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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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1

New family of tiny crystals glow bright in LED lights | ornl...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

New family of tiny crystals glow bright in LED lights ORNL scientist probes atomic structure to improve materials' luminescence efficiency Oak Ridge National Laboratory scientists...

2

New Family of Tiny Crystals Glow Bright in LED Lights | Advanced Photon  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

How Serotonin Receptors Can Shape Drug Effects, from LSD to Migraine How Serotonin Receptors Can Shape Drug Effects, from LSD to Migraine Medication X-rays Paint a Picture of Picasso's Pigments Antibody Evolution Could Guide HIV Vaccine Development Blue Ruthenium Dimer Catalysis for Hydrogen Generation A High-Pressure Nano-imaging Breakthrough Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed New Family of Tiny Crystals Glow Bright in LED Lights JUNE 7, 2013 Bookmark and Share Laue microdiffraction pattern acquired from a nanoribbon in experiments at the APS. Minuscule crystals that glow different colors may be the missing ingredient for white light-emitting diode (LED) lighting that illuminates homes and

3

Phasing tiny crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For tiny crystals, their diffraction intensities at and between the Bragg peaks become measurable due to the limited number of the unit cells, which can in principle be used to directly phase the crystal structures.

Miao, J.

2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

4

Glowing eyes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Glowing eyes Glowing eyes Name: Sophie Hunt Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Why do dogs eyes glow in the dark? Replies: They have a reflective surface behind the retina (light sensitive back surface) of the eye which bounces light from, for example, your headlights back at you somewhat like highway reflectors. The purpose of the surface is to increase the ability of the retina to detect faint light -- that is, the ability of the animal to see in the dark -- by making the light pass *twice* through the retina. Humans don't have this surface, but very bright light will bounce back from the retina itself enough to be seen. Since the retina is red (from its ample blood supply) you see a red reflection, and this is the source of the "red spot" in the eyes in photographs of people who looked at the flash.

5

Oscillations in glow discharges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OSCILLATIONS IN GLOW DISCHARGES A Dissertation By Tom Prickett, Jr. June 1950 Approved as to style and content by Chairman of Committee OSCILLATIONS IN GLOW DISCHARGES A Dissertation By Tom Prickett, Jr* June 1950 OSCILLATIONS IN GLOW... 1950 CONTENTS Introduction ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1 I. Review of Plasma Oscillations in Gas Discharges ? . . 2 II. Review of Relaxation Processes in Gas Discharges ? . 13 III. Report of Laboratory Investigation...

Prickett, Tom

1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Glow discharge detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A highly sensitive electronic ion cell for the measurement of trace elements in He carrier gas which involves glow discharge. A constant wave (CW) glow discharge detector which is controlled through a biased resistor, can detect the change of electron density caused by impurities in the He carrier gas by many orders of magnitude larger than that caused by direct ionization or electron capture. The glow discharge detector utilizes a floating pseudo-electrode to form a probe in or near the plasma. By using this probe, the large variation of electron density due to trace amounts of impurities can be directly measured.

Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA); Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

PERIODIC GLOW DISCHARGE REPORT  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

GLOW DISCHARGE REPORT GLOW DISCHARGE REPORT TIME: Jan 11 2014 11:29:09:000PM Power Supply ON/OFF Status OFF Power Supply Fault Status FAULT Power Supply Standby Status ON Power Supply Interlock Status NOT OK HV Power Resistors Status NORMAL Power Supply Voltage 52.00 Power Supply Current -71.00 Electrode 1 Voltage -15.00 Electrode 1 Current -79.00 Electrode 2 Voltage -14.00 Electrode 2 Current -70.00 ROSS 1 Status OPEN ROSS 2 Status OPEN ROSS 1 Common Line OPEN ROSS 2 Common Line OPEN IGBT1 Enable DISABLE IGBT2 Enable DISABLE

8

Powerful glow discharge excilamp  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A powerful glow discharge lamp comprising two coaxial tubes, the outer tube being optically transparent, with a cathode and anode placed at opposite ends of the tubes, the space between the tubes being filled with working gas. The electrodes are made as cylindrical tumblers placed in line to one other in such a way that one end of the cathode is inserted into the inner tube, one end of the anode coaxially covers the end of the outer tube, the inner tube penetrating and extending through the anode. The increased electrodes' surface area increases glow discharge electron current and, correspondingly, average radiation power of discharge plasma. The inner tube contains at least one cooling liquid tube placed along the axis of the inner tube along the entire lamp length to provide cathode cooling. The anode has a circumferential heat extracting radiator which removes heat from the anode. The invention is related to lighting engineering and can be applied for realization of photostimulated processes under the action of powerful radiation in required spectral range.

Tarasenko, Victor F. (Tomsk, RU); Panchenko, Aleksey N. (Tomsk, RU); Skakun, Victor S. (Tomsk, RU); Sosnin, Edward A. (Tomsk, RU); Wang, Francis T. (Danville, CA); Myers, Booth R. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Measuring Tiny Waves with High Power Particle Beams | Princeton...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Measuring Tiny Waves with High Power Particle Beams American Fusion News Category: U.S. Universities Link: Measuring Tiny Waves with High Power Particle Beams...

10

Glow discharge plasma deposition of thin films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A glow discharge plasma reactor for deposition of thin films from a reactive RF glow discharge is provided with a screen positioned between the walls of the chamber and the cathode to confine the glow discharge region to within the region defined by the screen and the cathode. A substrate for receiving deposition material from a reactive gas is positioned outside the screened region. The screen is electrically connected to the system ground to thereby serve as the anode of the system. The energy of the reactive gas species is reduced as they diffuse through the screen to the substrate. Reactive gas is conducted directly into the glow discharge region through a centrally positioned distribution head to reduce contamination effects otherwise caused by secondary reaction products and impurities deposited on the reactor walls.

Weakliem, Herbert A. (Pennington, NJ); Vossen, Jr., John L. (Bridgewater, NJ)

1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

11

Tiny Terminators: New Micro-Robots Assemble, Repair Themselves...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

and with a different purpose. In a project supported by the Energy Department's Office of Science, researchers at Argonne National Laboratory have created tiny robots that can...

12

Imager Spots and Samples Tiny Tumors | Jefferson Lab  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tiny Tumors NEWPORT NEWS, Va. Feb. 8, 2008 -- The positron emission mammographytomography breast imaging and biopsy system was designed and constructed by scientists at...

13

Saddle-field glow-discharge deposition of amorphous semiconductors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors present a dc saddle-field glow-discharge deposition procedure which combines the positive attributes of the conventional dc and rf glow-discharge techniques. Preliminary mass spectra analyses of both silane and methane glow-discharges demonstrates that ions constitute a significant fraction of the species reaching the film surface. Growth rate analyses suggest that ions play a significant role in the saddle-field glow-discharge deposition of amorphous semiconducting films.

Gaspari, F.; Sidhu, L.S.; O`Leary, S.K.; Zukotynski, S. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

14

Bright Lights and Even Brighter Ideas | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science How does it work? Scientists found that tiny, atomic level, differences caused the crystals to glow in...

15

Electrofuels: Tiny Organisms Making a Big Impact | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Electrofuels: Tiny Organisms Making a Big Impact Electrofuels: Tiny Organisms Making a Big Impact Electrofuels: Tiny Organisms Making a Big Impact February 16, 2012 - 12:30pm Addthis Electrofuels: Tiny Organisms Making a Big Impact Alexa McClanahan Communications Support Contractor to ARPA-E They say a picture is worth a thousand words - but what happens when what you want to look at is impossible to see? That's where the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy's Electrofuels program comes in. The 13 projects that make up the program seek to develop renewable liquid fuels that use microorganisms to harness chemical or electrical energy to convert carbon dioxide into liquid fuels, without using petroleum or biomass. For example, scientists at Columbia University are using bacteria to optimize the conversion of carbon dioxide and ammonia into a liquid transportation fuel

16

Tiny device can detect hidden nuclear weapons, materials  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tiny Tiny device can detect hidden nuclear weapons, materials Director's Welcome Organization Achievements Highlights Fact Sheets, Brochures & Other Documents Multimedia Library About Nuclear Energy Nuclear Reactors Designed by Argonne Argonne's Nuclear Science and Technology Legacy Opportunities within NE Division Visit Argonne Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Celebrating the 70th Anniversary of Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) Argonne OutLoud on Nuclear Energy Argonne Energy Showcase 2012 Highlights Bookmark and Share Tiny device can detect hidden nuclear weapons, materials This tiny wafer can detect hidden nuclear weapons and materials NUCLEAR DETECTOR -- This small wafer could become the key component in

17

Nexus Energy Center Unveils Energy-Efficient Tiny Home  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Better Buildings Residential Network member Nexus Energy Center recently unveiled its first tiny, energy-efficient home. As previously reported, the nonprofit organization aimed to raise $5,000...

18

Radio Communication for PIE -  a Tiny Timber Interface.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Tiny Timber is a very lightweight, real-time kernel for small, event-driven embedded systems.  It implements reactive objects as a way of structuring embedded software.… (more)

Amerion, Mohsen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Contact glow discharge electrolysis for liquid waste processing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for an alka- line water electrolysis at a small pin verticaldischarge electrolysis applied to waste water treatment.water treatment induced by plasma with contact glow discharge electrolysis.

Sharma, Neeraj

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Tiny Glass Bubbles With Big Potential | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Tiny Glass Bubbles With Big Potential Tiny Glass Bubbles With Big Potential Tiny Glass Bubbles With Big Potential August 19, 2011 - 12:32pm Addthis SRNL's Porous Walled Hollow Glass Microspheres (which are about half the width of a human hair in diameter) have a network of interconnected pores that enable them to be filled with, hold and release gases and other materials. | Image courtesy of SRNL SRNL's Porous Walled Hollow Glass Microspheres (which are about half the width of a human hair in diameter) have a network of interconnected pores that enable them to be filled with, hold and release gases and other materials. | Image courtesy of SRNL Liisa O'Neill Liisa O'Neill Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? SRNL's porous walled glass microspheres allow the potential for

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Source: http://tiny.cc/test-fear OnlineAlarm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

chest pain during a heart attack? Learn more at the National Library of Medicine's heart attacks, help- ing to prevent them, subtle signs and symptoms, and not confusing heart attacks with other-healthy education training module - http://tiny.cc/love-your-heart. The sound/animation tutorial discusses heart

Oliver, Douglas L.

22

Deriving State Machines from TinyOS programs using Symbolic Execution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sensing Deriving State Machines from TinyOS Programs usingconstraints Example State Machine: RfmToLed RfmToIntM.ncuser-understandable Finite State Machines (FSMs) from TinyOS

Kothari, Nupur; Millstein, Todd; Govindan, Ramesh

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

An Innovative Pressure Sensor Glow Plug Offers Improved Diesel Engine Closed-loop Control  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Describes glow plug with integrated pressure sensor for closed-loop control of diesel engine combustion

24

Radio-frequency glow discharge spectrometry:: A critical review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a critical review of analytical radio frequency glow discharge spectrometry (rf-GDS). The historical foundations of rf-GDS are described, and current knowledge of the fundamental physics of analytical rf glow discharges is discussed. Additionally, instrumentation, methodologies, and applications of rf glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (rf-GDOES) and mass spectrometry (rf-GDMS) are reviewed. Although other rf-GDS techniques have appeared [e.g. rf glow discharge atomic absorption spectrophotometry (rf-GDAAS)], the emphasis is placed upon rf-GDOES and rf-GDMS, because they have received by far the most interest from analytical chemical metrologists. This review also provides explanations of some developments that are needed for further progress in the field of analytical rf-GDS.

Michael R. Winchester; Richard Payling

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Nexus Energy Center Raises Funds for Energy-Saving Tiny Home...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

showed me that video, it was really inspiring because it's talking about how you can transform spaces," Singhal said. Nexus Energy Center's "TRES (Tiny, Renewable, and...

26

Tiny tool measures heat at the nanoscale > EMC2 News > The Energy...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fellowship In This Section EMC2 News Archived News Stories Tiny tool measures heat at the nanoscale February 26th, 2014 Robinson Group Design of the spectrometer to...

27

Boundary Layer Flow Control With a One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Surface Plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Low speed wind tunnel data have been acquired for planar panels covered by a uniform, glow-discharge surface plasma in atmospheric pressure air known as the One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Plasma (OAUGDP). Streamwise and spanwise arrays of flush, ...

Roth J. Reece; Sherman Daniel M.; Wilkinson Stephen P.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Tiny travelers from deep space could assist in healing Fukushima's  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors Tiny travelers from deep space could assist in healing Fukushima's nuclear scar Researchers have devised a method to use cosmic rays to gather detailed information from inside the damaged cores of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors. October 17, 2012 Los Alamos National Laboratory Muon Radiography team members stand in front of the damaged Fukushima Daiichi reactor complex during a visit to determine evaluate whether Los Alamos' Scattering Method for cosmic-ray radiography could be used to image the location of nuclear materials within the reactor buildings. Los Alamos National Laboratory Muon Radiography team members stand in front of the damaged Fukushima Daiichi reactor complex during a visit to determine evaluate whether Los Alamos' Scattering Method for cosmic-ray

29

HoustonChronicle.com -Tiny honor a big deal for algae scientist HoustonChronicle.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HoustonChronicle.com - Tiny honor a big deal for algae scientist HoustonChronicle. com Section-mail this story June 18, 2005, 5:48PM Tiny honor a big deal for algae scientist By DAVID A. FAHRENTHOLD Washington Post Sometimes, algae can be the highest form of flattery. ADVERTISEMENTSo it was for Diane K. Stoecker

Jeong, Hae Jin

30

A Further Understanding of Superconductivity | Advanced Photon...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

New Family of Tiny Crystals Glow Bright in LED Lights How Serotonin Receptors Can Shape Drug Effects, from LSD to Migraine Medication X-rays Paint a Picture of Picasso's Pigments...

31

Questions and Answers - Do radioactive things glow in the dark?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Someone told me that Cherenkov radiationis analogous to breaking the sound barrier... Someone told me that Cherenkov radiation<br>is analogous to breaking the sound barrier... Previous Question (Someone told me that Cherenkov radiation is analogous to breaking the sound barrier...) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (If energy is formed by a generator, how does it form the energy?) If energy is formed by a generator,how does it form the energy? Do radioactive things glow in the dark? The short answer to your question is "no," radioactive things do not glow in the dark - not by themselves anyway. Radiation emitted by radioactive materials is not visible to the human eye. However, there are ways to"convert" this invisible energy to visible light. Many substances will emit visible light if "stimulated" by the ionizing radiation from

32

Sensitive glow discharge ion source for aerosol and gas analysis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high sensitivity glow discharge ion source system for analyzing particles includes an aerodynamic lens having a plurality of constrictions for receiving an aerosol including at least one analyte particle in a carrier gas and focusing the analyte particles into a collimated particle beam. A separator separates the carrier gas from the analyte particle beam, wherein the analyte particle beam or vapors derived from the analyte particle beam are selectively transmitted out of from the separator. A glow discharge ionization source includes a discharge chamber having an entrance orifice for receiving the analyte particle beam or analyte vapors, and a target electrode and discharge electrode therein. An electric field applied between the target electrode and discharge electrode generates an analyte ion stream from the analyte vapors, which is directed out of the discharge chamber through an exit orifice, such as to a mass spectrometer. High analyte sensitivity is obtained by pumping the discharge chamber exclusively through the exit orifice and the entrance orifice.

Reilly, Peter T. A. (Knoxville, TN)

2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

33

Geek-Up[6.24.11]: Dust-sized 'Dragonfly' Device and Tiny Microvalves |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Dust-sized 'Dragonfly' Device and Tiny Dust-sized 'Dragonfly' Device and Tiny Microvalves Geek-Up[6.24.11]: Dust-sized 'Dragonfly' Device and Tiny Microvalves June 24, 2011 - 7:15pm Addthis A computer simulation of the "dragonfly-inspired" device. | Courtesy of Sandia Laboratory A computer simulation of the "dragonfly-inspired" device. | Courtesy of Sandia Laboratory Niketa Kumar Niketa Kumar Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? A dust-size "dragonfly-inspired" device -- which won a Sandia Lab design contest -- may ultimately enable the creation of tiny microvalves for experiments in biological research laboratories and medical facilities. In Sandia National Laboratories' MEMS (microelectromechanical system) University Alliance design contest, a dust-sized dragonfly and a super

34

Nexus Energy Center Raises Funds for Energy-Saving Tiny Home  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Nexus Energy Center, a Huntsville, Alabama-based Better Buildings Residential Network member, is trying to raise $5,000 through a crowd-funding effort to build the city’s first tiny, energy...

35

Tiny Terminators: New Micro-Robots Assemble, Repair Themselves and Are Surprisingly Strong  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Tiny robots that can assemble and repair themselves? Watch a video of Argonne National Laboratory's micro-robots that easily perform tasks that can challenge other robots, including moving objects that are larger than themselves.

36

E-Print Network 3.0 - abnormal glow discharge Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

characteristic can be forced into an abnormal glow regime in which the operating... - ising approach to the generation and maintenance of stable dc ... Source: Lee, Jeong-Bong -...

37

Cell treatment and surface functionalization using the atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma torch (APGD-t).  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma torch (APGD-t ) was used to treat cell cultures to investigate potential reactions with biological tissue. The plasma jet… (more)

Yonson, Sara.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Photo of the Week: Butterflies, Crystal Nanostructures and Solar Cell  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Butterflies, Crystal Nanostructures and Solar Butterflies, Crystal Nanostructures and Solar Cell Research Photo of the Week: Butterflies, Crystal Nanostructures and Solar Cell Research October 26, 2012 - 11:44am Addthis What do butterflies and solar cell research have in common? Both have been developing tiny crystals that selectively reflect colors. Over millions of years of evolution, butterfly wings have developed the tiny crystal nanostructures that give butterflies their vivid colors. At Argonne National Laboratory, scientists are working to manufacture these crystals, which could one day be used to create "greener" and more efficient paints, fiber optics and solar cells. In this photo, the iridescent scales of an emerald-patched Cattleheart butterfly are magnified 20 times to highlight the crystals that selectively reflect green colors. | Photo courtesy of Argonne National Laboratory.

39

Plasma sterilization using glow discharge at atmospheric pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent development of atmospheric pressure glow discharge was compared with the performance of an apparatus used in the first APG experiment, in terms of sterilization of newly classified biological indicator: Bacillus atrophaeus, former Bacillus subtilis var. niger and Geobacillus stearothermophilus. Stabilization was attained by controlling the experimental conditions, at low frequency: 100 kHz and Radio Frequency: 13.56 MHz, water vapor/He dilution. Large volume of meta-stable atomic helium is responsible for the result that aids generation of hydroxyl radicals.

Tetsuya Akitsu; Hiroshi Ohkawa; Masao Tsuji; Hideo Kimura; Masuhiro Kogoma

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

LANL Transfers Glowing Bio Technology to Sandia Biotech  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Partnering with Los Alamos National Laboratory, an Albuquerque-based company is seeking to transform the way protein and peptide analysis is conducted around the world. Sandia Biotech is using a biological technology licensed from Los Alamos called split green fluorescent protein (sGFP), as a detecting and tracking tool for the protein and peptide industry, valuable in the fields of Alzheimer's research, drug development and other biotechnology fields using protein folding to understand protein expression and mechanisms of action. http://www.lanl.gov/news/stories/glowing-future-for-los-alamos-and-sandia-b iotech-partnership.html

Rorick, Kevin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Transition from Townsend to glow discharge: Subcritical, mixed, or supercritical characteristics Danijela D. Sijacic1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transition from Townsend to glow discharge: Subcritical, mixed, or supercritical characteristics, the transition from Townsend to glow discharge can show the textbook subcritical behavior, but for smaller values long discharges that have a clearly pronounced subcritical characteristics, i.e., for fixed large pd

Ebert, Ute

42

Attenuation of single-tone ultrasound by an atmospheric glow discharge plasma barrier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Attenuation of single-tone ultrasound by an atmospheric glow discharge plasma barrier Vadim P through an atmospheric pressure glow discharge in air was studied experimentally. The plasma obtained in and around the plasma using laser-induced Rayleigh scattering technique. Results show

�tügen, Volkan

43

Comparative Study of Plasma Anodization of Silicon in a Column of a dc Glow Discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A comparative study of plasma anodization of silicon in the column of a dc oxygen glow discharge is presented. Quantitative results for growth rates of silicon dioxide in the negative glow Faraday dark space positive column and the anode fall are given. It is observed that the growth rate is higher in the positive column than the other regions of the discharge.

M. A. Copeland; R. Pappu

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Production of atmospheric-pressure glow discharge in nitrogen using needle-array electrode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An atmospheric pressure glow discharge was generated using a needle-array electrode in nitrogen, and the voltage-current characteristics of the glow discharge were obtained in a range from 1 mA to 60 A. A pulsed high voltage with short rise time under 10 ns was employed to generate streamer discharges simultaneously at all needle tips. The large number of streamer discharges prevented the glow-to-arc transition caused by inhomogeneous thermalization. Semiconductor opening switch diodes were employed as an opening switch to shorten the rise time. The glow voltage was almost constant until the discharge current became 0.3 A, whereas the voltage increased with the current higher than 0.3 A. Electron density and temperature in a positive column of the glow discharge at 60 A were obtained to 1.4x10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} and 1.3 eV from calculation based on nitrogen swarm data.

Takaki, K.; Hosokawa, M.; Sasaki, T.; Mukaigawa, S.; Fujiwara, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan)

2005-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

45

LANL Launches Four Tiny Satellites into Space - Los Alamos in SPACE |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

LANL Launches Four Tiny Satellites into Space LANL Launches Four Tiny Satellites into Space "" Colleagues from LANL's Applied Electromagnetics and International, Space, and Response divisions led a rapid- response satellite development capability (Perseus program) and successfully put four tiny "cubeSats"-satellites small enough to hold in one hand-into orbit in December of 2010. The goal of the Perseus program is to develop a rapid-response satellite capability to enable many different mission types. The first phase of the effort focused on (1) demonstrating the ability to build and launch a useful satellite quickly and at low cost, (2) gaining cubeSat build and orbital experience, and (3) validating the LANL design methodology (namely, keeping the design simple, designing to the mission,

46

Interaction of a surface glow discharge with a gas flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A surface glow discharge in a gas flow is of particular interest as a possible tool for controlling the flow past hypersonic aircrafts. Using a hydrodynamic model of glow discharge, two-dimensional calculations for a kilovolt surface discharge in nitrogen at a pressure of 0.5 Torr are carried out in a stationary gas, as well as in a flow with a velocity of 1000 m/s. The discharge structure and plasma parameters are investigated near a charged electrode. It is shown that the electron energy in a cathode layer reaches 250-300 eV. Discharge is sustained by secondary electron emission. The influence of a high-speed gas flow on the discharge is considered. It is shown that the cathode layer configuration is flow-resistant. The distributions of the electric field and electron energy, as well as the ionization rate profile in the cathode layer, do not change qualitatively under the action of the flow. The basic effect of the flow's influence is a sharp decrease in the region of the quasineutral plasma surrounding the cathode layer due to fast convective transport of ions.

Aleksandrov, A. L., E-mail: a_alex@itam.nsc.ru; Schweigert, I. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

47

We've all seen posters filled with tiny print, blurry images, and disorganized  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Overview We've all seen posters filled with tiny print, blurry images, and disorganized text. Does anybody read them? A good poster is a well-positioned display of text and images that communicates just the highlights of your program to a mobile audience. The primary goal of a poster is to inform

Ma, Lena

48

We've all seen posters filled with tiny print, blurry images, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Overview We've all seen posters filled with tiny print, blurry images, and disorganized text. Does anybody read them? A good poster is a well-positioned display of text and images that communicates just the highlights of your program to a mobile audience. The primary goal of a poster is to inform, but it can also

49

TinyNode: a comprehensive platform for wireless sensor network applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We introduce the TinyNode platform for wireless sensor networks. Supporting both research and industrial deployments, the platform offers communication ranges that exceed current platforms by a factor of 3 to 5, while consuming similar energy. It comes ... Keywords: embedded systems, wireless sensor networks

Henri Dubois-Ferrière; Laurent Fabre; Roger Meier; Pierre Metrailler

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Mass dependency of turbulent parameters in stationary glow discharge plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A direct current glow discharge tube is used to determine how mass changes the effects of certain turbulence characteristics in a weakly ionized gas. Helium, neon, argon, and krypton plasmas were created, and an axial magnetic field, varied from 0.0 to 550.0 Gauss, was used to enhance mass dependent properties of turbulence. From the power spectra of light emission variations associated with velocity fluctuations, determination of mass dependency on turbulent characteristic unstable modes, energy associated with turbulence, and the rate at which energy is transferred from scale to scale are measured. The magnetic field strength is found to be too weak to overcome particle diffusion to the walls to affect the turbulence in all four types of plasmas, though mass dependency is still detected. Though the total energy and the rate at which the energy moves between scales are mass invariant, the amplitude of the instability modes that characterize each plasma are dependent on mass.

Titus, J. B.; Alexander, A. B. [Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States)] [Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Wiggins, D. L. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States); Johnson, J. A. III [Pyramid Plasmas LLC, Lawrenceville, Georgia 30043 (United States)] [Pyramid Plasmas LLC, Lawrenceville, Georgia 30043 (United States)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

51

Glow discharge deposition at high rates using disilane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research program reported makes use of the fact that amorphous silicon films can be grown faster from disilane in a glow discharge than from the traditional silane. The goal is to find a method to grow films at a high rate and with sufficiently high quality to be used in an efficient solar cell. It must also be demonstrated that the appropriate device structure can be successfully fabricated under conditions which give high deposition rates. High quality intrinsic films have been deposited at 20 A/s. Efficiency of 5.6% on steel substrates and 5.3% on glass substrates were achieved using disilane i-layers deposited at 15 A/s in a basic structure, without wide-gap doped layers or light trapping. Wide gap p-layers were deposited using disilane. Results were compared with those obtained at Vactronic using high power discharges of silane-hydrogen mixtures. (LEW)

Rajeswaran, G.; Corderman, R.R.; Kampas, F.J.; Vanier, P.E.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Glow discharge pretreatment tools for vacuum web coating  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the last few years plasma pre-treatment has been established as a powerful tool to increase the quality in vacuum web coating whereas, the effect of web pre-treatment under atmospheric conditions is declining due to several reasons, glow discharge assisted in line–in vacuo pre-treatment is much more reliable. Two tools for plasma pre-treatment are presented here. Both are easily scalable as to comply with the needs of large area web coating with a typical coating width of over 2 m, and they operate in a pressure range that is compatible with sputtering and evaporation processes taking place in the same vacuum system. The effect of the glow discharge on polymeric web depends on electron temperature (typically a few electron volts), electron density (ranging typically from 10?9 to 10?11 cm?3), ion energy, and chemical composition. The mentioned electron density range is indispensable to meet the demands of satisfactory production speeds, in particular with evaporation. By means of the so-called Treatmag®, an abnormal glow discharge enhanced by a closed loop tunnel shaped magnetic field is generated in the 10?2 mbar pressure range. This tool is widely used for the improvement of metallic coatings on polymeric web. The ion energies typically range well below 70 eV. Indeed, water vapor and oxygen permeation rates through OPP have been quartered respectively, third. The so-called RF hollow anode described herein next is comprising a capacitively coupled, asymmetric 13.56 \\{MHz\\} radio frequency glow discharge driven in a hollow life electrode, operated in the 10?2 mbar pressure range. The easily scaleable RF hollow anode is dedicated to the dynamic pre-treatment or coating of either dielectric or metal web (or rigid sheet), and can be used in conjunction either with sputtering or, at line speeds of typical 5–10 m/s, with evaporation processes. The RF hollow anode renders ion fluxes of up to 1 mA/cm2 at energies between 100 and several hundred electron volts. So far it complements the Treatmag®, which yields ions with considerably lower energies. The adhesion improvement by the RF hollow anode we attribute to a pronounced increase of the cross-link density (amorphization) in the near surface region of in-plane oriented polymeric web commonly used. Ex situ XPS spectra taken 3 days after venting from PET samples treated at high web speeds are given. It is mentioned that the industrial application of the RF hollow anode is based on the surface modification as yielded in-situ/in-vacuo almost immediately after treatment. In case the RF hollow anode is operated with hydrocarbon, silane or other gases, it can also be employed for thin base-coatings or top-coatings on web material.

M. Geisler; G. Hoffmann; R. Ludwig; G. Steiniger

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

A uniform glow discharge plasma source at atmospheric pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An atmospheric-pressure uniform continuous glowplasma was produced in ambient air assisted by argon feeding gas using a 13.56 MHz rf source. Based on the measured current–voltage curve and optical emission spectrum intensity the plasma showed typical glow discharge characteristics free from streamers and arc. The measured rotational and vibrational temperatures were in the range of 490 to 630 K and 2000 to 3300 K respectively within the operation range of argon flow rate and rf power. From the spatial measurement of total optical emission intensity and rotational and vibrational temperatures the plasma shows very high uniformity (over 93%) in the lengthwise direction. The plasma size for this study was 200 mm×50 mm×5 mm although a plasma was produced in the scaled-up version of 600 mm in length aiming for large-area plasma applications.

Se Youn Moon; W. Choe; B. K. Kang

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Intrinsic Noise Induced Coherence Resonance in a Glow discharge Plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental evidence of intrinsic noise induced coherence resonance in a glow discharge plasma is being reported. Initially the system is started at a discharge voltage (DV) where it exhibited fixed point dynamics, and then with the subsequent increase in the DV spikes were excited which were few in number and with further increase of DV the number of spikes as well as their regularity increased. The regularity in the interspike interval of the spikes is estimated using normalized variance (NV). Coherence resonance was determined using normalized variance curve and also corroborated by Hurst exponent and power spectrum plots. We show that the regularity of the excitable spikes in the floating potential fluctuation increases with the increase in the DV, upto a particular value of DV. Using a Wiener filter, we separated the noise component which was observed to increase with DV and hence conjectured that noise can be playing an important role in the generation of the coherence resonance. From an anharmonic osc...

Shaw, Pankaj Kumar; Ghosh, S; Janaki, M S; Iyengar, A N S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Characteristics of radio-frequency, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges with air using bare metal electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this letter, an induced gas discharge approach is proposed and described in detail for obtaining a uniform atmospheric-pressure glow discharge with air in a {gamma} mode using water-cooled, bare metal electrodes driven by radio-frequency (13.56 MHz) power supply. A preliminary study on the discharge characteristics of the air glow discharge is also presented in this study. With this induced gas discharge approach, radio-frequency, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges using bare metal electrodes with other gases which cannot be ignited directly as the plasma working gas, such as nitrogen, oxygen, etc., can also be obtained.

Wang Huabo; Sun Wenting; Li Heping; Bao Chengyu; Zhang Xiaozhang [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2006-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

56

Modes in a pulse-modulated radio-frequency dielectric-barrier glow discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This letter reports an experimental study of a pulse-modulated radio-frequency dielectric-barrier discharge in atmospheric helium. By controlling the duty cycle at a modulation frequency of 10 and 100 kHz, the 13.56 MHz discharge is shown to operate in three different glow modes: the continuum mode, the discrete mode, and the transition mode. By investigating plasma ignition, residual electrons during power off are found to affect different glow modes. Duty cycle dependences of power density, gas temperature, optical emission intensities at 706 and 777 nm are used to capture clearly the characteristics of the three glow modes.

Shi, J. J.; Zhang, J.; Qiu, G. [College of Science, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Walsh, J. L.; Kong, M. G. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

57

Modes in a pulse-modulated radio-frequency dielectric-barrier glow discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This letter reports an experimental study of a pulse-modulated radio-frequency dielectric-barrier discharge in atmospheric helium. By controlling the duty cycle at a modulation frequency of 10 and 100 kHz the 13.56 MHz discharge is shown to operate in three different glow modes: the continuum mode the discrete mode and the transition mode. By investigating plasma ignition residual electrons during power off are found to affect different glow modes. Duty cycle dependences of power density gas temperature optical emission intensities at 706 and 777 nm are used to capture clearly the characteristics of the three glow modes.

J. J. Shi; J. Zhang; G. Qiu; J. L. Walsh; M. G. Kong

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Microdischarge-assisted ignition of dielectric-barrier high-pressure glow discharges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the ignition of high-pressure arc lamps8 and volume dc discharges.6 Here, we employ a hybrid discharge source of uniform, nonequilibrium glow plasmas for a variety of applications at pressures of 100

Raja, Laxminarayan L.

59

Electrical Features of Radio-frequency, Atmospheric-pressure, Bare-metallic-electrode Glow Discharges  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Radio-frequency (RF), atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (APGD) plasmas with bare metallic electrodes have promising prospects in the fields of plasma-aided etching, deposition, disinfection and sterilization, ....

He-Ping Li; Wen-Ting Sun; Hua-Bo Wang; Guo Li…

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Antistatic effect of atmospheric pressure glow discharge cold plasma treatment on textile substrates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrophobic synthetic textile substrates, nylon and polyester fabrics, were continuously treated in an atmospheric-pressure-glow-discharge-cold-plasma reactor using He and air. The samples ... charge decay time. ...

Kartick Kumar Samanta; Manjeet Jassal; Ashwini K. Agrawal

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Dynamics of multiple double layers in high pressure glow discharge in a simple torus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Parametric characterization of multiple double layers is done during high pressure glow discharge in a toroidal vessel of small aspect ratio. Although glow discharge (without magnetic field) is known to be independent of device geometry, but the toroidal boundary conditions are conducive to plasma growth and eventually the plasma occupy the toroidal volume partially. At higher anode potential, the visibly glowing spots on the body of spatially extended anode transform into multiple intensely luminous spherical plasma blob structures attached to the tip of the positive electrode. Dynamics of multiple double layers are observed in argon glow discharge plasma in presence of toroidal magnetic field. The radial profiles of plasma parameters measured at various toroidal locations show signatures of double layer formation in our system. Parametric dependence of double layer dynamics in presence of toroidal magnetic field is presented here.

Kumar Paul, Manash, E-mail: manashkr@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Tripura–799 046 (India); Sharma, P. K.; Thakur, A.; Kulkarni, S. V.; Bora, D. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat–382 428 (India)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

62

N–O mix optimisation in low energy dense DC glow surface Ti conditioning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Samples of pure titanium have been treated by means a plasma immersed ion implantation (PIII) process in a DC glow discharge in pure oxygen and in different nitrogen-oxygen mixtures. In contrast with conventio...

E. E. Granda-Gutiérrez; R. López-Callejas…

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Printing Tiny Batteries | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Stories of Discovery & Innovation: "Printing" Stories of Discovery & Innovation: "Printing" Tiny Batteries? Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News Observing the Sparks of Life EFRC Events DOE Announcements Publications Contact BES Home 06.26.13 Stories of Discovery & Innovation: "Printing" Tiny Batteries? Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Researchers use sophisticated 3D printing techniques to create batteries the size of a grain of sand. This work, featured in the Office of Science's Stories of Discovery & Innovation, was supported in part by the Light-Materials Interactions for Energy Conversion (LMI), an EFRC led by Harry Atwater at the California Institute of Technology. Last modified: 6/26/2013 8:53:17

64

A MODULAR STEADY STATE GLOW DISCHARGE QUADRUPOLE MASS SPECTROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE AT-LINE ANALYSIS OF PLUTONIUM METAL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Historically, glow discharge mass and optical spectrometric techniques have been used in industry for the characterization of processed metals, such as steels and other alloys. This technique is especially well suited for this type of product analysis because the glow discharge ionization source accommodates solid conducting samples with minimal or no sample preparation. This characteristic along with minimal matrix effect considerations makes the glow discharge source well suited for these types of applications.

R. STEINER; D. WAYNE

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Tiny images  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The human visual system is remarkably tolerant to degradations in image resolution: in a scene recognition task, human performance is similar whether $32 \\times 32$ color images or multi-mega pixel images are used. With ...

Torralba, Antonio

2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

66

Tell Barack Obama the Truth The Whole Truth Embers of election night elation will glow longer than any prior election. Glowing even  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tell Barack Obama the Truth ­ The Whole Truth Embers of election night elation will glow longer consequences for all life on the planet. The President-elect himself needs to be well-informed about be two monstrous consequences of releasing the CO2 from all of the oil, gas and coal, consequences

Hansen, James E.

67

Ambient-atmosphere glow discharge for determination of elemental concentration in solutions in a high-throughput or transient fashion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ambient atmosphere glow discharge spectrometer is disclosed having a capillary, two electrodes and a means for recording the atomic emissions.

Webb, Michael R. (Somerville, MA); Hieftje, Gary M. (Bloomington, IN); Andrade, Francisco (Leeds, GB)

2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

68

A Study of Strain-Induced Phase Transformations in TiNi Alloy by Electric Resistance Method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is generally recognized that the shape memory effect (SME) is associated the interaction of stress with thermoelastic martensitic transformation [1]. The phase transformations in TiNi alloy was reported to occ...

Yuan-Ti Muang; Li-Lin Lu; Lai-Zhi Zou…

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

One-Dimensional Modeling on the Asymmetric Features of a Radio-Frequency Atmospheric Helium Glow Discharge Produced Using a Co-Axial-Type Plasma Generator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As one type of the atmospheric glow discharges, the radio-frequency atmospheric-pressure glow discharges produced using the water-cooled bare-metallic electrode, which are the...1–3...]. The capacitively-coupled ...

