National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for tion-carbon dioxide helium

  1. Carbon dioxide and helium emissions from a reservoir of magmatic gas beneath Mammoth Mountain, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorey, M.L.; Evans, W.C. [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California (United States)] Kennedy, B.M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States)] Farrar, C.D. [U.S. Geological Survey, Carnelian Bay, California (United States)] Hainsworth, L.J. [Chemistry Department, Emory and Henry College, Emory, Virginia (United States)] Hausback, B. [Geology Department, California State University, Sacramento

    1998-07-01

    Carbon dioxide and helium with isotopic compositions indicative of a magmatic source ({delta}thinsp{sup 13}C={minus}4.5 to {minus}5{per_thousand}, {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He=4.5 to 6.7 R{sub A}) are discharging at anomalous rates from Mammoth Mountain, on the southwestern rim of the Long Valley caldera in eastern California. The gas is released mainly as diffuse emissions from normal-temperature soils, but some gas issues from steam vents or leaves the mountain dissolved in cold groundwater. The rate of gas discharge increased significantly in 1989 following a 6-month period of persistent earthquake swarms and associated strain and ground deformation that has been attributed to dike emplacement beneath the mountain. An increase in the magmatic component of helium discharging in a steam vent on the north side of Mammoth Mountain, which also began in 1989, has persisted until the present time. Anomalous CO{sub 2} discharge from soils first occurred during the winter of 1990 and was followed by observations of several areas of tree kill and/or heavier than normal needlecast the following summer. Subsequent measurements have confirmed that the tree kills arc associated with CO{sub 2} concentrations of 30{endash}90{percent} in soil gas and gas flow rates of up to 31,000 gthinspm{sup {minus}2}thinspd{sup {minus}1} at the soil surface. Each of the tree-kill areas and one area of CO{sub 2} discharge above tree line occurs in close proximity to one or more normal faults, which may provide conduits for gas flow from depth. We estimate that the total diffuse CO{sub 2} flux from the mountain is approximately 520 t/d, and that 30{endash}50 t/d of CO{sub 2} are dissolved in cold groundwater flowing off the flanks of the mountain. Isotopic and chemical analyses of soil and fumarolic gas demonstrate a remarkable homogeneity in composition, suggesting that the CO{sub 2} and associated helium and excess nitrogen may be derived from a common gas reservoir whose source is associated with some combination of magmatic degassing and thermal metamorphism of metasedimentary rocks. Furthermore, N{sub 2}/Ar ratios and nitrogen isotopic values indicate that the Mammoth Mountain gases are derived from sources separate from those that supply gas to the hydrothermal system within the Long Valley caldera. Various data suggest that the Mammoth Mountain gas reservoir is a large, low-temperature cap over an isolated hydrothermal system, that it predates the 1989 intrusion, and that it could remain a source of gas discharge for some time. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  2. Bisphosphine dioxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moloy, K.G.

    1990-02-20

    A process is described for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  3. Bisphosphine dioxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moloy, Kenneth G. (Charleston, WV)

    1990-01-01

    A process for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  4. Helium Ash Simulation Studies with Divertor Helium Pumping in JET Internal Transport Barrier Discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helium Ash Simulation Studies with Divertor Helium Pumping in JET Internal Transport Barrier Discharges

  5. Helium cooled Flibe blanket

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moir, R.

    1984-10-01

    The blanket design uses a pressure vessel to contain the 50 atmosphere helium gas. Helium cools the first wall and blanket internals. The internals consist of a bed of beryllium balls nominally 1 cm diameter in which neutrons are multiplied and later captured, breeding adequate (even excess) amounts of tritium and releasing energy in exothermic nuclear reactions. Tritium is bred in the molten flibe salt which flows slowly (0.1m/sec) in steel tubes. The salt is kept reducing by periodic reacting with beryllium so the tritium will be in the T/sub 2/ form, however with somewhat enhanced corrosion rate the salt could be kept oxidizing in which case the tritium would be in the TF form. To prevent the tritium from permitting too much into the helium stream, a tungsten coating on the inside of the tubes is proposed. Tritium is removed from the salt and helium by processing both. Because the solubility of tritium in Flibe is so low, there will be a strong driving force for tritium permeation and this places a great burden on a high integrity tungsten permeation barrier. The tritium in the helium is prevented from permeating excessively into the steam system by jacketing the steel steam generator tubes with a 1 mm aluminum jacket. Clearly, tritium containment and barrier development are the most important feasibility issues for this design.

  6. Photoionization Dynamics in Pure Helium Droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterka, Darcy S.; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Wang, Chia C.; Poisson, Lionel; Neumark, Daniel M.

    2007-01-01

    correlated with production of the largest helium droplets.production Our experiments show that the photoionization of large helium

  7. Carbon Dioxide and Helium Emissions from a Reservoir of Magmatic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    have confirmed that the tree kills are associated with CO2 concentrations of 30-90% in soil gas and gas flow rates of up to 31,000 g m2 d1 at the soil surface. Each of the...

  8. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, Patrick R. (Darien, IL); Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.

  9. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.

    1988-09-13

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.

  10. SCHE Helium bottles and associated isolation valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-06-21

    These gas bottles and associated valves provide the safety grade helium source for emergency MCO purge.

  11. ITER helium ash accumulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, J.T.; Hillis, D.L.; Galambos, J.; Uckan, N.A. ); Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H. . Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik); Hulse, R.A.; Budny, R.V. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} in determining the level of He ash accumulation in future reactor systems. Results of the first tokamak He removal experiments have been analysed, and a first estimate of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} to be expected for future reactor systems has been made. The experiments were carried out for neutral beam heated plasmas in the TEXTOR tokamak, at KFA/Julich. Helium was injected both as a short puff and continuously, and subsequently extracted with the Advanced Limiter Test-II pump limiter. The rate at which the He density decays has been determined with absolutely calibrated charge exchange spectroscopy, and compared with theoretical models, using the Multiple Impurity Species Transport (MIST) code. An analysis of energy confinement has been made with PPPL TRANSP code, to distinguish beam from thermal confinement, especially for low density cases. The ALT-II pump limiter system is found to exhaust the He with maximum exhaust efficiency (8 pumps) of {approximately}8%. We find 1<{upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E}<3.3 for the database of cases analysed to date. Analysis with the ITER TETRA systems code shows that these values would be adequate to achieve the required He concentration with the present ITER divertor He extraction system.

  12. Lung Function Measurement with Multiple-Breath-Helium Washout System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jau-Yi; Owers-Bradley, John; Mellor, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-breath-washout (MBW) measurements are regarded as a sensitive technique which can reflect the ventilation inhomogeneity of respiratory airways. Typically nitrogen is used as the tracer gas and is washed out by pure oxygen in multi-breath-nitrogen (MBNW) washout tests. In this work, instead of using nitrogen, helium is used as the tracer gas and a multiple-helium-breath-washout (MBHW) system has been developed for the lung function study. A commercial quartz tuning fork with a resonance frequency of 32768 Hz has been used for detecting the change of the respiratory gas density. The resonance frequency of the tuning fork decreases linearly with increasing density of the surrounding gas. Knowing the CO2 concentration from the infrared carbon dioxide detector, the helium concentration can be determined. Results from 12 volunteers (3 mild asthmatics, 2 smokers, 1 with asthma history, 1 with COPD history, 5 normal) have shown that mild asthmatics have higher ventilation inhomogeneity in either conducting o...

  13. The cosmic production of Helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raul Jimenez; Chris Flynn; James MacDonald; Brad K. Gibson

    2003-03-07

    We estimate the cosmic production rate of helium relative to metals ($\\Delta Y/\\Delta Z$) using K dwarf stars in the Hipparcos catalog with accurate spectroscopic metallicities. The best fitting value is $\\Delta Y/\\Delta Z=2.1 \\pm 0.4$ at the 68% confidence level. Our derived value agrees with determinations from HII regions and with theoretical predictions from stellar yields with standard assumptions for the initial mass function. The amount of helium in stars determines how long they live and therefore how fast they will enrich the insterstellar medium with fresh material.

  14. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN); Todd, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1987-01-01

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  15. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, R.S.; Todd, R.A.

    1985-04-09

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  16. Modified GR and Helium Nucleosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. S. Al-Rawaf

    2006-06-12

    We show that a previously proposed cosmological model based on general relativity with non vanishing divergence for the energy-momentum tensor is consistent with the observed values for the nucleosynthesis of helium for some values of the arbitrary parameter $\\alpha$ presented in this model. Further more values of $\\alpha$ can be accommodated if we adopt the Randall-Sundrum single brane model.

  17. CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    ........................................................................................ 21 2.3.5 Pulp and paper industry Technologies and Measures in Pulp and Paper IndustryCARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AND MEASURES IN US INDUSTRIAL SECTOR FINAL REPORT

  18. Carbon dioxide removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2003-11-18

    A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

  19. The Epoch of Helium Reionization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aaron Sokasian; Tom Abel; Lars. E. Hernquist

    2001-12-14

    We study the reionization of Helium II by quasars using a numerical approach that combines 3D radiative transfer calculations with cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. Sources producing the ionizing radiation are selected according to an empirical quasar luminosity function and are assigned luminosities according to their intrinsic masses. We present models in which these parameters are varied and examine characteristics of the resultant reionization process that distinguish the various cases. In addition, we extract artificial spectra from the simulations and quantify statistical properties of the spectral features in each model. We find that the most important factor affecting the evolution of He II reionization is the cumulative number of ionizing photons that are produced by the sources. Comparisons between He II opacities measured observationally and those obtained by our analysis reveal that the available ranges in plausible values for the parameters provide enough leeway to provide a satisfactory match. However, one property common to all our calculations is that the epoch of Helium II reionization must have occurred at a redshift between 3 < z < 4. If so, future observational programs will be able to directly trace the details of the ionization history of helium and probe the low density phase of the intergalactic medium during this phase of the evolution of the Universe.

  20. BEHAVIOR OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Rosa L.

    2013-01-01

    Metallic Inclusions in Uranium Dioxide", LBL-11117 (1980).in Hypostoichiornetric Uranium Dioxide 11 , LBL-11095 (OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE Rosa L. Yang and

  1. Energy, helium, and the future: II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupka, M.C.; Hammel, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    The importance of helium as a critical resource material has been recognized specifically by the scientific community and more generally by the 1960 Congressional mandate to institute a long-range conservation program. A major study mandated by the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 resulted in the publication in 1975 of the document, The Energy-Related Applications of Helium, ERDA-13. This document contained a comprehensive review and analysis relating to helium resources and present and future supply/demand relationships with particular emphasis upon those helium-dependent energy-related technologies projected to be implemented in the post-2000 year time period, e.g., fusion. An updated overview of the helium situation as it exists today is presented. Since publication of ERDA-13, important changes in the data base underlying that document have occurred. The data have since been reexamined, revised, and new information included. Potential supplies of helium from both conventional and unconventional natural gas resources, projected supply/demand relationships to the year 2030 based upon a given power-generation scenario, projected helium demand for specific energy-related technologies, and the supply options (national and international) available to meet that demand are discussed. An updated review will be given of the energy requirements for the extraction of helium from natural gas as they relate to the concentration of helium. A discussion is given concerning the technical and economic feasibility of several methods available both now and conceptually possible, to extract helium from helium-lean natural gas, the atmosphere, and outer space. Finally, a brief review is given of the 1980 Congressional activities with respect to the introduction and possible passage of new helium conservation legislation.

  2. Project Profile: Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Profile: Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage Using Strontium Carbonate Project Profile: Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage Using Strontium...

  3. Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial Electrosynthesis with Synthetic Electromicrobiology and System Design Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide:...

  4. HELIUM COMPRESSOR MONITORING SYSTEM Donna Kubik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HELIUM COMPRESSOR MONITORING SYSTEM Donna Kubik Arecibo Observatory #12;1 CONTENTS 1. Design goals for Phaseloss Detection Lambda +15V Power Supply Distribution Remote Control of 120VC to Compressor Monitoring System Fiber and Network Connections #12;3 1. Design goals Helium refrigerators cool the cryogenically

  5. Helium on Venus: Implications for uranium and thorium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, MJ; Mcelroy, MB

    1983-01-01

    Implications for Uranium and Thorium Abstract. Helium isa wide range of uranium and thorium abundances. simi· lar toof crustal uranium and thorium. Studies of helium in Earth's

  6. Double, Double Toil and Trouble: Tungsten Burns and Helium Bubbles...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    larger when it bursts, creating more surface debris. The colors indicate helium atoms (blue) and tungsten atoms (red). The Science When simulated helium (He) bubbles grow quickly,...

  7. Carbon Dioxide & Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Carbon Dioxide & Global Warming University of MiaMi rosenstiel sChool of Marine anD atMospheriC s , organic carbon, and other chemicals that contribute to global warming in a variety of studies. DownCienCe 4600 rickenbacker Causeway Miami, florida 33149 http://www.rsmas.miami.edu the Chemistry of Global

  8. Carbon dioxide sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  9. Sonic helium detectors in the Fermilab Tevatron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bossert, R.J.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    In the Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system there are many remotely located low-pressure plate relief valves that must vent large volumes of cold helium gas when magnet quenches occur. These valves can occasionally stick open or not reseat completely, resulting in a large helium loss. As such, the need exists for a detector to monitor the relief valve's discharge area for the presence of helium. Due to the quantity needed, cost is an important factor. A unit has been developed and built for this purpose that is quite inexpensive. Its operating principle is based on the speed of sound, where two closely matched tubes operate at their acoustic resonant frequency. When helium is introduced into one of these tubes, the resulting difference in acoustic time of flight is used to trigger an alarm. At present, there are 39 of these units installed and operating in the Tevatron. They have detected many minor and major helium leaks, and have also been found useful in detecting a rise in the helium background in the enclosed refrigerator buildings. This paper covers the construction, usage and operational experience gained with these units over the last several years.

  10. Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes (State College, PA); Zhang, Yinzhi (State College, PA); Kuchta, Matthew E. (State College, PA); Andresen, John M. (State College, PA); Fauth, Dan J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2009-10-20

    A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

  11. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

  12. Carbon dioxide and climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  13. TRANSPARENT HELIUM IN STRIPPED ENVELOPE SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piro, Anthony L.; Morozova, Viktoriya S., E-mail: piro@caltech.edu [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., M/C 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Using simple arguments based on photometric light curves and velocity evolution, we propose that some stripped envelope supernovae (SNe) show signs that a significant fraction of their helium is effectively transparent. The main pieces of evidence are the relatively low velocities with little velocity evolution, as are expected deep inside an exploding star, along with temperatures that are too low to ionize helium. This means that the helium should not contribute to the shaping of the main SN light curve, and thus the total helium mass may be difficult to measure from simple light curve modeling. Conversely, such modeling may be more useful for constraining the mass of the carbon/oxygen core of the SN progenitor. Other stripped envelope SNe show higher velocities and larger velocity gradients, which require an additional opacity source (perhaps the mixing of heavier elements or radioactive nickel) to prevent the helium from being transparent. We discuss ways in which similar analysis can provide insights into the differences and similarities between SNe Ib and Ic, which will lead to a better understanding of their respective formation mechanisms.

  14. Uranium dioxide electrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willit, James L. (Batavia, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Prescott, AZ); Williamson, Mark A. (Naperville, IL)

    2009-12-29

    This is a single stage process for treating spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. The spent nuclear fuel, uranium oxide, UO.sub.2, is added to a solution of UCl.sub.4 dissolved in molten LiCl. A carbon anode and a metallic cathode is positioned in the molten salt bath. A power source is connected to the electrodes and a voltage greater than or equal to 1.3 volts is applied to the bath. At the anode, the carbon is oxidized to form carbon dioxide and uranium chloride. At the cathode, uranium is electroplated. The uranium chloride at the cathode reacts with more uranium oxide to continue the reaction. The process may also be used with other transuranic oxides and rare earth metal oxides.

  15. Helium 'balloons' offer new path to control complex materials...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Morgan McCorkle Communications and Media Relations 865.574.7308 Helium 'balloons' offer new path to control complex materials Inserting helium atoms (visualized as a red balloon)...

  16. Continuum-scale Modeling of Hydrogen and Helium Bubble Growth...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Continuum-scale Modeling of Hydrogen and Helium Bubble Growth in Metals Continuum-scale Modeling of Hydrogen and Helium Bubble Growth in Metals Presentation from the 34th Tritium...

  17. Trace Detection of Metastable Helium Molecules in Superfluid Helium by Laser-Induced Fluorescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. N. McKinsey; W. H. Lippincott; J. Nikkel; W. Rellergert

    2005-03-11

    We describe an approach to detecting ionizing radiation that combines the special properties of superfluid helium with the sensitivity of quantum optics techniques. Ionization in liquid helium results in the copious production of metastable helium molecules, which can be detected by laser-induced fluorescence. Each molecule can be probed many times using a cycling transition, resulting in the detection of individual molecules with high signal to noise. This technique could be used to detect neutrinos, weakly interacting massive particles, and ultracold neutrons, and to image superfluid flow in liquid He-4.

  18. Radiogenic Source Identification for the Helium Production-Diffusion ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-10-17

    Oct 18, 2012 ... Key words: Inverse source problem, production-diffusion equation, Tikhonov regularization. 1 Introduction. Helium isotopes are used ...

  19. Helium-3 in Planetary Nebulae Bob Rood (UVa),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Dana S.

    the VLA · We probably have found helium-3 in NGC7009 using the GBT and may have a second detection in NGCHelium-3 in Planetary Nebulae Bob Rood (UVa), Tom Bania (BU), Dana Balser (NRAO), Miller Goss (NRAO, lags, and amplitudes #12;Helium-3 Conclusions · We have found helium-3 in another PN, J320, using

  20. Spectroscopy of He 2 Floating on the Liquid Helium Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northby, Jan A.

    Spectroscopy of He 2 Floating on the Liquid Helium Surface Chih-Ching Hu, Raghuram Petluri, Jan A helium molecules produced in electron bombarded helium nanodroplets subsequently are detached by infrared highly sensitive detection of the absorption spectrum. Recent experiments utilize a new tunable infrared

  1. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  2. Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

    2014-11-18

    A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

  3. Carbon Dioxide and Helium Emissions from a Reservoir of Magmatic Gas

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButte County,Camilla, Georgia: Energy ResourcesRanch Jump to:CapitalDome Of

  4. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01

    Damage Costs of Carbon Dioxide Emissions: An Assessment ofper Megawatt Hrs) Carbon Dioxide Emissions Cost ($ per Year)Megawatt Hrs) Carbon Dioxide Emissions Cost MSA Emissions

  5. THERMAL OSCILLATIONS IN LIQUID HELIUM TARGETS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WANG,L.; JIA,L.X.

    2001-07-16

    A liquid helium target for the high-energy physics was built and installed in the proton beam line at the Alternate Gradient Synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2001. The target flask has a liquid volume of 8.25 liters and is made of thin Mylar film. A G-M/J-T cryocooler of five-watts at 4.2K was used to produce liquid helium and refrigerate the target. A thermosyphon circuit for the target was connected to the J-T circuit by a liquid/gas separator. Because of the large heat load to the target and its long transfer lines, thermal oscillations were observed during the system tests. To eliminate the oscillation, a series of tests and analyses were carried out. This paper describes the phenomena and provides the understanding of the thermal oscillations in the target system.

  6. Closed-loop pulsed helium ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN); Todd, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1987-01-01

    A helium ionization detector for gas chromatography is operated in a constant current, pulse-modulated mode by configuring the detector, electrometer and a high voltage pulser in a closed-loop control system. The detector current is maintained at a fixed level by varying the frequency of fixed-width, high-voltage bias pulses applied to the detector. An output signal proportional to the pulse frequency is produced which is indicative of the charge collected for a detected species.

  7. Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, D.P.

    1984-06-05

    A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

  8. Development of charcoal sorbents for helium cryopumping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sedgley, D.W.; Tobin, A.G.

    1985-09-30

    Improved methods for cryopumping helium were developed for application to fusion reactors where high helium generation rates are expected. This study period evaluated charcoal particle size, bonding agent type and thickness, and substrate thickness. The optimum combination of charcoal, bond, and substrate was used to form a scaled-up panel for evaluation in the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos. The optimum combination is a 12 x 30 mesh coconut charcoal attached to a 0.48 cm thick copper substrate by a 0.015 cm thick silver phosphorus copper braze. A copper cement bond for attaching charcoal to a substrate was identified and tested. Helium pumping performance of this combination was comparable to that of the charcoal braze system. Environmental tests showed the charcoal's susceptibility to vacuum chamber contamination. Performance degradation followed exposure of ambient temperature charcoal to a vacuum for prolonged periods. Maintaining a liquid nitrogen-cooled shield between the charcoal and the source of contamination prevented this degradation. A combination of bake-out and LN shielding effected recovery of degraded performance.

  9. OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Kee Chul

    2010-01-01

    IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE Kee Chul Kim Ph.D.727-366; Figure 1. Oxygen-uranium phase-equilibrium _ystem [18]. uranium dioxide powders and 18 0 enriched carbon

  10. In situ controlled modification of the helium density in single helium-filled nanobubbles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David, M.-L. Pailloux, F.; Alix, K.; Mauchamp, V.; Pizzagalli, L.; Couillard, M.; Botton, G. A.

    2014-03-28

    We demonstrate that the helium density and corresponding pressure can be modified in single nano-scale bubbles embedded in semiconductors by using the electron beam of a scanning transmission electron microscope as a multifunctional probe: the measurement probe for imaging and chemical analysis and the irradiation source to modify concomitantly the pressure in a controllable way by fine tuning of the electron beam parameters. The control of the detrapping rate is achieved by varying the experimental conditions. The underlying physical mechanisms are discussed; our experimental observations suggest that the helium detrapping from bubbles could be interpreted in terms of direct ballistic collisions, leading to the ejection of the helium atoms from the bubble.

  11. VAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE FROM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE the vapor-liquid equilibrium of water (between 323 and 573 K), carbon dioxide (between 230 and 290 K) and their binary mixtures (between 348 and 393 K). The properties of supercritical carbon dioxide were determined

  12. Project Profile: Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Receiver Development Project Profile: Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver Development National Renewable Energy Laboratory logo The National Renewable Energy...

  13. Mantle helium along the Newport-Inglewood fault zone, Los Angeles basin, California-A leaking paleo-subduction zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boles, J. R; Garven, G.; Camacho, H.; Lupton, J. E

    2015-01-01

    4 + 4 ]. The total helium production term J tot (reactiveal. [1997], the total helium production term J tot (reactive= radiogenic helium production rate from the crust (~

  14. MODELING SPACE-TIME DEPENDENT HELIUM BUBBLE EVOLUTION IN TUNGSTEN ARMOR UNDER IFE CONDITIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    dependent Helium transport in finite geometries, including the simultaneous transient production of defects of Helium bubbles. I. INTRODUCTION Helium production and helium bubble evolution in neutronMODELING SPACE-TIME DEPENDENT HELIUM BUBBLE EVOLUTION IN TUNGSTEN ARMOR UNDER IFE CONDITIONS Qiyang

  15. Design of the Helium Purifier for IHEP-ADS Helium Purification System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jianqin, Zhang; Zhuo, Zhang; Rui, Ge

    2015-01-01

    Helium Purification System is an important sub-system in the Accelerator Driven Subcritical System of the Institute of High Energy Physics(IHEP ADS). The purifier is designed to work at the temperature of 77K. The purifier will work in a flow rate of 5g/s at 20MPa in continuous operation of 12 hours. The oil and moisture are removed by coalescing filters and a dryer, while nitrogen and oxygen are condensed by a phase separator and then adsorbed in several activated carbon adsorption cylinders. After purification, the purified helium has an impurity content of less than 5ppm.

  16. The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huppert, Herbert

    with a potentially disastrous global problem owing to the current emission of 32 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Herbert E. Huppert1-3 and Jerome A. Neufeld4 1 FurtherANNUAL REVIEWS #12;1. INTRODUCTION Undeniably, the average global carbon dioxide (CO2) content

  17. Carbon Dioxide and Climate: A Scientific Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    Carbon Dioxide and Climate: A Scientific Assessment Report of an Ad Hoc Study Group on Carbon on Carbon Dioxide and Climate Jule G. Charney, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chairman Akio Arakawa Dioxide and Climate Woods Hole, Massachusetts July 23-27, 1979 to the Climate Research Board Assembly

  18. SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW J. E. Santos1, G. B. Savioli2, J. M. Carcione3, D´e, Argentina SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. I Storage of CO2). SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. II CO2 is separated from natural

  19. SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW J. E. Santos1 1 Department of Mathematics, Purdue University, USA Purdue University, March 1rst, 2013 SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12 (North Sea). SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. II CO2 is separated

  20. Boron-10 Neutron Detectors for Helium-3 Replacement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Email Boron-10 Neutron Detectors for Helium-3 Replacement Applications: Portal monitoring Nuclear energy safety and monitoring Nuclear non-proliferation Benefits: Drop-in...

  1. Helium measurements of pore-fluids obtained from SAFOD drillcore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali, S.

    2010-01-01

    helium concentrations in the well fluid samples recovered during SAFOD drilling project were very small (very close to the GC detection

  2. Helium Isotopes in Geothermal and Volcanic Gases of the Western...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    fluid as it flows eastward over the caldera. Decreasing Hecondensible-gas ( HeCO2) ratios accompanying this trend suggest that CO2 addition andor preferential helium...

  3. Helium-3 and Helium-4 acceleration by high power laser pulses for hadron therapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bulanov, S S; Schroeder, C B; Leemans, W P; Bulanov, S V; Margarone, D; Korn, G; Haberer, T

    2015-01-01

    The laser driven acceleration of ions is considered a promising candidate for an ion source for hadron therapy of oncological diseases. Though proton and carbon ion sources are conventionally used for therapy, other light ions can also be utilized. Whereas carbon ions require 400 MeV per nucleon to reach the same penetration depth as 250 MeV protons, helium ions require only 250 MeV per nucleon, which is the lowest energy per nucleon among the light ions. This fact along with the larger biological damage to cancer cells achieved by helium ions, than that by protons, makes this species an interesting candidate for the laser driven ion source. Two mechanisms (Magnetic Vortex Acceleration and hole-boring Radiation Pressure Acceleration) of PW-class laser driven ion acceleration from liquid and gaseous helium targets are studied with the goal of producing 250 MeV per nucleon helium ion beams that meet the hadron therapy requirements. We show that He3 ions, having almost the same penetration depth as He4 with the ...

  4. Universal molecule injector in liquid helium: Pulsed cryogenic doped helium droplet source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apkarian, V. Ara

    for the injection of atomic impurities in bulk helium.1 The electrostatically driven injection of ions,12 injection of ions with subsequent neutralization,13 and in situ laser ablation,14,15 direct coupling of discharged gas flow to the liquid,16 are examples. These methods have succeeded mainly in the injection of atomic

  5. THE CONSTRUCTION AND TESTING OF A DOUBLE ACTING BELLOWS LIQUID HELIUM PUMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    ACTING BELLOWS LIQUID HELIUM PUMP A. Burns, M. A. Green, R.ACTING BELLOWS LIQUID HELIUM PUMP W.A. Burns, M.A. Green,bellows liquid helium pump built and tested at the Lawrence

  6. The components for a quantum computer based on surface state electrons on liquid helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naberhuis, Brian Patrick

    2007-01-01

    explanation of no detection events after helium was added toOnce helium was introduced to the cell, electron detectionDetection In their original paper on electrons on helium

  7. Kosterlitz-Thouless Transition in Helium Films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agnolet, Glenn; MCQUEENEY, DF; REPPY, JD.

    1989-01-01

    , Cornell University, Ithaca, Xetv York 14853 (Received 4 November 1988) The superAuid response of helium Alms with transition temperatures ranging from 70 mK to 0.5 K has been studied using a torsional oscillator technique. A detailed analysis... with the dynamic theory reveal nonuniversal behavior as a function of coverage. INTRODUCTION The superAuid phase transition in thin He films on planar surfaces is generally acknowledged to be a realiza- tion of a Kosterlitz-Thouless' (KT) two-dimensional (2D...

  8. Thermo-Mechanical Pumps for Superfluid Helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaiser, G.; Schumann, B.; Stangl, R.; Binneberg, A.; Wobst, E. [Institut fuer Luft- und Kaeltetechnik gGmbH, Hauptbereich Kaelte- und Tieftemperaturtechnik, Bertolt-Brecht-Allee 20, Dresden, D-01219 (Germany)

    2004-06-23

    In Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer-02 (AMS-02) experiment a large scale superconducting magnet separates charged particles coming from cosmic radiation. Two thermo-mechanical pumps (TMP), operating by use of the Fountain-effect, will be used to supply the current leads and the magnet coil after quench with superfluid helium. These TMP are currently under development at ILK Dresden. Due to the applications the TMP are required to pump a mass flow of 0.2 g/s. After introduction into the basic principles essential for TMP function, we report on the development and tests of the TMP for AMS-02.

  9. Polarized Helium to Image the Lung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leduc, M; Leduc, Mich\\`{e}le; Nacher, Pierre-Jean

    2006-01-01

    The main findings of the european PHIL project (Polarised Helium to Image the Lung) are reported. State of the art optical pumping techniques for polarising ^3He gas are described. MRI methodological improvements allow dynamical ventilation images with a good resolution, ultimately limited by gas diffusion. Diffusion imaging appears as a robust method of lung diagnosis. A discussion of the potential advantage of low field MRI is presented. Selected PHIL results for emphysema are given, with the perspectives that this joint work opens up for the future of respiratory medicine.

  10. Production of thorium-229 using helium nuclei

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirzadeh, Saed (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Garland, Marc Alan (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-14

    A method for producing .sup.229Th includes the steps of providing .sup.226Ra as a target material, and bombarding the target material with alpha particles, helium-3, or neutrons to form .sup.229Th. When neutrons are used, the neutrons preferably include an epithermal neutron flux of at least 1.times.10.sup.13 n s.sup.-1cm.sup.-2. .sup.228Ra can also be bombarded with thermal and/or energetic neutrons to result in a neutron capture reaction to form .sup.229Th. Using .sup.230Th as a target material, .sup.229Th can be formed using neutron, gamma ray, proton or deuteron bombardment.

  11. A MEMS Thin Film AlN Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ya-Mei

    2011-01-01

    and density measurement for carbon dioxide + pentaerythritolfrom supercritical carbon dioxide”, Journal of Crystalwith supercritical carbon dioxide as the solvent [

  12. Neutrons on a surface of liquid helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. D. Grigoriev; O. Zimmer; T. Ziman; A. D. Grigoriev

    2015-09-21

    We investigate the possibility of ultracold neutron (UCN) storage in quantum states defined by the combined potentials of the Earth's gravity and the neutron optical repulsion by a horizontal surface of liquid helium. We analyse the stability of the lowest quantum state, which is most susceptible to perturbations due to surface excitations, against scattering by helium atoms in the vapor and by excitations of the liquid, comprised of ripplons, phonons and surfons. This is an unusual scattering problem since the kinetic energy of the neutron parallel to the surface may be much greater than the binding energies perpendicular. The total scattering time constant of these UCNs at 0.7 K is found to exceed one hour, and rapidly increasing with decreasing temperature. Such low scattering rates should enable high-precision measurements of the scheme of discrete energy levels, thus providing improved access to short-range gravity. The system might also be useful for neutron beta-decay experiments. We also sketch new experimental concepts for level population and trapping of UCNs above a flat horizontal mirror.

  13. Liquid uranium alloy-helium fission reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minkov, Vladimir (Skokie, IL)

    1986-01-01

    This invention teaches a nuclear fission reactor having a core vessel and at least one tandem heat exchanger vessel coupled therewith across upper and lower passages to define a closed flow loop. Nuclear fuel such as a uranium alloy in its liquid phase fills these vessels and flow passages. Solid control elements in the reactor core vessel are adapted to be adjusted relative to one another to control fission reaction of the liquid fuel therein. Moderator elements in the other vessel and flow passages preclude fission reaction therein. An inert gas such as helium is bubbled upwardly through the heat exchanger vessel operable to move the liquid fuel upwardly therein and unidirectionally around the closed loop and downwardly through the core vessel. This helium gas is further directed to heat conversion means outside of the reactor vessels to utilize the heat from the fission reaction to generate useful output. The nuclear fuel operates in the 1200.degree.-1800.degree. C. range, and even higher to 2500.degree. C., limited only by the thermal effectiveness of the structural materials, increasing the efficiency of power generation from the normal 30-35% with 300.degree.-500.degree. C. upper limit temperature to 50-65%. Irradiation of the circulating liquid fuel, as contrasted to only localized irradiation of a solid fuel, provides improved fuel utilization.

  14. Liquid uranium alloy-helium fission reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minkov, V.

    1984-06-13

    This invention describes a nuclear fission reactor which has a core vessel and at least one tandem heat exchanger vessel coupled therewith across upper and lower passages to define a closed flow loop. Nuclear fuel such as a uranium alloy in its liquid phase fills these vessels and flow passages. Solid control elements in the reactor core vessel are adapted to be adjusted relative to one another to control fission reaction of the liquid fuel therein. Moderator elements in the other vessel and flow passages preclude fission reaction therein. An inert gas such as helium is bubbled upwardly through the heat exchanger vessel operable to move the liquid fuel upwardly therein and unidirectionally around the closed loop and downwardly through the core vessel. This helium gas is further directed to heat conversion means outside of the reactor vessels to utilize the heat from the fission reaction to generate useful output. The nuclear fuel operates in the 1200 to 1800/sup 0/C range, and even higher to 2500/sup 0/C.

  15. Neutrons on a surface of liquid helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grigoriev, P D; Ziman, T; Grigoriev, A D

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of ultracold neutron (UCN) storage in quantum states defined by the combined potentials of the Earth's gravity and the neutron optical repulsion by a horizontal surface of liquid helium. We analyse the stability of the lowest quantum state, which is most susceptible to perturbations due to surface excitations, against scattering by helium atoms in the vapor and by excitations of the liquid, comprised of ripplons, phonons and surfons. This is an unusual scattering problem since the kinetic energy of the neutron parallel to the surface may be much greater than the binding energies perpendicular. The total scattering time constant of these UCNs at 0.7 K is found to exceed one hour, and rapidly increasing with decreasing temperature. Such low scattering rates should enable high-precision measurements of the scheme of discrete energy levels, thus providing improved access to short-range gravity. The system might also be useful for neutron beta-decay experiments. We also sketch new ex...

