept allows for significant swelling of the beryllium (10 percent or more) without developing large stresses in the blanket structure. (2) Natural circulation of the coolant in the water-cooled shield is used to maintain shield temperatures below 100 degrees C, thus maintaining a heat sink close to the blanket during the accident. This ensures the long-term passive safety of the blanket.

Crosswait, K.M.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Microstructural damage produced by helium in aged /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Microstructural damage is produced in aged /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fuels used to power radioisotopic heat sources by the generation and release of the helium arising from alpha decay of the fuel. We obtained information about the nature and extent of this damage from metallographic examination of fuel pellets ranging in density from 87 to 94% with a grain size range of 6 to 30 ..mu..m that either were stored at ambient temperature for 18 months and then heated at 900, 1150, or 1360/sup 0/C or were stored at 900, 1150, or 1350/sup 0/C for 27 months. Microstructural damage was not observed in the fuel pellets stored at ambient temperature and then heated at 900/sup 0/C, but grain boundary bubble damage was observed in the pellets stored at ambient temperature and then heated at either 1150 or 1350/sup 0/C. More extensive damage occurred in those pellets heated at 1350/sup 0/C. Four of the higher density pellets (92 and 94% dense) stored at 900/sup 0/C shattered during storage and the rest appeared to be highly strained. The pellets stored at 1150/sup 0/C were damaged only slightly but were somewhat strained and appeared to have released their helium inventory only partially. All pellets stored at 1350/sup 0/C showed swelling and extensive void agglomeration. These data suggest that the best fuel operating temperature, as far as helium damage is concerned, would be approx. 1200/sup 0/C because below this temperature the fuel becomes highly strained and above this temperature the fuel swells ad becomes somewhat friable. Both these situations could adversely affect the impact behavior of the fuel from the standpoint of strength and fines generation.

Land, C.C.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions/Carbon  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide Emissions/Carbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program (Connecticut) Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions/Carbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Connecticut

425

Theoretical study of sodium and potassium resonance lines pressure broadened by helium atoms  

SciTech Connect

We perform fully quantum mechanical calculations in the binary approximation of the emission and absorption profiles of the sodium 3s-3p and potassium 4s-4p resonance lines under the influence of a helium perturbing gas. We use carefully constructed potential energy surfaces and transition dipole moments to compute the emission and absorption coefficients at temperatures from 158 to 3000 K. Contributions from quasibound states are included. The resulting red and blue wing profiles agree well with previous theoretical calculations and with experimental measurements.

Zhu, Cheng; Babb, James F.; Dalgarno, Alex [ITAMP, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

426

Theoretical study of pressure broadening of lithium resonance lines by helium atoms  

SciTech Connect

Quantum mechanical calculations are performed of the emission and absorption profiles of the lithium 2s-2p resonance line under the influence of a helium perturbing gas. We use carefully constructed potential energy surfaces and transition dipole moments to compute the emission and absorption coefficients at temperatures from 200 to 3000 K at wavelengths between 500 nm and 1000 nm. Contributions from quasibound states are included. The resulting red and blue wing profiles are compared with previous theoretical calculations and with an experiment, carried out at a temperature of 670 K.

Zhu Cheng; Babb, James F.; Dalgarno, Alex [ITAMP, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

427

Operating experience with gas-bearing circulators in a high-pressure helium loop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-pressure engineering test loop has been designed and constructed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for circulating helium through a test chamber at temperatures to 1000/sup 0/C. The purpose of this loop is to determine the thermal and structural performance of proposed components for the primary loops of gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Five MW of power is available to provide the required gas temperature at the test chamber, and an air-cooled heat exchanger, rated at 4.4 MW, serves as a heat sink. This report contains results of tests performed on gas-bearing circulators.

Sanders, J.P.; Gat, Uri; Young, H.C.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Low-energy scattering of antihydrogen by helium and molecular hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we describe in detail calculations that we have carried out of cross sections for rearrangement processes in very low-energy helium+antihydrogen (H-bar) scattering that result in He{sup +}p-bar+Ps or Hep-bar+e{sup +} or {alpha}p-bar+Ps{sup -}. The interaction between the leptons is taken into account very accurately. Results are presented for all three processes. A description is also given of a preliminary calculation of elastic and antiproton annihilation cross sections for very low-energy H{sub 2}+H-bar scattering.

Armour, E. A. G.; Todd, A. C.; Liu, Y.; Gregory, M. R. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Nottingham University, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Jonsell, S. [Department of Physics, University of Wales Swansea, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Plummer, M. [CLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

2008-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

429

Ultracold neutron accumulation in a superfluid-helium converter with magnetic multipole reflector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze accumulation of ultracold neutrons (UCN) in a superfluid-helium converter vessel surrounded by a magnetic multipole reflector. Employing formulas valid for trapped UCN in mechanical equilibrium we solved the rate equation and obtained results for the saturation density of low field seeking UCN for any field strength of the multipolar field. The addition of magnetic storage can increase the density and energy of the UCN produced and serves to mitigate the effects of wall losses on the source performance. This work was performed in preparation of the UCN source project SuperSUN at the ILL.

O. Zimmer; R. Golub

2013-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

430

Deep Burn Develpment of Transuranic Fuel for High-Temperature Helium-Cooled Reactors - July 2010  

SciTech Connect

The DB Program Quarterly Progress Report for April - June 2010, ORNL/TM/2010/140, was distributed to program participants on August 4. This report discusses the following: (1) TRU (transuranic elements) HTR (high temperature helium-cooled reactor) Fuel Modeling - (a) Thermochemical Modeling, (b) 5.3 Radiation Damage and Properties; (2) TRU HTR Fuel Qualification - (a) TRU Kernel Development, (b) Coating Development, (c) ZrC Properties and Handbook; and (3) HTR Fuel Recycle - (a) Recycle Processes, (b) Graphite Recycle, (c) Pyrochemical Reprocessing - METROX (metal recovery from oxide fuel) Process Development.

Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Collins, Emory D [ORNL; Bell, Gary L [ORNL

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Decoding sequential vs non-sequential two-photon double ionizationof helium using nuclear recoil  

SciTech Connect

Above 54.4 eV, two-photon double ionization of helium isdominated by a sequential absorption process, producing characteristicbehavior in the single and triple differential cross sections. We showthat the signature of this process is visible in the nuclear recoil crosssection, integrated over all energy sharings of the ejected electrons,even below the threshold for the sequential process. Since nuclear recoilmomentum imaging does not require coincident photoelectron measurement,the predicted images present a viable target for future experiments withnew short-pulse VUV and soft X-ray sources.

Horner, Daniel A.; Rescigno, Thomas N.; McCurdy, C. William

2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

432

Triple Differential Cross sections and Nuclear Recoil in Two-Photon Double Ionization of Helium  

SciTech Connect

Triple differential cross sections (TDCS) for two-photon double ionization of helium are calculated using the method of exterior complex scaling both above and below the threshold for sequential ionization (54.4 eV). It is found that sequential ionization produces characteristic behavior in the TDCS that identifies that process when it is in competition with nonsequential ionization. Moreover we see the signature in the TDCS and nuclear recoil cross sections of"virtual sequential ionization" below the threshold for the sequential process.

Horner, Daniel A.; McCurdy, C. William; Rescigno, Thomas N

2008-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

433

Main features of direct cycle helium gas turbines integrated with a high temperature reactor  

SciTech Connect

From international nuclear industries fair; Basel, Switzerland (16 Oct 1972). The main features and advantages of direct cycle helium gas turbines integrated with a high temperature reactor are presented. The proposed design concept is based on a logical extension of existirg knowledge and experience on currently built gas cooled reactors and industrial gas turbines. The direct cycle gas turbine offers many advantages in the form of high reliability, safety and simplicity; it emerges as a potential competitor to the main power generation prime mover, the steam turbine. (auth)

Burylo, P.

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Cryogenic design of the liquid helium experiment ``critical dynamics in microgravity``  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although many well controlled experiments have been conducted to measure the static properties of systems near criticality, few experiments have explored the transport properties in systems driven far away from equilibrium as a phase transition occurs. The cryogenic design of an experiment to study the dynamic aspect of critical phenomena is reported here. Measurements of the thermal gradient across the superfluid (He II) -- normal fluid (He I) interface in helium under microgravity conditions will be performed as a heat flux holds the system away from equilibrium. New technologies are under development for this experiment, which is in the definition phase for a space shuttle flight.

Moeur, W.A. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Adriaans, M.J.; Boyd, S.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Strayer, D.M. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States); Duncan, R.V. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

A helium-cooled blanket design of the low aspect ratio reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An aggressive low aspect ratio scoping fusion reactor design indicated that a 2 GW(e) reactor can have a major radius as small as 2.9 m resulting in a device with competitive cost of electricity at 49 mill/kWh. One of the technology requirements of this design is a high performance high power density first wall and blanket system. A 15 MPa helium-cooled, V-alloy and stagnant LiPb breeder first wall and blanket design was utilized. Due to the low solubility of tritium in LiPb, there is the concern of tritium migration and the formation of V-hydride. To address these issues, a lithium breeder system with high solubility of tritium has been evaluated. Due to the reduction of blanket energy multiplication to 1.2, to maintain a plant Q of > 4, the major radius of the reactor has to be increased to 3.05 m. The inlet helium coolant temperature is raised to 436 C in order to meet the minimum V-alloy temperature limit everywhere in the first wall and blanket system. To enhance the first wall heat transfer, a swirl tape coolant channel design is used. The corresponding increase in friction factor is also taken into consideration. To reduce the coolant system pressure drop, the helium pressure is increased from 15 to 18 MPa. Thermal structural analysis is performed for a simple tube design. With an inside tube diameter of 1 cm and a wall thickness of 1.5 mm, the lithium breeder can remove an average heat flux and neutron wall loading of 2 and 8 MW/m(2), respectively. This reference design can meet all the temperature and material structural design limits, as well as the coolant velocity limits. Maintaining an outlet coolant temperature of 650 C, one can expect a gross closed cycle gas turbine thermal efficiency of 45%. This study further supports the use of helium coolant for high power density reactor design. When used with the low aspect ratio reactor concept a competitive fusion reactor can be projected at 51.9 mill/kWh.

Wong, C.P.; Baxi, C.B.; Reis, E.E. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Cerbone, R.; Cheng, E.T. [TSI Research, Solana Beach, CA (United States)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Primordial Helium Abundance from CMB: a constraint from recent observations and a forecast  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study a constraint on the primordial helium abundance $Y_p$ from current and future observations of CMB. Using the currently available data from WMAP, ACBAR, CBI and BOOMERANG, we obtained the constraint as $Y_p = 0.25 \\pm 0.10$ at 1$\\sigma$ level. We also provide a forecast for Planck using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach. In addition to forecasting the constraint on $Y_p$, we investigate how assumptions for $Y_p$ affect the constraints on the other cosmological parameters.

Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Takahashi, Tomo

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Primordial Helium Abundance from CMB: a constraint from recent observations and a forecast  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We studied a constraint on the primordial helium abundance Y_p from current and future observations of CMB. Using the currently available data from WMAP, ACBAR, CBI and BOOMERANG, we obtained the constraint as Y_p = 0.25^{+0.10}_{-0.07} at 68% C.L. We also provide a forecast for the Planck experiment using the Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. In addition to forecasting the constraint on Y_p, we investigate how assumptions for Y_p affect constraints on the other cosmological parameters.

Kazuhide Ichikawa; Toyokazu Sekiguchi; Tomo Takahashi

2007-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

438

High-energy electron-helium scattering in a Nd:YAG laser field  

SciTech Connect

We report measurements of the scattering of electrons by helium atoms in the presence of 1.17 eV photons from a Nd:YAG laser. The incident energy of the electrons was in the range 50-350 eV, and the polarization of the laser was arranged to be parallel to electrons scattered through 135 deg. Energy-shifted peaks corresponding both to one- and two-photon emission were observed. Calculations using the Kroll-Watson approximation are perfectly consistent with the data.