Zhi-Bin Wang; Pei-Si Le; Nan Ge; Qiu-Yue Nie…

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

To grate a liquid into tiny droplets by its impact on a hydrophobic micro-grid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on experiments of drop impacting a hydrophobic micro-grid, of typical spacing a few tens of $\\mu$m. Above a threshold in impact speed, liquid emerges to the other side, forming micro-droplets of size about that of the grid holes. We propose a method to produce either a mono-disperse spray or a single tiny droplet of volume as small as a few picoliters corresponding to a volume division of the liquid drop by a factor of up to 10$^5$. We also discuss the discrepancy of the measured thresholds with that predicted by a balance between inertia and capillarity.

Brunet, P; Zoueshtiagh, F; Thomy, V; Merlen, A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

A large gap of radio frequency dielectric barrier atmospheric pressure glow discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A large gap was acquired between electrodes (up to 5.5 mm) of Ar atmospheric pressure glow discharge in radio frequency dielectric barrier discharge (rf-DBD). The discharge of Ar plasma was characterized by I-V curve and Lissajous plot, and the effective power of the discharge was calculated based on the measured Lissajous plot and found to be higher than 90% of the input power. To gain a thorough understanding of the mechanism, the rf-DBD with a single dielectric barrier layer operating in gamma mode glow discharge of N{sub 2} plasma was diagnosed in spatial resolution through optical emission spectroscopy. It was concluded that secondary electron emission might be responsible for the sustainable glow discharge in the large gap rf-DBD plasma.

Li, B.; Chen, Q.; Liu, Z. W. [Laboratory of Plasma Physics and Materials, Beijing Institute of Graphic Communication, Beijing 102600 (China)

2010-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

72

Binary and ternary gas mixtures with temperature enhanced diffuse glow discharge characteristics for use in closing switches  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc. 11 figs.

Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

1988-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

73

Binary and ternary gas mixtures with temperature enhanced diffuse glow discharge characteristics for use in closing switches  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc. 11 figs.

Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

1990-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

74

Binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in glow discharge closing switches  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Highly efficient binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches are disclosed. The binary mixtures are combinations of helium or neon and selected perfluorides. The ternary mixtures are combinations of helium, neon, or argon, a selected perfluoride, and a small amount of gas that exhibits enhanced ionization characteristics. These mixtures are shown to be the optimum choices for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches by virtue if the combines physio-electric properties of the mixture components. 9 figs.

Hunter, S.R.; Christophorou, L.G.

1988-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

75

High explosives vapor detection by atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization/tandem mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The combination of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization with tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of traces of high explosives is described. Particular emphasis is placed on use of the quadrupole ion trap as the type of tandem mass spectrometer. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge provides a simple, rugged, and efficient means for anion formation while the quadrupole ion trap provides for efficient tandem mass spectrometry. Mass selective ion accumulation and non-specific ion activation methods can be used to overcome deleterious effects arising from ion/ion interactions. Such interactions constitute the major potential technical barrier to the use of the ion trap for real-time monitoring of targeted compounds in uncontrolled and highly variable matrices. Tailored waveforms can be used to effect both mass selective ion accumulation and ion activation. Concatenated tailored waveforms allow for both functions in a single experiment thereby providing the capability for monitoring several targeted species simultaneously. The combination of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization with a state-of-the-art analytical quadrupole ion trap is a highly sensitive and specific detector for traces of high explosives. The combination is also small and inexpensive relative to virtually any other form of tandem mass spectrometry. The science and technology underlying the glow discharge/ion trap combination is sufficiently mature to form the basis for an engineering effort to make the detector portable. 85 refs.

McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Asano, K.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Div.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Bored By Non-Glowing Skin? Ultra-Flexible, Waterproof LED Implants Are What You Seek  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bored By Non-Glowing Skin? Ultra-Flexible, Waterproof LED Implants Are What You Seek By Alasdair Wilkins/io9 Posted 10.19.2010 at 12:15 pm LED Lights Could Be Implanted Under Skin Photo courtesy of iO9 LEDs are, on small scales, the cheapest, most reliable, and most technologically powerful light sources

Rogers, John A.

77

Study of the glow curves of TLD exposed to thermal neutrons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......to define the reliability of the TLDs...preliminary comparative analysis of the glow curve...utilising the TAPIRO reactor, at the ENEA...TAPIRO nuclear reactor. In this case...calculation, the analysis of the experimental...to define the reliability of the TLDs...Equipment Failure Analysis Hot Temperature......

A. Triolo; M. Brai; M. Marrale; G. Gennaro; A. Bartolotta

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

DOE Joint Genome Institute: Genes from Tiny Algae Shed Light on Big Role  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

April 9, 2009 April 9, 2009 Genes from Tiny Algae Shed Light on Big Role Managing Carbon in World's Oceans & Coping with Environmental Change WALNUT CREEK, CA-Scientists from two-dozen research organizations led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Genome Institute (JGI) and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) have decoded genomes of two algal strains, highlighting the genes enabling them to capture carbon and maintain its delicate balance in the oceans. These findings, from a team led by Alexandra Z. Worden of MBARI and published in the April 10 edition of the journal Science, will illuminate cellular processes related to algae-derived biofuels being pursued by DOE scientists. The study sampled two geographically diverse isolates of the photosynthetic

79

Atmospheric Pressure RF (13.56 MHz) Glow Discharge: Characterization and Application to “In Line” Waste Water Treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work the results obtained from the experimental study of an Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge (APGD) appear, generated in Helium (He) and dry air mixture by using a radio frequency (RF 13.56 MHz) pow...

Jaime B. Castro; Marlon H. Guerra-Mutis…

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

CF4 Glow Discharge Modification of CH4 Plasma Polymer Layers Deposited onto Asymmetric Polysulfone Gas Separation Membranes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Post CF4 glow discharge modification of methane plasma polymer layers deposited onto asymmetric polysulfone membranes has been investigated by XPS, FTIR, AFM, and gas permeability measurements. Oxygen and nitrogen gas permeability and permselectivity ...

J. Hopkins; J. P. S. Badyal

1996-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

The effect of humid and dusty atmosphere on shock wave destruction in a glow-discharge plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of air humidity and the dust present in air and nitrogen on the structure of a pressure momentum distribution behind a shock wave propagating across the positive column of glow discharge in these...

A. S. Baryshnikov; I. V. Basargin; M. V. Chistyakova

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Initiation of a low-pressure glow discharge in a plasma electron source with a ribbon beam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Results are presented from an experimental investigation of a low-pressure glow discharge with a wedge-shaped hollow cathode in a plasma electron source, where this discharge is initiated by reflex...

V. Ya. Martens

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Synthesis of AuPd alloyed nanoparticles via room-temperature electron reduction with argon glow discharge as electron source  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Argon glow discharge has been employed as a cheap, environmentally friendly, and convenient electron source for simultaneous reduction of HAuCl4 and PdCl2...on the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) substrate. The therm...

Manman Yang; Zongyuan Wang; Wei Wang; Chang-jun Liu

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Discharge characteristics of atmospheric-pressure radio-frequency glow discharges with argon/nitrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this letter, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges in {gamma} mode with argon/nitrogen as the plasma-forming gas using water-cooled, bare copper electrodes driven by radio-frequency power supply at 13.56 MHz are achieved. The preliminary studies on the discharge characteristics show that, induced by the {alpha}-{gamma} coexisting mode or {gamma} mode discharge of argon, argon-nitrogen mixture with any mixing ratios, even pure nitrogen, can be employed to generate the stable {gamma} mode radio-frequency, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges and the discharge voltage rises with increasing the fraction of nitrogen in the argon-nitrogen mixture for a constant total gas flow rate.

Wang Huabo; Sun Wenting; Li Heping; Bao Chengyu; Gao Xing; Luo Huiying [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100069 (China); Beijing Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, Beijing 100013 (China)

2006-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

85

Estimation of electron temperature in transient glow discharge using ionization wave  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Through ionization waves (striation), the transition of glow discharge to arc discharge was observed and relevant electron temperatures were determined experimentally. The velocity of ionization waves in a cathode flare increased from twofold to threefold that in an anode flare. It was assumed that the electron temperature of an anode flare was 4.0-fold to 8.4-fold higher than that in a dark space, and the typical electron temperatures in a dark space and an anode flare were 1.8x10{sup 3} and 1.0x10{sup 4} K, respectively. The electron temperature of the anode flare agreed well with the theoretical value of a positive column in steady glow discharge.0.

Hoshi, Y.; Yokota, A.; Yoshida, H.; Akedo, J. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, AIST Tsukuba East, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564 (Japan)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Transition from Townsend to glow discharge: Subcritical, mixed, or supercritical characteristics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The transition from Townsend to glow discharge is investigated numerically in one space dimension in full parameter space within the classical model: with electrons and positive ions drifting in the local electric field, impact ionization by electrons (? process), secondary electron emission from the cathode (? process) and space charge effects. We also perform a systematic analytical small current expansion about the Townsend limit up to third order in the current that fits our numerical data very well. Depending on the two determining parameters ? and system size pd, the transition from Townsend to glow discharge can show the textbook subcritical behavior, but for smaller values of pd, we also find supercritical or some unexpected intermediate “mixed” behavior. Our work shows the same qualitative dependence of U=U(I,pd) for fixed ? as the old experiments by Pokrovskaya-Soboleva and Klyarfeld. Furthermore, the analysis lays the basis for understanding the complex spatiotemporal patterns in short planar barrier discharge systems.

Danijela D. Šija?i? and Ute Ebert

2002-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

87

COATING AND MANDREL EFFECTS ON FABRICATION OF GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER NIF SCALE INDIRECT DRIVE CAPSULES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

OAK A271 COATING AND MANDREL EFFECTS ON FABRICATION OF GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER NIF SCALE INDIRECT DRIVE CAPSULES. Targets for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) need to be about 200 {micro}m thick and 2 mm in diameter. These dimensions are well beyond those currently fabricated on a routine basis. They have investigated fabrication of near NIF scale targets using the depolymerizable mandrel technique. Poly-alpha-methylstyrene (PAMS) mandrels, about 2 mm in diameter, of varying qualities were coated with as much as 125 {micro}m of glow discharge polymer (GDP). The surface finish of the final shells was examined using a variety of techniques. A clear dependence of the modal spectrum of final GDP shell on the quality of the initial PAMS mandrels was observed. isolated features were found to be the greatest cause for a shell not meeting the NIF standard.

NIKROO,A; PONTELANDOLFO,JM; CASTILLO,ER

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Ozone production by nanoporous dielectric barrier glow discharge in atmospheric pressure air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study is aimed at demonstrating plasma-chemical ozone production based on low temperature atmospheric pressure glow discharge through nanoporous dielectric barriers. The 20 kHz ac driven discharge is formed in air or oxygen gas flowing in the axial direction of the cylindrical plasma reactor containing four parallel aluminum rods covered with nanoporous alumina films. The discharge utilizing nanoporous dielectric barrier is more uniform and more energy efficient in ozone generation than the discharge through smooth-surface dielectric barriers.

Cho, J. H.; Koo, I. G.; Choi, M. Y.; Lee, W. M. [Department of Chemistry and Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2008-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

89

Mechanism behind self-sustained oscillations in direct current glow discharges and dusty plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An alternative explanation to the mechanism behind self-sustained oscillations of ions in direct current (DC) glow discharges is provided. Such description is distinguished from the one provided by the fluid models, where oscillations are attributed to the positive feedback mechanism associated with photoionization of particles and photoemission of electrons from the cathode. Here, oscillations arise as consequence of interaction between an ion and the surface charges induced by it at the bounding electrodes. Such mechanism provides an elegant explanation to why self-sustained oscillations occur only in the negative resistance region of the voltage-current characteristic curve in the DC glow discharges. Furthermore, this alternative description provides an elegant explanation to the formation of plasma fireballs in the laboratory plasma. It has been found that oscillation frequencies increase with ion's surface charge density, but at the rate which is significantly slower than it does with the electric field. The presented mechanism also describes self-sustained oscillations of ions in dusty plasmas, which demonstrates that self-sustained oscillations in dusty plasmas and DC glow discharges involve common physical processes.

Cho, Sung Nae [Devices R and D Center, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Mt. 14-1 Nongseo-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-712 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

90

Theory and Experiments Relating to the Striated Glow Discharge in Mercury Vapor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Theory of the glow discharge in a monatomic gas.—For the case of parallel plane electrodes with a hot cathode as source of electrons, the potential distribution and ion concentration in the Crookes dark space, negative glow, Faraday dark space and positive column are shown to be predictable from considerations of space charge and of ionization and excitation of the gas. While with weak currents there is a negative space charge throughout, sufficiently intense ionization is shown to lead to a cathode drop, followed by a region of reversed electric field in which positive ions and electrons both move toward the anode by diffusion, owing to their large concentration gradient. Still farther from the cathode the field changes to its normal direction and increases up to the positive column. In the positive column the field and concentration are uniform unless atoms excited by electron impacts in certain layers are prevented from diffusing between the layers, when striations may be obtained with periodic changes of field and of concentration. The cathode edge of each striation has a positive space charge. The theory of the arc discharge is essentially the same, the arc being simply the negative glow of the longer glow discharge.Glow discharge in mercury vapor.—Various predictions of the above theory were verified by experiments with Hg vapor in vacuum tubes provided with hot cathodes. (1) Potential distribution and ion concentration were investigated by Langmuir's modified probe method and found to agree with the theoretical deductions, except that the concentration of positive ions in the positive column comes out too large. This result indicates the presence of negative mercury ions. (2) The distribution of velocities of electrons is Maxwellian except between striations. (3) The emission of light seems associated more with excitation by electron collision than with ionization and recombination. (4) Conditions for existence of striations. Striations are not found in pure Hg vapor unless the current is small or some substance like H2 is introduced to remove excited atoms. (5) The presence of atomic hydrogen which should be produced in the process of removing excited Hg atoms was proved by use of tungsten oxide. (6) Introduction of He, which cannot remove excited atoms, does not tend to produce striations. (7) The relative concentrations of excited atoms was determined from the optical absorption of subordinate series Hg lines. It was found that excited atoms exist in striations but not in the regions between, and are more numerous if the amount of H2 impurity is reduced.Band spectrum of HgH seems associated with the action of excited Hg atoms on hydrogen, and is emitted as a result of inelastic collisions in striations.

K. T. Compton; Louis A. Turner; W. H. McCurdy

1924-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

To grate a liquid into tiny droplets by its impact on a hydrophobic micro-grid F. Lapierre, F. Zoueshtiagh, V. Thomy, and A. Merlen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To grate a liquid into tiny droplets by its impact on a hydrophobic micro-grid P. Brunet, F (Dated: November 30, 2009) We report on experiments of drop impacting a hydrophobic micro-grid

Brunet, Philippe

92

Folic Acid-Conjugated MnO Nanoparticles as a T1 Contrast Agent for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Tiny Brain Gliomas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Folic Acid-Conjugated MnO Nanoparticles as a T1 Contrast Agent for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Tiny Brain Gliomas ... Detection of brain gliomas at the earliest stage is of great importance to improve the outcomes but remains the most challenging task. ... Accordingly, the in vivo MR images demonstrated that MnO-TETT-FA NPs could efficiently enhance the MRI contrast for tiny brain gliomas. ...

Ning Chen; Chen Shao; Yanming Qu; Shuai Li; Wei Gu; Tingting Zheng; Ling Ye; Chunjiang Yu

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

93

Atmospheric glow discharges from the high-frequency to very high-frequency bands  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This letter reports an experimental investigation of an atmospheric glow discharge in both the high-frequency (HF) band of 3–30 MHz and the very high frequency band of 30–300 MHz. At constant input power increased frequency is found to change little the electron density and to reduce slightly the electron excitation temperature. Significantly an eightfold frequency increase from 20 to 80 MHz leads to a 20-fold increase in the maximum plasma power without plasma constriction. The maximum power density of 355 ? W / cm 3 achieved at 80 MHz is far greater than those reported in the HF band.

J. L. Walsh; F. Iza; M. G. Kong

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Nonlocal control of electron temperature in short direct current glow discharge plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To demonstrate controlling the electron temperature in nonlocal plasma, experiments have been performed on a short (without positive column) dc glow discharge with a cold cathode by applying different voltages to the conducting discharge wall. The experiments have been performed for low-pressure noble gas discharges. The applied voltage can modify trapping the energetic electrons emitted from the cathode sheath and arising from the atomic and molecular processes in the plasma within the device volume. This phenomenon results in the energetic electrons heating the slow plasma electrons, which consequently modifies the electron temperature. Furthermore, a numerical model of the discharge has demonstrated the electron temperature modification for the above case.

Demidov, V. I. [Department of Optics and Spectroscopy, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); International Laboratory “Nonlocal Plasma in Nanotechnology and Medicine”, ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Stepanova, O. M. [Department of Optics and Spectroscopy, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Kurlyandskaya, I. P. [International Laboratory “Nonlocal Plasma in Nanotechnology and Medicine”, ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg University of State Fire Service of EMERCOM RF, Murmansk Branch, Murmansk 183040 (Russian Federation)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

95

Submicrosecond pulsed atmospheric glow discharges sustained without dielectric barriers at kilohertz frequencies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this letter, the authors report the experimental observation of a large-volume atmospheric glow discharge sustained without dielectric barriers at 1 kHz. This barrier-free mode of operation is made possible with a submicrosecond pulsed excitation instead of the usual sinusoidal excitation. Its current-voltage characteristics are shown to be very different from conventional atmospheric dielectric barrier discharges, and its generation mechanism is studied with nanosecond resolved optical emission spectroscopy. The pulsed barrier-free atmospheric plasma is shown to produce very intense atomic oxygen emission line at 777 nm, up to one magnitude more intensive than that of a comparable atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge.

Walsh, J. L.; Shi, J. J.; Kong, M. G. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

2006-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

96

Atmospheric glow discharges from the high-frequency to very high-frequency bands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This letter reports an experimental investigation of an atmospheric glow discharge in both the high-frequency (HF) band of 3-30 MHz and the very high frequency band of 30-300 MHz. At constant input power, increased frequency is found to change little the electron density and to reduce slightly the electron excitation temperature. Significantly, an eightfold frequency increase from 20 to 80 MHz leads to a 20-fold increase in the maximum plasma power without plasma constriction. The maximum power density of 355 W/cm{sup 3} achieved at 80 MHz is far greater than those reported in the HF band.

Walsh, J. L.; Iza, F.; Kong, M. G. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

97

Period doubling cascade in glow discharges: Local versus global differential conductivity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Short planar glow discharges coupled to a resistive layer exhibit a wealth of spontaneous spatiotemporal patterns. Due to similarities with other pattern forming systems that are described by reaction-diffusion models, several authors have tried to derive such models from discharge physics. We investigate the temporal oscillations of the discharge system and find a cascade of period doubling events. This shows that the inner structure of the discharge is more complex than can be described by a two-component reaction-diffusion-model with negative differential conductivity. We also derive an alternative reduced model.

Danijela D. Šija?i?, Ute Ebert, and Ismail Rafatov

2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

98

Low-temperature deposited Cu electrode on chip inductors by abnormal glow discharge plasma with arc source  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new preparation method of Cu electrodes of chip inductors by an abnormal glow discharge technique with arc source at low temperature is presented. SEM observed the microstructure of the Cu electrode joints and EDX detected the interfacial diffusion between the electrodes and the ceramic matrix. The results show that the new technique can effectively suppress interfacial diffusion and Cu oxidation whereas reserve good adhesion in the electrode layer due to low deposition temperature, which can be achieved by suitable control of glow discharge voltage. Consequently, the compromise magnetic properties of the samples can be obtained.

Yaowen Wang; Hongguo Zhang; Qiang Chen; Junde Pan; Longtu Li

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Radio-frequency powered glow discharge device and method with high voltage interface  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high voltage accelerating potential, which is supplied by a high voltage direct current power supply, is applied to the electrically conducting interior wall of an RF powered glow discharge cell. The RF power supply desirably is electrically grounded, and the conductor carrying the RF power to the sample held by the probe is desirably shielded completely excepting only the conductor's terminal point of contact with the sample. The high voltage DC accelerating potential is not supplied to the sample. A high voltage capacitance is electrically connected in series between the sample on the one hand and the RF power supply and an impedance matching network on the other hand. The high voltage capacitance isolates the high DC voltage from the RF electronics, while the RF potential is passed across the high voltage capacitance to the plasma. An inductor protects at least the RF power supply, and desirably the impedance matching network as well, from a short that might occur across the high voltage capacitance. The discharge cell and the probe which holds the sample are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components, which are maintained at ground potential, from bridging between the relatively low vacuum region in communication with the glow discharge maintained within the cell on the one hand, and the relatively high vacuum region surrounding the probe and cell on the other hand. The probe and cell also are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components from electrically shorting the cell's components. 11 figures.

Duckworth, D.C.; Marcus, R.K.; Donohue, D.L.; Lewis, T.A.

1994-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

100

Charging of dust grains in a nonequilibrium plasma of a stratified glow discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A theoretical model is presented that describes the charging of dust grains in the positive plasma column of a stratified glow dc discharge in argon. A one-dimensional self-consistent model is used to obtain axial profiles of the electric field, as well as the electron energy distribution function along the axis of the discharge tube. Radial profiles of the electric field are determined in the ambipolar diffusion approximation. It is assumed that, in the radial direction, the electron distribution function depends only on the total electron energy. Two-dimensional distributions of the discharge plasma parameters are calculated and used to determine the potential and charge of a test dust grain at a certain point within the discharge and the electrostatic forces acting on it. It is shown that the grain charge distribution depends strongly on the nonequilibrium electron distribution function and on the nonuniform distribution of the electric field in a stratified glow discharge. A discussion is presented on the suspension of dust grains, the separation of grains by size in the discharge striations, and a possible mechanism for the onset of vortex dust motion at the edge of a dust cloud.

Sukhinin, G. I.; Fedoseev, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Cosmic Glows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This is the obligatory Cosmic Microwave Background review. I discuss the current status of CMB anisotropies, together with some points on the related topic of the Far-Infrared Background. We have already learned a number of important things from CMB anisotropies. Models which are in good shape have: approximately flat geometry; cold dark-matter, plus something like a cosmological constant; roughly scale invariant adiabatic fluctuations; and close to Gaussian statistics. The constraints from the CMB are beginning to be comparable to those from other cosmological measurements. With a wealth of new data coming in, it is expected that CMB anisotropies will soon provide the most stringent limits on fundamental cosmological parameters, as well as probing high energy particle physics and the Dark Ages of astrophysics. Nudge, nudge. Wink, wink. Say no more.

Douglas Scott

1999-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

102

On the ability of various circular inspiral templates to capture inspiral gravitational waves from compact binaries having tiny orbital eccentricities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We probe the ability of various types of post-Newtonian(PN)-accurate circular templates to capture inspiral gravitational-wave (GW) signals from compact binaries having tiny orbital eccentricities. The GW signals are constructed by adapting the phasing formalism, available in T. Damour, A. Gopakumar, and B. R. Iyer, [Phys. Rev. D 70, 064028 (2004)], employing the orbital energy and the time-eccentricity to describe the orbital evolution. Using the fitting factor estimates, relevant for the initial LIGO, we show that circular templates, based on the adiabatic TaylorT1, complete adiabatic TaylorT1 and TaylorT4 approximants are unable to capture our GW signals from compact binaries having tiny residual orbital eccentricities. However, the 2PN-order circular inspiral templates based on the recently introduced TaylorEt approximant are found to be both effectual and faithful in capturing GWs from inspiralling compact binaries having moderate eccentricities and we provide physical explanations for our observations.

Manuel Tessmer; Achamveedu Gopakumar

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

103

Photo of the Week: How to Grow Superconducting Crystals | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

How to Grow Superconducting Crystals How to Grow Superconducting Crystals Photo of the Week: How to Grow Superconducting Crystals September 13, 2013 - 11:29am Addthis Many of the materials that scientists work with at Brookhaven National Laboratory are too small and too precise for traditional tools. In cases like these, the labs grow materials instead of building them. Brookhaven physicist Genda Gu pioneered techniques that grow some of the largest single-crystal high-temperature superconductors in the world. The glowing chamber in this photo grows superconducting crystals. To do so, the furnace focuses infrared light onto a rod, melting it around 4,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Under just the right conditions, the liquefied material recrystallizes as a single uniform structure, which is highly sensitive and takes about one month to form. | Photo courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory.

104

High deposition rate preparation of amorphous silicon solar cells by rf glow discharge decomposition of disilane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The optical and electrical properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films produced by rf glow discharge decomposition of disilane diluted in helium (Si/sub 2/H/sub 6//He = 1/9) have been studied while systematically varying the film deposition rate. The properties and composition of the films were monitored by measuring the optical band gap, IR vibrational spectrum, dark conductivity, and the photoconductivity as a function of the deposition rate. The photoluminescence of the high deposition rate films gave a peak at 1.33 eV. These films, whose properties are rather similar to those of the conventional a-Si:H films prepared from monosilane, have been used to fabricate nip-type a-Si:H solar cells. At a deposition rate of 11 A/sec, a conversion efficiency of 6.86% was obtained. This high efficiency shows that disilane is applicable for mass production fabrication of a-Si:H solar cells.

Kenne, J.; Ohashi, Y.; Matsushita, T.; Konagai, M.; Takahashi, K.

1984-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

105

The recovery of glow-plasma structure in atmospheric radio frequency microplasmas at very small gaps  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In atmospheric radio frequency discharges at 13.56 MHz with the electrode gap reduced the sheath region eventually occupies a main portion of the electrode spacing and the bulk plasma region is significantly compressed. The computational results in this letter based on a one-dimensional fluid model show that by increasing the excitation frequency over 13.56 MHz the traditional glow-plasma structure could gradually recover even at very small sizes with a well defined quasineutral plasma region and the electron density is improved but the electric fields in sheath region are reduced. This study indicates that the excitation frequency can be used to modulate the discharge structure and then tailor the plasma-surface interaction in atmospheric microplasmas.

Yuan-Tao Zhang; Wan-Li Shang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

The recovery of glow-plasma structure in atmospheric radio frequency microplasmas at very small gaps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In atmospheric radio frequency discharges at 13.56 MHz, with the electrode gap reduced, the sheath region eventually occupies a main portion of the electrode spacing and the bulk plasma region is significantly compressed. The computational results in this letter based on a one-dimensional fluid model show that by increasing the excitation frequency over 13.56 MHz, the traditional glow-plasma structure could gradually recover even at very small sizes with a well defined quasineutral plasma region, and the electron density is improved but the electric fields in sheath region are reduced. This study indicates that the excitation frequency can be used to modulate the discharge structure and then tailor the plasma-surface interaction in atmospheric microplasmas.

Zhang Yuantao [Shandong Provincial Key Lab of UHV Technology and Gas Discharge Physics, School of Electrical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, Shandong Province (China); Shang Wanli [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, Sichuan Province (China)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

Discharge ignition characteristics of pulsed radio-frequency glow discharges in atmospheric helium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental study of radio-frequency (15 MHz) glow discharges in atmospheric helium modulated by pulses with repetition frequency of 500 kHz and duty cycle of 6% and 8% is presented in this paper. In each discharge burst the discharge is restricted to operate in ignition phase with duration of one or two radio-frequency cycles. The ignition characteristics in terms of spatial-temporal evolution of discharge interelectrode structure and optical emission intensity are investigated by time resolved imaging. Optical emission intensities at lines of 706 and 777 nm are used to capture clearly the temporal evolution of energetic electrons and active specie of atom oxygen generated in discharge.

Jianjun Shi; Yeqing Cai; Jie Zhang; Ke Ding; Jing Zhang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Discharge ignition characteristics of pulsed radio-frequency glow discharges in atmospheric helium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study of radio-frequency (15 MHz) glow discharges in atmospheric helium modulated by pulses with repetition frequency of 500 kHz and duty cycle of 6% and 8% is presented in this paper. In each discharge burst, the discharge is restricted to operate in ignition phase with duration of one or two radio-frequency cycles. The ignition characteristics in terms of spatial-temporal evolution of discharge interelectrode structure and optical emission intensity are investigated by time resolved imaging. Optical emission intensities at lines of 706 and 777 nm are used to capture clearly the temporal evolution of energetic electrons and active specie of atom oxygen generated in discharge.

Shi Jianjun; Cai Yeqing; Zhang Jie; Ding Ke; Zhang Jing [State Key Lab for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Material Science and Engineering, and College of Science, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

109

Design and construction of uniform glow discharge plasma system operating under atmospheric condition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design of a uniform glow discharge plasma system operating without vacuum is presented. A full-bridge switching circuit was used to switch the transformers. The primary windings of transformers were connected in parallel, but in opposite phase to double the output voltage. Theoretically, 20 000 V{sub pp} was obtained. Rectangle copper electrodes were used, and placed parallel to each other. To prevent the spark production that is, to obtain uniformity, two 2 mm Teflon sheets were glued to the electrodes. However, it was observed that the operating frequency also affected the uniformity. For the system presented here, the frequency at which more uniformity was obtained was found to be 14 kHz.

Kocum, C.; Ayhan, H. [Biomedical Engineering Department, Baskent University, Ankara 06530 (Turkey); Chemistry Department, Biochemistry Division, Mugla University, Faculty of Science, Koetekli, 48170 Mugla (Turkey)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

Dependence of the transition from Townsend to glow discharge on secondary emission  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In a recent paper, Šija?i? and Ebert [Phys. Rev. E. 66, 006410 (2002)] systematically studied the transition from Townsend to glow discharge, referring to older work by von Engel and M. Steenbeck [Elektrische Gasentladungen. Ihre Physik und Technik (Springer, Berlin 1934), Vol. II] up to Raizer [Gas Discharge Physics (Springer, Berlin, 1991)]. Šija?i? and Ebert stated that this transition strongly depends on secondary emission ? from the cathode. We show here that the earlier results of von Engel and Raizer on the small current expansion about the Townsend limit actually are the limit of small ? of the Šija?i? and Ebert expression, and that for larger ? the old and the Šija?i? and Ebert new results vary by no more than a factor of 2. We discuss the ? dependence of the transition, which is rather strong for short gaps.

Yu. P. Raizer, Ute Ebert, and D. D. Šija?i?

2004-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

111

PROGRESS IN 2 mm GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER MANDREL DEVELOPMENT FOR NIF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

OAK-B135 All planned National Ignition Facility (NIF) capsule targets except machined beryllium require a glow discharge polymer (GDP) mandrel upon which the albator is applied. This mandrel, {approx} 2 mm in diameter, must at least meet if not exceed the symmetry and surface finish requirements of the final capsule. Such mandrels are currently produced by the three-step depolymerizable mandrel technique. The quality of the final mandrel depends upon precise optimization and execution of each of the three steps. They had shown previously that fabrication of a mandrel which met the symmetry and surface finish requirements was feasible using this technique. In this paper they will discuss recent progress towards converting this process into a high yield, production scale process.

NIKROO,A; BOUSQUET,J; COOK,R; McQUILLAN,B.W; PAGUIO,R; TAKAGI,M

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

A high-stability scanning tunneling microscope achieved by an isolated tiny scanner with low voltage imaging capability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a novel homebuilt scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with high quality atomic resolution. It is equipped with a small but powerful GeckoDrive piezoelectric motor which drives a miniature and detachable scanning part to implement coarse approach. The scanning part is a tiny piezoelectric tube scanner (industry type: PZT-8, whose d{sub 31} coefficient is one of the lowest) housed in a slightly bigger polished sapphire tube, which is riding on and spring clamped against the knife edges of a tungsten slot. The STM so constructed shows low back-lashing and drifting and high repeatability and immunity to external vibrations. These are confirmed by its low imaging voltages, low distortions in the spiral scanned images, and high atomic resolution quality even when the STM is placed on the ground of the fifth floor without any external or internal vibration isolation devices.

Wang, Qi; Wang, Junting; Lu, Qingyou, E-mail: qxl@ustc.edu.cn [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China) [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hou, Yubin [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)] [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

113

The effect of plasma polymer coating using atmospheric-pressure glow discharge on the shear bond strength of composite resin to ceramic  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

If plasma technology can come out of the vacuum chamber and plasma can be extruded through a small pencil- ... we designed a small pencil-type non-thermal atmospheric-pressure glow discharge plasma torch. The pur...

Byeong-Hoon Cho; Geum-Jun Han; Kyu-Hwan Oh; Sung-No Chung…

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Red tide is an example of a Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB), which results from higher than normal growth of a tiny single-celled  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red tide is an example of a Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB), which results from higher than normal growth of a tiny single-celled dinoflagellate algae. Worldwide there are several algal species that can cause red, yellow, brown, and even green tide events. The species typically responsible for red tide blooms off

Watson, Craig A.

115

Gas-phase free radical reactions in the glow-discharge deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon from silane and disilane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An analysis of a measurement by Matsuda and co-workers of the lifetimes of the free radicals involved in the glow-discharge deposition of amorphous hydrogenated silicon from silane and disilane at 20-mTorr pressure is consistent with the hypothesis that SiH or SiH/sub 2/, but not SiH/sub 3/, is the dominant radical in the deposition from silane at that pressure.

Kampas, F.J.

1985-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

116

Free-radical reactions in glow and explosion of carbon monoxide-oxygen mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Examination of published compilations of rate coefficients of free-radical reactions yields reactions that are associated with chain branching in mixtures of CO and O/sub 2/ and small quantities of hydrogen or water vapor. The complete mechanism included diffusion of HO/sub 2/ radicals to the vessel wall and their adsorption and reaction at the surface. This mechanism is applied to the data of E.J. Buckler and R.G.W. Norrish on the branched-chain explosion of CO-O/sub 2/ mixtures containing H/sub 2/ in the order of 1 mm Hg. Substantial agreement is found between theory and experiment. Further, the mechanism is applied to experiments of Bond, Gray, and Griffiths with an H/sub 2/ content of 0.01-0.05 mm Hg. By specifying details of the adsorption and surface reaction of HO/sub 2/ on the basis of Langmuir's adsorption the phenomenon of flow is explained and the regions of slow reaction, glow, and explosion are described in accord with the experimental data. It is confirmed that the reaction between CO and O/sub 2/ requires the presence of a hydrogenous compound such as H/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O, CH/sub 4/, etc., and that ''dry'' homogenous reaction is not possible except at very high temperatures.

Von Elbe, G.; Lewis, B.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Array of surface-confined glow discharges in atmospheric pressure helium: Modes and dynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Array of atmospheric pressure surface discharges confined by a two-dimensional hexagon electrode mesh is studied for its discharge modes and temporal evolution so as to a theoretical underpinning to their growing applications in medicine aerodynamic control and environmental remediation. Helium plasma surface-confined by one hexagon-shaped rim electrode is shown to evolve from a Townsend mode to a normal and abnormal glow mode and its evolution develops from the rim electrodes as six individual microdischarges merging in the middle of the hexagon mesh element. Within one hexagon element microdischarges remain largely static with the mesh electrode being the instantaneous cathode but move towards the hexagon center when the electrode is the instantaneous anode. On the entire array electrode surface plasma ignition is found to beat an unspecific hexagon element and then spreads to ignite surrounding hexagon elements. The spreading of microdischarges is in the form of an expanding circle at a speed of about 3?×?104 m/s and their quenching starts in the location of the initial plasma ignition. Plasma modes influence how input electrical power is used to generate and accelerate electrons and as such the reaction chemistry whereas plasma dynamics are central to understand and control plasma instabilities. The present study provides an important aspect of plasma physics of the atmospheric surface-confined discharge array and a theoretical underpinning to its future technological innovation.

M. G. Kong

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Single-crystal neutron diffraction studies on Ni-based metal-pnictide superconductor BaNi2As2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the results of single-crystal neutron diffraction studies of the superconductor BaNi{sub 2}As{sub 2}. The experiments were performed on a tiny crystal of mass 0.8 mg at several temperatures between 20 and 200 K using the Single Crystal Diffractometer, SCD, at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. Above 130 K, BaNi{sub 2}As{sub 2} crystallizes in the tetragonal ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} structure. Our neutron diffraction data corroborate a first-order structural transition around 130 K with a relatively large hysteresis of about 10K, in agreement with observations from bulk studies. The anisotropic thermal displacement coefficients are enhanced along c-axis approaching the transition, and a splitting is observed for in-plane type reflections below the transition, which is evidence for a change in crystal structure.

Kothapalli, Karunakar [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ronning, F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bauer, E D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schultz, A J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nakotte, Heinz [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

High performance hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells made at a high deposition rate by glow discharge of disilane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The deposition rate, electronic and optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films prepared from rf glow discharge decomposition of disilane (Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/) diluted in helium have been measured. These films show excellent electrical and optical properties and, most importantly, a high deposition rate coupled with satisfactory solar cell application was realized for the first time. At a deposition rate of 11 A/s, 5.47% and 6.5% conversion efficiencies were obtained with a first trial of n-i-p type solar cells deposited on SnO/sub 2//ITO glass and metal substrates, respectively.

Ohashi, Y.; Kenne, J.; Konagai, M.; Takahashi, K.

1983-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

120

Disilane versus monosilane: a comparison of the properties of glow-discharge a-Si:H films and solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The consequences of using disilane instead of silane for the glow-discharge deposition of a-Si:H solar cells have been studied. Deposition rates were increased fivefold by the use of disilane. The a-Si:H films have a higher hydrogen content, but otherwise are quite similar to silane produced films and possess the same type of gap states. Chlorosilanes, HCl, and oxysilanes were detected in the disilane by mass spectrometry and their influence on film and solar cell properties assessed. The problem of inadvertent dopant tails resulting from the higher deposition rate of the solar cells is identified.