  16. HELIUM LIQUEFIER SYSTEM REPORT Undergraduate Student: Fernanda Cavalcante da Silva

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    - renewable resources such as oil, once released into the atmosphere it travels up into the upper part researchers and laboratories are motivated to make helium recycling a relevant project in their facilities and is refrigerated to produce a pure liquid helium product stream. Currently, several industries are specialized

  17. Characterization of charcoals for helium cryopumping in fusion devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sedgley, D.W.; Tobin, A.G.; Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1987-07-01

    The capability of charcoal as a sorbent for helium at cryogenic temperatures depends upon charcoal characteristics that are not well understood. Previous work by the authors has indicated that the charcoals' pumping capability for helium depends as much on their source as on their particle size distributions. To develop a correlation between the physical characteristics of charcoal and helium pumping performance, different charcoals based on wood, coal, coconut, and a petroleum by-product were obtained from commercial sources. They were bonded to an aluminum substrate, and cooled to liquid-helium temperatures in a vacuum chamber. The helium pumping speed at constant throughput versus quantity of helium absorbed was measured for each charcoal grade. Porosimetry measurements on each charcoal grade using nitrogen as the sorbent gas were made that included total surface area, adsorption and desorption isotherms, and pore area and pore volume distributions. Significant differences in helium pumping performance and in pore size distribution were observed. Comparisons are made between helium pumping performance and charcoal characteristics and a possible correlation is identified.

  18. Study of Impurity-Helium Condensates Formed by Multishell Nanoclusters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mao, Shun

    2014-12-17

    . Impurity-helium condensates (IHCs) containing nitrogen and krypton atoms immersed in super fluid 4He have been studied via a CW electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. It was found that the addition of krypton atoms to the nitrogen-helium gas mixture used...

  19. First Epoch Observations of 3-Helium with the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Dana S.

    First Epoch Observations of 3-Helium with the Green Bank Telescope THOMAS M. BANIA Institute #12;3-Helium Experiment Status GBT now fully operational for 3-He First GBT 3-He epoch complete-He detection for the PN J320 (see Balser et al. poster) NAIC Arecibo Observatory 305 m observations

  20. RECENT ADVANCES IN HEAT TRANSFER TO HELIUM 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    509 RECENT ADVANCES IN HEAT TRANSFER TO HELIUM 1 C. JOHANNES Service de Recherches Appliquées, L boiling, forced convection heat transfer. Relations between critical nucleate flux and some parameters confronted with the problem of calculating the heat transfer from the helium to the superconducting material

  1. CARBON DIOXIDE AS A FEEDSTOCK.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CREUTZ,C.; FUJITA,E.

    2000-12-09

    This report is an overview on the subject of carbon dioxide as a starting material for organic syntheses of potential commercial interest and the utilization of carbon dioxide as a substrate for fuel production. It draws extensively on literature sources, particularly on the report of a 1999 Workshop on the subject of catalysis in carbon dioxide utilization, but with emphasis on systems of most interest to us. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is an abundant (750 billion tons in atmosphere), but dilute source of carbon (only 0.036 % by volume), so technologies for utilization at the production source are crucial for both sequestration and utilization. Sequestration--such as pumping CO{sub 2} into sea or the earth--is beyond the scope of this report, except where it overlaps utilization, for example in converting CO{sub 2} to polymers. But sequestration dominates current thinking on short term solutions to global warming, as should be clear from reports from this and other workshops. The 3500 million tons estimated to be added to the atmosphere annually at present can be compared to the 110 million tons used to produce chemicals, chiefly urea (75 million tons), salicylic acid, cyclic carbonates and polycarbonates. Increased utilization of CO{sub 2} as a starting material is, however, highly desirable, because it is an inexpensive, non-toxic starting material. There are ongoing efforts to replace phosgene as a starting material. Creation of new materials and markets for them will increase this utilization, producing an increasingly positive, albeit small impact on global CO{sub 2} levels. The other uses of interest are utilization as a solvent and for fuel production and these will be discussed in turn.

  2. Harmonic oscillator model for the helium atom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlsen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A harmonic oscillator model in four dimensions is presented for the helium atom to estimate the distance to the inner and outer electron from the nucleus, the angle between electrons and the energy levels. The method is algebraic and is not based on the choice of correct trial wave function. Three harmonic oscillators and thus three quantum numbers are sufficient to describe the two-electron system. We derive a simple formula for the energy in the general case and in the special case of the Wannier Ridge. For a set of quantum numbers the distance to the electrons and the angle between the electrons are uniquely determined as the intersection between three surfaces. We show that the excited states converge either towards ionization thresholds or towards extreme parallel or antiparallel states and provide an estimate of the ground state energy.

  3. Compact hydrogen/helium isotope mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funsten, Herbert O. (Los Alamos, NM); McComas, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Scime, Earl E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1996-01-01

    The compact hydrogen and helium isotope mass spectrometer of the present invention combines low mass-resolution ion mass spectrometry and beam-foil interaction technology to unambiguously detect and quantify deuterium (D), tritium (T), hydrogen molecule (H.sub.2, HD, D.sub.2, HT, DT, and T.sub.2), .sup.3 He, and .sup.4 He concentrations and concentration variations. The spectrometer provides real-time, high sensitivity, and high accuracy measurements. Currently, no fieldable D or molecular speciation detectors exist. Furthermore, the present spectrometer has a significant advantage over traditional T detectors: no confusion of the measurements by other beta-emitters, and complete separation of atomic and molecular species of equivalent atomic mass (e.g., HD and .sup.3 He).

  4. SIMULATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE STORAGE APPLYING ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capture and storage of Carbon dioxide in aquifers and reservoirs is one of the solutions to mitigate the greenhouse effect. Geophysical methods can be used to

  5. the carbon dioxide balance than can change. First the oceans absorb more carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    today's concerns about human-driven climate change and the need to cut carbon emissions, itthe carbon dioxide balance than can change. First the oceans absorb more carbon dioxide to come for this process to come to equilibrium. Whenever the carbon dioxide amount is increasing an upper limit

  6. Lessons Learned From Gen I Carbon Dioxide Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David E. Shropshire

    2004-04-01

    This paper provides a review of early gas cooled reactors including the Magnox reactors originating in the United Kingdom and the subsequent development of the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGR). These early gas cooled reactors shared a common coolant medium, namely carbon dioxide (CO2). A framework of information is provided about these early reactors and identifies unique problems/opportunities associated with use of CO2 as a coolant. Reactor designers successfully rose to these challenges. After years of successful use of the CO2 gas cooled reactors in Europe, the succeeding generation of reactors, called the High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGR), were designed with Helium gas as the coolant. Again, in the 21st century, with the latest reactor designs under investigation in Generation IV, there is a revived interest in developing Gas Cooled Fast Reactors that use CO2 as the reactor coolant. This paper provides a historical perspective on the 52 CO2 reactors and the reactor programs that developed them. The Magnox and AGR design features and safety characteristics were reviewed, as well as the technologies associated with fuel storage, reprocessing, and disposal. Lessons-learned from these programs are noted to benefit the designs of future generations of gas cooled nuclear reactors.

  7. Evaluation of charcoal sorbents for helium cryopumping in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, A.G.; Sedgley, D.W.; Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Improved methods for cryopumping helium were developed for application to fusion reactors where high helium generation rates are expected. In this study, small coconut charcoal granules were utilized as the sorbent, and braze alloys and low temperature curing cements were used as the bonding agents for attachment to a copper support structure. Problems of scale-up of the bonding agent to a 40 cm diam panel were also investigated. Our results indicate that acceptable helium pumping performance of braze bonded and cement bonded charcoals can be achieved over the range of operating conditions expected in fusion reactors.

  8. The Requirements for Collision Data on the Species Helium, Beryllium and Boron in Magnetic Confinement Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Requirements for Collision Data on the Species Helium, Beryllium and Boron in Magnetic Confinement Fusion

  9. Calculating Residential Carbon Dioxide Emissions --A New Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    Calculating Residential Carbon Dioxide Emissions -- A New Approach Larry Hughes, Kathleen Bohan different sectors and their associated greenhouse gas emissions (principally carbon dioxide, methane of tables relating to national sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (principally carbon dioxide, methane, 1

  10. Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    global fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions. Environ. Res.Per-capita emissions were compiled by the Carbon DioxideCarbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. For 2007 and 2008, increases in fossil fuel emissions

  11. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01

    Damage Costs of Carbon Dioxide Emissions: An Assessment ofThe Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and UrbanTHE GREENNESS OF CITIES: CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS AND URBAN

  12. Haverford Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer August 1, 2012 | Tags: Basic Energy...

  13. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01

    of CO2 per Megawatt Hrs) Carbon Dioxide Emissions Cost ($of CO2 per Megawatt Hrs) Carbon Dioxide Emissions Cost MSA

  14. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Nanodroplets on Clay in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Nanodroplets on Clay in Deep Saline Aquifers. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Nanodroplets...

  15. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Nanodroplets on Clay Surfaces...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Nanodroplets on Clay Surfaces in Deep Saline Aquifers. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide...

  16. THE HIGH TEMPERATURE BEHAVIOR OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Rosa Lu.

    2010-01-01

    Products in Irradiated Uranium Dioxide," UKAEA Report AERE-OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE Rosa Lu Yang (Chemical State of Irradiated Uranium- Plutonium Oxide Fuel

  17. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery January 8, 2014 Los Alamos simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known production. Due to carbon capture and storage technology advances, prolonged high oil prices

  18. Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, and Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerald E. Marsh

    2010-02-11

    The existing understanding of interglacial periods is that they are initiated by Milankovitch cycles enhanced by rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. During interglacials, global temperature is also believed to be primarily controlled by carbon dioxide concentrations, modulated by internal processes such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Recent work challenges the fundamental basis of these conceptions.

  19. Scanning-helium-ion-beam lithography with hydrogen silsesquioxane resist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winston, Donald

    A scanning-helium-ion-beam microscope is now commercially available. This microscope can be used to perform lithography similar to, but of potentially higher resolution than, scanning electron-beam lithography. This article ...

  20. Underground helium travels to the Earth's surface via aquifers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tweet EmailPrint Before it can put the party in party balloons, helium is carried from deep within the Earth's crust to the surface via aquifers, according to new research...

  1. Flow Of Mantle Fluids Through The Ductile Lower Crust- Helium...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Flow Of Mantle Fluids Through The Ductile Lower Crust- Helium Isotope Trends Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Flow Of Mantle...

  2. Mantle Helium And Carbon Isotopes In Separation Creek Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    area which is several miles due west of the volcano is the locus of strong crustal uplift currently occurring at a rate of 4-5 cdyr (Wicks, et. al., 2001). Helium (&RA 7.44...

  3. Etching of Graphene Devices with a Helium Ion Beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baugher, Britton W. H.

    We report on the etching of graphene devices with a helium ion beam, including in situ electrical measurement during lithography. The etching process can be used to nanostructure and electrically isolate different regions ...

  4. Trace determination of lead by helium-4 activation analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vargas Bernal, Maria E.

    1984-01-01

    TRACE DETERMINATION OF LEAD BY HELIUM-4 ACTIVATION ANALYSIS A Thesis by MARIA E. VARGAS BERNAL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1984 Major Subject: Chemistry TRACE DETERMINATION OF LEAD BY HELIUM-4 ACTIVATION ANALYSIS A Thesis by MARIA E. VARGAS BERNAL Approved as to style and format by: Emile A. Schweikert (Chairman of Committee) Marvin W. Rowe (Member) Gerald A. Sc...

  5. Anti-helium from Dark Matter annihilations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco Cirelli; Nicolao Fornengo; Marco Taoso; Andrea Vittino

    2014-10-21

    Galactic Dark Matter (DM) annihilations can produce cosmic-ray anti-nuclei via the nuclear coalescence of the anti-protons and anti-neutrons originated directly from the annihilation process. Since anti-deuterons have been shown to offer a distinctive DM signal, with potentially good prospects of detection in large portions of the DM-particle parameter space, we explore here the production of heavier anti-nuclei, specifically anti-helium. Even more than for anti-deuterons, the DM-produced anti-He flux can be mostly prominent over the astrophysical anti-He background at low kinetic energies, typically below 3-5 GeV/n. However, the larger number of anti-nucleons involved in the formation process makes the anti-He flux extremely small. We therefore explore, for a few DM benchmark cases, whether the yield is sufficient to allow for anti-He detection in current-generation experiments, such as AMS-02. We account for the uncertainties due to the propagation in the Galaxy and to the uncertain details of the coalescence process, and we consider the constraints already imposed by anti-proton searches. We find that only for very optimistic configurations it might be possible to achieve detection with current generation detectors. We estimate that, in more realistic configurations, an increase in experimental sensitivity at low-kinetic energies of about a factor of 500-1000 would allow to start probing DM through the rare cosmic anti-He production.

  6. Thermodynamic properties of uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, J.K.; Chasanov, M.G.; Leibowitz, L.

    1981-04-01

    In order to provide reliable and consistent data on the thermophysical properties of reactor materials for reactor safety studies, this revision is prepared for the thermodynamic properties of the uranium dioxide portion of the fuel property section of the report Properties for LMFBR Safety Analysis. Since the original report was issued in 1976, there has been international agreement on a vapor pressure equation for the total pressure over UO/sub 2/, new methods have been suggested for the calculation of enthalpy and heat capacity, and a phase change at 2670 K has been proposed. In this report, an electronic term is used in place of the Frenkel defect term in the enthalpy and heat capacity equation and the phase transition is accepted.

  7. Detection of significant differences between absorption spectra of neutral helium and low temperature photoionized helium plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Fok, T.; Jarocki, R.; Szczurek, M. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)] [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-11-15

    In this work, spectral investigations of photoionized He plasmas were performed. The photoionized plasmas were created by irradiation of helium stream, with intense pulses from laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The EUV source was based on a double-stream Xe/Ne gas-puff target irradiated with 10 ns/10 J Nd:YAG laser pulses. The most intense emission from the source spanned a relatively narrow spectral region below 20 nm, however, spectrally integrated intensity at longer wavelengths was also significant. The EUV radiation was focused onto a gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV pulse. The long-wavelength part of the EUV radiation was used for backlighting of the photoionized plasmas to obtain absorption spectra. Both emission and absorption spectra in the EUV range were investigated. Significant differences between absorption spectra acquired for neutral helium and low temperature photoionized plasmas were demonstrated for the first time. Strong increase of intensities and spectral widths of absorption lines, together with a red shift of the K-edge, was shown.

  8. Carbon dioxide-soluble polymers and swellable polymers for carbon dioxide applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Birnbaum, Eva; Carbonell, Ruben G.; Crette, Stephanie; McClain, James B.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Powell, Kimberly R.; Romack, Timothy J.; Tumas, William

    2004-06-08

    A method for carrying out a catalysis reaction in carbon dioxide comprising contacting a fluid mixture with a catalyst bound to a polymer, the fluid mixture comprising at least one reactant and carbon dioxide, wherein the reactant interacts with the catalyst to form a reaction product. A composition of matter comprises carbon dioxide and a polymer and a reactant present in the carbon dioxide. The polymer has bound thereto a catalyst at a plurality of chains along the length of the polymer, and wherein the reactant interacts with the catalyst to form a reaction product.

  9. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

  10. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    carbon-intensive fossil fuel, increased by 4.8 percent. 2.8. Carbon dioxide emissions and carbon sequestration from nonfuel uses of energy inputs Nonfuel uses of fossil fuels (for...

  11. Regulating carbon dioxide capture and storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Figueiredo, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    This essay examines several legal, regulatory and organizational issues that need to be addressed to create an effective regulatory regime for carbon dioxide capture and storage ("CCS"). Legal, regulatory, and organizational ...

  12. Thorium dioxide: properties and nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belle, J.; Berman, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    This is the sixth book on reactor materials published under sponsorship of the Naval Reactors Office of the United States Department of Energy, formerly the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This book presents a comprehensive compilation of the most significant properties of thorium dioxide, much like the book Uranium Dioxide: Properties and Nuclear Applications presented information on the fuel material used in the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor core.

  13. Displacement of crude oil by carbon dioxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omole, Olusegun

    1980-01-01

    DISPLACEMENT OF CRUDE OIL BY CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by OLUSEGUN OMOLE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in part';al fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject...: Petroleum Engineering DISPLACEMENT OF CRUDE OIL BY CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by OLUSEGUN OMOLE Approved as to style and content by: hairman of Committee / (Member (Member (Member (Hea o Depart ent December 1980 ABSTRACT Displacement of Crude Oil...

  14. Two phase coexistence for the hydrogen-helium mixture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fantoni, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    We use our newly constructed quantum Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo algorithm to perform computer experiments for the two phase coexistence of a hydrogen-helium mixture. Our results are in quantitative agreement with the experimental results of C. M. Sneed, W. B. Streett, R. E. Sonntag, and G. J. Van Wylen. The difference between our results and the experimental ones is in all cases less than 15% relative to the experiment, reducing to less than 5% in the low helium concentration phase. At the gravitational inversion between the vapor and the liquid phase, at low temperatures and high pressures, the quantum effects become relevant. At extremely low temperature and pressure the first component to show superfluidity is the helium in the vapor phase.

  15. Controlled Chemistry Helium High Temperature Materials Test Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard N. WRight

    2005-08-01

    A system to test aging and environmental effects in flowing helium with impurity content representative of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) has been designed and assembled. The system will be used to expose microstructure analysis coupons and mechanical test specimens for up to 5,000 hours in helium containing potentially oxidizing or carburizing impurities controlled to parts per million levels. Impurity levels in the flowing helium are controlled through a feedback mechanism based on gas chromatography measurements of the gas chemistry at the inlet and exit from a high temperature retort containing the test materials. Initial testing will focus on determining the nature and extent of combined aging and environmental effects on microstructure and elevated temperature mechanical properties of alloys proposed for structural applications in the NGNP, including Inconel 617 and Haynes 230.

  16. Fast production of Bose-Einstein condensates of metastable Helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouton, Q; Hoendervanger, A L; Nogrette, F; Aspect, A; Westbrook, C I; Clément, D

    2015-01-01

    We report on the Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable Helium-4 atoms using a hybrid approach, consisting of a magnetic quadrupole and a crossed optical dipole trap. In our setup we cross the phase transition with 2x10^6 atoms, and we obtain pure condensates of 5x10^5 atoms in the optical trap. This novel approach to cooling Helium-4 provides enhanced cycle stability, large optical access to the atoms and results in production of a condensate every 6 seconds - a factor 3 faster than the state-of-the-art. This speed-up will dramatically reduce the data acquisition time needed for the measurement of many particle correlations, made possible by the ability of metastable Helium to be detected individually.

  17. Non-Sticking of Helium Buffer Gas to Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Croft, James F E

    2014-01-01

    Lifetimes of complexes formed during helium-hydrocarbon collisions at low temperature are estimated for symmetric top hydrocarbons. The lifetimes are obtained using a density-of-states approach. In general the lifetimes are less than 10-100 ns, and are found to decrease with increasing hydrocarbon size. This suggests that clustering will not limit precision spectroscopy in helium buffer gas experiments. Lifetimes are computed for noble-gas benzene collisions and are found to be in reasonable agreement with lifetimes obtained from classical trajectories as reported by Cui {\\it et al}.

  18. Detection and Imaging of He_2 Molecules in Superfluid Helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. G. Rellergert; S. B. Cahn; A. Garvan; J. C. Hanson; W. H. Lippincott; J. A. Nikkel; D. N. McKinsey

    2007-12-18

    We present data that show a cycling transition can be used to detect and image metastable He$_2$ triplet molecules in superfluid helium. We demonstrate that limitations on the cycling efficiency due to the vibrational structure of the molecule can be mitigated by the use of repumping lasers. Images of the molecules obtained using the method are also shown. This technique gives rise to a new kind of ionizing radiation detector. The use of He$_2$ triplet molecules as tracer particles in the superfluid promises to be a powerful tool for visualization of both quantum and classical turbulence in liquid helium.

  19. Surface Response of Tungsten to Helium and Hydrogen Plasma Flux as a Function of Temperature and Incident Kinetic Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sefta, Faiza

    2013-01-01

    fusion reaction and ion energies as reproduced from http://incident helium kinetic energy with and without equilibriummi- crostructure evolution in low energy helium irradiated

  20. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in energy-intensive industries in key developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian

    1999-01-01

    Energy Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions ReductionEnergy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Energy-IntensiveEnergy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Energy-Intensive

  1. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    do Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions from California Go?Figure 1. 2004 Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fuel CombustionImproving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the

  2. Estimating carbon dioxide emissions factors for the California electric power sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

    2002-01-01

    U.S. EPA. 2000. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Generationfor Estimating Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Combustion ofUS EPA), 2000. “Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Generation

  3. As carbon dioxide rises, food quality will decline without careful nitrogen management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloom, Arnold J

    2009-01-01

    exposed to elevated carbon dioxide. Mean of 285 studies (and ambient (365 ppm) carbon dioxide atmospheres, in freeand ambient (366 ppm) carbon dioxide concentrations under

  4. Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in forests of North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    2010 Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in2007), Comparison of carbon dioxide fluxes over three borealharvest influence carbon dioxide fluxes of black spruce

  5. Pressure buildup during supercritical carbon dioxide injection from a partially penetrating borehole into gas reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2013-01-01

    the physical properties of carbon dioxide, compare thei.e. , Physical Properties of Carbon Dioxide Z ? PV ? 1 ?Thermophysical Properties of Carbon Dioxide, Publishing

  6. Increasing carbon dioxideIncreasing carbon dioxide & its effect on forest& its effect on forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    ecosystem's natural capacity toA forest ecosystem's natural capacity to capture energy, capture energy's natural capacity toA forest ecosystem's natural capacity to capture energy, capture energy, sustain life10/13/2010 1 Increasing carbon dioxideIncreasing carbon dioxide & its effect on forest& its effect

  7. Statistical properties of inter-series mixing in helium: From integrability to chaos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puttner, R; Gremaud, B.; Delande, D.; Domke, M.; Martins, M.; Schlachter, A.S.; Kaindl, G.

    2001-04-23

    The photoionization spectrum of helium near the double-ionization threshold shows structure which indicated a transition towards quantum chaos.

  8. DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE HELIUM-COOLED DIVERTOR PLATE CONCEPT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE HELIUM-COOLED DIVERTOR PLATE CONCEPT X.R. Wanga , S Consulting, Fliederweg 3, 76351 Linkenheim, Germany A helium-cooled plate-type divertor design concept has of the concept in the high heat flux zone. This paper describes the design optimization of the helium

  9. Constraining groundwater flow in the glacial drift and saginaw aquifers in the Michigan Basin through helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    through helium concentrations and isotopic ratios T. WEN1 , M. C. CASTRO1 , C. M. HALL1 , D. L. PINTI2 that in situ production is negligible and that most He excesses have a source external to the aquifer Drift 14 C ages. Key words: 14 C ages, Groundwater flow, helium ages, helium fluxes, sedimentary basin

  10. Constraints on origin and evolution of Red Sea brines from helium and argon isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner

    mantle production ratio. In the Kebrit Deep, located in the northern Red Sea, we found a helium excessConstraints on origin and evolution of Red Sea brines from helium and argon isotopes Gisela, the Discovery and the Kebrit Deep, were sampled and analyzed for helium and argon isotopes. We identified two

  11. A dynamical investigation of the heat and helium imbalance Peter E. van Keken aY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Keken, Peter

    and helium released from the whole mantle convection models is smaller than the production ratioA dynamical investigation of the heat and helium imbalance Peter E. van Keken aY *, Chris J; accepted 6 April 2001 Abstract The terrestrial heat^helium imbalance [O'Nions and Oxburgh, Nature 306 (1983

  12. Giant Helium Dimers Produced by Photoassociation of Ultracold Metastable Atoms J. Leonard,* M. Walhout,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen-Tannoudj, Claude

    Giant Helium Dimers Produced by Photoassociation of Ultracold Metastable Atoms J. Le´onard,* M long-range helium dimers by photoassociation of metastable helium atoms in a magnetically trapped ion production rates, which are usually high for He , we measure the tempera- ture increase

  13. Hydrogen Atom and Helium Ion Spatial and Momentum Distribution Functions Illustrate the Uncertainty Principle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rioux, Frank

    Hydrogen Atom and Helium Ion Spatial and Momentum Distribution Functions Illustrate for oneelectron species such as the hydrogen atom and the helium ion. The coordinate 1s wave function for the hydrogen atom (z=1) and helium ion (z=2) clearly illustrate the uncertainty principle. 0 2 4 6 r 2 1 r

  14. Photoelectron Imaging of Helium Droplets Darcy S. Peterka,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumark, Daniel M.

    crossed the helium droplet beam perpendicular to the axis of the electron detection system, comprisingPhotoelectron Imaging of Helium Droplets Darcy S. Peterka,1,2 Albrecht Lindinger,2 Lionel Poisson,1.40.­c, 33.20.Ni, 33.60.Cv, 33.80.Eh Helium nanodroplets have been shown to be a novel spectroscopic

  15. Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Hoffman, James S. (Library, PA)

    2002-05-14

    A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

  16. Heterogeneous cavitation in liquid helium 4 near a glass plate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caupin, Frédéric

    amplitude of the density oscillation in the acoustic wave (or the pressure by using the equation of state knowledge of the acoustic waves we use, including the non-linear effects which affect their focusing4 of the reflection coefficient at the glass/helium interface, in the absence of acoustic wave. Finally, by measuring

  17. An investigation of thermally driven acoustical oscillations in helium systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuerst, J.D.

    1990-08-01

    The phenomenon of thermal-acoustic oscillation is seen to arise spontaneously in gas columns subjected to steep temperature gradients, particularly in tubes connecting liquid helium reservoirs with the ambient environment. This if often the arrangement for installed cryogenic instrumentation and is accompanied by undesirably large heat transfer rates to the cold region. Experimental data are collected and matched to theoretical predictions of oscillatory behavior; these results are in good agreement with the analytical model and with previously collected data. The present experiment places the open ends of oscillating tubes of the various lengths and cross sections in communication with flowing helium in the subcooled, 2-phase, or superheated state while the other ends are maintained at some controlled, elevated temperature. Assorted cold end conditions are achieved through adjustments to the Fermilab Tevatron satellite test refrigerator to which the test cryostat is connected. The warm, closed ends of the tubes are maintained by isothermal baths of liquid nitrogen, ice water, and boiling water. The method is contrasted to previous arrangements whereby tubes are run from room temperature into or adjacent to a stagnant pool of liquid helium. Additionally, the effect of pulsations in the flowing helium stream is explored through operation of the refrigerator's wet and dry expanders during data collection. These data confirm the theory to which try were compared and support its use in the design of cryogenic sensing lines for avoidance of thermoacoustic oscillation.

  18. NEWS & VIEWS synchrotron or helium-lamp studies. But

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    NEWS & VIEWS synchrotron or helium-lamp studies. But the low energy of the laser photons raises, which should be stronger the lower the kinetic energy of the outgoing electron? Further studies is equivalent to a `pole singularity' in the Green's function. Phil Anderson argues that in the strange metal

  19. Helium isotopes: Lower geyser basin, Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, B.M.; Reynolds, J.H.; Smith, S.P.; Truesdell, A.H.

    1987-11-10

    High /sup 3/He//sup 4/He ratios associated with the Yellowstone caldera reflect the presence of a magmatic helium component. This component is ultimately derived from a mantle plume capped by a cooling batholith underlying the caldera. In surface hot springs, fumaroles, etc., the /sup 3/He//sup 4/He ratio varies from approx.1 to 16 tims the air ratio. The variations are produced by varying degrees of dilution of the magmatic component with radiogenic helium. The radiogenic helium is crustal-derived and is thought to be scavenged from aquifers in which the hydrothermal fluids circulate. We determined the helium iosotopic composition in 12 different springs from the Lower Geyser Basin, a large hydrothermal basin with the caldera. The /sup 3/He//sup 4/He ratio was found to vary from approx.2.7 to 7.7 times the air ratio. The variations correlate with variations in water chemistry. Specifically, the /sup 3/He//sup 4/He ratio increased with total bicarbonate concentration. The dissolved bicarbonate is from gas-water-rock interactions involving CO/sub 2/ and Na silicates. The concentration of bicarbonate is a function of the availability of dissolved CO/sub 2/, which, in turn, is a function of deep boiling with phase separation prior to CO/sub 2/-bicarbonate conversion. The correlation of high /sup 3/He//sup 4/He ratios with high bicarbonate is interpreted as the result of deep dilution of a single thermal fluid with cooler water during ascent to the surface. The dilution and cooling deters deep boiling, and therefore both CO/sub 2/ and /sup 3/He are retained in the rising fluid. Fluids that are not diluted with boil to a greater extent, losing a large proportion of /sup 3/He, as well as CO/sub 2/, leaving a helium-poor residual fluid in which the isotopic composition of helium will be strongly affected by the addition of radiogenic helium.

  20. SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; J.E. Fitzgerald; Z. Pan; M. Sudibandriyo

    2003-04-30

    The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure, and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project developed, an important additional objective was added to the above original list. Namely, we were encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project are summarized below in three broad categories: experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Capture/Sequestration Tax Deduction (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture/Sequestration Tax Deduction allows a taxpayer a deduction to adjusted gross income with respect to the amortization of the amortizable costs of carbon dioxide capture,...

  2. Louisiana Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Act (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This law establishes that carbon dioxide and sequestration is a valuable commodity to the citizens of the state. Geologic storage of carbon dioxide may allow for the orderly withdrawal as...

  3. DEVELOPMENT AND INTEGRATION OF NEW PROCESSES CONSUMING CARBON DIOXIDE IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Ralph W.

    DEVELOPMENT AND INTEGRATION OF NEW PROCESSES CONSUMING CARBON DIOXIDE IN MULTI-PLANT CHEMICAL........................................................ 8 C. Carbon Dioxide ­ A Greenhouse Gas................................................ 9 1. Sources. Estimation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions....................................... 6 2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

  4. Zinc-catalyzed copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katsurao, Takumi

    1994-01-01

    The zinc-catalyzed copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide, which is one of the promising reactions for the utilization of carbon dioxide, has been investigated from various aspects. Above all, considering ...

  5. Multimodal Integration of Carbon Dioxide and Other Sensory Cues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multimodal Integration of Carbon Dioxide and Other Sensory Cues Drives Mosquito Attraction of carbon dioxide (CO2) detection to mosquito host- seeking behavior, we mutated the AaegGr3 gene, a subunit

  6. Dry process fluorination of uranium dioxide using ammonium bifluoride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeamans, Charles Burnett, 1978-

    2003-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine the practicality of various unit operations for fluorination of uranium dioxide. The objective was to prepare ammonium uranium fluoride double salts from uranium dioxide and ...

  7. High temperature indentation of helium-implanted tungsten James S.K.-L. Gibson a,n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (essentially helium ions) from the plasma as well as 14 MeV neutrons. While the rate of helium production dueHigh temperature indentation of helium-implanted tungsten James S.K.-L. Gibson a,n , Steve G Hardening a b s t r a c t Nanoindentation has been performed on tungsten, unimplanted and helium

  8. ORNL/CDIAC-34 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphereORNL/CDIAC-34 May 1999 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (423) 574-3645 Oak Ridge National Laboratory URL: http

  9. World Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    World Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 Ñ 2050 Richard Schmalensee, Thomas M. Stoker, andRuth A. Judson* Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may-U" relation with a within- sample peak between carbon dioxide emissions (and energy use) per capita and per

  10. Paleoclimatic warming increased carbon dioxide concentrations D. M. Lemoine1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Paleoclimatic warming increased carbon dioxide concentrations D. M. Lemoine1 Received 6 July 2010 feedbacks are positive, then warming causes changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) sources and sinks that increase increased carbon dioxide concentrations, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D22122, doi:10.1029/2010JD014725. 1

  11. Degassing of metamorphic carbon dioxide from the Nepal Himalaya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derry, Louis A.

    Degassing of metamorphic carbon dioxide from the Nepal Himalaya Matthew J. Evans Chemistry, 7 figures, 4 tables. Keywords: metamorphic carbon dioxide; Himalaya; hot springs; carbon cycle, M. J., L. A. Derry, and C. France-Lanord (2008), Degassing of metamorphic carbon dioxide from

  12. Chukwuemeka I. Okoye Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Copyright by Chukwuemeka I. Okoye 2005 #12;Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate _______________________ Nicholas A. Peppas #12;Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/H2O for. #12;iii Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/H2O

  13. Electrostatic Stabilization of Colloids in Carbon Dioxide: Electrophoresis and Dielectrophoresis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electrostatic Stabilization of Colloids in Carbon Dioxide: Electrophoresis and Dielectrophoresis in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (scCO2). Herein we demonstrate that colloids may also be stabilized in CO2 the behavior of steric stabilization in compressed supercritical fluids1-3 including carbon dioxide,4

  14. Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chi, Miaofang; Ivanov, Ilia N; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2014-12-30

    An array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization includes a plurality of nanotubes, each nanotube including an outer layer coaxial with an inner layer, where the inner layer comprises p-type titanium dioxide and the outer layer comprises n-type titanium dioxide. An interface between the inner layer and the outer layer defines a p-n junction.

  15. Electrochemically-Mediated Amine Regeneration for Carbon Dioxide Separations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - Electrochemically-Mediated Amine Regeneration for Carbon Dioxide Separations by Michael C Students #12;- 2 - Electrochemically-Mediated Amine Regeneration for Carbon Dioxide Separations by Michael This thesis describes a new strategy for carbon dioxide (CO2) separations based on amine sorbents, which

  16. Hydroelectric Reservoirs -the Carbon Dioxide and Methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    Hydroelectric Reservoirs - the Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions of a "Carbon Free" Energy an overview on the greenhouse gas production of hydroelectric reservoirs. The goals are to point out the main how big the greenhouse gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs are compared to thermo-power plants

  17. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis May 2005 MIT LFEE 2005. LFEE 2005-002 Report #12;#12;i ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal (PC), integrated coal gasification combined cycle

  18. 14 April 2001 tmospheric carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teskey, Robert O.