Harak, B. A. de [Physics Department, Illinois Wesleyan University, P.O. Box 2900, Bloomington, Illinois 61702-2900 (United States); Ladino, L.; MacAdam, K. B.; Martin, N. L. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0055 (United States)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

439

Supercritical carbon dioxide cycle control analysis.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents work carried out during FY 2008 on further investigation of control strategies for supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle energy converters. The main focus of the present work has been on investigation of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle control and behavior under conditions not covered by previous work. An important scenario which has not been previously calculated involves cycle operation for a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) following a reactor scram event and the transition to the primary coolant natural circulation and decay heat removal. The Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Plant Dynamics Code has been applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of the 96 MWe (250 MWt) Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle following scram. The timescale for the primary sodium flowrate to coast down and the transition to natural circulation to occur was calculated with the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 computer code and found to be about 400 seconds. It is assumed that after this time, decay heat is removed by the normal ABTR shutdown heat removal system incorporating a dedicated shutdown heat removal S-CO{sub 2} pump and cooler. The ANL Plant Dynamics Code configured for the Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR) Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) was utilized to model the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle with a decaying liquid metal coolant flow to the Pb-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchangers and temperatures reflecting the decaying core power and heat removal by the cycle. The results obtained in this manner are approximate but indicative of the cycle transient performance. The ANL Plant Dynamics Code calculations show that the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can operate for about 400 seconds following the reactor scram driven by the thermal energy stored in the reactor structures and coolant such that heat removal from the reactor exceeds the decay heat generation. Based on the results, requirements for the shutdown heat removal system may be defined. In particular, the peak heat removal capacity of the shutdown heat removal loop may be specified to be 1.1 % of the nominal reactor power. An investigation of the oscillating cycle behavior calculated by the ANL Plant Dynamics Code under specific conditions has been carried out. It has been found that the calculation of unstable operation of the cycle during power reduction to 0 % may be attributed to the modeling of main compressor operation. The most probable reason for such instabilities is the limit of applicability of the currently used one-dimensional compressor performance subroutines which are based on empirical loss coefficients. A development of more detailed compressor design and performance models is required and is recommended for future work in order to better investigate and possibly eliminate the calculated instabilities. Also, as part of such model development, more reliable surge criteria should be developed for compressor operation close to the critical point. It is expected that more detailed compressor models will be developed as a part of validation of the Plant Dynamics Code through model comparison with the experiment data generated in the small S-CO{sub 2} loops being constructed at Barber-Nichols Inc. and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Although such a comparison activity had been planned to be initiated in FY 2008, data from the SNL compression loop currently in operation at Barber Nichols Inc. has not yet become available by the due date of this report. To enable the transient S-CO{sub 2} cycle investigations to be carried out, the ANL Plant Dynamics Code for the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle was further developed and improved. The improvements include further optimization and tuning of the control mechanisms as well as an adaptation of the code for reactor systems other than the Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR). Since the focus of the ANL work on S-CO{sub 2} cycle development for the majority of the current year has been on the applicability of the cycle to SFRs, work has started on modification of the ANL Plant Dynamics Code to allow

Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

440

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #478: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8: July 16, 2007 8: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #478: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #478: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #478: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #478: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #478: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #478: July 16, 2007 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector on AddThis.com...

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441

Atmospheric Trace Gases, Carbon Isotopes, Radionuclides, and Aerosols: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

CDIAC products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication titled Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most datasets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Information related to atmospheric carbon dioxide data includes: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Isotopes • Atmospheric carbon dioxide records from Mauna Loa, Hawaii • Monthly atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios and other data from the NOAA/CMDL continuous monitoring network • Data from the CSIRO GASLAB Flask Sampling Network • Atmospheric CO2 records from continuous measurements at Jubany Station, Antarctica and from 10 sites in the SIO air sampling network • Historical data from the extended Vostok ice core (2003) and the Siple Station ice core (1997) • Historical records from the Law Dome DE08, DE08-2, and DSS ice cores (1998) • AmeriFlux Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, and Energy Balance Measurements • Data from the Canadian Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network • Flask Samples from at U.S.S.R.-Operated Sites (1991) • The CISIRO (Australia) Monitoring Program from Aircraft for 1972-1981 • CO2 Concentrations in Surface Water and the Atmosphere during 1986-1989 NOAA/PMEL Cruises in the Pacific and Indian Oceans • Surface Water and Atmospheric CO2 and Nitrous Oxide Observations by Shipboard Automated Gas Chromatography: Results from Expeditions Between 1977 and 1990 (1992) • IPCC Working Group 1, 1994: Modeling Results Relating Future Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations to Industrial Emissions (1995). New datasets are added when available to the category of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

442

The effect of hydrogen isotopes and helium on the tensile properties of 21-6-9 stainless steel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High-energy-rate-forged (HERF) stainless steels are used as the materials of construction for pressure vessels designed for the containment of hydrogen and its isotopes. Hydrogen and helium, the decay product of tritium, are known to embrittle these materials. HERF stainless steels have a relatively good resistance to hydrogen-and-helium-induced embrittlement when compared to annealed stainless steels due to their high number density of dislocations, which act as traps for hydrogen and helium. However, the degree of embrittlement in these materials can vary considerably because of microstructure and yield strength variations introduced during the forging process. In this study the effect of hydrogen and tritium on the tensile properties of 21-6-9 stainless steel was measured as a function of HERF yield strength in the range of 660 to 930 MPa. The effect of microstructure was studied also be conducting tensile tests with HERF and annealed samples.

Morgan, M.J.; Lohmeier, D.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

443

The effects of hydrogen isotopes and helium on the tensile properties of 21-6-9 stainless steel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High-energy-rate-forged (HERF) stainless steels are used as the materials of construction for tritium and deuterium reservoirs. Hydrogen and helium, the decay product of tritium, are known to embrittle stainless steels (1--4). The resistance to hydrogen and helium induced embrittlement is relatively good for HERF stainless steels when compared to annealed stainless steels due to their high number density of dislocations, which act as traps for hydrogen and helium. However, the degree of the embrittlement in these materials can vary considerably because of microstructure and yield strength variations introduced during the forging process. In this study the effect of hydrogen and tritium on the room temperature tensile properties of 21-6-9 stainless steel was measured as a function of HERF yield strength in the range of 500 to 918 MPa. The effect of a microstructures was studied also by conducting tensile tests with both HERF samples and annealed samples.

