Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

New family of tiny crystals glow bright in LED lights | ornl...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

| ORNL | News | Features SHARE News Feature New family of tiny crystals glow bright in LED lights ORNL scientist probes atomic structure to improve materials' luminescence...

2

New Family of Tiny Crystals Glow Bright in LED Lights | Advanced Photon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How Serotonin Receptors Can Shape Drug Effects, from LSD to Migraine How Serotonin Receptors Can Shape Drug Effects, from LSD to Migraine Medication X-rays Paint a Picture of Picasso's Pigments Antibody Evolution Could Guide HIV Vaccine Development Blue Ruthenium Dimer Catalysis for Hydrogen Generation A High-Pressure Nano-imaging Breakthrough Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed New Family of Tiny Crystals Glow Bright in LED Lights JUNE 7, 2013 Bookmark and Share Laue microdiffraction pattern acquired from a nanoribbon in experiments at the APS. Minuscule crystals that glow different colors may be the missing ingredient for white light-emitting diode (LED) lighting that illuminates homes and

3

Glowing fish  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Glowing fish Name: Nicholas L Walker Age: NA Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question: Why do certain fish glow??? Replies: Some fish are able to produce light by a chemical...

4

Glowing eyes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Glowing eyes Glowing eyes Name: Sophie Hunt Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Why do dogs eyes glow in the dark? Replies: They have a reflective surface behind the retina (light sensitive back surface) of the eye which bounces light from, for example, your headlights back at you somewhat like highway reflectors. The purpose of the surface is to increase the ability of the retina to detect faint light -- that is, the ability of the animal to see in the dark -- by making the light pass *twice* through the retina. Humans don't have this surface, but very bright light will bounce back from the retina itself enough to be seen. Since the retina is red (from its ample blood supply) you see a red reflection, and this is the source of the "red spot" in the eyes in photographs of people who looked at the flash.

5

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - Giant Virus, Tiny Protein...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A big payoff from tiny crystals The protein structure experiments were led by Chapman and Arizona State's John Spence and Petra Fromme. They chose as their target Photosystem I, a...

6

Glowing cat eyes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Referencing NEWTON About NEWTON About Ask A Scientist Education At Argonne Glowing cat eyes Name: Pamela A McDermott Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question: Why do...

7

PERIODIC GLOW DISCHARGE REPORT  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

GLOW DISCHARGE REPORT GLOW DISCHARGE REPORT TIME: Jan 11 2014 11:29:09:000PM Power Supply ON/OFF Status OFF Power Supply Fault Status FAULT Power Supply Standby Status ON Power Supply Interlock Status NOT OK HV Power Resistors Status NORMAL Power Supply Voltage 52.00 Power Supply Current -71.00 Electrode 1 Voltage -15.00 Electrode 1 Current -79.00 Electrode 2 Voltage -14.00 Electrode 2 Current -70.00 ROSS 1 Status OPEN ROSS 2 Status OPEN ROSS 1 Common Line OPEN ROSS 2 Common Line OPEN IGBT1 Enable DISABLE IGBT2 Enable DISABLE

8

inter-glow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inter-glow is a system that facilitates close interaction and communication among users in real space by using multiplexed visible-light communication technology. By shining light on an object containing an embedded photo sensor, users can get information ... Keywords: intelligent space, interactive art, pervasive computing, visible-light communication

Takuji Narumi; Atsushi Hiyama; Tomohiro Tanikawa; Michitaka Hirose

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Powerful glow discharge excilamp  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A powerful glow discharge lamp comprising two coaxial tubes, the outer tube being optically transparent, with a cathode and anode placed at opposite ends of the tubes, the space between the tubes being filled with working gas. The electrodes are made as cylindrical tumblers placed in line to one other in such a way that one end of the cathode is inserted into the inner tube, one end of the anode coaxially covers the end of the outer tube, the inner tube penetrating and extending through the anode. The increased electrodes' surface area increases glow discharge electron current and, correspondingly, average radiation power of discharge plasma. The inner tube contains at least one cooling liquid tube placed along the axis of the inner tube along the entire lamp length to provide cathode cooling. The anode has a circumferential heat extracting radiator which removes heat from the anode. The invention is related to lighting engineering and can be applied for realization of photostimulated processes under the action of powerful radiation in required spectral range.

Tarasenko, Victor F. (Tomsk, RU); Panchenko, Aleksey N. (Tomsk, RU); Skakun, Victor S. (Tomsk, RU); Sosnin, Edward A. (Tomsk, RU); Wang, Francis T. (Danville, CA); Myers, Booth R. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Constricted glow discharge plasma source  

SciTech Connect

A constricted glow discharge chamber and method are disclosed. The polarity and geometry of the constricted glow discharge plasma source is set so that the contamination and energy of the ions discharged from the source are minimized. The several sources can be mounted in parallel and in series to provide a sustained ultra low source of ions in a plasma with contamination below practical detection limits. The source is suitable for applying films of nitrides such as gallium nitride and oxides such as tungsten oxide and for enriching other substances in material surfaces such as oxygen and water vapor, which are difficult process as plasma in any known devices and methods. The source can also be used to assist the deposition of films such as metal films by providing low-energy ions such as argon ions.

Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); Anders, Simone (Albany, CA); Dickinson, Michael (San Leandro, CA); Rubin, Michael (Berkeley, CA); Newman, Nathan (Winnetka, IL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Tiny Conspiracies: cell-to-cell communication in bacteria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tiny Conspiracies: cell-to-cell communication in bacteria. Purpose: Bacteria, primitive single-celled organisms, communicate ...

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

12

Probiotic Bacteria Induce a ‘Glow of Health’  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiant skin and hair are universally recognized as indications of good health. However, this ‘glow of health’ display remains poorly understood. We found that feeding of probiotic bacteria to aged mice induced integumentary ...

Levkovich, Tatiana

13

The Particle Adventure | How do we experiment with tiny particles...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

experiment with tiny particles? - A linear or circular accelerator? All accelerators are either linear or circular, the difference being whether the particle is shot like a bullet...

14

The Particle Adventure | How do we experiment with tiny particles...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Accelerators and particle detectors - How do we experiment with tiny particles? - Major accelerators We invite you to explore the basic plans of the world's major accelerators so...

15

The Particle Adventure | How do we experiment with tiny particles...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Accelerators and particle detectors - How do we experiment with tiny particles? - How to obtain particles to accelerate Electrons: Heating a metal causes electrons to be ejected. A...

16

The Particle Adventure | How do we experiment with tiny particles...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Accelerators and particle detectors - How do we experiment with tiny particles? - Detector shapes Physicists are curious about the events that occur during and after a particle's...

17

Lessons Learned in Sputtering TiNi Thin Film  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experimental results have been published in journals and conference proceedings, but as yet TiNi thin film is not commercially available. The author and ...

18

Finding the 3-D Structure of a Key Drug Target for Diabetes ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Muscles: Storing Elastic Energy for Flight A Further Understanding of Superconductivity New Family of Tiny Crystals Glow Bright in LED Lights Science Highlights...

19

Electrofuels: Tiny Organisms Making a Big Impact | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electrofuels: Tiny Organisms Making a Big Impact Electrofuels: Tiny Organisms Making a Big Impact Electrofuels: Tiny Organisms Making a Big Impact February 16, 2012 - 12:30pm Addthis Electrofuels: Tiny Organisms Making a Big Impact Alexa McClanahan Communications Support Contractor to ARPA-E They say a picture is worth a thousand words - but what happens when what you want to look at is impossible to see? That's where the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy's Electrofuels program comes in. The 13 projects that make up the program seek to develop renewable liquid fuels that use microorganisms to harness chemical or electrical energy to convert carbon dioxide into liquid fuels, without using petroleum or biomass. For example, scientists at Columbia University are using bacteria to optimize the conversion of carbon dioxide and ammonia into a liquid transportation fuel

20

Tiny device can detect hidden nuclear weapons, materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tiny Tiny device can detect hidden nuclear weapons, materials Director's Welcome Organization Achievements Highlights Fact Sheets, Brochures & Other Documents Multimedia Library About Nuclear Energy Nuclear Reactors Designed by Argonne Argonne's Nuclear Science and Technology Legacy Opportunities within NE Division Visit Argonne Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Celebrating the 70th Anniversary of Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) Argonne OutLoud on Nuclear Energy Argonne Energy Showcase 2012 Highlights Bookmark and Share Tiny device can detect hidden nuclear weapons, materials This tiny wafer can detect hidden nuclear weapons and materials NUCLEAR DETECTOR -- This small wafer could become the key component in

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

The Particle Adventure | How do we experiment with tiny particles...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Accelerators and particle detectors - How do we experiment with tiny particles? - Fixed target experiments In a fixed-target experiment, a charged particle such as an electron or a...

22

Tiny Terminators: New Micro-Robots Assemble, Repair Themselves...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Themselves and Are Surprisingly Strong August 8, 2011 - 2:14pm Addthis A video of Argonne National Laboratory's micro-robots - Tiny Terminators, if you will - moving glass...

23

Tiny Glass Bubbles With Big Potential | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tiny Glass Bubbles With Big Potential Tiny Glass Bubbles With Big Potential Tiny Glass Bubbles With Big Potential August 19, 2011 - 12:32pm Addthis SRNL's Porous Walled Hollow Glass Microspheres (which are about half the width of a human hair in diameter) have a network of interconnected pores that enable them to be filled with, hold and release gases and other materials. | Image courtesy of SRNL SRNL's Porous Walled Hollow Glass Microspheres (which are about half the width of a human hair in diameter) have a network of interconnected pores that enable them to be filled with, hold and release gases and other materials. | Image courtesy of SRNL Liisa O'Neill Liisa O'Neill Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? SRNL's porous walled glass microspheres allow the potential for

24

Glow discharge techniques for conditioning high vacuum systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A review is given of glow discharge techniques which are useful for conditioning vacuum vessels for high vacuum applications. Substantial development of glow discharge techniques has been done for the purpose of in-situ conditioning of the large ultrahigh vacuum systems for particle accelerators and magnetic fusion devices. In these applications the glow discharge treatments remove impurities from vessel surfaces in order to minimize particle-induced desorption coefficients. Cleaning mechanisms involve a mixture of sputtering and ion- (or neutral) induced desorption effects depending on the gas mixture (ArO/sub 2/ vs. H/sub 2/) and excitation method (DC, RF, and ECR). The author will review the methodology of glow discharge conditioning, diagnostic measurements provided by residual gas and surface composition analysis, and applications to vessel conditioning and materials processing. 76 refs., 16 figs.

Dylla, H.F.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Intrinsic stickiness in open integrable billiards: tiny border effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rounding border effects at the escape point of open integrable billiards are analyzed via the escape times statistics and emission angles. The model is the rectangular billiard and the shape of the escape point is assumed to have a semicircular form. Stickiness and self-similar structures for the escape times and emission angles are generated inside "backgammon" like stripes of initial conditions. These stripes are born at the boundary between two different emission angles but same escape times. As the rounding effects increase, backgammon stripes start to overlap and the escape times statistics obeys the power law decay and anomalous diffusion is expected. Tiny rounded borders (around $0.1\\%$ from the whole billiard size) are shown to be sufficient to generate the sticky motion, while borders larger than $10\\%$ are enough to produce escape times with chaotic decay.

MS Custódio; MW Beims

2010-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

26

Tiny travelers from deep space could assist in healing Fukushima's  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors Tiny travelers from deep space could assist in healing Fukushima's nuclear scar Researchers have devised a method to use cosmic rays to gather detailed information from inside the damaged cores of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors. October 17, 2012 Los Alamos National Laboratory Muon Radiography team members stand in front of the damaged Fukushima Daiichi reactor complex during a visit to determine evaluate whether Los Alamos' Scattering Method for cosmic-ray radiography could be used to image the location of nuclear materials within the reactor buildings. Los Alamos National Laboratory Muon Radiography team members stand in front of the damaged Fukushima Daiichi reactor complex during a visit to determine evaluate whether Los Alamos' Scattering Method for cosmic-ray

27

Anti-complex sets and reducibilities with tiny use  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In contrast with the notion of complexity, a set $A$ is called anti-complex if the Kolmogorov complexity of the initial segments of $A$ chosen by a recursive function is always bounded by the identity function. We show that, as for complexity, the natural arena for examining anti-complexity is the weak-truth table degrees. In this context, we show the equivalence of anti-complexity and other lowness notions such as r.e.\\ traceability or being weak truth-table reducible to a Schnorr trivial set. A set $A$ is anti-complex if and only if it is reducible to another set $B$ with \\emph{tiny use}, whereby we mean that the use function for reducing $A$ to $B$ can be made to grow arbitrarily slowly, as gauged by unbounded nondecreasing recursive functions. This notion of reducibility is then studied in its own right, and we also investigate its range and the range of its uniform counterpart.

Franklin, Johanna N Y; Stephan, Frank; Wu, Guohua

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Geek-Up[6.24.11]: Dust-sized 'Dragonfly' Device and Tiny Microvalves |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Dust-sized 'Dragonfly' Device and Tiny Dust-sized 'Dragonfly' Device and Tiny Microvalves Geek-Up[6.24.11]: Dust-sized 'Dragonfly' Device and Tiny Microvalves June 24, 2011 - 7:15pm Addthis A computer simulation of the "dragonfly-inspired" device. | Courtesy of Sandia Laboratory A computer simulation of the "dragonfly-inspired" device. | Courtesy of Sandia Laboratory Niketa Kumar Niketa Kumar Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? A dust-size "dragonfly-inspired" device -- which won a Sandia Lab design contest -- may ultimately enable the creation of tiny microvalves for experiments in biological research laboratories and medical facilities. In Sandia National Laboratories' MEMS (microelectromechanical system) University Alliance design contest, a dust-sized dragonfly and a super

29

Tiny Terminators: New Micro-Robots Assemble, Repair Themselves and Are Surprisingly Strong  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Tiny robots that can assemble and repair themselves? Watch a video of Argonne National Laboratory's micro-robots that easily perform tasks that can challenge other robots, including moving objects that are larger than themselves.

30

S&TR | January/February 2007: Tiny Tubes Make the Flow Go  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in the same amount of time as a fire hose 10 times larger. You've entered the realm of carbon nanotubes, where flow rates are enhanced many times over. These tiny tubes have...

31

Questions and Answers - Do radioactive things glow in the dark?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Someone told me that Cherenkov radiationis analogous to breaking the sound barrier... Someone told me that Cherenkov radiation<br>is analogous to breaking the sound barrier... Previous Question (Someone told me that Cherenkov radiation is analogous to breaking the sound barrier...) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (If energy is formed by a generator, how does it form the energy?) If energy is formed by a generator,how does it form the energy? Do radioactive things glow in the dark? The short answer to your question is "no," radioactive things do not glow in the dark - not by themselves anyway. Radiation emitted by radioactive materials is not visible to the human eye. However, there are ways to"convert" this invisible energy to visible light. Many substances will emit visible light if "stimulated" by the ionizing radiation from

32

Irradiated fuel monitoring by Cerenkov glow intensity measurements  

SciTech Connect

Attribute measurement techniques for confirmation of declared irradiated fuel inventories at nuclear installations under safeguards surveillance are being investigated. High-gain measurements of the intensity of the Cerenkov glow from exposed assemblies in water-filled storage ponds are promising for this purpose. Such measurements have been made of Materials Testing Reactor plate-type fuel assemblies and Pressurized Water Reactor pin-type fuel assemblies. The measured intensities depend on cooling times as calculations predict.

Dowdy, E.J.; Nicholson, N.; Caldwell, J.T.

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

The Use of DC Glow Discharges as Undergraduate Educational Tools  

SciTech Connect

Plasmas have a beguiling way of getting students excited and interested in physics. We argue that plasmas can and should be incorporated into the undergraduate curriculum as both demonstrations and advanced investigations of electromagnetism and quantum effects. Our device, based on a direct current (DC) glow discharge tube, allows for a number of experiments into topics such as electrical breakdown, spectroscopy, magnetism, and electron temperature.

Stephanie A. Wissel and Andrew Zwicker, Jerry Ross, and Sophia Gershman

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

34

Photo of the Week: Butterflies, Crystal Nanostructures and Solar Cell  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Butterflies, Crystal Nanostructures and Solar Butterflies, Crystal Nanostructures and Solar Cell Research Photo of the Week: Butterflies, Crystal Nanostructures and Solar Cell Research October 26, 2012 - 11:44am Addthis What do butterflies and solar cell research have in common? Both have been developing tiny crystals that selectively reflect colors. Over millions of years of evolution, butterfly wings have developed the tiny crystal nanostructures that give butterflies their vivid colors. At Argonne National Laboratory, scientists are working to manufacture these crystals, which could one day be used to create "greener" and more efficient paints, fiber optics and solar cells. In this photo, the iridescent scales of an emerald-patched Cattleheart butterfly are magnified 20 times to highlight the crystals that selectively reflect green colors. | Photo courtesy of Argonne National Laboratory.

35

LANL Launches Four Tiny Satellites into Space - Los Alamos in SPACE |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LANL Launches Four Tiny Satellites into Space LANL Launches Four Tiny Satellites into Space "" Colleagues from LANL's Applied Electromagnetics and International, Space, and Response divisions led a rapid- response satellite development capability (Perseus program) and successfully put four tiny "cubeSats"-satellites small enough to hold in one hand-into orbit in December of 2010. The goal of the Perseus program is to develop a rapid-response satellite capability to enable many different mission types. The first phase of the effort focused on (1) demonstrating the ability to build and launch a useful satellite quickly and at low cost, (2) gaining cubeSat build and orbital experience, and (3) validating the LANL design methodology (namely, keeping the design simple, designing to the mission,

36

Method of inducing differential etch rates in glow discharge produced amorphous silicon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of inducing differential etch rates in glow discharge produced amorphous silicon by heating a portion of the glow discharge produced amorphous silicon to a temperature of about 365.degree. C. higher than the deposition temperature prior to etching. The etch rate of the exposed amorphous silicon is less than the unheated amorphous silicon.

Staebler, David L. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Zanzucchi, Peter J. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF STRONG GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER COATINGS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

OAK A271 COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF STRONG GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER COATINGS. An investigation of the chemical composition and structure of strong glow discharge (GDP) polymer shells made for cryogenic experiments at OMEGA is described. The investigation was carried out using combustion and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The strongest coatings were observed to have the lowest hydrogen content or hydrogen/carbon H/C ratio, whereas the weakest coatings had the highest hydrogen content or H/C ratio. Chemical composition results from combustion were used to complement FTIR analysis to determine the relative hydrogen content of as-fabricated coatings. Good agreement was observed between composition results obtained from combustion and FTIR analysis. FTIR analysis of coating structures showed the strongest coatings to have less terminal methyl groups and a more double bond or olefinic structure. Strong GDP coatings that were aged in air react more with oxygen and moisture than standard GDP coatings. In addition to a more olefinic structure, there may also be more free-radial sites present in strong GDP coatings, which leads to greater oxygen uptake.

CZECHOWICZ, DG; CASTILLO, ER; NIKROO, A

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

TinyNode: a comprehensive platform for wireless sensor network applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We introduce the TinyNode platform for wireless sensor networks. Supporting both research and industrial deployments, the platform offers communication ranges that exceed current platforms by a factor of 3 to 5, while consuming similar energy. It comes ... Keywords: embedded systems, wireless sensor networks

Henri Dubois-Ferrière; Laurent Fabre; Roger Meier; Pierre Metrailler

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Determination of Actinide Isotope Ratios Using Glow Discharge Optogalvanic Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Diode-laser excited optogalvanic spectroscopy (OGS) of a glow discharge has been utilized to measure U-235/U-235 + U-238 isotope ratios. This ``optical mass spectrometric`` measurement has been demonstrated for a number of samples including uranium oxide, fluoride, and metal. Various diode-laser accessible atomic transitions in the 775 to 835 nm region have been evaluated; these transitions were chosen by considering OGS sensitivity and isotope shift. Using the 831.84 nm uranium line, for example, it was possible to measure the U-235/U-235 + U-238 isotope ratio (0.0026) of depleted uranium samples. A prototypical field instrument to make these measurements has been assembled and demonstrated. A U-236 spectral line was identified in a sample of enriched uranium, and an abundance sensitivity was measured.

Young, J.P.; Shaw, R.W.; Barshick, C.M.; Ramsey, J.M.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Glow discharge deposition at high rates using disilane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The research program reported makes use of the fact that amorphous silicon films can be grown faster from disilane in a glow discharge than from the traditional silane. The goal is to find a method to grow films at a high rate and with sufficiently high quality to be used in an efficient solar cell. It must also be demonstrated that the appropriate device structure can be successfully fabricated under conditions which give high deposition rates. High quality intrinsic films have been deposited at 20 A/s. Efficiency of 5.6% on steel substrates and 5.3% on glass substrates were achieved using disilane i-layers deposited at 15 A/s in a basic structure, without wide-gap doped layers or light trapping. Wide gap p-layers were deposited using disilane. Results were compared with those obtained at Vactronic using high power discharges of silane-hydrogen mixtures. (LEW)

Rajeswaran, G.; Corderman, R.R.; Kampas, F.J.; Vanier, P.E.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in glow discharge closing switches  

SciTech Connect

Highly efficient binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches are disclosed. The binary mixtures are combinations of helium or neon and selected perfluorides. The ternary mixtures are combinations of helium, neon, or argon, a selected perfluoride, and a small amount of gas that exhibits enhanced ionization characteristics. These mixtures are shown to be the optimum choices for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches by virtue of the combined physio-electric properties of the mixture components.

Hunter, Scott R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Printing Tiny Batteries | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Stories of Discovery & Innovation: "Printing" Stories of Discovery & Innovation: "Printing" Tiny Batteries? Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News Observing the Sparks of Life EFRC Events DOE Announcements Publications Contact BES Home 06.26.13 Stories of Discovery & Innovation: "Printing" Tiny Batteries? Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Researchers use sophisticated 3D printing techniques to create batteries the size of a grain of sand. This work, featured in the Office of Science's Stories of Discovery & Innovation, was supported in part by the Light-Materials Interactions for Energy Conversion (LMI), an EFRC led by Harry Atwater at the California Institute of Technology. Last modified: 6/26/2013 8:53:17

43

Ocean Viruses: Tiny entities with Global Impacts ( JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Matt Sullivan from the University of Arizona on "Ocean Viruses: Tiny Entities with Global Impacts" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

Sullivan, Matthew B [University of Arizona

2012-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

44

THE ROLE OF TINY GRAINS ON THE ACCRETION PROCESS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS  

SciTech Connect

Tiny grains such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been thought to dramatically reduce the coupling between the gas and magnetic fields in weakly ionized gas such as in protoplanetary disks (PPDs) because they provide a tremendous surface area to recombine free electrons. The presence of tiny grains in PPDs thus raises the question of whether the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is able to drive rapid accretion consistent with observations. Charged tiny grains have similar conduction properties as ions, whose presence leads to qualitatively new behaviors in the conductivity tensor, characterized by n-bar /n{sub e}>1, where n{sub e} and n-bar denote the number densities of free electrons and all other charged species, respectively. In particular, Ohmic conductivity becomes dominated by charged grains rather than by electrons when n-bar /n{sub e} exceeds about 10{sup 3}, and Hall and ambipolar diffusion (AD) coefficients are reduced by a factor of ( n-bar /n{sub e}){sup 2} in the AD-dominated regime relative to that in the Ohmic regime. Applying the methodology of Bai, we find that in PPDs, when PAHs are sufficiently abundant ({approx}> 10{sup -9} per H{sub 2} molecule), there exists a transition radius r{sub trans} of about 10-20 AU, beyond which the MRI active layer extends to the disk midplane. At r < r{sub trans}, the optimistically predicted MRI-driven accretion rate M-dot is one to two orders of magnitude smaller than that in the grain-free case, which is too small compared with the observed rates, but is in general no smaller than the predicted M-dot with solar-abundance 0.1 {mu}m grains. At r > r{sub trans}, we find that, remarkably, the predicted M-dot exceeds the grain-free case due to a net reduction of AD by charged tiny grains and reaches a few times 10{sup -8} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. This is sufficient to account for the observed M-dot in transitional disks. Larger grains ({approx}> 0.1 {mu}m) are too massive to reach such high abundance as tiny grains and to facilitate the accretion process.

Bai Xuening, E-mail: xbai@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

45

Binary and ternary gas mixtures with temperature enhanced diffuse glow discharge characteristics for use in closing switches  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc. 11 figs.

Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

1988-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

46

Binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in glow discharge closing switches  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highly efficient binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches are disclosed. The binary mixtures are combinations of helium or neon and selected perfluorides. The ternary mixtures are combinations of helium, neon, or argon, a selected perfluoride, and a small amount of gas that exhibits enhanced ionization characteristics. These mixtures are shown to be the optimum choices for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches by virtue if the combines physio-electric properties of the mixture components. 9 figs.

Hunter, S.R.; Christophorou, L.G.

1988-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

47

Aligned carbon nanotubes array by DC glow plasma etching for supercapacitor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To open the end of carbon nanotubes and make these ends connect with functional carboxyl group, aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) arrays was etched by DC glow oxygen-argon plasma. With these open-ended carbon nanotubes array as electrodematerials to build ...

Yongfeng Luo, Xiaojia Li, Zhiqiang Gong, Zhongzhi Sheng, Xiaofang Peng, Qunying Mou, Mengdong He, Xianjun Li, Hong Chen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

DOE Joint Genome Institute: Genes from Tiny Algae Shed Light on Big Role  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

April 9, 2009 April 9, 2009 Genes from Tiny Algae Shed Light on Big Role Managing Carbon in World's Oceans & Coping with Environmental Change WALNUT CREEK, CA-Scientists from two-dozen research organizations led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Genome Institute (JGI) and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) have decoded genomes of two algal strains, highlighting the genes enabling them to capture carbon and maintain its delicate balance in the oceans. These findings, from a team led by Alexandra Z. Worden of MBARI and published in the April 10 edition of the journal Science, will illuminate cellular processes related to algae-derived biofuels being pursued by DOE scientists. The study sampled two geographically diverse isolates of the photosynthetic

49

Plasma Treatment of Polyethylene Powder Particles in Hollow Cathode Glow Discharge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polyethylen (PE) is widely used in the production of foils, insulators, packaging materials, plastic bottles etc. Untreated PE is hydrophobic due to its unpolar surface. Therefore, it is hard to print or glue PE and the surface has to be modified before converting.In the present experiments a hollow cathode glow discharge is used as plasma source which is mounted in a spiral conveyor in order to ensure a combines transport of PE powder particles. With this set-up a homogeneous surface treatment of the powder is possible while passing the glow discharge. The plasma treatment causes a remarkable enhancement of the hydrophilicity of the PE powder which can be verified by contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Wolter, Matthias; Quitzau, Meike; Bornholdt, Sven; Kersten, Holger [IEAP, University Kiel, Kiel (Germany)

2008-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

50

Studies on the Electrical Characteristics of a DC Glow Discharge by Using Langmuir Probe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrical characteristics of a DC glow discharge are studied with the aim of determining the suitable parameters for stable operation of the dusty plasma system. The presence of dust particles in plasma significantly alters the charged particle equilibrium in the plasma and leads to various phenomena. Argon plasma produced by DC glow discharge is investigated with a further goal of studying dusty plasma phenomena. The discharge system has two disc?shaped parallel plate electrodes. The electrodes are enclosed in a large cylindrical stainless steel chamber filled with argon gas. Two important physical parameters affecting the condition of the discharge are the gas pressure and the inter?electrode distance. A single Langmuir probe based on the Keithley source meter is used to determine the electron temperature of the positive column. A custom designed probe is employed to determine the potential distribution between the electrodes during the discharge. The I–V characteristic curve and the Langmuir probe measurement are then used to determine the electron energy distribution of the glow discharge plasma.

S. S. Safaai; Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University Technology Malaysia; S. L. Yap; P. W. Smith; University of Oxford, UK; C. S. Wong; S. V. Muniandy

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

A nozzle array and ballast resistance for producing a glow discharge in a gas flow  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a design for a nozzle-anode array equipped with a system of cathodes fitted at the axis of each nozzle together with liquid ballast resistors. The system is designed to produce a glow discharge in a supersonic gas flow. The circuit resistance is adjusted via the contact area between the electrode and the liquid. The nominal values of the resistances can be varied over the range 10/sup 1/-10/sup 4/..cap omega.., or set values can be produced with an accuracy of + or - 2%.