    14 April 2001 A tmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is increas- ing at approximately 1. Annual anthropogenic carbon emissions in the United States total ap- proximately 1.7 billion tons emissions in the United States and around the world. One potential mechanism for re- ducing net carbon

  19. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    accounting process; evaluate the cost-effectiveness of urban forestry programs with CO2 reduction measures carbon dioxide (CO2 ) reduction. The calculation of CO2 reduction that can be made with the use climate. With these Guidelines, they can: report current and future CO2 reductions through a standardized

  20. Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Anderson, SC)

    2001-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  1. Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

  2. Acoustical Properties of Superfluid Helium in Confined Geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sh. E. Kekutia; N. D. Chkhaidze

    2006-04-07

    The problem studied in this paper is to obtain the equations describing sound propagation in a consolidated porous medium filled with superfluid, determine the elastic coefficients, appearing in the equations, in terms of physically measurable quantities, and calculate the propagation velocities of transverse and longitudinal waves at high and low oscillating frequencies. In general, the obtained equations describe all volume modes that can propagate in a porous medium saturated with superfluid for any values of the porosity and frequencies. The derived equations are applied to the most important particular case when the normal component of superfluid helium is locked inside a highly porous media (aerogel, Im-helium sample) by viscous forces. For this case the velocities of two longitudinal sound modes and transverse mode are calculated from the derived equations. There are established the coupling between temperature and pressure oscillations in these fast and slow modes.

  3. Experimental study of ultracold neutron production in pressurized superfluid helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Schmidt-Wellenburg; J. Bossy; E. Farhi; M. Fertl; K. K. H. Leung; A. Rahli; T. Soldner; O. Zimmer

    2015-07-29

    We have investigated experimentally the pressure dependence of the production of ultracold neutrons (UCN) in superfluid helium in the range from saturated vapor pressure to 20bar. A neutron velocity selector allowed the separation of underlying single-phonon and multiphonon pro- cesses by varying the incident cold neutron (CN) wavelength in the range from 3.5 to 10{\\AA}. The predicted pressure dependence of UCN production derived from inelastic neutron scattering data was confirmed for the single-phonon excitation. For multiphonon based UCN production we found no significant dependence on pressure whereas calculations from inelastic neutron scattering data predict an increase of 43(6)% at 20bar relative to saturated vapor pressure. From our data we conclude that applying pressure to superfluid helium does not increase the overall UCN production rate at a typical CN guide.

  4. Experimental study of ultracold neutron production in pressurized superfluid helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Farhi, E; Fertl, M; Leung, K K H; Rahli, A; Soldner, T; Zimmer, O

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated experimentally the pressure dependence of the production of ultracold neutrons (UCN) in superfluid helium in the range from saturated vapor pressure to 20bar. A neutron velocity selector allowed the separation of underlying single-phonon and multiphonon pro- cesses by varying the incident cold neutron (CN) wavelength in the range from 3.5 to 10{\\AA}. The predicted pressure dependence of UCN production derived from inelastic neutron scattering data was confirmed for the single-phonon excitation. For multiphonon based UCN production we found no significant dependence on pressure whereas calculations from inelastic neutron scattering data predict an increase of 43(6)% at 20bar relative to saturated vapor pressure. From our data we conclude that applying pressure to superfluid helium does not increase the overall UCN production rate at a typical CN guide.

  5. Source localization of brain activity using helium-free interferometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dammers, Jürgen Chocholacs, Harald; Eich, Eberhard; Boers, Frank; Faley, Michael; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Jon Shah, N.

    2014-05-26

    To detect extremely small magnetic fields generated by the human brain, currently all commercial magnetoencephalography (MEG) systems are equipped with low-temperature (low-T{sub c}) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensors that use liquid helium for cooling. The limited and increasingly expensive supply of helium, which has seen dramatic price increases recently, has become a real problem for such systems and the situation shows no signs of abating. MEG research in the long run is now endangered. In this study, we report a MEG source localization utilizing a single, highly sensitive SQUID cooled with liquid nitrogen only. Our findings confirm that localization of neuromagnetic activity is indeed possible using high-T{sub c} SQUIDs. We believe that our findings secure the future of this exquisitely sensitive technique and have major implications for brain research and the developments of cost-effective multi-channel, high-T{sub c} SQUID-based MEG systems.

  6. Evolution of Low-Mass Helium Stars in Semidetached Binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. R. Yungelson

    2008-06-17

    We present results of a systematic investigation of the evolution of low-mass (0.35, 0.40, and 0.65 solar mass) helium donors in semidetached binaries with accretors - white dwarfs. In the initial models of evolutionary sequences abundance of helium in the center is between $\\simeq 0.1$ and 0.98. Results of computations may be applied to the study of the origin and evolutionary state of AM CVn stars. It is shown that the minimum orbital periods of the systems only weakly depend on the total mass of the system and evolutionary state of the donor at RLOF and are equal to 9-11 min. The scatter in the mass-exchange rates at a given orbital period in the range between period minimum and about 40 min. does not exceed $\\sim 2.5$. At orbital periods exceeding about 20 min. mass-losing stars are weakly degenerate homogeneous cooling objects and abundances of He, C, N, O, Ne in the matter lost by them depend on the extent of He-depletion at RLOF. For the systems which are currently considered as the most probable model candidates for AM CVn stars with helium donors these abundances are, approximately, Y$>$0.4, X_C$<$0.3, X_O$<$0.25, X_N$<$0.005. At orbital periods greater than about 40 min. the timescale of mass-loss begins to exceed thermal time-scale of the donors, the latter begin to contract, they become more degenerate and, apparently, "white-dwarf" and "helium-star" populations of AM CVn stars merge.

  7. Investigation of Cellular Interactions of Nanoparticles by Helium Ion Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arey, Bruce W.; Shutthanandan, V.; Xie, Yumei; Tolic, Ana; Williams, Nolann G.; Orr, Galya

    2011-06-01

    The helium ion mircroscope (HIM) probes light elements (e.g. C, N, O, P) with high contrast due to the large variation in secondary electron yield, which minimizes the necessity of specimen staining. A defining characteristic of HIM is its remarkable capability to neutralize charge by the implementation of an electron flood gun, which eliminates the need for coating non-conductive specimens for imaging at high resolution. In addition, the small convergence angle in HeIM offers a large depth of field (~5x FE-SEM), enabling tall structures to be viewed in focus within a single image. Taking advantage of these capabilities, we investigate the interactions of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) at the surface of alveolar type II epithelial cells grown at the air-liquid interface (ALI). The increasing use of nanomaterials in a wide range of commercial applications has the potential to increase human exposure to these materials, but the impact of such exposure on human health is still unclear. One of the main routs of exposure is the respiratory tract, where alveolar epithelial cells present a vulnerable target at the interface with ambient air. Since the cellular interactions of NPs govern the cellular response and ultimately determine the impact on human health, our studies will help delineating relationships between particle properties and cellular interactions and response to better evaluate NP toxicity or biocompatibility. The Rutherford backscattered ion (RBI) is a helium ions imaging mode, which backscatters helium ions from every element except hydrogen, with a backscatter yield that depends on the atomic number of the target. Energy-sensitive backscatter analysis is being developed, which when combined with RBI image information, supports elemental identification at helium ion nanometer resolution. This capability will enable distinguishing NPs from cell surface structures with nanometer resolution.

  8. UCN production by multiphonon processes in superfluid Helium under pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Schmidt-Wellenburg; K. H. Andersen; O. Zimmer

    2009-01-29

    Cold neutrons are converted to ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) by the excitation of a single phonon or multiphonons in superfluid helium. The dynamic scattering function S(q, omega) of the superfluid helium strongly depends on pressure, leading to a pressure- dependent differential UCN production rate. A phenomenological expression for the multiphonon part of the scattering function s(lambda) describing UCN production has been derived from inelastic neutron scattering data. When combined with the production rate from single phonon processes this allows us to calculate the UCN production for any incident neutron flux. For calculations of the UCN production from single phonon processes we propose to use the values for S*(SVP) = 0.118(8) and S*(20 bar) = 0.066(6). As an example we will calculate the expected UCN production rate at the cold neutron beam for fundamental physics PF1b at the Institut Laue Langevin. We conclude that UCN production in superfluid helium under pressure is not attractive.

  9. Helium-Based Soundwave Chiller: Trillium: A Helium-Based Sonic Chiller- Tons of Freezing with 0 GWP Refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Penn State is designing a freezer that substitutes the use of sound waves and environmentally benign refrigerant for synthetic refrigerants found in conventional freezers. Called a thermoacoustic chiller, the technology is based on the fact that the pressure oscillations in a sound wave result in temperature changes. Areas of higher pressure raise temperatures and areas of low pressure decrease temperatures. By carefully arranging a series of heat exchangers in a sound field, the chiller is able to isolate the hot and cold regions of the sound waves. Penn State’s chiller uses helium gas to replace synthetic refrigerants. Because helium does not burn, explode or combine with other chemicals, it is an environmentally-friendly alternative to other polluting refrigerants. Penn State is working to apply this technology on a large scale.

  10. Evaluation and Optimization of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Conversion Cycle for Nuclear Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwin A. Harvego; Michael G. McKellar

    2011-05-01

    There have been a number of studies involving the use of gases operating in the supercritical mode for power production and process heat applications. Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) is particularly attractive because it is capable of achieving relatively high power conversion cycle efficiencies in the temperature range between 550°C and 750°C. Therefore, it has the potential for use with any type of high-temperature nuclear reactor concept, assuming reactor core outlet temperatures of at least 550°C. The particular power cycle investigated in this paper is a supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle. The CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle can be used as either a direct or indirect power conversion cycle, depending on the reactor type and reactor outlet temperature. The advantage of this cycle when compared to the helium Brayton Cycle is the lower required operating temperature; 550°C versus 850°C. However, the supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle requires an operating pressure in the range of 20 MPa, which is considerably higher than the required helium Brayton cycle operating pressure of 8 MPa. This paper presents results of analyses performed using the UniSim process analyses software to evaluate the performance of the supercritical CO2 Brayton Recompression Cycle for different reactor outlet temperatures. The UniSim model assumed a 600 MWt reactor power source, which provides heat to the power cycle at a maximum temperature of between 550°C and 750°C. The UniSim model used realistic component parameters and operating conditions to model the complete power conversion system. CO2 properties were evaluated, and the operating range for the cycle was adjusted to take advantage of the rapidly changing conditions near the critical point. The UniSim model was then optimized to maximize the power cycle thermal efficiency at the different maximum power cycle operating temperatures. The results of the analyses showed that power cycle thermal efficiencies in the range of 40 to 50% can be achieved.

  11. Asteroseismic estimate of helium abundance of a solar analog binary system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, Kuldeep; Antia, H. M.; Faria, João P.; Monteiro, Mário J. P. F. G.; Basu, Sarbani; Mazumdar, Anwesh; Appourchaux, Thierry; Chaplin, William J.; García, Rafael A.

    2014-08-01

    16 Cyg A and B are among the brightest stars observed by Kepler. What makes these stars more interesting is that they are solar analogs. 16 Cyg A and B exhibit solar-like oscillations. In this work we use oscillation frequencies obtained using 2.5 yr of Kepler data to determine the current helium abundance of these stars. For this we use the fact that the helium ionization zone leaves a signature on the oscillation frequencies and that this signature can be calibrated to determine the helium abundance of that layer. By calibrating the signature of the helium ionization zone against models of known helium abundance, the helium abundance in the envelope of 16 Cyg A is found to lie in the range of 0.231 to 0.251 and that of 16 Cyg B lies in the range of 0.218 to 0.266.

  12. Production of carbon monoxide-free hydrogen and helium from a high-purity source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, Timothy Christopher (Allentown, PA); Farris, Thomas Stephen (Bethlehem, PA)

    2008-11-18

    The invention provides vacuum swing adsorption processes that produce an essentially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen or helium gas stream from, respectively, a high-purity (e.g., pipeline grade) hydrogen or helium gas stream using one or two adsorber beds. By using physical adsorbents with high heats of nitrogen adsorption, intermediate heats of carbon monoxide adsorption, and low heats of hydrogen and helium adsorption, and by using vacuum purging and high feed stream pressures (e.g., pressures of as high as around 1,000 bar), pipeline grade hydrogen or helium can purified to produce essentially carbon monoxide -free hydrogen and helium, or carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane-free hydrogen and helium.

  13. The evolution of naked helium stars with a neutron-star companion in close binary systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. D. M. Dewi; O. R. Pols; G. J. Savonije; E. P. J. van den Heuvel

    2002-01-15

    The evolution of helium stars with masses of 1.5 - 6.7 M_sun in binary systems with a 1.4 M_sun neutron-star companion is presented. Such systems are assumed to be the remnants of Be/X-ray binaries with B-star masses in the range of 8 - 20 M_sun which underwent a case B or case C mass transfer and survived the common-envelope and spiral-in process. The orbital period is chosen such that the helium star fills its Roche lobe before the ignition of carbon in the centre. We distinguish case BA (in which mass transfer is initiated during helium core burning) from case BB (onset of Roche-lobe overflow occurs after helium core burning is terminated, but before the ignition of carbon). We found that the remnants of case BA mass transfer from 1.5 - 2.9 M_sun helium stars are heavy CO white dwarfs. This implies that a star initially as massive as 12 M_sun is able to become a white dwarf. CO white dwarfs are also produced from case BB mass transfer from 1.5 - 1.8 M_sun helium stars, while ONe white dwarfs are formed from 2.1 - 2.5 M_sun helium stars. Case BB mass transfer from more-massive helium stars with a neutron-star companion will produce a double neutron-star binary. We are able to distinguish the progenitors of type Ib supernovae (as the high-mass helium stars or systems in wide orbits) from those of type Ic supernovae (as the lower-mass helium stars or systems in close orbits). Finally, we derive a "zone of avoidance" in the helium star mass vs. initial orbital period diagram for producing neutron stars from helium stars.

  14. Costs to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-03-01

    Central to the resolution of the acid rain issue are debates about the costs and benefits of controlling man-made emissions of chemicals that may cause acid rain. In this briefing, the position of those who are calling for immediate action and implicating coal-fired powerplants as the cause of the problem is examined. The costs of controlling sulfur dioxide emissions using alternative control methods available today are presented. No attempt is made to calculate the benefits of reducing these emissions since insufficient information is available to provide even a rough estimate. Information is presented in two steps. First, costs are presented as obtained through straightforward calculations based upon simplifying but realistic assumptions. Next, the costs of sulfur dioxide control obtained through several large-scale analyses are presented, and these results are compared with those obtained through the first method.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Cultured Animal Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyner, David Smith

    1969-01-01

    Glycogen Determination 62 Amino Acid Determination * . 62 Protein Determination 63 Carbon Dioxide Determination • • # 63 Assay for Avid in 63 Radioactivity Measurements 63 CHEMICAL DEGRADATION PROCEDURES 6h Decarboxylation of Lactate 6lt Formation..., Distribution of the Radioactivities Among Amino Acids in the Growth Medium Following Exposure of L-Cells to C-lU Bicarbonate 90 7. Distribution of the Radioactivities Among Amino Acids in the Trichloroacetic Acid Extract Following Exposure of I/-Cells to C...

  16. Ultrafast dynamics in helium nanodroplets probed by femtosecond time-resolved EUV photoelectron imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kornilov, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    production of atomic 1s4p and 1s5p states, and an angular distribution that is similar to that of isolated helium

  17. Re-Condensation and Liquefaction of Helium and Hydrogen Using Coolers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    a two-phase helium thermal siphon cooling system [3], wherethrough a hydrogen thermal siphon circuit [5]. It is hopedcondensing gravity thermal siphon circuit shown in FIGURE 1

  18. Ultra high vacuum pumping system and high sensitivity helium leak detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao (Yorktown, VA)

    1997-01-01

    An improved helium leak detection method and apparatus are disclosed which increase the leak detection sensitivity to 10.sup.-13 atm cc s.sup.-1. The leak detection sensitivity is improved over conventional leak detectors by completely eliminating the use of o-rings, equipping the system with oil-free pumping systems, and by introducing measured flows of nitrogen at the entrances of both the turbo pump and backing pump to keep the system free of helium background. The addition of dry nitrogen flows to the system reduces backstreaming of atmospheric helium through the pumping system as a result of the limited compression ratios of the pumps for helium.

  19. Ultra high vacuum pumping system and high sensitivity helium leak detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myneni, G.R.

    1997-12-30

    An improved helium leak detection method and apparatus are disclosed which increase the leak detection sensitivity to 10{sup {minus}13} atm cc/s. The leak detection sensitivity is improved over conventional leak detectors by completely eliminating the use of o-rings, equipping the system with oil-free pumping systems, and by introducing measured flows of nitrogen at the entrances of both the turbo pump and backing pump to keep the system free of helium background. The addition of dry nitrogen flows to the system reduces back streaming of atmospheric helium through the pumping system as a result of the limited compression ratios of the pumps for helium. 2 figs.

  20. Optimization and Comparison of Direct and Indirect Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Plant Cycles for Nuclear Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwin A. Harvego; Michael G. McKellar

    2011-11-01

    There have been a number of studies involving the use of gases operating in the supercritical mode for power production and process heat applications. Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) is particularly attractive because it is capable of achieving relatively high power conversion cycle efficiencies in the temperature range between 550 C and 750 C. Therefore, it has the potential for use with any type of high-temperature nuclear reactor concept, assuming reactor core outlet temperatures of at least 550 C. The particular power cycle investigated in this paper is a supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle. The CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle can be used as either a direct or indirect power conversion cycle, depending on the reactor type and reactor outlet temperature. The advantage of this cycle when compared to the helium Brayton cycle is the lower required operating temperature; 550 C versus 850 C. However, the supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle requires an operating pressure in the range of 20 MPa, which is considerably higher than the required helium Brayton cycle operating pressure of 8 MPa. This paper presents results of analyses performed using the UniSim process analyses software to evaluate the performance of both a direct and indirect supercritical CO2 Brayton Recompression cycle for different reactor outlet temperatures. The direct supercritical CO2 cycle transferred heat directly from a 600 MWt reactor to the supercritical CO2 working fluid supplied to the turbine generator at approximately 20 MPa. The indirect supercritical CO2 cycle assumed a helium-cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), operating at a primary system pressure of approximately 7.0 MPa, delivered heat through an intermediate heat exchanger to the secondary indirect supercritical CO2 Brayton Recompression cycle, again operating at a pressure of about 20 MPa. For both the direct and indirect cycles, sensitivity calculations were performed for reactor outlet temperature between 550 C and 850 C. The UniSim models used realistic component parameters and operating conditions to model the complete reactor and power conversion systems. CO2 properties were evaluated, and the operating ranges of the cycles were adjusted to take advantage of the rapidly changing properties of CO2 near the critical point. The results of the analyses showed that, for the direct supercritical CO2 power cycle, thermal efficiencies in the range of 40 to 50% can be achieved. For the indirect supercritical CO2 power cycle, thermal efficiencies were approximately 10% lower than those obtained for the direct cycle over the same reactor outlet temperature range.

  1. Extraction of furfural with carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamse, T.; Marr, R.; Froeschl, F.; Siebenhofer, M.

    1997-01-01

    A new approach to separate furfural from aqueous waste has been investigated. Recovery of furfural and acetic acid from aqueous effluents of a paper mill has successfully been applied on an industrial scale since 1981. The process is based on the extraction of furfural and acetic acid by the solvent trooctylphosphineoxide (TOPO). Common extraction of both substances may cause the formation of resin residues. Improvement was expected by selective extraction of furfural with chlorinated hydrocarbons, but ecological reasons stopped further development of this project. The current investigation is centered in the evaluation of extraction of furfural by supercritical carbon dioxide. The influence of temperature and pressure on the extraction properties has been worked out. The investigation has considered the multi-component system furfural-acetic acid-water-carbon dioxide. Solubility of furfural in liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide has been measured, and equilibrium data for the ternary system furfural-water-CO{sub 2} as well as for the quaternary system furfural-acetic acid-water-CO{sub 2} have been determined. A high-pressure extraction column has been used for evaluation of mass transfer rates.

  2. Non-linear response of carbon dioxide and methane emissions to oxygen availability in a drained histosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNicol, Gavin; Silver, Whendee L

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Soil respiration; methane; carbon dioxide; oxygen;response of carbon dioxide and methane emissions to oxygenof carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) greenhouse gas

  3. Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. Iron and Steel sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst; Martin, N.; Price, L.

    1999-01-01

    Effectiveness of Carbon Dioxide Emission Reduction AchievedEfficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction PotentialEnergy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Process in U.S.

  4. The Politics of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction: The Role of Pluralism in Shaping the Climate Change Technology Initiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden, Dylan

    1999-01-01

    sources of carbon dioxide emissions are the destruction ofat 570. 1998/99] CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS REDUCTION causedat 438. 1998/99] CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS REDUCTION trucks.

  5. Effect of smoke on subcanopy shaded light, canopy temperature, and carbon dioxide uptake in an Amazon rainforest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doughty, C. E.; Flanner, M. G.; Goulden, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    1997), Measuring and modeling carbon dioxide and water vaportechnique for evalu- ating carbon dioxide exchange rates ofof ecosystem?scale carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy

  6. Helium measurements of pore-fluids obtained from SAFOD drillcore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, S.; Stute, M.; Torgersen, T.; Winckler, G.; Kennedy, B.M.

    2010-04-15

    {sup 4}He accumulated in fluids is a well established geochemical tracer used to study crustal fluid dynamics. Direct fluid samples are not always collectable; therefore, a method to extract rare gases from matrix fluids of whole rocks by diffusion has been adapted. Helium was measured on matrix fluids extracted from sandstones and mudstones recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling in California, USA. Samples were typically collected as subcores or from drillcore fragments. Helium concentration and isotope ratios were measured 4-6 times on each sample, and indicate a bulk {sup 4}He diffusion coefficient of 3.5 {+-} 1.3 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} at 21 C, compared to previously published diffusion coefficients of 1.2 x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (21 C) to 3.0 x 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (150 C) in the sands and clays. Correcting the diffusion coefficient of {sup 4}He{sub water} for matrix porosity ({approx}3%) and tortuosity ({approx}6-13) produces effective diffusion coefficients of 1 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (21 C) and 1 x 10{sup -7} (120 C), effectively isolating pore fluid {sup 4}He from the {sup 4}He contained in the rock matrix. Model calculations indicate that <6% of helium initially dissolved in pore fluids was lost during the sampling process. Complete and quantitative extraction of the pore fluids provide minimum in situ porosity values for sandstones 2.8 {+-} 0.4% (SD, n=4) and mudstones 3.1 {+-} 0.8% (SD, n=4).

  7. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and the Helium Isotope Ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan Cooke

    2015-10-09

    The conventional approach to search for departures from the standard model of physics during Big Bang Nucleosynthesis involves a careful, and subtle measurement of the mass fraction of baryons consisting of helium. Recent measurements of this quantity tentatively support new physics beyond the standard model but, historically, this method has suffered from hidden systematic uncertainties. In this letter, I show that a combined measurement of the primordial deuterium abundance and the primordial helium isotope ratio has the potential to provide a complementary and reliable probe of new physics beyond the standard model. Using the recent determination of the primordial deuterium abundance and assuming that the measured pre-solar 3He/4He meteoritic abundance reflects the primordial value, a bound can be placed on the effective number of neutrino species, Neff(BBN) = 3.01 (+0.95 -0.76, with 95 per cent confidence). Although this value of Neff supports the standard model, it is presently unclear if the pre-solar 3He/4He ratio reflects the primordial value. New astrophysical measurements of the helium isotope ratio in near-pristine environments, together with updated calculations and experimental values of several important nuclear reactions (some of which are already being attempted), will lead to much improved limits on possible departures from the standard model. To this end, I describe an analysis strategy to measure the 3He I flux emitted from nearby low metallicity H II regions. The proposed technique can be attempted with the next generation of large telescopes, and will be easier to realize in metal-poor H II regions with quiescent kinematics.

  8. The CNG process: Acid gas removal with liquid carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.C.; Auyang, L.; Brown, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    The CNG acid gas removal process has two unique features: the absorption of sulfur-containing compounds and other trace contaminants with liquid carbon dioxide, and the regeneration of pure liquid carbon dioxide by triple-point crystallization. The process is especially suitable for treating gases which contain large amounts of carbon dioxide and much smaller amounts (relative to carbon dioxide) of hydrogen sulfide. Capital and energy costs are lower than conventional solvent processes. Further, products of the CNG process meet stringent purity specifications without undue cost penalties. A process demonstration unit has been constructed and operated to demonstrate the two key steps of the CNG process. Hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide removal from gas streams with liquid carbon dioxide absorbent to sub-ppm concentrations has been demonstrated. The production of highly purified liquid carbon dioxide (less than 0.1 ppm total contaminant) by triple-point crystallization also has been demonstrated.

  9. A review of helium-hydrogen synergistic effects in radiation damage observed in fusion energy steels and an interaction model to guide future understanding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marian, J; Marian, J; Hoang, T; Hoang, T; Fluss, M; Hsiung, LL

    2015-01-01

    damage and helium and hydrogen production in F/M steelsthe simultaneous production of helium and hydrogen at dosethe simultaneous production of helium and/or hydrogen over a

  10. Detecting Extra Dimension by Helium-like Ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu-Xiao Liu; Xin-Hui Zhang; Yi-Shi Duan

    2007-11-26

    Considering that gravitational force might deviate from Newton's inverse-square law and become much stronger in small scale, we present a method to detect the possible existence of extra dimensions in the ADD model. By making use of an effective variational wave function, we obtain the nonrelativistic ground energy of a helium atom and its isoelectronic sequence. Based on these results, we calculate gravity correction of the ADD model. Our calculation may provide a rough estimation about the magnitude of the corresponding frequencies which could be measured in later experiments.

  11. Entanglement in helium atom confined in an impenetrable cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Przemyslaw Koscik; Jayanta K. Saha

    2015-05-24

    We explore ground-state entanglement properties of helium atom confined at the center of an impenetrable spherical cavity of varying radius by using explicitly correlated Hylleraas-type basis set. Results for the dependencies of the von Neumann and linear entanglement entropic measures on the cavity radius are discussed in details. Some highly accurate numerical results for the von Neumann and linear entropy are reported for the first time. It is found that the transition to the strong confinement regime is manifested by the entropies as an appearance of the inflection points on their variations.

  12. Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production Shao, Yixin 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE Clean Coal Technology Coal - Environmental Processes Clean Coal Technology Coal - Environmental...

  13. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01

    dioxide impact of electricity consumption in different majorand residential electricity consumption. Car usage and homefor fuel oil and electricity consumption. We then use

  14. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, Robert James; O'Brien, Michael Joseph

    2014-06-10

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides a composition which contains the amino-siloxane structures I, or III, as described herein. The composition is useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from process streams. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane composition. Another aspect of the present invention provides methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention, as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration in Fractured Porous Rocks

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Training and Research on Probabilistic Hydro-Thermo-Mechanical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration in Fractured Porous Rocks Gutierrez, Marte 54 ENVIRONMENTAL...

  16. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral Interactions and Determination of Contact Angles. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Simulation of...

  17. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Robert James; O'Brien, Michael Joseph

    2015-12-29

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides a composition which contains the amino-siloxane structures I, or III, as described herein. The composition is useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from process streams. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane composition. Another aspect of the present invention provides methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention, as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide.

  18. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Demonstration in Developing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dioxide Capture and Storage Demonstration in Developing Countries: Analysis of Key Policy Issues and Barriers Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon...

  19. Gettering of hydrogen and methane from a helium gas mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cárdenas, Rosa Elia; Stewart, Kenneth D.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the authors developed an approach for accurately quantifying the helium content in a gas mixture also containing hydrogen and methane using commercially available getters. The authors performed a systematic study to examine how both H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} can be removed simultaneously from the mixture using two SAES St 172{sup ®} getters operating at different temperatures. The remaining He within the gas mixture can then be measured directly using a capacitance manometer. The optimum combination involved operating one getter at 650?°C to decompose the methane, and the second at 110?°C to remove the hydrogen. This approach eliminated the need to reactivate the getters between measurements, thereby enabling multiple measurements to be made within a short time interval, with accuracy better than 1%. The authors anticipate that such an approach will be particularly useful for quantifying the He-3 in mixtures that include tritium, tritiated methane, and helium-3. The presence of tritiated methane, generated by tritium activity, often complicates such measurements.

  20. Improved modelling of helium and tritium production for spallation targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Leray; A. Boudard; J. Cugnon; J. C. David; A. Kelic-Heil; D. Mancusi; M. V. Ricciardi

    2009-12-11

    Reliable predictions of light charged particle production in spallation reactions are important to correctly assess gas production in spallation targets. In particular, the helium production yield is important for assessing damage in the window separating the accelerator vacuum from a spallation target, and tritium is a major contributor to the target radioactivity. Up to now, the models available in the MCNPX transport code, including the widely used default option Bertini-Dresner and the INCL4.2-ABLA combination of models, were not able to correctly predict light charged particle yields. The work done recently on both the intranuclear cascade model INCL4, in which cluster emission through a coalescence process has been introduced, and on the de-excitation model ABLA allows correcting these deficiencies. This paper shows that the coalescence emission plays an important role in the tritium and $^3He$ production and that the combination of the newly developed versions of the codes, INCL4.5-ABLA07, now lead to good predictions of both helium and tritium cross sections over a wide incident energy range. Comparisons with other available models are also presented.

  1. The Source of the Helium Visible Lines in Eta Carinae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amit Kashi; Noam Soker

    2007-04-13

    We assume that the helium-I lines emitted by the massive binary system Eta Carinae are formed in the acceleration zone of the less-massive secondary star. We calculate the Doppler shift of the lines as a function of orbital phase and of several parameters of the binary system. We find that a good fit is obtained if the helium lines are formed in the region where the secondary wind speed is 430 km/sec. The acceptable binary eccentricity is in the range 0.9-0.95, and the inclination angle (the angle between a line perpendicular to the orbital plane and the line of sight) is in the range 40-55 degrees. Lower values of e require higher values of i, and vice versa. The binary system is oriented such that the secondary star is in our direction (closer to us) during periastron passage. The orbital motion can account in part to the Doppler shift of the peak in X-ray emission.

  2. The Source of the Helium Visible Lines in Eta Carinae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kashi, A; Kashi, Amit; Soker, Noam

    2007-01-01

    We assume that the helium-I lines emitted by the massive binary system Eta Carinae are formed in the acceleration zone of the less-massive secondary star. We calculate the Doppler shift of the lines as a function of orbital phase and of several parameters of the binary system. We find that a good fit is obtained if the helium lines are formed in the region where the secondary wind speed is 430 km/sec. The acceptable binary eccentricity is in the range 0.9-0.95, and the inclination angle (the angle between a line perpendicular to the orbital plane and the line of sight) is in the range 40-55 degrees. Lower values of e require higher values of i, and vice versa. The binary system is oriented such that the secondary star is in our direction (closer to us) during periastron passage. The orbital motion can account in part to the Doppler shift of the peak in X-ray emission.

  3. Ignition and extinction phenomena in helium micro hollow cathode discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulsreshath, M. K.; Schwaederle, L.; Dufour, T.; Lefaucheux, P.; Dussart, R.; Overzet, L. J.

    2013-12-28

    Micro hollow cathode discharges (MHCD) were produced using 250??m thick dielectric layer of alumina sandwiched between two nickel electrodes of 8??m thickness. A through cavity at the center of the chip was formed by laser drilling technique. MHCD with a diameter of few hundreds of micrometers allowed us to generate direct current discharges in helium at up to atmospheric pressure. A slowly varying ramped voltage generator was used to study the ignition and the extinction periods of the microdischarges. The analysis was performed by using electrical characterisation of the V-I behaviour and the measurement of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms density by tunable diode laser spectroscopy. At the ignition of the microdischarges, 2??s long current peak as high as 24?mA was observed, sometimes followed by low amplitude damped oscillations. At helium pressure above 400?Torr, an oscillatory behaviour of the discharge current was observed just before the extinction of the microdischarges. The same type of instability in the extinction period at high pressure also appeared on the density of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms, but delayed by a few ?s relative to the current oscillations. Metastable atoms thus cannot be at the origin of the generation of the observed instabilities.

  4. Large quantum superpositions of a nanoparticle immersed in superfluid helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg Lychkovskiy

    2015-04-02

    Preparing and detecting spatially extended quantum superpositions of a massive object comprises an important fundamental test of quantum theory. State-of-the-art experiments demonstrate quantum interference of nanometer-sized molecules with mass $\\sim 10^4$ amu. A number of experiments have been proposed to push the mass limit several orders of magnitude further. All the experimental setups considered up to date require that the nanoparticle is isolated in a sufficiently high vacuum in order to avoid collisional decoherence. We argue that superfluid helium is a viable alternative to vacuum as a low-decoherence medium. Indeed, for an object moving in a pure superfluid at zero temperature with a velocity less than the critical one decoherence is absent since the object can not create any excitations of the superfluid. In real life impurities and thermal excitations will cause decoherence. We show that it is low enough to permit interference experiments with nanoparticles well beyond the current mass limit. While the robustness of spatial superpositions of an objects surrounded by dense medium is remarkable in its own right, performing interference experiments in superfluid helium can provide some practical advantages compared to conventional schemes, e.g. effective cooling and compensation of gravity by the buoyancy force.

  5. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and the Helium Isotope Ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooke, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The conventional approach to search for departures from the standard model of physics during Big Bang Nucleosynthesis involves a careful, and subtle measurement of the mass fraction of baryons consisting of helium. Recent measurements of this quantity tentatively support new physics beyond the standard model but, historically, this method has suffered from hidden systematic uncertainties. In this letter, I show that a combined measurement of the primordial deuterium abundance and the primordial helium isotope ratio has the potential to provide a complementary and reliable probe of new physics beyond the standard model. Using the recent determination of the primordial deuterium abundance and assuming that the measured pre-solar 3He/4He meteoritic abundance reflects the primordial value, a bound can be placed on the effective number of neutrino species, Neff(BBN) = 3.01 (+0.95 -0.76, with 95 per cent confidence). Although this value of Neff supports the standard model, it is presently unclear if the pre-solar 3...

  6. Check all SCHE Supply Purge Check Valves to Prevent Back Flow from SCHE into Helium Supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MISKA, C.R.

    2000-10-23

    These valves are 1/2-inch check valves used to prevent SCHe backflow into the Helium System if pressure in the Helium System drops below the pressure of the control valve downstream of the SCHe supply bottles. (14 psig in trains A and B and 2 psig in trains C and D).

  7. Helium generation in fusion reactor materials. Progress report, October-December 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kneff, D W; Farrar, H IV

    1981-01-14

    Helium analyses have been initiated for the helium accumulation dosimetry materials irradiated in the neutron characterization experiment at RTNS-II. Analyses of the separated isotopes of molybdenum irradiated in the RTNS-I, RTNS-II, and Be(d,n) neutron fields are in progress. The emphasis during the present period was on improving the gas mass spectrometer sensitivity for these samples.