Delahoy, A.E.; Kampas, F.J.; Corderman, R.R.; Vanier, P.E.; Griffith, R.W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Disilane versus monosilane: a comparison of the properties of glow-discharge a-Si:H Films and solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The consequences of using disilane instead of silane for the glow-discharge deposition of a-Si:H solar cells have been studied. Deposition rates were increased fivefold by the use of disilane. The a-Si:H films have a higher hydrogen content, but otherwise are quite similar to silane produced films and possess the same type of gap states. Chlorosilanes, HCl, and oxysilanes were detected in the disilane by mass spectrometry and their influence on film and solar cell properties assessed. The problem of inadvertent dopant tails resulting from the higher deposition rate of the solar cells is identified.

Delahoy, A.E.; Corderman, R.R.; Griffith, R.W.; Kampas, F.J.; Vanier, P.E.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Reactions of tungsten-titanium alloys with decomposition products from a glow UHF discharge in a tetrafluoromethane-oxygen mixture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Decomposition products from tetrafluoromethane mixed with oxygen react with WTi alloy in an HF glow discharge, the extent of reaction being dependent on the atomic fluorine concentration, temperature, and surface potential. The rates of reaction with the CF/sub 4/ products are proportional to the atomic fluorine concentrations. The effective activation energies have been determined for the atomic fluorine reacting with the alloy components in various gases. The metal removal rate increases when the specimen is negative with respect to the plasma potential, which is ascribed to the surface being bombarded by positive ions or to the electric field affecting the surface reaction rates.

Amirov, I.I.; Vinogradov, G.K.; Slovetskii, D.I.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

3/4/2014 These windmills are so tiny, you could fit 10 of them on a grain of rice | Grist http://grist.org/list/these-windmills-are-so-tiny-you-could-fit-10-of-them-on-a-grain-of-rice/ 1/2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Raw Story Sarah Laskow is a reporter based in New York City who covers environment, energy: As they grow, the energy they produce increases exponentially, because physics. But two researchers at UT," Raw Story says. When a windmill is that tiny, wind comes easy -- you could just wave your hand over

Chiao, Jung-Chih

124

Bubbles spawn tiny twisters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... After years of careful experimentation, physicists have finally created a tempest in a teapot-sized vessel. By heating a container topped with a soap bubble, a team of ...

Geoff Brumfiel

2008-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

125

Physical mechanisms of self-organization and formation of current patterns in gas discharges of the Townsend and glow types  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper discusses current filamentation and formation of current structures (in particular, hexagonal current patterns) in discharges of the Townsend and glow types. The aim of the paper, which is in part a review, is to reveal basic reasons for formation of current patterns in different cases, namely, in dielectric barrier discharge, discharge with semiconductor cathode, and micro-discharge between metallic electrodes. Pursuing this goal, we give a very brief review of observations and discuss only those theoretical, computational, and experimental papers that shed light on the physical mechanisms involved. The mechanisms are under weak currents—the thermal expansion of the gas as a result of Joule heating; under enhanced currents—the electric field and ionization rate redistribution induced by space charge. Both mechanisms lead to instability of the homogeneous discharges. In addition, we present new results of numerical simulations of observed short-living current filaments which are chaotic in space and time.

Raizer, Yu. P.; Mokrov, M. S. [Institute for Problems in Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119526 (Russian Federation)] [Institute for Problems in Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119526 (Russian Federation)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

126

Monochromator Crystal Glitch Library  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

SSRL's Monochromator Crystal Glitch Library allows users to view glitch spectra online, list specific crystal orientations, and download PDF files of the glitch spectra. (Specialized Interface)

127

Crystallography of Quasiperiodic Crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A unified description is given of modulated crystals and quasicrystals based on higher-dimensional crystallography.

Yamamoto, A.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Mixed crystal organic scintillators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mixed organic crystal according to one embodiment includes a single mixed crystal having two compounds with different bandgap energies, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source, wherein the signal response signature does not include a significantly-delayed luminescence characteristic of neutrons interacting with the organic crystal relative to a luminescence characteristic of gamma rays interacting with the organic crystal. According to one embodiment, an organic crystal includes bibenzyl and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source.

Zaitseva, Natalia P; Carman, M Leslie; Glenn, Andrew M; Hamel, Sebastien; Hatarik, Robert; Payne, Stephen A; Stoeffl, Wolfgang

2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

129

CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

2009-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

130

Diagnostics of glow discharges used to produce hydrogenated amorphous silicon films. Subcontract report, 15 April 1984-14 April 1985  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements of monosilane and disilane radicals were made at the surface of dc glow discharges (GD) in pure silane and silane-argon mixtures. These observations were interpreted as discharge kinetic models. It was inferred that the dominant radical, SiH/sub 3/, is produced in the gas and is primarily responsible for film growth. The heavier radicals observed in the gas appear to be a consequence of surface reactions, as is the disilane, a major product of the monosilane decomposition. A detailed model of the ion chemistry in the discharge was formulated to derive theoretical distributions of ions at the cathodes of low-pressure dc discharges. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) rates of silane and disilane, measured previously in the laboratory, have now also been interpreted in detail to yield a self-consistent model for the CVD process. This model identifies and quantifies the role of H/sub 2/ as an inhibitor of silane GD and CVD deposition. Implications of these discoveries to deposition rates and film properties are discussed.

Gallagher, A.; Scott, J.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

2/24/2014 Meet the TinyWindmills That Could Charge Your Phone Someday http://www.kleanindustries.com/s/environmental_market_industry_news.asp?ReportID=619696 1/1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2/24/2014 Meet the TinyWindmills That Could Charge Your Phone Someday http://www.kleanindustries.com/s/environmental_market_industry_news.asp?ReportID=619696 1/1 Home Site Map Contact Us Keyword(s) Manufacturer of Pyrolysis & Gasification Plants | Specialized Tire & Plastic Recycling Equipment | Waste to Energy Technology Supplier ----- Tweet Resources

Chiao, Jung-Chih

132

Growing Giant Crystals  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

kids Growing Giant Crystals A new process similar to making rock candy was developed at NIF to rapidly grow very large crystals that are about 2 cubic feet in size and weigh up to...

133

Automation in biological crystallization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Automation is the response to overcoming the crystallization bottleneck in biological crystallography. This review provides a summary of the current methods and technologies applied in automated platforms for the setup of initial and follow-up crystallization experiments.

Shaw Stewart, P.

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

134

Phononic crystal devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Phononic crystals that have the ability to modify and control the thermal black body phonon distribution and the phonon component of heat transport in a solid. In particular, the thermal conductivity and heat capacity can be modified by altering the phonon density of states in a phononic crystal. The present invention is directed to phononic crystal devices and materials such as radio frequency (RF) tags powered from ambient heat, dielectrics with extremely low thermal conductivity, thermoelectric materials with a higher ratio of electrical-to-thermal conductivity, materials with phononically engineered heat capacity, phononic crystal waveguides that enable accelerated cooling, and a variety of low temperature application devices.

El-Kady, Ihab F. (Albuquerque, NM); Olsson, Roy H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

135

Effect of excitation frequency on source characteristics in radio frequency glow discharge atomic emission spectrometry-I. 2–30 \\{MHz\\}  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The role of excitation frequency on the electrical, atomization, and optical emission characteristics of a radio frequency glow discharge atomic emission (rf-GD-AES) source was investigated in the frequency range of 2–30 MHz. Comparisons between the applied (peak-to-peak) potentials and the resultant dc bias potentials indicate that the discharge energy is dissipated more at the sample surface at lower frequencies and in the negative glow region in the upper frequency range. As a result, sputtering rates are greatest at the lowest frequency (2 MHz). The response of a variety of Cu I and II emission transitions to changes in frequency illustrates the need to choose separately the analytical transitions at a given frequency. In general, however, high-lying transitions optimize at low frequencies, with resonant transitions showing enhancements at high ones. As such, the operating frequency has a somewhat diametric effect on atomization and excitation characteristics. Finally, analytical figures of merit are illustrated for a number of analytes and transitions in a copper standard. While differences exist in the response of line intensity to operating frequency, background levels decrease and stability of the plasma improves with increased frequency.

Chris Lazik; R.Kenneth Marcus

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Channeling through Bent Crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bent crystals have demonstrated potential for use in beam collimation. A process called channeling is when accelerated particle beams are trapped by the nuclear potentials in the atomic planes within a crystal lattice. If the crystal is bent then the particles can follow the bending angle of the crystal. There are several different effects that are observed when particles travel through a bent crystal including dechanneling, volume capture, volume reflection and channeling. With a crystal placed at the edge of a particle beam, part of the fringe of the beam can be deflected away towards a detector or beam dump, thus helping collimate the beam. There is currently FORTRAN code by Igor Yazynin that has been used to model the passage of particles through a bent crystal. Using this code, the effects mentioned were explored for beam energy that would be seen at the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) at a range of crystal orientations with respect to the incoming beam. After propagating 5 meters in vacuum space past the crystal the channeled particles were observed to separate from most of the beam with some noise due to dechanneled particles. Progressively smaller bending radii, with corresponding shorter crystal lengths, were compared and it was seen that multiple scattering decreases with the length of the crystal therefore allowing for cleaner detection of the channeled particles. The input beam was then modified and only a portion of the beam sent through the crystal. With the majority of the beam not affected by the crystal, most particles were not deflected and after propagation the channeled particles were seen to be deflected approximately 5mm. After a portion of the beam travels through the crystal, the entire beam was then sent through a quadrupole magnet, which increased the separation of the channeled particles from the remainder of the beam to a distance of around 20mm. A different code, which was developed at SLAC, was used to create an angular profile plot which was compared to what was produced by Yazynin's code for a beam with no multiple scattering. The results were comparable, with volume reflection and channeling effects observed and the range of crystal orientations at which volume reflection is seen was about 1 mrad in both simulations.

Mack, Stephanie; /Ottawa U. /SLAC

2012-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

137

THE CRYSTAL CLOCK  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...crystal are connected between the grid and filament of the oscillator tube, a grid leak being connected across the crystal to provide the proper grid bias. A parallel resonant circuit...cycles, and a mercury damped flywheel used to reduce hunting. As...

W. A. Marrison

1930-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Roughening transition and helium crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Crystal shapes or crystal growth mechanisms depend drastically on whether the crystal surface is smooth or rough, i.e. whether the temperature is lower or higher than its roughening temperature. Helium appeared r...

S. Balibar; F. Gallet; E. Rolley; P. E. Wolf

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Computational analysis of crystallization trials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A system for the automatic classification of images from crystallization trials for use in conjunction with a high-throughput robotic crystallization platform is described.

Spraggon, G.

2002-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

140

Raman scattering in crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A tutorial presentation is given of Raman scattering in crystals. The physical concepts are emphasized rather than the detailed mathematical formalism. Starting with an introduction to the concepts of phonons and conservation laws, the effects of photon-phonon interactions are presented. This interaction concept is shown for a simple cubic crystal and is extended to a uniaxial crystal. The correlation table method is used for determining the number and symmetry of the Raman active modes. Finally, examples are given to illustrate the relative ease of using this group theoretical method and the predictions are compared with measured Raman spectra. 37 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

Edwards, D.F.

1988-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

News Features | ornl.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

News & Awards News & Awards News Releases Honors & Awards News Features Advanced Materials Home | Science & Discovery | Advanced Materials | News & Awards | News Features News Features 1-2 of 2 Results Nanotech toolbox July 01, 2013 - One of the most remarkable aspects of this super-small-scale world is that, under the right conditions, bits and pieces of materials will put themselves together-a natural phenomenon known as self-assembly. For example, polymer molecules, like the ones used to make plastic bags, organize themselves into a variety of structures based on what's going on in their environment. New family of tiny crystals glow bright in LED lights May 23, 2013 - Minuscule crystals that glow different colors may be the missing ingredient for white LED lighting that illuminates homes and

142

Crystals and Plants  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Crystals and Plants Crystals and Plants Name: Diab Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: What will the likely effects of crystallized filaments in plant cells be? I had noticed that moth balls (para dichlorbenzene) tends within a very short temperature range to transform from a solid to gas and back to solid in the form of crystal filaments. I been wondering about the likely effects of an experiment in which a plant is placed in a chamber saturated with the fumes of a substance that had the same transformation properties of its state but none of the toxic effects be on the plants and will such filaments form inside the cell and rearrange its DNA strands or kill it outright? Replies: The following might be helpful: http://biowww.clemson.edu/biolab/mitosis.html http://koning.ecsu.ctstateu.edu/Plant_Physiology/osmosis.html

143

Pulsed CO{sub 2} laser with an X-ray preioniser based on a high-voltage low-pressure glow discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An X-ray preioniser with an electron beam energy density of 0.1 J cm{sup -2} based on a high-voltage (20 - 40 kV) low-pressure glow discharge is developed for repetitively pulsed gas lasers. The electron concentration in the CO{sub 2} - N{sub 2} - He mixture as a function of the voltage across the preioniser is calculated for titanium and other foils. The preioniser can be operated both in a single-pulse regime and at pulse repetition rates ranging up to hundreds of Hertz. A specific energy yield of 51 J L{sup -1} is achieved in the X-ray preionised pulsed CO{sub 2} atmospheric-pressure laser. This preioniser was shown to be efficient for other active media (CO and excimer lasers), which opens up new opportunities for the development of repetitively pulsed gas lasers. (lasers)

Oreshkin, V F; Seregin, Aleksandr M; Sinaiskii, V V; Shchetinkina, T A ['Astrofizika' Research and Production Association (Russian Federation); Sorokin, A R [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

144

SINGLE CRYSTAL NEUTRON DIFFRACTION.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single-crystal neutron diffraction measures the elastic Bragg reflection intensities from crystals of a material, the structure of which is the subject of investigation. A single crystal is placed in a beam of neutrons produced at a nuclear reactor or at a proton accelerator-based spallation source. Single-crystal diffraction measurements are commonly made at thermal neutron beam energies, which correspond to neutron wavelengths in the neighborhood of 1 Angstrom. For high-resolution studies requiring shorter wavelengths (ca. 0.3-0.8 Angstroms), a pulsed spallation source or a high-temperature moderator (a ''hot source'') at a reactor may be used. When complex structures with large unit-cell repeats are under investigation, as is the case in structural biology, a cryogenic-temperature moderator (a ''cold source'') may be employed to obtain longer neutron wavelengths (ca. 4-10 Angstroms). A single-crystal neutron diffraction analysis will determine the crystal structure of the material, typically including its unit cell and space group, the positions of the atomic nuclei and their mean-square displacements, and relevant site occupancies. Because the neutron possesses a magnetic moment, the magnetic structure of the material can be determined as well, from the magnetic contribution to the Bragg intensities. This latter aspect falls beyond the scope of the present unit; for information on magnetic scattering of neutrons see Unit 14.3. Instruments for single-crystal diffraction (single-crystal diffractometers or SCDs) are generally available at the major neutron scattering center facilities. Beam time on many of these instruments is available through a proposal mechanism. A listing of neutron SCD instruments and their corresponding facility contacts is included in an appendix accompanying this unit.

KOETZLE,T.F.

2001-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

145

MagLab Audio Dictionary: Crystals  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

What are Crystals? Now Playing: What are Crystals? Enable Javascript and Flash to stream the Magnet Minute Chris Wiebe Associated Links Quantum Materials Group New Crystal Growth...

146

Demazure Crystals, Kirillov-Reshetikhin Crystals, and the Energy Function  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It has previously been shown that, at least for non-exceptional Kac-Moody Lie algebras, there is a close connection between Demazure crystals and tensor products of Kirillov-Reshetikhin crystals. In particular, certain ...

Schilling, Anne

147

Crystallization of Congo Red  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... It has been confirmed that the potassium salt of Congo Red will crystallize as needles from various ethyl alcohol-water mixtures, but only with ... observation during a trial of various salting-out procedures, however, the potassium salt of Congo Red has been found to be precipitated in crystalline form by salting out with potassium ...

PETER MITCHELL

1950-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

148

Crystals of Platinum and Palladium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... will be found partially fused. The ribbon upon which crystals have been formed presents a roughened appearance.

J. JOLY

1891-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

149

Photonic crystal heterostructures and interfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Photonic crystal heterostructures, like their semiconductor quantum electronic counterparts, generate complex function from simple, well-understood building blocks. They have led to compact photonic crystal-based waveguides and record-quality-factor resonant cavities. Here the progress on the experimental realization of photonic crystal heterostructure devices, and on the development of convenient, intuitive, and computationally efficient models of devices that unite multiple finite-sized photonic crystal media to engineer photon localization and guidance is summarized.

Emanuel Istrate and Edward H. Sargent

2006-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

150

Liquid Sampling-Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge (LS-APGD) Ionization Source for Elemental Mass Spectrometry: Preliminary Parametric Evaluation and Figures of Merit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new, low power ionization source for the elemental analysis of aqueous solutions has recently been described. The liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) source operates at relatively low currents (<20 mA) and solution flow rates (<50 ?L min-1), yielding a relatively simple alternative for atomic mass spectrometry applications. The LS-APGD has been interfaced to what is otherwise an organic, LC-MS mass analyzer, the Thermo Scientific Exactive Orbitrap without any modifications; other than removing the electrospray ionization (ESI) source supplied with that instrument. A glow discharge is initiated between the surface of the test solution exiting a glass capillary and a metallic counter electrode mounted at a 90° angle and separated by a distance of ~5 mm. As with any plasma-based ionization source, there are key discharge operation and ion sampling parameters that affect the intensity and composition of the derived mass spectra; including signal-to-background ratios. We describe here a preliminary parametric evaluation of the roles of discharge current, solution flow rate, argon sheath gas flow rate, and ion sampling distance as they apply on this mass analyzer system. A cursive evaluation of potential matrix effects due to the presence of easily ionized elements (EIEs) indicate that sodium concentrations of up to 500 ?g mL-1 generally cause suppressions of less than 50%, dependant upon the analyte species. Based on the results of this series of studies, preliminary limits of detection (LOD) have been established through the generation of calibration functions. Whilst solution-based concentrations LOD levels of 0.02 – 2 ?g mL-1 3 are not impressive on the surface, the fact that they are determined via discrete 5 ?L injections leads to mass-based detection limits at picogram to singlenanogram levels. The overhead costs associated with source operation (10 W d.c. power, solution flow rates of <50 ?L min-1, and gas flow rates <10 mL min-1) are very attractive. While further optimization in the source design is suggested here, it is believed that the LS-APGD ion source may present a practical alternative to inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) sources typically employed in elemental mass spectrometry.

Quarles, C. Derrick; Carado, Anthony J.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Marcus, R. Kenneth

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Ultraslow growth rates of giant gypsum crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...gypsum crystals of Naica ore mines in Chihuahua, Mexico, a challenging subject in mineral...gypsum crystals of Naica ore mines in Chihuahua, Mexico, a challenging subject in...geological timescale. age anhydrite Chihuahua Mexico cooling crystal growth crystallization...

A. E. S. Van Driessche; J. M. García-Ruíz; K. Tsukamoto; L. D. Patiño-Lopez; H. Satoh

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Quantum ferroelectrics of mixed crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The inverse dielectric susceptibility for quantum ferroelectrics in mixed crystals is computed. As in the perfect crystals we find a logarithmic correction to the quantum mean-field theory. For mixed crystals the correction increases faster in the vicinity of the critical point.

D. Schmeltzer

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Silicon crystal growing by oscillating crucible technique  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for growing silicon crystals from a molten melt comprising oscillating the container during crystal growth is disclosed.

Schwuttke, G.H.; Kim, K.M.; Smetana, P.

1983-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

154

Effects of the shielding cylinder and substrate on the characteristics of an argon radio-frequency atmospheric glow discharge plasma jet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With unique features of low breakdown voltages, large and uniform discharge areas and high concentrations of chemically reactive species, radio-frequency, atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (rf APGD) plasma sources produced with bare-metallic electrodes have shown promising prospects in the field of materials processing. In this paper, the spatial distributions (i.e., the directly measured integrated axial distribution and the radial distribution by using the inverse Abel transform) of the emission intensities of the Ar I 696.5 nm line are studied for the argon rf APGD plasma jet under different operation conditions, including variations of the rf power input or the argon flow rate, the existence of the solid shielding cylinder or the substrate. The experimental results show that, with other parameters being unchanged, the emission intensities of the Ar I 696.5 nm line increase with increasing the rf power input or the argon flow rate; and the solid shielding cylinder has more significant influences on the characteristics of the plasma impinging jet by reducing the mass flow rate of the ambient air entrained into the plasma jet region than those for the cases without the existence of the substrate at the downstream of the plasma torch nozzle exit.

Li Guo; Le Peisi; Li Heping; Bao Chengyu [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

155

32 - Fundamentals of Industrial Crystallization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Industrial crystallization processes aim at the large-scale production of crystalline products through the formation of involving a suspension of growing particles in a solution. The product quality is defined by the kind of crystalline phase produced, the crystal size distribution, the crystal morphology, and the product purity. These product quality aspects are determined by the subprocesses of crystallization of which crystal nucleation and growth are usually of main importance. The driving force for these subprocesses is usually established either by evaporating solvent to increase the concentration or cooling the solution to decrease the solubility. The recent pharmaceutical research interest in continuous crystallization processes is fortified by claims of improved product quality, efficient use of materials and energy resources, and waste stream reductions.

Joop H. ter Horst; Christiane Schmidt; Joachim Ulrich

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Florida Nuclear Profile - Crystal River  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crystal River1" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date"...

157

Aperiodic crystals and superspace concepts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Aperiodic crystals may conveniently be described in a higher dimensional `superspace'. An overview of the method and applications to various families is given.

Janssen, T.

2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

158

Invisible defects in complex crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that invisible localized defects, i.e. defects that can not be detected by an outside observer, can be realized in a crystal with an engineered imaginary potential at the defect site. The invisible defects are synthesized by means of supersymmetric (Darboux) transformations of an ordinary crystal using band-edge wave functions to construct the superpotential. The complex crystal has an entire real-valued energy spectrum and Bragg scattering is not influenced by the defects. An example of complex crystal synthesis is presented for the Mathieu potential.

S. Longhi; G. Della Valle

2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

159

BY SILICON CRYSTALS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

c October 29, 1942 a 1 1 _MIGH aECTgFXCATIOH - BY SILICON CRYSTALS . . c .. I n. The excellent pesformmce of Brftieh "red dot" c r y s t a l s f e explained R R due t o the kgife edge contact i n a t A polfehod ~ X ' f l i C B o H i g h frequency m c t l f f c n t f o n 8ependre c r i t i c a l l y on the ape%e;y of the rectifytnc boundary layer o f the crystal, C, For hl#$ comvere~on e f f i c i e n c y , the product c d t h i ~ capacity m a o f ' t h e @forward" (bulk) re-. sistance Rb o f the crystnl must b@ sm%P, depende primarily on the breadth of tha b f f e edge i t s lbngth. The contact am &harefore ~ E L V Q a rather large area wMQh prevents burn-out, thh3 t h e breadth of &h@ knife edge should be bdt8~1 than E~$O$B% % f I - ' amo For a knife edge, this produet very 14ttle upom For a wavsIL~n+3tih of PO emo the eowp,o%a%8sne 4

160

Ultraslow growth rates of giant gypsum crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...gypsum crystals of Naica ore mines in Chihuahua, Mexico, a challenging subject in mineral...gypsum crystals of Naica ore mines in Chihuahua, Mexico, a challenging subject...gypsum crystals of Naica ore mines in Chihuahua, Mexico, a challenging subject...

A. E. S. Van Driessche; J. M. García-Ruíz; K. Tsukamoto; L. D. Patiño-Lopez; H. Satoh

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Laser Crystallization of Phase Change Material  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Geoffrey Campbell is the Principal Investigator for Laser Crystallization of Phase Change Material LLNL BES Programs Highlight Laser Crystallization of Phase Change Material False...

162

PHOTOCATALYTIC AND PHOTOELECTROCHEMICAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION ON STRONTIUM TITANATE SINGLE CRYSTALS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION ON STRONTIUM TITANATE SINGLE CRYSTALS F.HYDROGEN PRODUCTION ON STRONTIUM TITANATE SINGLE CRYSTALS

Wagner, F.T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Serine 192 in the tiny RS repeat of the adenoviral L4-33K splicing enhancer protein is essential for function and reorganization of the protein to the periphery of viral replication centers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adenovirus L4-33K protein is a key regulator involved in the temporal shift from early to late pattern of mRNA expression from the adenovirus major late transcription unit. L4-33K is a virus-encoded alternative splicing factor, which enhances processing of 3 Prime splice sites with a weak sequence context. Here we show that L4-33K expressed from a plasmid is localized at the nuclear margin of uninfected cells. During an infection L4-33K is relocalized to the periphery of E2A-72K containing viral replication centers. We also show that serine 192 in the tiny RS repeat of the conserved carboxy-terminus of L4-33K, which is critical for the splicing enhancer function of L4-33K, is necessary for the nuclear localization and redistribution of the protein to viral replication sites. Collectively, our results show a good correlation between the activity of L4-33K as a splicing enhancer protein and its localization to the periphery of viral replication centers.

Oestberg, Sara, E-mail: sara.ostberg@imbim.uu.se [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, 75123 Uppsala (Sweden)] [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, 75123 Uppsala (Sweden); Toermaenen Persson, Heidi, E-mail: heidi.tormanen.persson@imbim.uu.se [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, 75123 Uppsala (Sweden); Akusjaervi, Goeran, E-mail: goran.akusjarvi@imbim.uu.se [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, 75123 Uppsala (Sweden)] [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, 75123 Uppsala (Sweden)

2012-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

164

X-Ray Crystallography What do you need? A crystal. But not just any crystal a well ordered crystal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-Ray Crystallography What do you need? A crystal. But not just any crystal­ a well ordered crystal that will diffract x-rays strongly. A crystal handedness. This reduces number to 6- 12. #12;#12;Generally X-ray beam

Cavanagh, John

165

Heat transport through ion crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the thermodynamical properties of crystals of trapped ions which are laser cooled to two different temperatures in two separate regions. We show that these properties strongly depend on the structure of the ion crystal. Such structure can be changed by varying the trap parameters and undergoes a series of phase transitions from linear to zig-zag or helicoidal configurations. Thus, we show that these systems are ideal candidates to observe and control the transition from anomalous to normal heat transport. All structures behave as `heat superconductors', with a thermal conductivity increasing linearly with system size and a vanishing thermal gradient inside the system. However, zig-zag and helicoidal crystals turn out to be hyper sensitive to disorder having a linear temperature profile and a length independent conductivity. Interestingly, disordered 2D ion crystals are heat insulators. Sensitivity to disorder is much smaller in the 1D case.

Nahuel Freitas; Esteban Martinez; Juan Pablo Paz

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

166

Crystal-Like geometric modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

faces, symmetry, and fractal geometry. The techniques have also been implemented in software, as a proof of concept. They are used in an interactive geometric modeling system, in which users can use these techniques to create crystal-like shapes...

Landreneau, Eric Benjamin

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

167

Crystal Growth of Oxide and Sulphide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......film. The hexagonal shaped crystal was often formed on a needle crystals. One of the electron diffraction...the diffraction patterns of bent crystals, the unit cell of this crystal...was often observed that the spherical particles like dew drops......

Hatsujiro HASHIMOTO

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Graphene-based polaritonic crystal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown that monolayer graphene deposited on a spatially periodic gate behaves as a polaritonic crystal. Its band structure depending on the applied gate voltage is studied. The scattering of electromagnetic radiation from such a crystal is presented calculated and its spectral dependence is analyzed in terms of Fano-type resonances between the reflected continuum and plasmon-polariton modes forming narrow bands.

Yu. V. Bludov; N. M. R. Peres; M. I. Vasilevskiy

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

169

Neutron diffraction by perfect crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dynamical theory of neutron diffraction has been formulated to include the reflected waves from the boundaries of a crystal. This formulation allows a unified treatment of the neutron optical and diffraction phenomena in crystals. It is shown that the neutron propagation in the crystal is determined by two structure factors characterizing the lattice: the total structure factor and the structure factor of the neutron-spin-neutron-orbit interaction. Diffraction by a parallel crystal plate has been studied in considerable detail. It has been found that for a definite neutron-spin orientation, the diffracted and transmitted beams are modulated by six terms periodic in the thickness of the crystal. The period of the dominant term, in this Pendellösung fringe structure, has been calculated in several cases of experimental importance. If the glancing angle of incidence substantially exceeds the critical angle for total reflection, the results are identical with those obtained by a simple extension, to the neutron case, of the x-ray dynamical theory. The diffraction by a magnetized crystal has been examined in some detail and it is shown that measurement of the Pendellösung periods for the two neutron-spin orientations may be used to determine both the nuclear and magnetic neutron scattering amplitude.

C. Stassis and J. A. Oberteuffer

1974-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

Energetics of photosynthetic glow peaks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Department of Biology, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830...obtained by different workers is also presented...obtained by different workers is also presented...Department of Biology, Oak Ridge National Laboratory...

Don DeVault; Govindjee; William Arnold

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Glow Lights Up Scottish Classrooms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Scotland's national intranet for schools. By accessing video...director of learning and technology for the agency. LTS saw a national intranet as a way to help those...teaching, not by forcing technology down teachers' throats...

Daniel Clery

2009-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

172

Collisions of the Second Kind and their Effect on the Field in the Positive Column of a Glow Discharge in Mixtures of the Rare Gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A study was made of the collision processes in the uniform positive column of a glow discharge in mixtures composed of two of the rare gases, helium, neon and argon and a mixture of each of these gases with mercury vapor, by means of measurements of the electric field and by spectroscopic observations. The discharge tube was of cylindrical form, 4.4 cm in diameter, with plane parallel electrodes The electrode distance could be varied from zero to 32 cm by means of an external electromagnet. The phenomena were studied with currents from 20 to 40 m.a. and pressures from 5 to 30 mm of mercury. The mixtures were circulated through the discharge tube and a purifying system during the entire time that observations were being made. It was very important to maintain extreme purity of the gases. The results show that the electrical and spectral characteristics of the uniform positive column in mixtures of monatomic gases can be explained principally in terms of collisions of the second kind between the ions or metastable atoms of one gas and the neutral atoms of the other. The effect of limitation of electron velocities is insufficient to explain the results, and its effect is shown to be negligible as compared with collisions of the second kind when the concentration of one gas is very small. The necessary condition for a large effect to be produced in the electrical and spectral characteristics of the positive column by a small percentage of one gas added to another is that a close resonance exists between the metastable states of the main gas and the ionization potential or excited states of the added gas atom or ion. By the introduction of as little as 0.4 percent neon or argon into helium, a marked increase in the electric field is produced, and the spectrum emitted is changed almost completely from the arc spectrum of helium to that of neon or argon respectively. The addition of mercury vapor at room temperature to neon caused a decrease of 45 percent in the field while the addition of mercury to either argon or helium produced a small increase. In the cases where the excitation and ionization potentials of the added gas were above the metastable states of the main gas, no reactions between the two gases could occur to affect the concentration of metastable atoms. In these cases practically no change in either the spectral or electrical characteristics were observed upon adding a small amount of one gas to another. However, in larger proportions the change produced in the field was proportional to the amounts of the two gases and the difference between the field in each of the pure gases. This result is accounted for mainly by the difference in the energy of the ionization processes in the two gases by electron impact.

L. B. Headrick and O. S. Duffendack

1931-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

173

Toward photonic-crystal metamaterials: Creating magnetic emitters in photonic crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Toward photonic-crystal metamaterials: Creating magnetic emitters in photonic crystals M. L Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge explore the possibility of designing photonic crystals to act as magnetic metamaterials: structures

174

Chemistry in Motion: Tiny Synthetic Motors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this Account, we describe how synthetic motors that operate by self-diffusiophoresis make use of a self-generated concentration gradient to drive motor motion. A description of propulsion by self-diffusiophoresis is presented for Janus particle motors comprising catalytic and noncatalytic faces. The properties of the dynamics of chemically powered motors are illustrated by presenting the results of particle-based simulations of sphere-dimer motors constructed from linked catalytic and noncatalytic spheres. The geometries of both Janus and sphere-dimer motors with asymmetric catalytic activity support the formation of concentration gradients around the motors. Because directed motion can occur only when the system is not in equilibrium, the nature of the environment and the role it plays in motor dynamics are described. Rotational Brownian motion also acts to limit directed motion, and it has especially strong effects for very small motors. We address the following question: how small can motors be and still exhibit effects due to propulsion, even if only to enhance diffusion? Synthetic motors have the potential to transform the manner in which chemical dynamical processes are carried out for a wide range of applications.

Peter H. Colberg; Shang Yik Reigh; Bryan Robertson; Raymond Kapral

2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

175

Crystal Systems | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Crystal Systems Crystal Systems Name Crystal Systems Address 27 Congress Street Place Salem, Massachusetts Zip 01970 Sector Solar Product Silicon producer Year founded 1971 Website http://www.crystalsystems.com/ Coordinates 42.5190384°, -70.8896271° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.5190384,"lon":-70.8896271,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

176

Calibrating Curved Crystals Used for Plasma Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The throughput and resolving power of an X-ray spectrometer that uses a curved crystal as the diffraction element is determined primarily by the crystal X-ray reflectivity properties. This poster presents a measurement technique for these crystal parameters using a simple diode source to produce a narrow spectral band. The results from measurements on concave elliptical polyethylene terephthalate (PET) crystals and convex potassium acid phthalate (KAP) crystals show large variations in the key parameters compared to those from the flat crystal.

Haugh, M. J., Jacoby, K. D., Ross, P. W., Rochau, G. Wu, M., Regan, S. P., Barrios, M. A.

2012-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

177

Precision Crystal Calorimeters in High Energy Physics  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Precision crystal calorimeters traditionally play an important role in high energy physics experiments. In the last two decades, it faces a challenge to maintain its precision in a hostile radiation environment. This paper reviews the performance of crystal calorimeters constructed for high energy physics experiments and the progress achieved in understanding crystal?s radiation damage as well as in developing high quality scintillating crystals for particle physics. Potential applications of new generation scintillating crystals of high density and high light yield, such as LSO and LYSO, in particle physics experiments is also discussed.

Ren-Yuan Zhu

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

178

ARM - Field Campaign - CRYSTAL-FACE  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govCampaignsCRYSTAL-FACE govCampaignsCRYSTAL-FACE Campaign Links CRYSTAL-FACE Website Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : CRYSTAL-FACE 2002.06.26 - 2002.08.01 Lead Scientist : James Mather Data Availability Data is available to the general public at the ARM Archive. Questions regarding CRYSTAL-FACE or the PARSL data set may be directed to Jim Mather at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (Jim.Mather@pnl.gov) or visit the CRYSTAL-FACE web site at http://cloud1.arc.nasa.gov/crystalface/ For data sets, see below. Description From July 3-29, 2002 ARM took part in CRYSTAL-FACE (The Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers -Florida Area Cirrus Experiment). CRYSTAL-FACE was organized by NASA but many agencies and

179

IR laser-induced protein crystal transformation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel method and the associated instrumentation for improving crystalline order (higher resolution of X-ray diffraction and reduced mosaicity) of protein crystals by precisely controlled heating is demonstrated. Crystal transformation is optically controlled by a video system.

Kiefersauer, R.

2014-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

180

Photon tunnelling microscopy of polyethylene single crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photon tunnelling microscopy of polyethylene single crystals Mohan Srinivasarao* and Richard S:photon tunnellingmicroscopy;single crystals; polyethylene) INTRODUCTION The study of morphology of polymers is an area

Srinivasarao, Mohan

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181

Fluid Inclusions in Hydrothermally Synthesized Brucite Crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Brucite crystals were grown hydrothermally from Mg(OH)2 powder in 7.5 and 15 mol% NaOH solutions. It is established from the observation of the surface microtopographs that the crystals grew by the spiral mechani...

Kazuo Nakamura; Shin-Ichi Hirano…

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Crystallization of the crenarchaeal SRP core  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The conserved ribonucleoprotein core of the signal recognition particle (SRP) has been crystallized. Both crystal forms are highly twinned and an explanation for the possible tetartohedral twinning is presented.

Rosendal, K.R.

2003-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

183

Nanopatterned anchoring layers for liquid crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis describes the theory and fabrication of inhomogeneous Liquid Crystal anchoring layers. While chemical anchoring techniques have proved useful for many applications, especially Liquid Crystal Displays, they have ...

Gear, Christopher S. (Christopher Stanwood)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Crystal structure of guggulsterone Z  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The crystal structure of the title compound (4,17(20)-trans-pregnadiene-3,16-dione, C{sub 21}H{sub 28}O{sub 2}) has been determined by direct methods using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The compound crystallizes into the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} with the unit cell parameters a = 7.908(2) A, b = 13.611(3) A, c = 16.309(4) A, and Z = 4. The structure has been refined to R = 0.058 for 3667 observed reflections. The bond distances and angles are in good agreement with guggulsterone E and other related steroid molecules. Ring A exists in the distorted sofa conformation, while rings B and C adopt the distorted chair conformation. Five-membered ring D is intermediate between the half-chair and envelope conformations. The A/B ring junction is quasi-trans, while ring systems B/C and C/D are trans fused about the C(8)-C(9) and C(13)-C(14) bonds, respectively. The steroid nucleus has a small twist, as shown by the C(19)-C(10)...C(13)-C(18) pseudo-torsion angle of 7.2{sup o}. The crystal structure is stabilized by intra-and intermolecular C-H...O hydrogen bonds.