Alferov, V.I.; Bushmin, A.S.; Dmitriev, L.M.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Design and construction of uniform glow discharge plasma system operating under atmospheric condition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design of a uniform glow discharge plasma system operating without vacuum is presented. A full-bridge switching circuit was used to switch the transformers. The primary windings of transformers were connected in parallel, but in opposite phase to double the output voltage. Theoretically, 20 000 V{sub pp} was obtained. Rectangle copper electrodes were used, and placed parallel to each other. To prevent the spark production that is, to obtain uniformity, two 2 mm Teflon sheets were glued to the electrodes. However, it was observed that the operating frequency also affected the uniformity. For the system presented here, the frequency at which more uniformity was obtained was found to be 14 kHz.

Kocum, C.; Ayhan, H. [Biomedical Engineering Department, Baskent University, Ankara 06530 (Turkey); Chemistry Department, Biochemistry Division, Mugla University, Faculty of Science, Koetekli, 48170 Mugla (Turkey)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

53

Sub-microsecond pulsed atmospheric glow discharges with and without dielectric barrier  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The discharge characteristics and mechanism of glow discharges in atmospheric pressure helium excited by repetitive voltage pulses with and without dielectric barriers are numerically studied using a one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model. The waveforms of discharge current density show that one discharge event occurs during the voltage pulse with bare electrodes and two distinct discharge events happen at the rising and falling phases of voltage pulse with dielectric barrier electrodes, respectively. The spatial profiles of electron and electric field at the time instant of discharge current peak reveal that the electrons are trapped in the plasma bulk with bare electrodes, while the electrons are accumulated in the region between the sheath and plasma bulk with dielectric barrier electrodes. Furthermore, the spatio-temporal evolution of electron density and mean electron energy clearly demonstrate the dynamics of discharge ignition, especially the temporal evolution of sheath above the instantaneous cathode.

Song Shutong [College of Science, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Guo Ying; Zhang Jie; Zhang Jing; Shi, J. J. [College of Science, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Member of Magnetic Confinement Fusion Research Center, Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, Shanghai 201620 (China); Choe, Wonho [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

54

High deposition rate preparation of amorphous silicon solar cells by rf glow discharge decomposition of disilane  

SciTech Connect

The optical and electrical properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films produced by rf glow discharge decomposition of disilane diluted in helium (Si/sub 2/H/sub 6//He = 1/9) have been studied while systematically varying the film deposition rate. The properties and composition of the films were monitored by measuring the optical band gap, IR vibrational spectrum, dark conductivity, and the photoconductivity as a function of the deposition rate. The photoluminescence of the high deposition rate films gave a peak at 1.33 eV. These films, whose properties are rather similar to those of the conventional a-Si:H films prepared from monosilane, have been used to fabricate nip-type a-Si:H solar cells. At a deposition rate of 11 A/sec, a conversion efficiency of 6.86% was obtained. This high efficiency shows that disilane is applicable for mass production fabrication of a-Si:H solar cells.

Kenne, J.; Ohashi, Y.; Matsushita, T.; Konagai, M.; Takahashi, K.

1984-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

55

Photo of the Week: How to Grow Superconducting Crystals | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

How to Grow Superconducting Crystals How to Grow Superconducting Crystals Photo of the Week: How to Grow Superconducting Crystals September 13, 2013 - 11:29am Addthis Many of the materials that scientists work with at Brookhaven National Laboratory are too small and too precise for traditional tools. In cases like these, the labs grow materials instead of building them. Brookhaven physicist Genda Gu pioneered techniques that grow some of the largest single-crystal high-temperature superconductors in the world. The glowing chamber in this photo grows superconducting crystals. To do so, the furnace focuses infrared light onto a rod, melting it around 4,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Under just the right conditions, the liquefied material recrystallizes as a single uniform structure, which is highly sensitive and takes about one month to form. | Photo courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory.

56

Radio-frequency powered glow discharge device and method with high voltage interface  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high voltage accelerating potential, which is supplied by a high voltage direct current power supply, is applied to the electrically conducting interior wall of an RF powered glow discharge cell. The RF power supply desirably is electrically grounded, and the conductor carrying the RF power to the sample held by the probe is desirably shielded completely excepting only the conductor's terminal point of contact with the sample. The high voltage DC accelerating potential is not supplied to the sample. A high voltage capacitance is electrically connected in series between the sample on the one hand and the RF power supply and an impedance matching network on the other hand. The high voltage capacitance isolates the high DC voltage from the RF electronics, while the RF potential is passed across the high voltage capacitance to the plasma. An inductor protects at least the RF power supply, and desirably the impedance matching network as well, from a short that might occur across the high voltage capacitance. The discharge cell and the probe which holds the sample are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components, which are maintained at ground potential, from bridging between the relatively low vacuum region in communication with the glow discharge maintained within the cell on the one hand, and the relatively high vacuum region surrounding the probe and cell on the other hand. The probe and cell also are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components from electrically shorting the cell's components. 11 figures.

Duckworth, D.C.; Marcus, R.K.; Donohue, D.L.; Lewis, T.A.

1994-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

57

Radio-frequency powered glow discharge device and method with high voltage interface  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high voltage accelerating potential, which is supplied by a high voltage direct current power supply, is applied to the electrically conducting interior wall of an RF powered glow discharge cell. The RF power supply desirably is electrically grounded, and the conductor carrying the RF power to the sample held by the probe is desirably shielded completely excepting only the conductor's terminal point of contact with the sample. The high voltage DC accelerating potential is not supplied to the sample. A high voltage capacitance is electrically connected in series between the sample on the one hand and the RF power supply and an impedance matching network on the other hand. The high voltage capacitance isolates the high DC voltage from the RF electronics, while the RF potential is passed across the high voltage capacitance to the plasma. An inductor protects at least the RF power supply, and desirably the impedance matching network as well, from a short that might occur across the high voltage capacitance. The discharge cell and the probe which holds the sample are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components, which are maintained at ground potential, from bridging between the relatively low vacuum region in communication with the glow discharge maintained within the cell on the one hand, and the relatively high vacuum region surrounding the probe and cell on the other hand. The probe and cell also are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components from electrically shorting the cell's components.

Duckworth, Douglas C. (Knoxville, TN); Marcus, R. Kenneth (Clemson, SC); Donohue, David L. (Vienna, AT); Lewis, Trousdale A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Performance and Economics of Catalytic Glow Plugs and Shields in Direct Injection Natural Gas Engines for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program: Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Subcontractor report details work done by TIAX and Westport to test and perform cost analysis for catalytic glow plugs and shields for direct-injection natural gas engines for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program.

Mello, J. P.; Bezaire, D.; Sriramulu, S.; Weber, R.

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

New Nano-Brushes Keep the Tiny Tidy http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/06/0617_050617... 1 of 2 10/18/2007 3:54 PM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New Nano-Brushes Keep the Tiny Tidy http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005 for free Newsletters Once a month get new photos and expert tips. Sign up ADVERTISEMENT New Nano-Brushes Keep the Tiny Tidy John Roach for National Geographic News June 17, 2005 Even at the nano

Ajayan, Pulickel M.

60

RECENT PROGRESS IN FABRICATION OF HIGH-STRENGTH GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER SHELLS BY OPTIMIZATION OF COATING PARAMETERS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

OAK A271 RECENT PROGRESS IN FABRICATION OF HIGH-STRENGTH GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER SHELLS BY OPTIMIZATION OF COATING PARAMETERS. In this paper, the authors report the progress they have made in fabrication of high-strength thin-walled glow discharge polymer (GDP) shells for cryogenic experiments at OMEGA. They have investigated a number of different parameters involved in making such shells. Optimization of hydrogen to hydrocarbon precursor flow has been observed to be critical in obtaining strong shells. They can routinely make high-strength shells of OMEGA size (900 {micro}m in diameter) with thicknesses in the range of 1.0 to 1.5 {micro}m. The permeabilities of these shells to various gases have been found to be as much as three times higher than those of lower strength shells. Run to run variability and other batch statistics are discussed.

NIKROO, A; CZECHOWICZ, DG; CASTILLO, ER; PONTELANDOLFO, JM

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Gas-phase free radical reactions in the glow-discharge deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon from silane and disilane  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of a measurement by Matsuda and co-workers of the lifetimes of the free radicals involved in the glow-discharge deposition of amorphous hydrogenated silicon from silane and disilane at 20-mTorr pressure is consistent with the hypothesis that SiH or SiH/sub 2/, but not SiH/sub 3/, is the dominant radical in the deposition from silane at that pressure.

Kampas, F.J.

1985-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

62

Electrical double layers at shock fronts in glow discharges and afterglows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the propagation of spark-generated shockwaves (1.0glow discharges and their afterglow. Diagnostic methods were employed and expanded in order to capture the dynamics of the shock front in these weakly-ionized, nonmagnetized, collisional plasmas. We used a microwave hairpin resonator to measure the electron number density, and, for all cases, we measured an increase in the electron number density at the shock front. By comparing the increase in electron number density at the shock front in the active discharge and in the afterglow, we conclude that electrons with a temperature much greater than room temperature can be compressed at the shock front. The ratio of electron number density before and after the shock front can be approximately predicted using the Rankine-Hugoniot relationship. The large gradient in electron density, and hence a large gradient in the flux of charged species, created a region of space-charge separation, i.e., a double layer, at the shock front. The double layer balances the flux of charged particles on both sides of the shock front. The double layer voltage drop was measured in the current-carrying discharge using floating probes and compared with previous models. As well, we measured argon 1s{sup 5} metastable-state density and demonstrate that metastable-state neutral species can be compressed across a shock front and approximately predicted using the Rankine-Hugoniot relationship.

Siefert, Nicholas S. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson, Ohio 45433 (United States)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

Disilane versus monosilane: a comparison of the properties of glow-discharge a-Si:H films and solar cells  

SciTech Connect

The consequences of using disilane instead of silane for the glow-discharge deposition of a-Si:H solar cells have been studied. Deposition rates were increased fivefold by the use of disilane. The a-Si:H films have a higher hydrogen content, but otherwise are quite similar to silane produced films and possess the same type of gap states. Chlorosilanes, HCl, and oxysilanes were detected in the disilane by mass spectrometry and their influence on film and solar cell properties assessed. The problem of inadvertent dopant tails resulting from the higher deposition rate of the solar cells is identified.

Delahoy, A.E.; Kampas, F.J.; Corderman, R.R.; Vanier, P.E.; Griffith, R.W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Disilane versus monosilane: a comparison of the properties of glow-discharge a-Si:H Films and solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The consequences of using disilane instead of silane for the glow-discharge deposition of a-Si:H solar cells have been studied. Deposition rates were increased fivefold by the use of disilane. The a-Si:H films have a higher hydrogen content, but otherwise are quite similar to silane produced films and possess the same type of gap states. Chlorosilanes, HCl, and oxysilanes were detected in the disilane by mass spectrometry and their influence on film and solar cell properties assessed. The problem of inadvertent dopant tails resulting from the higher deposition rate of the solar cells is identified.

Delahoy, A.E.; Corderman, R.R.; Griffith, R.W.; Kampas, F.J.; Vanier, P.E.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

High performance hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells made at a high deposition rate by glow discharge of disilane  

SciTech Connect

The deposition rate, electronic and optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films prepared from rf glow discharge decomposition of disilane (Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/) diluted in helium have been measured. These films show excellent electrical and optical properties and, most importantly, a high deposition rate coupled with satisfactory solar cell application was realized for the first time. At a deposition rate of 11 A/s, 5.47% and 6.5% conversion efficiencies were obtained with a first trial of n-i-p type solar cells deposited on SnO/sub 2//ITO glass and metal substrates, respectively.

Ohashi, Y.; Kenne, J.; Konagai, M.; Takahashi, K.

1983-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

66

Filling the vacuum chamber of a technological system with homogeneous plasma using a stationary glow discharge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experimental study of a glow discharge with electrostatic confinement of electrons is carried out in the vacuum chamber volume V {approx} 0.12 m{sup 3} of a technological system 'Bulat-6' in argon pressure range 0.005-5 Pa. The chamber is used as a hollow cathode of the discharge with the inner surface area S {approx} 1.5 m{sup 2}. It is equipped with two feedthroughs, which make it possible to immerse in the discharge plasma interchangeable anodes with surface area S{sub a} ranging from {approx}0.001 to {approx}0.1 m{sup 2}, as well as floating electrodes isolated from both the chamber and the anode. Dependences of the cathode fall U{sub c} = 0.4-3 kV on the pressure p at a constant discharge current in the range I = 0.2-2 A proved that aperture of the electron escape out of the electrostatic trap is equal to the sum S{sub o} = S{sub a} + S{sub f} of the anode surface S{sub a} and the floating electrode surface S{sub f}. The sum S{sub o} defines the lower limit p{sub o} of the pressure range, in which U{sub c} is independent of p. At p fall U{sub c} grows up dramatically, when the pressure decreases, and the pressure p tends to the limit p{sup ex}, which is in fact the discharge extinction pressure. At p {approx} p{sup ex} electrons emitted by the cathode and the first generation of fast electrons produced in the cathode sheath spend almost all their energy up to 3 keV on heating the anode and the floating electrode up to 600-800{sup o}C and higher. In this case the gas in the chamber is being ionized by the next generations of electrons produced in the cathode sheath, their energy being one order of magnitude lower. When S{sub a} fall of potential U{sub a} up to 0.5 kV.

Metel, A. S., E-mail: ametel@stankin.ru; Grigoriev, S. N.; Melnik, Yu. A.; Panin, V. V. [Moscow State University of Technology 'Stankin' (Russian Federation)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

67

Crystallization process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved crystallization process is disclosed for separating a crystallizable material and an excluded material which is at least partially excluded from the solid phase of the crystallizable material obtained upon freezing a liquid phase of the materials. The solid phase is more dense than the liquid phase, and it is separated therefrom by relative movement with the formation of a packed bed of solid phase. The packed bed is continuously formed adjacent its lower end and passed from the liquid phase into a countercurrent flow of backwash liquid. The packed bed extends through the level of the backwash liquid to provide a drained bed of solid phase adjacent its upper end which is melted by a condensing vapor.

Adler, Robert J. (Shaker Heights, OH); Brown, William R. (Brecksville, OH); Auyang, Lun (Highland Heights, OH); Liu, Yin-Chang (Richmond Heights, OH); Cook, W. Jeffrey (Cleveland Heights, OH)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Review of the book by A.A. Kudryavtsev, A.S. Smirnov, and L.D. Tsendin 'Physics of Glow Discharge'  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new voluminous book on gas-discharge physics is reviewed. It is emphasized that the authors consistently follow a nontraditional approach based on the electron distribution function with allowance for its nonlocal character. This opens new, sometimes unexpected, issues of the well-known phenomena, which is illustrated by the reviewer by using the positive column of a low-pressure glow discharge as an example.

Raizer, Yu. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Problems in Mechanics (Russian Federation)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

69

Diagnostics of glow discharges used to produce hydrogenated amorphous silicon films. Subcontract report, 15 April 1984-14 April 1985  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of monosilane and disilane radicals were made at the surface of dc glow discharges (GD) in pure silane and silane-argon mixtures. These observations were interpreted as discharge kinetic models. It was inferred that the dominant radical, SiH/sub 3/, is produced in the gas and is primarily responsible for film growth. The heavier radicals observed in the gas appear to be a consequence of surface reactions, as is the disilane, a major product of the monosilane decomposition. A detailed model of the ion chemistry in the discharge was formulated to derive theoretical distributions of ions at the cathodes of low-pressure dc discharges. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) rates of silane and disilane, measured previously in the laboratory, have now also been interpreted in detail to yield a self-consistent model for the CVD process. This model identifies and quantifies the role of H/sub 2/ as an inhibitor of silane GD and CVD deposition. Implications of these discoveries to deposition rates and film properties are discussed.

Gallagher, A.; Scott, J.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Sublimation of Ice Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent experiments on the sublimation of single crystals of ice in an atmosphere of air indicate that the sublimation rate is diffusion limited and initially solid prismatic crystals evolve into time-independent shapes similar to confocal ...

Jon Nelson

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Monochromator Crystal Glitch Library  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Users can view glitch spectra online, list specific crystal orientations, and download PDF files of the glitch spectra. (Specialized Interface)

72

Crystal Lattice Structures - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 7, 2007 ... This resource contains 273 common crystal lattice structures indexed by Strukturbericht designation, Pearson symbol, space group, prototype, ...

73

Crystal oriented (Bi  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The remnant polarization and piezoelectric constant of crystal oriented BNBT ... Energy Landscape in Frustrated Systems: Cation Hopping and Relaxation in ...

74

Apparatus for mounting crystal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thickness monitor useful in deposition or etching reactor systems comprising a crystal-controlled oscillator in which the crystal is deposited or etched to change the frequency of the oscillator. The crystal rests within a thermally conductive metallic housing and arranged to be temperature controlled. Electrode contacts are made to the surface primarily by gravity force such that the crystal is substantially free of stress otherwise induced by high temperature.

Longeway, Paul A. (East Windsor, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Photonic crystal light source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM); Bur, James A. (Corrales, NM)

2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

76

News Features | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

News & Awards News & Awards News Releases Honors & Awards News Features Advanced Materials Home | Science & Discovery | Advanced Materials | News & Awards | News Features News Features 1-2 of 2 Results Nanotech toolbox July 01, 2013 - One of the most remarkable aspects of this super-small-scale world is that, under the right conditions, bits and pieces of materials will put themselves together-a natural phenomenon known as self-assembly. For example, polymer molecules, like the ones used to make plastic bags, organize themselves into a variety of structures based on what's going on in their environment. New family of tiny crystals glow bright in LED lights May 23, 2013 - Minuscule crystals that glow different colors may be the missing ingredient for white LED lighting that illuminates homes and

77

Phononic crystal devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Phononic crystals that have the ability to modify and control the thermal black body phonon distribution and the phonon component of heat transport in a solid. In particular, the thermal conductivity and heat capacity can be modified by altering the phonon density of states in a phononic crystal. The present invention is directed to phononic crystal devices and materials such as radio frequency (RF) tags powered from ambient heat, dielectrics with extremely low thermal conductivity, thermoelectric materials with a higher ratio of electrical-to-thermal conductivity, materials with phononically engineered heat capacity, phononic crystal waveguides that enable accelerated cooling, and a variety of low temperature application devices.

El-Kady, Ihab F. (Albuquerque, NM); Olsson, Roy H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

78

Channeling through Bent Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bent crystals have demonstrated potential for use in beam collimation. A process called channeling is when accelerated particle beams are trapped by the nuclear potentials in the atomic planes within a crystal lattice. If the crystal is bent then the particles can follow the bending angle of the crystal. There are several different effects that are observed when particles travel through a bent crystal including dechanneling, volume capture, volume reflection and channeling. With a crystal placed at the edge of a particle beam, part of the fringe of the beam can be deflected away towards a detector or beam dump, thus helping collimate the beam. There is currently FORTRAN code by Igor Yazynin that has been used to model the passage of particles through a bent crystal. Using this code, the effects mentioned were explored for beam energy that would be seen at the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) at a range of crystal orientations with respect to the incoming beam. After propagating 5 meters in vacuum space past the crystal the channeled particles were observed to separate from most of the beam with some noise due to dechanneled particles. Progressively smaller bending radii, with corresponding shorter crystal lengths, were compared and it was seen that multiple scattering decreases with the length of the crystal therefore allowing for cleaner detection of the channeled particles. The input beam was then modified and only a portion of the beam sent through the crystal. With the majority of the beam not affected by the crystal, most particles were not deflected and after propagation the channeled particles were seen to be deflected approximately 5mm. After a portion of the beam travels through the crystal, the entire beam was then sent through a quadrupole magnet, which increased the separation of the channeled particles from the remainder of the beam to a distance of around 20mm. A different code, which was developed at SLAC, was used to create an angular profile plot which was compared to what was produced by Yazynin's code for a beam with no multiple scattering. The results were comparable, with volume reflection and channeling effects observed and the range of crystal orientations at which volume reflection is seen was about 1 mrad in both simulations.

Mack, Stephanie; /Ottawa U. /SLAC

2012-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

79

Predicting Deformation of Single Crystal Niobium Using Crystal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Nb. Crystal plasticity models capable of predicting shape changes in single crystal Nb dog bone samples having different orientations have been developed,  ...

80

Quartz crystal growth  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for growing single crystals from an amorphous substance that can undergo phase transformation to the crystalline state in an appropriate solvent. The process is carried out in an autoclave having a lower dissolution zone and an upper crystallization zone between which a temperature differential (.DELTA.T) is maintained at all times. The apparatus loaded with the substance, solvent, and seed crystals is heated slowly maintaining a very low .DELTA.T between the warmer lower zone and cooler upper zone until the amorphous substance is transformed to the crystalline state in the lower zone. The heating rate is then increased to maintain a large .DELTA.T sufficient to increase material transport between the zones and rapid crystallization. .alpha.-Quartz single crystal can thus be made from fused quartz in caustic solvent by heating to 350.degree. C. stepwise with a .DELTA.T of 0.25.degree.-3.degree. C., increasing the .DELTA.T to about 50.degree. C. after the fused quartz has crystallized, and maintaining these conditions until crystal growth in the upper zone is completed.

Baughman, Richard J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Quantum extended crystal PDE's  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Our recent results on {\\em extended crystal PDE's} are generalized to PDE's in the category $\\mathfrak{Q}_S$ of quantum supermanifolds. Then obstructions to the existence of global quantum smooth solutions for such equations are obtained, by using algebraic topologic techniques. Applications are considered in details to the quantum super Yang-Mills equations. Furthermore, our geometric theory of stability of PDE's and their solutions, is also generalized to quantum extended crystal PDE's. In this way we are able to identify quantum equations where their global solutions are stable at finite times. These results, are also extended to quantum singular (super)PDE's, introducing ({\\em quantum extended crystal singular (super) PDE's}).

Agostino Prástaro

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Crystals and Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Crystals and Plants Crystals and Plants Name: Diab Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: What will the likely effects of crystallized filaments in plant cells be? I had noticed that moth balls (para dichlorbenzene) tends within a very short temperature range to transform from a solid to gas and back to solid in the form of crystal filaments. I been wondering about the likely effects of an experiment in which a plant is placed in a chamber saturated with the fumes of a substance that had the same transformation properties of its state but none of the toxic effects be on the plants and will such filaments form inside the cell and rearrange its DNA strands or kill it outright? Replies: The following might be helpful: http://biowww.clemson.edu/biolab/mitosis.html http://koning.ecsu.ctstateu.edu/Plant_Physiology/osmosis.html

83

Cirrus Crystal Terminal Velocities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cirrus crystal terminal velocities are of primary importance in determining the rate of transport of condensate from upper- to middle-tropospheric levels and profoundly influence the earth’s radiation balance through their effect on the rate of ...

Andrew J. Heymsfield; Jean Iaquinta

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

SINGLE CRYSTAL NEUTRON DIFFRACTION.  

SciTech Connect

Single-crystal neutron diffraction measures the elastic Bragg reflection intensities from crystals of a material, the structure of which is the subject of investigation. A single crystal is placed in a beam of neutrons produced at a nuclear reactor or at a proton accelerator-based spallation source. Single-crystal diffraction measurements are commonly made at thermal neutron beam energies, which correspond to neutron wavelengths in the neighborhood of 1 Angstrom. For high-resolution studies requiring shorter wavelengths (ca. 0.3-0.8 Angstroms), a pulsed spallation source or a high-temperature moderator (a ''hot source'') at a reactor may be used. When complex structures with large unit-cell repeats are under investigation, as is the case in structural biology, a cryogenic-temperature moderator (a ''cold source'') may be employed to obtain longer neutron wavelengths (ca. 4-10 Angstroms). A single-crystal neutron diffraction analysis will determine the crystal structure of the material, typically including its unit cell and space group, the positions of the atomic nuclei and their mean-square displacements, and relevant site occupancies. Because the neutron possesses a magnetic moment, the magnetic structure of the material can be determined as well, from the magnetic contribution to the Bragg intensities. This latter aspect falls beyond the scope of the present unit; for information on magnetic scattering of neutrons see Unit 14.3. Instruments for single-crystal diffraction (single-crystal diffractometers or SCDs) are generally available at the major neutron scattering center facilities. Beam time on many of these instruments is available through a proposal mechanism. A listing of neutron SCD instruments and their corresponding facility contacts is included in an appendix accompanying this unit.

KOETZLE,T.F.

2001-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

85

Crystallization of Lipids, Nucleation to Application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Archive of Crystallization of Lipids, Nucleation to Application Crystallization of Lipids, Nucleation to Application Toronto, Canada Crystallization of Lipids, Nucleation to Application ...

86

Silicon crystal growing by oscillating crucible technique  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for growing silicon crystals from a molten melt comprising oscillating the container during crystal growth is disclosed.

Schwuttke, G.H.; Kim, K.M.; Smetana, P.

1983-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

87

Plenum type crystal growth chamber  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Crystals are grown in a tank which is divided by a baffle into a crystal growth region above the baffle and a plenum region below the baffle. A turbine blade or stirring wheel is positioned in a turbine tube which extends through the baffle to generate a flow of solution from the crystal growing region to the plenum region. The solution is pressurized as it flows into the plenum region. The pressurized solution flows back to the crystal growing region through return flow tubes extending through the baffle. Growing crystals are positioned near the ends of the return flow tubes to receive a direct flow of solution.

Montgomery, K.E.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

88

Cracks Cleave Crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The problem of finding what direction cracks should move is not completely solved. A commonly accepted way to predict crack directions is by computing the density of elastic potential energy stored well away from the crack tip, and finding a direction of crack motion to maximize the consumption of this energy. I provide here a specific case where this rule fails. The example is of a crack in a crystal. It fractures along a crystal plane, rather than in the direction normally predicted to release the most energy. Thus, a correct equation of motion for brittle cracks must take into account both energy flows that are described in conventional continuum theories and details of the environment near the tip that are not.

Michael Marder

2004-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

89

VISUALS: Crystal Structure Animations - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 2, 2008 ... This site contains animated ball and stick models of anhydrite, aragonite, barite, beryl, biotite, calcite, ... "Crystal Structure Animations.

90

Florida Nuclear Profile - Crystal River  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crystal River1" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date"...

91

Nepheline Crystallization from Aluminosilicate Melts  

Al-limited and Al/Na-limited Hanford HLW. Figure 3. Crystallization during canister coolingis principal waste loading limiting factor . Current Nepheline Discriminator.

92

BY SILICON CRYSTALS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

c October 29, 1942 a 1 1 _MIGH aECTgFXCATIOH - BY SILICON CRYSTALS . . c .. I n. The excellent pesformmce of Brftieh "red dot" c r y s t a l s f e explained R R due t o the kgife edge contact i n a t A polfehod ~ X ' f l i C B o H i g h frequency m c t l f f c n t f o n 8ependre c r i t i c a l l y on the ape%e;y of the rectifytnc boundary layer o f the crystal, C, For hl#$ comvere~on e f f i c i e n c y , the product c d t h i ~ capacity m a o f ' t h e @forward" (bulk) re-. sistance Rb o f the crystnl must b@ sm%P, depende primarily on the breadth of tha b f f e edge i t s lbngth. The contact am &harefore ~ E L V Q a rather large area wMQh prevents burn-out, thh3 t h e breadth of &h@ knife edge should be bdt8~1 than E~$O$B% % f I - ' amo For a knife edge, this produet very 14ttle upom For a wavsIL~n+3tih of PO emo the eowp,o%a%8sne 4

93

Optical Semiconductor DevicesOptical Semiconductor Devices The Foundations of the Laser Diode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electroluminescence ·· Electroluminescence in silicon carbide crystal fibersElectroluminescence in silicon carbide crystal fibers #12;The Glowing DiodeThe Glowing Diode ·· ""LuminousLuminous carborundum [siliconcarborundum [silicon carbide

La Rosa, Andres H.

94

Lamella settler crystallizer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A crystallizer which incorporates a lamella settler and which is particularly applicable for use in batteries and power cells for electric vehicles or stationary applications. The lamella settler can be utilized for coarse particle separation or for agglomeration, and is particularly applicable to aluminum-air batteries or power cells for solving the hydrargillite (aluminum-hydroxide) removal problems from such batteries. This invention provides the advantages of very low energy consumption, turbulence, shear, cost and maintenance. Thus, due to the low shear and low turbulence of this invention, it is particularly effective in the control of aluminum hydroxide particle size distribution in the various sections of an aluminum-air system, as well as in other electrochemical systems requiring separation for phases of different densities.