  8. Mobility of charges in crystalline helium in strong electric K. 0.Keshishev and A. c. Meierovich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyerovich, Alex

    Mobility of charges in crystalline helium in strong electric fields K. 0.Keshishev and A. c. Teor. Fiz. 72, 1953-1959 (May 1977) The motion of carriers in a crystalline helium in strong electric in crystalline He4indicates that the diffusion of these types of impurity particles is a vacancion diffusion

  9. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF A DUAL-CHANNEL, HELIUM-COOLED, TUNGSTEN HEAT EXCHANGER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    high heat fluxes. The high temperature helium can then be used to power a gas turbine for high. These refractory devices take advantage of high temperature operation with large delta-Ts to effectively handle helium flow loop at Sandia National Laboratories. The module survived a maximum absorbed heat flux of 34

  10. On the computation of the eigenproblems of hydrogen and helium in strong magnetic and electric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    On the computation of the eigenproblems of hydrogen and helium in strong magnetic and electric) and helium (two electron problem) in strong magnetic and electric fields. Key Words: Schr¨odinger equation these techniques can not longer be applied in cases where both, a magnetic and an electric field are present

  11. On the computation of the eigenproblems of hydrogen and helium in strong magnetic and electric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    On the computation of the eigenproblems of hydrogen and helium in strong magnetic and electric-dimensional Schr¨o- dinger equation for helium (two electron problem) in strong magnetic and electric fields. Key these techniques can no longer be applied in cases where both a magnetic and an electric field are present

  12. Hydrogen and helium entrapment in flowing liquid metal plasma-facing surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Hydrogen and helium entrapment in flowing liquid metal plasma-facing surfaces Ahmed Hassanein the PFC surface (helium and hydrogen isotopes) while accommodating high heat loads. To study this problem. Hydrogen isotope (DT) particles are likely be trapped in the liquid metal surface (e.g., lithium) due

  13. The Solar Wind Helium Abundance: Variation with Wind Speed and the Solar Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    The Solar Wind Helium Abundance: Variation with Wind Speed and the Solar Cycle Matthias R. Aellig Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM 87545 Abstract We investigate the helium abundance in the solar wind of 1994 and early 2000 are analyzed. In agreement with similar work for previous solar cycles, we find

  14. Rapid and precise scanning helium ion microscope milling of solid-state nanopores for biomolecule detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Lu-Chang

    Rapid and precise scanning helium ion microscope milling of solid-state nanopores for biomolecule detection This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article Nanotechnology 22 (2011) 285310 (6pp) doi:10.1088/0957-4484/22/28/285310 Rapid and precise scanning helium ion

  15. Comparison Between Air and Helium for Use as Working Fluids in the Energy-Conversion Cycle of the MPBR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galen, T. A.

    A comparison between air and helium for use as working fluids in the energy-conversion cycle of the MPBR is presented. To date, helium has been selected in the MPBR indirect-cycle working reference design. Air open- and ...

  16. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide from the post-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be separated using the sorbent processes currently used to remove sulfur compounds from the synthesis gas is capable of separating up to 90 percent of the carbon dioxide content of raw synthesis gas. The carbon-intensive and would lower the thermal efficiency of coal gasification power plants. Selective separation membrane

  17. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    US power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets, Environ.Andres et al. : A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions doi:A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel

  18. Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    9 Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the U.S.Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions for Energy Use inConsumption, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from calcination

  19. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Phylipsen, Dian; Worrell, Ernst

    2001-01-01

    Li, 2001. Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from SteelEnergy Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions ReductionEnergy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the Steel Sector

  20. Towards constraints on fossil fuel emissions from total column carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keppel-Aleks, G.; Wennberg, P. O; O'Dell, C. W; Wunch, D.

    2013-01-01

    spatial patterns of carbon dioxide emissions from nationalRotty, R. M. : Carbon-dioxide Emissions From Fossil-fuels –Dis- tribution of Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Fossil Fuel

  1. China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Hongyou

    2013-01-01

    U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2010. ” AugustChina’s Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in ManufacturingChina’s Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing

  2. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    on North American carbon dioxide ex- change: CarbonTracker,A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuelof two US power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets,

  3. Effects of carbon dioxide on peak mode isotachophoresis: Simultaneous preconcentration and separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santiago, Juan G.

    Effects of carbon dioxide on peak mode isotachophoresis: Simultaneous preconcentration ions resulting from dissolved atmospheric carbon dioxid e to weakly disrupt isotachophoretic the hydration and carbamation reaction of dissolved atmospheric carbon dioxide, respectively. The width

  4. The Implied Cost of Carbon Dioxide under the Cash for Clunkers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knittel, Christopher R

    2009-01-01

    25-51. Tables Cost of Carbon Dioxide (per ton) Three YearsPollutants Table 1: Cost of Carbon Dioxide Estimates VintageImplied Price for Carbon Dioxide ($/tons)! Years Clunkers

  5. Pellet charge exchange helium measurement using neutral particle analyzer in large helical device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozaki, T.; Goncharov, P.; Veshchev, E.; Tamura, N.; Sudo, S.; Seki, T.; Kasahara, H. [High Energy Particle Group, Wave Heating Group and LHD Experimental Group, National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Takase, Y.; Ohsako, T. [Department of Complexity Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

    2008-10-15

    It is very important to investigate the confinement of {alpha} particles, which will be produced by nuclear reactions in ITER and fusion reactors. The pellet charge exchange (PCX) measurement is one of the most powerful methods because it can directly provide the profile of the {alpha} particle energy spectra in a plasma. In the large helical device, PCX using tracer encapsulated solid pellet (TESPEL) has been tried in many hydrogen and helium plasmas, including helium accelerated by using the cyclotron resonance heating. In the PCX, we use the compact neutral particle analyzer without simultaneous mass separation ability. The helium particle measurement can be achieved by the application of voltage in the condenser plate. The scattering of hydrogen particle is carefully considered during the estimation of the helium amount. The radial helium profiles can also be obtained by comparing four TESPEL injection shots with/without higher harmonic fast wave heating and at applied plate voltages for He or H, respectively.

  6. Atomistic studies of formation and diffusion of helium clusters and bubbles in BCC iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, David M [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Osetskiy, Yury N [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    In fusion applications, helium created by transmutation plays an important role in the response of reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels to neutron radiation damage. We have performed extensive atomistic simulations using the ORNL 3-body Fe He interatomic potential combined with three interatomic potentials for the iron matrix. Some of the results obtained are summarized in this review. Interstitial helium is very mobile and coalesces together to form interstitial clusters. We have investigated the mobility of these clusters. When an interstitial He cluster reaches sufficient size, it punches out an Fe interstitial, creating an immobile helium vacancy cluster. If more helium atoms join it, more Fe interstitials can be created; the He V defect is a nascent bubble. These mechanisms are investigated together in simulations that examine the nucleation of He defects. Mobile interstitial He clusters and helium bubbles 1 to 6 nm across are also simulated separately. Results are compared based on temperature and interatomic potentials used.

  7. Fundamental and applied studies of helium ingrowth and aging in plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, M.F.; Zocco, T.; Albers, R.; Becker, J.D.; Walter, K.; Cort, B.; Paisley, D.; Nastasi, M.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project was to develop new capabilities to assess the nucleation and growth of helium-associated defects in aged plutonium metal. This effort involved both fundamental and applied models to assist in predicting the transport and kinetics of helium in the metal lattice as well as ab initio calculations of the disposition of gallium in the fcc plutonium lattice and its resulting effects on phase stability. Experimentally this project aimed to establish experimental capabilities crucial to the prediction of helium effects in metals, such as transmission electron microscopy, thermal helium effusion, and the development of a laser-driven mini-flyer for understanding the role of helium and associated defects on shock response of plutonium surrogates.

  8. Searching for Hydrogen in Type Ib Supernovae, and for Helium and Hydrogen in Type Ic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Branch

    2002-07-09

    Identifying the progenitors of Type Ib and Type Ic supernovae requires knowing, among other things, whether SNe Ib eject hydrogen, and whether SNe Ic eject helium, and perhaps even hydrogen. Recently it has become clear that some SNe Ib do eject hydrogen, and it may be that all SNe Ib do. Two arguments that have been made in the past that SNe Ic eject helium are difficult to confirm, but I discuss other possible evidence that SNe Ic eject helium, as well as hydrogen. If so, these elements extend to lower ejection velocities than in SNe Ib. The spectroscopic differences between SNe Ib and SNe Ic may depend on the radial distributions of the helium and hydrogen as well as on the ejected masses of helium and hydrogen. We should consider the possibility that SNe Ic are more mixed up.

  9. Capture of carbon dioxide by hybrid sorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasachar, Srivats

    2014-09-23

    A composition, process and system for capturing carbon dioxide from a combustion gas stream. The composition has a particulate porous support medium that has a high volume of pores, an alkaline component distributed within the pores and on the surface of the support medium, and water adsorbed on the alkaline component, wherein the proportion of water in the composition is between about 5% and about 35% by weight of the composition. The process and system contemplates contacting the sorbent and the flowing gas stream together at a temperature and for a time such that some water remains adsorbed in the alkaline component when the contact of the sorbent with the flowing gas ceases.

  10. Apparatus for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-02-02

    An apparatus and method associated therewith to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2 and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  11. Pararell Electron temperature and Density Gradients measured in the JET Mk I Divertor using Thermal Helium Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pararell Electron temperature and Density Gradients measured in the JET Mk I Divertor using Thermal Helium Beams

  12. RETRACTABLE HELIUM TRANSFER LINES FOR THE FLOATING FUSION Zhukovsky A., Garnier D.T.,* Fishman V., Lations R.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of helium at room temperature to 12.5 MPa. A lead-fiberglass high heat capacity radiation shield surrounds, and radiation shield are cooled by liquid nitrogen or then helium flowing in the tube heat exchanger loops heat exchanger. When the F-coil is still in the normal state at a helium vessel temperature above 20 K

  13. Proposal for Manipulating and Detecting Spin and Orbital States of Trapped Electrons on Helium Using Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dykman, Mark

    Proposal for Manipulating and Detecting Spin and Orbital States of Trapped Electrons on Helium state of a single electron trapped on the surface of superfluid helium. We estimate the motional- perfluid helium [13] might play a unique role as they can independently form a strongly coupled cavity QED

  14. Table 5. Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by State (2000-2011)" "metric tons of carbon dioxide per person" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2011"...

  15. Table 2. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel " ,"million metric tons of carbon dioxide",,,,,"shares" "State","Coal","Petroleum","Natural Gas ","Total",,"Coal","Petrol...

  16. Table 3. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by sector " "million metric tons of carbon dioxide" "State","Commercial","Electric Power","Residential","Industrial","Transportat...

  17. Table 1. State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year (2000-2011)" "million metric tons of carbon dioxide" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2011" "State",2000,2001,2002,...

  18. Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rust, Bert W.

    Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear" Bert W. Rust Mathematical- tioned the connection between global warming and increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide by pointing out of these plots to global warming have spilled over to the real world, inviting both praise [4, 17] and scorn [15

  19. The Subsurface Fluid Mechanics of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Subsurface Fluid Mechanics of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage by Michael Lawrence Szulczewski S Mechanics of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage by Michael Lawrence Szulczewski Submitted to the Department capture and storage (CCS), CO2 is captured at power plants and then injected into deep geologic reservoirs

  20. Development of a Carbon Dioxide Monitoring Rotorcraft Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimmer, Uwe

    Development of a Carbon Dioxide Monitoring Rotorcraft Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Florian Poppa and Uwe the development of a carbon dioxide (CO2) sensing rotorcraft unmanned aerial vehicle (RUAV) and the experiences stage to prevent potential danger to workforce and material, and carbon capture and sequestration (CCS

  1. Carbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.200902836

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik Suh, Myunghyun

    Carbon Dioxide Capture DOI: 10.1002/anie.200902836 Highly Selective CO2 Capture in Flexible 3D Coordination Polymer Networks** Hye-Sun Choi and Myunghyun Paik Suh* Carbon dioxide capture has been capture, storage, and sensing. Compounds 1 and 2 are the first 3D pillared networks assembled from Ni

  2. FRONTIERS ARTICLE On the hydration and hydrolysis of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    FRONTIERS ARTICLE On the hydration and hydrolysis of carbon dioxide Alice H. England a,b , Andrew M August 2011 a b s t r a c t The dissolution of carbon dioxide in water and the ensuing hydrolysis, carbonic acid and dissolved CO2. The cor- responding carbon K-edge core-level spectra were calculated using

  3. Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pelc, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

  4. Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magdalena Pelc; Radoslaw Osuch

    2009-03-31

    In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

  5. The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on Electricity Prices the impact of proposed federal regulations aimed at reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions gas emissions; however, it does not attempt to model the full details of the proposed legislation

  6. Carbon dioxide sequestration in concrete in different curing environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in concrete in different curing environments Y.-m. Chun, T.R. Naik, USA ABSTRACT: This paper summarizes the results of an investigation on carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in concrete. Concrete mixtures were not air entrained. Concrete mixtures were made containing

  7. Absorption of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Piperazine/Methyldiethanolamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Absorption of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Piperazine/Methyldiethanolamine Sanjay Bishnoi and Gary T. Rochelle Dept. of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 ( )Carbon dioxide absorption in 0.6 M piperazine PZ r4 M methyldiethanolamine ( )MDEA was measured in a wetted wall

  8. Pilot Plant Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Monoethanolamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    i Pilot Plant Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Monoethanolamine Topical Report Prepared Pilot Plant Study of Carbon Dioxide Capture by Aqueous Monoethanolamine Ross Edward Dugas, M as a comparison to the piperazine/potassium carbonate solvent currently being tested by the Rochelle research

  9. Method for synthesis of titanium dioxide nanotubes using ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng

    2013-11-19

    The invention is directed to a method for producing titanium dioxide nanotubes, the method comprising anodizing titanium metal in contact with an electrolytic medium containing an ionic liquid. The invention is also directed to the resulting titanium dioxide nanotubes, as well as devices incorporating the nanotubes, such as photovoltaic devices, hydrogen generation devices, and hydrogen detection devices.

  10. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Intratracheally administered titanium dioxide or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Intratracheally administered titanium dioxide or carbon black,2,5,6* Abstract Background: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and carbon black (CB) nanoparticles (NPs) have biological a particle's size to the nanometric dimension can greatly modify its properties for applications

  11. Carbon Dioxide Addition to Microbial Fuel Cell Cathodes Maintains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angenent, Lars T.

    Carbon Dioxide Addition to Microbial Fuel Cell Cathodes Maintains Sustainable Catholyte p losses and, therefore, power losses. Here, we report that adding carbon dioxide (CO2) gas to the cathode and sustainable energy from wastewaters, replace energy intensive wastewater treatment processes, and produce

  12. Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    12 SCIENCE Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour, inert gases. On the basis of proton affinity, the major constituents of air and breath (nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, as the products of normal metabolism and those that have altered owing to disease, and are transported via

  13. Optical constants of carbon dioxide ice Stephen G. Warren

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Stephen

    Optical constants of carbon dioxide ice Stephen G. Warren Laboratory measurements of the absorption. At pressures belowthe triple point (5.2atm), carbon dioxide exists only as a gas or solid. The sublimation in the ultraviolet (50-130-nm wavelength) due to elec- tronic transitions. It is relatively transparent

  14. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Robert James (Niskayuna, NY); Lewis, Larry Neil (Scotia, NY); O'Brien, Michael Joseph (Clifton Park, NY); Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY); Kniajanski, Sergei (Clifton Park, NY); Lam, Tunchiao Hubert (Clifton Park, NY); Lee, Julia Lam (Niskayuna, NY); Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona (Ballston Spa, NY)

    2011-10-04

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides an amino-siloxane composition comprising at least one of structures I, II, III, IV or V said compositions being useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from gas streams such as power plant flue gases. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane compositions are provided. Also provided are methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide. The reaction of the amino-siloxane compositions provided by the present invention with carbon dioxide is reversible and thus, the method provides for multicycle use of said compositions.

  15. Friction-Induced Fluid Heating in Nanoscale Helium Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Zhigang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-05-21

    We investigate the mechanism of friction-induced fluid heating in nanoconfinements. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the temperature variations of liquid helium in nanoscale Poiseuille flows. It is found that the fluid heating is dominated by different sources of friction as the external driving force is changed. For small external force, the fluid heating is mainly caused by the internal viscous friction in the fluid. When the external force is large and causes fluid slip at the surfaces of channel walls, the friction at the fluid-solid interface dominates over the internal friction in the fluid and is the major contribution to fluid heating. An asymmetric temperature gradient in the fluid is developed in the case of nonidentical walls and the general temperature gradient may change sign as the dominant heating factor changes from internal to interfacial friction with increasing external force.

  16. Helium Reionization Simulations. I. Modeling Quasars as Radiation Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La Plante, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new project to understand helium reionization using fully coupled $N$-body, hydrodynamics, and radiative transfer simulations. This project aims to capture correctly the thermal history of the intergalactic medium (IGM) as a result of reionization and make predictions about the Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest and baryon temperature-density relation. The dominant sources of radiation for this transition are quasars, so modeling the source population accurately is very important for making reliable predictions. In this first paper, we present a new method for populating dark matter halos with quasars. Our set of quasar models include two different light curves, a lightbulb (simple on/off) and symmetric exponential model, and luminosity-dependent quasar lifetimes. Our method self-consistently reproduces an input quasar luminosity function (QLF) given a halo catalog from an $N$-body simulation, and propagates quasars through the merger history of halo hosts. After calibrating quasar clustering using measurem...

  17. Options for Cryogenic Load Cooling with Forced Flow Helium Circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni, Roberto Than

    2012-06-01

    Cryogenic pumps designed to circulate super-critical helium are commonly deemed necessary in many super-conducting magnet and other cooling applications. Acknowledging that these pumps are often located at the coldest temperature levels, their use introduces risks associated with the reliability of additional rotating machinery and an additional load on the refrigeration system. However, as it has been successfully demonstrated, this objective can be accomplished without using these pumps by the refrigeration system, resulting in lower system input power and improved reliability to the overall cryogenic system operations. In this paper we examine some trade-offs between using these pumps vs. using the refrigeration system directly with examples of processes that have used these concepts successfully and eliminated using such pumps

  18. Nuclear fusion in muonic deuterium-helium complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. M. Bystritsky; M. Filipowicz; V. V. Gerasimov; P. E. Knowles; F. Mulhauser; N. P. Popov; V. A. Stolupin; V. P. Volnykh; J. Wozniak

    2005-06-22

    Experimental study of the nuclear fusion reaction in charge-asymmetrical d-mu-3He complex is presented. The 14.6 MeV protons were detected by three pairs of Si(dE-E) telescopes placed around the cryogenic target filled with the deuterium + helium-3 gas at 34 K. The 6.85 keV gamma rays emitted during the de-excitation of d-mu-3He complex were detected by a germanium detector. The measurements were performed at two target densities, 0.0585 and 0.169 (relative to liquid hydrogen density) with an atomic concentration of 3He c=0.0469. The values of the effective rate of nuclear fusion in d-mu-3He was obtained for the first time, and the J=0 nuclear fusion rate in d-mu-3He was derived.

  19. Condensation of helium in nanoscopic alkali wedges at zero temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. S. Hernández; F. Ancilotto; M. Barranco; R. Mayol; Martí Pi

    2006-02-21

    We present a complete calculation of the structure of liquid $^4$He confined to a concave nanoscopic wedge, as a function of the opening angle of the walls. This is achieved within a finite-range density functional formalism. The results here presented, restricted to alkali metal substrates, illustrate the change in meniscus shape from rather broad to narrow wedges on weak and strong alkali adsorbers, and relate this change to the wetting behavior of helium on the corresponding planar substrate. As the wedge angle is varied, we find a sequence of stable states that, in the case of cesium, undergo one filling and one emptying transition at large and small openings, respectively. A computationally unambiguous criterion to determine the contact angle of $^4$He on cesium is also proposed.

  20. Evaluation of the Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Recent advances in gas-turbine and heat exchanger technology have enhanced the potential for a Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) incorporating a direct gas turbine (Brayton) cycle for power conversion. The resulting Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) power plant combines the high temperature capabilities of the MHR with the efficiency and reliability of modern gas turbines. While the passive safety features of the steam cycle MHR (SC-MHR) are retained, generation efficiencies are projected to be in the range of 48% and steam power conversion systems, with their attendant complexities, are eliminated. Power costs are projected to be reduced by about 20%, relative to the SC-MHR or coal. This report documents the second, and final, phase of a two-part evaluation that concluded with a unanimous recommendation that the direct cycle (DC) variant of the GT-MHR be established as the commercial objective of the US Gas-Cooled Reactor Program. This recommendation has been endorsed by industrial and utility participants and accepted by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Phase II effort, documented herein, concluded that the DC GT-MHR offers substantial technical and economic advantages over both the IDC and SC systems. Both the DC and IDC were found to offer safety advantages, relative to the SC, due to elimination of the potential for water ingress during power operations. This is the dominant consequence event for the SC. The IDC was judged to require somewhat less development than the direct cycle, while the SC, which has the greatest technology base, incurs the least development cost and risk. While the technical and licensing requirements for the DC were more demanding, they were judged to be incremental and feasible. Moreover, the DC offers significant performance and cost improvements over the other two concepts. Overall, the latter were found to justify the additional development needs.

  1. THE EFFECTS OF CURVATURE AND EXPANSION ON HELIUM DETONATIONS ON WHITE DWARF SURFACES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Kevin; Bildsten, Lars [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Townsley, Dean M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2013-10-20

    Accreted helium layers on white dwarfs have been highlighted for many decades as a possible site for a detonation triggered by a thermonuclear runaway. In this paper, we find the minimum helium layer thickness that will sustain a steady laterally propagating detonation and show that it depends on the density and composition of the helium layer, specifically {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O. Detonations in these thin helium layers have speeds slower than the Chapman-Jouget (CJ) speed from complete helium burning, v{sub CJ} = 1.5 × 10{sup 9} cm s{sup –1}. Though gravitationally unbound, the ashes still have unburned helium (?80% in the thinnest cases) and only reach up to heavy elements such as {sup 40}Ca, {sup 44}Ti, {sup 48}Cr, and {sup 52}Fe. It is rare for these thin shells to generate large amounts of {sup 56}Ni. We also find a new set of solutions that can propagate in even thinner helium layers when {sup 16}O is present at a minimum mass fraction of ?0.07. Driven by energy release from ? captures on {sup 16}O and subsequent elements, these slow detonations only create ashes up to {sup 28}Si in the outer detonated He shell. We close by discussing how the unbound helium burning ashes may create faint and fast 'Ia' supernovae as well as events with virtually no radioactivity, and speculate on how the slower helium detonation velocities impact the off-center ignition of a carbon detonation that could cause a Type Ia supernova in the double detonation scenario.

  2. Cavity morphology in a Ni based superalloy under heavy ion irradiation with hot pre-injected helium. II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, He; Yao, Zhongwen, E-mail: yaoz@me.queensu.ca; Daymond, Mark R. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen's University Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Kirk, Marquis A. [Material Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-03-14

    In the current investigation, TEM in-situ heavy ion (1?MeV Kr{sup 2+}) irradiation with helium pre-injected at elevated temperature (400?°C) was conducted to simulate in-reactor neutron irradiation induced damage in CANDU spacer material Inconel X-750, in an effort to understand the effects of helium on irradiation induced cavity microstructures. Three different quantities of helium, 400 appm, 1000 appm, and 5000 appm, were pre-injected directly into TEM foils at 400?°C. The samples containing helium were then irradiated in-situ with 1?MeV Kr{sup 2+} at 400?°C to a final dose of 5.4 dpa (displacement per atom). Cavities were formed from the helium injection solely and the cavity density and size increased with increasing helium dosage. In contrast to previous heavy ion irradiations with cold pre-injected helium, heterogeneous nucleation of cavities was observed. During the ensuing heavy ion irradiation, dynamical observation showed noticeable size increase in cavities which nucleated close to the grain boundaries. A “bubble-void” transformation was observed after Kr{sup 2+} irradiation to high dose (5.4?dpa) in samples containing 1000 appm and 5000 appm helium. Cavity distribution was found to be consistent with in-reactor neutron irradiation induced cavity microstructures. This implies that the distribution of helium is greatly dependent on the injection temperature, and helium pre-injection at high temperature is preferred for simulating the migration of the transmutation produced helium.

  3. Effects of helium content of microstructural development in Type 316 stainless steel under neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maziasz, P.J.

    1985-11-01

    This work investigated the sensitivity of microstructural evolution, particularly precipitate development, to increased helium content during thermal aging and during neutron irradiation. Helium (110 at. ppM) was cold preinjected into solution annealed (SA) DO-heat type 316 stainess steel (316) via cyclotron irradiation. These specimens were then exposed side by side with uninjected samples. Continuous helium generation was increased considerably relative to EBR-II irradiation by irradiation in HFIR. Data were obtained from quantitative analytical electron microscopy (AEM) in thin foils and on extraction replicas. 480 refs., 86 figs., 19 tabs.

  4. PHYS 390 Lecture 35 -Universal helium abundance 35 -1 2001 by David Boal, Simon Fraser University. All rights reserved; further resale or copying is strictly prohibited.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boal, David

    helium abundance What's important: · proton/neutron ratio · helium production in the early universe TextPHYS 390 Lecture 35 - Universal helium abundance 35 - 1 © 2001 by David Boal, Simon Fraser: Peebles, Chap. VIII Universal helium abundance We have described two characteristics of the Universe

  5. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2014-11-18

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  6. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, L. B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Parise, J. B. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Benmore, C. J. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, J. K.R. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Williamson, M. A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tamalonis, A. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Hebden, A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wiencek, T. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Alderman, O. L.G. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Guthrie, M. [Carnegie Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Leibowitz, L. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.

  7. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Skinner, L. B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Parise, J. B. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Benmore, C. J. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, J. K.R. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Williamson, M. A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tamalonis, A. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Hebden, A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wiencek, T. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Alderman, O. L.G. [Materials Development Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Guthrie, M. [Carnegie Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Leibowitz, L. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.

  8. Carbon dioxide research plan. A summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trivelpiece, Alvin W.; Koomanoff, F. A.; Suomi, Verner E.

    1983-11-01

    The Department of Energy is the lead federal agency for research related to atmospheric carbon dioxide. Its responsibility is to sponsor a program of relevant research, and to coordinate this research with that of others. As part of its responsibilities, the Department of Energy has prepared a research plan. The plan documented in this Summary delineated the logic, objectives, organization, background and current status of the research activities. The Summary Plan is based on research subplans in four specific areas: global carbon cycle, climate effects, vegetative response and indirect effects. These subplans have emanated from a series of national and international workshops, conferences, and from technical reports. The plans have been peer reviewed by experts in the relevant scientific fields. Their execution is being coordinated between the responsible federal and international government agencies and the involved scientific community.

  9. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, L. B.; Parise, J. B.; Benmore, C. J.; Weber, J. K.R.; Williamson, M. A.; Tamalonis, A.; Hebden, A.; Wiencek, T.; Alderman, O. L.G.; Guthrie, M.; Leibowitz, L.

    2014-11-21

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.

  10. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Skinner, L. B.; Parise, J. B.; Benmore, C. J.; Weber, J. K.R.; Williamson, M. A.; Tamalonis, A.; Hebden, A.; Wiencek, T.; Alderman, O. L.G.; Guthrie, M.; et al

    2014-11-21

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. Onmore »melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.« less

  11. Enhancement of the helium resonance lines in the solar atmosphere by suprathermal electron excitation I: non-thermal transport of helium ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. R. Smith; C. Jordan

    2002-08-16

    Models of the solar transition region made from lines other than those of helium cannot account for the strength of the helium lines. However, the collisional excitation rates of the helium resonance lines are unusually sensitive to the energy of the exciting electrons. Non-thermal motions in the transition region could drive slowly-ionizing helium ions rapidly through the steep temperature gradient, exposing them to excitation by electrons characteristic of higher temperatures than those describing their ionization state. We present the results of calculations which use a more physical representation of the lifetimes of the ground states of He I and He II than was adopted in earlier work on this process. New emission measure distributions are used to calculate the temperature variation with height. The results show that non-thermal motions can lead to enhancements of the He I and He II resonance line intensities by factors that are comparable with those required. Excitation by non-Maxwellian electron distributions would reduce the effects of non-thermal transport. The effects of non-thermal motions are more consistent with the observed spatial distribution of helium emission than are those of excitation by non-Maxwellian electron distributions alone. In particular, they account better for the observed line intensity ratio I(537.0 A)/I(584.3 A), and its variation with location.

  12. Coiled tubing drilling with supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolle , Jack J. (Seattle, WA)

    2002-01-01

    A method for increasing the efficiency of drilling operations by using a drilling fluid material that exists as supercritical fluid or a dense gas at temperature and pressure conditions existing at a drill site. The material can be used to reduce mechanical drilling forces, to remove cuttings, or to jet erode a substrate. In one embodiment, carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) is used as the material for drilling within wells in the earth, where the normal temperature and pressure conditions cause CO.sub.2 to exist as a supercritical fluid. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) is preferably used with coiled tube (CT) drilling equipment. The very low viscosity SC--CO.sub.2 provides efficient cooling of the drill head, and efficient cuttings removal. Further, the diffusivity of SC--CO.sub.2 within the pores of petroleum formations is significantly higher than that of water, making jet erosion using SC--CO.sub.2 much more effective than water jet erosion. SC--CO.sub.2 jets can be used to assist mechanical drilling, for erosion drilling, or for scale removal. A choke manifold at the well head or mud cap drilling equipment can be used to control the pressure within the borehole, to ensure that the temperature and pressure conditions necessary for CO.sub.2 to exist as either a supercritical fluid or a dense gas occur at the drill site. Spent CO.sub.2 can be vented to the atmosphere, collected for reuse, or directed into the formation to aid in the recovery of petroleum.

  13. Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-04-01

    Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

  14. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Description of the procedures for estimating carbon dioxide emissions in the Short-Term Energy Outlook

  15. OPERATIONAL NOTE A SIMPLIFIED TRIPOD SUPPORT FOR USE WITH CARBON DIOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OPERATIONAL NOTE A SIMPLIFIED TRIPOD SUPPORT FOR USE WITH CARBON DIOXIDE­ BAITED VECTOR surveillance trap support was designed as a tripod of polyvinyl chloride pipes to suspend carbon dioxide, vector surveillance, hanging traps, carbon dioxide, mosquito trap Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission is common

  16. PIERS ONLINE, VOL. 5, NO. 7, 2009 637 Ventilation Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halgamuge, Malka N.

    PIERS ONLINE, VOL. 5, NO. 7, 2009 637 Ventilation Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Concentration complex organic molecules being broken down to simpler molecules, such as carbon dioxide and water. Carbon dioxide waste is removed from the body through respiration. Carbon dioxide content in fresh air

  17. Modelling carbon dioxide accumulation at Sleipner: Implications for underground carbon storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huppert, Herbert

    Modelling carbon dioxide accumulation at Sleipner: Implications for underground carbon storage Mike dioxide; Viscous flow; Gravity flow 1. Introduction Disposal of carbon dioxide in geological reservoirs;questions about the environmental benefits of this process concern the fate of the carbon dioxide over

  18. CARBON DIOXIDE -CO2 MSDS (DOCUMENT #001013) PAGE 1 OF 12 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Kyu Yong

    CARBON DIOXIDE - CO2 MSDS (DOCUMENT #001013) PAGE 1 OF 12 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET Prepared to U in an emergency? 1. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION CHEMICAL NAME; CLASS: CARBON DIOXIDE - CO2, GASEOUS CARBON DIOXIDE - CO2, CRYOGENIC CARBON DIOXIDE - CO2, SOLID Document Number: 001013 PRODUCT USE: For general analytical

  19. Lessons Learned from Natural and Industrial Analogues for Storage of Carbon Dioxide in Deep Geological Formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benson, Sally M.; Hepple, Robert; Apps, John; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Lippmann, Marcelo

    2002-01-01

    Soda Ash Manufacture and Consumption Carbon Dioxide Consumption* Iron and Steel Production** Ammonia

  20. Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennis, J A

    1971-01-01

    Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue

  1. Bethe logarithms for the 1 singlet S, 2 singlet S and 2 triplet S states of helium and helium-like ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, J D; Jeziorska, M; Morgan, J D; Baker, Jonathan D.; Forrey, Robert C.; Jeziorska, Malgorzata; III, John D. Morgan

    2000-01-01

    We have computed the Bethe logarithms for the 1 singlet S, 2 singlet S and 2triplet S states of the helium atom to about seven figure-accuracy using ageneralization of a method first developed by Charles Schwartz. We have alsocalculated the Bethe logarithms for the helium-like ions of Li, Be, O and S forall three states to study the 1/Z behavior of the results. The Bethe logarithmof H minus was also calculated with somewhat less accuracy. The use of ourBethe logarithms for the excited states of neutral helium, instead of thosefrom Goldman and Drake's first-order 1/Z-expansion, reduces by several ordersof magnitude the discrepancies between the theoretically calculated andexperimentally measured ionization potentials of these states.

  2. Modeling the point-spread function in helium-ion lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winston, Donald

    We present here a hybrid approach to modeling helium-ion lithography that combines the power and ease-of-use of the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) software with the results of recent work simulating secondary ...

  3. Development of a polarized Helium-3 ion source for RHIC using the electron beam ion source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epstein, Charles Samuel

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents my work on the design and development of a source of polarized Helium-3 ions for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Lab, Upton, NY. The 3He atoms will be polarized using the ...

  4. Dynamics of a Simple Model for Turbulence of the Second Sound in Helium II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. V. Chirikov; V. G. Davidovsky

    2000-06-13

    The results of numerical experiments on chaotic ('turbulent') dynamics of the second sound in helium II are presented and discussed based on a very simple model proposed and theoretically studied recently by Khalatnikov and Kroyter. Using a powerful present-day techniques for the studying nonlinear phenomena, we confirm their results on the stationary oscillation in helium and its stability as well as on a qualitative picture of successive transitions to limit cycles and chaos. However, the experiments revealed also a much more complicated structure of the bifurcations than it was expected. The fractal structure of chaotic attractors was also studied including their noninteger dimension. Surprisingly, a very simple model used in all these studies not only qualitatively represents the behavior of helium in laboratory experiments but also allows for a correct order-of-magnitude estimate of the critical heat pumping into helium at bifurcations.