Gupta, V. K., E-mail: vivek_gupta2k2@hotmail.com; Bandhoria, P. [University of Jammu, Post Graduate Department of Physics (India); Gupta, B. D.; Gupta, K. K. [Regional Research Laboratory (India)

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

185

Crystal Engineering: Strategies and Architectures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This review takes a look at some of the strategies that have been devised for research in crystal engineering, in particular, those based around hydrogen-bonded architectures. In addition, some of the history and possibilites of the field itself are alluded to.

Aakeröy, C.B.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Laser Assisted Crystallization of Ferromagnetic Amorphous Ribbons...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ferromagnetic Amorphous Ribbons: A Multimodal Characterization and Thermal Model Study. Laser Assisted Crystallization of Ferromagnetic Amorphous Ribbons: A Multimodal...

187

Ames Lab 101: Growing Crystals in Space  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rohit Trivedi, distinguished professor of materials science and engineering, discusses his research with NASA to grow crystals in space.

Trivedi, Rohit

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Crystal of GTP Cyclohydrolase Type IB  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to a novel, bacterial GTP Cyclohydrolase Type IB enzyme, and the crystal structure thereof.

Swairjo, Manal A.; Iwata-Reuyl, Dirk; de Crecy-Lagard, Valerie

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

189

Robotic CCD microscope for enhanced crystal recognition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A robotic CCD microscope and procedures to automate crystal recognition. The robotic CCD microscope and procedures enables more accurate crystal recognition, leading to fewer false negative and fewer false positives, and enable detection of smaller crystals compared to other methods available today.

Segelke, Brent W. (San Ramon, CA); Toppani, Dominique (Livermore, CA)

2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

190

Nanoscale Calorimetry of Isolated Polyethylene Single Crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanoscale Calorimetry of Isolated Polyethylene Single Crystals A. T. KWAN, M. YU. EFREMOV, E. A-film differential scanning calorimetry to investigate the melt- ing of isolated polyethylene single crystals of lamellar single crystals of polyethylene (PE). We obtain thickness, diffraction, and calorimetry data

Allen, Leslie H.

191

Transition from Irradiation-Induced Amorphization to Crystallization...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

from Irradiation-Induced Amorphization to Crystallization in Nanocrystalline Silicon Carbide. Transition from Irradiation-Induced Amorphization to Crystallization in...

192

Invisibility in PT-symmetric complex crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bragg scattering in sinusoidal PT-symmetric complex crystals of finite thickness is theoretically investigated by the derivation of exact analytical expressions for reflection and transmission coefficients in terms of modified Bessel functions of first kind. The analytical results indicate that unidirectional invisibility, recently predicted for such crystals by coupled-mode theory [Z. Lin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 213901 (2011)], breaks down for crystals containing a large number of unit cells. In particular, for a given modulation depth in a shallow sinusoidal potential, three regimes are encountered as the crystal thickness is increased. At short lengths the crystal is reflectionless and invisible when probed from one side (unidirectional invisibility), whereas at intermediate lengths the crystal remains reflectionless but not invisible; for longer crystals both unidirectional reflectionless and invisibility properties are broken.

Stefano Longhi

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

193

Photonic crystals with controlled disorder  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Photonic crystals are extremely sensitive to structural disorder even to the point of completely losing their functionalities. While, on one side, this can be detrimental for applications in traditional optical devices, on the other side, it gives also rise to very interesting new physics and maybe even new applications. We propose a route to introduce disorder in photonic crystals in a controlled way by creating a certain percentage of vacancies in the lattice. We show how the method works and what type of materials can be obtained this way. Also, we use this system to probe the role of disorder on the resulting transport properties from various points of view, including measurements of the transport and scattering mean free path and the diffusion constant.

Garcia, P. D.; Sapienza, R.; Lopez, C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC) and Unidad Asociada CSIC-UVigo, Cantoblanco E-28049, Madrid (Spain); Toninelli, C.; Wiersma, D. S. [European Laboratory for Nonlinear Spectroscopy and CNR-INO, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

194

Abstract crystals Department of Mathematics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is a normal crystal define a bijection si : B B by sib = ~f wti(b) i b, if wti(b) 0, ~e -wti(b) i b, if wti, b2 B2} with wti(b1 b2) = wti(b1) + wti(b2), i(b1 b2) = max{i(b1), i(b2) - wt(b1), i }, i(b1 b2

Ram, Arun

195

Flowing Liquid Crystal Simulating the Schwarzschild Metric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show how to simulate the equatorial section of the Schwarzschild metric through a flowing liquid crystal in its nematic phase. Inside a liquid crystal in the nematic phase, a traveling light ray feels an effective metric, whose properties are linked to perpendicular and parallel refractive indexes, $n_o$ e $n_e$ respectively, of the rod-like molecule of the liquid crystal. As these indexes depend on the scalar order parameter of the liquid crystal, the Beris-Edwards hydrodynamic theory is used to connect the order parameter with the velocity of a liquid crystal flow at each point. This way we calculate a radial velocity profile that simulates the equatorial section of the Schwarzschild metric, in the region outside of Schwarzschild's radius, in the nematic phase of the liquid crystal. In our model, the higher flow velocity can be of the order of some meters per second.

Erms R. Pereira; Fernando Moraes

2010-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

196

Phonon manipulation with phononic crystals.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, we demonstrated engineered modification of propagation of thermal phonons, i.e. at THz frequencies, using phononic crystals. This work combined theoretical work at Sandia National Laboratories, the University of New Mexico, the University of Colorado Boulder, and Carnegie Mellon University; the MESA fabrication facilities at Sandia; and the microfabrication facilities at UNM to produce world-leading control of phonon propagation in silicon at frequencies up to 3 THz. These efforts culminated in a dramatic reduction in the thermal conductivity of silicon using phononic crystals by a factor of almost 30 as compared with the bulk value, and about 6 as compared with an unpatterned slab of the same thickness. This work represents a revolutionary advance in the engineering of thermoelectric materials for optimal, high-ZT performance. We have demonstrated the significant reduction of the thermal conductivity of silicon using phononic crystal structuring using MEMS-compatible fabrication techniques and in a planar platform that is amenable to integration with typical microelectronic systems. The measured reduction in thermal conductivity as compared to bulk silicon was about a factor of 20 in the cross-plane direction [26], and a factor of 6 in the in-plane direction. Since the electrical conductivity was only reduced by a corresponding factor of about 3 due to the removal of conductive material (i.e., porosity), and the Seebeck coefficient should remain constant as an intrinsic material property, this corresponds to an effective enhancement in ZT by a factor of 2. Given the number of papers in literature devoted to only a small, incremental change in ZT, the ability to boost the ZT of a material by a factor of 2 simply by reducing thermal conductivity is groundbreaking. The results in this work were obtained using silicon, a material that has benefitted from enormous interest in the microelectronics industry and that has a fairly large thermoelectric power factor. In addition, the techniques and scientific understanding developed in the research can be applied to a wide range of materials, with the caveat that the thermal conductivity of such a material be dominated by phonon, rather than electron, transport. In particular, this includes several thermoelectric materials with attractive properties at elevated temperatures (i.e., greater than room temperature), such as silicon germanium and silicon carbide. It is reasonable that phononic crystal patterning could be used for high-temperature thermoelectric devices using such materials, with applications in energy scavenging via waste-heat recovery and thermoelectric cooling for high-performance microelectronic circuits. The only part of the ZT picture missing in this work was the experimental measurement of the Seebeck coefficient of our phononic crystal devices. While a first-order approximation indicates that the Seebeck coefficient should not change significantly from that of bulk silicon, we were not able to actually verify this assumption within the timeframe of the project. Additionally, with regards to future high-temperature applications of this technology, we plan to measure the thermal conductivity reduction factor of our phononic crystals as elevated temperatures to confirm that it does not diminish, given that the nominal thermal conductivity of most semiconductors, including silicon, decreases with temperature above room temperature. We hope to have the opportunity to address these concerns and further advance the state-of-the-art of thermoelectric materials in future projects.

Kim Bongsang; Hopkins, Patrick Edward; Leseman, Zayd C.; Goettler, Drew F.; Su, Mehmet F. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); El-Kady, Ihab Fathy; Reinke, Charles M.; Olsson, Roy H., III

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Crystallization of niobium germanosilicate glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Niobium germanosilicate glasses are potential candidates for the fabrication of transparent glass ceramics with interesting non-linear optical properties. A series of glasses in the (Ge,Si)O{sub 2}-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-K{sub 2}O system were prepared by melting and casting and their characteristic temperatures were determined by differential thermal analysis. Progressive replacement of GeO{sub 2} by SiO{sub 2} improved the thermal stability of the glasses. Depending on the composition and the crystallization heat-treatment, different nanocrystalline phases-KNbSi{sub 2}O{sub 7}, K{sub 3}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 13} and K{sub 3.8}Nb{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 20.4} could be obtained. The identification and characterization of these phases were performed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The 40 GeO{sub 2}-10 SiO{sub 2}-25 Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-25 K{sub 2}O (mol%) composition presented the higher ability for volume crystallization and its nucleation temperature was determined by the Marotta's method. An activation energy for crystal growth of {approx}529 kJ/mol and a nucleation rate of 9.7x10{sup 18} m{sup -3} s{sup -1} was obtained, for this composition. Transparent glass ceramics with a crystalline volume fraction of {approx}57% were obtained after a 2 h heat-treatment at the nucleation temperature, with crystallite sizes of {approx}20 nm as determined by transmission electron microscopy. - Abstract: TEM image and XRD pattern of the glass ceramic produced (circles indicate nanocrystals).

Santos, Rodrigo [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais/ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico/TU Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Santos, Luis F., E-mail: luis.santos@ist.utl.p [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais/ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico/TU Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Almeida, Rui M. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais/ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico/TU Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Deubener, Joachim [Institute of Non-Metallic Materials, Clausthal University of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Wondraczek, Lothar [Department of Materials Science, Glass and Ceramics, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

198

Journal of Crystal Growth 250 (2003) 499515 Induction time in crystallization of gas hydrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for revealing how additives in the solution that act as kinetic inhibitors of hydrate crystallization can affect to prevent hydrate crystallization. These options include heating, insulation, water removal, and the use

Firoozabadi, Abbas

199

Using textons to rank crystallization droplets by the likely presence of crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A robust and transferable algorithm is presented to objectively describe and rank robotically captured images of crystallization droplets according to their likelihood of crystalline behaviour for the efficient and accurate identification of successful crystallization.

Ng, J.T.

2014-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

200

Crystal structure and interaction dependence of the crystal-melt interfacial free energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We examine via molecular simulation the dependence of the crystal-melt interfacial free energy gamma on molecular interaction and crystal structure (fcc vs bcc) for systems interacting with inverse-power repulsive potentials, ...

Davidchack, R. L.; Laird, Brian Bostian

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Antimony Induced Crystallization of Amorphous Silicon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Antimony induced crystallization of PVD (physics vapor deposition) amorphous silicon can be observed on sapphire substrates. Very large crystalline regions up to several tens of micrometers can be formed. The Si diffraction patterns of the area of crystallization can be observed with TEM (transmission electron microscopy). Only a few and much smaller crystals of the order of 1?m were formed when the antimony layer was deposited by MBE (molecular beam epitaxy) compared with a layer formed by thermal evaporation. The use of high vacuum is essential in order to observe any Sb induced crystallization at all. In addition it is necessary to take measures to limit the evaporation of the antimony.

Y. Wang; H.Z. Li; C.N. Yu; G.M. Wu; I. Gordon; P. Schattschneider; O. Van Der Biest

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Stability vs. Activity: Characterizing Strontium Ruthenate Crystals...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

| Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Stability vs. Activity: Characterizing Strontium Ruthenate Crystals for Electrochemical Applications August 29, 2014 Bookmark and...

203

Book Reviews Solidification and Crystallization. Dieter M.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, grain refine- ment by inoculation, ultrasound Doppler velocimetry, laser welding, arc melting, laser cladding using a powder jet, and crystallization of a thin amorphous film. Theoretical treatments included

Regel, Liya L.

204

Automated macromolecular crystal detection system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An automated macromolecular method and system for detecting crystals in two-dimensional images, such as light microscopy images obtained from an array of crystallization screens. Edges are detected from the images by identifying local maxima of a phase congruency-based function associated with each image. The detected edges are segmented into discrete line segments, which are subsequently geometrically evaluated with respect to each other to identify any crystal-like qualities such as, for example, parallel lines, facing each other, similarity in length, and relative proximity. And from the evaluation a determination is made as to whether crystals are present in each image.

Christian, Allen T. (Tracy, CA); Segelke, Brent (San Ramon, CA); Rupp, Bernard (Livermore, CA); Toppani, Dominique (Fontainebleau, FR)

2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

205

Refinement of the crystal structure of hydroboracite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1978) ABSTRACT The crystal structure of caysichite was determined and refined to R=0.06, using 959 independentreflec-iions; the space group is CcmZy with a 13,27(L), b 13.91(1),c 9.73G)4,. The crystal chemical formula is Ye(CagREJ...

C. Sabelli; A. Stoppioni

206

NASA's Protein Crystal Work Gets Mixed Reviews  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

NASA's Protein Crystal Work Gets Mixed Reviews ... In a just released report, a National Research Council (NRC) task group agrees with NASA's critics that efforts to grow higher quality protein crystals in space have been incremental at best. ... Still, the task group offers NASA solace. ...

LOIS EMBER

2000-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

207

Communications Counterion Effects in Liquid Crystal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of nanostructured CdS templated directly with ion-doped liquid crystals.13,14 In both cases the mesoporous solidCommunications Counterion Effects in Liquid Crystal Templating of Nanostructured CdS V. Tohver, P system, nanostructured particles consisting of alternat- ing sheets of CdS and oligomeric vinyl alcohol

Braun, Paul

208

Growth Of Oriented Crystals At Polymerized Membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to methods and compositions for the growth and alignment of crystals at biopolymeric films. The methods and compositions of the present invention provide means to generate a variety of dense crystalline ceramic films, with totally aligned crystals, at low temperatures and pressures, suitable for use with polymer and plastic substrates.

Charych, Deborah H. (Albany, CA), Berman, Amir (Ben-Shiva, IL)

2000-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

209

Ames Lab 101: Single Crystal Growth  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ames Laboratory scientist Deborah Schlagel talks about the Lab's research in growing single crystals of various metals and alloys. The single crystal samples are vital to researchers' understanding of the characteristics of a materials and what gives these materials their particular properties.

Schlagel, Deborah

2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

210

Supramolecular chemistry and crystal engineering ASHWINI NANGIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Supramolecular chemistry and crystal engineering ASHWINI NANGIA School of Chemistry, University. This article traces the evolution of supramolecular chemistry and crystal engineering starting from the early of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046, India. e-mail: ashwini.nangia@gmail.com Advances in supramolecular chemistry

Joshi, Yogesh Moreshwar

211

Cholesteric Pitch of Lyotropic Polymer Liquid Crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cholesteric Pitch of Lyotropic Polymer Liquid Crystals ... The cholesteric pitch P of semiflexible helical polymer solutions was formulated using a threaded equivalent freely jointed chain model. ... The structure of cholesteric liquid crystals is characterized by the cholesteric pitch P or the cholesteric wavenumber qc (?2?/P). ...

Takahiro Sato; Jun Nakamura; Akio Teramoto; Mark M. Green

1998-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

212

Nucleation of solid solutions crystallizing from aqueous solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...001) with atomic force microscopy. Chem...studied with atomic force microscopy. Colloids...Sarig, S. 1993 Fundamentals of crystal growth. In Handbook of crystal growth...planetary science. In Handbook of crystal growth...

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Transverse acoustic actuation of Ni-Mn-Ga single crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two methods for the transverse acoustic actuation of {110}-cut Ni-Mn-Ga single crystals are discussed. In this actuation mode, crystals are used that have the {110}- type twinning planes parallel to the base of the crystal. ...

Simon, Jesse Matthew

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Crack propagation driven by crystal growth  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crystals that grow in confinement may exert a force on their surroundings and thereby drive crack propagation in rocks and other materials. We describe a model of crystal growth in an idealized crack geometry in which the crystal growth and crack propagation are coupled through the stress in the surrounding bulk solid. Subcritical crack propagation takes place during a transient period, which may be very long, during which the crack velocity is limited by the kinetics of crack propagation. When the crack is sufficiently large, the crack velocity becomes limited by the kinetics of crystal growth. The duration of the subcritical regime is determined by two non-dimensional parameters, which relate the kinetics of crack propagation and crystal growth to the supersaturation of the fluid and the elastic properties of the surrounding material.

A. Royne; Paul Meaking; A. Malthe-Sorenssen; B. Jamtveit; D. K. Dysthe

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

THE TWO STAGE CRYSTAL COLLIMATOR FOR RHIC.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of a two stage crystal collimation system in the RHIC yellow ring is examined. The system includes a copper beam scraper and a bent silicon crystal. While scrapers were installed in both of the RHIC rings before the year 2000 run, the crystal is installed for the 2001 run in one ring only, forming a two stage collimation system there. We present simulations of the expected channeling through the bent silicon crystal for both protons and gold ions with various beam parameters. This gives a picture of the particle losses around the ring, and the expected channeling efficiency. These results are then used to optimize the beam parameters in the area of the crystal to obtain maximum channeling efficiency, minimize out-scattering in the secondary collimator, and reduce beam halo.

FLILLER, R.P. III; DREES, A.; GASSNER, D.; HAMMONS, L.; MCINTYRE, G.; TRBOJEVIC, D.; BIRYUKOV, V.; CHESNOKOV, Y.; TEREKHOV, V.

2001-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

216

OPTICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CERAMIC CRYSTAL LASER MATERIALS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Historically ceramic crystal laser material has had disadvantages compared to single crystal laser material. However, progress has been made in the last decade and a… (more)

Simmons, Jed

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Water structure associated with proteins and its role in crystallization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water molecules occupy well determined sites inside or at the surface of biological macromolecules. On crystallization some of these waters are either desolvated or involved in crystal packing.

Frey, M.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Crystallization screening: the influence of history on current practice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The rich history of crystallization and how that history influences current practices is described. The tremendous impact of crystallization screens on the field is discussed.

Luft, J.R.

2014-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

219

Effect of pressure on the crystal structure of ettringite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

K.L. Scrivener, Delayed ettringite formation, Cement andCrystal Structure of Ettringite, Nature 218 (1968) 1048-in crystal structure of ettringite on dehydration 2. Cement

Clark, Simon M.; Colas, Bruno; Kunz, Martin; Speziale, Sergio; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Cool Muscles: Storing Elastic Energy for Flight | Advanced Photon Source  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Further Understanding of Superconductivity A Further Understanding of Superconductivity New Family of Tiny Crystals Glow Bright in LED Lights How Serotonin Receptors Can Shape Drug Effects, from LSD to Migraine Medication X-rays Paint a Picture of Picasso's Pigments Antibody Evolution Could Guide HIV Vaccine Development Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Cool Muscles: Storing Elastic Energy for Flight JUNE 12, 2013 Bookmark and Share The moth Manduca sexta, in flight, and diffraction images from the time point directly following muscle stimulation, which highlight the temperature dependent variation in lattice structure. The temperature dependent change in lattice spacing is present as a difference in the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Science & Discovery | ORNL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Clean Energy National Security Neutron Science Nuclear Science Supercomputing and Computation More Science Hubs, Centers and Institutes US ITER Mars 'Curiosity' has ORNL tech New family of tiny crystals glows bright in LED lights Home | Science & Discovery SHARE Science & Discovery As the US Department of Energy's largest multi-program laboratory, ORNL is engaged in a wide range of activities that support the department's mission of ensuring America's security and prosperity by addressing its energy and environmental challenges. To accomplish this, the laboratory applies a remarkable portfolio of scientific expertise and world-class scientific facilities and equipment to develop scientific and technological solutions. ORNL focuses these resources on delivering scientific discoveries and new

222

A New Family of Quasicrystals | Advanced Photon Source  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Muscles: Storing Elastic Energy for Flight Cool Muscles: Storing Elastic Energy for Flight A Further Understanding of Superconductivity New Family of Tiny Crystals Glow Bright in LED Lights How Serotonin Receptors Can Shape Drug Effects, from LSD to Migraine Medication X-rays Paint a Picture of Picasso's Pigments Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed A New Family of Quasicrystals JUNE 24, 2013 Bookmark and Share The pentagonal dodecahedral morphology of the icosahedral phase is shown with a millimeter scale; grains as large as 1.0 mm have been grown. Just as fishing experts know that casting a line in the right spot hooks the big catch, scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of

223

Organic Polymers Show Sunny Potential | Advanced Photon Source  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A New Family of Quasicrystals A New Family of Quasicrystals Cool Muscles: Storing Elastic Energy for Flight A Further Understanding of Superconductivity New Family of Tiny Crystals Glow Bright in LED Lights How Serotonin Receptors Can Shape Drug Effects, from LSD to Migraine Medication Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Organic Polymers Show Sunny Potential JUNE 25, 2013 Bookmark and Share Researchers at Rice and Pennsylvania State universities have created solar cells based on block copolymers, self-assembling organic materials that arrange themselves into distinct layers. Image courtesy of the Gomez Laboratory A new version of solar cells created by laboratories at the Rice and

224

NMR and NQR parameters of ethanol crystal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric field gradients and chemical shielding tensors of the stable monoclinic crystal phase of ethanol are computed. The projector-augmented wave (PAW) and gauge-including projector-augmented wave (GIPAW) models in the periodic plane-wave density functional theory are used. The crystal data from X-ray measurements, as well as the structures where either all atomic, or only hydrogen atom positions are optimized in the density functional theory are analyzed. These structural models are also studied by including the semi-empirical Van der Waals correction to the density functional theory. Infrared spectra of these five crystal models are calculated.

Milinkovic, M

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Novel photonic crystal cavities and related structures.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The key accomplishment of this project is to achieve a much more in-depth understanding of the thermal emission physics of metallic photonic crystal through theoretical modeling and experimental measurements. An improved transfer matrix technique was developed to enable incorporation of complex dielectric function. Together with microscopic theory describing emitter radiative and non-radiative relaxation dynamics, a non-equilibrium thermal emission model is developed. Finally, experimental methodology was developed to measure absolute emissivity of photonic crystal at high temperatures with accuracy of +/-2%. Accurate emissivity measurements allow us to validate the procedure to treat the effect of the photonic crystal substrate.

Luk, Ting Shan

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Cold neutron scattering in imperfect deuterium crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The differential cross sections for cold neutron scattering in mosaic deuterium crystals have been calculated for various target temperatures. The theoretical results are compared with the recent experimental data for the neutron wavelengths $\\lambda\\approx$~1--9~\\AA. It is shown that the structures of observed Bragg peaks can be explained by the mosaic spread of about $3^{\\circ}$ and contributions from a~limited number of crystal orientations. Such a~crystal structure should be also taken into account in ultracold neutron upscattering due to the coherent phonon annihilation in solid deuterium.

Andrzej Adamczak

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

227

Absence of Wigner crystallization in graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Graphene, a single sheet of graphite, has attracted tremendous attention due to recent experiments which demonstrate that carriers in it are described by massless fermions with linear dispersion. In this Brief Report, we consider the possibility of Wigner crystallization in graphene in the absence of an external magnetic field. We show that the ratio of potential and kinetic energy is independent of the carrier density, the tuning parameter that usually drives Wigner crystallization, and find that for given material parameters (dielectric constant and Fermi velocity), Wigner crystallization is not possible. We comment on how these results change in the presence of a strong external magnetic field.

Hari P. Dahal; Yogesh N. Joglekar; Kevin S. Bedell; Alexander V. Balatsky

2006-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

228

CRYSTAL CHEMISTRY OF HYDROUS MINERALS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen has long been appreciated for its role in geological processes of the Earth's crust. However, its role in Earth's deep interior has been neglected in most geophysical thinking. Yet it is now believed that most of our planet's hydrogen may be locked up in high pressure phases of hydrous silicate minerals within the Earth's mantle. This rocky interior (approximately 7/8 of Earth's volume) is conjectured to contain 1-2 orders of magnitude more water than the more obvious oceans (the ''hydrosphere'') and atmosphere. This project is aimed at using the capability of neutron scattering from hydrogen to study the crystal chemistry and stability of hydrogen-bearing minerals at high pressures and temperatures. At the most basic level this is a study of the atomic position and hydrogen bond itself. We have conducted experimental runs on hydrous minerals under high pressure and high temperature conditions. The crystallographic structure of hydrous minerals at extreme conditions and its structural stability, and hydrogen bond at high P-T conditions are the fundamental questions to be addressed. The behavior of the hydrous minerals in the deep interior of the Earth has been discussed.

Y. ZHAO; ET AL

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

JX Crystals Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

JX Crystals Inc JX Crystals Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name JX Crystals Inc Place Issaquah, Washington State Zip 98027 Sector Solar Product JX Crystals designs and manufactures thermophotovoltaic gallium-antimonide cells for solar applications. Coordinates 47.530095°, -122.033799° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":47.530095,"lon":-122.033799,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

230

Styrene Purification and Recovery Using Freeze Crystallization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lab tests have demonstrated the ability to separate styrene from ABS and SAN plastics wastes by cooling the waste until the styrene begins to crystallize. The same process that recovers styrene from these wastes can be used to purify styrene...

Heist, J. A.; Wrobel, P. J.

231

The Crystal Method: Asteroseismology of BPM 37093  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

More than 40 years have passed since Ed Salpeter and others predicted that the carbon/oxygen cores of the coolest white dwarf stars in our Galaxy will theoretically crystallize. This effect has a dramatic impact on the calculated ages of cool white dwarfs, but until recently we have had no way of testing the theory. In 1992, pulsations were discovered in the massive potentially crystallized white dwarf BPM 37093, and in 1999 the theoretical effects of crystallization on the pulsation modes were determined. Observations from two Whole Earth Telescope campaigns in 1998 and 1999, combined with a new model-fitting method using a genetic algorithm, are now giving us the first glimpse inside of a crystallized star.

T. S. Metcalfe; M. H. Montgomery; A. Kanaan

2004-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

232

Squeezed state generation in photonic crystal microcavities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Squeezed state generation in photonic crystal microcavities M. G. Banaee, Jeff F. Young Department, G. C. Aers, R. L. Williams, "Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar

Young, Jeff

233

Photo-responsive liquid crystal block copolymers/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photo-responsive liquid crystal polymers (LCP) which contain azobenzene moieties have gained interest for their ability to change properties by merely irradiating them with the correct wavelength of light in the appropriate ...

Petr, Michael Thomas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Neutron detection with single crystal organic scintillators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detection of high-energy neutrons in the presence of gamma radiation background utilizes pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) phenomena in organics studied previously only with limited number of materials, mostly liquid scintillators and single crystal stilbene. The current paper presents the results obtained with broader varieties of luminescent organic single crystals. The studies involve experimental tools of crystal growth and material characterization in combination with the advanced computer modeling, with the final goal of better understanding the relevance between the nature of the organic materials and their PSD properties. Special consideration is given to the factors that may diminish or even completely obscure the PSD properties in scintillating crystals. Among such factors are molecular and crystallographic structures that determine exchange coupling and exciton mobility in organic materials and the impurity effect discussed on the examples of trans-stilbene, bibenzyl, 9,10-diphenylanthracene and diphenylacetylene.

Zaitseva, N; Newby, J; Hamel, S; Carman, L; Faust, M; Lordi, V; Cherepy, N; Stoeffl, W; Payne, S

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

Nanoparticle-chiral nematic liquid crystal composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The advancement of the fabrication of a one-dimensional photonic crystal without time-reversal and space-inversion symmetries was pursued. Theoretical studies predict that such a system would exhibit unusual optical ...

Payne, Jeffrey C. (Jeffrey Christopher), 1981-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Photonic crystals : from theory to practice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, we explore the design, computation, and analysis of photonic crystals, with a special emphasis on structures and devices that make a connection with practically realizable systems. First, we analyze the ...

Johnson, Steven G., 1973-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Goethite liquid crystals and magnetic field effects.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In this thesis the liquid crystal phase behavior of colloidal, boardlike, goethite (alpha-FeOOH) particles is described. Apart from the nematic phase, a smectic A phase… (more)

Pol, E. van den

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Illusory spirals and loops in crystal growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...spirals and loops in crystal growth 10.1073/pnas.1311637110 Alexander G. Shtukenberg Zina Zhu Zhihua An Misha Bhandari Pengcheng Song Bart Kahr Michael D. Ward Molecular Design Institute and Department of Chemistry, New York University, New York...

Alexander G. Shtukenberg; Zina Zhu; Zhihua An; Misha Bhandari; Pengcheng Song; Bart Kahr; Michael D. Ward

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Crystallization of carbon tetrachloride in confined geometries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Crystallization of carbon tetrachloride in confined geometries Adil Meziane1 , Jean-Pierre E 40 71 08 #12;2 Abstract The thermal behaviour of carbon tetrachloride confined in silica gels

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

240

Chapter 6 - Electronic Properties of Selected Crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this chapter we give a brief survey of the electronic structure of some crystals of particular interest from a fundamental or technological point of view; the focus is not on the properties of single specific crystals, but rather on the trends in similar compounds. We begin with the description of rare-gas solids, which are large gap insulators formed by weakly interacting closed-shell neutral atoms. We then describe ionic crystals, constituted by strongly interacting closed-shell ions. In the discussion of crystals made up by open-shell units, we consider typical examples of covalent semiconductors and of the metallic bond. We also describe some electronic features of carbon allotropes, with particular attention to Dirac points in the band structure of graphene.

Giuseppe Grosso; Giuseppe Pastori Parravicini

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

P-156 / G. Hegde P-156: Alignment of Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals with the Substrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from JSR. The polymer layers were spin coated at 3000 rpm on glass slides (2x3 cm) containing patterned layer source (ALS) with a race track shaped glow discharge area [7, 10]. In the beam mode, this source irradiation. The incidence angle of plasma beam was about 70 . The distance between discharge area and treated

242

Model of the Kinetics of Polymorphous Crystallization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We propose a phase-field model for the kinetics of isothermal crystallization of an amorphous solid at a concentration nearly equal to the equilibrium crystal stochiometry. The model utilizes two coupled fields: a nonconserved ordering vector field which describes the local lattice structure and a conserved nonordering scalar field describing the local atomic composition. Results of large-scale computer simulations are reported which can be compared with experiments.

B. Morin; K. R. Elder; M. Sutton; Martin Grant

1995-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

243

Skyrme and Wigner crystals in graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

At low energy, the band structure of graphene can be approximated by two degenerate valleys (K,K?) about which the electronic spectra of the valence and conduction bands have linear dispersion relations. An electronic state in this band spectrum is a linear superposition of states from the A and B sublattices of the honeycomb lattice of graphene. In a quantizing magnetic field, the band spectrum is split into Landau levels with level N=0 having zero weight on the B(A) sublattice for the K(K?) valley. Treating the valley index as a pseudospin and assuming the real spins to be fully polarized, we compute the energy of Wigner and Skyrme crystals in the Hartree-Fock approximation. We show that Skyrme crystals have lower energy than Wigner crystals (WCs), i.e., crystals with no pseudospin texture in some range of filling factor ? around integer fillings. The collective mode spectrum of the valley-skyrmion crystal has three linearly dispersing Goldstone modes in addition to the usual phonon mode, while a WC has only one extra Goldstone mode with a quadratic dispersion. We comment on how these modes should be affected by disorder and how, in principle, a microwave absorption experiment could distinguish between Wigner and Skyrme crystals.

R. Côté; J.-F. Jobidon; H. A. Fertig

2008-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

244

Development of single crystal filaments. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The program just completed addresses a route to a more efficient longer-lasting electric light bulb filament. All current filaments for light bulbs are metallic in nature. They are subject to embrittlement with age (large grain growth) and relatively high vapor pressures which limits their operating temperature. There is evidence which suggests advantages to using high temperature refractory single crystal fibers as a filament for a light bulb. These refractory materials may include materials such as hafnium or tantalum carbide which have melting points about 500{degrees}C higher than tungsten. Another advantage is that single crystal fibers have a very high degree of crystalline perfection with very few voids and dislocations. Without these imperfections, the atomic mobility at high temperatures is highly restricted. Thus single crystal fibers are very stable at high temperature and will last longer. The efficiencies result from running these single crystal ceramic fiber filaments at higher temperatures and the higher emissivity of the carbide filaments compared to tungsten. The amount of visible light is proportional to the 4the power of the temperature thus a 500{degrees}C higher operating give about a 3-fold increase in radiation in the visible range. The program accomplishments can be summarized as follows: (1) Single crystal fibers of JfC sufficient crystal quality for light bulb filament applications were made. (2) The HfC fiber furnace growth chamber, power control and data collection system was developed for the laboratory scale plant. (3) method for mounting and apparatuses for testing the single crystal fiber filaments were developed and built.

Milewski, J.V.; Shoultz, R.A.; Bourque-McConnell, M.M.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Surface Energy,Surface Energy, Surface Tension & Shape of CrystalsSurface Tension & Shape of Crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface Energy,Surface Energy, Surface Tension & Shape of CrystalsSurface Tension & Shape of shapes of crystals are important: (i) growth shape and (ii) equilibrium shape Surface/interface energy surfaces. The joining of two phases creates an interface. (Two orientations of the same crystalline phase

Subramaniam, Anandh

246

CRYSTAL Simulation Code and New Coherent Effects in Bent Crystal at the LHC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The LHC crystal-based collimation system is mainly addressed. A CRYSTAL simulation code for particle tracking in crystals is introduced. Its essence consists in both adequate and fast sampling of proton trajectories in crystals which is crucial for both correct description of experiments and quantitative prediction of new effects. The H8 single-pass experiment at the CERN SPS as well as 7 TeV proton deflection by a bent crystal at the LHC are simulated. We predict the existence of dechanneling peaks corresponding to the planar channeling oscillations as well as describe the possibility of their observation at high energies, specifically in the LHC crystal-assisted collimation experiment planned on 2015. An effect of excess over the amorphous level of ionization losses in the channeling mode was also found for the LHC energy. In addition, the LHC crystal-based collimation system is simulated as well as its possible improved layouts with application of a crystal with the cut and multiple volume reflection in on...

Sytov, Alexei I

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

The play of light in crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

And God said: 'Let there be light', and there was light. Genesis 1 3 When trapped in a crystal, light interacts with electrons, phonons (crystal lattice vibrations) and defects, generating many effects which are important not only for pure physics, by broadening our comprehension of nature, but also for practical applications. These include: photo-galvanic effects; discrete light scattering on lattice vibrations; laser radiation, first observed in ruby crystals; nonlinear effects resulting in generation of harmonics, so that under incidence of an intense coherent light beam onto a crystal it emits (or reflects) light of different wavelengths; transformation of the electron avalanche in semiconductors and semiconductor microstructures into the flow of coherent 'laser' light; and the capability of polarized light to magnetize electrons and nuclei in a crystal. This is far from being a complete list of the remarkable optical effects that scientists have observed and studied in crystals. Countless scientific papers and monographs have been devoted to these investigations, with quite a number of them leading to the award of Nobel Prizes. Here I'm going to speak very briefly, simplifying the problem as best I can, about a remarkable optical phenomenon in crystals: the generation by light of a quasiparticle called an 'exciton'. Why is it a 'quasiparticle', i.e. 'as if' a particle, and not a true particle? Because it exists in a crystal and not in vacuum and moves in a periodically changing field created by the atoms (ions) of the crystal lattice. In this respect, an electron in a crystal is also a quasiparticle. The idea of the exciton dawned upon Yakov Ilyich Frenkel, the well-known physicist of the Physico-Technical Institute (PhysTech), in 1931. Omitting the details that would require knowledge not only of quantum physics, but also of the history of its development, I'll say only that the Frenkel exciton is the excited state of the crystal, which is created, for instance, by light and which, arising in one of the crystal cells, spreads over the whole crystal, because the cells differ absolutely in no way from one another. Physicists call such a situation translation symmetry. Without going into the mechanism of the energy transfer from cell to cell, note only that the whole crystal, like a gigantic molecule, assumes in the excited exciton state. The word 'exciton' was coined by Frenkel himself, who had formed it from old Greek exito, meaning 'I excite'. Yakov Ilyich liked to give names to newly-discovered particles, and it was he who invented the name 'phonon' for the vibrational quantum of the crystal lattice. Few physicists know that the godfather of this term, forever established in physics, was Frenkel. When Frenkel reported his study on the exciton at PhysTech, one of his young colleagues couldn't help joking: 'Yasha, why didn't you name this particle in Russian---vozbudon'? (From the Russian vozbudit, meaning 'to excite'.) In contrast to the electron, which can also be excited by light in a crystal, the exciton is electrically neutral. Moving in the crystal it transfers energy, but not a charge. A neutral exciton is very much like an atom. But this 'atom' is generated by light within a crystal. The model of such a quasi-atom is particularly obvious in semiconductor crystals, where it can be conceived as an electron and a positively charged hole bound by Coulomb interaction. It is very much like the Dirac electron--positron pair, whose existence ensues from the well-known Dirac equation taking into account relativistic invariance---the same equation that has revealed to mankind the existence of antimatter. I think that it was under the influence of Dirac's ideas that the Englishman Mott and the American Wannier suggested an exciton model analogous to the positronium atom (an electron and a positron bound to each other by Coulomb interaction). It should be noted that both Mott and Wannier worked at Bristol University where Dirac had worked. Usually, the Wannier--Mott exciton is called hydrogen-like, bearing in mind its s

Boris Petrovitch Zakharchenya

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Density functional theory for carbon dioxide crystal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a density functional approach to describe the solid?liquid phase transition, interfacial and crystal structure, and properties of polyatomic CO{sub 2}. Unlike previous phase field crystal model or density functional theory, which are derived from the second order direct correlation function, the present density functional approach is based on the fundamental measure theory for hard-sphere repulsion in solid. More importantly, the contributions of enthalpic interactions due to the dispersive attractions and of entropic interactions arising from the molecular architecture are integrated in the density functional model. Using the theoretical model, the predicted liquid and solid densities of CO{sub 2} at equilibrium triple point are in good agreement with the experimental values. Based on the structure of crystal-liquid interfaces in different planes, the corresponding interfacial tensions are predicted. Their respective accuracies need to be tested.