Maimoni, Arturo (Orinda, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Lamella settler crystallizer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A crystallizer is described which incorporates a lamella settler and which is particularly applicable for use in batteries and power cells for electric vehicles or stationary applications. The lamella settler can be utilized for coarse particle separation or for agglomeration, and is particularly applicable to aluminum-air batteries or power cells for solving the hydrargillite (aluminum-hydroxide) removal problems from such batteries. This invention provides the advantages of very low energy consumption, turbulence, shear, cost and maintenance. Thus, due to the low shear and low turbulence of this invention, it is particularly effective in the control of aluminum hydroxide particle size distribution in the various sections of an aluminum-air system, as well as in other electrochemical systems requiring separation for phases of different densities. 3 figs.

Maimoni, A.

1990-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

96

Frequency mixing crystal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a laser system for converting infrared laser light waves to visible light comprising a source of infrared laser light waves and means of harmonic generation associated therewith for production of light waves at integral multiples of the frequency of the original wave, the improvement of said means of harmonic generation comprising a crystal having the chemical formula X{sub 2} Y(NO{sub 3}){sub 5} {center_dot} 2 nZ{sub 2}O wherein X is selected from the group consisting of Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl; Y is selected from the group consisting of Sc, Y, La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Al, Ga, and In; Z is selected from the group consisting of H and D; and n ranges from 0 to 4.

Ebbers, C.A.; Davis, L.E.; Webb, M.

1990-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

97

Frequency mixing crystal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a laser system for converting infrared laser light waves to visible light comprising a source of infrared laser light waves and means of harmonic generation associated therewith for production of light waves at integral multiples of the frequency of the original wave, the improvement of said means of harmonic generation comprising a crystal having the chemical formula X{sub 2} Y(NO{sub 3}){sub 5} {center dot} 2 nZ{sub 2}O wherein X is selected from the group consisting of Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl; Y is selected from the group consisting of Sc, Y, La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Al, Ga, and In; Z is selected from the group consisting of H and D; and n ranges from 0 to 4.

Ebbers, C.A.; Davis, L.E.; Webb, M.

1990-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

98

Frequency mixing crystal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a laser system for converting infrared laser light waves to visible light comprising a source of infrared laser light waves and means of harmoic generation associated therewith for production of light waves at integral multiples of the frequency of the original wave, the improvement of said means of harmonic generation comprising a crystal having the chemical formula X.sub.2 Y(NO.sub.3).sub.5 .multidot.2 nZ.sub.2 o wherein X is selected from the group consisting of Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl; Y is selected from the group consisting of Sc, Y, La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Al, Ga, and In; Z is selected from the group consisting of H and D; and n ranges from 0 to 4.

Ebbers, Christopher A. (Livermore, CA); Davis, Laura E. (Manteca, CA); Webb, Mark (Salida, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Equilibrium Crystal Shape of Nickel  

SciTech Connect

The crystal shape of Ni particles, dewetted in the solid state on sapphire substrates, was examined as a function of the partial pressure of oxygen (P(O2)) and iron content using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The chemical composition of the surface was characterized by atom-probe tomography. Unlike other FCC equilibrium crystal shapes, the Ni crystals containing little or no impurities exhibited a facetted shape, indicating large surface anisotropy. In addition to the {111}, {100} and {110} facets, which are usually present in the equilibrium crystal shape of FCC metals, high index facets were identified such as {135} and {138} at low P(O2), and {012} and {013} at higher P(O2). The presence of iron altered the crystal shape into a truncated sphere with only facets parallel to denser planes. The issue of particle equilibration is discussed specifically for the case of solid-state dewetting.

Meltzman, Hila [Technion, Israel Institute of Technology; Chatain, Dominique [Universite d'Aix-Marseille; Avizemer, Dan [Technion, Israel Institute of Technology; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Kaplan, Prof. Wayne D. [Technion, Israel Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Crystal Solar Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Crystal Solar Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Crystal Solar Inc. Place Santa Clara, California Zip 94054 Sector Solar Product California-based developer of silicon solar...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Towards improved CZT crystals.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Past experimental efforts to improve CZT crystals for gamma spectrometer applications have been focused on reducing micron-scale defects such as tellurium inclusions and precipitates. While these micron-scale defects are important, experiments have shown that the micron-scale variations in transport can be caused by the formation and aggregation of atomic-scale defects such as dislocations and point defect clusters. Moreover, dislocation cells have been found to act as nucleation sites that cause the formation of large precipitates. To better solve the uniformity problem of CZT, atomic-scale defects must be understood and controlled. To this end, we have begun to develop an atomistic model that can be used to reveal the effects of small-scale defects and to guide experiments for reducing both atomic- and micron-scale (tellurium inclusions and precipitates) defects. Our model will be based upon a bond order potential (BOP) to enable large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of material structures at a high-fidelity level that was not possible with alternative methods. To establish how BOP improves over existing approaches, we report here our recent work on the assessment of two representative literature CdTe interatomic potentials that are currently widely used: the Stillinger-Weber (SW) potential and the Tersoff-Rockett (TR) potential. Careful examinations of phases, defects, and surfaces of the CdTe system were performed. We began our study by using both potentials to evaluate the lattice constants and cohesive energies of various Cd, Te, and CdTe phases including dimer, trimer, chain, square, rhomboid, tetrahedron, diamond-cubic (dc), simple-cubic (sc), body-centered-cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc), hexagonal-close-packed (hcp), graphite-sheet, A8, zinc-blende (zb), wurtzite (wz), NaCl, CsCl, etc. We then compared the results with our calculations using the density functional theory (DFT) quantum mechanical method. We also evaluated the suitability of the two potentials to predict the surface reconstructions and surface energies, various defect configurations and defect energies (interstitials and voids), elastic constants, and melting temperatures of different phases. We found that both potentials predicted incorrect energy trends as compared with those predicted by the DFT method. Most seriously, both potentials predicted incorrect lowest energy phases. These studies clearly showed that the existing potentials are not sufficient for correctly predicting the charge transport properties of CdTe demonstrating the need for a new potential. We anticipate that our BOP method will overcome this problem and will accelerate the discovery of a synthesis approach to produce improved CZT crystals.

Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Ward, Donald K.; Doty, F. Patrick; Wong, Bryan Matthew; Zhou, Xiao Wang

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

The trouble with crystal polymorphism  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crystal polymorphism is one of the most widely studied structural characteristics of fats used in spreads, shortening, and confectionery applications. Simply put, polymorphism refers to the fact that triacylglycerols (TAG), and other lipids, can crystalliz

103

PREPARATION OF REFRACTORY OXIDE CRYSTALS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for preparing uranium dioxide, thorium oxide, and beryllium oxide in the form of enlarged individual crystals. The surface of a fused alkali metal halide melt containing dissolved uranium, thorium, or beryllium values is contacted with a water-vapor-bearing inert gas stream at a rate of 5 to 10 cubic centimeters per minute per square centimeter of melt surface area. Growth of individual crystals is obtained by prolonged contact. Beryllium oxide-coated uranium dioxide crystals are prepared by disposing uranium dioxide crystals 5 to 20 microns in diameter in a beryllium-containing melt and contacting the melt with a water-vapor-bearing inert gas stream in the same manner. (AEC)

Grimes, W.R.; Shaffer, J.H.; Watson, G.M.

1962-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

104

Tiny Levers, Big Moves in Piezoelectric Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... A piezoelectric material, such as quartz, expands slightly when fed electricity and, conversely, generates an electric charge when squeezed. ...

2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

105

Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows  

SciTech Connect

Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of power consumption by ALCWs allows for on-board power electronics for automatic matching of transmission through windows to varying climate conditions without drawing the power from the power grid. ALCWs are capable of transmitting more sunlight in winters to assist in heating and less sunlight in summers to minimize overheating. As such, they can change the window from being a source of energy loss to a source of energy gain. In addition, the scalable AMI’s roll-to-roll process, proved by making 1ft × 1ftALCW prototype panels, allows for cost-effective production of large-scale window panels along with capability to change easily their color and shape. In addition to architectural glazing in houses and commercial buildings, ALCWs can be used in other applications where control of sunlight is needed, such as green houses, used by commercial produce growers and botanical gardens, cars, aircrafts, etc.

Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

106

Crystal Systems | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Crystal Systems Crystal Systems Name Crystal Systems Address 27 Congress Street Place Salem, Massachusetts Zip 01970 Sector Solar Product Silicon producer Year founded 1971 Website http://www.crystalsystems.com/ Coordinates 42.5190384°, -70.8896271° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.5190384,"lon":-70.8896271,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

107

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of LipidsChapter 11 Ultrasonic Characterization of Lipid Crystallization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of Lipids Chapter 11 Ultrasonic Characterization of Lipid Crystallization Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry AOCS Press  

108

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of LipidsChapter 2 Molecular Modeling Applications in Lipid Crystallization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of Lipids Chapter 2 Molecular Modeling Applications in Lipid Crystallization Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry AOCS Press   ...

109

Manufacturing method of photonic crystal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A manufacturing method of a photonic crystal is provided. In the method, a high-refractive-index material is conformally deposited on an exposed portion of a periodic template composed of a low-refractive-index material by an atomic layer deposition process so that a difference in refractive indices or dielectric constants between the template and adjacent air becomes greater, which makes it possible to form a three-dimensional photonic crystal having a superior photonic bandgap. Herein, the three-dimensional structure may be prepared by a layer-by-layer method.

Park, In Sung; Lee, Tae Ho; Ahn, Jin Ho; Biswas, Rana; Constant, Kristen P.; Ho, Kai-Ming; Lee, Jae-Hwang

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

110

ARM - Field Campaign - CRYSTAL-FACE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsCRYSTAL-FACE govCampaignsCRYSTAL-FACE Campaign Links CRYSTAL-FACE Website Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : CRYSTAL-FACE 2002.06.26 - 2002.08.01 Lead Scientist : James Mather Data Availability Data is available to the general public at the ARM Archive. Questions regarding CRYSTAL-FACE or the PARSL data set may be directed to Jim Mather at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (Jim.Mather@pnl.gov) or visit the CRYSTAL-FACE web site at http://cloud1.arc.nasa.gov/crystalface/ For data sets, see below. Description From July 3-29, 2002 ARM took part in CRYSTAL-FACE (The Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers -Florida Area Cirrus Experiment). CRYSTAL-FACE was organized by NASA but many agencies and

111

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - Bendable Crystals Resolve...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bendable Crystals Resolve Properties of X-ray Pulses By Glenn Roberts Jr. September 12, 2012 A frustrating flaw in a set of custom crystals for an instrument at SLAC National...

112

Ice Crystal Production by Mountain Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evidence is presented for a process of ice crystal generation in supercooled orographic clouds in contact with snow-covered mountain surfaces. Comparisons of the crystal concentrations at the surface with aircraft sampling indicate that the “...

David C. Rogers; Gabor Vali

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Aggregation of Ice Crystals in Cirrus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are given from analysis of the aggregation of thick plate, columnar, and bullet rosette ice crystals in cirrus. Data were obtained from PMS 2D-C images, oil coated slides, and aircraft meteorological measurements. Crystal size ranged from ...

Masahiro Kajikawa; Andrew J. Heymsfield

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Ice Crystal Replication with Common Plastic Solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Use of common plastics, i.e., polystyrene, Plexiglas (polymethyl methacrylate) and Lexan (polycarbonate), was investigated for ice crystal replication. The results suggest that all common plastics tested are usable for ice crystal replication ...

Tsuneya Takahashi; Norihiko Fukuta

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of Lipids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A basic understanding of lipid crystallization and solidification is fundamental to understanding and optimizing products or systems containing lipids. Crystallization and Solidification Properties of Lipids Health acid analysis aocs april articles chlor

116

Light Scattering by Single Natural Ice Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the South Pole Ice Crystal Experiment, angular scattering intensities (ASIs) of single ice crystals formed in natural conditions were measured for the first time with the polar nephelometer instrument. The microphysical properties of the ...

Valery Shcherbakov; Jean-François Gayet; Brad Baker; Paul Lawson

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Program on Technology Innovation: Crystal Habit Modifiers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a review of the scientific and technical literature pertaining to the potential use of crystal habit modifiers to control the formation or consequent effects of deposits in nuclear plant systems. Crystal habit modifiers (CHMs) could potentially be added to the primary or secondary circuits of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) or to boiling water reactor (BWR) coolant as a means of controlling the crystal habit (shape) of the crystals that comprise primary and secondary...

2007-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

118

Crystal of GTP Cyclohydrolase Type IB  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This invention relates to a novel, bacterial GTP Cyclohydrolase Type IB enzyme, and the crystal structure thereof.

Swairjo, Manal A.; Iwata-Reuyl, Dirk; de Crecy-Lagard, Valerie

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

119

Estimating Flexoelectric Properties of Piezoelectric Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy Harvesting Utilized Resonance Phenomena of Piezoelectric Unimorph · Estimating Flexoelectric Properties of Piezoelectric Crystals: Utilization of a ...

120

Quartz Crystal Microbalances Enable New Microscale Analytic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The technique measures the reaction energy needed to decompose, oxidize ... quartz crystal microbalance, essentially a small piezoelectric disk of ...

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Polymer Crystallization in 25 nm Spheres  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Crystallization within the discrete spheres of a block copolymer mesophase was studied by time-resolved x-ray scattering. The cubic packing of microdomains, established by self-assembly in the melt, is preserved throughout crystallization by strong interblock segregation even though the amorphous matrix block is well above its glass transition temperature. Homogeneous nucleation within each sphere yields isothermal crystallizations which follow first-order kinetics, contrasting with the sigmoidal kinetics normally exhibited in the quiescent crystallization of bulk polymers.

Yueh-Lin Loo; Richard A. Register; Anthony J. Ryan

2000-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

122

The Next Generation of Crystal Detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heavy crystal scintillators are used widely in HEP experiments for precision measurements of photons and electrons. Future HEP experiments, however, require crystal scintillators of more bright, more fast, more radiation hard and less cost. This paper discusses several R&D directions for the next generation of crystal detectors for future HEP experiments.

Ren-Yuan Zhu

2013-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

123

Light output simulation of LYSO single crystal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We used the Geant4 simulation toolkit to estimate the light collection in a LYSO crystal by using cosmic muons and E=105 MeV electrons. The light output as a function of the crystal length is studied. Significant influence of the crystal wrapping in the reflective paper and optical grease coupling to the photodetectors on the light output is demonstrated.

Usubov, Zafar

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Cloud Ice Crystal Classification Using a 95-GHz Polarimetric Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two algorithms are presented for ice crystal classification using 95-GHz polarimetric radar observables and air temperature (T). Both are based on a fuzzy logic scheme. Ice crystals are classified as columnar crystals (CC), planar crystals (PC), ...

K. Aydin; J. Singh

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Superdense Crystal Packings of Ellipsoids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Particle packing problems have fascinated people since the dawn of civilization, and continue to intrigue mathematicians and scientists. Resurgent interest has been spurred by the recent proof of Kepler's conjecture: the face-centered cubic lattice provides the densest packing of equal spheres with a packing fraction $\\phi\\approx0.7405$ \\cite{Kepler_Hales}. Here we report on the densest known packings of congruent ellipsoids. The family of new packings are crystal (periodic) arrangements of nearly spherically-shaped ellipsoids, and always surpass the densest lattice packing. A remarkable maximum density of $\\phi\\approx0.7707$ is achieved for both prolate and oblate ellipsoids with aspect ratios of $\\sqrt{3}$ and $1/\\sqrt{3}$, respectively, and each ellipsoid has 14 touching neighbors. Present results do not exclude the possibility that even denser crystal packings of ellipsoids could be found, and that a corresponding Kepler-like conjecture could be formulated for ellipsoids.

Aleksandar Donev; Frank H. Stillinger; P. M. Chaikin; Salvatore Torquato

2004-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

126

Fast Crystals and Strong Glasses  

SciTech Connect

This talk describes new results on model colloid systems that provide insight into the behavior of fundamental problems in colloid physics, and more generally, for other materials as well. By visualizing the nucleation and growth of colloid crystals, we find that the incipient crystallites are much more disordered than expected, leading to a larger diversity of crystal morphologies. When the entropic contribution of these diverse morphologies is included in the free energy, we are able to describe the behavior very well, and can predict the nucleation rate surprisingly accurately. The talk also describes the glass transition in deformable colloidal particles, and will show that when the internal elasticity of the particles is included, the colloidal glass transition mimics that of molecular glass formers much more completely. These results also suggest that the elasticity at the scale of the fundamental unit, either colloid particle or molecule, determines the nature of the glass transition, as described by the "fragility."

Weitz, David [Harvard

2009-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

127

Cool Muscles: Storing Elastic Energy for Flight | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Further Understanding of Superconductivity A Further Understanding of Superconductivity New Family of Tiny Crystals Glow Bright in LED Lights How Serotonin Receptors Can Shape Drug Effects, from LSD to Migraine Medication X-rays Paint a Picture of Picasso's Pigments Antibody Evolution Could Guide HIV Vaccine Development Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Cool Muscles: Storing Elastic Energy for Flight JUNE 12, 2013 Bookmark and Share The moth Manduca sexta, in flight, and diffraction images from the time point directly following muscle stimulation, which highlight the temperature dependent variation in lattice structure. The temperature dependent change in lattice spacing is present as a difference in the

128

Science & Discovery | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Clean Energy National Security Neutron Science Nuclear Science Supercomputing and Computation More Science Hubs, Centers and Institutes US ITER Mars 'Curiosity' has ORNL tech New family of tiny crystals glows bright in LED lights Home | Science & Discovery SHARE Science & Discovery As the US Department of Energy's largest multi-program laboratory, ORNL is engaged in a wide range of activities that support the department's mission of ensuring America's security and prosperity by addressing its energy and environmental challenges. To accomplish this, the laboratory applies a remarkable portfolio of scientific expertise and world-class scientific facilities and equipment to develop scientific and technological solutions. ORNL focuses these resources on delivering scientific discoveries and new

129

A New Family of Quasicrystals | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Muscles: Storing Elastic Energy for Flight Cool Muscles: Storing Elastic Energy for Flight A Further Understanding of Superconductivity New Family of Tiny Crystals Glow Bright in LED Lights How Serotonin Receptors Can Shape Drug Effects, from LSD to Migraine Medication X-rays Paint a Picture of Picasso's Pigments Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed A New Family of Quasicrystals JUNE 24, 2013 Bookmark and Share The pentagonal dodecahedral morphology of the icosahedral phase is shown with a millimeter scale; grains as large as 1.0 mm have been grown. Just as fishing experts know that casting a line in the right spot hooks the big catch, scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of

130

Organic Polymers Show Sunny Potential | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A New Family of Quasicrystals A New Family of Quasicrystals Cool Muscles: Storing Elastic Energy for Flight A Further Understanding of Superconductivity New Family of Tiny Crystals Glow Bright in LED Lights How Serotonin Receptors Can Shape Drug Effects, from LSD to Migraine Medication Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Organic Polymers Show Sunny Potential JUNE 25, 2013 Bookmark and Share Researchers at Rice and Pennsylvania State universities have created solar cells based on block copolymers, self-assembling organic materials that arrange themselves into distinct layers. Image courtesy of the Gomez Laboratory A new version of solar cells created by laboratories at the Rice and

131

Bioinspired Materials Engineering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bioinspired Crystal Growth by Organic/Inorganic Crystal Engineering · Bioinspired Materials Design from Renewable Resources · Biological Synthesis of TiNi ...

132

Phonon manipulation with phononic crystals.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, we demonstrated engineered modification of propagation of thermal phonons, i.e. at THz frequencies, using phononic crystals. This work combined theoretical work at Sandia National Laboratories, the University of New Mexico, the University of Colorado Boulder, and Carnegie Mellon University; the MESA fabrication facilities at Sandia; and the microfabrication facilities at UNM to produce world-leading control of phonon propagation in silicon at frequencies up to 3 THz. These efforts culminated in a dramatic reduction in the thermal conductivity of silicon using phononic crystals by a factor of almost 30 as compared with the bulk value, and about 6 as compared with an unpatterned slab of the same thickness. This work represents a revolutionary advance in the engineering of thermoelectric materials for optimal, high-ZT performance. We have demonstrated the significant reduction of the thermal conductivity of silicon using phononic crystal structuring using MEMS-compatible fabrication techniques and in a planar platform that is amenable to integration with typical microelectronic systems. The measured reduction in thermal conductivity as compared to bulk silicon was about a factor of 20 in the cross-plane direction [26], and a factor of 6 in the in-plane direction. Since the electrical conductivity was only reduced by a corresponding factor of about 3 due to the removal of conductive material (i.e., porosity), and the Seebeck coefficient should remain constant as an intrinsic material property, this corresponds to an effective enhancement in ZT by a factor of 2. Given the number of papers in literature devoted to only a small, incremental change in ZT, the ability to boost the ZT of a material by a factor of 2 simply by reducing thermal conductivity is groundbreaking. The results in this work were obtained using silicon, a material that has benefitted from enormous interest in the microelectronics industry and that has a fairly large thermoelectric power factor. In addition, the techniques and scientific understanding developed in the research can be applied to a wide range of materials, with the caveat that the thermal conductivity of such a material be dominated by phonon, rather than electron, transport. In particular, this includes several thermoelectric materials with attractive properties at elevated temperatures (i.e., greater than room temperature), such as silicon germanium and silicon carbide. It is reasonable that phononic crystal patterning could be used for high-temperature thermoelectric devices using such materials, with applications in energy scavenging via waste-heat recovery and thermoelectric cooling for high-performance microelectronic circuits. The only part of the ZT picture missing in this work was the experimental measurement of the Seebeck coefficient of our phononic crystal devices. While a first-order approximation indicates that the Seebeck coefficient should not change significantly from that of bulk silicon, we were not able to actually verify this assumption within the timeframe of the project. Additionally, with regards to future high-temperature applications of this technology, we plan to measure the thermal conductivity reduction factor of our phononic crystals as elevated temperatures to confirm that it does not diminish, given that the nominal thermal conductivity of most semiconductors, including silicon, decreases with temperature above room temperature. We hope to have the opportunity to address these concerns and further advance the state-of-the-art of thermoelectric materials in future projects.

Kim Bongsang; Hopkins, Patrick Edward; Leseman, Zayd C.; Goettler, Drew F.; Su, Mehmet F. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); El-Kady, Ihab Fathy; Reinke, Charles M.; Olsson, Roy H., III

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

How Spherical Plasma Crystals Form  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The correlation buildup and the formation dynamics of the shell structure in a spherically confined one-component plasma are studied. Using Langevin dynamics simulations the relaxation processes and characteristic time scales and their dependence on the pair interaction and dissipation in the plasma are investigated. While in systems with Coulomb interaction (e.g., trapped ions) in a harmonic confinement shell formation starts at the plasma edge and proceeds inward, this trend is significantly weakened for dusty plasmas with Yukawa interaction. With a suitable change of the confinement conditions the crystallization scenario can be externally controlled.

Kaehlert, H.; Bonitz, M. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Christian-Albrechts Universitaet zu Kiel, 24098 Kiel (Germany)

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

134

Silicon Nano-Crystal Waveguide (SNOW) Laser  

Silicon Nano-Crystal Waveguide (SNOW) Laser Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing rights to this intellectual property may

135

Livermore scientists capture crystallization of materials in...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The team used multi-frame, nanosecond-scale imaging in the dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) to create movies of the crystallization of phase change...

136

PHASE-FIELD CRYSTAL MODELING OF NANOCRYSTAL ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

PHASE-FIELD CRYSTAL MODELING OF NANOCRYSTAL GROWTH. Edwin J. Schwalbach, James A. Warren, Kuo-An Wu, and Peter W. Voorhees. ...

137

Mul%crystal diffrac%on  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. Mul%crystal diffrac%on DTU, Denmark: C. Gundlach, PC Hansen, D. Juul Jensen, EM Lauridsen, L. Margulies, J. Oddershede, ...

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

138

Mechanical Deformation of Single Crystal and Nanocrystalline ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... hexagonal crystal structure and is commonly used as a solid lubricant and liquid lubricant additive. The objective of this work is to use atomistic simulations to ...

139

Growth Of Oriented Crystals At Polymerized Membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to methods and compositions for the growth and alignment of crystals at biopolymeric films. The methods and compositions of the present invention provide means to generate a variety of dense crystalline ceramic films, with totally aligned crystals, at low temperatures and pressures, suitable for use with polymer and plastic substrates.

Charych, Deborah H. (Albany, CA), Berman, Amir (Ben-Shiva, IL)

2000-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

140

Method of making coherent multilayer crystals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new material consisting of a coherent multilayer crystal of two or more elements where each layer is composed of a single element. Each layer may vary in thickness from about 2 .ANG. to 2500 .ANG.. The multilayer crystals are prepared by sputter deposition under conditions which slow the sputtered atoms to near substrate temperatures before they contact the substrate.

Schuller, Ivan K. (Woodridge, IL); Falco, Charles M. (Woodridge, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Coherent multilayer crystals and method of making  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new material is described consisting of a coherent multilayer crystal of two or more elements where each layer is composed of a single element. Each layer may vary in thickness from about 2 A to 2500 A. The multilayer crystals are prepared by sputter deposition under conditions which slow the sputtered atoms to near substrate temperatures before they contact the substrate.

Schuller, I.K.; Falco, C.M.

1980-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

142

Crystal plasticity analysis of constitutive behavior of 5754 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crystal plasticity analysis of constitutive behavior of 5754 ... of crystal plasticity based analyses (Hu et al ... used includes an axisymmetric ram 200 mm ...

2013-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

143

Czochralski Grown Ce,Gd:YAG Single Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work we propose a new concept of white LED, based on the single crystal phosphor plates (SCPPs) of Czochralski grown Ce,Gd:YAG single crystal.

144

Microfluidic systems for continuous crystallization of small organic molecules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents one of the first demonstrations of continuous crystallization in microfluidic devices, and illustrates their use for various applications related to crystallization of small organic molecules. ...

Sultana, Mahmooda

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Fractionalization of Interstitials in Curved Colloidal Crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding the out-of equilibrium behaviour of point defects in crystals, yields insights into the nature and fragility of the ordered state, as well as being of great practical importance. In some rare cases defects are spontaneously healed - a one-dimensional crystal formed by a line of identical charged particles, for example, can accommodate an interstitial (extra particle) by a re-adjusting all particle positions to even out the spacing. In sharp contrast, particles organized into a perfect hexagonal crystal in the plane cannot accommodate an interstitial by a simple re-adjustment of the particle spacing - the interstitial remains instead trapped between lattice sites and diffuses by hopping, leaving the crystal permanently defected. Here we report on the behavior of interstitials in colloidal crystals on curved surfaces. Using optical tweezers operated independently of three dimensional imaging, we insert a colloidal interstitial in a lattice of similar particles on flat and curved (positively and negatively) oil-glycerol interfaces and image the ensuing dynamics. We find that, unlike in flat space, the curved crystals self-heal through a collective rearrangement that re-distributes the increased density associated with the interstitial. The self-healing process can be interpreted in terms of an out of equilibrium interaction of topological defects with each other and with the underlying curvature. Our observations suggest the existence of "particle fractionalization" on curved surface crystals.

William T. M. Irvine; Mark J. Bowick; Paul M. Chaikin

2013-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

146

NMR and NQR parameters of ethanol crystal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electric field gradients and chemical shielding tensors of the stable monoclinic crystal phase of ethanol are computed. The projector-augmented wave (PAW) and gauge-including projector-augmented wave (GIPAW) models in the periodic plane-wave density functional theory are used. The crystal data from X-ray measurements, as well as the structures where either all atomic, or only hydrogen atom positions are optimized in the density functional theory are analyzed. These structural models are also studied by including the semi-empirical Van der Waals correction to the density functional theory. Infrared spectra of these five crystal models are calculated.

Milinkovic, M

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

CRYSTAL CHEMISTRY OF HYDROUS MINERALS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen has long been appreciated for its role in geological processes of the Earth's crust. However, its role in Earth's deep interior has been neglected in most geophysical thinking. Yet it is now believed that most of our planet's hydrogen may be locked up in high pressure phases of hydrous silicate minerals within the Earth's mantle. This rocky interior (approximately 7/8 of Earth's volume) is conjectured to contain 1-2 orders of magnitude more water than the more obvious oceans (the ''hydrosphere'') and atmosphere. This project is aimed at using the capability of neutron scattering from hydrogen to study the crystal chemistry and stability of hydrogen-bearing minerals at high pressures and temperatures. At the most basic level this is a study of the atomic position and hydrogen bond itself. We have conducted experimental runs on hydrous minerals under high pressure and high temperature conditions. The crystallographic structure of hydrous minerals at extreme conditions and its structural stability, and hydrogen bond at high P-T conditions are the fundamental questions to be addressed. The behavior of the hydrous minerals in the deep interior of the Earth has been discussed.