  5. NEUTRAL INTERSTELLAR HELIUM PARAMETERS BASED ON IBEX-Lo OBSERVATIONS AND TEST PARTICLE CALCULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bzowski, M.

    Because of its high ionization potential and weak interaction with hydrogen, neutral interstellar helium (NISHe) is almost unaffected at the heliospheric interface with the interstellar medium and freely enters the solar ...

  6. Helium release rates and ODH calculations from RHIC magnet cooling line failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liaw, C.J.; Than, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2011-03-28

    A catastrophic failure of the magnet cooling lines, similar to the LHC superconducting bus failure incident, could discharge cold helium into the RHIC tunnel and cause an Oxygen Deficiency Hazard (ODH) problem. A SINDA/FLUINT{reg_sign} model, which simulated the 4.5K/4 atm helium flowing through the magnet cooling system distribution lines, then through a line break into the insulating vacuum volumes and discharging via the reliefs into the RHIC tunnel, had been developed. Arc flash energy deposition and heat load from the ambient temperature cryostat surfaces are included in the simulations. Three typical areas: the sextant arc, the Triplet/DX/D0 magnets, and the injection area, had been analyzed. Results, including helium discharge rates, helium inventory loss, and the resulting oxygen concentration in the RHIC tunnel area, are reported. Good agreement had been achieved when comparing the simulation results, a RHIC sector depressurization test measurement, and some simple analytical calculations.

  7. Free Radicals in Superfluid Liquid Helium Nanodroplets: A Pyrolysis Source for the Production of Propargyl Radical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Küpper, J; Miller, R E; K\\"upper, Jochen; Merritt, Jeremy M.; Miller, Roger E.

    2002-01-01

    An effusive pyrolysis source is described for generating a continuous beam of radicals under conditions appropriate for the helium droplet pick-up method. Rotationally resolved spectra are reported for the $\

  8. A note on the ultracold neutrons production by neutron deceleration on clusters in liquid helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. N. Pokotilovski

    2008-12-04

    An evaluation of slow neutrons deceleration through their interaction with nanoclusters in liquid helium is performed. It is shown that process is strongly suppresed if the clusters are bound by the van der Waals interaction.

  9. Analysis of a direct energy conversion system using medium energy helium ions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Jesse James

    2006-08-16

    A scaled direct energy conversion device was built to convert kinetic energy of singly ionized helium ions into an electric potential by the process of direct conversion. The experiments in this paper aimed to achieve higher potentials and higher...

  10. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  11. Exploring the isopycnal mixing and helium-heat paradoxes in a suite of Earth System Models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Abernathey, R.; Pradal, M.-A.

    2014-11-20

    This paper uses a suite of Earth System models which simulate the distribution of He isotopes and radiocarbon to examine two paradoxes in Earth science. The helium-heat paradox refers to the fact that helium emissions to the deep ocean are far lower than would be expected given the rate of geothermal heating, since both are thought to be the result of radioactive decay in the earth's interior. The isopycnal mixing paradox comes from the fact that many theoretical parameterizations of the isopycnal mixing coefficient ARedi that link it to baroclinic instability project it to be small (of order a fewmore »hundred m2 s?1) in the ocean interior away from boundary currents. However, direct observations using tracers and floats (largely in the upper ocean) suggest that values of this coefficient are an order of magnitude higher. Because helium isotopes equilibrate rapidly with the atmosphere, but radiocarbon equilibrates slowly, it might be thought that resolving the isopycnal mixing paradox in favor of the higher observational estimates of ARedi might also solve the helium paradox. In this paper we show that this is not the case. In a suite of models with different spatially constant and spatially varying values of ARedi the distribution of radiocarbon and helium isotopes is sensitive to the value of ARedi. However, away from strong helium sources in the Southeast Pacific, the relationship between the two is not sensitive, indicating that large-scale advection is the limiting process for removing helium and radiocarbon from the deep ocean. The helium isotopes, in turn, suggest a higher value of ARedi in the deep ocean than is seen in theoretical parameterizations based on baroclinic growth rates. We argue that a key part of resolving the isopycnal mixing paradox is to abandon the idea that ARedi has a direct relationship to local baroclinic instability and to the so called "thickness" mixing coefficient AGM.« less

  12. AM Canum Venaticorum Progenitors with Helium Star Donors and the resultant Explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brooks, Jared; Marchant, Pablo; Paxton, Bill

    2015-01-01

    We explore the outcome of mass transfer via Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) of $M_{\\rm He}\\lesssim0.51 M_\\odot$ pure helium burning stars in close binaries with white dwarfs (WDs). The evolution is driven by the loss of angular momentum through gravitational wave radiation (GWR), and both stars are modeled using Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA). The donors have masses of $M_{\\rm He}=0.35, 0.4, \\&\\ 0.51M_\\odot$ and accrete onto WDs of mass $M_{\\rm WD}$ from $0.6M_\\odot$ to $1.26M_\\odot$. The initial orbital periods ($P_{\\rm{orb}}$) span 20 to 80 minutes. For all cases, the accretion rate onto the WD is below the stable helium burning range, leading to accumulation of helium followed by unstable ignition. The mass of the convective core in the donors is small enough so that the WD accretes enough helium-rich matter to undergo a thermonuclear runaway in the helium shell before any carbon-oxygen enriched matter is transferred. The mass of the accumulated helium shell depends on $M_{\\rm WD}$ a...

  13. The initiation and propagation of helium detonations in white dwarf envelopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Ken J. [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Moore, Kevin, E-mail: kenshen@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    Detonations in helium-rich envelopes surrounding white dwarfs have garnered attention as triggers of faint thermonuclear '.Ia' supernovae and double detonation Type Ia supernovae. However, recent studies have found that the minimum size of a hotspot that can lead to a helium detonation is comparable to, or even larger than, the white dwarf's pressure scale height, casting doubt on the successful ignition of helium detonations in these systems. In this paper, we examine the previously neglected effects of C/O pollution and a full nuclear reaction network, and we consider hotspots with spatially constant pressure in addition to constant density hotspots. We find that the inclusion of these effects significantly decreases the minimum hotspot size for helium-rich detonation ignition, making detonations far more plausible during turbulent shell convection or during double white dwarf mergers. The increase in burning rate also decreases the minimum shell mass in which a helium detonation can successfully propagate and alters the composition of the shell's burning products. The ashes of these low-mass shells consist primarily of silicon, calcium, and unburned helium and metals and may explain the high-velocity spectral features observed in most Type Ia supernovae.

  14. Performance Testing of Jefferson Lab 12 GeV Helium Screw Compressors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Knudsen, P.; Ganni, V.; Dixon, K.; Norton, R.; Creel, J.

    2015-08-10

    Oil injected screw compressors have essentially superseded all other types of compressors in modern helium refrigeration systems due to their large displacement capacity, reliability, minimal vibration, and capability of handling helium's high heat of compression. At the present state of compressor system designs for helium refrigeration systems, typically two-thirds of the lost input power is due to the compression system. It is important to understand the isothermal and volumetric efficiencies of these machines to help properly design the compression system to match the refrigeration process. It is also important to identify those primary compressor skid exergetic loss mechanisms which maymore »be reduced, thereby offering the possibility of significantly reducing the input power to helium refrigeration processes which are extremely energy intensive. This paper summarizes the results collected during the commissioning of the new compressor system for Jefferson Lab's (JLab's) 12 GeV upgrade. The compressor skid packages were designed by JLab and built to print by industry. They incorporate a number of modifications not typical of helium screw compressor packages and most importantly allow a very wide range of operation so that JLab's patented Floating Pressure Process can be fully utilized. This paper also summarizes key features of the skid design that allow this process and facilitate the maintenance and reliability of these helium compressor systems.« less

  15. Ownership of Carbon Dioxide Captured by Clean Coal Project (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation stipulates that the Railroad Commission of Texas automatically acquires the title to any carbon dioxide captured by a clean coal project in the state. The Bureau of Economic...

  16. Mechanisms for mechanical trapping of geologically sequestered carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Yossi

    Carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) sequestration in subsurface reservoirs is important for limiting atmospheric CO[subscript 2] concentrations. However, a complete physical picture able to predict the structure developing ...

  17. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2013 October 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 October 2014 U.S. Energy...

  18. Separation of carbon dioxide from flue emissions using Endex principles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ball, R

    2009-01-01

    In an Endex reactor endothermic and exothermic reactions are directly thermally coupled and kinetically matched to achieve intrinsic thermal stability, efficient conversion, autothermal operation, and minimal heat losses. Applied to the problem of in-line carbon dioxide separation from flue gas, Endex principles hold out the promise of effecting a carbon dioxide capture technology of unprecedented economic viability. In this work we describe an Endex Calcium Looping reactor, in which heat released by chemisorption of carbon dioxide onto calcium oxide is used directly to drive the reverse reaction, yielding a pure stream of carbon dioxide for compression and geosequestration. In this initial study we model the proposed reactor as a continuous-flow dynamical system in the well-stirred limit, compute the steady states and analyse their stability properties over the operating parameter space, flag potential design and operational challenges, and suggest an optimum regime for effective operation.

  19. Fact #898: November 9, 2015 World Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1990...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the Week Since 1990, China shows the greatest increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The Americas, Europe and Eurasia have about the same CO2 emissions in 2012 as in...

  20. Does carbon dioxide pool or stream in the subsurface?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardoso, Silvana S S

    2014-01-01

    Pools of carbon dioxide are found in natural geological accumulations and in engineered storage in saline aquifers. It has been thought that once this CO2 dissolves in the formation water, making it denser, convection streams would transport it efficiently to depth, but this may not be so. Here, we assess the impact of natural chemical reactions between the dissolved CO2 and the rock formation on the convection streams in the subsurface. We show that, while in carbonate rocks the streaming of dissolved carbon dioxide persists, the chemical interactions in silicate-rich rocks may curb this transport drastically and even inhibit it altogether. New laboratory experiments confirm the curtailing of convection by reaction. Wide and narrow streams of dense carbon-rich water are shut-off gradually as reaction strength increases until all transport of the pooled carbon dioxide occurs by slow molecular diffusion. These results show that the complex fluid dynamic and kinetic interactions between pooled carbon dioxide an...

  1. Synthesis of Amides and Lactams in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mak, Xiao Yin

    Supercritical carbon dioxide can be employed as an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional organic solvents for the synthesis of a variety of carboxylic amides. The addition of amines to ketenes generated in ...

  2. World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmalensee, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide form combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

  3. World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmalensee, Richard.; Stoker, Thomas M.; Judson, Ruth A.

    Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

  4. Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    for updating global fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions.in accounting for CO 2 from fossil fuels. J. Ind. Ecol. 12,budget. G.M. estimated the fossil fuel emissions and G.P.P.

  5. Identifying and Developing New, Carbon Dioxide Consuming Processes , Sudheer Indalaa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Ralph W.

    acceptable, catalytic processes have been identified that can use excess high purity carbon dioxide as a raw in the ethylbenzene-to-styrene reaction, and it can be used in dehydrogenation and reforming reactions. The criteria

  6. Short-Term Energy Carbon Dioxide Emissions Forecasts August 2009

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Supplement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook. Short-term projections for U.S. carbon dioxide emissions of the three fossil fuels: coal, natural gas, and petroleum.

  7. Comment on "An optimized potential for carbon dioxide"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merker, T; Hasse, H

    2009-01-01

    A molecular model for carbon dioxide is assessed regarding vapor-liquid equilibrium properties. Large deviations, being above 15 %, are found for vapor pressure and saturated vapor density in the entire temperature range.

  8. Project Profile: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Power (CSP) SunShot R&D funding opportunity announcement (FOA), are developing a supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) power cycle that combines high efficiencies and low...

  9. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of a High Efficiency Hot Gas Turbo-expander and Low Cost Heat Exchangers for Optimized CSP Supercritical CO2 Operation 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine - FY13 Q2...

  10. Electrochemically-mediated amine regeneration for carbon dioxide separations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stern, Michael C. (Michael Craig)

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes a new strategy for carbon dioxide (CO?) separations based on amine sorbents, which are electrochemically-mediated to facilitate the desorption and regeneration steps of the separation cycle. The ...

  11. Control strategies for supercritical carbon dioxide power conversion systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carstens, Nathan, 1978-

    2007-01-01

    The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-C02) recompression cycle is a promising advanced power conversion cycle which couples well to numerous advanced nuclear reactor designs. This thesis investigates the dynamic simulation ...

  12. Carbon dioxide dissolution in structural and stratigraphic traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hesse, M. A.

    The geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) in structural and stratigraphic traps is a viable option to reduce anthropogenic emissions. While dissolution of the CO[subscript 2] stored in these traps ...

  13. Project Profile: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and its partners, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D funding opportunity announcement (FOA), aim to demonstrate a multi-megawatt power cycle using supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) as the working fluid. The use of carbon dioxide instead of steam allows higher power-cycle efficiency and cycle components that are more compact.

  14. Seawater pH and Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerald E. Marsh

    2013-07-18

    In 2005, the Royal Society published a report titled "Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide". The report's principal conclusion-that average ocean pH could decrease by 0.5 units by 2100-is demonstrated here to be consistent with a linear extrapolation of very limited data. It is also shown that current understanding of ocean mixing, and of the relationship between pH and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, cannot justify such an extrapolation.

  15. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Thomas Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul Box; Weijiong Li; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-07-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2005 and June 30, 2005 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas from coal combustion and synthesis gas from coal gasification. Supported sodium carbonate sorbents removed up to 76% of the carbon dioxide from simulated flue gas in a downflow cocurrent flow reactor system, with an approximate 15 second gas-solid contact time. This reaction proceeds at temperatures as low as 25 C. Lithium silicate sorbents remove carbon dioxide from high temperature simulated flue gas and simulated synthesis gas. Both sorbent types can be thermally regenerated and reused. The lithium silicate sorbent was tested in a thermogravimetric analyzer and in a 1-in quartz reactor at atmospheric pressure; tests were also conducted at elevated pressure in a 2-in diameter high temperature high pressure reactor system. The lithium sorbent reacts rapidly with carbon dioxide in flue gas at 350-500 C to absorb about 10% of the sorbent weight, then continues to react at a lower rate. The sorbent can be essentially completely regenerated at temperatures above 600 C and reused. In atmospheric pressure tests with synthesis gas of 10% initial carbon dioxide content, the sorbent removed over 90% of the carbon dioxide. An economic analysis of a downflow absorption process for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas with a supported sodium carbonate sorbent suggests that a 90% efficient carbon dioxide capture system installed at a 500 MW{sub e} generating plant would have an incremental capital cost of $35 million ($91/kWe, assuming 20 percent for contingencies) and an operating cost of $0.0046/kWh. Assuming capital costs of $1,000/kW for a 500 MWe plant the capital cost of the down flow absorption process represents a less than 10% increase, thus meeting DOE goals as set forth in its Carbon Sequestration Technology Roadmap and Program Plan.

  16. Tethered catalysts for the hydration of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valdez, Carlos A; Satcher, Jr., Joe H; Aines, Roger D; Wong, Sergio E; Baker, Sarah E; Lightstone, Felice C; Stolaroff, Joshuah K

    2014-11-04

    A system is provided that substantially increases the efficiency of CO.sub.2 capture and removal by positioning a catalyst within an optimal distance from the air-liquid interface. The catalyst is positioned within the layer determined to be the highest concentration of carbon dioxide. A hydrophobic tether is attached to the catalyst and the hydrophobic tether modulates the position of the catalyst within the liquid layer containing the highest concentration of carbon dioxide.

  17. Membranes for separation of carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ku, Anthony Yu-Chung (Rexford, NY); Ruud, James Anthony (Delmar, NY); Ramaswamy, Vidya (Niskayuna, NY); Willson, Patrick Daniel (Latham, NY); Gao, Yan (Niskayuna, NY)

    2011-03-01

    Methods for separating carbon dioxide from a fluid stream at a temperature higher than about 200.degree. C. with selectivity higher than Knudsen diffusion selectivity include contacting a porous membrane with the fluid stream to preferentially transport carbon dioxide. The porous membrane includes a porous support and a continuous porous separation layer disposed on a surface of the porous support and extending between the fluid stream and the porous support layer. The porous support comprises alumina, silica, zirconia, stabilized zirconia, stainless steel, titanium, nickel-based alloys, aluminum-based alloys, zirconium-based alloys or a combination thereof. Median pore size of the porous separation layer is less than about 10 nm, and the porous separation layer comprises titania, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, La.sub.2O.sub.3, CeO.sub.2, HfO.sub.2, Y.sub.2O.sub.3, VO.sub.z, NbO.sub.z, TaO.sub.z, ATiO.sub.3, AZrO.sub.3, AAl.sub.2O.sub.4, A.sup.1FeO.sub.3, A.sup.1MnO.sub.3, A.sup.1CoO.sub.3, A.sup.1NiO.sub.3, A.sup.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.3 CeO.sub.3, Li.sub.2ZrO.sub.3, Li.sub.2SiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2TiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.4N.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, Y.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, La.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, HfN.sup.2.sub.yO.sub.z, or a combination thereof; wherein A is La, Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.1 is La, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.2 is Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.3 is Sr or Ba; A.sup.4 is Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ti or Zr; N.sup.1 is V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Si or Ge; N.sup.2 is V, Mo, W or Si; x is 1 or 2; y ranges from 1 to 3; and z ranges from 2 to 7.

  18. Atomic-scale Mechanisms of Helium Bubble hardening in Iron

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Osetskiy, Yury N.; Stoller, Roger E.

    2015-06-03

    Generation of helium due to (n, ) transmutation reactions changes the response of structural materials to neutron irradiation. The whole process of radiation damage evolution is affected by He accumulation and leads to significant changes in the material s properties. A population of nanometric He-filled bubbles affects mechanical properties and the impact can be quite significant because of their high density. Understanding how these basic mechanisms affect mechanical properties is necessary for predicting radiation effects. In this paper we present an extensive study of the interactions between a moving edge dislocation and bubbles using atomic-scale modeling. We focus on themore »effect of He bubble size and He concentration inside bubbles. We found that ability of bubbles to act as an obstacle to dislocation motion is close to that of voids when the He-to-vacancy ratio is in the range from 0 to 1. A few simulations made at higher He contents demonstrated that the interaction mechanism is changed for over-pressurized bubbles and they become weaker obstacles. The results are discussed in light of post-irradiation materials testing.« less

  19. A Hot Helium Plasma in the Galactic Center Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Belmont; M. Tagger; M. Muno; M. Morris; S. Cowley

    2005-08-23

    Recent X-ray observations by the space mission Chandra confirmed the astonishing evidence for a diffuse, hot, thermal plasma at a temperature of 9. $10^7$ K (8 keV) found by previous surveys to extend over a few hundred parsecs in the Galactic Centre region. This plasma coexists with the usual components of the interstellar medium such as cold molecular clouds and a soft (~0.8 keV) component produced by supernova remnants, and its origin remains uncertain. First, simple calculations using a mean sound speed for a hydrogen-dominated plasma have suggested that it should not be gravitationally bound, and thus requires a huge energy source to heat it in less than the escape time. Second, an astrophysical mechanism must be found to generate such a high temperature. No known source has been identified to fulfill both requirements. Here we address the energetics problem and show that the hot component could actually be a gravitationally confined helium plasma. We illustrate the new prospects this opens by discussing the origin of this gas, and by suggesting possible heating mechanisms.

  20. An Atomistic study of Helium Resolution in bcc Iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Stewart, David M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of gas-stabilized bubbles in irradiated materials can be a significant factor in the microstructural processes that lead to mechanical property and dimensional changes in structural materials exposed to high-energy neutrons. Helium generation and accumulation is particularly important under DT fusion irradiation conditions. Although the process of ballistic resolutioning of gas from bubbles has been long-discussed in the literature, there have been few computational studies of this mechanism. Resolutioning could limit bubble growth by ejecting gas atoms back into the metal matrix. A detailed atomistic study of ballistic He resolutioning from bubbles in bcc iron has been carried out using molecular dynamics. A newly-developed Fe-He interatomic potential was employed, with the iron matrix described by the potential of Ackland and co-workers from 1997. The primary variables examined were: irradiation temperature (100 and 600K), iron knock-on atom energy (5 and 20 keV), bubble radius (~0.5 and 1.0 nm), and He-to-vacancy ratio in the bubble (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0) in order to obtain an assessment of this dynamic resolutioning mechanism. The results presented here focus on the 5 keV cascades which indicate a modest, but potentially significant level of He removal by this process.

  1. Laser cooling and control of excitations in superfluid helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. I. Harris; D. L. McAuslan; E. Sheridan; Y. Sachkou; C. Baker; W. P. Bowen

    2015-06-15

    Superfluidity is an emergent quantum phenomenon which arises due to strong interactions between elementary excitations in liquid helium. These excitations have been probed with great success using techniques such as neutron and light scattering. However measurements to-date have been limited, quite generally, to average properties of bulk superfluid or the driven response far out of thermal equilibrium. Here, we use cavity optomechanics to probe the thermodynamics of superfluid excitations in real-time. Furthermore, strong light-matter interactions allow both laser cooling and amplification of the thermal motion. This provides a new tool to understand and control the microscopic behaviour of superfluids, including phonon-phonon interactions, quantised vortices and two-dimensional quantum phenomena such as the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. The third sound modes studied here also offer a pathway towards quantum optomechanics with thin superfluid films, including femtogram effective masses, high mechanical quality factors, strong phonon-phonon and phonon-vortex interactions, and self-assembly into complex geometries with sub-nanometre feature size.

  2. Performance Characterization of the Production Facility Prototype Helium Flow System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Dalmas, Dale Allen; Romero, Frank Patrick

    2015-12-16

    The roots blower in use at ANL for in-beam experiments and also at LANL for flow tests was sized for 12 mm diameter disks and significantly less beam heating. Currently, the disks are 29 mm in diameter, with a 12 mm FWHM Gaussian beam spot at 42 MeV and 2.86 ?A on each side of the target, 5.72 ?A total. The target design itself is reported elsewhere. With the increased beam heating, the helium flow requirement increased so that a larger blower was need for a mass flow rate of 400 g/s at 2.76 MPa (400 psig). An Aerzen GM 12.4 blower was selected, and is currently being installed at the LANL facility for target and component flow testing. This report describes this blower/motor/pressure vessel package and the status of the facility preparations. Blower performance (mass flow rate as a function of loop pressure drop) was measured at 4 blower speeds. Results are reported below.

  3. ASASSN-14cc: Likely Helium Analog of RZ Leonis Minoris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kato, Taichi; Monard, Berto

    2015-01-01

    We identified that ASASSN-14cc is a very active dwarf nova spending approximately 60% of the time in outburst. Our long-term photometry revealed that the object shows long outbursts recurring with a period of 21-33 d and very brief short outbursts lasting less than 1 d. The maximum decline rate exceeds 2.8 mag/d. The duration of long outbursts is 9-18 d, comprising 50-60% of the recurrence time of long outbursts. We detected 0.01560-0.01562 d (22.5 min) modulations during long outbursts, which we identified to be superhumps. These features indicate that ASASSN-14cc has outburst parameters very similar to the extreme dwarf nova RZ LMi but with a much shorter superhump period. All the observations can be naturally understood considering that this object is a helium analog (AM CVn-type object) of RZ LMi. The highest outburst activity among AM CVn-type objects can be understood as the high-mass transfer rate expected for the orbital period giving a condition close to the stability limit of the accretion disk. In ...

  4. Low-temperature data for carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the empirical data for the vapor pressure (154$ \\leq$$T$$\\leq$196 K) and heat capacity (15.52$ \\leq$$T$$\\leq$189.78 K) of the solid carbon dioxide. The approach is both theoretical and numerical, using a computer algebra system (CAS). From the latter point of view, we have adopted a cubic piecewise polynomial representation for the heat capacity and reached an excellent agreement between the available empirical data and the evaluated one. Furthermore, we have obtained values for the vapor pressure and heat of sublimation at temperatures below 195 right down to 0 K. The key prerequisites are the: 1) Determination of the heat of sublimation of 26250 J$\\cdot$mol\\textsuperscript{-1} at vanishing temperature and 2) Elaboration of a `linearized' vapor pressure equation that includes all the relevant properties of the gaseous and solid phases. It is shown that: 1) The empirical vapor pressure equation derived by Giauque & Egan remains valid below the assumed lower limit of 154 K (similar argument ...

  5. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illnesses in infants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samet, J.M.; Lambert, W.E.; Skipper, B.J.; Cushing, A.H.; Hunt, W.C.; Young, S.A.; McLaren, L.C.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. )

    1993-11-01

    Nitrogen dioxide is an oxidant gas that contaminates outdoor air and indoor air in homes with unvented gas appliances. A prospective cohort study was carried out to test the hypothesis that residential exposure to NO2 increases incidence and severity of respiratory illnesses during the first 18 months of life. A cohort of 1,205 healthy infants from homes without smokers was enrolled. The daily occurrence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was reported by the mothers every 2 wk. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as lower respiratory tract. Indoor NO2 concentrations were serially measured with passive samplers place in the subjects' bedrooms. In stratified analyses, illness incidence rates did not consistently increase with exposure to NO2 or stove type. In multivariate analyses that adjusted for potential confounding factors, odds ratios were not significantly elevated for current or lagged NO2 exposures, or stove type. Illness duration, a measure of illness severity, was not associated with NO2 exposure. The findings can be extended to homes with gas stoves in regions of the United States where the outdoor air is not heavily polluted by NO2.

  6. Curbing the greenhouse effect by carbon dioxide adsorption with zeolite 13X

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konduru, N.; Lindner, P.; Assaf-Anad, N.M.

    2007-12-15

    The removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from industrial emissions has become essential in the fight against climate change. In this study, we employed Zeolite 13X for the capture and recovery of CO{sub 2} in a flow through system where the adsorbent was subjected to five adsorption-desorption cycles. The influent stream contained 1.5% CO{sub 2} at standard conditions. The adsorbent bed was 1 in. in length and 1 in.3/8 in dia., and was packed with 10 g of the zeolite. Temperature swing adsorption (TSA) was employed as the regeneration method through heating to approximately 135{sup o}C with helium as the purge gas. The adsorbent capacity at 90% saturation was found to decrease from 78 to 60g CO{sub 2}/kg{sub Zeolite13X} after the fifth cycle. The CO{sub 2} capture ratio or the mass of CO{sub 2} adsorbed to the total mass that entered the system decreased from 63% to only 61% after the fifth cycle. The CO{sub 2} recovery efficiency ranged from 82 to 93% during desorption, and the CO{sub 2} relative recovery, i.e., CO{sub 2} desorbed for the nth cycle to CO{sub 2} adsorbed for the first cycle, ranged from 88 to 68%. The service life of the adsorbent was determined to be equal to eleven cycles at a useful capacity of 40g CO{sub 2}/kg{sub Zeolite13X}.

  7. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?1° distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel

  8. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    1960 through 2001, Carbon Dioxide Inf. Anal. Cent. , OakAtmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide models, Science, 282,Data on Global Change, Carbon Dioxide Inf. Anal. Cent. , Oak

  9. Crystal orientation effects on helium ion depth distributions and adatom formation processes in plasma-facing tungsten

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammond, Karl D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996–2300 (United States); Wirth, Brian D., E-mail: bdwirth@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996–2300 (United States); P.O. Box 2008, MS-6003, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831–6003 (United States)

    2014-10-14

    We present atomistic simulations that show the effect of surface orientation on helium depth distributions and surface feature formation as a result of low-energy helium plasma exposure. We find a pronounced effect of surface orientation on the initial depth of implanted helium ions, as well as a difference in reflection and helium retention across different surface orientations. Our results indicate that single helium interstitials are sufficient to induce the formation of adatom/substitutional helium pairs under certain highly corrugated tungsten surfaces, such as (1 1 1)-orientations, leading to the formation of a relatively concentrated layer of immobile helium immediately below the surface. The energies involved for helium-induced adatom formation on (1 1 1) and (2 1 1) surfaces are exoergic for even a single adatom very close to the surface, while (0 0 1) and (0 1 1) surfaces require two or even three helium atoms in a cluster before a substitutional helium cluster and adatom will form with reasonable probability. This phenomenon results in much higher initial helium retention during helium plasma exposure to (1 1 1) and (2 1 1) tungsten surfaces than is observed for (0 0 1) or (0 1 1) surfaces and is much higher than can be attributed to differences in the initial depth distributions alone. The layer thus formed may serve as nucleation sites for further bubble formation and growth or as a source of material embrittlement or fatigue, which may have implications for the formation of tungsten “fuzz” in plasma-facing divertors for magnetic-confinement nuclear fusion reactors and/or the lifetime of such divertors.

  10. Nucleosynthesis in helium-enriched asymptotic giant branch models: Implications for heavy element enrichment in ? Centauri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karakas, Amanda I.; Marino, Anna F.; Nataf, David M., E-mail: Amanda.Karakas@anu.edu.au [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2014-03-20

    We investigate the effect of helium enrichment on the evolution and nucleosynthesis of low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of 1.7 M {sub ?} and 2.36 M {sub ?} with a metallicity of Z = 0.0006 ([Fe/H] ?–1.4). We calculate evolutionary sequences with the primordial helium abundance (Y = 0.24) and with helium-enriched compositions (Y = 0.30, 0.35, 0.40). For comparison, we calculate models of the same mass but at a lower metallicity Z = 0.0003 ([Fe/H] ?–1.8) with Y = 0.24. Post-processing nucleosynthesis calculations are performed on each of the evolutionary sequences to determine the production of elements from hydrogen to bismuth. Elemental surface abundance predictions and stellar yields are presented for each model. The models with enriched helium have shorter main sequence and AGB lifetimes, and they enter the AGB with a more massive hydrogen-exhausted core than the primordial helium model. The main consequences are as follows: (1) low-mass AGB models with enhanced helium will evolve more than twice as fast, giving them the chance to contribute sooner to the chemical evolution of the forming globular clusters, and (2) the stellar yields will be strongly reduced relative to their primordial helium counterparts. An increase of ?Y = 0.10 at a given mass decreases the yields of carbon by up to ?60% and of fluorine by up to 80%; it also decreases the yields of the s-process elements barium and lanthanum by ?45%. While the yields of first s-process peak elements strontium, yttrium, and zirconium decrease by up to 50%, the yields of rubidium either do not change or increase.

  11. Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, David; Golomb, Dan; Shi, Guang; Shih, Cherry; Lewczuk, Rob; Miksch, Joshua; Manmode, Rahul; Mulagapati, Srihariraju; Malepati, Chetankurmar

    2011-09-30

    This project involves the use of an innovative new invention ? Particle Stabilized Emulsions (PSEs) of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water and Water-in-Carbon Dioxide for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. The EOR emulsion would be injected into a semi-depleted oil reservoir such as Dover 33 in Otsego County, Michigan. It is expected that the emulsion would dislocate the stranded heavy crude oil from the rock granule surfaces, reduce its viscosity, and increase its mobility. The advancing emulsion front should provide viscosity control which drives the reduced-viscosity oil toward the production wells. The make-up of the emulsion would be subsequently changed so it interacts with the surrounding rock minerals in order to enhance mineralization, thereby providing permanent sequestration of the injected CO{sub 2}. In Phase 1 of the project, the following tasks were accomplished: 1. Perform laboratory scale (mL/min) refinements on existing procedures for producing liquid carbon dioxide-in-water (C/W) and water-in-liquid carbon dioxide (W/C) emulsion stabilized by hydrophilic and hydrophobic fine particles, respectively, using a Kenics-type static mixer. 2. Design and cost evaluate scaled up (gal/min) C/W and W/C emulsification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 at the Otsego County semi-depleted oil field. 3. Design the modifications necessary to the present CO{sub 2} flooding system at Otsego County for emulsion injection. 4. Design monitoring and verification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 for measuring potential leakage of CO{sub 2} after emulsion injection. 5. Design production protocol to assess enhanced oil recovery with emulsion injection compared to present recovery with neat CO{sub 2} flooding. 6. Obtain Federal and State permits for emulsion injection. Initial research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions with the smallest possible globule size so that the emulsion can penetrate even low-permeability crude oilcontaining formations or saline aquifers. The term ?globule? refers to the water or liquid carbon dioxide droplets sheathed with ultrafine particles dispersed in the continuous external medium, liquid CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O, respectively. The key to obtaining very small globules is the shear force acting on the two intermixing fluids, and the use of ultrafine stabilizing particles or nanoparticles. We found that using Kenics-type static mixers with a shear rate in the range of 2700 to 9800 s{sup -1} and nanoparticles between 100-300 nm produced globule sizes in the 10 to 20 ?m range. Particle stabilized emulsions with that kind of globule size should easily penetrate oil-bearing formations or saline aquifers where the pore and throat size can be on the order of 50 ?m or larger. Subsequent research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions that are deemed particularly suitable for Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. Based on a survey of the literature an emulsion consisting of 70% by volume of water, 30% by volume of liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide, and 2% by weight of finely pulverized limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) was selected as the most promising agent for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2}. In order to assure penetration of the emulsion into tight formations of sandstone or other silicate rocks and carbonate or dolomite rock, it is necessary to use an emulsion consisting of the smallest possible globule size. In previous reports we described a high shear static mixer that can create such small globules. In addition to the high shear mixer, it is also necessary that the emulsion stabilizing particles be in the submicron size, preferably in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 ?m (100 to 200 nm) size. We found a commercial source of such pulverized limestone particles, in addition we purchased under this DOE Project a particle grinding apparatus that can provide particles in the desired size range. Additional work focused on attempts to generate particle stabilized emulsions with a flow through, static mixer based apparatus under a variety

  12. Hydrogen and helium traces in type Ib-c supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Elmhamdi; I. J. Danziger; D. Branch; B. Leibundgut; E. Baron; R. P. Kirshner

    2006-04-04

    The spectroscopic properties of a selected optical photospheric spectra of core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are investigated.Special attention is devoted to traces of hydrogen at early phases. The generated spectra are found to match the observed ones reasonably well, including a list of only 23 candidate ions. Guided by SN Ib 1990I, the observed trough near 6300\\AA is attributed to H$\\alpha$ in almost all Type Ib events, although in some objects it becomes too weak to be discernible, especially at later phases. Alternative line identifications are discussed. Differences in the way hydrogen manifests its presence within CCSNe are highlighted. In Type Ib SNe, the H$\\alpha$ contrast velocity (i.e. line velocity minus the photospheric velocity) seems to increase with time at early epochs, reaching values as high as 8000 km s$^{-1}$ around 15-20 days after maximum and then remains almost constant. The derived photospheric velocities, indicate a lower velocity for Type II SNe 1987A and 1999em as compared to SN Ic 1994I and SN IIb 1993J, while Type Ib events display a somewhat larger variation. The scatter, around day 20, is measured to be $\\sim$5000 km s$^{-1}$. Following two simple approaches, rough estimates of ejecta and hydrogen masses are given. A mass of hydrogen of approximately 0.02 $M_\\odot$ is obtained for SN 1990I, while SNe 1983N and 2000H ejected $\\sim$0.008 $M_\\odot$ and $\\sim$0.08 $M_\\odot$ of hydrogen, respectively. SN 1993J has a higher hydrogen mass, $\\sim 0.7$ $M_\\odot$ with a large uncertainty. A low mass and thin hydrogen layer with very high ejection velocities above the helium shell, is thus the most likely scenario for Type Ib SNe. Some interesting and curious issues relating to oxygen lines suggest future investigations.