Chang, Yiwen; Mi, Jianguo, E-mail: mijg@mail.buct.edu.cn; Zhong, Chongli [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

249

Nano-crystal growth in cordierite glass ceramics studied with X-ray scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nano-crystal growth in cordierite glass ceramics studiedmatrix in which crystalline nano-crystals are embedded. Bysample the Cr containing spinel nano crystals. In these SEM

Bras, Wim

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Preliminary Results from Pyroelectric Crystal Accelerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Nuclear Science and Engineering Research Center (NSERC), a Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) office located at the United States Military Academy (USMA), sponsors and manages cadet and faculty research in support of DTRA objectives. Cadets in the Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering at USMA are using pyroelectric crystals to ionize and accelerate residual gas trapped inside a vacuum system. A system using two lithium tantalate crystals with associated diagnostics was designed and is now operational. X-ray energies of approximately 150 keV have been achieved. Future work will focus on developing a portable neutron generator using the D-D nuclear fusion process.

Anderson, Tom; Edwards, Ronald; Bright, Kevin; Kovanen, Andrew; Moretti, Brian; Gillich, Don [Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, United States Military Academy, West Point, NY 10996 (United States); Danon, Yaron [Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Musk, Jeffrey; Shannon, Mike [Nuclear Science and Engineering Research Center, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, West Point, NY 10996 (United States)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Local-field factors in cubic crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The local-field factors at an atomic site are calculated in the electric-dipole approximation for monatomic and diatomic cubic lattices. Their symmetry relations are deduced from thermodynamics, and an explicit computation as a function of the electronic delocalization is performed in several usual cases within the linear-screening approximation. Then the effective field undergone by an elementary excitation of the crystal (phonon, exciton) is investigated. A comparison is made with Hopfield's model concerning Frenkel's excitons, and with the Born and Huang theory of the infrared dielectric properties of ionic crystals.

R. Bonneville

1980-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

252

Metamaterial model of a time crystal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Propagation of monochromatic extraordinary light in a hyperbolic metamaterial is identical to propagation of massive particles in a three dimensional effective Minkowski spacetime, in which the role of a timelike variable is played by one of the spatial coordinates. We demonstrate that this analogy may be used to build a metamaterial model of a time crystal, which has been recently suggested by Wilczek and Shapere. It is interesting to note that the effective single-particle energy spectrum in such a model does not contain a static ground state, thus providing a loophole in the proof of time crystal non-existence by P. Bruno.

Smolyaninov, Igor I

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Seismic Crystals And Earthquake Shield Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We theoretically demonstrate that earthquake shield made of seismic crystal can damp down surface waves, which are the most destructive type for constructions. In the paper, seismic crystal is introduced in aspect of band gaps (Stop band) and some design concepts for earthquake and tsunami shielding were discussed in theoretical manner. We observed in our FDTD based 2D elastic wave simulations that proposed earthquake shield could provide about 0.5 reductions in magnitude of surface wave on the Richter scale. This reduction rate in magnitude can considerably reduce destructions in the case of earthquake.

B. Baykant Alagoz; Serkan Alagoz

2009-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

254

Transition from Glow to Arc Discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... I HAVE suggested1 a mechanism to account for the occurrence of long electrical discharges in ... in electric fields which are only of the order of one per cent of those generally believed2 ...

CHAS. E. R. BRUCE

1948-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

255

The Glow-worm and other Beetles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... object of the feminine beacon; but of what use is all the rest of the pyrotechnic display? To my great regret, I cannot tell. It is and will be, ...

1920-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

256

What about Bulk Objects? "All things glow"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy emission T = temperature of the object As T , max As T , TOTAL[E] P = E/t =AT4 = object, trapping energy from the sun" (www.ucar.edu) #12;Note: 1) Atmospheric convection should increase in global to the "Encounter with Energy"...! ! How Is Energy Encountered... or Transferred? 1. Electromagnetic Waves (just

257

Super-collimation in a rod-based photonic crystal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Super-collimation is the propagation of a light beam without spreading that occurs when the light beam is guided by the dispersion properties of a photonic crystal, rather than by defects in the photonic crystal. ...

Shih, Ta-Ming, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

5.841 Crystal Structure Refinement, Fall 2006  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This course in crystal structure refinement examines the practical aspects of crystal structure determination from data collection strategies to data reduction and basic and advanced refinement problems of organic and ...

Mueller, Peter

259

5.067 Crystal Structure Refinement, Fall 2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This course in crystal structure refinement examines the practical aspects of crystal structure determination from data collection strategies to data reduction and basic and advanced refinement problems of organic and ...

Mueller, Peter

260

Growth of high-temperature superconductor crystals from flux  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Crystallization of high-temperature superconductors was studied in La-Sr-Cu-O,...2Cu3O6.5+x were obtained by spontaneous crystallization from homogeneous nonstoichiometric melts enriched in bariu...

L N Demianets; A B Bykov; O K Melnikov; S M Stishov

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding Print Wednesday, 25 July 2012 00:00 Nature's proteins set a high bar...

262

Thin magnetic crystals are path to ferromagnetic graphene | ornl...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Functional Materials for Energy Thin magnetic crystals are path to ferromagnetic graphene January 23, 2015 The crystal structure of CrI3 includes hexagonal nets formed by Cr atoms...

263

The Crystal Chemistry of the Phosphate Minerals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Crystallogr B33:3449-3452 Catti M, Ferraris G, Ivaldi G (1977c) Hydrogen bondng in the crystalline state. Structure of talmessite, Ca2(Mg,Co)(AsO4)2 2H2O, and crystal chemistry of related minerals. Bull Mineral 100:230-236 Catti M, Ferraris...

Danielle M.C. Huminicki; Frank C. Hawthorne

264

The study of organic crystals by atomic force microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2.16 2-D and 3-D height images of a chocolate sample obtained at various storage times. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.17 AFM images of the {110} face of paracetamol crystals. . . . . . 26 2.18 AFM images of glycine crystals... ]. Among others, such interactions include hydrogen bonding, halogen bonding, as well as pi-pi interactions [4]. By understanding the behaviour of these interactions, crystal engineering was developed not only for the study of crystal structures, but also...

Chow, Ernest Ho Hin

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

EFFECT OF FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION ON 25 MG OF EVAPORATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.5 of the melilite crystal surfaces, where DMg is the diffusion coefficient of Mg as a function of akermanite content

Grossman, Lawrence

266

Analysis ofNematic Liquid Crystals with Disclination Lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with Disclination Lines. PATRICIA BAUMAN*, JINHAE PARKT & DANIEL PHILLIPs*. Abstract. We investigate the structure of nematic liquid crystal thin ?lms ...

267

Trigonal ice crystals in Earth’s atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We are all familiar with the hexagonal shape of snow and ice crystals, and it is well established that their six-fold symmetry is derived from the arrangement of water molecules in a hexagonal crystal structure. However, atmospheric ice crystals with only ...

Benjamin J. Murray; Christoph G. Salzmann; Andrew J. Heymsfield; Steven Dobbie; Ryan R. Neely--III; Christopher J. Cox

268

Liquid crystals and Q-tensors The free energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liquid crystals and Q-tensors The free energy A temperature-dependent model Mathematical results #12;Liquid crystals and Q-tensors The free energy A temperature-dependent model Mathematical results, Non-isothermal nematic liquid crystals flows with the Ball-Majumdar free energy, Ann. Mat. Pura Appl

Segatti, Antonio

269

Induced Positron Annihiliation Investigation of Cadmium Zinc Telluride Crystal Microstructures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) crystals are used in semiconductor radiation detectors for the detection of x-ray and gamma radiation. However, production of detector grade crystals is difficult as small variations in compositional uniformity and primarily the zinc content can significantly affect the ability of the CZT crystal to function as a radiation detector. Currently there are no known nondestructive methods that can be used to identify detector grade crystals. The current test method is to fabricate and test the detector to determine if the crystal is sufficiently uniform and of the correct composition to be considered a detector grade crystal. Consequently, nondestructive detection methods are needed to identify detector grade crystals prior to the fabrication process. The purpose of this feasibility study was to perform a preliminary assessment of the ability of several new, nondestructive technologies based on Induced Positron Annihilation (IPA) to determine if detector grade CZT crystals can be identified. Results of measurements performed on specimens from Fisk University and EV Products, Inc. indicate that both the near surface Distributed Source Positron Annihilation (up to 3 mm penetration) and the volumetric Photon Induced Positron Annihilation methods may be suitable for determining CZT crystal quality. Further work on CZT crystals with a broader range of compositions and detector characteristics is needed to provide a well defined, calibrated, method for assessing CZT crystal quality.

D. W. Akers

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

T-542: SAP Crystal Reports Server Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2: SAP Crystal Reports Server Multiple Vulnerabilities 2: SAP Crystal Reports Server Multiple Vulnerabilities T-542: SAP Crystal Reports Server Multiple Vulnerabilities January 25, 2011 - 2:30pm Addthis PROBLEM: SAP Crystal Reports Server Multiple Vulnerabilities. PLATFORM: Crystal Reports Server 2008 ABSTRACT: Multiple vulnerabilities in SAP Crystal Reports Server 2008, which can be exploited by malicious users to disclose potentially sensitive information and by malicious people to conduct cross-site scripting attacks, manipulate certain data, and compromise a user's system. reference LINKS: Secunia Advisory SA43060 Vulnerability Report: Crystal Reports Server 2008 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: High Discussion: 1) Input passed to the "actId" parameter in InfoViewApp/jsp/common/actionNav.jsp, "backUrl" parameter in

271

T-542: SAP Crystal Reports Server Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2: SAP Crystal Reports Server Multiple Vulnerabilities 2: SAP Crystal Reports Server Multiple Vulnerabilities T-542: SAP Crystal Reports Server Multiple Vulnerabilities January 25, 2011 - 2:30pm Addthis PROBLEM: SAP Crystal Reports Server Multiple Vulnerabilities. PLATFORM: Crystal Reports Server 2008 ABSTRACT: Multiple vulnerabilities in SAP Crystal Reports Server 2008, which can be exploited by malicious users to disclose potentially sensitive information and by malicious people to conduct cross-site scripting attacks, manipulate certain data, and compromise a user's system. reference LINKS: Secunia Advisory SA43060 Vulnerability Report: Crystal Reports Server 2008 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: High Discussion: 1) Input passed to the "actId" parameter in InfoViewApp/jsp/common/actionNav.jsp, "backUrl" parameter in

272

High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut (.alpha.=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5-30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the .mu.eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator.

Alp, Ercan E. (Bolingbrook, IL); Mooney, Timothy M. (Westmont, IL); Toellner, Thomas (Green Bay, WI)

1996-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

273

Low Radioactivity Crystals for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Detectors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The production of crystals needed for rare events physics represent a relatively new exciting challenge in the field of materials science and engineering. Extremely low concentration of radioactive impurities and very high crystal perfection is required for the crystals to be used in experiments in which the main concerns are the reduction of the background and the use of high sensitivity detectors. A further complication is the fact that for an experiment with a significant discovery potential relatively large quantities of crystals are needed. The present work makes a review of the general problems related to the production of crystals for rare events physics and gives details related to the production of the TeO 2 crystals needed for the major experiment in this field using bolometric technique namely the CUORE experiment. The potential use of crystals for future double beta decay experiments is also discussed.

Ioan Dafinei; CUORE Collaboration

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print When it comes to metal catalysts, platinum is the standard. However, at about $2,000 an ounce, the high cost of the raw material presents major challenges for the future wide-scale use of platinum in fuel cells. Berkeley Lab research suggests that one possible way to meet these challenges is to think small. Researchers from Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division have found that under high pressure-comparable to the pressures at which many industrial technologies operate-platinum surfaces can change their structure dramatically in response to the presence of high-coverage reactants. High-pressure scanning tunneling microscopes (STM) and ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at ALS Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 allowed researchers to study catalysts' structure and composition under realistic conditions.

275

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print When it comes to metal catalysts, platinum is the standard. However, at about $2,000 an ounce, the high cost of the raw material presents major challenges for the future wide-scale use of platinum in fuel cells. Berkeley Lab research suggests that one possible way to meet these challenges is to think small. Researchers from Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division have found that under high pressure-comparable to the pressures at which many industrial technologies operate-platinum surfaces can change their structure dramatically in response to the presence of high-coverage reactants. High-pressure scanning tunneling microscopes (STM) and ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at ALS Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 allowed researchers to study catalysts' structure and composition under realistic conditions.

276

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print When it comes to metal catalysts, platinum is the standard. However, at about $2,000 an ounce, the high cost of the raw material presents major challenges for the future wide-scale use of platinum in fuel cells. Berkeley Lab research suggests that one possible way to meet these challenges is to think small. Researchers from Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division have found that under high pressure-comparable to the pressures at which many industrial technologies operate-platinum surfaces can change their structure dramatically in response to the presence of high-coverage reactants. High-pressure scanning tunneling microscopes (STM) and ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at ALS Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 allowed researchers to study catalysts' structure and composition under realistic conditions.

277

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print When it comes to metal catalysts, platinum is the standard. However, at about $2,000 an ounce, the high cost of the raw material presents major challenges for the future wide-scale use of platinum in fuel cells. Berkeley Lab research suggests that one possible way to meet these challenges is to think small. Researchers from Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division have found that under high pressure-comparable to the pressures at which many industrial technologies operate-platinum surfaces can change their structure dramatically in response to the presence of high-coverage reactants. High-pressure scanning tunneling microscopes (STM) and ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at ALS Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 allowed researchers to study catalysts' structure and composition under realistic conditions.

278

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print When it comes to metal catalysts, platinum is the standard. However, at about $2,000 an ounce, the high cost of the raw material presents major challenges for the future wide-scale use of platinum in fuel cells. Berkeley Lab research suggests that one possible way to meet these challenges is to think small. Researchers from Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division have found that under high pressure-comparable to the pressures at which many industrial technologies operate-platinum surfaces can change their structure dramatically in response to the presence of high-coverage reactants. High-pressure scanning tunneling microscopes (STM) and ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at ALS Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 allowed researchers to study catalysts' structure and composition under realistic conditions.

279

Lamellar Crystallization and Melting of Polyoxymethylene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Polyoxymethylene has been crystallized isothermally from the melt and from solution and has been analyzed for the lamellar fold period as related to the melting behavior. The melt?crystallized samples gave intense low?angle x?ray and DTA peaks and in addition produced weak x?ray reflections and shoulders on the DTA melting peaks. The strong peaks yielded Tm 0(s)=210±10°C and two independent methods of calculating ? e (s) place its value at 150 erg/cm2 with a maximum variation of ±40 erg/cm2. A method of plotting the data is proposed which allows a determination of ? from the experimental data of about 14 erg/cm2. The weak peaks although not as accurate as the strong ones yielded Tm 0(w)=182°±2°C and ? e (w)=37±10 erg/cm2.

D. R. Carter; Eric Baer

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Liquid Crystal Microfluidics for Tunable Flow Shaping  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We explore the flow of a nematic liquid crystal in microfluidic channels with a rectangular cross section through experiments and numerical modeling. The flow profile and the liquid crystal orientational profile show three distinct regimes of weak, medium, and strong flow as the driving pressure is varied. These are identified by comparing polarizing optical microscopy experiments and numerical solutions of the nematofluidic equations of motion. The relative stability of the regimes is related to the de Gennes characteristic shear-flow lengths e1 and e2, together with the channel’s aspect ratio w/d. Finally, we show that the liquid crystalline microfluidic flow can be fully steered from left to right of a simple microchannel by applying transverse temperature gradients.

Anupam Sengupta; Uroš Tkalec; Miha Ravnik; Julia M. Yeomans; Christian Bahr; Stephan Herminghaus

2013-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Shock Driven Twinning in Tantalum Single Crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recovery based observations of high pressure material behavior generated under high explosively driven flyer based loading conditions are reported. Two shock pressures, 25, and 55 GPa and four orientations {l_brace}(100), (110), (111), (123){r_brace} were considered. Recovered material was characterized using electron backscatter diffraction along with a limited amount of transmission electron microscopy to assess the occurrence of twinning under each test condition. Material recovered from 25 GPa had a very small fraction of twinning for the (100), (110), and (111) oriented crystals while a more noticeable fraction of the (123) oriented crystal was twinned. Material recovered from 55 GPa showed little twinning for (100) orientation slightly more for the (111) orientation and a large area fraction for the (123) orientation. The EBSD and TEM observations of the underlying deformation substructure are rationalized by comparing with previous static and dynamic results.

McNaney, J M; HSUING, L M; Barton, N R; Kumar, M

2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

282

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print When it comes to metal catalysts, platinum is the standard. However, at about $2,000 an ounce, the high cost of the raw material presents major challenges for the future wide-scale use of platinum in fuel cells. Berkeley Lab research suggests that one possible way to meet these challenges is to think small. Researchers from Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division have found that under high pressure-comparable to the pressures at which many industrial technologies operate-platinum surfaces can change their structure dramatically in response to the presence of high-coverage reactants. High-pressure scanning tunneling microscopes (STM) and ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at ALS Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 allowed researchers to study catalysts' structure and composition under realistic conditions.

283

Method for fabricating apatite crystals and ceramics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a method of crystallizing Yb:C-FAP [Yb.sup.3+:Ca.sub.5(PO.sub.4).sub.3F], by dissolving the Yb:C-FAP in an acidic solution, following by neutralizing the solution. The present invention also provides a method of forming crystalline Yb:C-FAP by dissolving the component ingredients in an acidic solution, followed by forming a supersaturated solution.

Soules, Thomas F.; Schaffers, Kathleen I.; Tassano, Jr., John B.; Hollingsworth, Joel P.

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

284

Copper diffusion in single-crystal ?-Zr  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tracer diffusion of Cu64 in ?-Zr single crystals has been measured in the temperature range (615-860)°C. The temperature dependences of the Cu64 diffusion coefficients in directions parallel to and perpendicular to the c axis are given by D?=0.40e-1.54 eVkT and D?=0.25e-1.60 eVkT cm2/sec, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of an interstitial diffusion mechanism.

G. M. Hood and R. J. Schultz

1975-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Neutron Scattering by an Anharmonic Crystal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Baym's treatment of coherent scattering of slow neutrons by a crystal is examined and modified to include effects due to the cubic-anharmonic term in the lattice potential to second order in the coupling constant. Corrections to the Debye-Waller factor and to the "one-phonon" resonance peak are obtained, which appear to be negligible (?0.01%) for the case of a Bravais lattice and certainly <1% in other cases.

B. V. Thompson

1963-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

286

Crystal growth furnace with trap doors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved furnace is provided for growing crystalline bodies from a melt. The improved furnace is characterized by a door assembly which is remotely controlled and is arranged so as to selectively shut off or permit communication between an access port in the furnace enclosure and a hot zone within that enclosure. The invention is especially adapted to facilitate use of crystal growing cartridges of the type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,118,197.

Sachs, Emanual M. (Watertown, MA); Mackintosh, Brian H. (Lexington, MA)

1982-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

287

Crystallization of Sodium Phosphate Dodecahydrate and Re-Crystallization to Natrophosphate in Simulated Hanford Nuclear Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nuclear waste at the Hanford site near Richland, WA, has large concentrations of phosphate in the form of the phosphate ion, sodium phosphate dodecahydrate (Na3PO4.12H2O.(1/4)NaOH) and natrophosphate (Na7F(PO4)3.19H2O). Sodium phosphate dodecahydrate can form a gel and natrophosphate can crystallize large particles, complicating the processing of slurries of both salts. The gel is regarded as more problematic, so natrophosphate has historically been crystallized to prevent phosphate gelling. This study determined that natrophosphate crystals can grow to large size in short time periods (a few weeks), time periods relevant to short process shutdowns. Solutions of NaOH and NaAl(OH)4 were blended at different ratios with stock solutions containing NaOH, NaF, and Na3PO4 at 50 °C. The mixtures were allowed to cool to 22 °C, and the crystal growth was monitored by Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) for 17 days. Four of the six blends investigated gelled rapidly due to Na3PO4.12H2O.(1/4)NaOH precipitation. The gel slowly dissipated over time as the solids recrystallized into natrophosphate. In one case, the natrophosphate reached sizes of greater than 1000 microns in diameter in just 4 days. This rapid gelling and crystallization kinetics is important to engineers trying to manage nuclear wastes high in phosphates. Hanford tank farm engineers are developing sampling plans to support temperature and process control strategies for preventing the formation of solid phosphates. They are also developing methods of suspending large natrophosphate crystals.

Reynolds, J. G.

2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

288

The Particle Adventure | How do we experiment with tiny particles? |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Accelerating particles Accelerating particles Accelerating particles It is fairly easy to obtain particles. Physicists get electrons by heating metals; they get protons by robbing hydrogen of its electron; etc. Accelerators speed up charged particles by creating large electric fields which attract or repel the particles. This field is then moved down the accelerator, "pushing" the particles along. In a linear accelerator the field is due to traveling electromagnetic (E-M) waves. When an E-M wave hits a bunch of particles, those in the back get the biggest boost, while those in the front get less of a boost. In this fashion, the particles "ride" the front of the E-M wave like a bunch of surfers. The next page shows this process in an easier to understand animation

289

Photo of the Week: Tiny Batteries | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

which is a research collaboration between institutions from the U.S., Brazil, U.K., Germany, Spain and Switzerland. The survey aims to explore the dynamics of the universe's...

290

Tiny travelers from deep space could assist in healing Fukushima...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors. October 17, 2012 Los Alamos National Laboratory Muon Radiography team members stand in front of the damaged Fukushima Daiichi reactor...

291

Water from a stone: Tiny diamond contains secrets of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

's rocky layers that would explain volcanic activities and the interaction of tectonic plates sell their stones on wooden tables in little shacks. The surrounding area is a lush, flat grassland

Machel, Hans

292

Growth and characterisation of kh2 po4 kdp crystals doped with metal ions dyes amino acids and effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on doped kdp crystals;.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The beauty of crystals has always been fascinating Crystals lie at newlinethe root of todays advanced technology Over the past few decades the newlineadvancement in… (more)

Kumaresan P

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Anisotropy of Laser-Induced Bulk Damage of Single Crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The regularities of laser-induced damage of anisotropic materials, such as LiNbO3 and KDP dielectric single crystals, are experimentally studied. It is revealed that the shape of laser-induced damage in the dielectric crystals depends on the elastic symmetry of crystal and the propagation direction of the laser beam. When the beam propagates along the optic axis of crystals, the figures of the laser damage are six-path stars for LiNbO3 and four-path ones for KDP crystals. For the direction parallel to X and Y axes in KDP crystal, the damage has initially cross-like configuration, with further splitting of Z-oriented crack into two cracks in the process of damage evolution, leading to transformation of orthogonal-type damage to a hexagonal-type one.

Krupych, O; Smaga, I; Vlokh, R

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Ytterbium-doped borate fluoride laser crystals and lasers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new class of solid state laser crystals and lasers are formed from Yb-doped borate fluoride host crystals. The general formula for the host crystals is MM{prime}(BO{sub 3})F, where M, M{prime} are monovalent, divalent aria trivalent metal cations. A particular embodiment of the invention is Yb-doped BaCaBO{sub 3}F (Yb:BCBF). BCBF and some of the related derivative crystals are capable of nonlinear frequency conversion, whereby the fundamental of the laser is converted to a longer or shorter wavelength. In this way, these new crystals can simultaneously serve as self-frequency doubling crystals and laser materials within the laser resonator. 6 figs.

Schaffers, K.I.; DeLoach, L.D.; Payne, S.A.; Keszler, D.A.

1997-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

295

Non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device (10) including a photorefractive crystal (26) and a laser (12). The laser (12 ) produces a coherent light beam (14) which is split by a beam splitter (18) into a first laser beam (20) and a second laser beam (22). After passing through the crystal (26) the first laser beam (20) is counter-propagated back upon itself by a retro-mirror (32), creating a third laser beam (30). The laser beams (20, 22, 30) are modulated, due to the mixing effect within the crystal (26) by vibration of the crystal (30). In the third laser beam (30), modulation is stable and such modulation is converted by a photodetector (34) into a usable electrical output, intensity modulated in accordance with vibration applied to the crystal (26).

Kalibjian, Ralph (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

296

Crystallization and collapse in relativistically degenerate matter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, it is shown that a mass density limit exists beyond which the relativistically degenerate matter would crystallize. The mass density limit, found here, is quite analogous to the mass limit predicted by Chandrasekhar for a type of compact stars called white dwarfs (M{sub Ch} Asymptotically-Equal-To 1.43 Solar Mass). In this study, the old problem of white dwarf core collapse, which has been previously investigated by Chandrasekhar using hydrostatic stability criteria, is revisited in the framework of the quantum hydrodynamics model by inspection of the charge screening at atomic scales in the relativistic degeneracy plasma regime taking into account the relativistic Fermi-Dirac statistics and electron interaction features such as the quantum statistical pressure, Coulomb attraction, electron exchange-correlation, and quantum recoil effects. It is revealed that the existence of ion correlation and crystallization of matter in the relativistically degenerate plasma puts a critical mass density limit on white dwarf core region. It is shown that a white dwarf star with a core mass density beyond this critical limit can undergo the spontaneous core collapse (SCC). The SCC phenomenon, which is dominantly caused by the electron quantum recoil effect (interference and localization of the electron wave function), leads to a new exotic state of matter. In such exotic state, the relativistic electron degeneracy can lead the white dwarf crystallized core to undergo the nuclear fusion and an ultimate supernova by means of the volume reduction (due to the enhanced compressibility) and huge energy release (due to the increase in cohesive energy), under the stars huge inward gravitational pressure. Moreover, it is found that the SCC phenomenon is significantly affected by the core composition (it is more probable for heavier plasmas). The critical mass density found here is consistent with the values calculated for core density of typical white dwarf stars.

Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M. [International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany and Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, 51745-406 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

297

Surface Vibrations in a Model Hcp Crystal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-1973. R. E. Allen, G. P. Alldredge, and F. W. de Wette, Phys. Rev. B 4, 1661 (3.971). 2R. E. Allen and F. W. de Wette, Phys. Rev. 179, 873 0.969). ..., and F. W. de Wette, Phys. Rev. B4, 1661 (1971). PHYSICA L RE VIE W 8 VOLUME 6, NUMBE R 2 15 JULY 1972 Surface Vibrations in a Model hcp Crystal R. E. Allen Department of Physics, Texas A @ M University, College Station, Texas 77843 and G. P...

Allen, Roland E.; Alldredg, GP; DEWITTE, FW.

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Crystallization of M-CSF.alpha.  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to methods for crystallizing macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and to a crystalline M-CSF produced thereby. The present invention is also directed to methods for designing and producing M-CSF agonists and antagonists using information derived from the crystallographic structure of M-CSF. The invention is also directed to methods for screening M-CSF agonists and antagonists. In addition, the present invention is directed to an isolated, purified, soluble and functional M-CSF receptor.

Pandit, Jayvardhan (Mystic, CT); Jancarik, Jarmila (Walnut Creek, CA); Kim, Sung-Hou (Moraga, CA); Koths, Kirston (El Cerrito, CA); Halenbeck, Robert (San Rafael, CA); Fear, Anna Lisa (Oakland, CA); Taylor, Eric (Oakland, CA); Yamamoto, Ralph (Martinez, CA); Bohm, Andrew (Berkeley, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Microsphere Manipulation Using Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We propose a strategy for a micromanipulation method using SSFLC (surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals). By adjusting the frequency of the applied ac electric field, the surface layers that cannot follow an applied ac electric field are constructed in SSFLC. In addition, by applying a sawtooth wave voltage, net flow along the smectic layer is generated. The flow direction is reversed by changing the polarity of the sawtooth wave. Consequently, the particles dispersed in SSFLC can be driven bidirectionally along the smectic layer. The particle velocity depends on the temperature, amplitude, and frequency of the applied voltage.

Yoshitaka Mieda and Katsushi Furutani

2005-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

300

Large crystals of mordenite and MFI zeolites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synthesis conditions were investigated for various zeolites starting from coal mine wastes. Inorganic (NaOH) or organic (TPAOH) bases were used as reacting solutions, resulting in the preparation of zeolites with different structural types such as MFI, MOR, GIS, or ANA. The use of a ring separator in the Teflon-lined reactor allowed us to demonstrate the existence of two mechanisms, solid transformation and solution nucleation, and to prove that these mechanisms do not lead to the same structural type. Optimization of the synthesis parameters allowed us to grow large crystals (several hundreds of microns) of mordenite and MFI zeolite.

Gilbert, J.E.; Mosset, A. [CEMES-CNRS, Toulouse (France)] [CEMES-CNRS, Toulouse (France)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Reversed Doppler Effect in Photonic Crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nonrelativistic reversed Doppler shifts have never been observed in nature and have only been speculated to occur in pathological systems with simultaneously negative effective permittivity and permeability. This Letter presents a different, new physical phenomenon that leads to a nonrelativistic reversed Doppler shift in light. It arises when light is reflected from a moving shock wave propagating through a photonic crystal. In addition to reflection of a single frequency, multiple discrete reflected frequencies or a 10 GHz periodic modulation can also be observed when a single carrier frequency of wavelength 1????m is incident.

Evan J. Reed; Marin Solja?i?; John D. Joannopoulos

2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

302

Melting of superheated crystals initiates on vacancies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a large variety of ideal crystals we found that when rapidly migrating atoms squash or annihilate a neighbouring vacancy and produce a disordered cluster, the heat of migration stored in the system exceeds the enthalpy increase required for the coordinating atoms of the vacancy to form a liquid phase, i.e. the liquid phase nucleates from vacancies. Furthermore volumetric analysis supports this well. This vacancy-decomposition model provides quantitative information on the melting point, the latent heat and the volume change upon melting and hence clarifies the mechanism of melting.

L. W. Wang; Q. Wang; K. Q. Lu

2010-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

303

Photonic Crystals for Improving Organic Solar Cell Efficiency  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An improvement of the organic solar cells efficiency is theoretically demonstrated by nanostructuring the active layer in the shape of a photonic crystal. An original process...

Duché, David; Escoubas, Ludovic; Simon, Jean-Jacques; Torchio, Philippe; Le Rouzo, Judikael; Vervisch, Wilfried; Flory, François; Labeyrie, Antoine; Roumiguières, Jean-Louis

304

Neutron imaging with bent perfect crystals. I. Imaging conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Neutron imaging with bent crystals is considered in the linear approximation of neutron optics. A matrix formalism analogous to that of conventional lens optics is developed.

Stoica, A.D.

2001-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

305

Surface treatment and protection method for cadmium zinc telluride crystals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal that provides a native dielectric coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve the resolution of instruments incorporating detectors using CZT crystals. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, passivating the CZT crystal surface with a solution of 10 w/o NH.sub.4 F and 10 w/o H.sub.2 O.sub.2 in water.

Wright, Gomez W. (Nashville, TN); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA); Burger, Arnold (Nashville, TN); Chinn, Douglas A. (Livermore, CA)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Surface Treatment And Protection Method For Cadium Zinc Telluride Crystals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal that provides a native dielectric coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve the resolution of instruments incorporating detectors using CZT crystals. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, passivating the CZT crystal surface with a solution of 10 w/o NH4F and 10 w/o H2O2 in water.

Wright, Gomez W. (Nashville, TN); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA); Burger, Arnold (Nashville, TN); Chinn, Douglas A. (Livermore, CA)

2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

307

A third blind test of crystal structure prediction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The findings of the third blind test of crystal structure prediction are presented and discussed in the context of the previous collaborations - CSP1999 and CSP2001.

Day, G.M.

2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

308

Nuclear magnetic resonance in a thallium single crystal.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Nuclear magnetic resonance studies in single crystals of thallium have been performed for the first time. The resonance frequency, line width and second moment were… (more)

Schratter, Jacob Jack

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Solar cell structure incorporating a novel single crystal silicon material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel hydrogen rich single crystal silicon material having a band gap energy greater than 1.1 eV can be fabricated by forming an amorphous region of graded crystallinity in a body of single crystalline silicon and thereafter contacting the region with atomic hydrogen followed by pulsed laser annealing at a sufficient power and for a sufficient duration to recrystallize the region into single crystal silicon without out-gassing the hydrogen. The new material can be used to fabricate semiconductor devices such as single crystal silicon solar cells with surface window regions having a greater band gap energy than that of single crystal silicon without hydrogen.

Pankove, Jacques I. (Princeton, NJ); Wu, Chung P. (Trenton, NJ)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Method for the preparation of photochromic insulating crystals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for preparing reversible-photochromic magnesium oxide (MgO) crystals is disclosed. Single crystals of MgO doped with both lithium (Li) and nickel (Ni) are grown by a conventional arc fusion method. The as-grown crystals are characterized by an amber coloration. The crystals lose the amber coloration and become photochromic when they are thermochemically reduced by heating at temperatures greater then 1000/sup 0/K in a hydrogen atmosphere. Alternate irradiation with uv and visible light result in rejuvenation and bleaching of the amber coloration, respectively.

Abraham, M.M.; Boldu, J.L.; Chen, Y.; Orera, V.M.

1984-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

311

Crystallization of Hfq protein: a bacterial gene-expression regulator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A global regulator of gene expression in bacteria, Hfq protein, has been crystallized and X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 2.1 ? resolution.

Vassilieva, I.M.

2003-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

312

Electric field effects in liquid crystals with dielectric dispersion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project is focused on the experimental and theoretical exploration of the coupling of an externally applied electric field and a nematic liquid crystal.

Lavrentovich, Oleg D. [Kent State University

2014-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

313

New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding Print Nature's proteins set a high bar for nanotechnology. Macromolecules forged from peptide chains of amino acids, these...

314

Fabrication of Emissible Metallic Layer-by-Layer Photonic Crystals...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

crystals that can be used as highly efficient light sources.DescriptionOrdinary incandescent lamps waste most of the supplied electric power to emit invisible light such as...

315

iPP Crystallization: Micro and Nano Fillers Effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Since the properties of semicrystalline polymers depend on the morphology studies on effect of fillers on the composites crystallization are of great interest. In this work a micrometric talc and a nanoclay are dispersed in a polypropylene matrix and the influence of two different fillers and temperature on the polymer crystallization behavior in quiescent conditions is assessed by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and rheological characterization through linear viscoelasticity (SAOS) [1]. The DSC tests lead to the half crystallization time depending on overall crystallization rate (i.e. nucleation and growth) whereas by rheological measurement one can deduce also the induction time depending only on nucleation [2].

Emilia Gioffredi; Gabriele Cassulo; Alberto Frache; Pier Luca Maffettone

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Slowdown the light speed in an alexandrite crystal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have observed a hole in the absorption profile of the homogeneously broadened absorption band of an Alexandrite crystal. With the spectral hole-burning technique that resulting...

Fan, Baohua; Zhang, Yundong; Yuan, Ping

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Control of Light Speed in Photonic Crystal Waveguide Devices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Optical buffering and nonlinear enhancement is demonstrated using slow light in photonic crystal waveguide devices. Nearly 350 ps delay and tunability are obtained in a narrowband...

Baba, Toshihiko; Adachi, Jun; Ishikura, Norihiro; Hamachi, Yohei; Saito, Yuji

318

Solution-grown crystals for neutron radiation detectors, and methods of solution growth  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An organic crystal according to one embodiment includes an organic crystal comprising diphenylacetylene and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the crystal having physical characteristics of formation from solution, the organic crystal exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source. A system according to one embodiment includes an organic crystal comprising diphenylacetylene and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the crystal having physical characteristics of formation from solution, the organic crystal exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source; and a photodetector for detecting the signal response of the organic crystal. Methods of making such crystals are also provided.

Zaitseva, Natalia; Carman, M Leslie; Payne, Steve

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

319

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print Wednesday, 27 October 2010 00:00 When it comes to metal catalysts, platinum is the standard. However, at about $2,000 an ounce, the high cost of the raw material presents major challenges for the future wide-scale use of platinum in fuel cells. Berkeley Lab research suggests that one possible way to meet these challenges is to think small. Researchers from Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division have found that under high pressure-comparable to the pressures at which many industrial technologies operate-platinum surfaces can change their structure dramatically in response to the presence of high-coverage reactants. High-pressure scanning tunneling microscopes (STM) and ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at ALS Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 allowed researchers to study catalysts' structure and composition under realistic conditions.

320

High-resolution crystal structures of two crystal forms of human cyclophilin D in complex with PEG 400 molecules  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-resolution crystal structures of cyclophilin D in complex with PEG 400 in primitive orthorhombic and primitive tetragonal forms are reported.

Valasani, K.R.