Y. ZHAO; ET AL

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

JX Crystals Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

JX Crystals Inc JX Crystals Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name JX Crystals Inc Place Issaquah, Washington State Zip 98027 Sector Solar Product JX Crystals designs and manufactures thermophotovoltaic gallium-antimonide cells for solar applications. Coordinates 47.530095°, -122.033799° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":47.530095,"lon":-122.033799,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

149

Single Scattering Properties of Atmospheric Ice Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulations of scattering and polarization properties for randomly oriented polyhedral ice crystals are presented based on the geometric optics and the far-field diffraction approximation. Particle shapes range from various hexagonal symmetric ...

Andreas Macke; Johannes Mueller; Ehrhard Raschke

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Anisotropic Shock Propagation in Single Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most single-crystal shock experiments have been performed in high-symmetry directions while the nature of shock propagation in low-symmetry directions remains relatively unstudied. It is well known that small-amplitude, linear acoustic waves propagating in low-symmetry directions can focus and/or form caustics (Wolfe, 1995). In this report we provide evidence for similar focusing behavior in nonlinear (shock) waves propagating in single crystals of silicon and diamond. Using intense lasers, we have driven non-planar (divergent geometry) shock waves through single-crystals of silicon or diamond and into an isotropic backing plate. On recovery of the backing plates we observe a depression showing evidence of anisotropic plastic strain with well-defined crystallographic registration. We observe 4-, 2-, and 3-fold symmetric impressions for [100], [110], and [111] oriented crystals respectively.

Eggert, J; Hicks, D; Celliers, P; Bradley, D; Cox, J; Unites, W; Collins, G; McWilliams, R; Jeanloz, R; Bruygoo, S; Loubeyre, P

2005-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

151

The diverse world of liquid crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

slime, laundry detergent, textile fibers such as silk and Kevlar, crude oil, insect wings, mineral at Kent State University in Ohio. Liquid crystals are all around us: in high-strength plas- tics, snail

Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

152

Studying defects created by irradiating molybdenum crystals ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by irradiating molybdenum crystals July 16, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint In order to study irradiation damage and inert gas bubble formation and growth behaviors, and to provide results...

153

Photo-responsive liquid crystal block copolymers/  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photo-responsive liquid crystal polymers (LCP) which contain azobenzene moieties have gained interest for their ability to change properties by merely irradiating them with the correct wavelength of light in the appropriate ...

Petr, Michael Thomas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

TOPAZ - Single Crystal Diffractometer | ORNL Neutron Sciences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TOPAZ-Media Gallery View a Quick Time movie showing Compact Crystal Positioning System. (27 MB) View a 1.55 minute movie (AVI format) showing the sample orienter moving. (405 MB)...

155

Electrically driven photonic crystal nanocavity devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interest in photonic crystal nanocavities is fueled by advances in device performance, particularly in the development of low-threshold laser sources. Effective electrical control of high performance photonic crystal lasers has thus far remained elusive due to the complexities associated with current injection into cavities. A fabrication procedure for electrically pumping photonic crystal membrane devices using a lateral p-i-n junction has been developed and is described in this work. We have demonstrated electrically pumped lasing in our junctions with a threshold of 181 nA at 50K - the lowest threshold ever demonstrated in an electrically pumped laser. At room temperature we find that our devices behave as single-mode light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which when directly modulated, have an ultrafast electrical response up to 10 GHz corresponding to less than 1 fJ/bit energy operation - the lowest for any optical transmitter. In addition, we have demonstrated electrical pumping of photonic crystal nanobeam LEDs...

Shambat, Gary; Petykiewicz, Jan; Mayer, Marie A; Majumdar, Arka; Sarmiento, Tomas; Harris, James; Haller, Eugene E; Vuckovic, Jelena

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Photonic crystal: energy-related applications  

SciTech Connect

We review recent work on photonic-crystal fabrication using soft-lithography techniques. We consider applications of the resulting structures in energy-related areas such as lighting and solar-energy harvesting. In general, our aim is to introduce the reader to the concepts of photonic crystals, describe their history, development, and fabrication techniques and discuss a selection of energy-related applications.

Ye, Zhuo; Park, Joong-Mok; Constant, Kristen; Kim, Tae-Geun; Ho, Kai-Ming

2012-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

157

Science Highlights 2013 | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

crystals that glow different colors may be the missing ingredient for white light-emitting diode lighting that illuminates homes and offices as effectively as natural sunlight....

158

Single-Crystal-to-Single-Crystal Transformations in One Dimensional Ag-Eu Helical System  

SciTech Connect

Single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation of 1-D 4d-4f coordination polymers have been investigated for the first time. It displays high selectivity for Mg2+ and can be used as magnesium ion-selective luminescent probe. More importantly, we observed the transformation of meso-helical chain to rac-helical chain as a function of temperature.

Cai, Yue-Peng; Zhout, Xiu-Xia; Zhout, Zheng-Yuan; Zhu, Shi-Zheng; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Liu, Jun

2009-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

159

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of LipidsChapter 9 Crystallization of Palm Oil Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of Lipids Chapter 9 Crystallization of Palm Oil Products Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry 0B466411CD87C680D99B2D98B90D36F7 AOCS Press 

160

Charge transfer reactions in nematic liquid crystals  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ultrafast transient absorption studies of intramolecular photoinduced charge separation and thermal charge recombination were carried out on a molecule consisting of a 4-(N-pyrrolidino)naphthalene-1,8-imide donor (PNI) covalently attached to a pyromellitimide acceptor (PI) dissolved in the liquid crystal 4{prime}-(n-pentyl)-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). The temperature dependencies of the charge separation and recombination rates were obtained at temperatures above the nematic-isotropic phase transition of 5CB, where ordered microdomains exist and scattering of visible light by these domains is absent. The authors show that excited state charge separation is dominated by molecular reorientation of 5CB perpendicular to the director within the liquid crystal microdomains. They also show that charge recombination is adiabatic and is controlled by the comparatively slow collective reorientation of the liquid crystal microdomains relative to the orientation of PNI{sup +}-PI{sup {minus}}. They also report the results of time resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) studies of photoinduced charge separation in a series of supramolecular compounds dissolved in oriented liquid crystal solvents. These studies permit the determination of the radical pair energy levels as the solvent reorganization energy increases from the low temperature crystalline phase, through the soft glass phase, to the nematic phase of the liquid crystal.

Wiederrecht, G.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Wasielewski, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.]|[Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Galili, T.; Levanon, H. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Freeze Crystallization Processes: Efficiency by Flexibility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy consumption in fractionating solutions by distillation and evaporation can be reduced by 70% to 90% by using freeze crystallization processes. The thermodynamic bases for the substantially lower energy requirements include: 1) The phase change is required only once in freeze processes, as opposed to the high reflux ratios needed in most distillation separations. 2) The latent heat of fusion is less than the heat of vaporization, and the process operates at a lower temperature, so the entropy of the separation is less. 3) A heat pump is used in the freeze crystallization process to transfer heat from the freezer to the melter, providing advantages similar to the vapor compression evaporator cycle. Freeze crystallization should be considered an alternative to all distillation and evaporation separation processes. The factors which affect the relative efficiency and economics of the process are discussed in this paper.

Heist, J. A.; Barron, T. S.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Nano-crystal growth in cordierite glass ceramics studied with X-ray scattering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nano-crystal growth in cordierite glass ceramics studiedmatrix in which crystalline nano-crystals are embedded. Bysample the Cr containing spinel nano crystals. In these SEM

Bras, Wim

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

UV LED lighting for automated crystal centring  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A direct outcome of the exponential growth of macromolecular crystallography is the continuously increasing demand for synchrotron beam time, both from academic and industrial users. As more and more projects entail screening a profusion of sample crystals, fully automated procedures at every level of the experiments are being implemented at all synchrotron facilities. One of the major obstacles to achieving such automation lies in the sample recognition and centring in the X-ray beam. The capacity of UV light to specifically react with aromatic residues present in proteins or with DNA base pairs is at the basis of UV-assisted crystal centring. Although very efficient, a well known side effect of illuminating biological samples with strong UV sources is the damage induced on the irradiated samples. In the present study the effectiveness of a softer UV light for crystal centring by taking advantage of low-power light-emitting diode (LED) sources has been investigated. The use of UV LEDs represents a lowcost solution for crystal centring with high specificity.

Leonard M. G. Chavas; Yusuke Yamada; Masahiko Hiraki; Noriyuki Igarashi; Naohiro Matsugaki; Soichi Wakatsuki

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals can simultaneously have a large Seebeck coefficient, high electrical conductivity, and low thermal conductivity. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials can enable improved thermoelectric devices, such as thermoelectric generators and coolers, with improved performance. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials and devices can be fabricated using techniques that are compatible with standard microelectronics.

El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Hopkins, Patrick; Reinke, Charles; Kim, Bongsang

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

165

The New Crystal Ball Experimental Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Crystal Ball Spectrometer is being used at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Alternating Gradient Synchrotron in a series of experiments that study final states of ??p and K ?p induced reactions that result in all neutral particles. Data have been obtained on the decays of N *

W. J. Briscoe; The Crystal Ball Collaboration; Abilene Christian University; Argonne National Laboratory; Arizona State University; Brookhaven National Laboratory; University of California at Los Angeles; University of Colorado; George Washington University; Universität Karlsruhe; Kent State University; University of Maryland; Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute; University of Regina; Rudjer Boskovic Institute; Valparaiso University

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Admissible Pictures and Littlewood-Richardson Crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a one-to-one correspondence between the set of admissible pictures and the Littlewood-Richardson crystals. As a simple consequence, we shall show that the set of pictures does not depend on the choice of admissible orders.

Nakashima, Toshiki

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Alignment of fee Crystals due to Transient Electric Fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The alignment of columnar ice crystals due to the electric field surrounding a moving charged object, such as an aircraft, is modeled. The model allows the conditions of charge, velocity, ambient electric field, and size and shape of crystal to ...

D. A. Burrows; J. L. Stith

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Micro- and Nano-Crystal Orientations in Shells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Micro- and Nano-Crystal Orientations in Shells Micro- and Nano-Crystal Orientations in Shells Print Thursday, 12 April 2012 11:11 A research group from the University of Wisconsin...

169

Super-collimation in a rod-based photonic crystal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Super-collimation is the propagation of a light beam without spreading that occurs when the light beam is guided by the dispersion properties of a photonic crystal, rather than by defects in the photonic crystal. ...

Shih, Ta-Ming, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Experimental studies of melting and crystallization processes in planetary interiors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Melting and crystallization processes on the Earth and Moon are explored in this thesis, and the topics of melt generation, transport, and crystallization are discussed in three distinct geologic environments: the Moon's ...

Krawczynski, Michael James

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Atmospheric Ice Crystals over the Antarctic Plateau in Winter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Falling ice crystals were collected daily on a gridded glass slide at South Pole Station, Antarctica, during the Antarctic winter of 1992 and were photographed through a microscope. Nine types of ice crystals are identified, which fall into three ...

Von P. Walden; Stephen G. Warren; Elizabeth Tuttle

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Engineering light using large area photonic crystal devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photonic crystals are fabricated structures composed of a periodic arrangement of materials with differing indices of refraction. This research has focused on the realization of two distinct photonic crystal structures in ...

Tandon, Sheila (Sheila N.), 1978-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Isothermal Ice Crystallization Kinetics in the Gas-Diffusion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Isothermal Ice Crystallization Kinetics in the Gas-Diffusion Layer of a Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cell Title Isothermal Ice Crystallization Kinetics in the Gas-Diffusion Layer...

174

Scattering Phase Function of Bullet Rosette Ice Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice crystals in cirrus frequently exhibit the shape of a bullet rosette composed of multiple bullets that radiate from a junction center. The scattering phase function of these ice crystals, pertinent to the radiation budget of cirrus, may differ ...

Jean Iaquinta; Harumi Isaka; Pascal Personne

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Computer-aided rational solvent selection for pharmaceutical crystallization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solvents play an important role in crystallization, a commonly used separation and purification technique in the pharmaceutical, chemical and food industries. They affect crystal properties such as particle size distribution, ...

Chen, Jie, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

James Fergason, a Pioneer in Advancing of Liquid Crystal Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

James Lee Fergason (1934 - 2008) focused his research on the liquid crystals. His studies correspond to a relevant part of the history of soft matter science and technology of liquid crystals. Here a discussion of some of his researches.

Amelia Carolina Sparavigna

2013-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

177

Two-dimensional Photonic Crystals Fabricated by Nanoimprint Lithography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the process parameters of nanoimprint lithography (NIL) for the fabrication of two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystals. The nickel mould with 2-D photonic crystal patterns covering the area up to 20mm² is ...

Chen, A.

178

High Cycle Fatigue in a Single Crystal Superalloy: Time ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: Single crystal superalloys, High cycle fatigue, Environmental coatings, Rupture ... modes were modeled separately and then combined into a damage.

179

Variation in Machinability of Single Crystal Materials in Micromechanical Machining  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single Crystal Cutting of Brass”, Annals of the CIRP, Vol.in microcutting of brass as a function of crystallographic

Lee, Dae-Eun; Min, Sangkee; Deichmueller, Manuel; Dornfeld, David

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of LipidsChapter 17 Crystallization in Emulsion: Application to Thermal and Structural Behaviorof Milk Fat  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of Lipids Chapter 17 Crystallization in Emulsion: Application to Thermal and Structural Behaviorof Milk Fat Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry AOCS Pre

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of LipidsChapter 10 Comparison of Experimental Techniques Used in Lipid Crystallization Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of Lipids Chapter 10 Comparison of Experimental Techniques Used in Lipid Crystallization Studies Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry 491A63F5EC71B64D1ED

182

The Particle Adventure | How do we experiment with tiny particles? |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Accelerating particles Accelerating particles Accelerating particles It is fairly easy to obtain particles. Physicists get electrons by heating metals; they get protons by robbing hydrogen of its electron; etc. Accelerators speed up charged particles by creating large electric fields which attract or repel the particles. This field is then moved down the accelerator, "pushing" the particles along. In a linear accelerator the field is due to traveling electromagnetic (E-M) waves. When an E-M wave hits a bunch of particles, those in the back get the biggest boost, while those in the front get less of a boost. In this fashion, the particles "ride" the front of the E-M wave like a bunch of surfers. The next page shows this process in an easier to understand animation

183

Device Captures Signatures with Tiny Piezo-Phototronic LEDs ...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

& Testimony Recovery Act Contact Information Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (202) 586-5430 08.13.13 Device...

184

NIST Research Reveals Tiny Iron Supplement Has 'Chilling' ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... is edging into contention for specialized uses, such as cooling sensors in ... necessary if the technology is to replace household refrigerators, freezers ...

2013-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

185

The Particle Adventure | How do we experiment with tiny particles...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to detect an event, individual particles can be singled out from the multitudes for analysis. Following each event, computers collect and interpret the vast quantity of data...

186

Tiny, Atom-based Detector Senses Weak Magnetic Fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... miniature magnetometer is sensitive enough to detect a concealed rifle about 12 meters (40 feet) away or a six-inch-diameter steel pipeline up to ...

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

187

The Superelastic Behavior of Ti-Ni Superelastic Wire Rope  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The advantages of superelastic wire ropes are better fatigue life, increase bending flexibility and increase responsively. There are few studies of superelastic ...

188

The Particle Adventure | How do we experiment with tiny particles...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

each other. The advantage of this arrangement is that both beams have significant kinetic energy, so a collision between them is more likely to produce a higher mass particle...

189

IMAGES REVEAL TINY FLAWS IN FILMS FOR SOLAR ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... over large surfaces. Such films are used in making solar energy panels and large flat-panel displays. The efficiency of the ...

190

The Particle Adventure | How do we experiment with tiny particles...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Accelerators Accelerators solve two problems for physicists. First, since all particles behave like waves, physicists use accelerators to increase a particle's momentum, thus...

191

The Particle Adventure | How do we experiment with tiny particles...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Accelerator design There are several different ways to design these accelerators, each with its benefits and drawbacks. Here's a quick list of the major accelerator design choices:...

192

The Particle Adventure | How do we experiment with tiny particles...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

at those places where particle beams are made to cross. On the other hand, linear accelerators are much easier to build than circular accelerators because they don't need the...

193

DOE Joint Genome Institute: Tiny Algae Shed Light on Photosynthesis...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

children learn is the recipe for photosynthesis, combining carbon dioxide, water and solar energy to produce organic compounds. Many of the world's most important...

194

The Particle Adventure | How do we experiment with tiny particles...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Accelerating particles: Animation The above is an animation of the following concept: This is a test search string for google...

195

ORNL seeks to enhance tiny engine performance for military |...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kass, senior engineer in ORNL's Fuels, Emissions and Engines Group. "When you look at the energy density of a hydro-carbon fuel, it is quite high - roughly 45 times higher than the...

196

DNA Sieve—Nanoscale Pores Can Be Tiny Analysis Labs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... to those in living cells, and "drilling" a pore ... point, by an applied electric current. ... molecule reduced the nanopore's electrical conductance differently ...

197

DNA Sieve: Nanoscale Pores Can Be Tiny Analysis Labs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... to those in living cells, and “drilling” a pore ... point, by an applied electric current. ... molecule reduced the nanopore's electrical conductance differently ...

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

198

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print When it comes to metal catalysts, platinum is the standard. However, at about $2,000 an ounce, the high cost of the raw material presents major challenges for the future wide-scale use of platinum in fuel cells. Berkeley Lab research suggests that one possible way to meet these challenges is to think small. Researchers from Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division have found that under high pressure-comparable to the pressures at which many industrial technologies operate-platinum surfaces can change their structure dramatically in response to the presence of high-coverage reactants. High-pressure scanning tunneling microscopes (STM) and ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at ALS Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 allowed researchers to study catalysts' structure and composition under realistic conditions.

199

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print When it comes to metal catalysts, platinum is the standard. However, at about $2,000 an ounce, the high cost of the raw material presents major challenges for the future wide-scale use of platinum in fuel cells. Berkeley Lab research suggests that one possible way to meet these challenges is to think small. Researchers from Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division have found that under high pressure-comparable to the pressures at which many industrial technologies operate-platinum surfaces can change their structure dramatically in response to the presence of high-coverage reactants. High-pressure scanning tunneling microscopes (STM) and ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at ALS Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 allowed researchers to study catalysts' structure and composition under realistic conditions.

200

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print When it comes to metal catalysts, platinum is the standard. However, at about $2,000 an ounce, the high cost of the raw material presents major challenges for the future wide-scale use of platinum in fuel cells. Berkeley Lab research suggests that one possible way to meet these challenges is to think small. Researchers from Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division have found that under high pressure-comparable to the pressures at which many industrial technologies operate-platinum surfaces can change their structure dramatically in response to the presence of high-coverage reactants. High-pressure scanning tunneling microscopes (STM) and ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at ALS Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 allowed researchers to study catalysts' structure and composition under realistic conditions.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print When it comes to metal catalysts, platinum is the standard. However, at about $2,000 an ounce, the high cost of the raw material presents major challenges for the future wide-scale use of platinum in fuel cells. Berkeley Lab research suggests that one possible way to meet these challenges is to think small. Researchers from Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division have found that under high pressure-comparable to the pressures at which many industrial technologies operate-platinum surfaces can change their structure dramatically in response to the presence of high-coverage reactants. High-pressure scanning tunneling microscopes (STM) and ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at ALS Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 allowed researchers to study catalysts' structure and composition under realistic conditions.

202

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print When it comes to metal catalysts, platinum is the standard. However, at about $2,000 an ounce, the high cost of the raw material presents major challenges for the future wide-scale use of platinum in fuel cells. Berkeley Lab research suggests that one possible way to meet these challenges is to think small. Researchers from Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division have found that under high pressure-comparable to the pressures at which many industrial technologies operate-platinum surfaces can change their structure dramatically in response to the presence of high-coverage reactants. High-pressure scanning tunneling microscopes (STM) and ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at ALS Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 allowed researchers to study catalysts' structure and composition under realistic conditions.

203

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print When it comes to metal catalysts, platinum is the standard. However, at about $2,000 an ounce, the high cost of the raw material presents major challenges for the future wide-scale use of platinum in fuel cells. Berkeley Lab research suggests that one possible way to meet these challenges is to think small. Researchers from Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division have found that under high pressure-comparable to the pressures at which many industrial technologies operate-platinum surfaces can change their structure dramatically in response to the presence of high-coverage reactants. High-pressure scanning tunneling microscopes (STM) and ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at ALS Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 allowed researchers to study catalysts' structure and composition under realistic conditions.

204

Effective Light Dynamics in Perturbed Photonic Crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, we rigorously derive effective dynamics for light from within a limited frequency range propagating in a photonic crystal that is modulated on the macroscopic level; the perturbation parameter $\\lambda \\ll 1$ quantifies the separation of spatial scales. We do that by rewriting the dynamical Maxwell equations as a Schr\\"odinger-type equation and adapting space-adiabatic perturbation theory. Just like in the case of the Bloch electron, we obtain a simpler, effective Maxwell operator for states from within a relevant almost invariant subspace. A correct physical interpretation for the effective dynamics requires to establish two additional facts about the almost invariant subspace: (1) The source-free condition has to be verified and (2) it has to support real states. The second point also forces one to consider a multiband problem even in the simplest possible setting; This turns out to be a major difficulty for the extension of semiclassical methods to the domain of photonic crystals.

Giuseppe De Nittis; Max Lein

2013-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

205

Shock Driven Twinning in Tantalum Single Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recovery based observations of high pressure material behavior generated under high explosively driven flyer based loading conditions are reported. Two shock pressures, 25, and 55 GPa and four orientations {l_brace}(100), (110), (111), (123){r_brace} were considered. Recovered material was characterized using electron backscatter diffraction along with a limited amount of transmission electron microscopy to assess the occurrence of twinning under each test condition. Material recovered from 25 GPa had a very small fraction of twinning for the (100), (110), and (111) oriented crystals while a more noticeable fraction of the (123) oriented crystal was twinned. Material recovered from 55 GPa showed little twinning for (100) orientation slightly more for the (111) orientation and a large area fraction for the (123) orientation. The EBSD and TEM observations of the underlying deformation substructure are rationalized by comparing with previous static and dynamic results.

McNaney, J M; HSUING, L M; Barton, N R; Kumar, M

2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

206

Quantum theory of photonic crystal polaritons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We formulate a full quantum mechanical theory of the interaction between electromagnetic modes in photonic crystal slabs and quantum well excitons embedded in the photonic structure. We apply the formalism to a high index dielectric layer with a periodic patterning suspended in air. The strong coupling between electromagnetic modes lying above the cladding light line and exciton center of mass eigenfunctions manifests itself with the typical anticrossing behavior. The resulting band dispersion corresponds to the quasi-particles coming from the mixing of electromagnetic and material excitations, which we call photonic crystal polaritons. We compare the results obtained by using the quantum theory to variable angle reflectance spectra coming from a scattering matrix approach, and we find very good quantitative agreement.

D. Gerace; M. Agio; L. C. Andreani

2004-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

207

Induced Positron Annihiliation Investigation of Cadmium Zinc Telluride Crystal Microstructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) crystals are used in semiconductor radiation detectors for the detection of x-ray and gamma radiation. However, production of detector grade crystals is difficult as small variations in compositional uniformity and primarily the zinc content can significantly affect the ability of the CZT crystal to function as a radiation detector. Currently there are no known nondestructive methods that can be used to identify detector grade crystals. The current test method is to fabricate and test the detector to determine if the crystal is sufficiently uniform and of the correct composition to be considered a detector grade crystal. Consequently, nondestructive detection methods are needed to identify detector grade crystals prior to the fabrication process. The purpose of this feasibility study was to perform a preliminary assessment of the ability of several new, nondestructive technologies based on Induced Positron Annihilation (IPA) to determine if detector grade CZT crystals can be identified. Results of measurements performed on specimens from Fisk University and EV Products, Inc. indicate that both the near surface Distributed Source Positron Annihilation (up to 3 mm penetration) and the volumetric Photon Induced Positron Annihilation methods may be suitable for determining CZT crystal quality. Further work on CZT crystals with a broader range of compositions and detector characteristics is needed to provide a well defined, calibrated, method for assessing CZT crystal quality.

D. W. Akers

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Program on Technology Innovation: Crystal Habit Modifiers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effective water chemistry control in nuclear power plants is required for materials and fuel reliability, radiation source term control, and operations. This report documents the results of laboratory screening conducted in support of an EPRI initiative to assess the feasibility of using crystal habit modifiers (CHMs) in the primary or secondary coolant of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Successful implementation of CHMs could have a significant impact on plant material condition, and operation and ma...

2010-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

209

Improving scintillation crystals using muon tomography  

SciTech Connect

The cosmic ray muon scanning array provides information on NaI(T1) crystals using some 65,536 trajectories, each measuring the NaI(T1) response to high energy muons. With this information, it is possible to use established computer-aided-tomography techniques to deconvolute these integrated responses and produce a detailed picture of the detector's interior.

Dowell, D.H.; Fineman, B.J.; Sandorfi, A.M.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

T-542: SAP Crystal Reports Server Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2: SAP Crystal Reports Server Multiple Vulnerabilities 2: SAP Crystal Reports Server Multiple Vulnerabilities T-542: SAP Crystal Reports Server Multiple Vulnerabilities January 25, 2011 - 2:30pm Addthis PROBLEM: SAP Crystal Reports Server Multiple Vulnerabilities. PLATFORM: Crystal Reports Server 2008 ABSTRACT: Multiple vulnerabilities in SAP Crystal Reports Server 2008, which can be exploited by malicious users to disclose potentially sensitive information and by malicious people to conduct cross-site scripting attacks, manipulate certain data, and compromise a user's system. reference LINKS: Secunia Advisory SA43060 Vulnerability Report: Crystal Reports Server 2008 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: High Discussion: 1) Input passed to the "actId" parameter in InfoViewApp/jsp/common/actionNav.jsp, "backUrl" parameter in

211

T-542: SAP Crystal Reports Server Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2: SAP Crystal Reports Server Multiple Vulnerabilities 2: SAP Crystal Reports Server Multiple Vulnerabilities T-542: SAP Crystal Reports Server Multiple Vulnerabilities January 25, 2011 - 2:30pm Addthis PROBLEM: SAP Crystal Reports Server Multiple Vulnerabilities. PLATFORM: Crystal Reports Server 2008 ABSTRACT: Multiple vulnerabilities in SAP Crystal Reports Server 2008, which can be exploited by malicious users to disclose potentially sensitive information and by malicious people to conduct cross-site scripting attacks, manipulate certain data, and compromise a user's system. reference LINKS: Secunia Advisory SA43060 Vulnerability Report: Crystal Reports Server 2008 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: High Discussion: 1) Input passed to the "actId" parameter in InfoViewApp/jsp/common/actionNav.jsp, "backUrl" parameter in

212

High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut (.alpha.=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5-30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the .mu.eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator.

Alp, Ercan E. (Bolingbrook, IL); Mooney, Timothy M. (Westmont, IL); Toellner, Thomas (Green Bay, WI)

1996-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

213

High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut ({alpha}=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5--30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the {micro}eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator. 7 figs.

Alp, E.E.; Mooney, T.M.; Toellner, T.

1996-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

214

Photonic Crystals for Enhancing Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermophotovoltaics (TPV) converts the radiant energy of a thermal source into electrical energy using photovoltaic cells. TPV has a number of attractive features, including: fuel versatility (nuclear, fossil, solar, etc.), quiet operation, low maintenance, low emissions, light weight, high power density, modularity, and possibility for cogeneration of heat and electricity. Some of these features are highly attractive for military applications (Navy and Army). TPV could also be used for distributed power and automotive applications wherever fuel cells, microturbines, or cogeneration are presently being considered if the efficiencies could be raised to around 30%. This proposal primarily examine approaches to improving the radiative efficiency. The ideal irradiance for the PV cell is monochromatic illumination at the bandgap. The photonic crystal approach allows for the tailoring of thermal emission spectral bandwidth at specific wavelengths of interest. The experimental realization of metallic photonic crystal structures, the optical transmission, reflection and absorption characterization of it have all been carried out in detail and will be presented next. Additionally, comprehensive models of TPV conversion has been developed and applied to the metallic photonic crystal system.