  13. Assessment of Embrittlement of VHTR Structural Alloys in Impure Helium Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crone, Wendy; Cao, Guoping; Sridhara, Kumar

    2013-05-31

    The helium coolant in high-temperature reactors inevitably contains low levels of impurities during steady-state operation, primarily consisting of small amounts of H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} from a variety of sources in the reactor circuit. These impurities are problematic because they can cause significant long-term corrosion in the structural alloys used in the heat exchangers at elevated temperatures. Currently, the primary candidate materials for intermediate heat exchangers are Alloy 617, Haynes 230, Alloy 800H, and Hastelloy X. This project will evaluate the role of impurities in helium coolant on the stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack growth in candidate alloys at elevated temperatures. The project team will: • Evaluate stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack initiation and crack growth in the temperature range of 500-850°C in a prototypical helium environment. • Evaluate the effects of oxygen partial pressure on stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack growth in impure helium at 500°C, 700°C, and 850°C respectively. • Characterize the microstructure of candidate alloys after long-term exposure to an impure helium environment in order to understand the correlation between stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation, creep crack growth, material composition, and impurities in the helium coolant. • Evaluate grain boundary engineering as a method to mitigate stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack growth of candidate alloys in impure helium. The maximum primary helium coolant temperature in the high-temperature reactor is expected to be 850-1,000°C.Corrosion may involve oxidation, carburization, or decarburization mechanisms depending on the temperature, oxygen partial pressure, carbon activity, and alloy composition. These corrosion reactions can substantially affect long-term mechanical properties such as crack- growth rate and fracture toughness, creep rupture, and fatigue. Although there are some studies on the effects of impurities in helium coolant on creep rupture and fatigue strength, very little is known about their effects on creep crack initiation and crack growth rate at elevated temperatures.

  14. Exploring the isopycnal mixing and helium–heat paradoxes in a suite of Earth system models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Pradal, M.-A.; Abernathey, R.

    2015-07-27

    This paper uses a suite of Earth system models which simulate the distribution of He isotopes and radiocarbon to examine two paradoxes in Earth science, each of which results from an inconsistency between theoretically motivated global energy balances and direct observations. The helium–heat paradox refers to the fact that helium emissions to the deep ocean are far lower than would be expected given the rate of geothermal heating, since both are thought to be the result of radioactive decay in Earth's interior. The isopycnal mixing paradox comes from the fact that many theoretical parameterizations of the isopycnal mixing coefficient ARedimore »that link it to baroclinic instability project it to be small (of order a few hundred m2 s?1) in the ocean interior away from boundary currents. However, direct observations using tracers and floats (largely in the upper ocean) suggest that values of this coefficient are an order of magnitude higher. Helium isotopes equilibrate rapidly with the atmosphere and thus exhibit large gradients along isopycnals while radiocarbon equilibrates slowly and thus exhibits smaller gradients along isopycnals. Thus it might be thought that resolving the isopycnal mixing paradox in favor of the higher observational estimates of ARedi might also solve the helium paradox, by increasing the transport of mantle helium to the surface more than it would radiocarbon. In this paper we show that this is not the case. In a suite of models with different spatially constant and spatially varying values of ARedi the distribution of radiocarbon and helium isotopes is sensitive to the value of ARedi. However, away from strong helium sources in the southeastern Pacific, the relationship between the two is not sensitive, indicating that large-scale advection is the limiting process for removing helium and radiocarbon from the deep ocean. The helium isotopes, in turn, suggest a higher value of ARedi below the thermocline than is seen in theoretical parameterizations based on baroclinic growth rates. We argue that a key part of resolving the isopycnal mixing paradox is to abandon the idea that ARedi has a direct relationship to local baroclinic instability and to the so-called "thickness" mixing coefficient AGM.« less

  15. Direct Evidence for an Enhancement of Helium in Giant Stars in Omega Centauri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dupree, A K; Smith, Graeme H

    2010-01-01

    The double main sequence identified in the globular cluster Omega Centauri has been interpreted using isochrones to indicate a large variation in the abundance of helium. If true, a helium enhancement carries strong implications for the chemical and stellar evolutionary history of this cluster. However, only indirect measures currently support this conjecture. We report the discovery of a variation in the line strength of the near-infrared He I 10830 A transition in twelve similar red giants in Omega Centauri observed with PHOENIX on Gemini-S. Abundances of these stars derived from Magellan/MIKE spectra taken at Las Campanas Observatory show that the helium transition is not detected in the most metal-poor population ([Fe/H] = -1.8. These observations give the first direct evidence for an enhancement of helium in Omega Centauri. The appearance of helium appears better correlated with increased [Al/Fe] and [Na/Fe] abundances than as a function of [Fe/H], giving observational support to the presence of high-tem...

  16. Molecular mechanism of water permeation in helium impermeable graphene and graphene oxide membrane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nallani Raghav; Sudip Chakraborty; Prabal K. Maiti

    2015-09-29

    The layers of graphene oxide (GO) are found to be good for permeation of water but not for helium (Science 2012 335 (6067): 442-444) suggesting that the GO layers are dynamic in the formation of permeation route depending on the environment they are in (i.e, water or helium). To probe the microscopic origin of this observation we calculate the potential of mean force (PMF) of GO sheets (oxidized and reduced parts), with inter-planar distance as reaction coordinate in helium and water. Our PMF calculation shows that equilibrium interlayer distance between oxidized part of GO sheets in helium is at 4.8 {\\AA} leaving no space for helium permeation. In contrast PMF of oxidized part of GO in water shows two minima one at 4.8 {\\AA} and another at 6.8 {\\AA} corresponding to no water and water filled region and thus giving rise to permeation path. The increased electrostatic interaction between water with the oxidized part of the sheet helps the sheet opening up and pushing water inside. Based on the entropy calculations for water trapped between graphene sheets and oxidized graphene sheets at different inter-sheet spacing we also show the thermodynamics of filling.

  17. Persistent local order heterogeneity in the supercritical carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dima Bolmatov; D. Zav'yalov; M. Gao; M. Zhernenkov

    2014-06-06

    The supercritical state is currently viewed as uniform and homogeneous on the pressure-temperature phase diagram in terms of physical properties. Here, we study structural properties of the supercritical carbon dioxide, and discover the existence of persistent medium-range order correlations which make supercritical carbon dioxide non-uniform and heterogeneous on an intermediate length scale, a result not hitherto anticipated. We report on the carbon dioxide heterogeneity shell structure where, in the first shell, both carbon and oxygen atoms experience gas-like type inter- actions with short range order correlations, while within the second shell oxygen atoms essentially exhibit liquid-like type of interactions with medium range order correlations due to localisation of transverse-like phonon packets. We show that the local order heterogeneity remains in the three phase-like equilibrium within very wide temperature range. Importantly, we highlight a catalytic role of atoms inside the nearest neighbor heterogeneity shell in providing a mechanism for diffusion in the supercritical carbon dioxide on an intermediate length scale. Finally, we discuss important implications for answering the intriguing question whether Venus may have had carbon dioxide oceans and urge for an experimental detection of this persistent local order heterogeneity.

  18. Primordial Helium Abundance: A Reanalysis of the Izotov-Thuan Spectroscopic Sample

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masataka Fukugita; Masahiro Kawasaki

    2006-11-09

    A reanalysis is made for the helium abundance determination for the Izotov-Thuan (2004) spectroscopic sample of extragalactic H II regions. We find that the effect of underlying stellar absorption of the He I lines, which is more important for metal poor systems, affects significantly the inferred primordial helium abundance $Y_p$ obtained in the zero metallicity limit and the slope of linear extrapolation, $dY/dZ$. This brings $Y_p$ from $0.234\\pm0.004$ to $0.250\\pm 0.004$ and $dY/dZ=4.7\\pm 1.0$ to $1.1\\pm 1.4$. Conservatively, this indicates the importance of the proper understanding of underlying stellar absorption for accurate determinations of the primordial helium abundance to the error of $\\delta Y_p\\simeq 0.002-0.004$.

  19. Commissioning of helium compression system for the 12 GeV refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knudsen, Peter N.; Ganni, Venkatarao; Dixon, Kelly D.; Norton, Robert O.; Creel, Jonathan D.; Arenius, Dana M.

    2014-01-01

    The compressor system used for the Jefferson Lab (JLab) 12 GeV upgrade, also known as the CHL-2 compressor system, incorporates many design changes to the typical compressor skid design to improve the efficiency, reliability and maintainability from previous systems. These include a considerably smaller bulk oil separator design that does not use coalescing elements/media, automated control of cooling oil injection based on the helium discharge temperature, a helium after-cooler design that is designed for and promotes coalescing of residual oil and a variable speed bearing oil pump to reduce oil bypass. The CHL-2 helium compression system has five compressors configured with four pressure levels that supports the three pressure levels in the cold box. This paper will briefly review several of these improvements and discuss some of the recent commissioning results.

  20. Ab initio study of formation, migration and binding properties of helium-vacancy clusters in aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Li; Zu, Xiaotao T.; Gao, Fei

    2008-08-01

    Ab initio calculations based on density functional theory have been performed to study the dissolution and migration of helium, and the stability of small helium-vacancy clusters HenVm (n, m=0 to 4) in aluminum. The results indicate that the octahedral configuration is more stable than the tetrahedral. Interstitial helium atoms are predicted to have attractive interactions and jump between two octahedral sites via an intermediate tetrahedral site with low migration energy of 0.10 eV. The binding energies of an interstitial He atom and an isolated vacancy to a HenVm cluster are also obtained from the calculated formation energies of the clusters. We find that the divacancy and tri--vacancy clusters are not stable, but He atoms can increase the stability of vacancy clusters. The interactions of He atoms with a vacancy are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  1. Persistent local order heterogeneity in the supercritical carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolmatov, Dima; Gao, M; Zhernenkov, M

    2014-01-01

    The supercritical state is currently viewed as uniform and homogeneous on the pressure-temperature phase diagram in terms of physical properties. Here, we study structural properties of the supercritical carbon dioxide, and discover the existence of persistent medium-range order correlations which make supercritical carbon dioxide non-uniform and heterogeneous on an intermediate length scale, a result not hitherto anticipated. We report on the carbon dioxide heterogeneity shell structure where, in the first shell, both carbon and oxygen atoms experience gas-like type inter- actions with short range order correlations, while within the second shell oxygen atoms essentially exhibit liquid-like type of interactions with medium range order correlations due to localisation of transverse-like phonon packets. We show that the local order heterogeneity remains in the three phase-like equilibrium within very wide temperature range. Importantly, we highlight a catalytic role of atoms inside the nearest neighbor heterog...

  2. Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide cleaning of plutonium parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hale, S.J.

    1991-12-31

    Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide is under investigation in this work for use as a cleaning solvent for the final cleaning of plutonium parts. These parts must be free of organic residue to avoid corrosion in the stockpile. Initial studies on stainless steel and full-scale mock-up parts indicate that the oils of interest are easily and adequately cleaned from the metal surfaces with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide. Results from compatibility studies show that undesirable oxidation or other surface reactions are not occurring during exposure of plutonium to the supercritical fluid. Cleaning studies indicate that the oils of interest are removed from the plutonium surface under relatively mild conditions. These studies indicate that supercritical fluid carbon dioxide is a very promising cleaning medium for this application.

  3. Water and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption at Olivine Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2013-11-14

    Plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to simulate water and carbon dioxide adsorption at the (010) surface of five olivine minerals, namely, forsterite (Mg2SiO4), calcio-olivine (Ca2SiO4), tephroite (Mn2SiO4), fayalite (Fe2SiO4), and Co-olivine (Co2SiO4). Adsorption energies per water molecule obtained from energy minimizations varied from -78 kJ mol-1 for fayalite to -128 kJ mol-1 for calcio-olivine at sub-monolayer coverage and became less exothermic as coverage increased. In contrast, carbon dioxide adsorption energies at sub-monolayer coverage ranged from -20 kJ mol-1 for fayalite to -59 kJ mol-1 for calcio-olivine. Therefore, the DFT calculations show a strong driving force for carbon dioxide displacement by water at the surface of all olivine minerals in a competitive adsorption scenario. Additionally, adsorption energies for both water and carbon dioxide were found to be more exothermic for the alkaline-earth (AE) olivines than for the transition-metal (TM) olivines and to not correlate with the solvation enthalpies of the corresponding divalent cations. However, a correlation was obtained with the charge of the surface divalent cation indicating that the more ionic character of the AE cations in the olivine structure relative to the TM cations leads to greater interactions with adsorbed water and carbon dioxide molecules at the surface and thus more exothermic adsorption energies for the AE olivines. For calcio-olivine, which exhibits the highest divalent cation charge of the five olivines, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations showed that this effect leads both water and carbon dioxide to react with the surface and form hydroxyl groups and a carbonate-like species, respectively.

  4. Gas-phase energies of actinide oxides -- an assessment of neutral and cationic monoxides and dioxides from thorium to curium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcalo, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    D. Chemical Thermodynamics of Thorium. OECD Nuclear Energyand dioxides from thorium to curium Joaquim Marçalo a,* andmonoxides and dioxides of thorium, protactinium, uranium,

  5. New and Future Developments in Catalysis. Activation of Carbon Dioxide, 1st edition Supporting Information to Chapter 17

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaser, Rainer

    New and Future Developments in Catalysis. Activation of Carbon Dioxide, 1st Developments in Catalysis. Activation of Carbon Dioxide, 1st edition S2 Cartesian

  6. Synthesis of fluorinated alkoxyamines and alkoxyamine-initiated nitroxide-mediated precipitation polymerizations of styrene in supercritical carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    polymerizations of styrene in supercritical carbon dioxide†polymerizations of styrene in supercritical carbon dioxide (PREDICI simulations for the styrene/TIPNO system are used to

  7. Research projects for 2014 Carbon Dioxide Chemistry Prof. Chris Rayner Prof. Chris Rayner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rzepa, Henry S.

    Research projects for 2014 ­ Carbon Dioxide Chemistry Prof. Chris Rayner Prof. Chris Rayner c.m.rayner@leeds.ac.uk, phone: 0113 343 6579 http://www.chem.leeds.ac.uk/People/Rayner.html Carbon Dioxide Chemistry The current

  8. Climate Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Climate Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Constraints by Marcus. The third case examines the benefits of increased policy coordination between air pollution constraints

  9. The Chemical Evolution of Helium in Globular Clusters: Implications for the Self-Pollution Scenario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amanda Karakas; Yeshe Fenner; Alison Sills; Simon Campbell; John Lattanzio

    2006-08-17

    We investigate the suggestion that there are stellar populations in some globular clusters with enhanced helium (Y from 0.28 to 0.40) compared to the primordial value. We assume that a previous generation of massive Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars have polluted the cluster. Two independent sets of AGB yields are used to follow the evolution of helium and CNO using a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) and two top-heavy IMFs. In no case are we able to produce the postulated large Y ~ 0.35 without violating the observational constraint that the CNO content is nearly constant.

  10. Effective Helium Burning Rates and the Production of the Neutrino Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sam M. Austin; Christopher West; Alexander Heger

    2014-02-26

    Effective values for the key helium burning reaction rates, triple-alpha and 12C(alpha,gamma)16O, are obtained by adjusting their strengths so as to obtain the best match with the solar abundance pattern of isotopes uniquely or predominately made in core collapse supernovae. These effective rates are then used to determine the production of the neutrino isotopes. The use of effective rates considerably reduces the uncertainties in the production factors arising from uncertainties in the helium burning rates, and improves our ability to use the production of 11B to constrain the neutrino emission from supernovae.

  11. Coupled normal fluid and superfluid profiles of turbulent helium II in channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galantucci, Luca; Barenghi, Carlo F

    2015-01-01

    We perform fully coupled two--dimensional numerical simulations of plane channel helium II counterflows with vortex--line density typical of experiments. The main features of our approach are the inclusion of the back reaction of the superfluid vortices on the normal fluid and the presence of solid boundaries. Despite the reduced dimensionality, our model is realistic enough to reproduce vortex density distributions across the channel recently calculated in three--dimensions. We focus on the coarse--grained superfluid and normal fluid velocity profiles, recovering the normal fluid profile recently observed employing a technique based on laser--induced fluorescence of metastable helium molecules.

  12. High harmonic generation in hydrogen and helium atoms subject to one{ and two{color laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, E.K.U.

    High harmonic generation in hydrogen and helium atoms subject to one{ and two{color laser pulses Surzburg Germany Abstract. We present simulations of harmonic generation in hydrogen and helium solving for the generation of intense high{order harmonics are discussed. 1. Introduction Since the discovery of harmonic

  13. Experimental measurement methods and data on irradiation of functional design materials by helium ions in linear accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. A. Anokhin; V. N. Voyevodin; S. N. Dubnyuk; A. M. Egorov; B. V. Zaitsev; A. F. Kobets; O. P. Ledenyov; K. V. Pavliy; V. V. Ruzhitsky; G. D. Tolstolutskaya

    2013-09-03

    The experimental research on the irradiation of the functional design materials by the Helium ions in the linear accelerator is conducted. The experimental measurements techniques and data on the irradiation of the functional design materials by the Helium ions with the energy up to 4 MeV, including the detailed scheme of experimental measurements setup, are presented. The new design of accelerating structure of the IH-type such as POS-4, using the method of alternate-phase focusing with the step-by-step change of the synchronous phase along the focusing periods in a linear accelerator, is developed with the aim to irradiate the functional design materials by the Helium ions. The new design of the injector of the charged Helium ions with the energy of 120 KeV at the output of an accelerating tube and the accelerating structure of the type of POS-4 for the one time charged Helium ions acceleration in the linear accelerator are researched and developed. The special chamber for the irradiation of functional design materials by the Helium ions is also created. In the process of experiment, the temperature of a sample, the magnitude of current of Helium ions beam and the irradiation dose of sample are measured precisely. The experimental measurement setup and techniques are fully tested and optimized in the course of the research on the electro-physical properties of irradiated samples and the thermal-desorption of Helium ions in a wide range of temperatures

  14. Indirect hydrogen versus helium or nitrogen cooling for fusion cryogenic and magnet systems Clarke R.H1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glowacki, Bartek A.

    347 Indirect hydrogen versus helium or nitrogen cooling for fusion cryogenic and magnet systems in fusion cryogenic and magnet systems may be possible through the use of 15-20 K cooling. This approach there is no substitute. By using an intermediate, leak-tight, pressurised helium loop the benefits of 15-20 K cooling can

  15. Comparison of proton and helium induced M subshell X-ray production cross sections with the ECUSAR theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bier, Martin

    Comparison of proton and helium induced M subshell X-ray production cross sections with the ECUSAR and helium ion energy range from 0.5 to 3 MeV on thin W, Au, Pb, Th and U targets. Ó 2013 Elsevier B.V. All laboratories for many years to characterise a broad range of sam- ples. Current PIXE detection systems

  16. Equation of State Calculations of Hydrogen-Helium Mixtures in Solar and Extrasolar Giant Planets Burkhard Militzer1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Militzer, Burkhard

    hydrogen-helium phase separation in simulations at low temperature and high density. PACS numbers: I the equation of state (EOS) of hydrogen-helium mixtures (HHM) from density functional molecular dynamics (DFT a starting point for the integration where the free energy is known analyti- cally. In the molecular low-density

  17. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor helium compatibility studies: results of 10,000-hour exposure of selected alloys in simulated reactor helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lechtenberg, T.A.; Stevenson, R.D.; Johnson, W.R.

    1980-05-01

    Work on the HTGR Helium Compatibility Task accomplished during the period March 31, 1977 through September 30, 1979, is documented in this report. Emphasis is on the results and analyses of creep data to 10,000 h and the detailed metallurgical evaluations performed on candidate alloy specimens tested for up to 10,000 h. Long-term creep and unstressed aging data in controlled-impurity helium and in air at 800, 900, and 1000/sup 0/C are reported for alloys included in the program in FY-76, including the wrought solid-solution-strengthened alloys, Hastelloy X, Hastelloy S, RA 333, and HD 556, and the centrifugally cast austenitic alloys, HK 40, Supertherm, Manaurite 36X, Manaurite 36XS, and Manaurite 900.

  18. Limiting diffusion coefficients of heavy molecular weight organic contaminants in supercritical carbon dioxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orejuela, Mauricio

    1994-01-01

    Carbon Dioxide. 5. Measured Diffusion Coefficients of Hexachlorobenzene in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. 6. Measured Diffusion Coefficients of Pentachlorophenol in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. 7. Carbon Dioxide Parameters as Determined by Empirical..., and for polyatomic solute and solvent molecules, A?was set to 0. 70. Erkey (1989) determined the translational-rotational coupling parameters for binary n-Alkane systems from measured diffusivity data at a wide range of densities. It was shown...

  19. Effects of helium implantation on the tensile properties and microstructure of Ni??P?? metallic glass nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liontas, Rachel [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Gu, X. Wendy [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Fu, Engang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Yongqiang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Nan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mara, Nathan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Greer, Julia R. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-09-10

    We report fabrication and nanomechanical tension experiments on as-fabricated and helium-implanted ~130 nm diameter Ni??P?? metallic glass nano-cylinders. The nano-cylinders were fabricated by a templated electroplating process and implanted with He? at energies of 50, 100, 150, and 200 keV to create a uniform helium concentration of ~3 at. % throughout the nano-cylinders. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and through-focus analysis reveal that the specimens contained ~2 nm helium bubbles distributed uniformly throughout the nano-cylinder volume. In-situ tensile experiments indicate that helium-implanted specimens exhibit enhanced ductility as evidenced by a 2-fold increase in plastic strain over as-fabricated specimens, with no sacrifice in yield and ultimate tensile strengths. This improvement in mechanical properties suggests that metallic glasses may actually exhibit a favorable response to high levels of helium implantation.

  20. Effects of helium implantation on the tensile properties and microstructure of Ni??P?? metallic glass nanostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liontas, Rachel; Gu, X. Wendy; Fu, Engang; Wang, Yongqiang; Li, Nan; Mara, Nathan; Greer, Julia R.

    2014-09-10

    We report fabrication and nanomechanical tension experiments on as-fabricated and helium-implanted ~130 nm diameter Ni??P?? metallic glass nano-cylinders. The nano-cylinders were fabricated by a templated electroplating process and implanted with He? at energies of 50, 100, 150, and 200 keV to create a uniform helium concentration of ~3 at. % throughout the nano-cylinders. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and through-focus analysis reveal that the specimens contained ~2 nm helium bubbles distributed uniformly throughout the nano-cylinder volume. In-situ tensile experiments indicate that helium-implanted specimens exhibit enhanced ductility as evidenced by a 2-fold increase in plastic strain over as-fabricated specimens, with nomore »sacrifice in yield and ultimate tensile strengths. This improvement in mechanical properties suggests that metallic glasses may actually exhibit a favorable response to high levels of helium implantation.« less

  1. Article published September 08, 2010 UT professor's work in carbon dioxide gets coveted award

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    of sustainable technologies. As well as focusing on ways to use carbon dioxide, he will be researching methodsArticle published September 08, 2010 UT professor's work in carbon dioxide gets coveted award with the problem of excessive carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, University of Toledo professor Abdul- Majeed Azad

  2. Storage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks for Clean Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    Storage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks efficient systems to capture carbon dioxide. Additionally, we have a long-standing collaboration with BASF, and carbon dioxide isotherm measurements were performed at 1-85 bar and 77-298 K on the evacuated forms

  3. Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    development. Since power plants are the largest point sources of CO2 emissions, capturing the carbon dioxide ................................................................................................................................ 7 1.1 APPROACHES TO REDUCING CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS1 Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide by Jérémy

  4. ontinuing the legacy of Dr. Charles D. Keeling in monitoring carbon dioxide, NOAA's Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C ontinuing the legacy of Dr. Charles D. Keeling in monitoring carbon dioxide, NOAA's Office provides funding to Charles D. Keeling to begin monitoring carbon dioxide (CO2) at the South Pole and Mauna-seasonal data on carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide, and other gases in a region where rapid climate

  5. Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System Comments submitted by Grant County Public Utility District

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System Comments submitted by Grant County Public paper: Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System, dated September 13, 2007. The Grant done a very thorough job of assessing the current and future carbon dioxide footprints of the Northwest

  6. NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF TEMPERATURE EFFECTS DURING THE INJECTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE INTO BRINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF TEMPERATURE EFFECTS DURING THE INJECTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE INTO BRINE for the simulation of carbon dioxide injection into geological formations is currently an intensive field of research reservoir scenario. 1. INTRODUCTION Recent investigations of underground carbon dioxide storage

  7. Kinetics of the Homogeneous Catalytic Hydrogenation of Olefins in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Using a Fluoroacrylate Copolymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Hanan E.

    Kinetics of the Homogeneous Catalytic Hydrogenation of Olefins in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide a fluoroacrylate copolymer grafted rhodium catalyst in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) are reported field of chemical reaction engineering.3-8 Specifically, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2

  8. Interannual variability in the peatland-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange at an ombrotrophic bog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roulet, Nigel T.

    Interannual variability in the peatland-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange at an ombrotrophic bog covariance measurements of net ecosystem carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange (NEE) were taken at an ombrotrophic covariance, carbon dioxide Citation: Lafleur, P. M., N. T. Roulet, J. L. Bubier, S. Frolking, and T. R. Moore

  9. Modeling the selectivity of activated carbons for efficient separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jianzhong

    the separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide via adsorption in activated carbons. In the simulations, both hydrogen and carbon dioxide molecules are modeled as Lennard-Jones spheres, and the activated carbons essentially no preference over the two gases and the selectivity of carbon dioxide relative to hydrogen falls

  10. Carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes in the Southern Ocean: Mechanisms of interannual variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Follows, Mick

    Carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes in the Southern Ocean: Mechanisms of interannual variability A) to highlight the importance of convective mixing in inducing anomalous air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (2007), Carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes in the Southern Ocean: Mechanisms of interannual variability

  11. Carbon dioxide release from the North Pacific abyss during the last deglaciation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    LETTERS Carbon dioxide release from the North Pacific abyss during the last deglaciation Eric D , John R. Southon6 & Roger Francois1 Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations were significantly lower the surface waters above but only a small increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration8 . We speculate

  12. Thermodynamics of carbon dioxide in aqueous piperazine/potassium carbonate systems at stripper conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    GHGT-8 1 Thermodynamics of carbon dioxide in aqueous piperazine/potassium carbonate systems) with piperazine (PZ) have shown potential for use in carbon dioxide (CO2) capture [1]. This work was initiated at low loadings. Keywords: vapor-liquid, equilibrium, piperazine, carbon dioxide Introduction CO2

  13. Carbon Dioxide Evolution from the Floor of Three Minnesota Forests Author(s): W. A. Reiners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Carbon Dioxide Evolution from the Floor of Three Minnesota Forests Author(s): W. A. Reiners and extend access to Ecology. http://www.jstor.org #12;Late Spring 1968 CARBON DIOXIDE EVOLUTION RATES 471. Germination behavior of some halc- phytes. Bull. Res. Council Israel (D) 6: 187-188. CARBON DIOXIDE EVOLUTION

  14. Convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in saline aquifers Jerome A. Neufeld,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huppert, Herbert

    Convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in saline aquifers Jerome A. Neufeld,1 Marc A. Hesse,2 of carbon dioxide in saline aquifers, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L22404, doi:10.1029/2010GL044728. [2] The storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in geological formations has been proposed as a technological means

  15. Untangling the formation of the cyclic carbon trioxide isomer in low temperature carbon dioxide ices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    Untangling the formation of the cyclic carbon trioxide isomer in low temperature carbon dioxide of the cyclic carbon trioxide isomer, CO3(X 1 A1), in carbon-dioxide-rich extraterrestrial ices and in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Carbon dioxide ices were

  16. Master/Diploma project Degradation of carbon dioxide by micro organisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    Master/Diploma project Degradation of carbon dioxide by micro organisms The accumulation of carbon of the carbon dioxide release is an important objective in the near future. Various strategies are discussed or storage of produced carbon dioxide. Unfortunately, applications based on fossil fuels cannot be improved

  17. SIMPLIFYING THE MARTIAN CARBON DIOXIDE CYCLE: AN EMPIRICAL METHOD FOR PREDICTING SURFACE PRESSURE. Paul Withers1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    SIMPLIFYING THE MARTIAN CARBON DIOXIDE CYCLE: AN EMPIRICAL METHOD FOR PREDICTING SURFACE PRESSURE and spatial variations in martian surface pressure are strongly influenced by the exchange of carbon dioxide of polar cap processes. Many studies of martian polar energy balance and the carbon dioxide cycle use

  18. Seven years of carbon dioxide enrichment, nitrogen fertilization and plant diversity influence arbuscular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Seven years of carbon dioxide enrichment, nitrogen fertilization and plant diversity influence by examining the joint effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment, nitrogen (N) fertilization and plant. Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) influences plant water relations and often pref- erentially

  19. Exergy analysis of transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle with an expander

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    Exergy analysis of transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle with an expander Jun Lan Yang is performed for the transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycles with a throttling valve attracted considerable attention. As one of the natural refrigerants, carbon dioxide has many excellent

  20. High-resolution carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000800,000 years before present

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    LETTERS High-resolution carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000­800,000 years before present Changes in past atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations can be determined by measuring the composition provided a composite record of atmo- spheric carbon dioxide levels over the past 650,000 years1­4 . Here we

  1. Ocean-atmosphere partitioning of anthropogenic carbon dioxide on centennial timescales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Follows, Mick

    Ocean-atmosphere partitioning of anthropogenic carbon dioxide on centennial timescales Philip-atmosphere partitioning of anthropogenic carbon dioxide on centennial timescales is presented. The partial pressure carbon dioxide on centennial timescales, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 21, GB1014, doi:10.1029/2006GB002810

  2. Handbook of Methods for the Analysis of the Various Parameters of the Carbon Dioxide System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handbook of Methods for the Analysis of the Various Parameters of the Carbon Dioxide System in Sea of carbon dioxide in the oceans. Version 2 -- September 1994 (version 2.1 is only available electronically of methods for the analysis of the various parameters of the carbon dioxide system in sea water; version 2, A

  3. Control of sonoluminescence signal in deionized water using carbon dioxide S. Kumari a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deymier, Pierre

    Control of sonoluminescence signal in deionized water using carbon dioxide S. Kumari a , M. Keswani damage Sonoluminescence Carbon dioxide Acoustic cavitation Cavitation threshold a b s t r a c t Megasonic processing of wafers. In this study, the ability of carbon dioxide to quench sonolumi- nescence generation

  4. Net carbon dioxide losses of northern ecosystems in response to autumn warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Andrew D.

    LETTERS Net carbon dioxide losses of northern ecosystems in response to autumn warming Shilong Piao in the future8 . Here we analyse interannual variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentra- tion data and ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes. We find that atmo- spheric records from the past 20 years show a trend

  5. of carbon dioxide containing 12 but the low concentration of 14

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    of carbon dioxide containing 12 C and 13 C, but the low concentration of 14 C has made its measurement in carbon dioxide extremely difficult. Using an ultrasensitive technique called saturated carbon at values well below radiocarbon's natural abundance in carbon dioxide. In their technique

  6. Surface runoff features on Mars: Testing the carbon dioxide formation hypothesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nimmo, Francis

    materials and properties; KEYWORDS: Mars, gullies, seepage, runoff, carbon dioxide, water Citation: StewartSurface runoff features on Mars: Testing the carbon dioxide formation hypothesis Sarah T. Stewart1, S. T., and F. Nimmo, Surface runoff features on Mars: Testing the carbon dioxide formation

  7. CARBON DIOXIDE IN XYLEM OF TREES: SOURCES AND FATES MARY ANNE McGUIRE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teskey, Robert O.

    CARBON DIOXIDE IN XYLEM OF TREES: SOURCES AND FATES by MARY ANNE McGUIRE (Under the Direction of Robert O. Teskey) ABSTRACT The importance of carbon dioxide in the xylem of trees was examined, stem respiration, xylem CO2 concentration #12;CARBON DIOXIDE IN XYLEM OF TREES: SOURCES AND FATES

  8. A joint atmosphere-ocean inversion for surface fluxes of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Sara E. Mikaloff

    interprets in situ observations of carbon dioxide concentration in the ocean and atmosphere with transportA joint atmosphere-ocean inversion for surface fluxes of carbon dioxide: 1. Methods and global March 2007. [1] We have constructed an inverse estimate of surface fluxes of carbon dioxide using both

  9. Colossal cages in zeolitic imidazolate frameworks as selective carbon dioxide reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    LETTERS Colossal cages in zeolitic imidazolate frameworks as selective carbon dioxide reservoirs Bo for other members of this materials family3 , both ZIFs selectively capture carbon dioxide from several at ameliorating increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. Since the initial observation4 that crystalline

  10. Molecular Design of Intercalation-Based Sensors. 2. Sensing of Carbon Dioxide in Functionalized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molecular Design of Intercalation-Based Sensors. 2. Sensing of Carbon Dioxide in Functionalized-9) × 10-9 cm2/s. Carbon dioxide, as both a reactant in and a product of large- scale reactions, is the focus of much current research activity. Millions of tons of carbon dioxide are used every year

  11. Strategies for measurement of atmospheric column means of carbon dioxide from aircraft using discrete sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Britton B.