Morgan, M.J.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

444

Liquid helium and liquid neon-sensitive, low background scintillation media for the detection of low energy neutrinos  

SciTech Connect

The use of liquid helium and neon as scintillators for neutrino detection is investigated. Several unique properties of these cryogens make them promising candidates for real-time solar neutrino spectroscopy: large ultraviolet scintillation yields from ionizing radiation, transparency to their own scintillation light, and low levels of radioactive impurities. When neutrinos scatter from electrons in liquid helium or neon, ultraviolet light is emitted. The ultraviolet scintillation light can be efficiently converted to the visible with wavelength shifting films. In this way the neutrino-electron scattering events can be detected by photomultiplier tubes at room temperature. The authors conclude that the solar neutrino flux from the p + p {yields} e{sup +} + d + {nu}{sub e} reaction could be characterized and monitored versus time using a 10 ton mass of liquid helium or neon as a scintillation target.

McKinsey, D.N.; Doyle, J.M.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

The effect of hydrogen isotopes and helium on the tensile properties of 21-6-9 stainless steel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High-energy-rate-forged (HERF) stainless steels are used as the materials of construction for pressure vessels designed for the containment of hydrogen and its isotopes. Hydrogen and helium, the decay product of tritium, are known to embrittle these materials. HERF stainless steels have a relatively good resistance to hydrogen-and-helium-induced embrittlement when compared to annealed stainless steels due to their high number density of dislocations, which act as traps for hydrogen and helium. However, the degree of embrittlement in these materials can vary considerably because of microstructure and yield strength variations introduced during the forging process. In this study the effect of hydrogen and tritium on the tensile properties of 21-6-9 stainless steel was measured as a function of HERF yield strength in the range of 660 to 930 MPa. The effect of microstructure was studied also be conducting tensile tests with HERF and annealed samples.

Morgan, M.J.; Lohmeier, D.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Obtaining polarized liquid helium 3 from optically oriented gas G. Tastevin, P.J. Nacher, L. Wiesenfeld*, M. Leduc and F. Lalo  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Obtaining polarized liquid helium 3 from optically oriented gas G. Tastevin, P.J. Nacher, L liquid helium three can be obtained by liquefaction of a gas polarized by laser optical pumping. We show of the system, for example liquid gas transition di- agrams [4,5]. Studying this class of effects re- quires

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

447

Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cask and MCO Helium Purge System Design Review Completion Report Project A.5 and A.6  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of the design verification performed on the Cask and Multiple Canister Over-pack (MCO) Helium Purge System. The helium purge system is part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cask Loadout System (CLS) at 100K area. The design verification employed the ''Independent Review Method'' in accordance with Administrative Procedure (AP) EN-6-027-01.

ARD, K.E.

2000-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

448

Experimental confirmation of photon-induced spin-flip transitions in helium via triplet metastable yield spectra  

SciTech Connect

Doubly excited states below the N=2 ionization threshold are populated by exciting helium atoms in a supersonic beam with monochromatized synchrotron radiation. The fluorescence decay of these states triggers a radiative cascade back to the ground state with large probability to populate long lived singlet and triplet helium metastable states. The yield of metastables is measured using a multichannel plate detector after the beam has passed a singlet-quenching discharge lamp. The variation of the yield observed with the lamp switched on or off is related to the triplet-singlet mixing of the doubly excited states.

Rubensson, Jan-Erik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 530, S-75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Moise, Angelica; Richter, Robert [Sincrotrone Trieste, in Area Science Park, I-34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Mihelic, Andrej; Bucar, Klemen; Zitnik, Matjaz [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

449

Commissioning and Operational Experience with 1 kW Class Helium Refrigerator/Liquefier for SST?1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The helium refrigerator/liquefier (R/L) for the Steady State Super conducting Tokamak (SST?1) has been developed with very stringent specifications for the different operational modes. The total refrigeration capacity is 650 W at 4.5 K and liquefaction capacity of 200 l/h. A cold circulation pump is used for the forced flow cooling of 300 g/s supercritical helium (SHe) for the magnet system (SCMS). The R/L has been designed also to absorb a 200 W transient heat load of the SCMS. The plant consists of a compressor station

C. P. Dhard; B. Sarkar; Ruchi Misra; A. K. Sahu; V. L. Tanna; J. Tank; P. Panchal; J. C. Patel; G. D. Phadke; Y. C. Saxena

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Continued studies of co-pumping of deuterium and helium on a single, 4K activated charcoal panel  

SciTech Connect

The short program undertaken in 1989 to evaluate the feasibility of co-pumping deuterium and tritium (DT) and helium on a charcoal sorbent showed that the charcoal will indeed simultaneously pump the gases. Of interest also was the fact that the total accumulation of helium (capacity) was virtually identical in constant throughput runs in which the D{sub 2}/He ratio was changed between runs. The test program described in this paper undertaken to evaluate further the co-pumping capabilities of the charcoal sorbent.

Walthers, C.R.; Jenkins, E.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Batzer, T.H. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Sedgley, D.W. (Grumman Aerospace Corp., Bethpage, NY (USA)); Konishi, S.; Ohira, S.; Naruse, Y. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan))

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Ultrafast probing of ejection dynamics of Rydberg atoms and molecular fragments from electronically excited helium nanodroplets  

SciTech Connect

The ejection dynamics of Rydberg atoms and molecular fragments from electronically excited helium nanodroplets are studied with time-resolved extreme ultraviolet ion imaging spectroscopy. At excitation energies of 23.6 {+-} 0.2 eV, Rydberg atoms in n= 3 and n= 4 states are ejected on different time scales and with significantly different kinetic energy distributions. Specifically, n= 3 Rydberg atoms are ejected with kinetic energies as high as 0.85 eV, but their appearance is delayed by approximately 200 fs. In contrast, n= 4 Rydberg atoms appear within the time resolution of the experiment with considerably lower kinetic energies. Major features in the Rydberg atom kinetic energy distributions for both principal quantum numbers can be described within a simple elastic scattering model of localized perturbed atomic Rydberg atoms that are expelled from the droplet due to their repulsive interaction with the surrounding helium bath. Time-dependent kinetic energy distributions of He{sub 2}{sup +} and He{sub 3}{sup +} ions are presented that support the formation of molecular ions in an indirect droplet ionization process and the ejection of neutral Rydberg dimers on a similar time scale as the n= 3 Rydberg atoms.