LIN, SHAWN-YU; FLEMING, JAMES G.; MORENO, JOSEPH A.

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Crystallization and collapse in relativistically degenerate matter  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, it is shown that a mass density limit exists beyond which the relativistically degenerate matter would crystallize. The mass density limit, found here, is quite analogous to the mass limit predicted by Chandrasekhar for a type of compact stars called white dwarfs (M{sub Ch} Asymptotically-Equal-To 1.43 Solar Mass). In this study, the old problem of white dwarf core collapse, which has been previously investigated by Chandrasekhar using hydrostatic stability criteria, is revisited in the framework of the quantum hydrodynamics model by inspection of the charge screening at atomic scales in the relativistic degeneracy plasma regime taking into account the relativistic Fermi-Dirac statistics and electron interaction features such as the quantum statistical pressure, Coulomb attraction, electron exchange-correlation, and quantum recoil effects. It is revealed that the existence of ion correlation and crystallization of matter in the relativistically degenerate plasma puts a critical mass density limit on white dwarf core region. It is shown that a white dwarf star with a core mass density beyond this critical limit can undergo the spontaneous core collapse (SCC). The SCC phenomenon, which is dominantly caused by the electron quantum recoil effect (interference and localization of the electron wave function), leads to a new exotic state of matter. In such exotic state, the relativistic electron degeneracy can lead the white dwarf crystallized core to undergo the nuclear fusion and an ultimate supernova by means of the volume reduction (due to the enhanced compressibility) and huge energy release (due to the increase in cohesive energy), under the stars huge inward gravitational pressure. Moreover, it is found that the SCC phenomenon is significantly affected by the core composition (it is more probable for heavier plasmas). The critical mass density found here is consistent with the values calculated for core density of typical white dwarf stars.

Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M. [International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany and Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, 51745-406 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

216

Transport of Particles in Liquid Crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Colloidal particles in a liquid crystal (LC) behave very differently from their counterparts in isotropic fluids. Elastic nature of the orientational order and surface anchoring of the director cause long-range anisotropic interactions and lead to the phenomenon of levitation. The LC environment enables new mechanisms of particle transport that are reviewed in this work. Among them the motion of particles caused by gradients of the director, and effects in the electric field: backflow powered by director reorientations, dielectrophoresis in LC with varying dielectric permittivity and LC-enabled nonlinear electrophoresis with velocity that depends on the square of the applied electric field and can be directed differently from the field direction.

Oleg D. Lavrentovich

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

217

Highly multimode memory in a crystal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We experimentally demonstrate the storage of 1060 temporal modes onto a thulium-doped crystal using an atomic frequency comb (AFC). The comb covers 0.93 GHz defining the storage bandwidth. As compared to previous AFC preparation methods (pulse sequences i.e. amplitude modulation), we only use frequency modulation to produce the desired optical pumping spectrum. To ensure an accurate spectrally selective optical pumping, the frequency modulated laser is self-locked on the atomic comb. Our approach is general and should be applicable to a wide range of rare-earth doped material in the context of multimode quantum memory.

Bonarota, M; Chanelière, T

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Highly multimode memory in a crystal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We experimentally demonstrate the storage of 1060 temporal modes onto a thulium-doped crystal using an atomic frequency comb (AFC). The comb covers 0.93 GHz defining the storage bandwidth. As compared to previous AFC preparation methods (pulse sequences i.e. amplitude modulation), we only use frequency modulation to produce the desired optical pumping spectrum. To ensure an accurate spectrally selective optical pumping, the frequency modulated laser is self-locked on the atomic comb. Our approach is general and should be applicable to a wide range of rare-earth doped material in the context of multimode quantum memory.

M. Bonarota; J. -L. Le Gouët; T. Chanelière

2010-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

219

Polarization and adiabatic pumping in inhomogeneous crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We develop a general theory of electric polarization in crystals with inhomogeneous order. We show that the inhomogeneity-induced polarization can be classified into two parts: a perturbative contribution stemming from a correction to the basis functions and a topological contribution described in terms of the Chern-Simons form of the Berry gauge fields. The latter is determined up to an uncertainty quantum, which is the second Chern number in appropriate units. Our theory provides an exhaustive link between microscopic models and the macroscopic polarization.

Xiao, Di [ORNL; Shi, Junren [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science; Clougherty, Dennis [University of Vermont; Niu, Qian [University of Texas, Austin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device  

SciTech Connect

A non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device (10) including a photorefractive crystal (26) and a laser (12). The laser (12 ) produces a coherent light beam (14) which is split by a beam splitter (18) into a first laser beam (20) and a second laser beam (22). After passing through the crystal (26) the first laser beam (20) is counter-propagated back upon itself by a retro-mirror (32), creating a third laser beam (30). The laser beams (20, 22, 30) are modulated, due to the mixing effect within the crystal (26) by vibration of the crystal (30). In the third laser beam (30), modulation is stable and such modulation is converted by a photodetector (34) into a usable electrical output, intensity modulated in accordance with vibration applied to the crystal (26).

Kalibjian, Ralph (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The report describes a non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device including a photorefractive crystal and a laser. The laser produces a coherent light beam which is split by a beam splitter into a first laser beam and a second laser beam. After passing through the crystal the first laser beam is counter-propagated back upon itself by a retro-mirror, creating a third laser beam . The laser beams are modulated, due to the mixing effect within the crystal by vibration of the crystal. In the third laser beam modulation is stable and such modulation is converted by a photodetector into a usable electrical output, intensity modulated in accordance with vibration applied to the crystal.

Kalibjian, R.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

222

Ytterbium-doped borate fluoride laser crystals and lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new class of solid state laser crystals and lasers are formed from Yb-doped borate fluoride host crystals. The general formula for the host crystals is MM'(BO.sub.3)F, where M, M' are monovalent, divalent aria trivalent metal cations. A particular embodiment of the invention is Yb-doped BaCaBO.sub.3 F (Yb:BCBF). BCBF and some of the related derivative crystals are capable of nonlinear frequency conversion, whereby the fundamental of the laser is converted to a longer or shorter wavelength. In this way, these new crystals can simultaneously serve as self-frequency doubling crystals and laser materials within the laser resonator.

Schaffers, Kathleen I. (Pleasanton, CA); DeLoach, Laura D. (Manteca, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Keszler, Douglas A. (Corvallis, OK)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Crystallizing hard-sphere glasses by doping with active particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Crystallization and vitrification are two different routes to form a solid. Normally these two processes suppress each other, with the glass transition preventing crystallization at high density (or low temperature). This is even true for systems of colloidal hard spheres, which are commonly used as building blocks for fabricating photonic crystals [1-3]. Here, by performing Brownian dynamics simulations of glass systems consisting of mixtures of active and passive hard spheres, we show that the crystallization of such hard-sphere glasses can be dramatically promoted by doping the system with small amounts of active particles. Surprisingly, even hard-sphere glasses of packing fraction up to $\\phi = 0.635$ crystallize, which is around 0.5% below the random close packing ~ 0.64. Our results suggest a novel way of fabricating crystalline materials from (colloidal) glasses. This is particularly important for materials that get easily kinetically trapped in glassy states, and crystal nucleation hardly occurs.

Ran Ni; Martien A. Cohen Stuart; Marjolein Dijkstra; Peter G. Bolhuis

2013-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

224

Characterization of complexities in Czochralski crystal growth by nonlinear forecasting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

How the flow of the silicon melt affects Czochralski crystal growth in terms of nonlinear forecasts about the time series of striations of as?grown crystals and the melt temperature fluctuations beneath the crystal is investigated. The melt exhibits nonstationary self?affine random motion added to regular motion. The random contribution becomes dominant toward the center of the crucible. Such dynamical properties of the melt are found to be embedded into the striations.

Takaya Miyano; Hiroshi Morita; Akira Shintani; Tadashi Kanda; Masataka Hourai

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Method for surface treatment of a cadmium zinc telluride crystal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal is disclosed that reduces surface roughness (increases surface planarity) and provides an oxide coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve resolution. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of lactic acid and bromine in ethylene glycol, following the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, oxidizing the CZT crystal surface. 3 figs.

James, R.; Burger, A.; Chen, K.T.; Chang, H.

1999-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

226

Method for surface treatment of a cadmium zinc telluride crystal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal that reduces surface roughness (increases surface planarity) and provides an oxide coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve resolution. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of lactic acid and bromine in ethylene glycol, following the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, oxidizing the CZT crystal surface.

James, Ralph (5420 Lenore Ave., Livermore, CA 94550); Burger, Arnold (753 Adkisson La., Nashville, TN 37205); Chen, Kuo-Tong (7800 River Fork Dr., Nashville, TN 37221); Chang, Henry (6535 Premier Dr., Apt. A7, Nashville, TN 37209)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Extracting longitudinal shower development information from crystal calorimetry plus tracking  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

crystal calorimetry plus tracking D.N. Brown a , J. Ilic b ,calorimeter by using tracking information. Ourgood three- dimensional tracking resolution of B A B AR ,

Brown, D.N.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

III-Nitride LEDs with photonic crystal structures.  

SciTech Connect

Electrical operation of III-Nitride light emitting diodes (LEDs) with photonic crystal structures is demonstrated. Employing photonic crystal structures in III-Nitride LEDs is a method to increase light extraction efficiency and directionality. The photonic crystal is a triangular lattice formed by dry etching into the III-Nitride LED. A range of lattice constants is considered (a {approx} 270-340nm). The III-Nitride LED layers include a tunnel junction providing good lateral current spreading without a semi-absorbing metal current spreader as is typically done in conventional III-Nitride LEDs. These photonic crystal III-Nitride LED structures are unique because they allow for carrier recombination and light generation proximal to the photonic crystal (light extraction area) yet displaced from the absorbing metal contact. The photonic crystal Bragg scatters what would have otherwise been guided modes out of the LED, increasing the extraction efficiency. The far-field light radiation patterns are heavily modified compared to the typical III-Nitride LED's Lambertian output. The photonic crystal affects the light propagation out of the LED surface, and the radiation pattern changes with lattice size. LEDs with photonic crystals are compared to similar III-Nitride LEDs without the photonic crystal in terms of extraction, directionality, and emission spectra.

Wendt, Joel Robert; Sigalas, M. M. (Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA); Epler, J. E. (Lumileds Lighting, San Jose, CA); Krames, M. R. (Lumileds Lighting, San Jose, CA); Li, D. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque NM); Brueck, Stephen R. J. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque NM); Shagam, M. (Boston University, Boston, MA); Gardner, N. F. (Lumileds Lighting, San Jose, CA); Wierer, Jonathan J. (Lumileds Lighting, San Jose, CA)

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Ultra-Fast Calorimetry for Studies of Crystallization in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Ultra-Fast Calorimetry for Studies of Crystallization in Chalcogenides for Phase-Change Memory. Author(s), A. L. Greer. On-Site Speaker ...

230

Electroactive complex in thermally treated Ge-Si crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown by Hall measurements that quenching complexly doped Ge{sub 1-x}Si{sub x} (0 { crystals with copper.

Azhdarov, G. Kh., E-mail: zangi@physics.ab.az [Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan); Zeynalov, Z. M. [Ganja State University (Azerbaijan); Zakhrabekova, Z. M. [Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan); Kyazimova, A. I. [Ganja State University (Azerbaijan)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

Temperature-insensitive phase-matched optical harmonic conversion crystal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Temperature-insensitive, phase-matched harmomic frequency conversion of laser light at a preferred wavelength of 1.064 microns can be achieved by use of a crystal of deuterated l-arginine phosphate. The crystal is cut and oriented so that the laser light propagates inside the crystal along one of several required directions, which correspond to a temperature-insensitive, phase-matching locus. The method of measuring and calculating the temperature-insensitive, phase-matching angles can be extended to other fundamental wavelengths and other crystal compositions.

Barker, Charles E. (Sunnyvale, CA); Eimerl, David (Livermore, CA); Velsko, Stephan P. (Livermore, CA); Roberts, David (Sagamore Hills, OH)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Femtosecond Laser Micromachining of Single-Crystal Superalloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

scale features in multi-layer material systems for aerospace and power generation components. Introduction. Multiple generations of single crystal superalloys ...

233

The Formation of SRZ on a Fourth Generation Single Crystal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

4th generation nickel-base single crystal (SC) superalloy with aluminide coating ... Granular precipitates distributed in the upper part of SRZ, and needle-like ...

234

Porosity Clusters and Recrystallization in Single Crystal Components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of cross-section transients on dendritic single-crystal growth in the .... Ceramic accumulations in the transient region also influence heat transfer.

235

A computational investigation of nucleation processes in organic crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nucleation processes are ubiquitous in nature and technology. For instance, cloud formation in the atmosphere, the casting of metals, protein crystallization, biomineralization, the production of porous materials, and ...

Beckham, Gregg Tyler

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

NIST CNR SANS Bonze-Hart Perfect Crystal Diffractometer ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 8, Neutron transmission of single-crystal magnesium fluoride, JG Barker, DF Mildner, JA Rodriguez, P. Thiyagarajan, J Appl. Cryst. 41, 6, 1003, 2008 ...

237

Diffraction crystals for sagittally focusing x-rays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a new type of diffraction crystal designed for sagittally focusing photons of various energies. The invention is based on the discovery that such focusing is not obtainable with conventional crystals because of distortion resulting from anticlastic curvature. The new crystal comprises a monocrystalline base having a front face contoured for sagittally focusing photons and a back face provided with rigid, upstanding, stiffening ribs restricting anticlastic curvature. When mounted in a suitable bending device, the reflecting face of the crystal can be adjusted to focus photons having any one of a range of energies.

Ice, G.E.; Sparks, C.J. Jr.

1982-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

238

Ultra-short pulse compression using photonic crystal fibre  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ABSTRACT A short section of photonic crystal fibre has been used for ultra-short pulse compression. The unique optical prop- erties of this novel medium in ...

239

A Submarine Welded Ignimbrite-Crystal-Rich Sandstone Facies Associatio...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

interpreted to comprise deposits from syn-eruptive, crystal-rich, submarine sediment gravity flows that were generated by interaction of subaerial pyroclastic flows with...

240

Processing, Crystal Growth and Phase Equilibrium of Advanced  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effects of gravity on crystal growth • Phase diagrams ... Mechanical Behavior of Bulk Nanocrystalline Copper Alloys Produced by High Energy Ball Milling.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Oxygen Nonstoichiometry, Thermo-chemical Stability and Crystal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... gas separation membranes and oxygen sensors, oxygen nonstoichiometry and crystal ... New Electric Current Effects on 8-Y Zirconia Ceramics: Pore/Bubble ...

242

Undercooling Related Casting Defects in Single Crystal Turbine ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ger problem during the single crystal solidification of turbine blades for stationary gas turbines. Hence the intention of tem- perature measurements during the ...

243

Engineering light using large area photonic crystal devices.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Photonic crystals are fabricated structures composed of a periodic arrangement of materials with differing indices of refraction. This research has focused on the realization of… (more)

Tandon, Sheila (Sheila N.), 1978-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Phase-Field-Crystal Modeling for Crack Propagation of Ductile ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The phase-field-crystal method is a new multiscale method, ... of Microstructure-Tensile Properties Correlations in Beta-Processed Ti-5111 Alloy.

245

Determination of Atomistic Structure of Ni-Base Single Crystal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

l-2-1, Sengen, Tsukuba Science City, 305, Japan. *Department of ... The atomic locations of alloying elements in some Ni-base single crystal superalloys have ...

246

High-Throughput Approaches to Optimization of Crystal ...  

high-throughput approaches to optimization of crystal silicon surface passivation and heterojunction solar cells qi wanga, matt page, yanfa yan, and ...

247

Diffraction crystal for sagittally focusing x-rays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a new type of diffraction crystal designed for sagittally focusing photons of various energies. The invention is based on the discovery that such focusing is not obtainable with conventional crystals because of distortion resulting from anticlastic curvature. The new crystal comprises a monocrystalline base having a front face contoured for sagittally focusing photons and a back face provided with rigid, upstanding, stiffening ribs restricting anticlastic curvature. When mounted in a suitable bending device, the reflecting face of the crystal can be adjusted to focus photons having any one of a range of energies.

Ice, Gene E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sparks, Jr., Cullie J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Enhancement of the Refrigerant Capacity in Partially Crystallized Gd ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Consequently, the magnetic refrigerant capacity of the partially crystallized alloys is ... Alloy Design and Powder Processing of Mn-Al Based Materials for Rare ...

249

Crystal-melt interfacial Properties of HCP Metals by Molecular ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Crystal-melt interfacial properties were studied by molecular dynamics simulations using different MEAM and EAM interatomic potentials for Mg, ...

250

Single Crystal PWA 1472 in High Pressure Hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

SINGLE CRYSTAL PWA 1472. IN HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN. D. P. DeLUCA, R. W. HATALA. UNITED TECHNOLOGIES. PRATT & WHITNEY. P. 0.

251

Surface treatment and protection method for cadmium zinc telluride crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal that provides a native dielectric coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve the resolution of instruments incorporating detectors using CZT crystals. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, passivating the CZT crystal surface with a solution of 10 w/o NH.sub.4 F and 10 w/o H.sub.2 O.sub.2 in water.

Wright, Gomez W. (Nashville, TN); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA); Burger, Arnold (Nashville, TN); Chinn, Douglas A. (Livermore, CA)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Surface Treatment And Protection Method For Cadium Zinc Telluride Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal that provides a native dielectric coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve the resolution of instruments incorporating detectors using CZT crystals. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, passivating the CZT crystal surface with a solution of 10 w/o NH4F and 10 w/o H2O2 in water.

Wright, Gomez W. (Nashville, TN); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA); Burger, Arnold (Nashville, TN); Chinn, Douglas A. (Livermore, CA)

2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

253

Solar cell structure incorporating a novel single crystal silicon material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel hydrogen rich single crystal silicon material having a band gap energy greater than 1.1 eV can be fabricated by forming an amorphous region of graded crystallinity in a body of single crystalline silicon and thereafter contacting the region with atomic hydrogen followed by pulsed laser annealing at a sufficient power and for a sufficient duration to recrystallize the region into single crystal silicon without out-gassing the hydrogen. The new material can be used to fabricate semiconductor devices such as single crystal silicon solar cells with surface window regions having a greater band gap energy than that of single crystal silicon without hydrogen.

Pankove, Jacques I. (Princeton, NJ); Wu, Chung P. (Trenton, NJ)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Method for the preparation of photochromic insulating crystals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for preparing reversible-photochromic magnesium oxide (MgO) crystals. Single crystals of MgO doped with both lithium (Li) and nickel (Ni) are grown by a conventional arc fusion method. The as-grown crystals are characterized by an amber coloration. The crystals lose the amber coloration and become photochromic when they are thermochemically reduced by heating at temperatures greater than 1000.degree. K. in a hydrogen atmosphere. Alternate irradiation with UV and visible light result in rejuvenation and bleaching of the amber coloration, respectively.

Abraham, Marvin M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Boldu, Jose L. (Mexico City, MX); Chen, Yok (Oak Ridge, TN); Orera, Victor M. (Zaragosa, ES)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals Print Wednesday, 27 October 2010 00:00 When it comes to metal catalysts, platinum is the standard. However, at about $2,000 an ounce, the high cost of the raw material presents major challenges for the future wide-scale use of platinum in fuel cells. Berkeley Lab research suggests that one possible way to meet these challenges is to think small. Researchers from Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division have found that under high pressure-comparable to the pressures at which many industrial technologies operate-platinum surfaces can change their structure dramatically in response to the presence of high-coverage reactants. High-pressure scanning tunneling microscopes (STM) and ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at ALS Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 allowed researchers to study catalysts' structure and composition under realistic conditions.

256

Electrorheological crystallization of proteins and other molecules  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrorheological crystalline mass of a molecule is formed by dispersing the molecule in a dispersion fluid and subjecting the molecule dispersion to a uniform electrical field for a period of time during which time an electrorheological crystalline mass is formed. Molecules that may be used to form an electrorheological crystalline mass include any organic or inorganic molecule which has a permanent dipole and/or which is capable of becoming an induced dipole in the presence of an electric field. The molecules used to form the electrorheological crystalline mass are preferably macromolecules, such as biomolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipoproteins and viruses. Molecules are crystallized by a method in which an electric field is maintained for a period of time after the electrorheological crystalline mass has formed during which time at least some of the molecules making up the electrorheological crystalline mass form a crystal lattice. The three dimensional structure of a molecule is determined by a method in which an electrorheological crystalline mass of the molecule is formed, an X-ray diffraction pattern of the electrorheological crystalline mass is obtained and the three dimensional structure of the molecule is calculated from the X-ray diffraction pattern. 4 figs.

Craig, G.D.; Rupp, B.

1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

257

Levitated crystals and quasicrystals of metamaterials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New scientific and technological opportunities exist by marrying dusty plasma research with metamaterials. Specifically, by balancing control and self-assembly, certain laboratory plasmas can become a generic levitation platform for novel structure formation and nanomaterial synthesis. We propose to experimentally investigate two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) levitated structures of metamaterials and their properties. Such structures can self assemble in laboratory plasmas, similar to levitated dust crystals which were discovered in the mid 1990's. Laboratory plasma platform for metamaterial formation eliminates substrates upon which most metamaterials have to be supported. Three types of experiments, with similar setups, are discussed here. Levitated crystal structures of metamaterials using anisotropic microparticles are the most basic of the three. The second experiment examines whether quasicrystals of metamaterials are possible. Quasicrystals, discovered in the 1980's, possess so-called forbidden symmetries according to the conventional crystallography. The proposed experiment could answer many fundamental questions about structural, thermal and dynamical properties of quasicrystals. And finally, how to use nanoparticle coated microparticles to synthesize very long carbon nanotubes is also described. All of the experiments can fit inside a standard International Space Station locker with dimensions of 8-inch x 17-inch X 18-inch. Microgravity environment is deemed essential in particular for large 3D structures and very long carbon nanotube synthesis.

Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, Christopher [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goree, John A [Dept Phys and Astron., University of Iowa

2012-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

258

Electrorheological crystallization of proteins and other molecules  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrorheological crystalline mass of a molecule is formed by dispersing the molecule in a dispersion fluid and subjecting the molecule dispersion to a uniform electrical field for a period of time during which time an electrorheological crystalline mass is formed. Molecules that may be used to form an electrorheological crystalline mass include any organic or inorganic molecule which has a permanent dipole and/or which is capable of becoming an induced dipole in the presence of an electric field. The molecules used to form the electrorheological crystalline mass are preferably macromolecules, such as biomolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipoproteins and viruses. Molecules are crystallized by a method in which an electric field is maintained for a period of time after the electrorheological crystalline mass has formed during which time at least some of the molecules making up the electrorheological crystalline mass form a crystal lattice. The three dimensional structure of a molecule is determined by a method in which an electrorheological crystalline mass of the molecule is formed, an x-ray diffraction pattern of the electrorheological crystalline mass is obtained and the three dimensional structure of the molecule is calculated from the x-ray diffraction pattern.

Craig, George D. (Lafayette, CA); Rupp, Bernhard (Dublin, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Multiscale Modelling of Single Crystal Superalloys for Gas Turbine Blades  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multiscale Modelling of Single Crystal Superalloys for Gas Turbine Blades PROEFSCHRIFT ter Multiscale Modelling of Single Crystal Superalloys for Gas Turbine Blades / by Tiedo Tinga. ­ Eindhoven accumulation 120 5.5 Application 121 5.6 Summary and conclusions 128 6. Application to gas turbine parts 131 6

260

Observation of Ice Crystal Formation in Lower Arctic Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Clear sky ice crystals or diamond dust displays are observed in polar regions, both remote and populated; when the temperature falls to ?20°C and where abundant sources of water vapor are present. In remote areas of the Arctic, these ice crystals ...

Takeshi Ohtake; Kolf Jayaweera; Ken-Ichi Sakurai

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Nanofabrication of gallium nitride photonic crystal light-emitting diodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe a comparison of nanofabrication technologies for the fabrication of 2D photonic crystal structures on GaN/InGaN blue LEDs. Such devices exhibit enhanced brightness and the possibility of controlling the angular emission profile of emitted ... Keywords: GaN dry-etching, Light-emitting diodes, Nanolithography, Photonic crystals

Ali Z. Khokhar; Keith Parsons; Graham Hubbard; Faiz Rahman; Douglas S. Macintyre; Chang Xiong; David Massoubre; Zheng Gong; Nigel P. Johnson; Richard M. De La Rue; Ian M. Watson; Erdan Gu; Martin D. Dawson; Steve J. Abbott; Martin D. B. Charlton; Martin Tillin

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Cerenkov third-harmonic generation in ,,2... nonlinear photonic crystal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cerenkov third-harmonic generation in ,,2... nonlinear photonic crystal Yan Sheng,1,a Wenjie Wang,1 of Cerenkov emission of a third-harmonic frequency in a two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal, where coherent light called Cerenkov radiation.1 In this process, the mol- ecules of the medium are polarized

Arie, Ady

263

Book ReViews Crystal Growth Technology: From Fundamentals and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Book ReViews Crystal Growth Technology: From Fundamentals and Simulation to Large-Scale Production-3-527-31762-2. This book contains 19 selected reviews from the Third International Workshop on Crystal Growth Technology been used with narrower margins, thereby maintaining the same number of pages. This book would

Regel, Liya L.

264

Enhanced and Oriented Riming of Growing Ice Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Geometrically oriented riming was found in Formvar resin replicas of columnar ice crystals collected in cumulus clouds at ?6°C during an aircraft field program in Texas. Rimed cloud droplets were found either on the ends of the crystals or in a ...

William G. Finnegan; Steven K. Chai; Andrew Detwiler

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

A thermodynamic framework for the study of crystallization in polymers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we present a new thermodynamic framework within the context of continuum mechanics, to predict the behavior of crystallizing polymers. The constitutive models that are developed within this thermodynamic setting are able to describe the ... Keywords: crystallization, entropy production, material symmetry, natural configurations, semi-crystalline polymers

I. J. Rao; K. R. Rajagopal

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Crystal Lake II | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

II II Facility Crystal Lake II Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner NextEra Energy Resources Developer NextEra Energy Resources Location Hancock/Winnebago Counties IA Coordinates 43.16151°, -93.855786° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.16151,"lon":-93.855786,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

267

Crystal Lake III | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

III III Facility Crystal Lake III Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner NextEra Energy Resources Developer NextEra Energy Resources Location Hancock/Winnebago Counties IA Coordinates 43.304401°, -93.824029° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.304401,"lon":-93.824029,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

268

Electrochemical system including lamella settler crystallizer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A crystallizer which incorporates a lamella settler and which is particularly applicable for use in batteries and power cells for electric vehicles or stationary applications. The lamella settler can be utilized for coarse particle separation or for agglomeration, and is particularly applicable to aluminum-air batteries or power cells for solving the hydrargillite (aluminum-hydroxide) removal problems from such batteries. This invention provides the advantages of very low energy consumption, turbulence, shear, cost and maintenance. Thus, due to the low shear and low turbulence of this invention, it is particularly effective in the control of aluminum hydroxide particle size distribution in the various sections of an aluminum-air system, as will as in other elecrochemical systems requiring separation for phases of different densities.

Maimoni, Arturo (Orinda, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Orientational relaxation in a discotic liquid crystal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate orientational relaxation of a model discotic liquid crystal, consists of disc-like molecules, by molecular dynamics simulations along two isobars starting from the high temperature isotropic phase. The two isobars have been so chosen that (A) the phase sequence isotropic (I)-nematic (N)-columnar (C) appears upon cooling along one of them and (B) the sequence isotropic (I)-columnar (C) along the other. While the orientational relaxation in the isotropic phase near the I-N phase transition in system (A) shows a power law decay at short to intermediate times, such power law relaxation is not observed in the isotropic phase near the I-C phase boundary in system (B). In order to understand this difference (the existence or the absence of the power law decay), we calculated the the growth of the orientational pair distribution functions (OPDF) near the I-N phase boundary and also near the I-C phase boundary. We find that OPDF shows a marked growth in long range correlation as the I-N phase boundary is approached in the I-N-C system (A), but such a growth is absent in the I-C system, which appears to be consistent with the result that I-N phase transition in the former is weakly first order while the the I-C phase transition in the later is not weak. As the system settles into the nematic phase, the decay of the single-particle second-rank orientational OTCF follows a pattern that is similar to what is observed with calamitic liquid crystals and supercooled molecular liquids.