    Strategies for measurement of atmospheric column means of carbon dioxide from aircraft using and Structure: Instruments and techniques; KEYWORDS: carbon dioxide, column mean, column integral, COBRA, flask, Strategies for measurement of atmospheric column means of carbon dioxide from aircraft using discrete

  12. Silicon dioxide and hafnium dioxide evaporation characteristics from a high-frequency sweep e-beam system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Tsujimoto, N. [MDC Vacuum Products Corporation, Hayward, California 94545 (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Reactive oxygen evaporation characteristics were determined as a function of the front-panel control parameters provided by a programmable, high-frequency sweep e-beam system. An experimental design strategy used deposition rate, beam speed, pattern, azimuthal rotation speed, and dwell time as the variables. The optimal settings for obtaining a broad thickness distribution, efficient silicon dioxide boule consumption, and minimal hafnium dioxide defect density were generated. The experimental design analysis showed the compromises involved with evaporating these oxides. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  13. Photoionization Dynamics in Pure Helium Droplets Darcy S. Peterka, Jeong Hyun Kim, Chia C. Wang, Lionel Poisson, and Daniel M. Neumark*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumark, Daniel M.

    helium droplets in which ion mass spectrometry was used as the detection method. An essential featurePhotoionization Dynamics in Pure Helium Droplets Darcy S. Peterka, Jeong Hyun Kim, Chia C. Wang This paper presents a study of the photoionization of pure helium droplets above the ionization energy

  14. Deep-Burn Modular Helium Reactor Fuel Development Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McEachern, D

    2002-12-02

    This document contains the workscope, schedule and cost for the technology development tasks needed to satisfy the fuel and fission product transport Design Data Needs (DDNs) for the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR), operating in its role of transmuting transuranic (TRU) nuclides in spent fuel discharged from commercial light-water reactors (LWRs). In its application for transmutation, the GT-MHR is referred to as the Deep-Burn MHR (DB-MHR). This Fuel Development Plan (FDP) describes part of the overall program being undertaken by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), utilities, and industry to evaluate the use of the GT-MHR to transmute transuranic nuclides from spent nuclear fuel. The Fuel Development Plan (FDP) includes the work on fuel necessary to support the design and licensing of the DB-MHR. The FDP is organized into ten sections. Section 1 provides a summary of the most important features of the plan, including cost and schedule information. Section 2 describes the DB-MHR concept, the features of its fuel and the plan to develop coated particle fuel for transmutation. Section 3 describes the knowledge base for fabrication of coated particles, the experience with irradiation performance of coated particle fuels, the database for fission product transport in HTGR cores, and describes test data and calculations for the performance of coated particle fuel while in a repository. Section 4 presents the fuel performance requirements in terms of as-manufactured quality and performance of the fuel coatings under irradiation and accident conditions. These requirements are provisional because the design of the DB-MHR is in an early stage. However, the requirements are presented in this preliminary form to guide the initial work on the fuel development. Section 4 also presents limits on the irradiation conditions to which the coated particle fuel can be subjected for the core design. These limits are based on past irradiation experience. Section 5 describes the Design Data Needs to: (1) fabricate the coated particle fuel, (2) predict its performance in the reactor core, (3) predict the radionuclide release rates from the reactor core, and (4) predict the performance of spent fuel in a geological repository. The heart of this fuel development plan is Section 6, which describes the development activities proposed to satisfy the DDNs presented in Section 5. The development scope is divided into Fuel Process Development, Fuel Materials Development, Fission Product Transport, and Spent Fuel Disposal. Section 7 describes the facilities to be used. Generally, this program will utilize existing facilities. While some facilities will need to be modified, there is no requirement for major new facilities. Section 8 states the Quality Assurance requirements that will be applied to the development activities. Section 9 presents detailed costs organized by WBS and spread over time. Section 10 presents a list of the types of deliverables that will be prepared in each of the WBS elements. Four Appendices contain supplementary information on: (a) design data needs, (b) the interface with the separations plant, (c) the detailed development schedule, and (d) the detailed cost estimate.

  15. Permanent carbon dioxide storage in deep-sea sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrag, Daniel

    Permanent carbon dioxide storage in deep-sea sediments Kurt Zenz House* , Daniel P. Schrag, Cambridge, MA 02138; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139; and §Earth Engineering Center, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027

  16. Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, Jerome W. (Lockport, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Westmount, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

  17. Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project Objectives: Elucidate comprehensively the carbonation reaction mechanisms between supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and reservoir rocks consisting of different mineralogical compositions in aqueous and non-aqueous environments at temperatures of up to 250ºC, and to develop chemical modeling of CO2-reservior rock interactions.

  18. Remote estimation of carbon dioxide uptake by a Mediterranean forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbulsky, Martín

    Remote estimation of carbon dioxide uptake by a Mediterranean forest M A R T I´ N F. G A R B U L Science and Environment, University of Tuscia, 01100 Viterbo, Italy Abstract The estimation of the carbon of the ecology of global change. Current remote sensing methodologies for estimating gross primary productivity

  19. Carbon dioxide flash-freezing applied to ice cream production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Teresa Baker, 1981-

    2006-01-01

    (cont.) Carbon dioxide is recompressed from 1.97 x 106 Pa (285 psi) to 3.96 x 106 Pa (575 psi). The process is scaled by increasing the number of nozzles to accommodate the desired flow rate. Only 165 nozzles are required ...

  20. INVESTIGATION OF IONIC CONTAMINATION REMOVAL FROM SILICON DIOXIDE SURFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suni, Ian Ivar

    INVESTIGATION OF IONIC CONTAMINATION REMOVAL FROM SILICON DIOXIDE SURFACES H. Lin, A. A. Busnaina, and I. I. Suni T he removal of ionic contaminants from silicon surfaces surface contamination level canM Communications L td. INTRODUCTION with increasing frequency and power, and decreases Contamination removal is one

  1. Auction design and the market for sulfur dioxide emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    1996-01-01

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Recent papers have argued that flaws in the design of the auctions that are part of this market have ...

  2. Carbon Dioxide Capture by Chemical Absorption: A Solvent Comparison Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the requirements of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Chemical Engineering Practice Abstract In the light1 Carbon Dioxide Capture by Chemical Absorption: A Solvent Comparison Study by Anusha Kothandaraman B. Chem. Eng. Institute of Chemical Technology, University of Mumbai, 2005 M.S. Chemical Engineering

  3. Phase relation between global temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stallinga, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause for temperature variations. In this paper we discuss this assumption and analyze it on basis of bi-centenary measurements and using a relaxation model which causes phase shifts and delays.

  4. Corrosion of various engineering alloys in supercritical carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbs, Jonathan Paul

    2010-01-01

    The corrosion resistance of ten engineering alloys were tested in a supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO 2) environment for up to 3000 hours at 610°C and 20MPa. The purpose of this work was to evaluate each alloy as a potential ...

  5. Our industrial civilization has been pouring carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Dan

    to the pass to millions of travellers and visitors per year. It is now home to the world's largest avalanche that started near the summit of mount Cheops · "Tremendous amounts of human energy and money are spent holding. By the year 2000 we will have added 70 percent more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. If it remained, it would

  6. The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by 2025. Due to the state's heavy reliance on coal as a fuel source for electricity generation, Indiana#12;The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on Electricity Prices on the projected prices of electricity and the use of electric energy in the state of Indiana. The analysis

  7. www.sciam.com SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 49 Pumping carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, Tom

    . A new, large (1,000-mega- watt-generating) coal-fired power plant produces six million tons of the gas the CO2 output of a stationary coal-burning power plant. It is little wonder, then, that today's capture-and-storage efforts focus on those power plants, the source of one quarter of the world's carbon dioxide emissions

  8. 2004-01-2299 Elevated Carbon Dioxide Alters Hydrocarbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paré, Paul W.

    2004-01-2299 Elevated Carbon Dioxide Alters Hydrocarbon Emissions and Flavor in Onion P. W. Paré, R of low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons and sulfur derivatives. Odd-chain ketones are emitted from onion-through chambers, volatile hydrocarbons from undamaged plants can be collected under different environmental

  9. Air Pollution XVI 247 Emissions of Nitrogen Dioxide from Modern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    Air Pollution XVI 247 Emissions of Nitrogen Dioxide from Modern Diesel Vehicles G.A. Bishop and D in NO2 and ozone in a number of cities in Europe. For instance, he shows a very strong correlation;Air Pollution XVI 248 The DPF is an extremely effective means to achieve particle reduction goals

  10. Thermal Properties of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide by Monte Carlo Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisal, Martin

    and speed of sound for carbon dioxide (CO2) in the supercritical region, using the fluctuation method based properties of CO2 at supercritical conditions. The molecular simulation results are compared to an analytical on Monte Carlo simu- lations in the isothermal­isobaric ensemble. We model CO2 as a quadrupolar two

  11. Molybdenum Dioxide As A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodic Catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Molybdenum Dioxide As A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodic Catalyst Jay Thunstrom, Su Ha, Oscar Flores are being developed. One of the most auspicious and the topic presented here is the solid oxide fuel cell hydrocarbons and have great resistance to poisoning. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation Three stages exist

  12. Dispatch R637 Photosynthesis: The paradox of carbon dioxide efflux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Falkowski, Paul G.

    Dispatch R637 Photosynthesis: The paradox of carbon dioxide efflux Paul G. Falkowski The discovery 0960-9822 Photosynthesis in the world oceans accounts for approximately 40% of the global carbon fixed each year on Earth [1]. The vast majority of photosynthetic carbon fixation, by far, is carried out

  13. Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.

    1993-03-30

    A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

  14. A comparison of hydrogen vs. helium glow discharge effects on fusion device first-wall conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dylla, H.F.

    1989-09-01

    Hydrogen- and deuterium-fueled glow discharges are used for the initial conditioning of magnetic fusion device vacuum vessels following evacuation from atmospheric pressure. Hydrogenic glow discharge conditioning (GDC) significantly reduces the near-surface concentration of simple adsorbates, such as H/sub 2/O, CO, and CH/sub 4/, and lowers ion-induced desorption coefficients by typically three orders of magnitude. The time evolution of the residual gas production observed during hydrogen-glow discharge conditioning of the carbon first-wall structure of the TFTR device is similar to the time evolution observed during hydrogen GDC of the initial first-wall configuration in TFTR, which was primarily stainless steel. Recently, helium GDC has been investigated for several wall-conditioning tasks on a number of tokamaks including TFTR. Helium GDC shows negligible impurity removal with stainless steel walls. For impurity conditioning with carbon walls, helium GDC shows significant desorption of H/sub 2/O, CO, and CO/sub 2/; however, the total desorption yield is limited to the monolayer range. In addition, helium GDC can be used to displace hydrogen isotopes from the near-surface region of carbon first-walls in order to lower hydrogenic retention and recycling. 38 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Theory of first-order layering transitions in thin helium films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saslow, WM; Agnolet, Glenn; Campbell, CE; Clements, BE; Krotscheck, E.

    1996-01-01

    solutions for liquid helium. For each layer, the theory yields the chemical potential mu and surface tension alpha as functions of coverage n, and from this we deduce mu(a). For each set of adjacent layers, we then obtain the crossing point in the curves...

  16. Magnetoconductivity of two-dimensional electrons on liquid helium: Experiments in the fluid phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang-Yen, Christopher

    Magnetoconductivity of two-dimensional electrons on liquid helium: Experiments in the fluid phase M of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ, England Received 16 May 1996; revised manuscript received 25 November 1996 The magnetoconductivity (B) of two-dimensional electrons on liquid

  17. Can primordial helium survive in diamonds on geologic time scales? Rebecca Granot and Roi Baer*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baer, Roi

    in the past to provide bounds and clues on the formation of the solar system, the planets and Earth. Yet-binding models. Various results of these models compare well to known experimental data. We find helium re- sides billion years.1 They can be used to sample varying depths of earth's mantle, ranging from 150 km to 600 km

  18. ULTRA LOW PRESSURE-DROP HELIUM-COOLED POROUS-TUNGSTEN PFC S. Sharafat1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    heat flux tests show maximum heat loads of 22.4 MW/m2 using 4 MPa helium at a flow rate of 27 g in magnetically confined plasma devices will be subject to high thermal heat loads. The next step ITER Tokamak heat-flux plasma facing heat exchanger (HX) concept is presented. These unique "Foam-In-Tube" HX

  19. SUPERCONDUCTING PROPERTIES OF ALUMINIUM THIN FILMS AFTER ION IMPLANTATION AT LIQUID HELIUM TEMPERATURES (*)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    L-271 SUPERCONDUCTING PROPERTIES OF ALUMINIUM THIN FILMS AFTER ION IMPLANTATION AT LIQUID HELIUM concentration near AlH2. It is well-known [1] that the superconducting transition temperature Tc of metals as in the electronic density of states N(O) at the Fermi surface. In the case of weak-coupling superconductors

  20. Fusion Engineering and Design 82 (2007) 22172225 Integrated thermo-fluid analysis towards helium flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Fusion Engineering and Design 82 (2007) 2217­2225 Integrated thermo-fluid analysis towards helium Engineering and Design 82 (2007) 2217­2225 This calls in for an extensive analysis of the various proposed flow path design for an ITER solid breeder blanket module A. Yinga,, M. Narulaa, R. Hunta, M. Abdoua, Y

  1. 1.3 GHz Cavity Weld to Helium Vessel A. Schmidt, A. Matheisen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    room conditions which are classified as ASTM class 10 (ISO 4) quality. All processes for He tank of completion of helium tank and module assembly techniques as well. An overview on the sequences and processes for tank installation for the DESY 1.3 GHz resonators will be given. Introduction Improvements

  2. Helium adsorption in silica aerogel near the liquid-vapor critical point

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobias Herman; James Day; John Beamish

    2005-05-18

    We have investigated the adsorption and desorption of helium near its liquid-vapor critical point in silica aerogels with porosities between 95% and 98%. We used a capacitive measurement technique which allowed us to probe the helium density inside the aerogel directly, even though the samples were surrounded by bulk helium. The aerogel's very low thermal conductivity resulted in long equilibration times so we monitored the pressure and the helium density, both inside the aerogel and in the surrounding bulk, and waited at each point until all had stabilized. Our measurements were made at temperatures far from the critical point, where a well defined liquid-vapor interface exists, and at temperatures up to the bulk critical point. Hysteresis between adsorption and desorption isotherms persisted to temperatures close to the liquid-vapor critical point and there was no sign of an equilibrium liquid-vapor transition once the hysteresis disappeared. Many features of our isotherms can be described in terms of capillary condensation, although this picture becomes less applicable as the liquid-vapor critical point is approached and it is unclear how it can be applied to aerogels, whose tenuous structure includes a wide range of length scales.

  3. Modeling hydrogen and helium entrapment in flowing liquid metal surfaces as plasma-facing components in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Modeling hydrogen and helium entrapment in flowing liquid metal surfaces as plasma the viability of specific liquid candidates as renewable di- vertor surfaces. Hydrogen isotope (DT) particles solubility of the hydrogen in liquid lithium. This will result in a low- recycling divertor and a high edge

  4. Gas-Surface Energy Exchange in Collisions of Helium Atoms with Aligned Single-Walled Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    1 Gas-Surface Energy Exchange in Collisions of Helium Atoms with Aligned Single-Walled Carbon #12;2 ABSTRACT Since gas flows in micro/nano devices are dominated by the interaction of gas molecules accommodation of gas molecules on surfaces. The scattering of gas molecules on quartz surfaces covered with VA

  5. Mantle fluids in the Karakoram fault: Helium isotope evidence Simon L. Klemperer a,n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fault Tibet Himalaya helium isotopes geothermal activity India­Asia collision a b s t r a c. Here we show 3 He/4 He ratios in geothermal springs along a 500-km segment of the KKF are 3­ 100 times of the ``mantle suture'' which we therefore locate vertically beneath the KKF, very close to the surface trace

  6. Resonant Photovoltaic Effect in Surface State Electrons on Liquid Helium Denis KONSTANTINOV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shepelyansky, Dima

    Resonant Photovoltaic Effect in Surface State Electrons on Liquid Helium Denis KONSTANTINOV 1;2Ã, 2012; published online August 2, 2012) We observed an ultra-strong photovoltaic effect induced-conductance oscillations, photovoltaic effect A nondegenerate two-dimensional electron system can be formed on the surface

  7. HELIUM CONTAMINATION FROM THE PROGENITOR STARS OF PLANETARY NEBULAE: THE HE/H RADIAL GRADIENT AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maciel, Walter Junqueira

    HELIUM CONTAMINATION FROM THE PROGENITOR STARS OF PLANETARY NEBULAE: THE HE/H RADIAL GRADIENT of a sample of disk planetary nebulae (PN). First, an application of corrections owing to the contamination such as 4 He on the basis of these objects, it is necessary to take into account the He contamination

  8. Transient Thermal and Stress Response of A Helium-Cooled Tungsten Plate-Type Divertor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    Transient Thermal and Stress Response of A Helium- Cooled Tungsten Plate-Type Divertor X.R. Wang, A and shutdown operations have been analyzed with a coupled transient thermo-fluid and thermal-stress approach and investigated for power plant applications with a goal of accommodating a heat flux of 10 MW/m2 . The concepts

  9. A temperature-controlled device for volumetric measurements of Helium adsorption in porous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    a set-up for studying adsorption of helium in silica aerogels, where the adsorbed amount is easily- dation experiments and a first application to aerogels. This device is well adapted to study hysteresis, such as grafoil, carbon nanotubes, or silica glasses. The case of silica aerogels has attracted attention

  10. Transmission and reflection of phonons and rotons at the superfluid helium-solid interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. N. Adamenko; K. E. Nemchenko; I. V. Tanatarov

    2012-06-16

    We solve the problem of the transmission and reflection of phonons and rotons at the interface between superfluid helium and a solid, for all angles of incidence and in both directions. A consistent solution of the problem is presented which allows us to rigorously describe the simultaneous creation of phonons, $R^-$, and $R^+$ rotons in helium by either a phonon from the solid or a helium quasiparticle incident on the interface. The interaction of all $HeII$ quasiparticles with the interface, and their transmission, reflection and conversion into each other, is described in a unified way. The angles of propagation and the probabilities of creating quasiparticles are obtained for all cases. Andreev reflection of helium phonons and rotons is predicted. The energy flows through the interface due to phonons, $R^-$, and $R^+$ rotons are derived. The small contribution of the $R^-$ rotons is due to the small probability of an $R^-$ roton being created by a phonon in the solid, and vice versa. This explains the failure to directly create beams of $R^-$ rotons prior to the experiments of Tucker and Wyatt in 1999. New experiments for creating $R^-$ rotons, by beams of high-energy phonons (h-phonons), are suggested.

  11. Statistical Properties of Inter-Series Mixing in Helium: From Integrability to Chaos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pu''ttner, R.; Gremaud, B.; Delande, D.; Domke, M.; Martins, M.; Schlachter, A. S.; Kaindl, G.

    2001-04-23

    The photoionization spectrum of helium shows considerable complexity close to the double-ionization threshold. By analyzing the results from both our recent experiments and ab initio three- and one-dimensional calculations, we show that the statistical properties of the spacings between neighboring energy levels clearly display a transition towards quantum chaos.

  12. Fusion Engineering and Design 4950 (2000) 709717 Helium-cooled refractory alloys first wall and blanket

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    2000-01-01

    ersity of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA f Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho, USA g ArgonneFusion Engineering and Design 49­50 (2000) 709­717 Helium-cooled refractory alloys first wall.P.C. Wong et al. / Fusion Engineering and Design 49­50 (2000) 709­717710 ket) design options

  13. Helium enhancements in globular cluster stars from Asymptotic Giant Branch star pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amanda Karakas; Yeshe Fenner; Alison Sills; Simon Campbell; John Lattanzio

    2006-05-21

    Using a chemical evolution model we investigate the intriguing suggestion that there are populations of stars in some globular clusters (e.g. NGC 2808, omega Centauri) with enhanced levels of helium (Y from about 0.28 to 0.40) compared to the majority of the population that presumably have a primordial helium abundance. We assume that a previous generation of massive low-metallicity Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars has polluted the cluster gas via a slow stellar wind. We use two independent sets of AGB yields computed from detailed models to follow the evolution of helium, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen in the cluster gas using a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) and a number of top-heavy IMFs. In no case were we able to fit the observational constraints, Y > 0.30 and C+N+O approximately constant. Depending on the shape of the IMF and the yields, we either obtained Y approximately greater than 0.30 and large increases in C+N+O or Y < 0.30 and C+N+O approximately constant. These results suggest that either AGB stars alone are not responsible for the large helium enrichment or that any dredge-up from this generation of stars was less than predicted by standard models.

  14. Heat capacity of adsorbed Helium-3 at ultra-low temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Heat capacity of adsorbed Helium-3 at ultra-low temperatures J. Elbs, C. Winkelmann, Yu. M. Bunkov of monolayers of 3He adsorbed on the surface of a cell filled with superfluid 3He. We found that at ultra low in the limit of ultra low temperatures. 1. INTRODUCTION A closed cell with a small orifice, immersed

  15. Condensation of helium in aerogels and athermal dynamics of the Random Field Ising Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Condensation of helium in aerogels and athermal dynamics of the Random Field Ising Model Geoffroy J isotherms of 4He in a silica aerogel be- come discontinuous below a critical temperature. We show by the aerogel structure, but to the disorder-driven critical point predicted for the athermal out

  16. Neutron-induced dpa, transmutations, gas production, and helium embrittlement of fusion materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. R. Gilbert; S. L. Dudarev; D. Nguyen-Manh; S. Zheng; L. W. Packer; J. -Ch. Sublet

    2013-11-20

    In a fusion reactor materials will be subjected to significant fluxes of high-energy neutrons. As well as causing radiation damage, the neutrons also initiate nuclear reactions leading to changes in the chemical composition of materials (transmutation). Many of these reactions produce gases, particularly helium, which cause additional swelling and embrittlement of materials. This paper investigates, using a combination of neutron-transport and inventory calculations, the variation in displacements per atom (dpa) and helium production levels as a function of position within the high flux regions of a recent conceptual model for the "next-step" fusion device DEMO. Subsequently, the gas production rates are used to provide revised estimates, based on new density-functional-theory results, for the critical component lifetimes associated with the helium-induced grain-boundary embrittlement of materials. The revised estimates give more optimistic projections for the lifetimes of materials in a fusion power plant compared to a previous study, while at the same time indicating that helium embrittlement remains one of the most significant factors controlling the structural integrity of fusion power plant components.

  17. Mantle source provinces beneath the Northwestern USA delimited by helium isotopes in young basalts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, David W.

    phenocrysts in basalts from the eastern Snake River Plain (SRP), the Owyhee Plateau (OP) and the Oregon High: Received 17 April 2008 Accepted 11 December 2008 Available online 31 December 2008 Keywords: Snake River Plain High Lava Plains Yellowstone helium isotopes mantle plume We report new He, Nd and Sr isotope

  18. Full-scale model of UCN source with superfluid helium at 8th International Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Titov, Anatoly

    leader: Anatoli Serebrov UCN group leader: Arcady Zakharov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute #12;Major. Precooling process investigation 3. Operational process simulation (reactor heat load simulation) 4. Liquid helium temperature vs. heat load measurement 5. Maximum heat load test 6. Control equipment test 7. 3He

  19. First-principles calculations of the stability and incorporation of helium, xenon and krypton in uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Beeler; B. Good; S. Rashkeev; M. Baskes; M. Okuniewski

    2012-06-01

    While metallic fuels have a long history of reactor use, their fundamental physical and thermodynamic properties are not well understood. Many metallic nuclear fuels are body-centered cubic alloys of uranium that swell under fission conditions, creating fission product gases such as helium, xenon and krypton. In this paper, helium, xenon, and krypton point defects are investigated in the a and ? phases of metallic uranium using first principles calculations. A density functional theory (DFT) framework is utilized with projector augmented-wave (PAW) pseudopotentials. Formation and incorporation energies of He, Xe, and Kr are calculated at various defect positions for the prediction of fission gas behavior in uranium. In most cases, defect energies follow a size effect, with helium incorporation and formation energies being the smallest. The most likely position for the larger Xe and Kr atoms in uranium is the substitutional site. Helium atoms are likely to be found in a wide variety of defect positions due to the comparable formation energies of all defect configurations analyzed. This is the first detailed study of the stability and incorporation of fission gases in uranium.

  20. Simulation of streamers propagating along helium jets in ambient air: Polarity-induced effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naidis, G. V.

    2011-04-04

    Results of modeling of streamer propagation along helium jets for both positive and negative polarities of applied voltage are presented. Obtained patterns of streamer dynamics and structure in these two cases are similar to those observed in experiments with plasma jets.

  1. Heat and Metal Transfer in Gas Metal Arc Welding Using Argon and Helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    condensation on the side of the electrode. I. INTRODUCTION THE shielding gas composition is a critical process. Massachusens Institute of Technology. Cambridge, MA 02 {39. Manuscript submitted August II. 1993- stead, a 90 pet helium-10 pet iron vapor gas mixture was used in the calculations. A more in

  2. Chapter 11 HELIUM-COOLED REFRACTORY ALLOYS FIRST WALL AND BLANKET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    the design by using different projected mechanical design criteria. We also evaluated the issue of material tube options. Thermal hydraulics, nuclear, activation; and safety designs and analysis were also the APEX program, the goal for the helium-cooled system design task is to evaluate and recommend robust

  3. The neutrino-induced neutron source in helium shell and r-process nucleosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. K. Nadyozhin; I. V. Panov; S. I. Blinnikov

    1998-07-06

    The huge neutrino pulse that occurs during the collapse of a massive stellar core, is expected to contribute to the origination of a number of isotopes both of light chemical elements and heavy ones. It is shown that, in general, the heating of stellar matter due to the neutrino scattering off electrons and the heat released from the neutrino-helium breakup followed by the thermonuclear reactions should be taken into account. On the base of kinetic network, using all the important reactions up to Z=8, the main features and the time-dependent character of the neutrino- driven neutron flux are investigated. The time-dependent densities of free neutrons produced in helium breakup, Y_n(t), were used to calculate the r-process nucleosynthesis with another full kinetic network for 3200 nuclides. It was found that in the case of metal-deficient stars, Z neutrons seems to be high enough to drive the r-process efficiently under favorable conditions. But it is impossible to obtain a sufficient amount of heavy nuclei in neutrino-induced r-process in a helium shell at radii R > R_cr \\approx 10^9 cm. We speculate that to make the neutrino-induced r-process work efficiently in the shell, one has to invoke nonstandard presupernova models in which helium hopefully is closer to the collapsed core owing, for instance, to a large scale mixing or/and rotation and magnetic fields. Apart from this exotic possibility, the neutrino-induced nucleosynthesis in the helium shell is certainly not strong enough to explain the observed solar r-process abundances.

  4. Enhancement of the helium resonance lines in the solar atmosphere by suprathermal electron excitation II: non-Maxwellian electron distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. R. Smith

    2003-06-20

    In solar EUV spectra the He I and He II resonance lines show unusual behaviour and have anomalously high intensities compared with other transition region lines. The formation of the helium resonance lines is investigated through extensive non-LTE radiative transfer calculations. The model atmospheres of Vernazza, Avrett & Loeser are found to provide reasonable matches to the helium resonance line intensities but significantly over-estimate the intensities of other transition region lines. New model atmospheres have been developed from emission measure distributions derived by Macpherson & Jordan, which are consistent with SOHO observations of transition region lines other than those of helium. These models fail to reproduce the observed helium resonance line intensities by significant factors. The possibility that non-Maxwellian electron distributions in the transition region might lead to increased collisional excitation rates in the helium lines is studied. Collisional excitation and ionization rates are re-computed for distribution functions with power law suprathermal tails which may form by the transport of fast electrons from high temperature regions. Enhancements of the helium resonance line intensities are found, but many of the predictions of the models regarding line ratios are inconsistent with observations. These results suggest that any such departures from Maxwellian electron distributions are not responsible for the helium resonance line intensities.

  5. A multiple-scale simulation of variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide using a coupled biosphere-atmospheric model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    A multiple-scale simulation of variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide using a coupled biosphere, carbon dioxide, biosphere, regional-scale modeling, missing sink, carbon dioxide fluxes Citation), A multiple-scale simulation of variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide using a coupled biosphere

  6. WARM BREEZE FROM THE STARBOARD BOW: A NEW POPULATION OF NEUTRAL HELIUM IN THE HELIOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubiak, M. A.; Bzowski, M.; Sokó?, J. M.; Swaczyna, P.; Grzedzielski, S.; Alexashov, D. B.; Izmodenov, V. V.; Möbius, E.; Leonard, T.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.; Wurz, P.

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the signals from neutral helium atoms observed in situ from Earth orbit in 2010 by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). The full helium signal observed during the 2010 observation season can be explained as a superposition of pristine neutral interstellar He gas and an additional population of neutral helium that we call the Warm Breeze. The Warm Breeze is approximately 2 times slower and 2.5 times warmer than the primary interstellar He population, and its density in front of the heliosphere is ?7% that of the neutral interstellar helium. The inflow direction of the Warm Breeze differs by ?19° from the inflow direction of interstellar gas. The Warm Breeze seems to be a long-term, perhaps permanent feature of the heliospheric environment. It has not been detected earlier because it is strongly ionized inside the heliosphere. This effect brings it below the threshold of detection via pickup ion and heliospheric backscatter glow observations, as well as by the direct sampling of GAS/Ulysses. We discuss possible sources for the Warm Breeze, including (1) the secondary population of interstellar helium, created via charge exchange and perhaps elastic scattering of neutral interstellar He atoms on interstellar He{sup +} ions in the outer heliosheath, or (2) a gust of interstellar He originating from a hypothetic wave train in the Local Interstellar Cloud. A secondary population is expected from models, but the characteristics of the Warm Breeze do not fully conform to modeling results. If, nevertheless, this is the explanation, IBEX-Lo observations of the Warm Breeze provide key insights into the physical state of plasma in the outer heliosheath. If the second hypothesis is true, the source is likely to be located within a few thousand AU from the Sun, which is the propagation range of possible gusts of interstellar neutral helium with the Warm Breeze characteristics against dissipation via elastic scattering in the Local Cloud. Whatever the nature of the Warm Breeze, its discovery exposes a critical new feature of our heliospheric environment.

  7. Investigation of Countercurrent Helium-Air Flows in Air-ingress Accidents for VHTRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiaodong; Christensen, Richard; Oh, Chang

    2013-10-03

    The primary objective of this research is to develop an extensive experimental database for the air- ingress phenomenon for the validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. This research is intended to be a separate-effects experimental study. However, the project team will perform a careful scaling analysis prior to designing a scaled-down test facility in order to closely tie this research with the real application. As a reference design in this study, the team will use the 600 MWth gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) developed by General Atomic. In the test matrix of the experiments, researchers will vary the temperature and pressure of the helium— along with break size, location, shape, and orientation—to simulate deferent scenarios and to identify potential mitigation strategies. Under support of the Department of Energy, a high-temperature helium test facility has been designed and is currently being constructed at Ohio State University, primarily for high- temperature compact heat exchanger testing for the VHTR program. Once the facility is in operation (expected April 2009), this study will utilize high-temperature helium up to 900°C and 3 MPa for loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) depressurization and air-ingress experiments. The project team will first conduct a scaling study and then design an air-ingress test facility. The major parameter to be measured in the experiments is oxygen (or nitrogen) concentration history at various locations following a LOCA scenario. The team will use two measurement techniques: 1) oxygen (or similar type) sensors employed in the flow field, which will introduce some undesirable intrusiveness, disturbing the flow, and 2) a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging technique, which has no physical intrusiveness to the flow but requires a transparent window or test section that the laser beam can penetrate. The team will construct two test facilities, one for high-temperature helium tests with local sensors and the other for low- temperature helium tests with the PLIF technique. The results from the two instruments will provide a means to cross-calibrate the measurement techniques.

  8. Application Of Optical Processing For Growth Of Silicon Dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    1997-06-17

    A process for producing a silicon dioxide film on a surface of a silicon substrate. The process comprises illuminating a silicon substrate in a substantially pure oxygen atmosphere with a broad spectrum of visible and infrared light at an optical power density of from about 3 watts/cm.sup.2 to about 6 watts/cm.sup.2 for a time period sufficient to produce a silicon dioxide film on the surface of the silicon substrate. An optimum optical power density is about 4 watts/cm.sup.2 for growth of a 100.ANG.-300.ANG. film at a resultant temperature of about 400.degree. C. Deep level transient spectroscopy analysis detects no measurable impurities introduced into the silicon substrate during silicon oxide production and shows the interface state density at the SiO.sub.2 /Si interface to be very low.

  9. Application of optical processing for growth of silicon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1997-06-17

    A process for producing a silicon dioxide film on a surface of a silicon substrate is disclosed. The process comprises illuminating a silicon substrate in a substantially pure oxygen atmosphere with a broad spectrum of visible and infrared light at an optical power density of from about 3 watts/cm{sup 2} to about 6 watts/cm{sup 2} for a time period sufficient to produce a silicon dioxide film on the surface of the silicon substrate. An optimum optical power density is about 4 watts/cm{sup 2} for growth of a 100{angstrom}-300{angstrom} film at a resultant temperature of about 400 C. Deep level transient spectroscopy analysis detects no measurable impurities introduced into the silicon substrate during silicon oxide production and shows the interface state density at the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface to be very low. 1 fig.

  10. On the relationship between stratospheric aerosols and nitrogen dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, M.J.; Langford, A.O.; O'Leary, T.J.; Arpag, K.; Miller, H.L.; Proffitt, M.H.; Sanders, R.W.; Solomon, S. (Aeronomy Laboratory, NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States) Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))

    1993-06-18

    The authors report measurements of stratospheric column abundances of nitrogen dioxide above the Colorado mountains during Jan, Feb, and Mar 1992, following the arrival of the aerosol loading injected by Mt. Pinatubo. The column abundance data was correlated with concurrent lidar measurements which provided vertical aerosol profiles at the same site. Chemical reactions within polar stratospheric clouds have been shown to play a major role in ozone chemistry in the polar regions, and one could ask whether such clouds at mid latitudes could play a similar role. The sulfur dioxide loading due to the volcanic eruption provides an abrupt increase in sulfuric acid aerosol surface area in mid latitude areas, providing a convenient test of this question. Column NO[sub 2] densities are observed to fall, but also found to saturate at a certain stratospheric aerosol density.