Buenermann, Oliver; Kornilov, Oleg; Neumark, Daniel M. [Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Haxton, Daniel J.; Gessner, Oliver [Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Leone, Stephen R. [Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2012-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

452

Helium and hydrogen measurements on pure materials irradiated in SINQ Target 4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several irradiations have been performed in the Swiss Spallation Neutron Source (SINQ) to establish a materials database for mixed proton and neutron fluxes for future spallation neutron and other accelerator sources. Pure metal dosimetry materials from the second irradiation (STIP-II) have been analyzed for their total helium and hydrogen contents and their release characteristics with temperature (TDS). Total helium results are similar to those observed earlier from the first irradiation experiment (STIP-I), with concentrations ranging from ~500 to ~1,000 appm. Hydrogen contents varied over a larger range from ~100 to ~60,000 (for Ti, Nb, and Ta). 3He/4He ratios were generally consistent with expectations, except for Ti, Nb, and Ta which showed lower values due to 3He from decay of irradiation-generated tritium. Some differences were observed in the hydrogen TDS data for the control and irradiated materials, including some evidence for additional lower-temperature release and for multiple release peaks. Additionally, differences were noted in the releases for irradiated material that been cleaned versus material that had no cleaning.

Oliver, Brian M.; Dai, Yong

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

453

Quantum entanglement for two electrons in the excited states of helium-like systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The quantum entanglement for the two electrons in the excited states of the helium-like atom/ions is investigated using the two-electron wave functions constructed by the B-spline basis. As a measure of the spatial (electron-electron orbital) entanglement, the von Neumann entropy and linear entropy of the reduced density matrix are calculated for the 1s2s 1,3S excited states for systems with some selected Z values from Z=2 to Z=100. Results for the helium atom are compared with other available calculations. We have also investigated the entropies for these excited states when the nucleus charge is reduced from Z=2 to Z=1. At such a critical charge, all the singly-excited states of this system become unbound, and the linear entropies and the von Neumann entropies for the excited states are approaching 1/2 and 1, respectively, the limits for the entropies when one electron is bound to the nucleus, and the other being free.

Yen-Chang Lin; Yew Kam Ho

2013-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

454

Quantum entanglement for two electrons in the excited states of helium-like systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The quantum entanglement for the two electrons in the excited states of the helium-like atom/ions is investigated using the two-electron wave functions constructed by the B-spline basis. As a measure of the spatial (electron-electron orbital) entanglement, the von Neumann entropy and linear entropy of the reduced density matrix are calculated for the 1s2s 1,3S excited states for systems with some selected Z values from Z=2 to Z=100. Results for the helium atom are compared with other available calculations. We have also investigated the entropies for these excited states when the nucleus charge is reduced from Z=2 to Z=1. At such a critical charge, all the singly-excited states of this system become unbound, and the linear entropies and the von Neumann entropies for the excited states are approaching 1/2 and 1, respectively, the limits for the entropies when one electron is bound to the nucleus, and the other being free.

Lin, Yen-Chang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

OPTIMAL DESIGN AND OPERATION OF HELIUM REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS USING THE GANNI CYCLE  

SciTech Connect

The constant pressure ratio process, as implemented in the floating pressure - Ganni cycle, is a new variation to prior cryogenic refrigeration and liquefaction cycle designs that allows for optimal operation and design of helium refrigeration systems. This cycle is based upon the traditional equipment used for helium refrigeration system designs, i.e., constant volume displacement compression and critical flow expansion devices. It takes advantage of the fact that for a given load, the expander sets the compressor discharge pressure and the compressor sets its own suction pressure. This cycle not only provides an essentially constant system Carnot efficiency over a wide load range, but invalidates the traditional philosophy that the (‘TS’) design condition is the optimal operating condition for a given load using the as-built hardware. As such, the Floating Pressure- Ganni Cycle is a solution to reduce the energy consumption while increasing the reliability, flexibility and stability of these systems over a wide operating range and different operating modes and is applicable to most of the existing plants. This paper explains the basic theory behind this cycle operation and contrasts it to the traditional operational philosophies presently used.

Venkatarao Ganni, Peter Knudsen

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Relations between light emission and electron density and temperature fluctuations in a helium plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relations between three atomic lines, He I 667.8 nm (3{sup 1}D{yields} 2{sup 1}P), 706.5 nm (3{sup 3}S{yields} 2{sup 3}P), and 728.1 nm (3{sup 1}S{yields} 2{sup 1}P), and the underlying fluctuations in a helium plasma are investigated for the quantitative interpretation of optical observations in plasma fluctuation measurements. Frequency dependent fluctuation amplitude ratios and phase delays between the line emission fluctuation and the electron density and temperature fluctuations are calculated based on a quasi-static collisional-radiative model and a linear approximation technique. For frequencies up to the upper limit of practical interest (<1 MHz), the fluctuation amplitude ratios and phase delays are similar to those directly evaluated by the quasi-static model. It is found that the difference between the results from the linear approximation technique and from the quasi-static model is due to the absence of metastable fluctuations. Contributions of the 2{sup 1}S and 2{sup 3}S metastable fluctuations to the three helium line emission fluctuations are analyzed. The linearity between fluctuations in the line emission and in the electron density and temperature is valid for fluctuation levels higher than 10%.

Ma Shuiliang; Howard, John; Thapar, Nandika [Plasma Research Laboratory, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

457

Stability of the bituminous coal microstructure upon exposure to high pressures of helium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) measurements of the structure of two Australian bituminous coals (particle size of 1-0.5 mm) before, during, and after exposure to 155 bar of helium were made to identify any effects of pressure alone on the pore size distribution of coal and any irreversible effects upon exposure to high pressures of helium in the pore size range from 3 nm to 10 {mu}m. No irreversible effects upon exposure were identified for any pore size. No effects of pressure on pore size distribution were observed, except for a small effect at a pore size of about 2 {mu}m for one coal. This study provides a convenient baseline for SANS and USANS investigations on sorption of gases at elevated pressures on coals, by distinguishing between the effect of pressure alone on coal pore size distribution and against the effect of the gas to be investigated. 35 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Richard Sakurovs; Andrzej P. Radliski; Yuri B. Melnichenko; Tomas Blach; Gang Cheng; Hartmut Lemmel; Helmut Rauch [CSIRO Energy Technology, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