Dwaipayan Chakrabarti; Biman Jana; Biman Bagchi

2007-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

270

EMPIRICAL MODEL FOR FORMULATION OF CRYSTAL-TOLERANT HLW GLASSES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Historically, high-level waste (HLW) glasses have been formulated with a low liquideus temperature (T{sub L}), or temperature at which the equilibrium fraction of spinel crystals in the melt is below 1 vol % (T{sub 0.01}), nominally below 1050 C. These constraints cannot prevent the accumulation of large spinel crystals in considerably cooler regions ({approx} 850 C) of the glass discharge riser during melter idling and significantly limit the waste loading, which is reflected in a high volume of waste glass, and would result in high capital, production, and disposal costs. A developed empirical model predicts crystal accumulation in the riser of the melter as a function of concentration of spinel-forming components in glass, and thereby provides guidance in formulating crystal-tolerant glasses that would allow high waste loadings by keeping the spinel crystals small and therefore suspended in the glass.

KRUGER AA; MATYAS J; HUCKLEBERRY AR; VIENNA JD; RODRIGUEZ CA

2012-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

271

Growth of Cr- and Co-doped CdSe crystals from high-temperature selenium solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transition metals in the group II-VI semiconductors have attracted considerable attention for their application as tunable mid-infrared (IR) lasers at room temperature. Very recently, Co-doped II-VI hosts have been considered as saturable absorber materials. ... Keywords: Beer-Lambert law, II-VI semiconductor, electrical resistivity, glow discharge mass spectrometric (GDMS), mid-infrared solid-state laser, optical transmission

O. O. Adetunji; N. Roy; Y. Cui; G. Wright; J.-O. Ndap; A. Burger

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Crystal-Tolerant Glass Approach For Mitigation Of Crystal Accumulation In Continuous Melters Processing Radioactive Waste  

SciTech Connect

High-level radioactive waste melters are projected to operate in an inefficient manner as they are subjected to artificial constraints, such as minimum liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) or maximum equilibrium fraction of crystallinity at a given temperature. These constraints substantially limit waste loading, but were imposed to prevent clogging of the melter with spinel crystals [(Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn)(Fe, Cr){sub 2}O{sub 4}]. In the melter, the glass discharge riser is the most likely location for crystal accumulation during idling because of low glass temperatures, stagnant melts, and small diameter. To address this problem, a series of lab-scale crucible tests were performed with specially formulated glasses to simulate accumulation of spinel in the riser. Thicknesses of accumulated layers were incorporated into empirical model of spinel settling. In addition, T{sub L} of glasses was measured and impact of particle agglomeration on accumulation rate was evaluated. Empirical model predicted well the accumulation of single crystals and/or smallscale agglomerates, but, excessive agglomeration observed in high-Ni-Fe glass resulted in an under-prediction of accumulated layers, which gradually worsen over time as an increased number of agglomerates formed. Accumulation rate of ~14.9 +- 1 nm/s determined for this glass will result in ~26 mm thick layer in 20 days of melter idling.

Kruger, Albert A. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Rodriguez, Carmen P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lang, Jesse B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huckleberry, Adam R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Matyas, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Owen, Antoinette T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

273

Spatial Distribution of -Crystals in Metallocene-Made Isotactic Polypropylene Crystallized under Combined Thermal and Flow Fields  

SciTech Connect

The present Article reports the relationships between molecular orientation, formation, and spatial distribution of {gamma}-crystals in metallocene-made isotactic polypropylene (m-iPP) samples prepared by two industrial processes: conventional injection molding (CIM) and oscillatory shear injection molding (OSIM), in which combined thermal and flow fields typically exist. In particular, spatial distributions of crystallinity, fraction of {gamma}-crystal (f{gamma}) with respect to {alpha}-crystal, and lamella-branched shish-kebab structure in the shaped samples were characterized by synchrotron two-dimensional (2D) wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. The results showed that the crystallinity in any given region of OSIM samples was always higher than that of CIM samples. The value of f{gamma} increased monotonously from skin to core in CIM samples, whereas the corresponding f{gamma} increased nonmonotonically in OSIM samples. The spatial distribution of {gamma}-crystal in OSIM samples can be explained by the epitaxial arrangement between {gamma}- and {alpha}-crystal in a lamella-branched shish-kebab structure. In the proposed model, the parent lamellae of {alpha}-crystal provide secondary nucleation sites for daughter lamellae of {alpha}-crystal and {gamma}-crystal, and the different content of parent lamellae results in varying amounts of {gamma}-crystal. In OSIM samples, the smallest parent-daughter ratio ([R] = 1.38) in the core region led to the lowest fraction of {gamma}-crystal (0.57), but relatively higher {gamma}-crystal content (0.69) at 600 and 1200 {micro}m depth of the samples (corresponding to [R] of 4.5 and 5.8, respectively). This is consistent with the proposed model where more parent lamellae provide more nucleation sites for crystallization, thus resulting in higher content of {gamma}-crystal. The melting behavior of CIM and OSIM samples was studied by differential scanning calorimetery (DSC). The observed double-melting peaks could be explained by the melting of {gamma}- and {alpha}-crystal of the shaped samples. The f{gamma} distribution calculated from the relative areas of the peaks in the DSC scans was also consistent with the WAXD results.

Wang, Y.; Pan, J; Mao, Y; Li, Z; Li, L; Hsiao, B

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Practical Guide to Vegetable Oil ProcessingChapter 9 Fat Crystallization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Practical Guide to Vegetable Oil Processing Chapter 9 Fat Crystallization Processing eChapters Processing Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 9 Fat Crystallization from the book ...

275

Single crystal Processing and magnetic properties of gadolinium nickel  

SciTech Connect

GdNi is a rare earth intermetallic material that exhibits very interesting magnetic properties. Spontaneous magnetostriction occurs in GdNi at T{sub C}, on the order of 8000ppm strain along the c-axis and only until very recently the mechanism causing this giant magnetostriction was not understood. In order to learn more about the electronic and magnetic structure of GdNi, single crystals are required for anisotropic magnetic property measurements. Single crystal processing is quite challenging for GdNi though since the rare-earth transition-metal composition yields a very reactive intermetallic compound. Many crystal growth methods are pursued in this study including crucible free methods, precipitation growths, and specially developed Bridgman crucibles. A plasma-sprayed Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} W-backed Bridgman crucible was found to be the best means of GdNi single crystal processing. With a source of high-quality single crystals, many magnetization measurements were collected to reveal the magnetic structure of GdNi. Heat capacity and the magnetocaloric effect are also measured on a single crystal sample. The result is a thorough report on high quality single crystal processing and the magnetic properties of GdNi.

Shreve, Andrew John [Ames Laboratory

2012-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

276

X-ray Diffraction Crystal Calibration and Characterization  

SciTech Connect

National Security Technologies’ X-ray Laboratory is comprised of a multi-anode Manson type source and a Henke type source that incorporates a dual goniometer and XYZ translation stage. The first goniometer is used to isolate a particular spectral band. The Manson operates up to 10 kV and the Henke up to 20 kV. The Henke rotation stages and translation stages are automated. Procedures have been developed to characterize and calibrate various NIF diagnostics and their components. The diagnostics include X-ray cameras, gated imagers, streak cameras, and other X-ray imaging systems. Components that have been analyzed include filters, filter arrays, grazing incidence mirrors, and various crystals, both flat and curved. Recent efforts on the Henke system are aimed at characterizing and calibrating imaging crystals and curved crystals used as the major component of an X-ray spectrometer. The presentation will concentrate on these results. The work has been done at energies ranging from 3 keV to 16 keV. The major goal was to evaluate the performance quality of the crystal for its intended application. For the imaging crystals we measured the laser beam reflection offset from the X-ray beam and the reflectivity curves. For the curved spectrometer crystal, which was a natural crystal, resolving power was critical. It was first necessary to find sources of crystals that had sufficiently narrow reflectivity curves. It was then necessary to determine which crystals retained their resolving power after being thinned and glued to a curved substrate.

Michael J. Haugh; Richard Stewart; Nathan Kugland

2009-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

277

Optical-diffraction method for determining crystal orientation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is an optical diffraction technique for characterizing the three-dimensional orientation of a crystal sample. An arbitrary surface of the crystal sample is texture etched so as to generate a pseudo-periodic diffraction grating on the surface. A laser light beam is then directed onto the etched surface, and the reflected light forms a farfield diffraction pattern in reflection. Parameters of the diffraction pattern, such as the geometry and angular dispersion of the diffracted beam are then related to grating shape of the etched surface which is in turn related to crystal orientation. This technique may be used for examining polycrystalline silicon for use in solar cells.

Sopori, B.L.

1982-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

278

Organic nonlinear crystals and high power frequency conversion  

SciTech Connect

We are searching for a new second- and third-harmonic generators among the salts of chiral organic acids and bases. We discuss the relevant properties of crystals from this group of compounds, including their nonlinear and phasematching characteristics, linear absorption, damage threshold and crystal growth. In addition, we summarize what is known concerning other nonlinear optical properties of these crystals, such as two-photon absorption, nonlinear refractive index, and stimulated Raman thresholds. A preliminary assessment is made of the potential of these materials for use in future high power, large aperture lasers such as those used for inertial confinement fusion experiments. 14 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Velsko, S.P.; Davis, L.; Wang, F.; Monaco, S.; Eimerl, D.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Versatile collimating crystal stage for Bonse-Hart USAXS instrument.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An advanced ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) instrument, using the Bonse-Hart design and installed at APS, is a robust and reliable instrument, providing a scattering vector (q) range of nearly 4 decades (0.00015 to 1 {angstrom}{sup -1}), an intensity dynamic range of up to 9 decades, standard-less absolute intensity calibration, and USAXS imaging capabilities. This type of instrument typically uses channel-cut crystals in both the collimating (before sample) and analyzing (after sample) stages. The optical surfaces of these crystals are finished by etching processes, which leave an orange-peel surface texture, which would compromise the USAXS imaging quality. Therefore optics with highly polished surfaces using separated crystals in both collimating and analyzing stages were developed. A novel design of the optics and mechanical stage uses a fixed gap between the two separated collimating crystals in which a triangular section of the first crystal is removed, allowing for a variable number (1, 2, 4, 6, or 8) of crystal reflections for X-ray energies between 7 and 19 keV. The number of reflections is selected by lateral translation of the collimating crystal pair. Rotational alignment of the second crystal in the pair by an artificial channel-cut crystal mechanism, implemented with a novel high-stiffness weak link actuated by both a picomotor and a piezo-electric transducer, provides the capability to align or adjust an assembly of crystals to achieve the same performance as a single channel-cut crystal with integral weak link. The arrangement of both crystals is held on a removable base that can be remounted with precision within the Si(111) rocking curve on a three-point kinematic mount. Additional tilt adjustments are also provided for initial alignment. This monochromator has proven to be highly robust with respect to motions and vibrations, as well as flexible with respect to selection of number of reflections, and its performance directly resulted in the highly reliable performance of the whole USAXS instrument.

Ilavsky, J.; Shu, D.; Jemian, P. R.; Long, G. G.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Impurity Gettering Effect of Te Inclusions in Cdznte Single Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The local impurity distribution in Te inclusions of CdZnTe (CZT) crystal was investigated by the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (Tof-SIMS) technique. Direct evidence of impurity gettering in Te inclusions has been observed for the first time. The impurity gettering in Te inclusions originated from the diffusion mechanism during crystal growth and segregation mechanism during crystal cooling. This phenomenon is meaningful, because it reveals how Te inclusions affect CZT properties and provides a possible approach to reduce the impurities in CZT by the way of removing Te inclusions.

Yang, G.; Bolotnikov, A; Cui, Y; Camarda, G; Hossain, A; James, R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Resonance electronic Raman scattering in rare earth crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The intensities of Raman scattering transitions between electronic energy levels of trivalent rare earth ions doped into transparent crystals were measured and compared to theory. A particle emphasis was placed on the examination of the effect of intermediate state resonances on the Raman scattering intensities. Two specific systems were studied: Ce/sup 3 +/(4f/sup 1/) in single crystals of LuPO/sub 4/ and Er/sup 3 +/(4f/sup 11/) in single crystals of ErPO/sub 4/. 134 refs., 92 figs., 33 tabs.

Williams, G.M.

1988-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

282

Crystallization of sodium nitrate from radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

From the 1940s to the 1980s, the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IPC/RAS) conducted research and development on processes to separate acetate and nitrate salts and acetic acid from radioactive wastes by crystallization. The research objective was to decrease waste volumes and produce the separated decontaminated materials for recycle. This report presents an account of the IPC/RAS experience in this field. Details on operating conditions, waste and product compositions, decontamination factors, and process equipment are described. The research and development was generally related to the management of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The waste solutions resulted from recovery and processing of uranium, plutonium, and other products from irradiated nuclear fuel, neutralization of nuclear process solutions after extractant recovery, regeneration of process nitric acid, equipment decontamination, and other radiochemical processes. Waste components include nitric acid, metal nitrate and acetate salts, organic impurities, and surfactants. Waste management operations generally consist of two stages: volume reduction and processing of the concentrates for storage, solidification, and disposal. Filtration, coprecipitation, coagulation, evaporation, and sorption were used to reduce waste volume. 28 figs., 40 tabs.

Krapukhin, V.B.; Krasavina, E.P. Pikaev, A.K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Physical Chemistry

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

The crystal structure of {pi}-ErBO{sub 3}: New single-crystal data for an old problem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single crystals of the orthoborate {pi}-ErBO{sub 3} were synthesized from Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} and B{sub 2}O{sub 3} under high-pressure/high-temperature conditions of 2 GPa and 800 {sup o}C in a Walker-type multianvil apparatus. The crystal structure was determined on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data, collected at room temperature. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic pseudowollastonite-type structure, space group C2/c, with the lattice parameters a=1128.4(2) pm, b=652.6(2) pm, c=954.0(2) pm, and {beta}=112.8(1){sup o} (R{sub 1}=0.0124 and wR{sub 2}=0.0404 for all data). -- graphical abstract: The first satisfying single-crystal structure determination of {pi}-ErBO{sub 3} sheds light on the extensively discussed structure of {pi}-orthoborates. The application of light pressure during the solid state synthesis yielded in high-quality crystals, due to pressure-induced crystallization. Research highlights: {yields} High-quality single crystals of {pi}-ErBO{sub 3} were prepared via high-pressure-induced crystallization. {yields} At least five different space groups for the rare-earth {pi}-orthoborates are reported. {yields} {pi}-ErBO{sub 3} is isotypic to the pseudowollastonite-type CaSiO{sub 3}. {yields} Remaining ambiguities regarding the structure of the rare-earth {pi}-orthoborates are resolved.

Pitscheider, Almut [Institut fuer Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Kaindl, Reinhard [Institut fuer Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Oeckler, Oliver [Department Chemie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Butenandtstrasse 5-13, D-81377 Muenchen (Germany); Huppertz, Hubert, E-mail: Hubert.Huppertz@uibk.ac.a [Institut fuer Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie, Leopold-Franzens-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

Crystal Defects in CdZnTe Crystals Grown by the Modified Low-Pressure Bridgman Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) is among the most promising materials for room-temperature X- and gamma-ray detectors. However, crystal defects such as Te inclusions and subgrain boundaries significantly hamper their performances. In this work, we evaluated CZT crystals grown by the modified low-pressure Bridgman technique at the IMEM Institute, Parma. We characterized the crystals by IR microscopy to identify the sizes and concentrations of the Te inclusions, along with high spatial resolution X-ray response mapping to measure the uniformity of their charge-transport properties. In addition, we employed white X-ray beam diffraction topography to analyze their crystalline structure.

Bolotnikov A.; Marchini, L.; Zappettini, M.; Zha, M.; Zambelli, N.; Camarda, G.S.; James, R.B.

2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

285

Crystallization process development and spherical agglomerates for pharmaceutical processing applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The control of crystallization steps is essential in the production of many materials in the pharmaceutical, materials, and chemical industries. Additionally, due to increasing costs of research and development, reductions ...

Quon, Justin (Justin Louis)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Mathematical Description of the Shape of Plane Hexagonal Snow Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simple mathematical expressions are presented for describing the shapes of some plane hexagonal snow crystals. These expressions provide convenient means for cloud physical calculations and can also serve as a method for quantitative ...

P. K. Wang; S. M. Denzer

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Crystal Structures Lift Fog New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding Print Wednesday, 25 July 2012 00:00 Nature's proteins set a high bar for nanotechnology. Macromolecules forged from peptide chains of amino acids, these biomolecular nanomachines must first be folded into a dazzling variety of shapes and forms before they can perform the multitude of functions fundamental to life. However, the mechanisms behind the protein-folding process have remained a foggy mystery. Now the fog is lifting: a team of researchers from Berkeley Lab, Stanford University, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has deciphered the crystal structure of a critical control element within chaperonin, the protein complex responsible for the correct folding of other proteins.

288

A Crystal-Clear Solution | Y-12 National Security Complex  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Crystal-Clear Solution A Crystal-Clear Solution A Crystal-Clear Solution Posted: July 22, 2013 - 3:27pm | Y-12 Report | Volume 10, Issue 1 | 2013 When he's not analyzing uranium, Ashley Stowe is finding new ways to detect it. His project to grow lithium semiconductor crystals suitable for radiation detection is the first step in solving a global shortage of helium-3, the most common element used in current detectors. In 2008, the U.S. government announced a critical shortage of helium-3, a material decidedly more important to national security than the helium-4 used to inflate party balloons. The helium-3 isotope is the most common element used in the radiation detectors that monitor U.S. ports and borders for the possible trafficking of nuclear materials. Because the world's helium-3 supply is diminishing and demand is

289

Molecular simulation of crystal growth in alkane and polyethylene melts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molecular simulation has become a very powerful tool for understanding the process of polymer crystallization. By using carefully constructed simulations, one can independently observe the two phenomena responsible for ...

Waheed, Numan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

The Origin and Concentration of Ice Crystals in Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ice crystals in supercooled clouds may form upon ice nuclei, or they may arise through secondary processes. Two of these secondary ice “multiplication” mechanisms are discussed in some detail: the rime-splintering process and the mechanical ...

S. C. Mossop

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Design of photonic crystals with multiple and combined band gaps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present and use an algorithm based on convex conic optimization to design two-dimensional photonic crystals with large absolute band gaps. Among several illustrations we show that it is possible to design photonic ...

Men, H.

292

The Replication of Ice Crystals Using Formvar: Techniques and Precautions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A number of precautions which should be taken during the replication of ice crystals using a Formvar solution have been identified. Several different forms of inaccurate and poor quality replicas are illustrated. Their causes have been isolated ...

D. J. Griggs; E. R. Jayaratne

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Prediction and Design of Materials from Crystal Structures to ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Prediction and Design of Materials from Crystal Structures to ... of structure formation by computation may accelerate materials discovery and design. ... to cubic when increasing the ligand concentration during synthesis.

294

The mystery of ice crystal multiplication in a laboratory experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper addresses the problem of the large discrepancies between ice crystal concentrations in clouds and the number of ice nuclei in nearby clear air reported in published papers. Such discrepancies cannot always be explained, even by taking ...

Gianni Santachiara; Franco Belosi; Franco Prodi

295

Defect modes in one-dimensional granular crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the vibrational spectra of one-dimensional statically compressed granular crystals (arrays of elastic particles in contact) containing light-mass defects. We focus on the prototypical settings of one or two spherical ...

Boechler, Nicholas Sebastian

296

NETL: Gasification Systems - Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber Sensor Instrumentation Virginia Polytechnic Institute Project No.: DE-FC26-99FT40685 Phase I - The Photonics Laboratory at Virginia Tech has...

297

Aircraft Observations of Ice Crystal Evolution in an Altostratus Cloud  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations from a Lagrangian spiral descent within altostratus cloud associated with a cold front were used to study the evolution of ice particle spectra by following populations of ice crystals as they fell through the cloud. The flight track ...

Paul R. Field

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Relative Dispersion of Ice Crystals in Seeded Cumuli  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Relative dispersion of ice crystals was measured in 30 seeded cumulus clouds. A quasi-instantaneous, vertical area source of ice was generated by releasing dry-ice pellets from an airplane. The ice concentration distribution and relative ...

Jeffrey C. Weil; R. Paul Lawson; Alfred R. Rodi

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Optomechanical and photothermal interactions in suspended photonic crystal membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present here an optomechanical system fabricated with novel stress management techniques that allow us to suspend an ultrathin defect-free silicon photonic-crystal membrane above a Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) substrate ...

Woolf, David

300

Innovations on a Quartz Crystal Micronbalance Frost-Point Hygrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors describe a hygrometer based on a quartz crystal (QC) microbalance. The hygrometer is based on frost accumulation rather than adsorption. Previous designs are improved in two ways. First, a radial flow geometry makes it possible to ...

M. Kaluzhny; D. M. Murphy

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - Metallic Glass: A Crystal...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Metallic Glass: A Crystal at Heart June 16, 2011 Menlo Park, Calif.-Glass, by definition, is amorphous; its atoms lack order and are arranged every which way. But when scientists...

302

Hydrogen concentration and distribution in high-purity germanium crystals  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High-purity germanium crystals used for making nuclear radiation detectors are usually grown in a hydrogen ambient from a melt contained in a high-purity silica crucible. The benefits and problems encountered in using a hydrogen ambient are reviewed. A hydrogen concentration of about 2 x 10/sup 15/cm/sup -3/ has been determined by growing crystals in hydrogen spiked with tritium and counting the tritium ..beta..-decays in detectors made from these crystals. Annealing studies show that the hydrogen is strongly bound, either to defects or as H/sub 2/ with a dissociation energy > 3 eV. This is lowered to 1.8 eV when copper is present. Etching defects in dislocation-free crystals grown in hydrogen have been found by etch stripping to have a density of about 1 x 10/sup 7/ cm/sup -3/ and are estimated to contain 10/sup 8/ H atoms each.

Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.; Luke, P.N.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

A Single Crystal Niobium RF Cavity of the TESLA Shape  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A fabrication method for single crystal niobium cavities of the TESLA shape was proposed on the basis of metallographic investigations and electron beam welding tests on niobium single crystals. These tests showed that a cavity can be produced without grain boundaries even in the welding area. An appropriate annealing allows the outgassing of hydrogen and stress relaxation of the material without destruction of the single crystal. A prototype single crystal single cell cavity was built. An accelerating gradient of 37.5 MV/m was reached after approximately 110 mu-m of Buffered Chanical Polishing (BCP) and in situ baking at 120°C for 6 hrs with a quality factor exceeding 2x1010 at 1.8 K. The developed fabrication method can be extended to fabrication of multi cell cavities.

W. Singer; X. Singer; P. Kneisel

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Summer student Crystal Green awarded $5,000 scholarship from...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Programs (NEUP), which she will use to cover school expenses. Photo by Jamie DouglasLLNL Summer student Crystal Green awarded 5,000 scholarship from DOE Jamie L Douglas, LLNL,...

305

Photorefractive Properties of Stoichiometric Lithium Niobate Single Crystals  

SciTech Connect

The specific features of photorefractive light scattering in nominally pure stoichiometric (Li/Nb = 1) sin- gle crystals grown from a melt with 58.6 mol % Li{sub 2}O (LiNbO{sub 3}st) and in the stoichiometric single crystals grown from a melt of congruent composition in the presence of K{sub 2}O flux (LiNbO{sub 3}stK{sub 2}O) have been investi- gated. At an excitation power of 30 mW, LiNbO{sub 3}stK{sub 2}O single crystals are found to exhibit a stronger photo- refractive effect than LiNbO{sub 3}st single crystals.

Sidorov, N. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Rare Earth Elements and Mineral Raw Materials, Kola Scientific Center (Russian Federation); Antonycheva, E. A.; Syui, A. V. [Far Eastern State Transport University (Russian Federation); Palatnikov, M. N., E-mail: palat_mn@chemy.kolasc.net.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Rare Earth Elements and Mineral Raw Materials, Kola Scientific Center (Russian Federation)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

A microprocessor driven liquid crystal graphics display for aircraft use  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A complete graphics system for use in modular avionics is built around a liquid crystal flat panel display. Screen refresh is handled by display controller that provides a bit mapped representation of the display in RAM. ...

Marzke, Lee Howard

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Superconducting Photonic Crystal with Nanostrips for Mid-Infrared Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One dimensional photonic crystal with superconducting nanostrips and semiconductor materials can be tailored to have narrow bands, with either large transmission or large reflection. Based on the reflection and transmission coefficients, we study the temporal dynamics of the reflected and transmitted pulses from the finite photonic crystal. The output pulse dynamics show slow light effect around the narrow bands that can be useful for photonic technologies.

Ooi, C. H. Raymond [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

308

Correlation functions in liquids and crystals : Free energy functional and liquid - crystal transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A free energy functional for a crystal that contains both the symmetry conserved and symmetry broken parts of the direct pair correlation function has been used to investigate the crystallization of fluids in three-dimensions. The symmetry broken part of the direct pair correlation function has been calculated using a series in ascending powers of the order parameters and which contains three- and higher-bodies direct correlation functions of the isotropic phase. It is shown that a very accurate description of freezing transitions for a wide class of potentials is found by considering the first two terms of this series. The results found for freezing parameters including structure of the frozen phase for fluids interacting via the inverse power potential u(r) = \\epsilon (\\sigma/r)^{n} for n ranging from 4 to \\infty are in very good agreement with simulation results. It is found that for n > 6.5 the fluid freezes into a face centred cubic (fcc) structure while for n \\leq 6 the body centred cubic (bcc) structure is preferred. The fluid-bcc-fcc triple point is found to be at 1/n = 0.158 which is in good agreement with simulation result.

Atul S. Bharadwaj; Swarn L. Singh; Yashwant Singh

2013-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

309

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of LipidsChapter 15 Application of Crystallization Technique for the Lipase-Catalyzed Solid-PhaseSynthesis of Sugar Fatty Acid Monoesters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of Lipids Chapter 15 Application of Crystallization Technique for the Lipase-Catalyzed Solid-PhaseSynthesis of Sugar Fatty Acid Monoesters Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nut

310

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of LipidsChapter 5 Triacylglyceride Crystallization in Vegetable Oils: Application of Models,Measurements, and Limitations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of Lipids Chapter 5 Triacylglyceride Crystallization in Vegetable Oils: Application of Models,Measurements, and Limitations Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Bioche

311

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of LipidsChapter 14 Development and Use of a Novel Technique to Measure Exchange Between Lipid Crystals and Oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of Lipids Chapter 14 Development and Use of a Novel Technique to Measure Exchange Between Lipid Crystals and Oils Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry AO

312

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of LipidsChapter 16 Relating Bulk-Fat Properties to Emulsified Systems: Characterizationof Emulsion Destabilization by Crystallizing Fats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of Lipids Chapter 16 Relating Bulk-Fat Properties to Emulsified Systems: Characterizationof Emulsion Destabilization by Crystallizing Fats Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nut

313

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of LipidsChapter 7 Effect of Sucrose Polyesters & Sucrose PolyesterBLecithinson Crystallization Rate of Vegetable Ghee  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of Lipids Chapter 7 Effect of Sucrose Polyesters & Sucrose PolyesterBLecithinson Crystallization Rate of Vegetable Ghee Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemist

314

Formation of Ice Crystals and Dissipation of Supercooled Fog by Artificial Nucleation, and Variations of Crystal Habit at Early Growth Stages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The early stages of ice crystal formation in supercooled fogs were studied in detail by electron microscopy, and ice nucleation experiments using liquid propane seeding were conducted in a thermostatically controlled coldroom. Ice crystals, ...

Motoi Kumai

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Pseudo-isothermal ice-crystallization kinetics in the gas-diffusion layer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pseudo-isothermal ice-crystallization kinetics in the gas-diffusion layer Pseudo-isothermal ice-crystallization kinetics in the gas-diffusion layer of a fuel cell from differential scanning calorimetry Title Pseudo-isothermal ice-crystallization kinetics in the gas-diffusion layer of a fuel cell from differential scanning calorimetry Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Dursch, Thomas J., Monica A. Ciontea, Gregory J. Trigub, Clayton J. Radke, and Adam Z. Weber Journal International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer Volume 60 Pagination 450 - 458 Date Published 5/2013 ISSN 00179310 Keywords crystallization, differential scanning calorimetry, gas-diffusion layer, Heat Transfer, kinetics, melt, nonisothermal crystallization, nucleation, polyesters, polymer crystallization, solidification Abstract Non-isothermal ice-crystallization kinetics in the fibrous gas-diffusion layer (GDL) of a proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell is investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Non-isothermal ice-crystallization rates and ice-crystallization temperatures are obtained from heat-flow measurements in a water-saturated commercial GDL at cooling rates of 2.5, 5, 10, and 25 K/min. Our previously developed isothermal ice-crystallization rate expression is extended to non-isothermal crystallization to predict ice-crystallization kinetics in a GDL at various cooling rates. Agreement between DSC experimental results and theory is good. Both show that as the cooling rate increases, ice-crystallization rates increase and crystallization temperatures decrease monotonically. Importantly, we find that the cooling rate during crystallization has a negligible effect on the crystallization rate when crystallization times are much faster than the time to decrease the sample temperature by the subcooling. Based on this finding, we propose a pseudo-isothermal method for obtaining non-isothermal crystallization kinetics using isothermal crystallization kinetics evaluated at the non-isothermal crystallization temperature.