  11. Standard specification for sintered (Uranium-Plutonium) dioxide pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers finished sintered and ground (uranium-plutonium) dioxide pellets for use in thermal reactors. It applies to uranium-plutonium dioxide pellets containing plutonium additions up to 15 % weight. This specification may not completely cover the requirements for pellets fabricated from weapons-derived plutonium. 1.2 This specification does not include (1) provisions for preventing criticality accidents or (2) requirements for health and safety. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of the obligation to be aware of and conform to all applicable international, federal, state, and local regulations pertaining to possessing, processing, shipping, or using source or special nuclear material. Examples of U.S. government documents are Code of Federal Regulations Title 10, Part 50Domestic Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities; Code of Federal Regulations Title 10, Part 71Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material; and Code of Federal Regulations Tit...

  12. Regenerable immobilized aminosilane sorbents for carbon dioxide capture applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, McMahan; Choi, Sunho; Jones, Christopher W

    2014-09-16

    A method for the separation of carbon dioxide from ambient air and flue gases is provided wherein a phase separating moiety with a second moiety are simultaneously coupled and bonded onto an inert substrate to create a mixture which is subsequently contacted with flue gases or ambient air. The phase-separating moiety is an amine whereas the second moiety is an aminosilane, or a Group 4 propoxide such as titanium (IV) propoxide (tetrapropyl orthotitanate, C.sub.12H.sub.28O.sub.4Ti). The second moiety makes the phase-separating moiety insoluble in the pores of the inert substrate. The new sorbents have a high carbon dioxide loading capacity and considerable stability over hundreds of cycles. The synthesis method is readily scalable for commercial and industrial production.

  13. Supermarket with Ground Coupled Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rehault, N.

    2012-01-01

    SUPERMARKET WITH GROUND COUPLED CARBON DIOXIDE REFRIGERATION PLANT Dipl.-Ing. Nicolas R?hault Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE ICEBO 2012 Manchester, 25.10.2012 ? Fraunhofer ISE 2 AGENDA 1. Background on supermarkets, energy...- conditioning: Insulation and air tightness to Passivhaus Standard CO2 refrigeration plant as only energy supply No use of fossil fuels Use of ground to sub-cool refrigerant and as heat source for heat pump Use of covers and night curtains LED...

  14. Extraction of iron and calcium from low rank coal by supercritical carbon dioxide with entrainers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwai, Y.; Okamoto, N.; Ohta, S.; Arai, Y.; Sakanishi, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-03-15

    Iron and calcium were extracted from low rank coal with supercritical carbon dioxide and methanol, ethanol, acetic acid, acetyl acetone, ethanol and acetic acid, or acetyl acetone and water entrainers at 313.2 K and 15.0 MPa. The low rank coal used in this study was Berau coal from Indonesia. The addition of methanol, ethanol, or acetic acid entrainers in supercritical carbon dioxide showed very limited effect on enhancement of the recovery rates of Fe. The recovery rates of Fe from dried coal by supercritical carbon dioxide with acetyl acetone were low however, the addition of acetyl acetone with water in supercritical carbon dioxide remarkably enhanced the recovery rates of Fe. Water seems to play an important role in extracting Fe from coal with supercritical carbon dioxide and acetyl acetone. On the other hand, the extraction rates of Ca with supercritical carbon dioxide and water, methanol, ethanol, and acetyl acetone entrainers were very low. The addition of acetic acid with or without water in supercritical carbon dioxide slightly enhanced the recovery rates of Ca. The addition of acetic acid with ethanol in supercritical carbon dioxide remarkably enhanced the recovery rates of Ca. The effect of carbon dioxide flow rate and coal particle size on the recovery rates of Fe were examined. The recovery rate of Fe increased with increasing carbon dioxide flow rate and with decreasing particle size of the low rank coal.

  15. Standard specification for sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification is for finished sintered gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets for use in light-water reactors. It applies to gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets containing uranium of any 235U concentration and any concentration of gadolinium oxide. 1.2 This specification recognizes the presence of reprocessed uranium in the fuel cycle and consequently defines isotopic limits for gadolinium oxide-uranium dioxide pellets made from commercial grade UO2. Such commercial grade UO2 is defined so that, regarding fuel design and manufacture, the product is essentially equivalent to that made from unirradiated uranium. UO2 falling outside these limits cannot necessarily be regarded as equivalent and may thus need special provisions at the fuel fabrication plant or in the fuel design. 1.3 This specification does not include (1) provisions for preventing criticality accidents or (2) requirements for health and safety. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of the obligation to be aw...

  16. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. J. B. Oke (+ 15 graduate students), A Model for a Helium Star of 1 Solar Mass. Astrophys.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BIBLIOGRAPHY Papers 1. J. B. Oke (+ 15 graduate students), A Model for a Helium Star of 1 Solar. Astrophys. J. Letters, 156, L151 - L153, 1969 27. D. Mihalas, A Possible Mechanism for Energization

  17. Irradiation damage of single crystal, coarse-grained, and nanograined copper under helium bombardment at 450 °C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Weizhong

    The irradiation damage behaviors of single crystal (SC), coarse-grained (CG), and nanograined (NG) copper (Cu) films were investigated under Helium (He) ion implantation at 450 °C with different ion fluences. In irradiated ...

  18. Condensation of helium in aerogels as an experimental realization of the out-of-equilibrium Random Field Ising Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Condensation of helium in aerogels as an experimental realization of the out-of-equilibrium Random-catalysed silica aerogels of large porosity presents a similar out-of-equilibrium behavior when the temperature

  19. Plant Design and Cost Estimation of a Natural Circulation Lead-Bismuth Reactor with Helium Power Conversion Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, D.

    The analysis of an indirect helium power conversion system with lead-bismuth natural circulation primary system has been performed. The work of this report is focused on 1) identifying the allowable design region for the ...

  20. Stability of coal microstructure on exposure to high pressures of helium.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakurovs, Richard [ORNL; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Blach, Tomasz P [ORNL; Cheng, Gang [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra-small angle neutron scattering (USANS) measurements of the structure of two Australian bituminous coals (particle size -1mm+0.5mm) before, during and after exposure to 155 bar of helium were made in order to identify any effects of pressure alone on the pore size distribution of coal, and any irreversible effects on exposure to high pressures of helium in the pore size range from 3 nm to 10 m. No irreversible effects on exposure were identified for any pore size. No effects of pressure on pore size distribution were observed, except for a small effect at a pore size of about 2 m for one coal. This study provides a convenient baseline for SANS and USANS investigations on sorption of gases at elevated pressures on coals, by distinguishing between the effect of pressure alone on coal pore size distribution as against the effect of the gas to be investigated.

  1. Effects of liquid helium bubble formation in a superconducting cavity cryogenic system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, X.; Wang, E.; Xin, T.

    2011-03-01

    We constructed a simple prototype model based on the geometry of the 56 MHz superconducting cavity for RHIC. We studied the formation, in this prototype, of bubbles of liquid helium and their thermal effects on the cavity. We found that due to the low viscosity of the liquid helium, and its small surface tension, no large bubbles formed. The tiny bubbles, generated from most of the area, behaved like light gas travelling in a free space and escaped from the trapping region. The bubbles that were generated in the trapping area, due to its descending geometry, are much bigger than the other bubbles, but due to the liquid flow generated by heating, they still are negligible compared to the size of the trapping region. We expected that the effects of bubbles in our 56 MHz cavity during operation might well be negligible.

  2. Benchmarking Hydrogen-Helium Mixtures with QMC: Energetics, Pressures, and Forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clay, Raymond C; Ceperley, David M; Morales, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    An accurate understanding of the phase diagram of dense hydrogen and helium mixtures is a crucial component in the construction of accurate models of Jupiter, Saturn, and Jovian extrasolar planets. Though DFT based first principles methods have the potential to provide the accuracy and computational efficiency required for this task, recent benchmarking in hydrogen has shown that achieving this accuracy requires a judicious choice of functional, and a quantification of the errors introduced. In this work, we present a quantum Monte Carlo based benchmarking study of a wide range of density functionals for use in hydrogen-helium mixtures at thermodynamic conditions relevant for Jovian planets. Not only do we continue our program of benchmarking energetics and pressures, but we deploy QMC based force estimators and use them to gain insights into how well the local liquid structure is captured by different density functionals. We find that TPSS, BLYP and vdW-DF are the most accurate functionals by most metrics, a...

  3. Quantum path integral molecular dynamics simulations on transport properties of dense liquid helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Dongdong; Sun, Huayang; Yuan, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Transport properties of dense liquid helium under the conditions of planet's core and cool atmosphere of white dwarfs have been investigated by using the improved centroid path-integral simulations combined with density functional theory. The self-diffusion is largely higher and the shear viscosity is notably lower predicted with the quantum mechanical description of the nuclear motion compared with the description by Newton equation. The results show that nuclear quantum effects (NQEs), which depends on the temperature and density of the matter via the thermal de Broglie wavelength and the ionization of electrons, are essential for the transport properties of dense liquid helium at certain astrophysical conditions. The Stokes-Einstein relation between diffusion and viscosity in strongly coupled regime is also examined to display the influences of NQEs.

  4. Exergy Analysis of the Cryogenic Helium Distribution System for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claudet, S; Tavian, L; Wagner, U; 10.1063/1.3422294

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN features the world’s largest helium cryogenic system, spreading over the 26.7 km circumference of the superconducting accelerator. With a total equivalent capacity of 145 kW at 4.5 K including 18 kW at 1.8 K, the LHC refrigerators produce an unprecedented exergetic load, which must be distributed efficiently to the magnets in the tunnel over the 3.3 km length of each of the eight independent sectors of the machine. We recall the main features of the LHC cryogenic helium distribution system at different temperature levels and present its exergy analysis, thus enabling to qualify second-principle efficiency and identify main remaining sources of irreversibility..

  5. Bose-Einstein condensate of metastable helium for quantum correlation experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Keller; Mateusz Kotyrba; Florian Leupold; Mandip Singh; Maximilian Ebner; Anton Zeilinger

    2015-01-05

    We report on the realization of Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium-4. After exciting helium to its metastable state in a novel pulse-tube cryostat source, the atomic beam is collimated and slowed. We then trap several 10^8 atoms in a magneto-optical trap. For subsequent evaporative cooling, the atoms are transferred into a magnetic trap. Degeneracy is achieved with typically a few 10^6 atoms. For detection of atomic correlations with high resolution, an ultrafast delay-line detector has been installed. Consisting of four quadrants with independent readout electronics that allow for true simultaneous detection of atoms, the detector is especially suited for quantum correlation experiments that require the detection of correlated subsystems. We expect our setup to allow for the direct demonstration of momentum entanglement in a scenario equivalent to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen gedanken experiment. This will pave the way to matter-wave experiments exploiting the peculiarities of quantum correlations.

  6. Modeling and Simulation Optimization and Feasibility Studies for the Neutron Detection without Helium-3 Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ely, James H.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Lintereur, Azaree T.

    2013-01-01

    This report details the results of the modeling and simulation work accomplished for the ‘Neutron Detection without Helium-3’ project during the 2011 and 2012 fiscal years. The primary focus of the project is to investigate commercially available technologies that might be used in safeguards applications in the relatively near term. Other technologies that are being developed may be more applicable in the future, but are outside the scope of this study.

  7. Coupled variations in helium isotopes and fluid chemistry: Shoshone Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hearn, E.H.; Kennedy, B.M. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA)); Truesdell, A.H. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Early studies of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He variations in geothermal systems have generally attributed these fluctuations to either differences in the source of the magmatic {sup 3}He-rich helium or to local differences in the deep flux of magmatic {sup 3}He-rich helium. Kennedy et al, however, show that near-surface processes such as boiling and dilution may also drastically affect {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios of geothermal vapors. Helium isotope ratios were determined for several hot springs at Shoshone Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park for this study, along with other noble gas data. Stable isotope data and water and gas chemistry data for each spring were also compiled. The water chemistry indicates that there is one deep, hot thermal water in the area which is mixing with dilute meteoric water that has entered the system at depth. Spring HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} concentrations correlate with {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He values, as in nearby Lower Geyser Basin. This correlation is attributed to variable amounts of deep dilution of thermal waters with a relatively cool water that inhibits boiling at depth, thus preventing the loss of CO{sub 2} and magmatic He in the most diluted samples. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope data also support a boiling and dilution model, but to produce the observed fractionations, the boiling event would have to be extensive, with steam loss at the surface, whereas the boiling that affected the helium isotope ratios was probably a small scale event with steam loss at depth. It is possible that deep boiling occurred in the basin and that small amounts of steam escaped along fractures at about 500 m below the surface while all subsequently produced steam was lost near or at the surface.

  8. A temperature-controlled device for volumetric measurements of Helium adsorption in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cross, Benjamin; Wolf, Pierre-Etienne

    2008-01-01

    We describe a set-up for studying adsorption of helium in silica aerogels, where the adsorbed amount is easily and precisely controlled by varying the temperature of a gas reservoir between 80 K and 180 K. We present validation experiments and a first application to aerogels. This device is well adapted to study hysteresis, relaxation, and metastable states in the adsorption and desorption of fluids in porous media.

  9. Final Technical Report for the Neutron Detection without Helium-3 Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ely, James H.; Bliss, Mary; Kouzes, Richard T.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Robinson, Sean M.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2013-11-01

    This report details the results of the research and development work accomplished for the ‘Neutron Detection without Helium-3’ project conducted during the 2011-2013 fiscal years. The primary focus of the project was to investigate commercially available technologies that might be used in safeguards applications in the relatively near term. Other technologies that are being developed may be more applicable in the future, but were outside the scope of this study.

  10. A temperature-controlled device for volumetric measurements of Helium adsorption in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin Cross; Laurent Puech; Pierre-Etienne Wolf

    2008-06-26

    We describe a set-up for studying adsorption of helium in silica aerogels, where the adsorbed amount is easily and precisely controlled by varying the temperature of a gas reservoir between 80 K and 180 K. We present validation experiments and a first application to aerogels. This device is well adapted to study hysteresis, relaxation, and metastable states in the adsorption and desorption of fluids in porous media.

  11. Dynamic coupling of volcanic CO2 flow and wind at the Horseshoe Lake tree kill, Mammoth Mountain, CA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewicki, J.L.; Hilley, G.E.; Tosha, T.; Aoyagi, R.; Yamamoto, K.; Benson, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Dynamics of carbon dioxide emission at Mammoth Mountain,Howle (1998), Magmatic carbon dioxide emissions at MammothHausback (1998), Carbon dioxide and helium emissions from a

  12. Effects of a New Triple-alpha Reaction on X-ray Bursts of a Helium Accreting Neutron Star

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsuo, Y; Noda, T; Saruwatari, M; Ono, M; Hashimoto, M; Fujimoto, M

    2011-01-01

    The effects of a new triple-$\\alpha$ reaction rate (OKK rate) on the helium flash of a helium accreting neutron star in a binary system have been investigated. Since the ignition points determine the properties of a thermonuclear flash of type I X-ray bursts, we examine the cases of different accretion rates, $dM/dt (\\dot{M})$, of helium from $3\\times10^{-10} M_{\\odot} \\rm yr^{-1}$ to $3\\times10^{-8} M_{\\odot} \\rm yr^{-1}$, which could cover the observed accretion rates. We find that for the cases of low accretion rates, nuclear burnings are ignited at the helium layers of rather low densities. As a consequence, helium deflagration would be triggered for all cases of lower accretion rate than $\\dot{M}\\simeq 3\\times10^{-8} M_{\\odot} \\rm yr^{-1}$. We find that OKK rate could be barely consistent with the available observations of the X-ray bursts on the helium accreting neutron star. However this coincidence is found to depend on the properties of crustal heating and the neutron star model.We suggest that OKK r...

  13. Design guidelines for avoiding thermo-acoustic oscillations in helium piping systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Prabhat Kumar; Rabehl, Roger

    2015-04-02

    Thermo-acoustic oscillations are a commonly observed phenomenon in helium cryogenic systems, especially in tubes connecting hot and cold areas. The open ends of these tubes are connected to the lower temperature (typically at 4.5 K), and the closed ends of these tubes are connected to the high temperature (300 K). Cryogenic instrumentation installations provide ideal conditions for these oscillations to occur due to the steep temperature gradient along the tubing. These oscillations create errors in measurements as well as an undesirable heat load to the system. The work presented here develops engineering guidelines to design oscillation-free helium piping. This work also studies the effect of different piping inserts and shows how the proper geometrical combinations have to be chosen to avoid thermo-acoustic oscillations. The effect of an 80 K intercept is also studied and shows that thermo-oscillations can be dampened by placing the intercept at an appropriate location. As a result, the design of helium piping based on the present work is also verified with the experimental results available in open literature.

  14. Improvements of fuel failure detection in boiling water reactors using helium measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsson, I.; Sihver, L.; Grundin, A.; Helmersson, J. O.

    2012-07-01

    To certify a continuous and safe operation of a boiling water reactor, careful surveillance of fuel integrity is of high importance. The detection of fuel failures can be performed by off-line gamma spectroscopy of off-gas samples and/or by on-line nuclide specific monitoring of gamma emitting noble gases. To establish the location of a leaking fuel rod, power suppression testing can be used. The accuracy of power suppression testing is dependent on the information of the delay time and the spreading of the released fission gases through the systems before reaching the sampling point. This paper presents a method to improve the accuracy of power suppression testing by determining the delay time and gas spreading profile. To estimate the delay time and examine the spreading of the gas in case of a fuel failure, helium was injected in the feed water system at Forsmark 3 nuclear power plant. The measurements were performed by using a helium detector system based on a mass spectrometer installed in the off-gas system. The helium detection system and the results of the experiment are presented in this paper. (authors)

  15. Design guidelines for avoiding thermo-acoustic oscillations in helium piping systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gupta, Prabhat Kumar; Rabehl, Roger

    2015-04-02

    Thermo-acoustic oscillations are a commonly observed phenomenon in helium cryogenic systems, especially in tubes connecting hot and cold areas. The open ends of these tubes are connected to the lower temperature (typically at 4.5 K), and the closed ends of these tubes are connected to the high temperature (300 K). Cryogenic instrumentation installations provide ideal conditions for these oscillations to occur due to the steep temperature gradient along the tubing. These oscillations create errors in measurements as well as an undesirable heat load to the system. The work presented here develops engineering guidelines to design oscillation-free helium piping. This workmore »also studies the effect of different piping inserts and shows how the proper geometrical combinations have to be chosen to avoid thermo-acoustic oscillations. The effect of an 80 K intercept is also studied and shows that thermo-oscillations can be dampened by placing the intercept at an appropriate location. As a result, the design of helium piping based on the present work is also verified with the experimental results available in open literature.« less

  16. A novel scheme to handle highly pulsed loads with a standard helium refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slack, D.S.

    1993-06-30

    Helium refrigerator performance degrades rapidly when it has to handle a varying or pulsed heat load. A novel scheme is presented to handle highly pulsed 4.5 K cryogenic loads with a standard helium refrigerator by isolating it from these pulses. The scheme uses a relatively simple arrangement of control valves, heat exchangers, and a storage dewar. Applications include pulsed tokamak machines such as TPX (Tokamak Physics Experiment) and ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). For example, the TPX (currently in the conceptual design phase in a DoE contract) requires an average 4.5 K refrigerator capacity of about 10 kW; however, pulsed loads caused by eddy current and nuclear heating will exceed 100 kW. The scheme presented here provides a method for handling these pulsed loads. Because of the simple and proven nature of the components involved and the thermodynamic properties of the helium, the system could be implemented for projects such as TPX or ITER with little or no development.

  17. Commissioning report of the MuCool 5 Tesla solenoid coupled with helium refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geynisman, Michael; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    MuCool 5T solenoid was successfully cooled down and operated coupled with MTA 'Brown' refrigerator. The system performed as designed with substantial performance margin. All process alarms and interlocks, as well as ODH and fire alarms, were active and performed as designed. The cooldown of the refrigerator started from warm conditions and took 44 hours to accumulate liquid helium level and solenoid temperature below 5K. Average liquid nitrogen consumption for the refrigerator precool and solenoid shield was measured as 20 gal/hr (including boil-off). Helium losses were small (below 30 scfh). The system was stable and with sufficient margin of performance and ran stably without wet expansion engine. Quench response demonstrated proper operation of the relieving devices and pointed to necessity of improving tightness of the relieving manifolds. Boil-off test demonstrated average heat load of 3 Watts for the unpowered solenoid. The solenoid can stay up to 48 hours cold and minimally filled if the nitrogen shield is maintained. A list of improvements includes commencing into operations the second helium compressor and completion of improvements and tune-ups for system efficiency.

  18. The 10830 Angstrom Helium Line Among Evolved Stars in the Globular Cluster M4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strader, Jay; Smith, Graeme H

    2015-01-01

    Helium is a pivotal element in understanding multiple main sequences and extended horizontal branches observed in some globular clusters. Here we present a spectroscopic study of helium in the nearby globular cluster M4. We have obtained spectra of the chromospheric He I 10830 A line in 16 red horizontal branch, red giant branch, and asymptotic giant branch stars. Clear He I absorption or emission is present in most of the stars. Effective temperature is the principal parameter that correlates with 10830 A line strength. Stars with T_eff < 4450 K do not exhibit the helium line. Red horizontal branch stars, which are the hottest stars in our sample, all have strong He I line absorption. A number of these stars show very broad 10830 A lines with shortward extensions indicating outflows as high as 80-100 km/s and the possibility of mass loss. We have also derived [Na/Fe] and [Al/Fe] abundances to see whether these standard tracers of "second generation" cluster stars are correlated with He I line strength. Un...

  19. Helium in chirped laser fields as a time-asymmetric atomic switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaprálová-Ž?ánská, Petra Ruth, E-mail: kapralova@jh-inst.cas.cz [Department of Radiation and Chemical Physics, Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Dolejškova 3, 182 23 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Moiseyev, Nimrod, E-mail: nimrod@tx.technion.ac.il [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry and Faculty of Physics, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2014-07-07

    Tuning the laser parameters exceptional points in the spectrum of the dressed laser helium atom are obtained. The weak linearly polarized laser couples the ground state and the doubly excited P-states of helium. We show here that for specific chirped laser pulses that encircle an exceptional point one can get the time-asymmetric phenomenon, where for a negative chirped laser pulse the ground state is transformed into the doubly excited auto-ionization state, while for a positive chirped laser pulse the resonance state is not populated and the neutral helium atoms remains in the ground state as the laser pulse is turned off. Moreover, we show that the results are very sensitive to the closed contour we choose. This time-asymmetric state exchange phenomenon can be considered as a time-asymmetric atomic switch. The optimal time-asymmetric switch is obtained when the closed loop that encircles the exceptional point is large, while for the smallest loops, the time-asymmetric phenomenon does not take place. A systematic way for studying the effect of the chosen closed contour that encircles the exceptional point on the time-asymmetric phenomenon is proposed.

  20. Supernovae in Helium Star--Compact Object Binaries: A Possible Gamma-ray Burst Mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avery E. Broderick

    2005-08-01

    Helium star--compact object binaries, and helium star--neutron star binaries in particular, are widely believed to be the progenitors of the observed double neutron star systems. In these, the second neutron star is presumed to be the compact remnant of the helium star supernova. Here, the observational implications of such a supernova are discussed, and in particular are explored as a candidate gamma-ray burst mechanism. In this scenario the supernova results in a transient period of rapid accretion onto the compact object, extracting via magnetic torques its rotational energy at highly super-Eddington luminosities in the form of a narrowly beamed, strongly electromagnetically dominated jet. Compton scattering of supernova photons advected within the ejecta, and photons originating at shocks driven into the ejecta by the jet, will cool the jet and can produce the observed prompt emission characteristics, including the peak--inferred isotropic energy relation, X-ray flash characteristics, subpulse light curves, energy dependent time lags and subpulse broadening, and late time spectral softening. The duration of the burst is limited by the rate of Compton cooling of the jet, eventually creating an optically thick, moderately relativistically expanding fireball which can produce the afterglow emission. If the black hole or neutron star stays bound to a compact remnant, late term light curve variability may be observed as in SN 2003dh.

  1. Investigation of helium ion production in constricted direct current plasma ion source with layered-glows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Park, Yeong-Shin; Hwang, Y. S.; Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744

    2014-02-15

    Generation of helium ions is experimentally investigated with a constricted direct current (DC) plasma ion source operated at layered-glow mode, in which electrons could be accelerated through multiple potential structures so as to generate helium ions including He{sup 2+} by successive ionization collisions in front of an extraction aperture. The helium discharge is sustained with the formation of a couple of stable layers and the plasma ball with high density is created near the extraction aperture at the operational pressure down to 0.6 Torr with concave cathodes. The ion beam current extracted with an extraction voltage of 5 kV is observed to be proportional to the discharge current and inversely proportional to the operating pressure, showing high current density of 130 mA/cm{sup 2} and power density of 0.52 mA/cm{sup 2}/W. He{sup 2+} ions, which were predicted to be able to exist due to multiple-layer potential structure, are not observed. Simple calculation on production of He{sup 2+} ions inside the plasma ball reveals that reduced operating pressure and increased cathode area will help to generate He{sup 2+} ions with the layered-glow DC discharge.

  2. Coupling an ensemble of electrons on superfluid helium to a superconducting circuit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ge Yang; A. Fragner; G. Koolstra; L. Ocola; D. A. Czaplewski; R. J. Schoelkopf; D. I. Schuster

    2015-08-20

    The quantized lateral motional states and the spin states of electrons trapped on the surface of superfluid helium have been proposed as basic building blocks of a scalable quantum computer. Circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) allows strong dipole coupling between electrons and a high-Q superconducting microwave resonator, enabling such sensitive detection and manipulation of electron degrees of freedom. Here we present the first realization of a hybrid circuit in which a large number of electrons are trapped on the surface of superfluid helium inside a coplanar waveguide resonator. The high finesse of the resonator allows us to observe large dispersive shifts that are many times the linewidth and make fast and sensitive measurements on the collective vibrational modes of the electron ensemble, as well as the superfluid helium film underneath. Furthermore, a large ensemble coupling is observed in the dispersive regime during experiment, and it shows excellent agreement with our numeric model. The coupling strength of the ensemble to the cavity is found to be >1 MHz per electron, indicating the feasibility of achieving single electron strong coupling.

  3. Cosmic reionization of hydrogen and helium: contribution from both mini-quasars and stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hao, Jing-Meng; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Observations on the high-redshift galaxies at $z>6$ imply that their ionizing emissivity is unable to fully reionize the Universe at $z\\sim 6$. Either a high escape fraction of ionizing photons from these galaxies or a large population of faint galaxies below the detection limit are required. However, these requirements are somewhat in tension with present observations. In this work, we explored the combined contribution of mini-quasars and stars to the reionization of cosmic hydrogen and helium. Our model is roughly consistent with: (1) the low escape fractions of ionizing photons from the observed galaxies, (2) the optical depth of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) measured by the WMAP-7, and (3) the redshift of the end of hydrogen and helium reionization at $z\\approx 6$ and $z\\approx 3$, respectively. Neither an extremely high escape fraction nor a large population of fainter galaxies is required in this scenario. In our most optimistic model, more than $\\sim20\\%$ of the cosmic helium is reionized by $z\\si...

  4. Supernovae from direct collisions of white dwarfs and the role of helium shell ignition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papish, Oded

    2015-01-01

    Models for supernovae (SNe) arising from thermonuclear explosions of white dwarfs (WDs) have been extensively studied over the last few decades, mostly focusing on the single degenerate (accretion of material of a WD) and double degenerate (WD-WD merger) scenarios. In recent years it was suggested that WD-WD direct collisions provide an additional channel for such explosions. Here we extend the studies of such explosions, and explore the role of Helium-shells in affecting the thermonuclear explosions. We study both the impact of low-mass helium ($\\sim0.01$ M$_{\\odot})$ shells, as well as high mass shells ($\\ge0.1$ M$_{\\odot}$). We find that detonation of the massive helium layers precede the detonation of the WD Carbon-Oxygen (CO) bulk during the collision and can change the explosive evolution and outcomes for the cases of high mass He-shells. In particular, the He-shell detonation propagates on the WD surface and inefficiently burns material prior to the CO detonation that later follows in the central parts...

  5. A MEASUREMENT OF THE ADIABATIC COOLING INDEX FOR INTERSTELLAR HELIUM PICKUP IONS IN THE INNER HELIOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saul, Lukas; Wurz, Peter; Kallenbach, Reinald

    2009-09-20

    Interstellar neutral gas enters the inner heliosphere where it is ionized and becomes the pickup ion population of the solar wind. It is often assumed that this population will subsequently cool adiabatically, like an expanding ideal gas due, to the divergent flow of the solar wind. Here, we report the first independent measure of the effective adiabatic cooling index in the inner heliosphere from SOHO CELIAS measurements of singly charged helium taken during times of perpendicular interplanetary magnetic field. We use a simple adiabatic transport model of interstellar pickup helium ions, valid for the upwind region of the inner heliosphere. The time averaged velocity spectrum of helium pickup ions measured by CELIAS/CTOF is fit to this model with a single free parameter which indicates an effective cooling rate with a power-law index of gamma = 1.35 +- 0.2. While this average is consistent with the 'ideal-gas' assumption of gamma = 1.5, the analysis indicates that such an assumption will not apply in general, and that due to observational constraints further measurements are necessary to constrain the cooling process. Implications are discussed for understanding the transport processes in the inner heliosphere and improving this measurement technique.

  6. Apparatus and method for removing solvent from carbon dioxide in resin recycling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2009-01-06

    A two-step resin recycling system and method solvent that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material. The system and method includes one or more solvent wash vessels to expose resin particles to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles in the one or more solvent wash vessels to substantially remove contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is provided to separate the solvent from the resin particles after removal from the one or more solvent wash vessels. The resin particles are next exposed to carbon dioxide in a closed loop carbon dioxide system. The closed loop system includes a carbon dioxide vessel where the carbon dioxide is exposed to the resin, substantially removing any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation. A separation vessel is also provided to separate the solvent from the solvent laden carbon dioxide. Both the carbon dioxide and the solvent are reused after separation in the separation vessel.

  7. Mechanistical studies on the formation of carbon dioxide in extraterrestrial carbon monoxide ice analog samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    Mechanistical studies on the formation of carbon dioxide in extraterrestrial carbon monoxide ice O and 13 C18 O), carbon dioxide (12 C16 O2, 12 C18 O16 O, 12 C18 O2, 13 C16 O2, 13 C18 O16 O, and 13 and of carbon dioxide were extracted and fit to derive reaction mechanisms and information on the decomposition

  8. Development of a differential equation of state to describe subcritical isotherms of carbon dioxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fontenot, Charles Edward

    1980-01-01

    Processors Association, the National Science Eoundation, the Texas Engineering Experiment Station and Texas A&&i University for providing the funds for this work The author wishes to express his sincere appreciation to Dr. K, R. Hall for his guidance... Pressures of Carbon Dioxide 28 Comparison of Predicted and Experimental Saturated Vapor Densities of Carbon Dioxide. . . . 30 Comparison of Predicted and Experimental Saturated Liquid Densities of Carbon Dioxide. . . 31 Plot of the Slope of fR...

  9. Water Use Efficiency in Plant Growth and Ambient Carbon Dioxide Level 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Bavel, C. H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Efficiency in Plant Growth and Ambient Carbon Dioxide Level C.H. M. van Bavel Texas Water Resources Institute Texas A&M University ...

  10. Ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes after disturbance in forests of North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    carbon dioxide, water vapor and energy flux densities, Bull.et al. (2006), Carbon, energy and water fluxes at mature and

  11. China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Hongyou

    2013-01-01

    by the Institute for Industrial Productivity through theL ABORATORY China’s Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions inproceedings, ECEEE Industrial Summer Study, Arnhem, the

  12. HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Effect of Trap Design, Chemical Lure, Carbon Dioxide Release Rate,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Changlu

    HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Effect of Trap Design, Chemical Lure, Carbon Dioxide Release Rate passive monitor available in the market for bed bugs

  13. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-08-19

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  14. Ph.D. DISSERTATION MODELING PLANT-SOIL-ATMOSPHERE CARBON DIOXIDE EXCHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, Kevin

    Ph.D. DISSERTATION MODELING PLANT-SOIL-ATMOSPHERE CARBON DIOXIDE EXCHANGE USING OPTIMALITY...............................................................................................1 I. A REVIEW OF REMOTE SENSING MODELS........................................................7...............................................................7 Remote Sensing Models

  15. Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine and Trace Metal Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer, Version 2.1 Citation Details...

  16. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Bourcier, William L. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-11-09

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  17. Table 4. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emission shares...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emission shares by sector " "percent of total" ,"shares" "State","Commercial","Electric Power","Residential","Industrial","Transportation"...

  18. Insulator-to-Metal Transition of Vanadium Dioxide | U.S. DOE...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Insulator-to-Metal Transition of Vanadium Dioxide Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) ASCR Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of ASCR Funding...

  19. Development and application of a steady state code for supercritical carbon dioxide cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Legault, David M. (David Michael)

    2006-01-01

    The supercritical CO2 power conversion system is of interest for advanced nuclear reactor applications because the same efficiencies are obtained as for the most developed of the closed gas-turbine cycles (helium-Brayton), ...

  20. Modeling sulfur dioxide capture in a pulverized coal combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nair, R.B.; Yavuzkurt, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The formation and capture of sulfur dioxide in a pulverized coal combustor is investigated. A two-dimensional, steady, axisymmetric code, PCGC-2 (Pulverized Coal Gasification and Combustion-two Dimensional), originally developed at Brigham Young University, has been used to simulate combustion of the pulverized coal. This paper represents part of a project to investigate simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration in combustor effluents. Results from the code have been compared to experimental data obtained from MTCI`s (Manufacturing Technology and Conversion International) test pulse combustor, which generates sound pressure levels of {approximately}180 dB. The overall goal behind the pulse combustor program at MTCI is to develop combustors for stationary gas turbines that use relatively inexpensive coal-based fuels. This study attempts to model the capture of sulfur dioxide when injected into a pulse combustor firing micronized coal. While this work does not presume to model the complex gas flow-field generated by the pulsating flow, the effects of the acoustic field are expressed by increased heat and mass transfer to the particles (coal/sorbent) in question. A comprehensive calcination-sintering-sulfation model for single particles was used to model the capture of sulfur dioxide by limestone sorbent. Processes controlling sulfation are external heat and mass transfer, pore diffusion, diffusion through the product layer of CaSO{sub 4}, sintering, and calcination. The model was incorporated into the PCGC-2 program. Comparisons of exit concentrations of SO{sub 2} showed a fairly good agreement (within {approximately}10 percent) with the experimental results from MTCI.