458

There is no explosion risk associated with superfluid Helium in the LHC cooling system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We evaluate speculation about the possibility of a dangerous release of energy within the liquid Helium of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) cryogenic system due to the occurrence of a "Bose-Nova". Bose-Novae are radial bursts of rapidly moving atoms which can occur when a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) undergoes a collapse due the interatomic potential being deliberately made attractive using a magnetic field close to the Feshbach resonance. Liquid 4He has a monatomic structure with s-wave electrons, zero nuclear spin, no hyperfine splitting, and as a consequence no Feshbach resonance which would allow one to change its normally repulsive interactions to be attractive. Because of this, a Bose-Nova style collapse of 4He is impossible. Additional speculations concerning cold fusion during these events are easily dismissed using the usual arguments about the Coulomb barrier at low temperatures, and are not needed to explain the Bose-Einstein condensate Bose-Nova phenomenon. We conclude that that there is no physics whatsoever which suggests that Helium could undergo any kind of unforeseen catastrophic explosion.

Malcolm Fairbairn; Bob McElrath

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

459

The Heat Loss Analysis and Commissioning of a Commercial Helium Dewar (SULI paper)  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature cryostat suitable for many different experiments will be commissioned at the cryogenic test facility at SLAC. The scope of the project is to make commission a commercial Helium dewar. The building of the top flange will be followed from its design phase through to its finished assembly. In addition, diagnostic tools such as thermometry, level detector, pressure gauge, transfer lines for He and N2, vent lines with relief valves for He and N2 will be incorporated. Instrumentation to read and plot this data will also be included. Once the cryostat is assembled, we will cool down the cryostat to measure its performance. A typical consumption rate of Helium will be measured and from this, the overall heat leak to the dewar will be calculated. A processing instrumentation diagram (PID) of the dewar system was created with SolidEdge and was later approved and published as an official SLAC document. The plots comparing the liquid level changes of the 36 inch probe with the time and the heat loss as a function of time proved to be a valid indication that the data was interpreted and recorded correctly and that the dewar was put together successfully.

Bellamy, Marcus; /New Mexico U. /SLAC

2006-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

460

The Local Helium Compound Transfer Lines for the Large Hadron Collider Cryogenic System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cryogenic system for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at CERN will include twelve new local helium transfer lines distributed among five LHC points in underground caverns. These lines, being manufactured and installed by industry, will connect the cold boxes of the 4.5-K refrigerators and the 1.8-K refrigeration units to the cryogenic interconnection boxes. The lines have a maximum of 30-m length and may possess either small or large re-distribution units to allow connection to the interface ports. Due to space restrictions the lines may have complex routings and require several elbowed sections. The lines consist of a vacuum jacket, a thermal shield and either three or four helium process pipes. Specific internal and external supporting and compensation systems were designed for each line to allow for thermal contraction of the process pipes (or vacuum jacket, in case of a break in the insulation vacuum) and to minimise the forces applied to the interface equipment. Whenever possible, f...

Parente, C; Munday, A; Wiggins, P

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tion-carbon dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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461

^9-W-9o-^ PERMEATION OF HELIUM THROUGH SCHOTT 8246 GLASS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Permeation of He from the atmosphere through the glass or quartz envelopes of photomultipliers is a threat to their longevity. Helium occurs naturally at the level of 5 ppm in the atmosphere, and can be much higher in laboratories that handle liquid He, or where natural gas is used as a fuel. Helium causes afterpulsing in photomultipliers. (at least) two papers that discuss it1’2. There are Because the permeation characteristics of Schott 8246 were not known, Los Alamos contracted with Jeff Kohli at the New York State College of Ceramics to measure it. The method used is mentioned in his letter, and described in more detail in Ref. 3. It is fairly straightforward, and the same method we are using at Los Alamos to study permeabilities of other materials. Kohli’s data shows that 8246 is actually quite good from the standpoint of resisting permeation by He. As it appears to be better than any other glass commonly used for photomultipliers (see attached Figure), we have not attempted to make a detailed interpretation in terms of afterpulsing. If other glasses are acceptable, Schott 8246 should be more so. The physical reason for this good performance is understood in terms of the presence of relatively heavy cations in the 8246 glass matrix (proprietary ingredient). These tend to block otherwise open channels. We conclude that Schott 8246 should be entirely satisfactory from the He permeation standpoint and that no special precautions (other than protection from high He concentrations) will be required.

R. G. H. Robertson; Jeff Kohli

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Estimation of Carbon Credits in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Activities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Credits in Carbon Credits in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Activities K. Thomas Klasson and Brian H. Davison Oak Ridge National Laboratory * Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6226 Presentation First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration May 14-17, 2001 Washington, DC "The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes." * Managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 1 Estimation of Carbon Credits in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Activities

463

NETL: Demonstration of a Novel Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Demonstration of a Novel Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle Utilizing Pressurized Oxy-Combustion in Conjunction with Cryogenic Compression Project No.: DE-FE0009395 Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) is developing a novel supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) advanced power system utilizing pressurized oxy-combustion in conjunction with cryogenic compression. The proposed power system offers a leap in overall system efficiency while producing an output stream of sequestration ready CO2 at pipeline pressures. The system leverages developments in pressurized oxy-combustion technology and recent developments in sCO2 power cycles to achieve high net cycle efficiencies and produce CO2 at pipeline pressures without requiring additional compression of the flue gas.