2014-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

How does a thermal binary crystal break under shear?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When exposed to strong shearing, the particles in a crystal will rearrange and ultimately, the crystal will break by forming large nonaffine defects. Even for the initial stage of this process, only little effort has been devoted to the understanding of the breaking process on the scale of the individual particle size for thermalized mixed crystals. Here, we explore the shear-induced breaking for an equimolar two-dimensional binary model crystal with a high interaction asymmetry between the two different species such that the initial crystal has an intersecting square sublattice of the two constituents. Using Brownian dynamics computer simulations, we show that the combination of shear and thermal fluctuations leads to a characteristic hierarchical breaking scenario where initially, the more strongly coupled particles are thermally distorted, paving the way for the weakly coupled particles to escape from their cage. This in turn leads to mobile defects which may finally merge, proliferating a cascade of defects, which triggers the final breakage of the crystal. This scenario is in marked contrast to the breakage of one-component crystals close to melting. Moreover, we explore the orientational dependence of the initial shear direction relative to the crystal orientation and compare this to the usual melting scenario without shear. Our results are verifiable in real-space experiments of superparamagnetic colloidal mixtures at a pending air-water interface in an external magnetic field where the shear can be induced by an external laser field.

Tobias Horn; Hartmut Löwen

2014-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

322

Technology Reports Solution Concentration Prediction for Pharmaceutical Crystallization Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using Robust Chemometrics and ATR FTIR Spectroscopy Timokleia Togkalidou, Hsien-Hsin Tung,*, Yongkui Sun systems in the presence of impurities and over a wide range of temperature. To our best knowledge in pharmaceutical industry such as crystal size distribution (CSD) and crystal shape of the product pharmaceuticals

Braatz, Richard D.

323

Crystal growth and roughening of solid D{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Near the triple point, growth shapes of vapor deposited hexagonal close packed D{sub 2} crystals reveal two crystal orientations contain facets which persist up to the melt. This observation is in contrast with previous experiments on rare gas solids and H{sub 2} where the highest T{sub r} measured is 0.8 T{sub tp}.

Kozioziemski, B.J.; Collins, G.W.; Bernat, T.P.

1997-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

324

STEADY STATE LIQUID CRYSTAL THERMOGRAPHY AND HEAT TRANSFER MEASUREMENTS ON  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter V STEADY STATE LIQUID CRYSTAL THERMOGRAPHY AND HEAT TRANSFER MEASUREMENTS ON SURFACES Composite Heat Transfer Surface Liquid Crystal Image Processing Technique V . 4 Experimental Results and Discussion Test Conditions and Data Analysis Application to Endwall Heat Transfer Problem Further Application

Camci, Cengiz

325

Quantitative crystal structure descriptors from multiplicative congruential generators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Certain number-theoretic relations, known as multiplicative congruential generators, are developed into quantitative crystal structure descriptors, facilitating a linearization procedure that eventually allows for a concise, fully reconstructable representation of structural information. Potential applications are related to the computational storage, retrieval and analysis of crystal structures, their algorithmic generation in the first place, and their combinatorial enumeration and classification.

Hornfeck, W.

2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

326

Diffusion-Driven Crystal Structure Transformation: Synthesis of Heusler Alloy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

crystal transformation method would be valuable as a general method to fabricate metal-rich silicide nanowires that are otherwise difficult to synthesize. KEYWORDS Metal silicide, nanowire, crystal transformation, magnetic materials, Heusler alloy M etal silicide nanowires (NWs) can have diverse metal

Kim, Bongsoo

327

Degassing and crystallization of ascending andesite and dacite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...melt. andesites Asia Cascade Range cooling crystal...dissolved volatiles, gas escape, and degassing-induced...the times available for gas loss (Jaupart 1998...are poorly de ned for natural and synthetic silicic...followed by inter-eruptive gas escape and crystallization...

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

First test on Photonic Crystal Fiber potential for broadband interferometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-air photonic crystal acting as a cladding. This cladding typically consists of thin cylindrical air holes index difference between core and cladding due to air holes of the photonic crystal. Since astronomical bands. The setup is fed by one of the four sources (Fabry-Perot laser diode under or beyond

Boyer, Edmond

329

Effectsof ice-crystal structure on halo formation: cirrus cloud  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effectsof ice-crystal structure on halo formation: cirrus cloud experimental and ray campaign, four 220halo-producing cirrus clouds were studied jointly from a ground- based polarization lidar of the aircraft, which collecteda total of 84slides byimpaction, preserving the ice crystals for later microscopic

Takano, Yoshihide

330

Hydrogen plasma enhanced crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen plasma enhanced crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films K. Pangal,a) J. C August 1998; accepted for publication 21 October 1998 We report that a room temperature hydrogen plasma thermal crystallization of amorphous silicon time by a factor of five. Exposure to hydrogen plasma reduces

331

Electromagnetic space-time crystals. II. Fractal computational approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A fractal approach to numerical analysis of electromagnetic space-time crystals, created by three standing plane harmonic waves with mutually orthogonal phase planes and the same frequency, is presented. Finite models of electromagnetic crystals are introduced, which make possible to obtain various approximate solutions of the Dirac equation. A criterion for evaluating accuracy of these approximate solutions is suggested.

G. N. Borzdov

2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

332

Operator-assisted harvesting of protein crystals using a universal micromanipulation robot  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The prototype of a universal micromanipulation robot for crystal harvesting is presented, and a robotically harvested trypsin crystal yields a high-resolution structure demonstrating the feasibility of robotic protein crystal harvesting.

Viola, R.

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of GCIP/HHM transcriptional regulator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Native and selenomethionine-derivatized crystals of full-length human GCIP/HHM protein were obtained. The crystals belonged to space group P3221 and the best native crystal diffracted to 3.5 ? resolution.

Seto, A.

2008-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

334

EMPIRICAL MODEL FOR FORMULATION OF CRYSTAL-TOLERANT HLW GLASSES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Historically, high-level waste (HLW) glasses have been formulated with a low liquideus temperature (T{sub L}), or temperature at which the equilibrium fraction of spinel crystals in the melt is below 1 vol % (T{sub 0.01}), nominally below 1050 C. These constraints cannot prevent the accumulation of large spinel crystals in considerably cooler regions ({approx} 850 C) of the glass discharge riser during melter idling and significantly limit the waste loading, which is reflected in a high volume of waste glass, and would result in high capital, production, and disposal costs. A developed empirical model predicts crystal accumulation in the riser of the melter as a function of concentration of spinel-forming components in glass, and thereby provides guidance in formulating crystal-tolerant glasses that would allow high waste loadings by keeping the spinel crystals small and therefore suspended in the glass.

KRUGER AA; MATYAS J; HUCKLEBERRY AR; VIENNA JD; RODRIGUEZ CA

2012-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

335

Polymer crystal-melt interfaces and nucleation in polyethylene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetic barriers cause polymers to crystallize incompletely, into nanoscale lamellae interleaved with amorphous regions. As a result, crystalline polymers are full of crystal-melt interfaces, which dominate their physical properties. The longstanding theoretical challenge to understand these interfaces has new relevance, because of accumulating evidence that polymer crystals often nucleate via a metastable, partially ordered "rotator" phase. To test this idea requires a theory of the bulk and interfacial free energies of the critical nucleus. We present a new approach to the crystal-melt interface, which represents the amorphous region as a grafted brush of loops in a self-consistent pressure field. We combine this theory with estimates of bulk free energy differences, to calculate nucleation barriers and rates via rotator versus crystal nuclei for polyethylene. We find rotator-phase nucleation is indeed favored throughout the temperature range where nucleation is observed. Our methods can be extended to other polymers.

Scott T. Milner

2010-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

336

Modelling of Heat Transfer in Single Crystal Growth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An attempt is made to review the heat transfer and the related problems encountered in the simulation of single crystal growth. The peculiarities of conductive, convective and radiative heat transfer in the different melt, solution, and vapour growth methods are discussed. The importance of the adequate description of the optical crystal properties (semitransparency, specular reflecting surfaces) and their effect on the heat transfer is stresses. Treatment of the unknown phase boundary fluid/crystal as well as problems related to the assessment of the quality of the grown crystals (composition, thermal stresses, point defects, disclocations etc.) and their coupling to the heat transfer/fluid flow problems is considered. Differences between the crystal growth simulation codes intended for the research and for the industrial applications are indicated. The problems of the code verification and validation are discussed; a brief review of the experimental techniques for the study of heat transfer and flow structu...

Zhmakin, Alexander I

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Crystal Lake III | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

III III Facility Crystal Lake III Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner NextEra Energy Resources Developer NextEra Energy Resources Location Hancock/Winnebago Counties IA Coordinates 43.304401°, -93.824029° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.304401,"lon":-93.824029,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

338

Crystal Lake II | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

II II Facility Crystal Lake II Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner NextEra Energy Resources Developer NextEra Energy Resources Location Hancock/Winnebago Counties IA Coordinates 43.16151°, -93.855786° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.16151,"lon":-93.855786,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

339

Recent results from the Crystal Barrel experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Crystal Barrel experiment has been constructed and installed at the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) at CERN. It has been fully operational since late 1989. In this talk, recent results of meson spectroscopy in p[bar p]-annihilations are presented. The main emphasis is on all-neutral annihilations, the study of the strange quark content of the proton, and the investigation of the decay mode of il particles. A 2[sup ++] resonance decaying into [pi][degrees][pi][degrees]at a mass of 1515 [plus minus] 10 MeV with a width of 120 [plus minus] 10 MeV has been seen in a 3[pi][degrees] final state.

Not Available

1991-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

340

Recent results from the Crystal Barrel experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Crystal Barrel experiment has been constructed and installed at the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) at CERN. It has been fully operational since late 1989. In this talk, recent results of meson spectroscopy in p{bar p}-annihilations are presented. The main emphasis is on all-neutral annihilations, the study of the strange quark content of the proton, and the investigation of the decay mode of il particles. A 2{sup ++} resonance decaying into {pi}{degrees}{pi}{degrees}at a mass of 1515 {plus_minus} 10 MeV with a width of 120 {plus_minus} 10 MeV has been seen in a 3{pi}{degrees} final state.

The Crystal Barrel Collaboration

1991-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Thermodynamic Functions of Magnetized Coulomb Crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Free energy, internal energy, and specific heat for each of the three phonon spectrum branches of a magnetized Coulomb crystal with body-centered cubic lattice are calculated by numerical integration over the Brillouin zone in the range of magnetic fields $B$ and temperatures $T$, such that $0 \\le \\omega_{\\rm B}/\\omega_{\\rm p}\\le 10^3$ and $10^{-4} \\le T/T_{\\rm p} \\le 10^4$. In this case, $\\omega_{\\rm B}$ is the ion cyclotron frequency, $\\omega_{\\rm p}$ and $T_{\\rm p}$ are the ion plasma frequency and plasma temperature, respectively. The results of numerical calculations are approximated by simple analytical formulas. For illustration, these formulas are used to analyze the behavior of the heat capacity in the crust of a neutron star with strong magnetic field. Thermodynamic functions of magnetized neutron star crust are needed for modeling various observational phenomena in magnetars and high magnetic field pulsars.

Baiko, D A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Magnetoplasticity and diffusion in silicon single crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of static magnetic fields on the dynamics of surface dislocation segments, as well as the diffusion mobility of a dopant in silicon single crystals, has been analyzed. It has been experimentally found that the preliminary treatment of p-type silicon plates (the dopant is boron with a concentration of 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}) in the static magnetic field (B = 1 T, a treatment time of 30 min) leads to an increase in the mobility of surface dislocation segments. The characteristic times of observed changes (about 80 h) and the threshold dopant concentration (10{sub 15} cm{sup -3}) below which the magneto-optical effect in silicon is not fixed have been determined. It has been found that diffusion processes in dislocation-free silicon are magnetically sensitive: the phosphorus diffusion depth in p-type silicon that is preliminarily aged in the static magnetic field increases (by approximately 20%) compared to the reference samples.

Skvortsov, A. A., E-mail: SkvortsovAA2009@yandex.ru; Karizin, A. V. [Moscow State Technical University 'MAMI' (Russian Federation)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

343

Pulsed pyroelectric crystal-powered gamma source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A compact pulsed gamma generator is being developed to replace radiological sources used in commercial, industrial and medical applications. Mono-energetic gammas are produced in the 0.4 - 1.0 MeV energy range using nuclear reactions such as {sup 9}Be(d,n{gamma}){sup 10}B. The gamma generator employs an RF-driven inductively coupled plasma ion source to produce deuterium ion current densities up to 2 mA/mm{sup 2} and ampere-level current pulses can be attained by utilizing an array extraction grid. The extracted deuterium ions are accelerated to approximately 300 keV via a compact stacked pyroelectric crystal system and then bombard the beryllium target to generate gammas. The resulting microsecond pulse of gammas is equivalent to a radiological source with curie-level activity.

Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.; Leung, K.-N.; Raber, T. N.; Morse, D. H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

344

Recent results from the Crystal Ball  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the past year, the Crystal Ball experiment has continued the investigation of e/sup +/e/sup -/ interactions at SPEAR. In the course of the year, we have slightly more than doubled the available datasets at the J/psi (to 2.2 x 10/sup 6/ produced J/psi) and the psi' (to 1.8 x 10/sup 6/ produced psi') resonances, and have increased the data in the 5.2 to 7.4 GeV center-of-mass (E/sub c.m./) region. The present discussion is limited to recent results obtained with the J/psi and psi' datasets, primarily dealing with transitions among the charmonium bound states.

Porter, F.C.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Enhanced photoacoustic detection using photonic crystal substrate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper demonstrates the enhanced photoacoustic sensing of surface-bound light absorbing molecules and metal nanoparticles using a one-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) substrate. The PC structure functions as an optical resonator at the wavelength where the analyte absorption is strong. The optical resonance of the PC sensor provides an intensified evanescent field with respect to the excitation light source and results in enhanced optical absorption by surface-immobilized samples. For the analysis of a light absorbing dye deposited on the PC surface, the intensity of photoacoustic signal was enhanced by more than 10-fold in comparison to an un-patterned acrylic substrate. The technique was also applied to detect gold nanorods and exhibited more than 40 times stronger photoacoustic signals. The demonstrated approach represents a potential path towards single molecule absorption spectroscopy with greater performance and inexpensive instrumentation.

Zhao, Yunfei; Liu, Kaiyang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); McClelland, John [Ames Laboratory-USDOE, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Molecular Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Lu, Meng, E-mail: menglu@iastate.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

346

Crystallization in heat-treated fluorochlorozirconate glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crystallization phenomena of fluorochlorozirconate glasses were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and inelastic neutron scattering. The precipitation of barium chloride nanoparticles from the glass matrix upon heat treatment was found to be suppressed when re-melting the glass with a reducing agent but not if the agent was present in the initial synthesis. Addition of small amounts of oxide to the predominantly fluoride melt was found to maintain the presence of nanoparticles but not to induce the predicted phase transition of the barium chloride nanoparticles from hexagonal to orthorhombic structure. Inelastic neutron scattering performed on an as-made glass and a heat-treated glass showed an increase in hardness , consistent with a more ordered structure.

Johnson, Jackie A. [University of Tennessee Space Institute; Weber, Rick [Materials Development, Inc., Evanston, IL; Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL; SCHWEIZER, Stefan [Fraunhofer Center for Silicon Photovoltaics, 06120 Halle, Germany

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber Fang Du, Yan-Qing Lu, and Shin-Tson Wua)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

internal reflection-guiding photonic crystal fiber by filling liquid crystal into the air core and cladding an electrically tunable fiber-optical switch with over 30 dB attenuation at 60 Vrms for a He-Ne laser beam the refractive index of the core is higher than that of cladding. Therefore, the guiding mechanisms are similar

Wu, Shin-Tson

348

Derivation of a three-dimensional phase-field-crystal model for liquid crystals from density functional theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using a generalized order parameter gradient expansion within density functional theory, we derive a phase-field-crystal model for liquid crystals composed by apolar particles in three spatial dimensions. Both the translational density and the orientational direction and ordering are included as order parameters. Different terms involving gradients in the order parameters in the resulting free energy functional are compared to the macroscopic Ginzburg-Landau approach as well as to the hydrodynamic description for liquid crystals. Our approach provides microscopic expressions for all prefactors in terms of the particle interactions. Our phase-field-crystal model generalizes the conventional phase-field-crystal model of spherical particles to orientational degrees of freedom and can be used as a starting point to explore phase transitions and interfaces for various liquid-crystalline phases.

Raphael Wittkowski; Hartmut Löwen; Helmut R. Brand

2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

349

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the matrix protein from Ebola virus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Ebola virus matrix protein VP40 has been expressed, purified and crystallized in space group C2. Crystals diffract to 1.9 Å using synchrotron radiation.

Dessen, A.

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

E-Print Network 3.0 - aligned liquid crystal Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

... Source: Reznikov, Yuri - Department of Physics of Crystals, Institute of Physics Ukraine Collection: Engineering ; Physics 4 Fast birefringent mode stressed liquid crystal...

351

E-Print Network 3.0 - anisotropy liquid crystal Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

... Source: Reznikov, Yuri - Department of Physics of Crystals, Institute of Physics Ukraine Collection: Engineering ; Physics 7 Photoalignment of Liquid Crystals on Chalcogenide...

352

PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF CRYSTALS: ANALYTICAL AND COMPUTER SIMULATION STUDIES OF DISLOCATION GLIDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Rate Processes in Plastic Deformation of Materials, J. C.PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF CRYSTALS: ANALYTICAL AND COMPUTERCAPTIONS FIGURES - iii - PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF CRYSTALS:

Altintas, Sabri

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Frq2 from Drosophila melanogaster: cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The calcium-binding protein Frq2 from D. melanogaster has been crystallized and X-ray diffraction data from two different crystal forms have been collected.

Ba?os-Mateos, S.

2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

354

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid single crystals Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Chemistry single crystal X-ray diffraction. Consequently, the crystal structure... and methanol, followed by slow evaporation at room temperature ... Source: de Gispert, Adri...

355

Single crystal Processing and magnetic properties of gadolinium nickel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

GdNi is a rare earth intermetallic material that exhibits very interesting magnetic properties. Spontaneous magnetostriction occurs in GdNi at T{sub C}, on the order of 8000ppm strain along the c-axis and only until very recently the mechanism causing this giant magnetostriction was not understood. In order to learn more about the electronic and magnetic structure of GdNi, single crystals are required for anisotropic magnetic property measurements. Single crystal processing is quite challenging for GdNi though since the rare-earth transition-metal composition yields a very reactive intermetallic compound. Many crystal growth methods are pursued in this study including crucible free methods, precipitation growths, and specially developed Bridgman crucibles. A plasma-sprayed Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} W-backed Bridgman crucible was found to be the best means of GdNi single crystal processing. With a source of high-quality single crystals, many magnetization measurements were collected to reveal the magnetic structure of GdNi. Heat capacity and the magnetocaloric effect are also measured on a single crystal sample. The result is a thorough report on high quality single crystal processing and the magnetic properties of GdNi.

Shreve, Andrew John [Ames Laboratory

2012-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

356

Dynamics of crystallization from segregated block copolymer melts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microphase separation in semicrystalline block copolymers can be driven by two forces: thermodynamic incompatibility between blocks or crystallization of one or more blocks. Prior work has demonstrated that when the block incompatibility is small, crystallization occurs from a single-phase melt and alternating lamellar microdomains result regardless of the copolymer composition. Several experimental studies have examined the time-resolved process of crystallization from single-phase melts. An added complexity in the case of semicrystalline block copolymers which have large block incompatibilities is the possible formation of an ordered melt mesophase; the presence of these microdomains may affect the crystallization process and the resultant morphology. A number of studies have investigated time-resolved crystallization from weakly segregated diblock copolymer melts, concluding that crystallization destroys any pre-existing melt microstructure resulting in a lamellar morphology. We recently reported the statically determined crystallization results for a series of ethylene-block-(3-methyl-1-butene) polymers, which will be referred to as E/MB`s. The composition of each of the polymers in the series was held constant at {approx}26 wt. % E (f{sub E}) block to produce hexagonally packed cylindrical melts, while the molecular weights were altered to obtain varying degrees of incompatibility. Through static scattering measurements, we have clearly shown that a strongly segregated cylindrical melt can confine crystallization to the pre-established microdomains under ordinary processing conditions. In this work, combined synchrotron-based SAXS and WAXS are employed to dynamically follow the microphase separation and crystallization in these materials at both the unit cell and microdomain scales.

Quiram, D.J.; Register, R.A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Marchand, G.R. [Dow Chemical Co., Plaquemine, LA (United States); Ryan, A.J. [Univ. of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, MI (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

357

Solution-grown crystals for neutron radiation detectors, and methods of solution growth  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method according to one embodiment includes growing an organic crystal from solution, the organic crystal exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source. A system according to one embodiment includes an organic crystal having physical characteristics of formation from solution, the organic crystal exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source; and a photodetector for detecting the signal response of the organic crystal. A method according to another embodiment includes growing an organic crystal from solution, the organic crystal being large enough to exhibit a detectable signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source. An organic crystal according to another embodiment includes an organic crystal having physical characteristics of formation from solution, the organic crystal exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source, wherein the organic crystal has a length of greater than about 1 mm in one dimension.

Zaitseva, Natalia P.; Hull, Giulia; Cherepy, Nerine J.; Payne, Stephen A.; Stoeffl, Wolfgang

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

358

Methods of making composite optical devices employing polymer liquid crystal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Composite optical devices are disclosed using polymer liquid crystal materials both as optical and adhesive elements. The devices are made by assembling a heated polymer liquid crystal compound, while in a low viscosity form between optically transparent substrates. The molecules of the polymer are oriented, while in the liquid crystalline state and while above the glass transition temperature (T[sub g]) of the polymer, to provide the desired optical effects, such as polarization, and selective reflection. The liquid crystal polymer cements the substrates together to form an assembly providing the composite optical device. 7 figures.

Jacobs, S.D.; Marshall, K.L.; Cerqua, K.A.

1991-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

359

Methods of making composite optical devices employing polymer liquid crystal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Composite optical devices using polymer liquid crystal materials both as optical and adhesive elements. The devices are made by assembling a heated polymer liquid crystal compound, while in a low viscosity form between optically transparent substrates. The molecules of the polymer are oriented, while in the liquid crystalline state and while above the glass transition temperature (T.sub.g) of the polymer, to provide the desired optical effects, such as polarization, and selective reflection. The liquid crystal polymer cements the substrates together to form an assembly providing the composite optical device.

Jacobs, Stephen D. (Pittsford, NY); Marshall, Kenneth L. (Henrietta, NY); Cerqua, Kathleen A. (Fairport, NY)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Lithium niobate single-crystal and photo-functional device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Provided are lithium niobate single-crystal that requires a low voltage of not larger than 10 kV/nm for its ferroelectric polarization inversion and of which the polarization can be periodically inverted with accuracy even at such a low voltage, and a photo-functional device comprising the crystal. The crystal has a molar fraction of Li.sub.2 O/(Nb.sub.2 O.sub.5 +Li.sub.2 O) of falling between 0.49 and 0.52. The photo-functional device can convert a laser ray being incident thereon.

Gopalan, Venkatraman (State College, PA); Mitchell, Terrence E. (Los Alamos, NM); Kitamura, Kenji (Tsukuba, JP); Furukawa, Yasunori (Tsukuba, JP)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Optical-diffraction method for determining crystal orientation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is an optical diffraction technique for characterizing the three-dimensional orientation of a crystal sample. An arbitrary surface of the crystal sample is texture etched so as to generate a pseudo-periodic diffraction grating on the surface. A laser light beam is then directed onto the etched surface, and the reflected light forms a farfield diffraction pattern in reflection. Parameters of the diffraction pattern, such as the geometry and angular dispersion of the diffracted beam are then related to grating shape of the etched surface which is in turn related to crystal orientation. This technique may be used for examining polycrystalline silicon for use in solar cells.

Sopori, B.L.

1982-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

362

Thermal and quantum nucleation of 4He crystals in aerogel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nucleation of 4He crystals from the metastable superfluid in high porosity silica aerogel was investigated by an optical measurement. Critical overpressures at which the first 4He crystal appeared during pressurization were measured 50 times at each temperature. Contrary to the intuitive pore-size-limited nucleation suggested in previous studies in small pores, the critical overpressure did show a characteristic temperature dependence, indicating that the critical size of nucleation is also temperature dependent. It is confirmed that quantum nucleation at low temperatures and thermal nucleation at high temperatures occur as in the case of bulk crystal. Nucleation in this high porosity material shows characters of nucleation in both bulk and pores.

H. Matsuda; A. Ochi; R. Isozaki; R. Masumoto; R. Nomura; Y. Okuda

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

363

The crystal structure of {pi}-ErBO{sub 3}: New single-crystal data for an old problem  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single crystals of the orthoborate {pi}-ErBO{sub 3} were synthesized from Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} and B{sub 2}O{sub 3} under high-pressure/high-temperature conditions of 2 GPa and 800 {sup o}C in a Walker-type multianvil apparatus. The crystal structure was determined on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data, collected at room temperature. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic pseudowollastonite-type structure, space group C2/c, with the lattice parameters a=1128.4(2) pm, b=652.6(2) pm, c=954.0(2) pm, and {beta}=112.8(1){sup o} (R{sub 1}=0.0124 and wR{sub 2}=0.0404 for all data). -- graphical abstract: The first satisfying single-crystal structure determination of {pi}-ErBO{sub 3} sheds light on the extensively discussed structure of {pi}-orthoborates. The application of light pressure during the solid state synthesis yielded in high-quality crystals, due to pressure-induced crystallization. Research highlights: {yields} High-quality single crystals of {pi}-ErBO{sub 3} were prepared via high-pressure-induced crystallization. {yields} At least five different space groups for the rare-earth {pi}-orthoborates are reported. {yields} {pi}-ErBO{sub 3} is isotypic to the pseudowollastonite-type CaSiO{sub 3}. {yields} Remaining ambiguities regarding the structure of the rare-earth {pi}-orthoborates are resolved.

Pitscheider, Almut [Institut fuer Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Kaindl, Reinhard [Institut fuer Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Oeckler, Oliver [Department Chemie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Butenandtstrasse 5-13, D-81377 Muenchen (Germany); Huppertz, Hubert, E-mail: Hubert.Huppertz@uibk.ac.a [Institut fuer Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

364

Nonlinear excitations in Debye bi-crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nonlinear dynamics of longitudinal dust lattice waves propagating in a dusty plasma bi-crystal is investigated. A ''diatomic''-like one-dimensional dust lattice configuration is considered, consisting of two distinct dust grain species with different charges and masses. Two different frequency dispersion modes are obtained in the linear limit, namely, an optical and an acoustic wave dispersion branch. Nonlinear solitary wave solutions are shown to exist in both branches, by considering the continuum limit for lattice excitations in different nonlinear potential regimes. For this purpose, a generalized Boussinesq and an extended Korteweg de Vries equation is derived, for the acoustic mode excitations, and their exact soliton solutions are provided and compared. For the optic mode, a nonlinear Schroedinger-type equation is obtained, which is shown to possess bright- (dark-) type envelope soliton solutions in the long (short, respectively) wavelength range. Optic-type longitudinal wavepackets are shown to be generally unstable in the continuum limit, though this is shown not to be the rule in the general (discrete) case.

Farokhi, B.; Kourakis, I.; Shukla, P. K. [Department of Physics, University of Arak, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Centre for Plasma Physics (CPP), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Queen's University Belfast, BT7 1 NN Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Theoretische Physik IV, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

365

New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

New Crystal Structures Lift Fog New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding Print Wednesday, 25 July 2012 00:00 Nature's proteins set a high bar for nanotechnology. Macromolecules forged from peptide chains of amino acids, these biomolecular nanomachines must first be folded into a dazzling variety of shapes and forms before they can perform the multitude of functions fundamental to life. However, the mechanisms behind the protein-folding process have remained a foggy mystery. Now the fog is lifting: a team of researchers from Berkeley Lab, Stanford University, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has deciphered the crystal structure of a critical control element within chaperonin, the protein complex responsible for the correct folding of other proteins.

366

A Crystal-Clear Solution | Y-12 National Security Complex  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Crystal-Clear Solution A Crystal-Clear Solution A Crystal-Clear Solution Posted: July 22, 2013 - 3:27pm | Y-12 Report | Volume 10, Issue 1 | 2013 When he's not analyzing uranium, Ashley Stowe is finding new ways to detect it. His project to grow lithium semiconductor crystals suitable for radiation detection is the first step in solving a global shortage of helium-3, the most common element used in current detectors. In 2008, the U.S. government announced a critical shortage of helium-3, a material decidedly more important to national security than the helium-4 used to inflate party balloons. The helium-3 isotope is the most common element used in the radiation detectors that monitor U.S. ports and borders for the possible trafficking of nuclear materials. Because the world's helium-3 supply is diminishing and demand is

367

3D Photonic Crystals for Photon Management in Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Photon management is a key element to optimize the optical and electro-optical performance of solar cells. The potential of 3D photonic crystals for photon management in solar cells...

Wehrspohn, Ralf; Sprafke, Alexander

368

Diffuse Neutron Scattering from Crystal Imperfections [and Discussion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1980 research-article Diffuse Neutron Scattering from Crystal Imperfections...years has been the small angle scattering centred on 000. Examples are...comparison with small angle neutron scattering, much less work has been done...

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Novel advancements in nanofabrication for photonic crystal applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The progress of large-area 2D- and 3D-photonic crystals (PCs) at optical and near infra-red frequencies has been limited by fabrication challenges. Periodic nanostructures must be patterned in high-index and crystalline ...

Cheong, Lin Lee

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Constitutive modeling of creep of single crystal superalloys  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, a constitutive theory is developed, within the context of continuum mechanics, to describe the creep deformation of single crystal superalloys. The con- stitutive model that is developed here is based on the fact that as bodies deform...

Prasad, Sharat Chand

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

371

Coulomb crystal mass spectrometry in a digital ion trap  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a mass spectrometric technique for identifying the masses and relative abundances of Coulomb-crystallized ions held in a linear Paul trap. A digital radiofrequency waveform is employed to generate the trapping potential, as this can be cleanly switched off, and static dipolar fields subsequently applied to the trap electrodes for ion ejection. Excellent detection efficiency is demonstrated for Ca+ and CaF+ ions from bi-component Ca+/CaF+ Coulomb crystals prepared by reaction of Ca+ with CH3F. A quantitative linear relationship is observed between ion number and the corresponding integrated TOF peak, independent of the ionic species. The technique is applicable to a diverse range of multi-component Coulomb crystals - demonstrated here for Ca+/NH3+/NH4+ and Ca+/CaOH+/CaOD+ crystals - and will facilitate the measurement of ion-molecule reaction rates and branching ratios in complicated reaction systems.

Deb, Nabanita; Smith, Alexander D; Keller, Matthias; Rennick, Christopher J; Heazlewood, Brianna R; Softley, Timothy P

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Smectic ordering in polymer liquid crystal-silica aerogel nanocomposites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two series of side chain liquid crystal (SCLC) polyacrylate-silica aerogel nanocomposites have been investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The first se...

H. Westfahl Jr.

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Neutron Storage in a Longitudinally Vibrating Silicon Crystal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The storage of cold neutrons in a longitudinally vibrating silicon crystal is demonstrated by time-resolved transmission experiments on a high-resolution backscattering spectrometer. The experimental results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations.

Hock, R.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Laser induced melting and crystallization of boron doped amorphous silicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transient reflectivity experiments have been performed to measure the dynamics of laser-induced melting of amorphous silicon (a-Si) and the crystallization to {micro}c-Si of films with different thicknesses on Corning 7059 glass. The laser-induced melting takes place with a velocity of 13 to 24 m/s, while the solidification is about a factor 10 slower. The crystallization starts at the Si/glass interface and at the surface. In the center of the films Si remains liquid for an extended period of time. The crystallization dynamics point towards an heterogeneous morphology of laser-crystallized Si, where the surface and the interface layers are composed of small grains and the bulk of larger grains.

Nebel, C.E.; Schoeniger, S.; Dahlheimer, B.; Stutzmann, M.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Homogeneous Crystal Nucleation in Polyethylene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using a realistic united-atom force field, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study homogeneous nucleation of the crystal phase at about 30% supercooling from the melts of n-pentacontahectane (C150) and a ...

Yi, Peng

376

Hardening of a bismuth crystal due to electroplastic deformation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The surface texture of a bismuth crystal after deformation of the surface by a diamond pyramid and simultaneous passage of a pulse of high-density electric current is studied. The fact of hardening is establis...

1 V. S. Savenko

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Materials for freeform fabrication of GHz tunable dielectric photonic crystals.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Photonic crystals are of interest for GHz transmission applications, including rapid switching, GHz filters, and phased-array technology. 3D fabrication by Robocasting enables moldless printing of high solid loading slurries into structures such as the ''woodpile'' structures used to fabricate dielectric photonic band gap crystals. In this work, tunable dielectric materials were developed and printed into woodpile structures via solid freeform fabrication (SFF) toward demonstration of tunable photonic crystals. Barium strontium titanate ceramics possess interesting electrical properties including high permittivity, low loss, and high tunability. This paper discusses the processing route and dielectric characterization of (BaxSr1-XTiO3):MgO ceramic composites, toward fabrication of tunable dielectric photonic band gap crystals.

Niehaus, Michael Keith; Lewis, Jennifer A. (University of Illinois, Urbana, IL); Smay, James Earl; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Cesarano, Joseph, III (,; ); Carroll, James F.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Structural characterization of crystals of -glycine during anomalous electrical behaviour  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The separation of antiferroelectric molecular layers in -glycine increases over the temperature range in which these crystals display anomalous electronic properties and is driven by an increase in molecular libration.

Langan, P.

2002-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

379

Photonic Crystal Beads from Gravity-Driven Microfluidics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Photonic Crystal Beads from Gravity-Driven Microfluidics ... Compared to traditional methods, the droplet templates of the PCBs are generated by using the ultrastable gravity as the driving force for the microfluidics, thus the PCBs are formed with minimal polydispersity. ...

Hongcheng Gu; Fei Rong; Baocheng Tang; Yuanjin Zhao; Degang Fu; Zhongze Gu

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

380

Optimization of Photodiode Readout of CsI(Tl) Crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An experimental setup for CsI crystal readout studies and a standard electronic readout chain are introduced and used in order to measure differences in light yield and equivalent noise for different readout schemes (direct and wavelength shifter). The linearity of the system and two possibilities for determination of the equivalent noise energy are discussed. The setup is used to compare temperature and bias voltage dependence of different photodiode types. Thorough studies of different couplings of photodiodes and crystals result in similar values of equivalent noise energy well below the specifications of the TDR for wavelength shifter readout and direct readout with photodiodes glued on a carrier plate made of plexiglass that is in optical contact with the crystal. contact: brose@pktw03.phy.tu-dresden.de The aims of the studies described in this note are a comparison of different readout schemes (wavelength shifter, direct) for large CsI(Tl) crystals with regard to li...

Brose Dahlinger Eckstein; J. Brose; G. Dahlinger; P. Eckstein; K. R. Schubert

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Crystallization process development and spherical agglomerates for pharmaceutical processing applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The control of crystallization steps is essential in the production of many materials in the pharmaceutical, materials, and chemical industries. Additionally, due to increasing costs of research and development, reductions ...

Quon, Justin (Justin Louie)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Liquid crystal displays for the evaluation of dental  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We assessed whether dental x-ray images observed on a liquid crystal display (LCD) could be applied to diagnosis. A 13-inch TFT (thin film transistor) display was utilized in this study. Fifty x-ray films of r...

Keiichi Uchida D.D.S.; Masaomi Takizawa Sc.D.; Takurou Wada D.D.S.; Ph.D.…

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Optomechanical and photothermal interactions in suspended photonic crystal membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present here an optomechanical system fabricated with novel stress management techniques that allow us to suspend an ultrathin defect-free silicon photonic-crystal membrane above a Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) substrate ...

Woolf, David

384

Design of polymeric substrates for controlled molecular crystallization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is essential to control crystallization in many areas of science and technology, such as the production of pharmaceuticals, pigments, concrete, semiconductors, as well as the formation of biominerals. In most practical ...

Diao, Ying, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Method for harvesting rare earth barium copper oxide single crystals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of preparing high temperature superconductor single crystals is disclosed. The method of preparation involves preparing precursor materials of a particular composition, heating the precursor material to achieve a peritectic mixture of peritectic liquid and crystals of the high temperature superconductor, cooling the peritectic mixture to quench directly the mixture on a porous, wettable inert substrate to wick off the peritectic liquid, leaving single crystals of the high temperature superconductor on the porous substrate. Alternatively, the peritectic mixture can be cooled to a solid mass and reheated on a porous, inert substrate to melt the matrix of peritectic fluid while leaving the crystals melted, allowing the wicking away of the peritectic liquid. 2 figs.

Todt, V.R.; Sengupta, S.; Shi, D.

1996-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

386

Bioresistance of Foam-Glass Crystal Materials to Filamentous Fungi  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Foam-glass crystal (FGC) materials used for heat insulation obtained by the technology described in [7...] were chosen for the present study. It is known that foam glass is environmentally harmless and safe for ....

O. V. Kaz’mina; M. A. Dushkina; M. V. Chubik

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Phoenito experiments: combining the strengths of commercial crystallization automation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes how four general optimization techniques, growth-rate modulation, fine screening, seeding and additive screening, have been adapted for automation in a medium-throughput crystallization service facility.