316

Development of Crystal-Tolerant High-Level Waste Glasses  

SciTech Connect

Twenty five glasses were formulated. They were batched from HLW AZ-101 simulant or raw chemicals and melted and tested with a series of tests to elucidate the effect of spinel-forming components (Ni, Fe, Cr, Mn, and Zn), Al, and noble metals (Rh2O3 and RuO2) on the accumulation rate of spinel crystals in the glass discharge riser of the high-level waste (HLW) melter. In addition, the processing properties of glasses, such as the viscosity and TL, were measured as a function of temperature and composition. Furthermore, the settling of spinel crystals in transparent low-viscosity fluids was studied at room temperature to access the shape factor and hindered settling coefficient of spinel crystals in the Stokes equation. The experimental results suggest that Ni is the most troublesome component of all the studied spinel-forming components producing settling layers of up to 10.5 mm in just 20 days in Ni-rich glasses if noble metals or a higher concentration of Fe was not introduced in the glass. The layer of this thickness can potentially plug the bottom of the riser, preventing glass from being discharged from the melter. The noble metals, Fe, and Al were the components that significantly slowed down or stopped the accumulation of spinel at the bottom. Particles of Rh2O3 and RuO2, hematite and nepheline, acted as nucleation sites significantly increasing the number of crystals and therefore decreasing the average crystal size. The settling rate of ?10-?m crystal size around the settling velocity of crystals was too low to produce thick layers. The experimental data for the thickness of settled layers in the glasses prepared from AZ-101 simulant were used to build a linear empirical model that can predict crystal accumulation in the riser of the melter as a function of concentration of spinel-forming components in glass. The developed model predicts the thicknesses of accumulated layers quite well, R2 = 0.985, and can be become an efficient tool for the formulation of the crystal-tolerant HLW glasses for higher waste loading. A physical modeling effort revealed that the Stokes and Richardson-Zaki equations can be used to adequately predict the accumulation rate of spinel crystals of different sizes and concentrations in the glass discharge riser of HLW melters. The determined shape factor for the glass beads was only 0.73% lower than the theoretical shape factor for a perfect sphere. The shape factor for the spinel crystals matched the theoretically predicted value to within 10% and was smaller than that of the beads, given the larger drag force caused by the larger surface area-to-volume ratio of the octahedral crystals. In the hindered settling experiments, both the glass bead and spinel suspensions were found to follow the predictions of the Richardson-Zaki equation with the exponent n = 3.6 and 2.9 for glass beads and spinel crystals, respectively.

Matyas, Josef; Vienna, John D.; Schaible, Micah J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Arrigoni, Alyssa L.; Tate, Rachel M.

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

317

Origin of platy calcite crystals in hot-spring deposits in the Kenya Rift Valley  

SciTech Connect

Platy calcite crystals, which have their c axis parallel to their shortest length axis, are common components of travertine deposits found around some hot springs in the Kenya Rift Valley. They are composite crystals formed of numerous paper-thin subcrystals. Individual plates allowed to grow without obstruction develop a hexagonal motif. The Kenyan crystals typically form in hot (>75 C) waters that have a low Ca content (<10 mg/l), a high CO{sub 2} content, and a high rate of CO{sub 2} degassing. At Chemurkeu, aggregates of numerous small platy crystals collectively form lattice crystals that superficially resemble ray crystals. The walls of the lattice crystals are formed of large platy crystals that have their long and intermediate length axes aligned parallel to the plane of the long axis of the lattice crystal. Internally, the lattice crystals are formed of small platy calcite crystals arranged in a boxlike pattern that creates the appearance of a lattice when viewed in thin section. Lattice crystals are highly porous, with each pore being enclosed by platy crystals. At Lorusio, travertines are mainly formed of pseudodentrites that are constructed by numerous small platy crystals attached to a main stem which is a large platy crystal that commonly curves along its long axis. The pseudodentrites are the main construction blocks in ledges and lilypads that form in the vent pool and spring outflow channels, where the water is too hot for microbes other than hyperthermophiles. The platy calcite crystals in the Kenyan travertines are morphologically similar to platy calcite crystals that form as scale in pipes in the geothermal fields of New Zealand and hydrothermal angel wing calcite from the La Fe mine in Mexico. Comparison of the Kenyan and New Zealand crystals indicates that platy calcite crystals form from waters with a low Ca{sup 2+} content and a high CO{sub 3}/Ca ratio due to rapid rates of CO{sub 2} degassing.

Jones, B. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Renault, R.W. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

MCNP Analysis and Optimization of a Triple Crystal Phoswich Detector  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at the University of Missouri-Columbia have designed a triple crystal phoswich detector that allows for simultaneous detection of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. A ZnS:Ag layer detects alpha particles, a CaF2:Eu scintillator preferentially interacts with beta particles, and a NaI:Tl cell is used for gamma detection. The detector output is digitally collected, processed, and analyzed by a personal computer using custom software. MCNP simulations of this detector found that the phoswich design has inherent minimum energy limits of 250 keV Emax for beta particles and 50 keV for gamma-rays. For a 2.54 cm thick NaI:Tl crystal, intrinsic gamma efficiency for photons ranges from a maximum of 80% at 100 keV to 26% for 2 MeV photons. Mischaracterized gamma events in the CaF2:Eu crystal above 175 keV can be corrected by subtracting 26 +/- 4% of the total number of counts in the NaI:Tl crystal from the CaF2:Eu response. Beta induced events in the NaI:Tl crystal primarily result from Bremsstrahlung interactions and can be estimated by multiplying the CaF2:Eu energy spectrum by a normalizing factor.

William H. Miller; Nathan L. Childress

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Effective models for nematic liquid crystals composites with ferromagnetic inclusions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molecules of a nematic liquid crystal respond to an applied magnetic field by reorienting themselves in the direction of the field. Since the dielectric anisotropy of a nematic is small, it takes relatively large fields to elicit a significant liquid crystal response. The interaction may be enhanced in colloidal suspensions of ferromagnetic particles in a liquid crystalline matrix---ferronematics--- as proposed by Brochard and de Gennes in 1970. The ability of these particles to align with the field and, simultaneously, cause reorientation of the nematic molecules, greatly increases the magnetic response of the mixture. Essentially the particles provide an easy axis of magnetization that interacts with the liquid crystal via surface anchoring. We derive an expression for the effective energy of ferronematic in the dilute limit, that is, when the number of particles tends to infinity while their total volume fraction tends to zero. The total energy of the mixture is assumed to be the sum of the bulk elastic liquid crystal contribution, the anchoring energy of the liquid crystal on the surfaces of the particles, and the magnetic energy of interaction between the particles and the applied magnetic field. The homogenized limiting ferronematic energy is obtained rigorously using a variational approach. It generalizes formal expressions previously reported in a physical literature.

M. Carme Calderer; Antonio DeSimone; Dmitry Golovaty; Alexander Panchenko

2013-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

320

Magnetic charge crystals imaged in artificial spin ice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Magnetic charge crystals imaged in artificial spin ice Magnetic charge crystals imaged in artificial spin ice Magnetic charge crystals imaged in artificial spin ice Potential data storage and computational advances could follow August 27, 2013 Potential data storage and computational advances could follow A 3-D depiction of the honeycomb artificial spin ice topography after the annealing and cooling protocols. The light and dark colors represent the north and south magnetic poles of the islands. Image by Ian Gilbert, U. of I. Department of Physics and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory Contact Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471 Email Siv Schwink U. Illinois (217) 300-2201 Email "The emergence of magnetic monopoles in spin ice systems is a particular case of what physicists call fractionalization, or deconfinement of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Shallow Melt Apparatus for Semicontinuous Czochralski Crystal Growth  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt crucible (20) to eliminate the necessity supplying a large quantity of feed stock materials that had to be preloaded in a deep crucible to grow a large ingot, comprising a gas tight container a crucible with a deepened periphery (25) to prevent snapping of a shallow melt and reduce turbulent melt convection; source supply means for adding source material to the semiconductor melt; a double barrier (23) to minimize heat transfer between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow melt in the growth compartment; offset holes (24) in the double barrier (23) to increase melt travel length between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow growth compartment; and the interface heater/heat sink (22) to control the interface shape and crystal growth rate.

Wang, T.; Ciszek, T. F.

2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

322

Performance prediction of cryogenically cooled silicon crystal monochromator  

SciTech Connect

To predict the performance of the cryogenically cooled silicon crystal, intensive studies have been carried out to sort out the influences of various parameters, such as heat load power and power distribution, cooling coefficient, and beam size. The thermal slope error of the crystal is calculated by finite element modeling. Quadratic law was applied to calculate the rocking-curve width. Heat load tests were also performed with a channel-cut silicon monochromator on beamline ID09 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). The silicon crystal is indirectly cooled from the sides by liquid nitrogen. Measured rocking-curve widths are compared with those calculated by finite element modeling. When we include the broadening from the intrinsic rocking-curve width and mounting strain, the calculated rocking-curve width versus heat load is in excellent agreement with experiment.

Zhang Lin; Wulff, Michael; Eybert, Laurent [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Lee, Wah-Keat [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

2004-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

323

City of Lake Crystal, Minnesota (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Crystal, Minnesota (Utility Company) Crystal, Minnesota (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name City of Lake Crystal Place Minnesota Utility Id 10596 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] Energy Information Administration Form 826[2] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Heat Commercial Commercial Service Rate Commercial Industrial Service Rate Industrial Residential Service Rate Residential Rural Service Rate Residential Average Rates Residential: $0.1430/kWh Commercial: $0.1210/kWh

324

The Biological Implications of the PP2A Crystal Structure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Biological Implications of the PP2A Crystal Structure Print The Biological Implications of the PP2A Crystal Structure Print Phosphatases, enzymes that remove a phosphate group from amino-acid substrates, can be subdivided according to their substrate specificity. Myriad evidence has demonstrated that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a family of serine/threonine-specific (Ser/Thr) phosphatases, regulates many, if not most, aspects of cellular activities and is a critical tumor suppressor. A team at the University of Washington recently determined the first crystal structure of a PP2A holoenzyme (a form sufficient for full catalytic activity) composed of three different subunits (i.e., a heterotrimer). Their structure provides a foundation for understanding PP2A regulation, satisfactory mechanistic explanations for human tumorigenic mutations, and the structural basis for understanding PP2A substrate recruitment and specificity, a critical issue, given the high number of PP2A substrates.

325

The Biological Implications of the PP2A Crystal Structure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Biological Implications of the PP2A Crystal Structure Print The Biological Implications of the PP2A Crystal Structure Print Phosphatases, enzymes that remove a phosphate group from amino-acid substrates, can be subdivided according to their substrate specificity. Myriad evidence has demonstrated that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a family of serine/threonine-specific (Ser/Thr) phosphatases, regulates many, if not most, aspects of cellular activities and is a critical tumor suppressor. A team at the University of Washington recently determined the first crystal structure of a PP2A holoenzyme (a form sufficient for full catalytic activity) composed of three different subunits (i.e., a heterotrimer). Their structure provides a foundation for understanding PP2A regulation, satisfactory mechanistic explanations for human tumorigenic mutations, and the structural basis for understanding PP2A substrate recruitment and specificity, a critical issue, given the high number of PP2A substrates.

326

Impact of Ice Crystal Roughness on Satellite Retrieved Cloud Properties  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ice Crystal Roughness on Satellite Retrieved Cloud Properties Ice Crystal Roughness on Satellite Retrieved Cloud Properties P. Minnis 1 , P. W. Heck 2 , R. F. Arduini 3 , R. Palikonda 3 , J. K. Ayers 3 , M. M. Khaiyer 3 , P. Yang 4 , Y. Xie 4 3 Science Systems & Applications, Inc. Hampton, VA 1 NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA Current Cirrus Models Inadequate Cirrus cloud optical depths Ï„ (heights z e ) are often over (under) estimated when derived from solar reflectances. In situ data suggest smaller asymmetry factors, g, than used in most retrieval models. Multi-angle measurements point to smoother phase functions than for solid, smooth xtals. Calculations show that solid crystals with roughened facets or embedded bubbles --both observed in real cirrus particles-- yield smoother phase functions & smaller g

327

TOPAZ: the Single Crystal Diffractometer at SNS | ORNL Neutron Sciences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TOPAZ-Single-Crystal Diffractometer TOPAZ-Single-Crystal Diffractometer TOPAZ instrument scientist Christina Hoffmann and scientific associate Matt Frost at TOPAZ. TOPAZ instrument scientist Christina Hoffmann and scientific associate Matt Frost at TOPAZ. TOPAZ is an elastic scattering instrument that allows for probing of material structures and responses under controlled environmental conditions. It enables neutron measurement of the same single-crystal samples that is possible with x-ray diffraction. Data are collected on samples of 0.1 mm3 or less. Resolution is such that an average unit cell size of [50 × 50 × 50] Å3 for compounds of moderate complexity can be easily accommodated. This includes inorganic large and porous framework and guest-host materials, metal (in-)organic cluster and

328

Breakdown of Bose-Einstein distribution in photonic crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the last two decades, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of nano-photonics in photonic crystals. Previous theoretical investigations of photon dynamics were carried out at zero temperature. Here, we investigate micro/nano cavity photonics in photonic crystals at finite temperature. Due to photonic-band-gap-induced non-Markovian dynamics, we discover that cavity photons in photonic crystals do not obey the standard Bose-Einstein statistical distribution. Within the photonic band gap and in the vicinity of the band edge, cavity photons combine nontrivial quantum dissipation with thermal fluctuations to form photon states that can memorize the initial cavity state information. As a result, Bose-Einstein distribution is completely broken down in these regimes, even if the thermal energy is larger than the photonic band gap.

Ping-Yuan Lo; Heng-Na Xiong; Wei-Min Zhang

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

329

Compact Couplers for Photonic Crystal Laser-Driven Accelerator Structures  

SciTech Connect

Photonic crystal waveguides are promising candidates for laser-driven accelerator structures because of their ability to confine a speed-of-light mode in an all-dielectric structure. Because of the difference between the group velocity of the waveguide mode and the particle bunch velocity, fields must be coupled into the accelerating waveguide at frequent intervals. Therefore efficient, compact couplers are critical to overall accelerator efficiency. We present designs and simulations of high-efficiency coupling to the accelerating mode in a three-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide from a waveguide adjoining it at 90{sup o}. We discuss details of the computation and the resulting transmission. We include some background on the accelerator structure and photonic crystal-based optical acceleration in general.

Cowan, Benjamin; /Tech-X, Boulder; Lin, M.C.; /Tech-X, Boulder; Schwartz, Brian; /Tech-X, Boulder; Byer, Robert; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; McGuinness, Christopher; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Colby, Eric; /SLAC; England, Robert; /SLAC; Noble, Robert; /SLAC; Spencer, James; /SLAC

2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

330

Toward crystal design in organic conductors and superconductors.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have seen that many different types of intermolecular interactions in organic conducting cation radical salts. Hydrogen bonding between the donor molecules and the anions is weak but not negligible. The ionic Madelung energy is insufficient to completely intersperse anions and cations, thus the layers favored by the van der Waals interactions remain intact. The search for new conducting and superconducting salts has been mainly by trial-and-error methods, even though simple substitutions have been employed in order to obtain isostructural analogs of successful (e.g., superconducting) salts. However, even seemingly minor substitutions sometimes destroy the packing type, and different crystal structures result. Simulations with the aim at predicting crystal structures have not succeeded, mainly because the different interaction types are of comparable energy, and the delocalized and partial charges render the calculations of the ionic terms extremely unreliable. Clearly, the development of suitable crystal modeling techniques with predictive capabilities is one of the great needs of the field.

Geiser, U.

1999-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

331

Growth of large single crystals of MgO  

SciTech Connect

The progressive identification of new high-technology applications and requirements for MgO single crystals in the commercial realm, as well as in DOE and other government-agency project areas, has resulted in an increased demand and international market for this material. Specifically, the demand for MgO crystals in large sizes and quantities is presently increasing due to existing and developing applications that include: (a) MgO substrates for the formation of electro-optic thin films and devices, (b) epitaxial substrates for high-temperature thin-film superconducting devices MgO optical components - including high-temperature windows, lenses, and prisms, and (d) specialty MgO crucibles and evaporation sources for thin-film production. In the course of CRADA ORNL92-0091, carried out with Commercial Crystal Laboratories of Naples, Florida as the commercial participant, we have made major progress in increasing the size of single crystals of MgO produced by means of the submerged-arc-fusion technique-thereby increasing the commercial utility of this material. Prior to the accomplishments realized in the course of this CRADA, the only commercially available single crystals of MgO were produced in Japan, Israel, and Russia. The results achieved in the course of CRADA ORNL92-0091 have now led to the establishment of a domestic commercial source of MgO single-crystal substrates and components, and the U.S. is no longer totally dependent on foreign sources of this increasingly important material.

Boatner, L.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Urbanik, M. [Commercial Crystal Laboratories, Inc., Naples, FL (United States)

1997-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

332

Process of making cryogenically cooled high thermal performance crystal optics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for constructing a cooled optic wherein one or more cavities are milled, drilled or formed using casting or ultrasound laser machining techniques in a single crystal base and filled with porous material having high thermal conductivity at cryogenic temperatures. A non-machined strain-free single crystal can be bonded to the base to produce superior optics. During operation of the cooled optic, N{sub 2} is pumped through the porous material at a sub-cooled cryogenic inlet temperature and with sufficient system pressure to prevent the fluid bulk temperature from reaching saturation.

Kuzay, T.M.

1990-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

333

Shear-strain-induced chemical reactivity of layered molecular crystals  

SciTech Connect

A density-functional-theory study of shear-related dissociation of two molecular crystals, diamino-dinitroethylene (FOX-7) and triamino-trinitrobenzine (TATB), is presented. A detailed explanation is proposed for the fact that FOX-7 is more sensitive than TATB while their sensitivities to initiation of chemistry have been expected to be comparable. We suggest that shear plays a crucial role in dissociation of molecules in organic energetic crystals and may be imperative in providing specific recommendations on ways for materials design.

M. M. Kuklja; Sergey N. Rashkeev

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Polymer-disordered liquid crystals: Susceptibility to electric field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When nematic liquid crystals are embedded in random polymer networks, the disordered environment disrupts the long-range order, producing a glassy state. If an electric field is applied, it induces large and fairly temperature-independent orientational order. To understand the experiments, we simulate a liquid crystal in a disordered polymer network, visualize the domain structure, and calculate the response to a field. Furthermore, using an Imry-Ma-like approach we predict the domain size and estimate the field-induced order. The simulations and analytic results agree with each other, and suggest how the materials can be optimized for electro-optic applications.

Lena M. Lopatina; Jonathan V. Selinger

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

335

Process of making cryogenically cooled high thermal performance crystal optics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for constructing a cooled optic wherein one or more cavities are milled, drilled or formed using casting or ultrasound laser machining techniques in a single crystal base and filled with porous material having high thermal conductivity at cryogenic temperatures. A non-machined strain-free single crystal can be bonded to the base to produce superior optics. During operation of the cooled optic, N[sub 2] is pumped through the porous material at a sub-cooled cryogenic inlet temperature and with sufficient system pressure to prevent the fluid bulk temperature from reaching saturation. 7 figs.

Kuzay, T.M.

1992-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

336

Gradient index liquid crystal devices and method of fabrication thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Laser beam apodizers using cholesteric liquid crystals provides soft edge profile by use of two separate cholesteric liquid crystal mixtures with different selective reflection bands which in an overlap region have a gradient index where reflectivity changes as a function of position. The apodizers can be configured as a one-dimensional beam apod INTRODUCTION The U.S. government has rights in the invention under Contract No. DE-FC03-85DP40200 between the University of Rochester and the Department of Energy.

Lee, Jae-Cheul (Rochester, NY); Jacobs, Stephen (Pittsford, NY)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Gradient index liquid crystal devices and method of fabrication thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Laser beam apodizers using cholesteric liquid crystals provides soft edge profile by use of two separate cholesteric liquid crystal mixtures with different selective reflection bands which in an overlap region have a gradient index where reflectivity changes as a function of position. The apodizers can be configured as a one-dimensional beam apod INTRODUCTION The U.S. government has rights in the invention under Contract No. DE-FC03-85DP40200 between the University of Rochester and the Department of Energy.

Lee, J.C.; Jacobs, S.

1991-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

338

Skeletal crystals of calcite and trona from hot-spring deposits in Kenya and New Zealand  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Skeletal crystals are hollow crystals that develop because their outer walls grow before their cores. The presence of skeletal crystals of calcite (three types--trigonal prisms, hexagonal prisms, and plates) and trona in hot (> 90 C) spring deposits in New Zealand (Waikite Springs and Ohaaki Pool) and Kenya (Lorusio hot springs) shows that they can form in natural sedimentary regimes. Analysis of samples from these deposits shows that this crystal morphology develops under disequilibrium conditions that are unrelated to a specific environmental or diagenetic setting. Skeletal crystals transform into solid crystals when subsequent precipitation fills their hollow cores. In some cases, this may involve precipitation of crystalline material that has a sieve-like texture. In other examples, the skeletal crystal provides a framework upon which other materials can be precipitated. Walls in the skeletal trigonal calcite prisms from Waikite Springs are formed of subcrystals that mimic the shape of the parent crystal. Similarly, plate-like skeletal crystals from Lorusio are formed of densely packed subcrystals that are trona crystals from Lorusio are not formed of subcrystals. Recognition of skeletal crystals is important because they represent growth that follows the reverse pattern of normal growth. Failure to recognize that crystal growth followed the skeletal motif may lead to false interpretations concerning the growth of a crystal.

Jones, B. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Renaut, R.W. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Snow Crystal Habit Changes Explained by Layer Nucleation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Critical supersaturations have been measured for the vapor growth of ice crystals on both the basal and prism faces between ?16° and ?0.4°C. The values are low: approximately constant at 0.4% for the prism face, less for the basal face between ?3°...

Jon Nelson; Charles Knight

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Measuring liquid crystal anchoring energy strength by spectroscopic ellipsometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe an experimental procedure for accurate measurement of anchoring energy strength of liquid crystal cells. This technique is based on the possibility of gathering a large amount of very precise data about the linear optical response of the cell in different experimental conditions

A. Marino; V. Tkachenko; E. Santamato; N. Bennis; X. Quintana; J. M. Otón; G. Abbate

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Crystal Lake - Clipper (08) Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Crystal Lake - Clipper (08) Wind Farm Crystal Lake - Clipper (08) Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Crystal Lake - Clipper (08) Wind Farm Facility Crystal Lake - Clipper (08) Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner NextEra Energy Resources Developer NextEra Energy Resources Location IA Coordinates 43.221728°, -93.833227° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.221728,"lon":-93.833227,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

342

User Manual - Crystal Ball Monte Carlo POD Simulator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a user manual for a Monte Carlo simulator using Crystal Ball a spreadsheet add-inthat can be used to predict a noise-dependent structural probability of detection (POD) for steam generator tube integrity assessments. The simulator uses plant noise as one of its inputs and provides a plant-specific POD for condition monitoring and operational assessment.

2006-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

343

D-D Nuclear Fusion Using Different Size Pyroelectric Crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D-D Nuclear Fusion Using Different Size Pyroelectric Crystals A. M. Kovanen, D. J. Gillich, T. Z of Homeland Security under cooperative agreement number 2007-DN-077-ER0003. The authors are with the Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY. A. M

Danon, Yaron

344

Light Scattering by Quasi-Spherical Ice Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The shapes and single-scattering properties of small, irregular, quasi-spherical ice crystals, with equivalent radii between approximately 8 and 90 ?m and size parameters from about 90 to 1000, are studied using two-dimensional images measured by ...

Timo Nousiainen; Greg M. McFarquhar

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Phonon-enhanced crystal growth and lattice healing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for modifying dislocation distributions in semiconductor materials is provided. The system includes one or more vibrational sources for producing at least one excitation of vibrational mode having phonon frequencies so as to enhance dislocation motion through a crystal lattice.

Buonassisi, Anthony; Bertoni, Mariana; Newman, Bonna

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

346

The diammoniate of diborane: Crystal structure and hydrogen release  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

[(NH3)2BH2]+[BH4]- is formed from the room temperature decomposition of NH4+BH4-, via a NH3BH3 intermediate. Its crystal structure has been determined and contains disordered BH4- ions in 2 distinct sites. Hydrogen release is similar to that from NH3BH3 but with faster kinetics.

Bowden, Mark E.; Heldebrant, David J.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Proffen, Thomas E.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Autrey, Thomas

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

347

AFM CHARACTERIZATION OF LASER INDUCED DAMAGE ON CDZNTE CRYSTAL SURFACES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Semi-conducting CdZnTe (or CZT) crystals can be used in a variety of detector-type applications. CZT shows great promise for use as a gamma radiation spectrometer. However, its performance is adversely affected by point defects, structural and compositional heterogeneities within the crystals, such as twinning, pipes, grain boundaries (polycrystallinity), secondary phases and in some cases, damage caused by external forces. One example is damage that occurs during characterization of the surface by a laser during Raman spectroscopy. Even minimal laser power can cause Te enriched areas on the surface to appear. The Raman spectra resulting from measurements at moderate intensity laser power show large increases in peak intensity that is attributed to Te. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to characterize the extent of damage to the CZT crystal surface following exposure to the Raman laser. AFM data reveal localized surface damage in the areas exposed to the Raman laser beam. The degree of surface damage to the crystal is dependent on the laser power, with the most observable damage occurring at high laser power. Moreover, intensity increases in the Te peaks of the Raman spectra are observed even at low laser power with little to no visible damage observed by AFM. AFM results also suggest that exposure to the same amount of laser power yields different amounts of surface damage depending on whether the exposed surface is the Te terminating face or the Cd terminating face of CZT.

Hawkins, S; Lucile Teague, L; Martine Duff, M; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

348

Collision Efficiencies of Ice Crystals at Low–Intermediate Reynolds Numbers Colliding with Supercooled Cloud Droplets: A Numerical Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The efficiencies with which ice crystals at low–intermediate Reynolds numbers collide with supercooled cloud droplets are determined numerically. Three ice crystal habits are considered here: hexagonal ice plates, broad-branch crystals, and ...

Pao K. Wang; Wusheng Ji

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Optical studies of photonic crystals and high index-contrast microphotonic circuits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Both high index-contrast (HIC) photonic crystals and HIC microphotonic circuits are presented in this thesis. Studies of macro-scale 2D photonic crystal meta-materials are first described. Through comparison of experimental ...

Rakich, Peter Thomas

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Toward a comparative study of protein crystallization in microfluidic chambers using vapor diffusion and batch techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using microfluidics for protein crystallization gives numerous advantages compared with classical techniques, as much reduced protein consumption, improved control accuracy and high parallelism. We propose here novel systems for the screening of protein ... Keywords: Microfluidic, Nanotechnology, Protein crystallization, Structural biology

M. Lounaci; P. Rigolet; G. Velve Casquillas; H. W. Huang; Y. Chen

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Lidar Determinations of Atmospheric Ice Crystal Layers at South Pole during Clear-Sky Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results of lidar measurements of atmospheric ice crystal layers during 36 clear-sky precipitation events at South Pole (2850 m MSL) during the winter over the period March-November 1975 are presented and correlated with ice crystal replicator, ...

Vern N. Smiley; Bruce M. Whitcomb; Bruce M. Morley; Joseph A. Warburton

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

A process for separation by semi-continuous counter-current crystallization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A process is proposed to perform separations via crystallization by using multiple tanks and constraining crystal growth to solid surfaces. Multiple tanks allow multiple recrystallizations to improve product purity and to ...