464

Development of Geologic Storage Estimates for Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Methodology for the Methodology for Development of Geologic Storage Estimates for Carbon Dioxide Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Carbon Storage Program September 2010 Summary of the Methodology for Development of Geologic Storage Estimates for Carbon Dioxide 2 Authors: U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory/ Strategic Center for Coal/Office of Coal and Power R&D John Litynski U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory/ Strategic Center for Coal/Office of Coal and Power R&D/Sequestration Division Dawn Deel Traci Rodosta U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory/ Office of Research and Development George Guthrie U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory/

465

Cermet Waste Packages Using Depleted Uranium Dioxide and Steel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CERMET WASTE PACKAGES USING DEPLETED URANIUM DIOXIDE AND STEEL CERMET WASTE PACKAGES USING DEPLETED URANIUM DIOXIDE AND STEEL Charles W. Forsberg Oak Ridge National Laboratory * P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6180 Tel: (865) 574-6783 Fax: (865) 574-9512 Email: forsbergcw@ornl.gov Manuscript Number: 078 File Name: DuCermet.HLWcon01.article.final Article Prepared for 2001 International High-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference American Nuclear Society Las Vegas, Nevada April 29-May 3, 2001 Limits: 1500 words; 3 figures Actual: 1450 words; 3 figures Session: 3.6 Disposal Container Materials and Designs The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution,

466

Optimal Geological Enviornments for Carbon Dioxide Storage in Saline Formations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

susan D. Hovorka susan D. Hovorka Principal Investigator University of Texas at Austin Bureau of Economic Geology 10100 Burnet Road, Bldg. 130 P.O. Box X Austin, TX 78713 512-471-4863 susan.hovorka@beg.utexas.edu Optimal GeOlOGical envirOnments fOr carbOn DiOxiDe stOraGe in saline fOrmatiOns Background For carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sequestration to be a successful component of the United States emissions reduction strategy, there will have to be a favorable intersection of a number of factors, such as the electricity market, fuel source, power plant design and operation, capture technology, a suitable geologic sequestration site, and a pipeline right-of-way from the plant to the injection site. The concept of CO 2 sequestration in saline water-bearing formations (saline reservoirs), isolated at

467

Regenerable Immobilized Aminosilane Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Immobilized Aminosilane Sorbents Immobilized Aminosilane Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capture Opportunity Research is currently active on the patent-pending technology titled "Regenerable Immobilized Aminosilane Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capture." The technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview Carbon sequestration entails a multi-step process in which CO 2 is first separated / captured from gas streams followed by permanent storage. Carbon capture represents a critical step in the process and accounts for a considerable portion of the overall cost. Newly developed, high capacity amine-based sorbents offer many advantages over existing technology including increased CO

468

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

Electrobalance studies of calcination and carbonation of sodium bicarbonate materials were conducted at Louisiana State University. Calcination in an inert atmosphere was rapid and complete at 120 C. Carbonation was temperature dependent, and both the initial rate and the extent of reaction were found to decrease as temperature was increased between 60 and 80 C. A fluidization test apparatus was constructed at RTI and two sodium bicarbonate materials were fluidized in dry nitrogen at 22 C. The bed was completely fluidized at between 9 and 11 in. of water pressure drop. Kinetic rate expression derivations and thermodynamic calculations were conducted at RTI. Based on literature data, a simple reaction rate expression, which is zero order in carbon dioxide and water, was found to provide the best fit against reciprocal temperature. Simulations based on process thermodynamics suggested that approximately 26 percent of the carbon dioxide in flue gas could be recovered using waste heat available at 240 C.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Modelling interactions of carbon dioxide, forests, and climate  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric carbon dioxide is rising and forests and climate is changing! This combination of fact and premise may be evaluated at a range of temporal and spatial scales with the aid of computer simulators describing the interrelationships between forest vegetation, litter and soil characteristics, and appropriate meteorological variables. Some insights on the effects of climate on the transfers of carbon and the converse effect of carbon transfer on climate are discussed as a basis for assessing the significance of feedbacks between vegetation and climate under conditions of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide. Three main classes of forest models are reviewed. These are physiologically-based models, forest succession simulators based on the JABOWA model, and ecosystem-carbon budget models that use compartment transfer rates with empirically estimated coefficients. Some regression modeling approaches are also outlined. Energy budget models applied to forests and grasslands are also reviewed. This review presents examples of forest models; a comprehensive discussion of all available models is not undertaken.

Luxmoore, R.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Baldocchi, D.D. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Application Of Optical Processing For Growth Of Silicon Dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing a silicon dioxide film on a surface of a silicon substrate. The process comprises illuminating a silicon substrate in a substantially pure oxygen atmosphere with a broad spectrum of visible and infrared light at an optical power density of from about 3 watts/cm.sup.2 to about 6 watts/cm.sup.2 for a time period sufficient to produce a silicon dioxide film on the surface of the silicon substrate. An optimum optical power density is about 4 watts/cm.sup.2 for growth of a 100.ANG.-300.ANG. film at a resultant temperature of about 400.degree. C. Deep level transient spectroscopy analysis detects no measurable impurities introduced into the silicon substrate during silicon oxide production and shows the interface state density at the SiO.sub.2 /Si interface to be very low.

Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

1997-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

471

Regulation and Permitting of Carbon Dioxide Transport and Geologic Sequestration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a comprehensive review and analysis of United States (U.S.) regulations that will have a direct impact on permitting and commercial-scale deployment of carbon dioxide (CO2) transport and sequestration projects. The report focuses on specific regulations associated with CO2 transport and sequestration, including pipeline regulations and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) proposed rules for characterizing, operating, monitoring, and closing CO2 geologic sequestration we...

2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

472

Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Supported liquid membranes are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties as a direct guide in the development of a capture technology. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities higher than those observed in polymeric membranes which grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high carbon dioxide solubility relative to light gases such as hydrogen, are an excellent candidate for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of several ionic liquids, including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium nitrate, and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium sulfate in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of carbon dioxide from streams containing hydrogen. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame lent expertise in ionic liquid synthesis and characterization, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Initial results have been very promising with carbon dioxide permeabilities as high as 950 barrers and significant improvements in carbon dioxide/hydrogen selectivity over conventional polymers at 37C and at elevated temperatures. Results include a comparison of the performance of several ionic liquids and a number of supports as well as a discussion of innovative fabrication techniques currently under development.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Extraction of iron and calcium from low rank coal by supercritical carbon dioxide with entrainers  

SciTech Connect

Iron and calcium were extracted from low rank coal with supercritical carbon dioxide and methanol, ethanol, acetic acid, acetyl acetone, ethanol and acetic acid, or acetyl acetone and water entrainers at 313.2 K and 15.0 MPa. The low rank coal used in this study was Berau coal from Indonesia. The addition of methanol, ethanol, or acetic acid entrainers in supercritical carbon dioxide showed very limited effect on enhancement of the recovery rates of Fe. The recovery rates of Fe from dried coal by supercritical carbon dioxide with acetyl acetone were low however, the addition of acetyl acetone with water in supercritical carbon dioxide remarkably enhanced the recovery rates of Fe. Water seems to play an important role in extracting Fe from coal with supercritical carbon dioxide and acetyl acetone. On the other hand, the extraction rates of Ca with supercritical carbon dioxide and water, methanol, ethanol, and acetyl acetone entrainers were very low. The addition of acetic acid with or without water in supercritical carbon dioxide slightly enhanced the recovery rates of Ca. The addition of acetic acid with ethanol in supercritical carbon dioxide remarkably enhanced the recovery rates of Ca. The effect of carbon dioxide flow rate and coal particle size on the recovery rates of Fe were examined. The recovery rate of Fe increased with increasing carbon dioxide flow rate and with decreasing particle size of the low rank coal.