Newman, J.

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

388

Optimization of Cylindrical Bent Crystals with Small Radius  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To minimize the anticlastic curvature and lower the breaking risk of a sagittal bent crystal with a smaller bending radius, three types of crystal models including the stiffening ribs, the golden value and the assembly with metal were discussed in this paper. Overall structures of the models were predicted and the parameters were optimized by the finite element analysis method. Compared with the results of measurement by long-trace-profiler, theoretical calculations were in good agreed with practical tests. The single-crystal silicon strips glued on the titanium is preferred for the second crystal of the sagittal focusing monochromator at the NSRL-XAFS beamline. Because it not only minimizes the anticlastic distortion but also it achieves small radius less than one meter.

Li Zhongliang; Kang Le; Feng Liangjie; Zhao Feiyun; Xu Chaoyin [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029, Anhui (China)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

389

Invariant patterns in crystal lattices: Implications for protein folding algorithms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crystal lattices are infinite periodic graphs that occur naturally in a variety of geometries and which are of fundamental importance in polymer science. Discrete models of protein folding use crystal lattices to define the space of protein conformations. Because various crystal lattices provide discretizations of the same physical phenomenon, it is reasonable to expect that there will exist invariants across lattices related to fundamental properties of the protein folding process. This paper considers whether performance-guaranteed approximability is such an invariant for HP lattice models. The authors define a master approximation algorithm that has provable performance guarantees provided that a specific sublattice exists within a given lattice. They describe a broad class of crystal lattices that are approximable, which further suggests that approximability is a general property of HP lattice models.

HART,WILLIAM E.; ISTRAIL,SORIN

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

An adaptive crystal bender for high power synchrotron radiation beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Perfect crystal monochromators cannot diffract x-rays efficiently, nor transmit the high source brightness available at synchrotron radiation facilities, unless surface strains within the beam footprint are maintained within a few arcseconds. Insertion devices at existing synchrotron sources already produce x-ray power density levels that can induce surface slope errors of several arcseconds on silicon monochromator crystals at room temperature, no matter how well the crystal is cooled. The power density levels that will be produced by insertion devices at the third-generation sources will be as much as a factor of 100 higher still. One method of restoring ideal x-ray diffraction behavior, while coping with high power levels, involves adaptive compensation of the induced thermal strain field. The design and performance, using the X25 hybrid wiggler beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), of a silicon crystal bender constructed for this purpose are described.

Berman, L.E.; Hastings, J.B.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

An adaptive crystal bender for high power synchrotron radiation beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Perfect crystal monochromators cannot diffract x-rays efficiently, nor transmit the high source brightness available at synchrotron radiation facilities, unless surface strains within the beam footprint are maintained within a few arcseconds. Insertion devices at existing synchrotron sources already produce x-ray power density levels that can induce surface slope errors of several arcseconds on silicon monochromator crystals at room temperature, no matter how well the crystal is cooled. The power density levels that will be produced by insertion devices at the third-generation sources will be as much as a factor of 100 higher still. One method of restoring ideal x-ray diffraction behavior, while coping with high power levels, involves adaptive compensation of the induced thermal strain field. The design and performance, using the X25 hybrid wiggler beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), of a silicon crystal bender constructed for this purpose are described.

Berman, L.E.; Hastings, J.B.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Ge-Au eutectic bonding of Ge {100} single crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present preliminary results on the eutectic bonding between two {100} Ge single crystal surfaces using thin films of ... Au sample show epitaxial growth of Ge. In sections of the bond, lattice continuity...

W. B. Knowlton; K. M. Itoh; J. W. Beeman; J. H. Emes…

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic study of disproportionating enzyme from potato  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Disproportionating enzyme from potato was crystallized and preliminarily analyzed using X-ray diffraction.

Imamura, K.

2004-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

394

A top-down approach to crystal engineering of a racemic 2-isoxazoline  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The most important non-covalent interactions determining a crystal structure can be inferred objectively by using the observed crystal morphology to define the preferential lines of crystal growth. This top-down approach to crystal engineering is applied to the structure of a racemic 2-isoxazoline.

Lombardo, G.M.

2014-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

395

Lattice Boltzmann model for crystal growth from supersaturated Qinjun Kang,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lattice Boltzmann model for crystal growth from supersaturated solution Qinjun Kang,1 Dongxiao-free lattice Boltzmann model for simulating crystal growth from supersaturated solution. Simulations of crystal, and I. N. Tsimpanogiannis (2004), Lattice Boltzmann model for crystal growth from supersaturated

Zhang, Dongxiao

396

Control of the rate of evaporation in protein crystallization by the `microbatch under oil' method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A procedure is presented for controlling the rate of evaporation during `microbatch under oil' protein crystallization.

Brumshtein, B.

2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

397

Graphlocons: Large dendritic graphene crystals and their electronic properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Submillimeter dendritic-shaped crystals were synthesized by low pressure vapor chemical vapor deposition inside a copper enclosure. With their sixfold symmetry and fractal-like shape, the resulting crystals resemble snowflakes. The electronic properties of the devices were investigated down to sub-Kelvin temperatures, showing mobilities over 5000 cm{sup 2}/Vs and the quantum Hall effect at 8T. The magnetoresistance also displayed a sharp peak at zero field which we attribute to weak localization.

Massicotte, Mathieu; Yu, Victor; Whiteway, Eric; Hilke, Michael [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

398

Crystallization of polyethylene by modified weighted density approximation(MWDA)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this article, we use the modified weighted density approximation to study the crystallization of polyethylene. We also use a direct correlation function of polyethylene based on RISM theory. The free energy of a polyethylene is calculated using density functional theory. The crystallization and solid and liquid density are calculated and finally compared with the prism simulation and experimental results. That shown the result obtained by MWDA is in better agreement, compared with the experimental result than the prism.

Razeghizadeh, Alireza; Lavafpour, Farhad

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Crystallization of polyethylene by modified weighted density approximation(MWDA)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this article, we use the modified weighted density approximation to study the crystallization of polyethylene. We also use a direct correlation function of polyethylene based on RISM theory. The free energy of a polyethylene is calculated using density functional theory. The crystallization and solid and liquid density are calculated and finally compared with the prism simulation and experimental results. That shown the result obtained by MWDA is in better agreement, compared with the experimental result than the prism.

Alireza Razeghizadeh; Vahdat Rafee; Farhad Lavafpour

2015-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

400

Use of a photonic crystal for optical amplifier gain control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical amplifier having a uniform gain profile uses a photonic crystal to tune the density-of-states of a gain medium so as to modify the light emission rate between atomic states. The density-of-states of the gain medium is tuned by selecting the size, shape, dielectric constant, and spacing of a plurality of microcavity defects in the photonic crystal. The optical amplifier is particularly useful for the regeneration of DWDM signals in long optical fibers.

Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); El-Kady, Ihab (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Growth and characterization of lithium yttrium borate single crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single crystals of 0.1% Ce doped Li{sub 6}Y(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} have been grown using the Czochralski technique. The photoluminescence study of these crystals shows a broad emission at ? 420 nm corresponding to Ce{sub 3+} emission from 5d?4f energy levels. The decay profile of this emission shows a fast response of ? 28 ns which is highly desirable for detector applications.

Singh, A. K.; Singh, S. G.; Tyagi, M.; Desai, D. G.; Sen, Shashwati [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai- 400085 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

402

High-resolution spectrometer design using spherically curved crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Bragg crystal spectrometer that has a quartz crystal elastically bent into a segment of a sphere has been successfully constructed and calibrated. The principal advantage of the spherical surface over a cylindrical surface is an increase of almost 3 orders of magnitude in spectral intensity, with no corresponding loss in resolving power. This optical system also possesses good imaging properties. The precision components used in constructing the spectrometer are inexpensive and readily available.

Thoe, R.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Process analysis of margarine and tablespread crystallization operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

54 56 59 60 63 96 114 139 vn LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Conversion table to equipment settings from statistical coded units, 18 2. Response surface design in coded units for margarine and tablespread crystallization operations. 20 3... such as rheology, fIuid dynamics, and crystallization kinetics, and are not unique to equipment geometry or scale. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Review of prior knowledge for this study has concentrated on three primary areas; margarine manufacture, rheology...

Garfield, Gary Charles

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

404

Radioactive contamination of ZnWO4 crystal scintillators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The radioactive contamination of ZnWO4 crystal scintillators has been measured deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the INFN in Italy with a total exposure 3197 kg x h. Monte Carlo simulation, time-amplitude and pulse-shape analyses of the data have been applied to estimate the radioactive contamination of the ZnWO4 samples. One of the ZnWO4 crystals has also been tested by ultra-low background gamma spectrometry. The radioactive contaminations of the ZnWO4 samples do not exceed 0.002 -- 0.8 mBq/kg (depending on the radionuclide), the total alpha activity is in the range: 0.2 - 2 mBq/kg. Particular radioactivity, beta active 65Zn and alpha active 180W, has been detected. The effect of the re-crystallization on the radiopurity of the ZnWO4 crystal has been studied. The radioactive contamination of samples of the ceramic details of the set-ups used in the crystals growth has been checked by low background gamma spectrometry. A project scheme on further improvement of the radiopurity level of the ZnWO4 crystal scintillators is briefly addressed.

P. Belli; R. Bernabei; F. Cappella; R. Cerulli; F. A. Danevich; A. M. Dubovik; S. d'Angelo; E. N. Galashov; B. V. Grinyov; A. Incicchitti; V. V. Kobychev; M. Laubenstein; L. L. Nagornaya; F. Nozzoli; D. V. Poda; R. B. Podviyanuk; O. G. Polischuk; D. Prosperi; V. N. Shlegel; V. I. Tretyak; I. A. Tupitsyna; Ya. V. Vasiliev; Yu. Ya. Vostretsov

2010-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

405

SINGLE CRYSTAL NIOBIUM TUBES FOR PARTICLE COLLIDERS ACCELERATOR CAVITIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research project is to produce single crystal niobium (Nb) tubes for use as particle accelerator cavities for the Fermi laboratory’s International Linear Collider project. Single crystal Nb tubes may have superior performance compared to a polycrystalline tubes because the absence of grain boundaries may permit the use of higher accelerating voltages. In addition, Nb tubes that are subjected to the high temperature, high vacuum crystallization process are very pure and well annealed. Any impurity with a significantly higher vapor pressure than Nb should be decreased by the relatively long exposure at high temperature to the high vacuum environment. After application of the single crystal process, the surfaces of the Nb tubes are bright and shiny, and the tube resembles an electro polished Nb tube. For these reasons, there is interest in single crystal Nb tubes and in a process that will produce single crystal tubes. To convert a polycrystalline niobium tube into a single crystal, the tube is heated to within a few hundred ?C of the melting temperature of niobium, which is 2477 ?C. RF heating is used to rapidly heat the tube in a narrow zone and after reaching the operating temperature, the hot zone is slowly passed along the length of the tube. For crystallization tests with Nb tubes, the traverse rate was in the range of 1-10 cm per hour. All the crystallization tests in this study were performed in a water-cooled, stainless steel chamber under a vacuum of 5 x10-6 torr or better. In earliest tests of the single crystal growth process, the Nb tubes had an OD of 1.9 cm and a wall thickness of 0.15 mm. With these relatively small Nb tubes, the single crystal process was always successful in producing single crystal tubes. In these early tests, the operating temperature was normally maintained at 2200 ?C, and the traverse rate was 5 cm per hour. In the next test series, the Nb tube size was increased to 3.8 cm OD and the wall thickness was increased 0.18 mm and eventually to 0.21 mm. Again, with these larger tubes, single crystal tubes were usually produced by the crystallization process. The power supply was generally operated at full output during these tests, and the traverse rate was 5 cm per hour. In a few tests, the traverse rate was increased to 10 cm per hour, and at the faster traverse rate, single crystal growth was not achieved. In these tests with a faster traverse rate, it was thought that the tube was not heated to a high enough temperature to achieve single crystal growth. In the next series of tests, the tube OD was unchanged at 3.8 cm and the wall thickness was increased to 0.30 mm. The increased wall thickness made it difficult to reach an operating temperature above 2,000 ?C, and although the single crystal process caused a large increase in the crystal grains, no single crystal tubes were produced. It was assumed that the operating temperature in these tests was not high enough to achieve single crystal growth. In FY 2012, a larger power supply was purchased and installed. With the new power supply, temperatures above the melting point of Nb were easily obtained regardless of the tube thickness. A series of crystallization tests was initiated to determine if indeed the operating temperature of the previous tests was too low to achieve single crystal growth. For these tests, the Nb tube OD remained at 3.8 cm and the wall thickness was 0.30 mm. The first test had an operating temperature of 2,000 ?C. and the operating temperature was increased by 50 ?C increments for each successive test. The final test was very near the Nb melting temperature, and indeed, the Nb tube eventually melted in the center of the tube. These tests showed that higher temperatures did yield larger grain sizes if the traverse rate was held constant at 5 cm per hour, but no single crystal tubes were produced even at the highest operating temperature. In addition, slowing the traverse rate to as low as 1 cm per hour did not yield a single crystal tube regardless of operating temperature. At this time, it

MURPHY, JAMES E [University of Nevada, Reno] [University of Nevada, Reno

2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

406

Colour centres and nanostructures on the surface of laser crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a study of structural and radiationinduced colour centres in the bulk and ordered nanostructures on the surface of doped laser crystals: sapphire, yttrium aluminium garnet and strontium titanate. The influence of thermal annealing, ionising radiation and plasma exposure on the spectroscopic properties of high-purity materials and crystals containing Ti, V and Cr impurities is examined. Colour centres resulting from changes in the electronic state of impurities and plasma-induced surface modification of the crystals are studied by optical, EPR and X-ray spectroscopies, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. X-ray line valence shift measurements are used to assess changes in the electronic state of some impurity and host ions in the bulk and on the surface of oxide crystals. Conditions are examined for the formation of one- and two-level arrays of ordered crystallites 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -7} m in size on the surface of crystals doped with irongroup and lanthanoid ions. The spectroscopic properties of the crystals are analysed using ab initio self-consistent field calculations for Me{sup n+} : [O{sup 2-}]{sub k} clusters. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

Kulagin, N A [Firma SIFA Ukraine - Germany Joint Venture, ul. Shekspira 6-48, 61045 Kharkiv (Ukraine)

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

407

Crystal structure of Sr-akermanite glass–ceramics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A glass–ceramic of Sr-akermanite (Sr2MgSi2O7, SG: P 4 ¯ 2 1 m ) was prepared by crystallization of a glass with composition of 2SrOMgO3SiO2. Parameters of the crystal structure were refined by Rietveld method. The analysis of the experimental results showed the following: the unit cell of Sr-akermanite in the glass–ceramic is larger than in single crystal. The thermal expansion coefficients of Sr-akermanite, calculated from the lattice constants obtained from X-ray diffractograms at high temperatures, were ?a = 3.663 × 10?6 K?1 and ?c = 6.666 × 10?6 K?1. It is suggested that the atomic displacements from the atomic coordination in single crystal depend on the stress developed during the crystallization process and the thermal contraction stress developed during cooling. Both types of stresses are related to the presence of residual glass and should be responsible for the expansion of the crystal lattice.

Yasuo Ochi

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Crystal structure of Sr-akermanite glass-ceramics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A glass-ceramic of Sr-akermanite (Sr{sub 2}MgSi{sub 2}O{sub 7}, SG: P4-bar 2{sub 1}m) was prepared by crystallization of a glass with composition of 2SrO?MgO?3SiO{sub 2}. Parameters of the crystal structure were refined by Rietveld method. The analysis of the experimental results showed the following: the unit cell of Sr-akermanite in the glass-ceramic is larger than in single crystal. The thermal expansion coefficients of Sr-akermanite, calculated from the lattice constants obtained from X-ray diffractograms at high temperatures, were {alpha}{sub a}=3.663x10{sup -6}K{sup -1} and {alpha}{sub c}=6.666x10{sup -6}K{sup -1}. It is suggested that the atomic displacements from the atomic coordination in single crystal depend on the stress developed during the crystallization process and the thermal contraction stress developed during cooling. Both types of stresses are related to the presence of residual glass and should be responsible for the expansion of the crystal lattice.

Ochi, Yasuo [Research and Development Division, Ohara Incorporated Company, Naka 2-22-28, Kunitachi, Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail: yasuo_ochi@ybb.ne.jp

2006-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

409

Vacancy diffusion in colloidal crystals as determined by dynamical density-functional theory and the phase-field-crystal model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A two-dimensional crystal of repulsive dipolar particles is studied in the vicinity of its melting transition by using Brownian dynamics computer simulation, dynamical density functional theory and phase-field crystal modelling. A vacancy is created by taking out a particle from an equilibrated crystal and the relaxation dynamics of the vacancy is followed by monitoring the time-dependent one-particle density. We find that the vacancy is quickly filled up by diffusive hopping of neighbouring particles towards the vacancy center. We examine the temperature dependence of the diffusion constant and find that it decreases with decreasing temperature in the simulations. This trend is reproduced by the dynamical density functional theory. Conversely, the phase field crystal calculations predict the opposite trend. Therefore, the phase-field model needs a temperature-dependent expression for the mobility to predict trends correctly.

Sven van Teeffelen; Cristian Vasile Achim; Hartmut Löwen

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

410

Pseudo-isothermal ice-crystallization kinetics in the gas-diffusion layer  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pseudo-isothermal ice-crystallization kinetics in the gas-diffusion layer Pseudo-isothermal ice-crystallization kinetics in the gas-diffusion layer of a fuel cell from differential scanning calorimetry Title Pseudo-isothermal ice-crystallization kinetics in the gas-diffusion layer of a fuel cell from differential scanning calorimetry Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Dursch, Thomas J., Monica A. Ciontea, Gregory J. Trigub, Clayton J. Radke, and Adam Z. Weber Journal International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer Volume 60 Pagination 450 - 458 Date Published 5/2013 ISSN 00179310 Keywords crystallization, differential scanning calorimetry, gas-diffusion layer, Heat Transfer, kinetics, melt, nonisothermal crystallization, nucleation, polyesters, polymer crystallization, solidification Abstract Non-isothermal ice-crystallization kinetics in the fibrous gas-diffusion layer (GDL) of a proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell is investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Non-isothermal ice-crystallization rates and ice-crystallization temperatures are obtained from heat-flow measurements in a water-saturated commercial GDL at cooling rates of 2.5, 5, 10, and 25 K/min. Our previously developed isothermal ice-crystallization rate expression is extended to non-isothermal crystallization to predict ice-crystallization kinetics in a GDL at various cooling rates. Agreement between DSC experimental results and theory is good. Both show that as the cooling rate increases, ice-crystallization rates increase and crystallization temperatures decrease monotonically. Importantly, we find that the cooling rate during crystallization has a negligible effect on the crystallization rate when crystallization times are much faster than the time to decrease the sample temperature by the subcooling. Based on this finding, we propose a pseudo-isothermal method for obtaining non-isothermal crystallization kinetics using isothermal crystallization kinetics evaluated at the non-isothermal crystallization temperature.

411

Crystallization, crystal-structure refinement, and IR spectroscopy of a synthetic hexahydroborite analog  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The crystal structure of the hexahydroborite analog Ca[B(OH){sub 4}]{sub 2} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O (a = 7.9941(3) Angstrom-Sign , b = 6.6321(2) Angstrom-Sign , c = 7.9871(3) Angstrom-Sign , {beta} = 104.166(4) Degree-Sign , V = 410.58(3) Angstrom-Sign {sup 3}, sp. gr. P2/c, Z = 2, {rho}{sub calc} = 1.891 g/cm{sup 3}; Xcalibur S CCD automated diffractometer, 1196 reflections with I > 2{sigma}(I), {lambda}MoK{sub {alpha}}), which was synthesized by the hydrothermal method via the recrystallization of calciborite CaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M) in the M - B{sub 2}O{sub 3} - H{sub 2}O system (t = 250 Degree-Sign C and P = 70-80 atm), was refined by the least-squares method with anisotropic displacement parameters (H atoms were located; R{sub 1} = 0.0260). The structure of synthetic hexahydroborite consists of infinite columns running along the c axis. The columns are formed by Ca polyhedra linked together and to [B(OH){sub 4}] orthotetrahedra by sharing edges. Along the two other axes, the translationally equivalent columns are linked only by hydrogen bonds. The presence of a stronger bond between the discrete (Ca-B-O) columns along the shortest (b = 6.6 Angstrom-Sign ) axis accounts for the possibility of the shift of the columns by 1/2T{sub b} and the formation of the second modification of Ca[B(OH){sub 4}]{sub 2} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O. The crystals of synthetic hexahydroborite were studied by IR spectroscopy. A crystal-chemical analysis was performed for a series of natural metaborates with the general formula CaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} {center_dot} nH{sub 2}O (CaO: B{sub 2}O{sub 3} = 1: 1, n = 0-6), including calciborite CaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} and hexahydroborite CaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O as the end members.

Yamnova, N. A., E-mail: natalia-yamnova@yandex.ru; Borovikova, E. Yu.; Dimitrova, O. V. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Geology (Russian Federation)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

412

NMR STUDIES OF LIQUID CRYSTALS AND MOLECULES DISSOLVED IN LIQUID CRYSTAL SOLVENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This thesis describes several studies in which nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) spectroscopy has been used to probe the structure, orientation and dynamics of liquid crystal mesogens and molecules dissolved in liquid crystalline phases. In addition, a modern high field nmr spectrometer is described which has been used to perform such nmr studies. Chapter 1 introduces the quantum mechanical formalisms used throughout this thesis and briefly reviews the fundamentals of nuclear spin physics and pulsed nmr spectroscopy. First the density operator is described and a specific form for the canonical ensemble is derived. Then Clebsch-Gordon coefficients, Wigner rotation matrices, and irreducible tensor operators are reviewed. An expression for the equilibrium (Curie) magnetization is obtained and the linear response of a spin system to a strong pulsed r.f. irradiation is described. Finally, the spin interaction Hamiltonians relevant to this work are reviewed together with their truncated forms. Chapter 2 is a deuterium magnetic resonance study of two 'nom' liquid crystals which possess several low temperature mesomorphic phases. Specifically, deuterium quadrupolar echo spectroscopy is used to determine the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules in smectic phases, the changes in molecular orientation and motion that occur at smectic-smectic phase transitions, and the order of the phase transitions. For both compounds, the phase sequence is determined to be isotropic, nematic, smectic A, smectic C, smectic B{sub A}, smectic B{sub C}, and crystalline. The structure of the smectic A phase is found to be consistent with the well-known model of a two dimensional liquid in which molecules are rapidly rotating about their long axes and oriented at right angles to the plane of the layers. Molecules in the smectic C phase are found to have their long axes tilted with respect to the layer normal, and the tilt angle is temperature dependent, increasing from zero at the smectic A - smectic C transition and reaching a maximum at 9{sup o} at the smectic C - smectic B{sub A} transition. This finding contradicts the results of X-ray diffraction studies which indicate that the tilt angle is 18{sup o} and temperature independent. The smectic B{sub A} - smectic B{sub C} phase transition is observed for the first time, and is found to be first order, a result that contradicts the prediction of a mean theory by McMillian. Chapter 3 is a multiple quantum nmr study of n-hexane oriented in a nematic liquid crystal solvent. The basic three pulse multiple quantum experiment is discussed which enables the observation of transitions for which |{Delta}m|>1, and then the technique of the separation of multiple quantum orders by phase incrementation in the multiple quantum evolution period is reviewed (TPPI). An explicit example of multiple quantum nmr is given by the calculation of the multiple quantum spectrum of an oriented methyl group.

Drobny, G.P.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Radioactive contamination of ZnWO4 crystal scintillators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The radioactive contamination of ZnWO4 crystal scintillators has been measured deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the INFN in Italy with a total exposure 3197 kg x h. Monte Carlo simulation, time-amplitude and pulse-shape analyses of the data have been applied to estimate the radioactive contamination of the ZnWO4 samples. One of the ZnWO4 crystals has also been tested by ultra-low background gamma spectrometry. The radioactive contaminations of the ZnWO4 samples do not exceed 0.002 â?? 0.8 mBq/kg (depending on the radionuclide), the total alpha activity is in the range: 0.2 - 2 mBq/kg. Particular radioactivity, beta active 65Zn and alpha active 180W, has been detected. The effect of the re-crystallization on the radiopurity of the ZnWO4 crystal has been studied. The radioactive contamination of samples of the ceramic details of the set-ups used in the crystals growth has been checked by low background gamma spectrometry. A project scheme on further improvement of the radiopur...

Belli, P; Cappella, F; Cerulli, R; Danevich, F A; Dubovik, A M; d'Angelo, S; Galashov, E N; Grinyov, B V; Incicchitti, A; Kobychev, V V; Laubenstein, M; Nagornaya, L L; Nozzoli, F; Poda, D V; Podviyanuk, R B; Polischuk, O G; Prosperi, D; Shlegel, V N; Tretyak, V I; Tupitsyna, I A; Vasiliev, Ya V; Vostretsov, Yu Ya

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Evaluation of CZT crystals from the former Soviet Union  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vertical high pressure Bridgman (VHPB) Cd{sub 1{minus}x}Zn{sub x}Te (0.04 < x < 0.24) detector crystals grown in the Ukraine and Russia have been evaluated and compared to US-grown materials. Various analytical techniques were used to study the materials for trace impurities, precipitates, crystallinity, and electrical transport properties. Relatively high concentrations of carbon and trace impurities such as Se, Nd and Si have been detected in the crystals. In most cases, the crystals showed lower resistivity than US-grown CZT. However, recent crystals grown in Russia exhibited better detector performance than those grown in prior years, and good response to an {sup 241}Am radioactive source was found. Electron lifetimes below 1 {micro}s were measured in crystals having significant numbers of micro-defects, compared to lifetimes of 5--15 {micro}s found in spectrometer grade materials produced in the US. Furthermore, the zinc composition along the growth axis showed better homogeneity in comparison with the US material.

H. Hermon; M. Schieber; R. B. James; A. J. Antolak; D. H. Morse; B. Brunett; C. Hackett; E. Tarver; V. Komar; M. S. Goorsky; H. Yoon; N. N. Kolesnikov; J. Toney; T. E. Schlesinger

1998-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

415

City of Lake Crystal, Minnesota (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Crystal, Minnesota (Utility Company) Crystal, Minnesota (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name City of Lake Crystal Place Minnesota Utility Id 10596 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] Energy Information Administration Form 826[2] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Heat Commercial Commercial Service Rate Commercial Industrial Service Rate Industrial Residential Service Rate Residential Rural Service Rate Residential Average Rates Residential: $0.1430/kWh Commercial: $0.1210/kWh

416

The Biological Implications of the PP2A Crystal Structure  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The Biological Implications of the PP2A Crystal Structure Print The Biological Implications of the PP2A Crystal Structure Print Phosphatases, enzymes that remove a phosphate group from amino-acid substrates, can be subdivided according to their substrate specificity. Myriad evidence has demonstrated that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a family of serine/threonine-specific (Ser/Thr) phosphatases, regulates many, if not most, aspects of cellular activities and is a critical tumor suppressor. A team at the University of Washington recently determined the first crystal structure of a PP2A holoenzyme (a form sufficient for full catalytic activity) composed of three different subunits (i.e., a heterotrimer). Their structure provides a foundation for understanding PP2A regulation, satisfactory mechanistic explanations for human tumorigenic mutations, and the structural basis for understanding PP2A substrate recruitment and specificity, a critical issue, given the high number of PP2A substrates.

417

The Biological Implications of the PP2A Crystal Structure  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The Biological Implications of the PP2A Crystal Structure Print The Biological Implications of the PP2A Crystal Structure Print Phosphatases, enzymes that remove a phosphate group from amino-acid substrates, can be subdivided according to their substrate specificity. Myriad evidence has demonstrated that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a family of serine/threonine-specific (Ser/Thr) phosphatases, regulates many, if not most, aspects of cellular activities and is a critical tumor suppressor. A team at the University of Washington recently determined the first crystal structure of a PP2A holoenzyme (a form sufficient for full catalytic activity) composed of three different subunits (i.e., a heterotrimer). Their structure provides a foundation for understanding PP2A regulation, satisfactory mechanistic explanations for human tumorigenic mutations, and the structural basis for understanding PP2A substrate recruitment and specificity, a critical issue, given the high number of PP2A substrates.

418

Impact of Ice Crystal Roughness on Satellite Retrieved Cloud Properties  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ice Crystal Roughness on Satellite Retrieved Cloud Properties Ice Crystal Roughness on Satellite Retrieved Cloud Properties P. Minnis 1 , P. W. Heck 2 , R. F. Arduini 3 , R. Palikonda 3 , J. K. Ayers 3 , M. M. Khaiyer 3 , P. Yang 4 , Y. Xie 4 3 Science Systems & Applications, Inc. Hampton, VA 1 NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA Current Cirrus Models Inadequate Cirrus cloud optical depths Ï„ (heights z e ) are often over (under) estimated when derived from solar reflectances. In situ data suggest smaller asymmetry factors, g, than used in most retrieval models. Multi-angle measurements point to smoother phase functions than for solid, smooth xtals. Calculations show that solid crystals with roughened facets or embedded bubbles --both observed in real cirrus particles-- yield smoother phase functions & smaller g

419

TOPAZ: the Single Crystal Diffractometer at SNS | ORNL Neutron Sciences  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

TOPAZ-Single-Crystal Diffractometer TOPAZ-Single-Crystal Diffractometer TOPAZ instrument scientist Christina Hoffmann and scientific associate Matt Frost at TOPAZ. TOPAZ instrument scientist Christina Hoffmann and scientific associate Matt Frost at TOPAZ. TOPAZ is an elastic scattering instrument that allows for probing of material structures and responses under controlled environmental conditions. It enables neutron measurement of the same single-crystal samples that is possible with x-ray diffraction. Data are collected on samples of 0.1 mm3 or less. Resolution is such that an average unit cell size of [50 × 50 × 50] Å3 for compounds of moderate complexity can be easily accommodated. This includes inorganic large and porous framework and guest-host materials, metal (in-)organic cluster and

420

Magnetic charge crystals imaged in artificial spin ice  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Magnetic charge crystals imaged in artificial spin ice Magnetic charge crystals imaged in artificial spin ice Magnetic charge crystals imaged in artificial spin ice Potential data storage and computational advances could follow August 27, 2013 Potential data storage and computational advances could follow A 3-D depiction of the honeycomb artificial spin ice topography after the annealing and cooling protocols. The light and dark colors represent the north and south magnetic poles of the islands. Image by Ian Gilbert, U. of I. Department of Physics and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory Contact Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471 Email Siv Schwink U. Illinois (217) 300-2201 Email "The emergence of magnetic monopoles in spin ice systems is a particular case of what physicists call fractionalization, or deconfinement of

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421

Radioactive contamination of BaF2 crystal scintillator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Barium fluoride (BaF$_2$) crystal scintillators are promising detectors to search for double beta decay processes in $^{130}$Ba ($Q_{2{\\beta}}$ = 2619(3) keV) and $^{132}$Ba ($Q_{2{\\beta}}$ = 844(1) keV). The $^{130}$Ba isotope is of particular interest because of the indications on 2${\\beta}$ decay found in two geochemical experiments. The radioactive contamination of BaF$_2$ scintillation crystal with mass of 1.714 kg was measured over 113.4 hours in a low-background DAMA/R&D set-up deep underground (3600 m w.e.) at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories of INFN (LNGS, Italy). The half-life of $^{212}$Po (present in the crystal scintillator due to contamination by radium) was estimated as $T_{1/2}$ = 298.8 $\\pm$ 0.8(stat.) $\\pm$ 1.4(syst.) ns by analysis of the events pulse profiles.

Polischuk, O G; Bernabei, R; Cappella, F; Caracciolo, V; Cerulli, R; Di Marco, A; Danevich, F A; Incicchitti, A; Poda, D V; Tretyak, V I

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Elastic constants of single crystal Hastelloy X at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An acoustic time of flight technique is described in detail for measuring the elastic constants of cubic single crystals that allows for the constants to be determined at elevated temperature. Although the overall technique is not new, various aspects of the present work may prove extremely useful to others interested in finding these values, especially for aerospace materials applications. Elastic constants were determined for the nickel based alloy, Hastelloy X from room temperature to 1,000 C. Accurate elastic constants were needed as part of an effort to predict both polycrystal mechanical properties and the nature of grain induced heterogeneous mechanical response. The increased accuracy of the acoustically determined constants resulted in up to a 15% change in the predicted stresses in individual grains. These results indicate that the use of elastic single crystal constants of pure nickel as an approximation for the constants of gas turbine single crystal alloys, which is often done today, is inaccurate.

Canistraro, H.A. [Univ. of Hartford, CT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Audio Engineering Technology; Jordan, E.H.; Shi Shixiang [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Favrow, L.H.; Reed, F.A. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

An observable for vacancy characterization and diffusion in crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To locate the position and characterize the dynamics of a vacancy in a crystal, we propose to represent it by the ground state density of a quantum probe quasi-particle for the Hamiltonian associated to the potential energy field generated by the atoms in the sample. In this description, the h^2/2mu coefficient of the kinetic energy term is a tunable parameter controlling the density localization in the regions of relevant minima of the potential energy field. Based on this description, we derive a set of collective variables that we use in rare event simulations to identify some of the vacancy diffusion paths in a 2D crystal. Our simulations reveal, in addition to the simple and expected nearest neighbor hopping path, a collective migration mechanism of the vacancy. This mechanism involves several lattice sites and produces a long range migration of the vacancy. Finally, we also observed a vacancy induced crystal reorientation process.

Pierre-Antoine Geslin; Giovanni Ciccotti; Eric Vanden-Eijnden; Simone Meloni

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

424

Bent crystal selection and assembling for the LAUE project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For the first time, with the Laue project, bent crystals are being used for focusing photons in the 80-300 keV energy range. The advantage is their high reflectivity and better Point Spread Function with respect to the mosaic flat crystals. Simulations have already shown their excellent focusing capability which makes them the best candidates for a Laue lens whose sensitivity is also driven by the size of the focused spot. Selected crystals are Germanium (perfect, (111)) and Gallium Arsenide (mosaic, (220)) with 40 m curvature radius to get a spherical lens with 20 m long focal length. A lens petal is being built. We report the measurement technique by which we are able to estimate the exact curvature of each tile within a few percent of uncertainty and their diffraction efficiency. We also discuss some results.

Liccardo, Vincenzo; Frontera, Filippo; Valsan, Vineeth; Guidi, Vincenzo; Buffagni, Elisa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Luminescence from Edge Fracture in Shocked Lithium Fluoride Crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Light emitted from a [100] lithium fluoride crystal was characterized under shock wave compression to 28GPa followed by complete stress release at the edges. The light was examined using time-gated optical spectrometry and imaging, time-resolved optical emission measurements, and hydrodynamic modeling. The shock arrival at the circumference of the crystal was delayed relative to the center so that the two regions could be studied at different times. The majority of the light emission originated when the shock waves released at the circumference of the crystal. Unlike previously reported results for shocked lithium fluoride, we found that the light spectrum is not strictly broad band, but has spectral lines associated with atomic lithium in addition to a broad band background. Also, the emission spectrum depends strongly on the gas surrounding the sample. Based on our observations, the line emission appears to be related to fracture of the lithium fluoride crystal from the shock wave releasing at the edges. Experimenters frequently utilize lithium fluoride crystals as transparent windows for observing shock compressed samples. Because of the experimental geometries used, the shock wave in such cases often reaches the circumference of the window at nearly the same moment as when it reaches the center of the sample-window interface. Light generated at the circumference could contaminate the measurement at the interface when this light scatters into the observed region. This background light may be reduced or avoided using experimental geometries which delay the arrival of the shock wave at the edges of the crystal.

Turley, W. D. [NSTec; Stevens, G. D. [NSTec; Capelle, G. A. [NSTec; Grover, M. [NSTec; Holtkamp, D. B. [LANL; LaLone, B. M. [NSTec; Veeser, L. R. [NSTec, LANL

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Diffraction of light by topological defects in liquid crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study light scattering by a hedgehog-like and linear disclination topological defects in a nematic liquid crystal by a metric approach. Light propagating near such defects feels an effective metric equivalent to the spatial part of the global monopole and cosmic string geometries. We obtain the scattering amplitude and the differential and total scattering cross section for the case of the hedgehog defect, in terms of the characteristic parameters of the liquid crystal. Studying the disclination case, a cylindrical partial wave method is developed. As an application of the previous developments, we also examine the temperature influence on the localization of the diffraction patterns.

E. Pereira; F. Moraes

2010-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

427

Visualization of stacking faults in fcc crystals in plastic deformations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using molecular dynamics simulation, we investigate the dynamics of stacking faults in fcc crystals in uniaxial stretching in a Lennard-Jones binary mixture composed of 4096 particles in three dimensions. We visualize stacking faults using a disorder variable $D_j(t)$ for each particle $j$ constructed from local bond order parameters based on spherical harmonics (Steinhardt order parameters). Also introducing a method of bond breakage, we examine how stacking faults are formed and removed by collective particle motions. These processes are relevant in plasticity of fcc crystals.

Takeshi Kawasaki; Akira Onuki

2011-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

428

Bringing Crystal Structures to Reality by Three-Dimensional Printing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

These files are then used to produce to-scale physical models bringing crystal structures to reality by 3D printing. ... Digital information regarding the relative positioning of atoms in a crystal structure is translated, using a suite of computer programs, into a 3D computer model of a solid form, corresponding to that information which can then be saved in a file format for 3D printing. ... These files are then used to produce to-scale physical models of the structural information using two different 3D printing methodologies. ...