Iwai, Y.; Okamoto, N.; Ohta, S.; Arai, Y.; Sakanishi, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

474

A High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants 1 A High Pressure Carbon Dioxide Separation Process for IGCC Plants S.S. Tam 1 , M.E. Stanton 1 , S. Ghose 1 , G. Deppe 1 , D.F. Spencer 2 , R.P. Currier 3 , J.S. Young 3 , G.K. Anderson 3 , L.A. Le 3 , and D.J. Devlin 3 1 Nexant, Inc. (A Bechtel Technology & Consulting Company) 45 Fremont St., 7 th Fl., San Francisco, CA 94506 2 SIMTECHE 13474 Tierra Heights Road, Redding, CA 96003 3 Los Alamos National Laboratory P.O. Box 1663 (MS J567), Los Alamos, NM 87545 1.0 INTRODUCTION Under separate contracts from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy (DOE- FE), Los Alamos National Laboratory, and a team of SIMTECHE and Nexant (a Bechtel Technology and Consulting Company) are jointly working to develop the proprietary process for

475

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2003 and June 30, 2003 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for concentration of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Grade 1 sodium bicarbonate performed similarly to grade 5 sodium bicarbonate in fixed bed testing in that activity improved after the first carbonation cycle and did not decline over the course of 5 cycles. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that sodium bicarbonate sorbents produced by calcination of sodium bicarbonate are superior to either soda ash or calcined trona. Energy requirements for regeneration of carbon dioxide sorbents (either wet or dry) is of primary importance in establishing the economic feasibility of carbon dioxide capture processes. Recent studies of liquid amine sorption processes were reviewed and found to incorporate conflicting assumptions of energy requirements. Dry sodium based processes have the potential to be less energy intensive and thus less expensive than oxygen inhibited amine based systems. For dry supported sorbents, maximizing the active fraction of the sorbent is of primary importance in developing an economically feasible process.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Tyler Moore; Douglas P. Harrison

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

A methodology for forecasting carbon dioxide flooding performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A methodology was developed for forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) flooding performance quickly and reliably. The feasibility of carbon dioxide flooding in the Dollarhide Clearfork "AB" Unit was evaluated using the methodology. This technique is very helpful when time and data resources are limited. The methodology consists of five tasks: 1) select a section of the reservoir with the most detailed geologic, reservoir, and production data, 2) perform material balance analysis for the selected section to determine 001? and the history of total expansion, voidage, and injectage, 3) establish an average 5-spot pattern within the selected section, 4) develop a black oil numerical simulation model for a quarter of the 5-spot pattern and simulate the primary and waterflood recovery processes, and 5) forecast carbon dioxide performance using Shell's Scoping model, Texaco's "PROPHET" model, and VIP miscible simulator. One of the major limitations of the methodology is that details of individual well performance and reservoir pressure and fluid saturation distributions in the project area are not available. Therefore, the forecast is limited to the average pattern and to the reservoir as a whole. Results of the Dollarhide Clearfork simulation study show that 9.7 % to 14.1 % of OOIP may be recovered by C02 flood in the selected section. It would require WAG injection cycles with a total fluid injection of 0.831 HCPV.

Marroquin Cabrera, Juan Carlos

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Method and means of reducing erosion of components of plasma devices exposed to helium and hydrogen isotope radiation  

SciTech Connect

Surfaces of components of plasma devices exposed to radiation by atoms or ions of helium or isotopes of hydrogen can be protected from damage due to blistering by shielding the surfaces with a structure formed by sintering a powder of aluminum or beryllium and its oxide or by coating the surfaces with such a sintered metal powder.

Kaminsky, Manfred S. (Hinsdale, IL); Das, Santosh K. (Naperville, IL); Rossing, Thomas D. (De Kalb, IL)

1977-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

478

Operation and control of space-based solar energy power plants with CCGT using helium as a working medium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The features of a Space-based Solar Energy Power Plant for electric power generation with a closed cycle gas turbine running on Helium are discussed. The system is intended for generating both electricity and process heat for industrial manufacturing processes in a large space station. A system overview for operation and control of such a plant is presented.

Sutsch, A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Electron mobility on the surface of liquid Helium: influence of surface level atoms and depopulation of lowest subbands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The temperature dependence of electron mobility is examined. We calculate the contribution to the electron scattering rate from the surface level atoms (SLAs), proposed in [10]. This contribution is substantial at low temperatures T electron mobility at high temperature. The results explain certain long-standing discrepancies between the existing theory and experiment on electron mobility on the surface of liquid helium.

Grigoriev, P. D., E-mail: grigorev@itp.ac.ru; Dyugaev, A. M. [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation); Lebedeva, E. V. [Institute of Solid State Physics (Russian Federation)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

480

EIA - Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world's carbon dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world's carbon dioxide emissions? Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world's carbon dioxide emissions? International Energy Outlook 2010 Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world'ss carbon dioxide emissions? The pursuit of greenhouse gas reductions has the potential to reduce global coal use significantly. Because coal is the most carbon-intensive of all fossil fuels, limitations on carbon dioxide emissions will raise the cost of coal relative to the costs of other fuels. Under such circumstances, the degree to which energy use shifts away from coal to other fuels will depend largely on the costs of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired plants relative to the costs of using other, low-carbon or carbon-free energy sources. The continued widespread use of coal could rely on the cost and availability of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies that capture carbon dioxide and store it in geologic formations.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tion-carbon dioxide helium" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.