Philip J. Kitson; Andrew Macdonell; Soichiro Tsuda; HongYing Zang; De-Liang Long; Leroy Cronin

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

A micro-structured ion-implanted magnonic crystal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate spin-wave propagation in a microstructured magnonic-crystal waveguide fabricated by localized ion implantation. The irradiation caused a periodic variation in the saturation magnetization along the waveguide. As a consequence, the spin-wave transmission spectrum exhibits a set of frequency bands, where spin-wave propagation is suppressed. A weak modification of the saturation magnetization by 7% is sufficient to decrease the spin-wave transmission in the band gaps by a factor of 10. These results evidence the applicability of localized ion implantation for the fabrication of efficient micron- and nano-sized magnonic crystals for magnon spintronic applications.

Obry, Bjoern; Pirro, Philipp; Chumak, Andrii V.; Ciubotaru, Florin; Serga, Alexander A.; Hillebrands, Burkard [Fachbereich Physik and Forschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Technische Universitaet Kaiserslautern, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)] [Fachbereich Physik and Forschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Technische Universitaet Kaiserslautern, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Braecher, Thomas [Fachbereich Physik and Forschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Technische Universitaet Kaiserslautern, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany) [Fachbereich Physik and Forschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Technische Universitaet Kaiserslautern, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Graduate School Materials Science in Mainz, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Osten, Julia; Fassbender, Juergen [Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, D-01328 Dresden, Germany and Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)] [Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, D-01328 Dresden, Germany and Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

430

Effective dislocation lines in continuously dislocated crystals. III. Kinematics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A class of congruences of principal Volterra-type effective dislocation lines associated with a dislocation density tensor is distinguished in order to investigate the kinematics of continuized defective crystals in terms of their dislocation densities (tensorial as well as scalar). Moreover, it shown, basing oneself on a formula defining the mean curvature of glide surfaces for principal edge effective dislocation lines, that the considered kinematics of continuized defective crystals is consistent with some relations appearing in the physical theory of plasticity (e.g. with the Orowan-type kinematic relations and with the treatment of shear stresses as driving stresses of moving dislocations).

Andrzej Trzesowski

2007-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

431

Schottky and other electrical phenomena in polyethylene crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

polarities anti scale factors INT RODU C T ION Assuming that the prcdornin" nt nzcchanism of electronic con- duction oi n:ic roscopic crystal s ol polyethylene is Schoftky emission, Schottky plot. . ; of this concluction should shove pc riodic deviations...&hiskcr electrode. His I ? V curves for the crystals shov cd ciia raut eristic s similar to those of junction diodes except I'or thc appearance of a. negative resist- ance region at so&no value of applied potential. He suggested a model based on two effects...

Stoltz, Richard Joseph

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

432

Gradient index liquid crystal devices and method of fabrication thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Laser beam apodizers using cholesteric liquid crystals provides soft edge profile by use of two separate cholesteric liquid crystal mixtures with different selective reflection bands which in an overlap region have a gradient index where reflectivity changes as a function of position. The apodizers can be configured as a one-dimensional beam apod INTRODUCTION The U.S. government has rights in the invention under Contract No. DE-FC03-85DP40200 between the University of Rochester and the Department of Energy.

Lee, J.C.; Jacobs, S.

1991-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

433

Pairing of valence electrons as necessary condition for energy minimization in a crystal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pairing of valence electrons can lead to energy minimization of a crystal. It can be proved by use of representation of the valence electrons as plane waves in periodic potential of the crystal.

Dolgopolov Stanislav Olegovich

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

434

Monitoring Industrial Pharmaceutical Crystallization Processes Using Acoustic Emission in Pure and Impure Media.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Monitoring Industrial Pharmaceutical Crystallization Processes Using Acoustic Emission in Pure processes was almost never evaluated in the field of industrial pharmaceutical crystallization. Few papers. Introduction The pharmaceutical industry is set against strong requests on behalf of both consumers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

435

Lattice Boltzmann algorithm for three–dimensional liquid–crystal hydrodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...P. Boon and P. V. Coveney Lattice Boltzmann algorithm for three-dimensional...hydrodynamics We describe a lattice Boltzmann algorithm to simulate liquid-crystal...nematics with an imposed twist. lattice Boltzmann|liquid crystal|hydrodynamics...

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

A cascaded photonic crystal fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer formed by extra electric arc discharges  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, a cascaded Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on a photonic crystal fiber is reported. It is demonstrated that by applying a small dose of extra arc discharge to the photonic crystal fiber sensin...

Y. Geng; X. Li; X. Tan; Y. Deng; Y. Yu

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

E-Print Network 3.0 - alpha-zr single crystals Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 4 5 > >> 1 X-Ray Production Using Stacked Pyroelectric Crystals Andrew Kovanen, Yaron Danon, Don Gillich Summary: approximately double that of a single crystal.1 This research...

438

Crystallization Kinetics and Excess Free Energy of H2O and D2O...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Crystallization Kinetics and Excess Free Energy of H2O and D2O Nanoscale Films of Amorphous Solid Water. Crystallization Kinetics and Excess Free Energy of H2O and D2O Nanoscale...

439

Photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers enabled by an accidental Dirac point  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser (PCSEL) includes a gain medium electromagnetically coupled to a photonic crystal whose energy band structure exhibits a Dirac cone of linear dispersion at the center of the photonic crystal's Brillouin zone. This Dirac cone's vertex is called a Dirac point; because it is at the Brillouin zone center, it is called an accidental Dirac point. Tuning the photonic crystal's band structure (e.g., by changing the photonic crystal's dimensions or refractive index) to exhibit an accidental Dirac point increases the photonic crystal's mode spacing by orders of magnitudes and reduces or eliminates the photonic crystal's distributed in-plane feedback. Thus, the photonic crystal can act as a resonator that supports single-mode output from the PCSEL over a larger area than is possible with conventional PCSELs, which have quadratic band edge dispersion. Because output power generally scales with output area, this increase in output area results in higher possible output powers.

Chua, Song Liang; Lu, Ling; Soljacic, Marin

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

440

Structure of apo acyl carrier protein and a proposal to engineer protein crystallization through metal ions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To demonstrate a new strategy for engineering crystal lattices through metal-mediated interactions, apo acyl carrier protein has been crystallized in the presence of zinc ions. The structure was solved with MAD phasing using zinc anomalous signals.

Qiu, X.

2004-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Light trapping in thin film solar cells using textured photonic crystal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solar cell includes a photoactive region that receives light. A photonic crystal is coupled to the photoactive region, wherein the photonic crystal comprises a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) for trapping the light.

Yi, Yasha (Somerville, MA); Kimerling, Lionel C. (Concord, MA); Duan, Xiaoman (Amesbury, MA); Zeng, Lirong (Cambridge, MA)

2009-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

442

Crystal shape effect on nuclear orientation thermometry at ultra-low temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Absolute temperature measurement (T mK region) from anisotropy of gamma radiations emitted from oriented60Co nuclei in a single crystal of hcp cobalt is found to depend on the shape of the crystal. This dep...

T S Radhakrishnan; Girish Chandra

1974-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Growth and characterization of isotopically enriched {sup 70}Ge and {sup 74}Ge single crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isotopically enriched {sup 70}Ge and {sup 74}Ge single crystals were successfully gown by a newly developed vertical Bridgman method. The system allows us to reliably grow high purity Ge single crystals of approximately 1 cm{sup 3} volume. To our knowledge, we have grown the first {sup 70}Ge single crystal. The electrically active chemical impurity concentration for both crystals was found to be {approximately}2 {times} cm{sup {minus}3} which is two order of magnitude better that of {sup 74}Ge crystals previously grown by two different groups. Isotopic enrichment of the {sup 70}Ge and the {sup 74}Ge crystals is 96.3% and 96.8%, respectively. The residual chemical impurities present in both crystals were identified as phosphorus, copper, aluminum, and indium. A wide variety of experiments which take advantage of the isotopic purity of our crystals are discussed.

Itoh, K.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Growth and characterization of isotopically enriched [sup 70]Ge and [sup 74]Ge single crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isotopically enriched [sup 70]Ge and [sup 74]Ge single crystals were successfully gown by a newly developed vertical Bridgman method. The system allows us to reliably grow high purity Ge single crystals of approximately 1 cm[sup 3] volume. To our knowledge, we have grown the first [sup 70]Ge single crystal. The electrically active chemical impurity concentration for both crystals was found to be [approximately]2 [times] cm[sup [minus]3] which is two order of magnitude better that of [sup 74]Ge crystals previously grown by two different groups. Isotopic enrichment of the [sup 70]Ge and the [sup 74]Ge crystals is 96.3% and 96.8%, respectively. The residual chemical impurities present in both crystals were identified as phosphorus, copper, aluminum, and indium. A wide variety of experiments which take advantage of the isotopic purity of our crystals are discussed.

Itoh, K.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Electromagnetic space-time crystals. III. Dispersion relations for partial solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Partial solutions of the Dirac equation describing an electron motion in electromagnetic crystals created by plane waves with linear and circular polarizations are treated. It is shown that the electromagnetic crystal formed by circularly polarized waves possesses the spin birefringence.

G. N. Borzdov

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

446

A process for separation by semi-continuous counter-current crystallization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A process is proposed to perform separations via crystallization by using multiple tanks and constraining crystal growth to solid surfaces. Multiple tanks allow multiple recrystallizations to improve product purity and to ...

Aumock, Nathan M. (Nathan Micheal)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic resolution crystal Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

spherically bent crystal spectrometer. Since we have improved the resolution we... IN CRYSTALS C4-339 In interactions of X-rays with atoms we are prima- rily concerned with...

448

Crystal Lake - Clipper (08) Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Crystal Lake - Clipper (08) Wind Farm Crystal Lake - Clipper (08) Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Crystal Lake - Clipper (08) Wind Farm Facility Crystal Lake - Clipper (08) Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner NextEra Energy Resources Developer NextEra Energy Resources Location IA Coordinates 43.221728°, -93.833227° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.221728,"lon":-93.833227,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

449

Radioactive contamination of SrI2(Eu) crystal scintillator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A strontium iodide crystal doped by europium (SrI2(Eu)) was produced by using the Stockbarger growth technique. The crystal was subjected to characterisation that included relative photoelectron output and energy resolution for gamma quanta. The intrinsic radioactivity of SrI2(Eu) crystal scintillator was tested both in scintillation mode and by using ultra-low background HPGe gamma spectrometry deep underground. The response of the SrI2(Eu) detector to alpha particles (alpha/beta ratio and pulse shape) was estimated by analysing the 226Ra trace contamination internal to the crystal. We have found alpha/beta=0.55 and no difference in scintillation decay for alpha particles and gamma quanta. The application of the obtained results in the search for the double electron capture and electron capture with positron emission in 84Sr has been investigated at a level of sensitivity T_1/2 \\sim 10^15-10^16 yr. The results of these studies demonstrate the potentiality of this material for a variety of scintillation appli...

Belli, P; Cerulli, R; Danevich, F A; Galenin, E; Gektin, A; Incicchitti, A; Isaienko, V; Kobychev, V V; Laubenstein, M; Nagorny, S S; Podviyanuk, R B; Tkachenko, S; Tretyak, V I

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Metric approach for sound propagation in nematic liquid crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the eikonal approach, we describe sound propagation near to topological defects of nematic liquid crystal as geodesics of a non-euclidian manifold endowed with an effective metric tensor. The relation between the acoustics of the medium and this geometrical description is given by Fermat's principle. We calculate the ray trajectories and propose a diffraction experiment to retrieve informations about the elastic constants.

E. Pereira; S. Fumeron; F. Moraes

2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

451

RECENT CRYSTAL STRUCTURE DETERMINATIONS BY NEUTRON DIFFRACTION AT OAK RIDGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

469. RECENT CRYSTAL STRUCTURE DETERMINATIONS BY NEUTRON DIFFRACTION AT OAK RIDGE By GEORGE M. BROWN and HENRI A. LEVY, Chemistry Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory (1), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U. S. A ont été relevées grace au diffractomètre à neutrons d'Oak Ridge position- nant automatiquement les

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

452

Rough–flat–rough transition of crystal surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... of order-disorder phase transition in a two-dimensional Ising lattice to crystal surfaces, the roughening phase transition and kinetic ... phase transition and kinetic roughening have been studied in great detail4"28. Monte Carlo simulations12"16 led theoreticians to ...

Xiang-Yang Liu; P. Bennema; J. P. van der Eerden

1992-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

453

Abstract Crystals for Quantum Generalized Kac-Moody Algebras  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......have ~eib = ~fib = 0. We sometimes write wti(b) = hi, wt b for i I and b B. Remark...article have the following properties: (1) wti(b) 0 for any i Iim and b B, (2) i...max k 0 ; ~f k i b = 0 f or i Ire , wti(b) for i Iim , Abstract Crystals for......

Kyeonghoon Jeong; Seok-Jin Kang; Masaki Kashiwara; Dong-Uy Shin

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Glassy and plastic crystals of cyanoadamantane : a Brillouin scattering investigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

L-617 « Glassy » and plastic crystals of cyanoadamantane : a Brillouin scattering investigation J. Abstract. 2014 The elastic constants ofcyanoadamantane have been measured in the plastic and « glassy temperature. The temperature dependence of C11 in the plastic phase has been explain- ed by the setting

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

455

NANO-SCALE CALORIMETRY OF ISOLATED POLYETHYLENE SINGLE CRYSTALS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;NANO-SCALE CALORIMETRY OF ISOLATED POLYETHYLENE SINGLE CRYSTALS BY ALEX TAN KWAN B.S., Stanford) device, the nanocalorimeter, it was possible to investigate the melting of isolated polyethylene (PE, a simple Ni-foil calorimeter, to measure the heat capacity of a thin polyethylene film to verify

Allen, Leslie H.

456

Possible Martensitic Transformation in Hydrated Phospholipid Liquid Crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main phase transition in smectic liquid crystals of a hydrated phospholipid involves a Martensitic transformation driven by the molecular-conformation changes. This inhomogeneous shear transformation generates periodic crystallographic twins that appear as corrugations of the molecular bilayer sheets. The model accounts for the observed lipid shedding, hysteresis, double corrugation periodicities, and diffusion anomalies, and may account for other smectic herringbone structures.

Winston K. Chan and Watt W. Webb

1981-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

457

Crystal structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophytochrome: Photoconversion and signal transduction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...highlighted in a topologic diagram of the PaBphP-PCD...molecular replacement (Materials and Methods). Diffraction...bacteriophytochromes. Materials and Methods Cloning...observations and handling of crystals were carried out...2116 . 10 van Thor JJ Ronayne KL Towrie...266 . 13 van Thor JJ Mackeen M Kuprov...

Xiaojing Yang; Jane Kuk; Keith Moffat

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Low temperature magnetic transitions of single crystal HoBi  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present resistivity, specific heat and magnetization measurements in high quality single crystals of HoBi, with a residual resistivity ratio of 126. We find, from the temperature and field dependence of the magnetization, an antiferromagnetic transition at 5.7 K, which evolves, under magnetic fields, into a series of up to five metamagnetic phases.

Fente, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid; Suderow, H. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid; Vieira, S. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid; Nemes, N. M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid; Garcia-Hernandez, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid; Budko, Sergei L. [Ames Laboratory; Canfield, Paul C. [Ames Laboratory

2013-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

459

A MOLECULAR THEORY OF SURFACE TENSION IN NEMATIC LIQUID CRYSTALS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1187 A MOLECULAR THEORY OF SURFACE TENSION IN NEMATIC LIQUID CRYSTALS J. D. PARSONS Departamento de 1976, accepte le 10 mai 1976) Résumé. - On calcule la tension superficielle à la surface libre d le plan de la surface; b) il y a un saut de la tension de surface à la transition nématique

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

460

Large area 3D helical photonic crystals A. K. Rauba)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.1116/1.3640756] I. INTRODUCTION Chiral, coil-spring-like helical photonic crystal structures are useful for optical the helical lattice periodicity and coil pitch of the 3D PhC. This technique con- sists of a simple two

New Mexico, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Photo- and Semi-conductance in Molecular Single Crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... (1) Photo-conductance1 in molecular single crystals of the anthracene type is not an effect due primarily ... anthracene type is not an effect due primarily to impurity centres, since the dependence of photo-conductance on wave-length reproduces all inflexions of the ultra-violet absorption curve of the ...

D. J. CARSWELL; J. FERGUSON; L. E. LYONS

1954-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

462

Liquid Crystal Optics and Photonics CPHY Assignment 2.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liquid Crystal Optics and Photonics CPHY 74495 Assignment 2. P. Pal¤y-Muhoray Jan. 24, 2014 Due: Feb 4, 2014 1. Read pages 25 - 37 of the text (Guenther, Modern Optics). 2. Read Ch 2., Review of Electricity and Magnetism (http://mpal¤y.lci.kent.edu/optics) 3. Red light with wavelength = 632:8nm

Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

463

TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF WEAKLY DEFORMED ALKALI HALIDE CRYSTALS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

377 TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF WEAKLY DEFORMED ALKALI HALIDE CRYSTALS H. STRUNK Max'importance croissante du durcissement de la solution solide. Abstract. 2014 Transmission electron microscopy (TEM Abstracts 7j66 - 7 I' 1. Introduction. - It is only some years ago that transmission electron microscopy

Boyer, Edmond

464

Microfluidic Generation of Lipidic Mesophases for Membrane Protein Crystallization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microfluidic Generation of Lipidic Mesophases for Membrane Protein Crystallization Sarah L. Perry Mathews AVenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 ReceiVed March 11, 2009 ABSTRACT: We report on a microfluidic conditions of membrane proteins from a membrane-like phase in sub-20 nL volumes. This integrated microfluidic

Kenis, Paul J. A.

465

Hanford high-level waste evaporator/crystallizer corrosion evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy, Hanford Site nuclear reservation, located in Southeastern Washington State, is currently home to 61 Mgal of radioactive waste stored in 177 large underground storage tanks. As an intermediate waste volume reduction, the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer processes waste solutions from most of the operating laboratories and plants on the Hanford Site. The waste solutions are concentrated in the Evaporator/Crystallizer to a slurry of liquid and crystallized salts. This concentrated slurry is returned to Hanford Site waste tanks at a significantly reduced volume. The Washington State Department of Ecology Dangerous Waste Regulations, WAC 173-393 require that a tank system integrity assessment be completed and maintained on file at the facility for all dangerous waste tank systems. This corrosion evaluation was performed in support of the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Tank System Integrity Assessment Report. This corrosion evaluation provided a comprehensive compatibility study of the component materials and corrosive environments. Materials used for the Evaporator components and piping include austenitic stainless steels (SS) (primarily ASTM A240, Type 304L) and low alloy carbon steels (CS) (primarily ASTM A53 and A106) with polymeric or asbestos gaskets at flanged connections. Building structure and secondary containment is made from ACI 301-72 Structural Concrete for Buildings and coated with a chemically resistant acrylic coating system.

Ohl, P.C.; Carlos, W.C.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Spectroscopic properties of Cr-doped melilite crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

?Four kinds of Cr-droped melilite crystals, Ca2MgSi2O7 (akermanite), CaAl2SiO7 (gehlenite), CaGa2SiO7 (Ga-gehlenite) and CaGa2GeO7 (GaGe-gehlenite), with different sizes of the sites for Cr ions to substitute, we...

Akiko Sugimoto; Yukio Nobe; Takafumi Yamazaki…

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Hydrodynamics of three-dimensional stacked hexatic liquid crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The hydrodynamic equations for three-dimensional stacked hexatic liquid crystals, i.e., for hexatic-B and its tilted analogs, smectic-F and smectic-I, are presented. Differences and similarities to the hydrodynamics of smectic-A and smectic-C are discussed and the role of the additional variable characterizing the bond orientational order is elucidated.

H. Pleiner and H. R. Brand

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Crystallization and vitrification of semiflexible living polymers: A lattice model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the systematics of a d-dimensional lattice model for melts of semiflexible living polymers. For d=2 and 3 our model, which includes vacancies, loops, and the possibilities of polymerization and polydispersity, exhibits both equilibrium crystallization and glass formation in the wake of a quench. We study these analytically, in some limits, and via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. A continuous Ising-type transition separates crystalline and disordered phases for the d=2 square lattice. If loop formation is favored in d=2, crossover effects lead to power-law decays of polymer-length distributions over large length scales, strong fluctuations in thermodynamic quantities, and slow relaxation. These crossover effects arise because of the proximity of a phase with an infinite correlation length in one limit of our model. For the d=3 simple cubic lattice our model has a first-order crystallization transition. Quenches from the disordered to the ordered phase yield glassy, metastable configurations for both d=2 and 3. We study the latter case in detail and find logarithmically slow relaxation out of these metastable configurations, a frustration-driven glass-crystal transition, and an exotic lamellar glass. We propose a Monte Carlo analog of scanning calorimetry and use it to study these glasses. We discuss the relevance of our work to experiments on different systems of living polymers, earlier studies of crystallization in polymeric melts, and some theories of the glass transition in model systems.

Gautam I. Menon and Rahul Pandit

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Electrically controlled modulation in a photonic crystal nanocavity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Elizabeth Edwards1, Tomas Sarmiento1, James S. Harris1, David A. B. Miller1 and Jelena Vuckovi´c1 1. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light, 2nd ed

Vuckovic, Jelena

470

A test of crystal structure prediction of small organic molecules  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results are reported of a blind test of crystal structure prediction of four organic molecules using the principal computer programs currently available. Successful predictions for all four molecules were obtained using calculated lattice energy, but no program was successful in all cases.

Lommerse, J.P.M.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

AFM CHARACTERIZATION OF LASER INDUCED DAMAGE ON CDZNTE CRYSTAL SURFACES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Semi-conducting CdZnTe (or CZT) crystals can be used in a variety of detector-type applications. CZT shows great promise for use as a gamma radiation spectrometer. However, its performance is adversely affected by point defects, structural and compositional heterogeneities within the crystals, such as twinning, pipes, grain boundaries (polycrystallinity), secondary phases and in some cases, damage caused by external forces. One example is damage that occurs during characterization of the surface by a laser during Raman spectroscopy. Even minimal laser power can cause Te enriched areas on the surface to appear. The Raman spectra resulting from measurements at moderate intensity laser power show large increases in peak intensity that is attributed to Te. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to characterize the extent of damage to the CZT crystal surface following exposure to the Raman laser. AFM data reveal localized surface damage in the areas exposed to the Raman laser beam. The degree of surface damage to the crystal is dependent on the laser power, with the most observable damage occurring at high laser power. Moreover, intensity increases in the Te peaks of the Raman spectra are observed even at low laser power with little to no visible damage observed by AFM. AFM results also suggest that exposure to the same amount of laser power yields different amounts of surface damage depending on whether the exposed surface is the Te terminating face or the Cd terminating face of CZT.

Hawkins, S; Lucile Teague, L; Martine Duff, M; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

472

352 Blanco & Viola Aspartokinase III Acta Cryst. (2002). D58, 352354 crystallization papers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at a synchroton source. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters

Viola, Ronald

473

Improving protein crystal quality by selective removal of a Ca2+-dependent membrane-insertion loop  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Protein engineering dramatically enhances the quality of crystals of a Ca2+-dependent membrane-binding protein.

Neau, D.B.

2007-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

474

Femtosecond X-ray diffraction from two-dimensional protein crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Bragg diffraction achieved from two-dimensional protein crystals using femtosecond X-ray laser snapshots is presented.

Frank, M.

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

475

Graphene as a protein crystal mounting material to reduce background scatter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new method is presented to reduce background scatter by use of graphene-based mounting of protein crystals.

Wierman, J.L.

2013-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

476

E-Print Network 3.0 - aided lateral crystallization Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(FOM) Collection: Mathematics ; Materials Science 7 Photon tunnelling microscopy of polyethylene single crystals Summary: Photon tunnelling microscopy of polyethylene single...

477

Constrained evolutionary algorithm for structure prediction of molecular crystals: methodology and applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A specially designed algorithm to predict the structure of complex crystals consisting of well defined molecular units is presented.

Zhu, Q.

2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

478

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a hydantoinase from Artrobacter aurescens DSM 3745  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A hydantoinase from Artrobacter aurescens DSM 3745 has been crystallized and preliminary X-ray analysis has been performed.

May, O.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Crystallization of the regulatory and effector domains of the key sporulation response regulator Spo0A  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Crystals of both the effector and regulatory domains of Spo0A from Bacillus stearothermophilus have been grown.

Muchov?, K.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Method and apparatus for producing monochromatic radiography with a bent laue crystal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for producing a monochromatic beam. A plurality of beams are generated from a polyenergetic source. The beams are then transmitted through a bent crystal, preferably a bent Laue crystal, having a non-cylindrical shape. A position of the bent crystal is rocked with respect to the polyenergetic source until a plurality of divergent monochromatic beams are emitted from the bent crystal.

Zhong, Zhong (Apt. I 1131 Chaping 700 E. Loop Rd., Stony Brook, NY 11790); Chapman, Leroy Dean (4 Vermont Cir., Bolingbrook, IL 60440); Thomlinson, William C. (32 E. Masem, East Patchogue, NY 11772)

2000-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Crystallization of full-length CysB of Klebsiella aerogenes, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Crystals of intact tetrameric CysB from K. aerogenes have been obtained with and without its inducer N-acetylserine and in four different crystal forms.

Verschueren, K.H.G.

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Salvage and storage of infectious disease protein targets in the SSGCID high-throughput crystallization pathway using microfluidics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SSGCID protein crystals were salvaged and stored using the MPCS Plug Maker and CrystalCards when high-throughput traditional sitting-drop vapor diffusion initially failed.

Christensen, J.

2011-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

483

Behavior of the drain leakage current in metal-induced laterally crystallized thin lm transistors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Behavior of the drain leakage current in metal-induced laterally crystallized thin ®lm transistors crystallized (MILC) thin ®lm transistors (TFTs) are better than solid phase crystallized (SPC) TFTs in many. � 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Thin ®lm transistors; Leakage current

484

Time-Resolved Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Study of Polyethylene Crystallization from Solution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Time-Resolved Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Study of Polyethylene Crystallization from Solution-resolved small-angle neutron scattering (TR-SANS), the crystal- lization kinetics of polyethylene from deuterated of polyethylene crystallization from xylene solutions. One unique feature of this experimentation is that both

Wang, Howard "Hao"

485

Polymer Photonic Crystals by Self-Assembly From the Resnick Sustainability Institute  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Polymer Photonic Crystals by Self-Assembly From the Resnick Sustainability Crystals by Self-Assembly Raymond Weitekamp THE RESNICK SUSTAINABILITY INSTITUTE AT THE CALIFORNIA potential impact. · The unique polymer architecture enables paintable photonic crystals · Blending of two

486

Hypersonic acoustic excitations in binary colloidal crystals: Big versus small hard sphere control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hypersonic acoustic excitations in binary colloidal crystals: Big versus small hard sphere control January 2007 The phononic band structure of two binary colloidal crystals, at hypersonic frequencies of light photonic crystals 2 and sound at hypersonic frequencies.3 The propa- gation of phonons

Schofield, Andrew B.

487

Design and fabrication of photonic crystal thin film photovoltaic cells Guillaume Gomarda,b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design and fabrication of photonic crystal thin film photovoltaic cells Guillaume Gomarda,b , Ounsi of an absorbing planar photonic crystal within a thin film photovoltaic cell. The devices are based on a stack with large areas. Keywords: Photonic crystal, Photovoltaic solar cell, Thin film solar cell, Hydrogenated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

488

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid phthalate crystals Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Acetaldehyde 250g 6 A 2 Acetyl acetone 4 fl. Oz 6 A 5 Acid oxalic, crystal 1lbs 2 E 1 Acrolein 25ml 6 A 1... Dihydrate, crystals 500g 1 D 1 Cupric Sulfate, fine crystals 1lbs 1 D 1...

489

P-67: Investigation on the Hydrogen-Assisted Al Induced Metal Crystallization Poly-Si  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

P-67: Investigation on the Hydrogen-Assisted Al Induced Metal Crystallization Poly-Si Juan Li1 , Na Abstract The hydrogen plasma-assistant Al induced crystallization (HAIC) technology has been proposed] , solar cells [2] , sensor, etc. Among the crystallization technologies, AIC (Aluminum Induced

490

HANFORD MEDIUM-LOW CURIE WASTE PRETREATMENT ALTERNATIVES PROJECT FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION PILOT SCALE TESTING FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fractional Crystallization Pilot Plant was designed and constructed to demonstrate that fractional crystallization is a viable way to separate the high-level and low-activity radioactive waste streams from retrieved Hanford single-shell tank saltcake. The focus of this report is to review the design, construction, and testing details of the fractional crystallization pilot plant not previously disseminated.

HERTING DL

2008-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

491

Complex Isothermal Crystallization and Melting Behavior of Nylon 6 Nanoclay Hybrids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Complex Isothermal Crystallization and Melting Behavior of Nylon 6 Nanoclay Hybrids ... The complex crystallization and melting behavior of neat Nylon-6 and two Nylon-6-nanoclay hybrids with different montmorillonite concentration was studied using several experimental techniques. ... The results, depending on the crystallization temperature, indicated two sequences of melting for neat Nylon-6 and four for the nanoclay hybrids. ...

A. Zapata-Espinosa; F. J. Medellín-Rodríguez; N. Stribeck; A. Almendarez-Camarillo; S. Vega-Díaz; B. S. Hsiao; B. Chu

2005-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

492

Single crystal to single crystal transition in (10, 3)-d framework with pyrazine-2-carboxylate ligand: Synthesis, structures and magnetism  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assembling of pyrazine-2-carboxylate (Pzc) acid with nickel chlorine under solvothermal condition with MeOH as solvent gave a porous complex 1 {l_brace}[Ni(Pzc)ClH{sub 2}O]{center_dot}MeOH{r_brace}{sub n} with 1D channels. In 1 the ligands and metal ions are connected by three of each other and a rare (10,3)-d topology net is gained. The MeOH molecules filled in the 1D channels as guests. It is interesting that 1 undergoes a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation to another complex 2 when the guest MeOH molecules in the channels are exchanged by water molecules. Magnetic study indicates anti-ferromagnetic couplings exist in the two complexes and the guest exchange in the complex has little influence on the magnetism. - Graphical abstract: A porous complex 1 with rare (10,3)-d net was gained, and 1 underwent a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation to another phase 2. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New (10,3)-d net was obtained with pyrazine-2-carboxylate ligands as a triangular node. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The complex 1 has a 1D channel filled with methanol molecules as guests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1 could undergo SCSC structural transition to 2 after guests exchanged. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antiferromagnetic interactions were found in 1 and 2.

Yang, Qian [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China) [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Department of Chemistry, Tianjin Key Lab on Metal and Molecule-based Material Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhao, Jiong-Peng, E-mail: horryzhao@yahoo.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Liu, Zhong-Yi [College of Chemistry, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Structure and Performance for Functional Molecules, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China)] [College of Chemistry, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Structure and Performance for Functional Molecules, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

493

Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the catalytic domain of human receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase [gamma] in three different crystal forms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Protein tyrosine phosphatase {gamma} is a membrane-bound receptor and is designated RPTP{gamma}. RPTP{gamma} and two mutants, RPTP{gamma}(V948I, S970T) and RPTP{gamma}(C858S, S970T), were recombinantly expressed and purified for X-ray crystallographic studies. The purified enzymes were crystallized using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. Crystallographic data were obtained from several different crystal forms in the absence and the presence of inhibitor. In this paper, a description is given of how three different crystal forms were obtained that were used with various ligands. An orthorhombic crystal form and a trigonal crystal form were obtained both with and without ligand, and a monoclinic crystal form was only obtained in the presence of a particularly elaborated inhibitor.

Kish, Kevin; McDonnell, Patricia A.; Goldfarb, Valentina; Gao, Mian; Metzler, William J.; Langley, David R.; Bryson, James W.; Kiefer, Susan E.; Carpenter, Brian; Kostich, Walter A.; Westphal, Ryan S.; Sheriff, Steven (BMS)

2013-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

494

Polymorphic single crystal {r_reversible} single crystal transition in K{sub 0.975}Rb{sub 0.025}NO{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polymorphic transformations in K{sub 0.975}Rb{sub 0.025}NO{sub 3} single crystals have been investigated by optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The equilibrium temperature between modifications II and III has been determined. It is established that the crystal growth at II {r_reversible} III polymorphic transitions is accompanied by the formation and growth of daughter-modification nuclei in the matrix crystal.

Asadov, Yu. G., E-mail: yusifasadov@rambler.ru; Nasirov, E. V. [Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

495

Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spectroscopy provides valuable information about the temperature and density of a compressed pellet in a plasma. Elliptically curved pentaerythritol (PET) crystals are used as components for spectrometers. Their elliptical geometry gives several advantages related to spectral energy range, source focus, and spectral image compression.[1] The crystal curvature increases the spectrometer throughput but at the cost of a loss in resolution. Four different crystals are used in a spectrometer at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) target chamber at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Figure 1 shows the arrangement of the elliptical PET crystals in the snout of a NIF target diagnostic shown in Figure 2. The spectrum from the crystals is captured by four image plates located behind the crystals. A typical mandrel, the darkened section, upon which the PET crystal is glued, is shown in Figure 3, which also shows the complete ellipse. There are four elliptical segment types, each having the same major axis but a different minor axis. The crystals are 150 mm long in the diffraction direction and 25.4 mm high. Two crystals of each type were calibrated. The throughput for each spectrometer is determined by the integrated reflectivity of the PET crystal.[1] The goal of this effort was to measure the reflectivity curve of the PET curved crystal at several energies and determine the integrated reflectivity and the curve width as a function of the X-ray spectral energy and location on the ellipse where the beam strikes.

Haugh, M J; Ross, P W; Regan, P W; Magoon, J; Shoup, M J; Barrios, M A; Emig, J A

2012-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

496

Crystal Growth Inhibitors for the Prevention of L-Cystine Kidney Stones Through Molecular Design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crystallization of L-cystine is a critical step in the pathogenesis of cystine kidney stones. Treatments for this disease are somewhat effective but often lead to adverse side effects. Real-time in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that L-cystine dimethylester (L-CDME) and L-cystine methylester (L-CME) dramatically reduce the growth velocity of the six symmetry-equivalent {l_brace}100{r_brace} steps because of specific binding at the crystal surface, which frustrates the attachment of L-cystine molecules. L-CDME and L-CME produce L-cystine crystals with different habits that reveal distinct binding modes at the crystal surfaces. The AFM observations are mirrored by reduced crystal yield and crystal size in the presence of L-CDME and L-CME, collectively suggesting a new pathway to the prevention of L-cystine stones by rational design of crystal growth inhibitors.

Rimer, Jeffrey D.; An, Zhihua; Zhu, Zina; Lee, Michael H.; Goldfarb, David S.; Wesson, Jeffrey A.; Ward, Michael D. (NY Univ.); (MCW)

2010-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

497

Crystal Structure of a Protein Kinase A Complex  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Crystal Structure of a Protein Kinase A Complex Print Crystal Structure of a Protein Kinase A Complex Print Protein kinase A (PKA) is an enzyme that regulates processes as diverse as growth, memory, and metabolism. In its unactivated state, PKA exists as a tetrameric complex of two catalytic subunits and a regulatory subunit dimer, but when the intracellular signaling molecule cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) binds to the regulatory subunit, it facilitates dissociation and activation of the catalytic subunits. While separate structures of these subunits were previously known, a group from the University of California, San Diego, is the first to determine (to a resolution of 2.0 Ã…) the structure of the PKA catalytic subunits bound to the regulatory subunit. The structure of the complex clarifies the mechanism for PKA inhibition, and its comparison with the structure of cAMP bound to the regulatory subunit hints at how cAMP binding drives its activation.

498

Crystal Lake - GE Energy Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GE Energy Wind Farm GE Energy Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Crystal Lake - GE Energy Wind Farm Facility Crystal Lake - GE Energy Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner NextEra Energy Resources Developer NextEra Energy Resources Location IA Coordinates 43.194201°, -93.860521° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.194201,"lon":-93.860521,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

499

Crystal Lake - Clipper (09) Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lake - Clipper (09) Wind Farm Lake - Clipper (09) Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Crystal Lake - Clipper (09) Wind Farm Facility Crystal Lake - Clipper (09) Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner NextEra Energy Resources Developer NextEra Energy Resources Location IA Coordinates 41.8780025°, -93.097702° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.8780025,"lon":-93.097702,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

500

Crystal Structure of a Protein Kinase A Complex  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Crystal Structure of a Protein Kinase A Complex Print Crystal Structure of a Protein Kinase A Complex Print Protein kinase A (PKA) is an enzyme that regulates processes as diverse as growth, memory, and metabolism. In its unactivated state, PKA exists as a tetrameric complex of two catalytic subunits and a regulatory subunit dimer, but when the intracellular signaling molecule cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) binds to the regulatory subunit, it facilitates dissociation and activation of the catalytic subunits. While separate structures of these subunits were previously known, a group from the University of California, San Diego, is the first to determine (to a resolution of 2.0 Ã…) the structure of the PKA catalytic subunits bound to the regulatory subunit. The structure of the complex clarifies the mechanism for PKA inhibition, and its comparison with the structure of cAMP bound to the regulatory subunit hints at how cAMP binding drives its activation.