Aumock, Nathan M. (Nathan Micheal)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Water Vapor, Condensed Water, and Crystal Concentration in Orographically Influenced Cirrus Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are presented from measurements made with a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) in cirriform clouds containing crystals with dimensions typically less than 30 ?m. Independent measurements of crystal number concentration and cloud water ...

Johan Ström; Jost Heintzenberg

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Light trapping in thin film solar cells using textured photonic crystal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solar cell includes a photoactive region that receives light. A photonic crystal is coupled to the photoactive region, wherein the photonic crystal comprises a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) for trapping the light.

Yi, Yasha (Somerville, MA); Kimerling, Lionel C. (Concord, MA); Duan, Xiaoman (Amesbury, MA); Zeng, Lirong (Cambridge, MA)

2009-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

355

Ice Crystals Produced by Expansion: Experiments and Application to Aircraft-produced Ice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The production of ice crystals as a result of the expansion and cooling of moist air was investigated by laboratory experiment. In particular, the warmest expanded air temperature that produces crystals was sought as a function of the initial ...

T. C. Foster; J. Hallett

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Instability of Gravity Driven Flow of Liquid Crystal Sean P. Naughton, Namrata K. Patel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and they need not be a liquid. Liquid crystals exist all around us in everyday life - in plastics, crude oil

Kondic, Lou

357

Method and apparatus for producing monochromatic radiography with a bent laue crystal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for producing a monochromatic beam. A plurality of beams are generated from a polyenergetic source. The beams are then transmitted through a bent crystal, preferably a bent Laue crystal, having a non-cylindrical shape. A position of the bent crystal is rocked with respect to the polyenergetic source until a plurality of divergent monochromatic beams are emitted from the bent crystal.

Zhong, Zhong (Apt. I 1131 Chaping 700 E. Loop Rd., Stony Brook, NY 11790); Chapman, Leroy Dean (4 Vermont Cir., Bolingbrook, IL 60440); Thomlinson, William C. (32 E. Masem, East Patchogue, NY 11772)

2000-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

358

Effects of hydrogen anneals on oxygen deficient SrTio3-x single crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3?x with a low electrical resistivity. These crystals showedout in the same atmo- sphere. Electrical resistivities were

Jalan, Bharat; Engel-Herbert, Roman; Mates, Thomas E.; Stemmer, Susanne

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Single crystal to single crystal transition in (10, 3)-d framework with pyrazine-2-carboxylate ligand: Synthesis, structures and magnetism  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Assembling of pyrazine-2-carboxylate (Pzc) acid with nickel chlorine under solvothermal condition with MeOH as solvent gave a porous complex 1 {l_brace}[Ni(Pzc)ClH{sub 2}O]{center_dot}MeOH{r_brace}{sub n} with 1D channels. In 1 the ligands and metal ions are connected by three of each other and a rare (10,3)-d topology net is gained. The MeOH molecules filled in the 1D channels as guests. It is interesting that 1 undergoes a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation to another complex 2 when the guest MeOH molecules in the channels are exchanged by water molecules. Magnetic study indicates anti-ferromagnetic couplings exist in the two complexes and the guest exchange in the complex has little influence on the magnetism. - Graphical abstract: A porous complex 1 with rare (10,3)-d net was gained, and 1 underwent a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation to another phase 2. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New (10,3)-d net was obtained with pyrazine-2-carboxylate ligands as a triangular node. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The complex 1 has a 1D channel filled with methanol molecules as guests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1 could undergo SCSC structural transition to 2 after guests exchanged. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antiferromagnetic interactions were found in 1 and 2.

Yang, Qian [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China) [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Department of Chemistry, Tianjin Key Lab on Metal and Molecule-based Material Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhao, Jiong-Peng, E-mail: horryzhao@yahoo.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Liu, Zhong-Yi [College of Chemistry, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Structure and Performance for Functional Molecules, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China)] [College of Chemistry, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Structure and Performance for Functional Molecules, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

Light Control of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals Using Azoxy-Based Host Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

% ZhK-440 and 25% ZLI-2011. Light Control of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals 129 #12;cholesteric systemsLight Control of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals Using Azoxy-Based Host Materials G. Chilaya A, Swarthmore, PA, USA The characteristics of cholesteric liquid crystals can be controlled by light irradiation

Collings, Peter

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

HANFORD MEDIUM-LOW CURIE WASTE PRETREATMENT ALTERNATIVES PROJECT FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION PILOT SCALE TESTING FINAL REPORT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Fractional Crystallization Pilot Plant was designed and constructed to demonstrate that fractional crystallization is a viable way to separate the high-level and low-activity radioactive waste streams from retrieved Hanford single-shell tank saltcake. The focus of this report is to review the design, construction, and testing details of the fractional crystallization pilot plant not previously disseminated.

HERTING DL

2008-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

362

Affine crystal structure on rigged configurations of type $D_{n}^{(1)}$  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extending the work in Schilling (Int. Math. Res. Not. 2006:97376, 2006), we introduce the affine crystal action on rigged configurations which is isomorphic to the Kirillov---Reshetikhin crystal B r,s of type Keywords: Crystal bases, Quantum algebras, Rigged configurations

Masato Okado; Reiho Sakamoto; Anne Schilling

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Design and fabrication of photonic crystal thin film photovoltaic cells Guillaume Gomarda,b  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design and fabrication of photonic crystal thin film photovoltaic cells Guillaume Gomarda,b , Ounsi of an absorbing planar photonic crystal within a thin film photovoltaic cell. The devices are based on a stack with large areas. Keywords: Photonic crystal, Photovoltaic solar cell, Thin film solar cell, Hydrogenated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

364

Large pyramid shaped single crystals of BiFeO{sub 3} by solvothermal synthesis method  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis parameters are optimized in order to grow single crystals of multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3}. 2 to 3 mm size pyramid (tetrahedron) shaped single crystals were successfully obtained by solvothermal method. Scanning electron microscopy with EDAX confirmed the phase formation. Raman scattering spectra of bulk BiFeO3 single crystals have been measured which match well with reported spectra.

Sornadurai, D.; Ravindran, T. R.; Paul, V. Thomas; Sastry, V. Sankara [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Physical Metallurgy Division, Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group (India)

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

365

Spontaneous emission in GaN/InGaN photonic crystal nanopillars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Sigalas, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal, "III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 466, and H. Benisty, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution

Recanati, Catherine

366

Microphysical and Optical Properties of Atmospheric Ice Crystals at South Pole Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In early February 2001 (during the austral summer), over 900 000 digital images of ice crystals were recorded at the South Pole using two ground-based cloud particle imagers (CPIs). Of these, 721 572 crystals >50 ?m were classified into crystal ...

R. Paul Lawson; Brad A. Baker; Patrick Zmarzly; Darren O’Connor; Qixu Mo; Jean-Francois Gayet; Valery Shcherbakov

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Growing Glowing Nanowires to Light Up the Nanoworld  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... to the peak wavelength emitted with electric field perpendicular to the wire. ... in high light output compared to the bulk material.** The wires also can ...

2013-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

368

rf Glow Discharge Cleaning in the DITE Tokamak  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Selected papers from the Ninth International Vacuum Congress and the Fifth International Conference on Solid Surfaces (Madrid, Spain, September 26-October 1, 1983)

J. Burt; S. J. Fielding; G. M. McCracken; G. Mezey; D. D. R. Summers†

369

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon films prepared by glow discharge of disilane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the results of an investigation of the properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films and the efficiency of amorphous silicon solar cells deposited from disilane at rates of 1.5 nanometers/second or greater. The study was divided into two parts, investigation of basic materials properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films and the fabrication of glass-P-I-N-metal solar cells. The thin film materials properties investigated included the dark conductivity, photoconductivity, dihydride/monohydride concentration ratio, activation energy, and mobility-lifetime product. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells were fabricated with an intrinsic layer which was deposited at 1.5 nanometers/second. The absolute and reverse bias quantum yields were measured and solar cell efficiencies of 5% were achieved. Attempts to increase the efficiency by reverse bias annealing are also reported. 7 refs., 27 figs.

Wiesmann, H.J. (UHT Corp., Dobbs Ferry, NY (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Ethanol reforming in non-equilibrium plasma of glow discharge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The results of a detailed kinetic study of the main plasma chemical processes in non-equilibrium ethanol/argon plasma are presented. It is shown that at the beginning of the discharge the molecular hydrogen is mainly generated in the reaction of ethanol H-abstraction. Later hydrogen is formed from active H, CH2OH and CH3CHOH and formaldehyde. Comparison with experimental data has shown that the used kinetic mechanism predicts well the concentrations of main species at the reactor outlet.

Levko, D

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Plasma mixing glow discharge device for analytical applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An instrument for analyzing a sample has an enclosure that forms a chamber containing an anode which divides the chamber into a discharge region and an analysis region. A gas inlet and outlet are provided to introduce and exhaust a rare gas into the discharge region. A cathode within the discharge region has a plurality of pins projecting in a geometric pattern toward the anode for exciting the gas and producing a plasma discharge between the cathode and the anode. Low energy electrons (e.g. <0.5 eV) pass into the analysis region through an aperture. The sample to be analyzed is placed into the analysis region and bombarded by the metastable rare gas atoms and the low energy electrons extracted into from the discharge region. A mass or optical spectrometer can be coupled to a port of the analysis region to analyze the resulting ions and light emission. 3 figs.

Pinnaduwage, L.A.

1999-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

372

Plasma mixing glow discharge device for analytical applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An instrument for analyzing a sample has an enclosure that forms a chamber containing an anode which divides the chamber into a discharge region and an analysis region. A gas inlet and outlet are provided to introduce and exhaust a rare gas into the discharge region. A cathode within the discharge region has a plurality of pins projecting in a geometric pattern toward the anode for exciting the gas and producing a plasma discharge between the cathode and the anode. Low energy electrons (e.g. <0.5 eV) pass into the analysis region through an aperture. The sample to be analyzed is placed into the analysis region and bombarded by the metastable rare gas atoms and the low energy electrons extracted into from the discharge region. A mass or optical spectrometer can be coupled to a port of the analysis region to analyze the resulting ions and light emission.

Pinnaduwage, Lal A. (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals  

SciTech Connect

In this dissertation, they have undertaken the challenge to understand the unusual propagation properties of the photonic crystal (PC). The photonic crystal is a medium where the dielectric function is periodically modulated. These types of structures are characterized by bands and gaps. In other words, they are characterized by frequency regions where propagation is prohibited (gaps) and regions where propagation is allowed (bands). In this study they focus on two-dimensional photonic crystals, i.e., structures with periodic dielectric patterns on a plane and translational symmetry in the perpendicular direction. They start by studying a two-dimensional photonic crystal system for frequencies inside the band gap. The inclusion of a line defect introduces allowed states in the otherwise prohibited frequency spectrum. The dependence of the defect resonance state on different parameters such as size of the structure, profile of incoming source, etc., is investigated in detail. For this study, they used two popular computational methods in photonic crystal research, the Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) and the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). The results for the one-dimensional defect system are analyzed, and the two methods, FDTD and TMM, are compared. Then, they shift their attention only to periodic two-dimensional crystals, concentrate on their band properties, and study their unusual refractive behavior. Anomalous refractive phenomena in photonic crystals included cases where the beam refracts on the ''wrong'' side of the surface normal. The latter phenomenon, is known as negative refraction and was previously observed in materials where the wave vector, the electric field, and the magnetic field form a left-handed set of vectors. These materials are generally called left-handed materials (LHM) or negative index materials (NIM). They investigated the possibility that the photonic crystal behaves as a LHM, and how this behavior relates with the observed negatively refractive phenomena. They found that in the PC system, negative refraction is neither a prerequisite nor guarantees left-handed behavior. They examined carefully the condition to obtain left-handed behavior in the PC. They proposed a wedge type of experiment, in accordance with the experiment performed on the traditional LHM, to test these conditions. They found that for certain frequencies the PC shows left-handed behavior and acts in some respects like a homogeneous medium with a negative refractive index. they used the realistic PC system for this case to show how negative refraction occurs at the interface between a material with a positive and a material with a negative refractive index. Their findings indicate that the formation of the negatively refracted beam is not instantaneous and involves a transient time. With this time-dependent analysis, they were able to address previous controversial issues about negative refraction concerning causality and the speed of light limit. Finally, they attempt a systematic study of anomalous refractive phenomena that can occur at the air-PC interface. They observe cases where only a single refracted beam (in the positive or negative direction) is present, as well as cases with birefringence. they classify these different effects according to their origin and type of propagation (left-handed or not). For a complete study of the system, they also obtain expressions for the energy and group velocities, and show their equality. For cases with very low index contrast, band folding becomes an artificiality. They discuss the validity of their findings when they move to the limit of photonic crystals with a low index modulation.

Stavroula Foteinopoulou

2003-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

374

Polymorphic single crystal {r_reversible} single crystal transition in K{sub 0.975}Rb{sub 0.025}NO{sub 3}  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polymorphic transformations in K{sub 0.975}Rb{sub 0.025}NO{sub 3} single crystals have been investigated by optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The equilibrium temperature between modifications II and III has been determined. It is established that the crystal growth at II {r_reversible} III polymorphic transitions is accompanied by the formation and growth of daughter-modification nuclei in the matrix crystal.

Asadov, Yu. G., E-mail: yusifasadov@rambler.ru; Nasirov, E. V. [Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Acquisition of Single Crystal Growth and Characterization Equipment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Final Report for DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-04ER46178 'Acquisition of Single Crystal Growth and Characterization Equipment'. There is growing concern in the condensed matter community that the need for quality crystal growth and materials preparation laboratories is not being met in the United States. It has been suggested that there are too many researchers performing measurements on too few materials. As a result, many user facilities are not being used optimally. The number of proficient crystal growers is too small. In addition, insufficient attention is being paid to the enterprise of finding new and interesting materials, which is the driving force behind much of condensed matter research and, ultimately, technology. While a detailed assessment of this situation is clearly needed, enough evidence of a problem already exists to compel a general consensus that the situation must be addressed promptly. This final report describes the work carried out during the last four years in our group, in which a state-of-the-art single crystal growth and characterization facility was established for the study of novel oxides and intermetallic compounds of rare earth, actinide and transition metal elements. Research emphasis is on the physics of superconducting (SC), magnetic, heavy fermion (HF), non-Fermi liquid (NFL) and other types of strongly correlated electron phenomena in bulk single crystals. Properties of these materials are being studied as a function of concentration of chemical constituents, temperature, pressure, and magnetic field, which provide information about the electronic, lattice, and magnetic excitations at the root of various strongly correlated electron phenomena. Most importantly, the facility makes possible the investigation of material properties that can only be achieved in high quality bulk single crystals, including magnetic and transport phenomena, studies of the effects of disorder, properties in the clean limit, and spectroscopic and scattering studies through efforts with numerous collaborators. These endeavors will assist the effort to explain various outstanding theoretical problems, such as order parameter symmetries and electron-pairing mechanisms in unconventional superconductors, the relationship between superconductivity and magnetic order in certain correlated electron systems, the role of disorder in non-Fermi liquid behavior and unconventional superconductivity, and the nature of interactions between localized and itinerant electrons in these materials. Understanding the mechanisms behind strongly correlated electron behavior has important technological implications.

Maple, M. Brian; Zocco, Diego A.

2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

376

PHOTOINDUCED CURRENTS IN CDZNTE CRYSTALS AS A FUNCTION OF ILLUMINATION WAVELENGTH  

SciTech Connect

We report variations in the currents of CdZnTe semiconductor crystals during exposure to a series of light emitting diodes of various wavelengths ranging from 470 to 950 nm. The changes in the steady-state current of one CdZnTe crystal with and without illumination along with the time dependence of the illumination effects are discussed. Analysis of the de-trapping and transient bulk currents during and after optical excitation yield insight into the behaviour of charge traps within the crystal. Similar behaviour is observed for illumination of a second CdZnTe crystal suggesting that the overall illumination effects are not crystal dependent.

Teague, L.; Washington, A.; Duff, M.

2012-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

377

Light-Induced Tellurium Enrichment on CdZnTe Crystal Surfaces Detected by Raman Spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CdZnTe (CZT) crystals can be grown under controlled conditions to produce high-quality crystals to be used as room-temperature radiation detectors. Even the best crystal growth methods result in defects, such as tellurium secondary phases, that affect the crystal's performance. In this study, CZT crystals were analyzed by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The growth of Te rich areas on the surface was induced by low-power lasers. The growth was observed versus time with low-power Raman scattering and was observed immediately under higher-power conditions. The detector response was also measured after induced Te enrichment.

Hawkins, Samantha A.; Villa-Aleman, Eliel; Duff, Martine C.; Hunter, Doug B.; Burger, Arnold; Groza, Michael; Buliga, Vladimir; Black, David R. (SRNL); (NIST); (Fisk U)

2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

378

Crystal Structure of a Protein Kinase A Complex  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Crystal Structure of a Protein Kinase A Complex Print Crystal Structure of a Protein Kinase A Complex Print Protein kinase A (PKA) is an enzyme that regulates processes as diverse as growth, memory, and metabolism. In its unactivated state, PKA exists as a tetrameric complex of two catalytic subunits and a regulatory subunit dimer, but when the intracellular signaling molecule cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) binds to the regulatory subunit, it facilitates dissociation and activation of the catalytic subunits. While separate structures of these subunits were previously known, a group from the University of California, San Diego, is the first to determine (to a resolution of 2.0 Ã…) the structure of the PKA catalytic subunits bound to the regulatory subunit. The structure of the complex clarifies the mechanism for PKA inhibition, and its comparison with the structure of cAMP bound to the regulatory subunit hints at how cAMP binding drives its activation.

379

Bimolecular Crystals of Fullerenes in Conjugated Polymers and the  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bimolecular Crystals of Fullerenes in Conjugated Polymers and the Bimolecular Crystals of Fullerenes in Conjugated Polymers and the Implications of Molecular Mixing for Solar Cells figure 1 Figure 1: Diffraction data for pBTTT:PC[71]BM blends of varying weight ratio that have been annealed at 185 °C for 10 minutes. The annealing took place at the glass transition temperature of pBTTT in order to increase the molecular order. (a) 2D GIXS of pure pBTTT. (b) 2D GIXS of 1:1 pBTTT:PC[71]BM blend. (c) High resolution specular x-ray diffraction for a series of pBTTT:PC[71]BM blends. This confirms the expansion perpendicular to the substrate. Organic photovoltaics have recently attracted tremendous attention in industry and academia since they offer the potential to significantly change energy production by drastically reducing the manufacturing cost for

380

Crystal Structure of a Protein Kinase A Complex  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Crystal Structure of a Protein Kinase A Complex Print Crystal Structure of a Protein Kinase A Complex Print Protein kinase A (PKA) is an enzyme that regulates processes as diverse as growth, memory, and metabolism. In its unactivated state, PKA exists as a tetrameric complex of two catalytic subunits and a regulatory subunit dimer, but when the intracellular signaling molecule cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) binds to the regulatory subunit, it facilitates dissociation and activation of the catalytic subunits. While separate structures of these subunits were previously known, a group from the University of California, San Diego, is the first to determine (to a resolution of 2.0 Ã…) the structure of the PKA catalytic subunits bound to the regulatory subunit. The structure of the complex clarifies the mechanism for PKA inhibition, and its comparison with the structure of cAMP bound to the regulatory subunit hints at how cAMP binding drives its activation.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Crystal Structure of a Protein Kinase A Complex  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Crystal Structure of a Protein Kinase A Complex Print Crystal Structure of a Protein Kinase A Complex Print Protein kinase A (PKA) is an enzyme that regulates processes as diverse as growth, memory, and metabolism. In its unactivated state, PKA exists as a tetrameric complex of two catalytic subunits and a regulatory subunit dimer, but when the intracellular signaling molecule cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) binds to the regulatory subunit, it facilitates dissociation and activation of the catalytic subunits. While separate structures of these subunits were previously known, a group from the University of California, San Diego, is the first to determine (to a resolution of 2.0 Ã…) the structure of the PKA catalytic subunits bound to the regulatory subunit. The structure of the complex clarifies the mechanism for PKA inhibition, and its comparison with the structure of cAMP bound to the regulatory subunit hints at how cAMP binding drives its activation.

382

Crystal Lake - GE Energy Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GE Energy Wind Farm GE Energy Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Crystal Lake - GE Energy Wind Farm Facility Crystal Lake - GE Energy Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner NextEra Energy Resources Developer NextEra Energy Resources Location IA Coordinates 43.194201°, -93.860521° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.194201,"lon":-93.860521,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

383

Crystal Lake - Clipper (09) Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lake - Clipper (09) Wind Farm Lake - Clipper (09) Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Crystal Lake - Clipper (09) Wind Farm Facility Crystal Lake - Clipper (09) Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner NextEra Energy Resources Developer NextEra Energy Resources Location IA Coordinates 41.8780025°, -93.097702° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.8780025,"lon":-93.097702,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

384

Photorefractive effect at 775 nm in doped lithium niobate crystals  

SciTech Connect

The photorefractive effect induced by 775-nm laser light on doped lithium niobate crystals is investigated by the direct observation in the far field of the transmitted-beam distortion as a function of time. Measurements performed at various Zr-doping concentrations and different light intensities show that the 775-nm light beam induces a steady-state photorefractive effect comparable to that of 532-nm light, but the observed build-up time of the photovoltaic field is longer by three-orders of magnitude. The 775-nm photorefractivity of lithium niobate crystals doped with 3 mol. % ZrO{sub 2} or with 5.5 mol. % MgO is found to be negligible.

Nava, G.; Minzioni, P.; Cristiani, I.; Degiorgio, V. [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Biomedical Engineering, and CNISM, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Argiolas, N.; Bazzan, M.; Ciampolillo, M. V.; Pozza, G.; Sada, C. [Physics and Astronomy Departement, University of Padova, 35131 Padova (Italy)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

385

Spontaneous Charging and Crystallization of Water Droplets in Oil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the spontaneous charging and the crystallization of spherical micron-sized water-droplets dispersed in oil by numerically solving, within a Poisson-Boltzmann theory in the geometry of a spherical cell, for the density profiles of the cations and anions in the system. We take into account screening, ionic Born self-energy differences between oil and water, and partitioning of ions over the two media. We find that the surface charge density of the droplet as induced by the ion partitioning is significantly affected by the droplet curvature and by the finite density of the droplets. We also find that the salt concentration and the dielectric constant regime in which crystallization of the water droplets is predicted is enhanced substantially compared to results based on the planar oil-water interface, thereby improving quantitative agreement with recent experiments.

Joost de Graaf; Jos Zwanikken; Markus Bier; Arjen Baarsma; Yasha Oloumi; Mischa Spelt; Rene van Roij

2008-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

386

Control of Nepheline Crystallization in Nuclear Waste Glass  

SciTech Connect

Glass frits with a high B{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration have been designed which, when combined with high-alumina concentration nuclear waste streams, will form glasses with durabilities that are acceptable for repository disposal and predictable using a free energy of hydration model. Two glasses with nepheline discriminator values closest to 0.62 showed significant differences in normalized boron release between the quenched and heat treated versions of each glass. X-ray diffraction confirmed that nepheline crystallized in the glass with the lowest nepheline discriminator value, and nepheline may also exist in the second glass as small nanocrystals. The high-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} frit was successful in producing simulated waste glasses with no detectable nepheline crystallization at waste loadings of up to 45 wt%. The melt rate of this frit was also considerably better than other frits with increased concentrations of Na{sub 2}O.

Fox, Kevin

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Feedback-Optimized Operations with Linear Ion Crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on transport operations with linear crystals of 40Ca+ ions by applying complex electric time-dependent potentials. For their control we use the information obtained from the ions' fluorescence. We demonstrate that by means of this feedback technique, we can transport a predefined number of ions and also split and unify ion crystals. The feedback control allows for a robust scheme, compensating for experimental errors as it does not rely on a precisely known electrical modeling of the electric potentials in the ion trap beforehand. Our method allows us to generate a self-learning voltage ramp for the required process. With an experimental demonstration of a transport with more than 99.8 % success probability, this technique may facilitate the operation of a future ion based quantum processor.

Eble, J F; Zahariev, P; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Singer, K

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Feedback-Optimized Operations with Linear Ion Crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on transport operations with linear crystals of 40Ca+ ions by applying complex electric time-dependent potentials. For their control we use the information obtained from the ions' fluorescence. We demonstrate that by means of this feedback technique, we can transport a predefined number of ions and also split and unify ion crystals. The feedback control allows for a robust scheme, compensating for experimental errors as it does not rely on a precisely known electrical modeling of the electric potentials in the ion trap beforehand. Our method allows us to generate a self-learning voltage ramp for the required process. With an experimental demonstration of a transport with more than 99.8 % success probability, this technique may facilitate the operation of a future ion based quantum processor.

J. F. Eble; S. Ulm; P. Zahariev; F. Schmidt-Kaler; K. Singer

2009-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

389

Photonic Crystals: Enhancing the Light Output of Scintillation Based Detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A scintillator is a material which emits light when excited by ionizing radiation. Such materials are used in a diverse range of applications; From high energy particle physics experiments, X-ray security, to nuclear cameras or positron emission tomography. Future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments as well as next generation medical imaging applications are more and more pushing towards better scintillation characteristics. One of the problems in heavy scintillating materials is related to their high index of refraction. As a consequence, most of the scintillation light produced in the bulk material is trapped inside the crystal due to total internal reflection. The same problem also occurs with light emitting diodes (LEDs) and has for a long time been considered as a limiting factor for their overall efficiency. Recent developments in the area of nanophotonics were showing now that those limitations can be overcome by introducing a photonic crystal (PhC) slab at the outcoupling surface of the substrate. P...

Knapitsch, Arno Richard

390

Influence of Crystal Expansion/Contraction on Zeolite Membrane Permeation  

SciTech Connect

X-ray diffraction was used to measure the unit cell parameters of B-ZSM-5, SAPO-34, and NaA zeolite powders as a function of adsorbate loading at 303 K, and in one case, at elevated temperatures. Most adsorbates expanded the zeolite crystals below saturation loading at 303 K: n-hexane and SF6 in B-ZSM-5, methanol and CO2 in SAPO-34, and methanol in NaA zeolite. As the loadings increased, the crystals expanded more. Changes in the unit cell volumes of B-ZSM-5 and SAPO-34 zeolite powders correlated with changes in permeation through zeolite membranes defects. When the zeolite crystals expanded or contracted upon adsorption, the defect sizes decreased or increased. In B-ZSM-5 membranes, the fluxes through defects decreased dramatically when n-hexane or SF6 adsorbed. In contrast, i-butane adsorption at 303 K contracted B-ZSM-5 crystals at low loadings and expanded them at higher loadings. Correspondingly, the flux through B-ZSM-5 membrane defects increased at low i-butane loadings and decreased at high loading because the defects increased in size at low loading and decreased at high loadings. At 398 K and 473 K, n-hexane expanded the B-ZSM-5 unit cell more as the temperature increased from 303 to 473 K. The silicalite-1 and B-ZSM-5 unit cell volumes expanded similarly upon n-hexane adsorption at 303 K; boron substitution had little effect on volume expansion.

Sorenson, Stephanie G [University of Colorado, Boulder; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; Noble, Richard D [University of Colorado, Boulder; Falconer, John L. [University of Colorado, Boulder

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Examination of Crystal River Unit 3 Steam Generator Tube Sections  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An examination of seven tubes removed from the Crystal River unit 3 steam generator characterized tube degradation associated with low-voltage eddy-current indications in the free span region above the lower tubesheet. The defects responsible for the low-voltage eddy-current signals consisted of small, relatively shallow, isolated, pit-like spots of outside-diameter-initiated intergranular attack, which had almost no effect on the burst strength of the tubing.

1994-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

392

Optical Basicity and Nepheline Crystallization in High Alumina Glasses  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to find compositions that increase waste loading of high-alumina wastes beyond what is currently acceptable while avoiding crystallization of nepheline (NaAlSiO4) on slow cooling. Nepheline crystallization has been shown to have a large impact on the chemical durability of high-level waste glasses. It was hypothesized that there would be some composition regions where high-alumina would not result in nepheline crystal production, compositions not currently allowed by the nepheline discriminator. Optical basicity (OB) and the nepheline discriminator (ND) are two ways of describing a given complex glass composition. This report presents the theoretical and experimental basis for these models. They are being studied together in a quadrant system as metrics to explore nepheline crystallization and chemical durability as a function of waste glass composition. These metrics were calculated for glasses with existing data and also for theoretical glasses to explore nepheline formation in Quadrant IV (passes OB metric but fails ND metric), where glasses are presumed to have good chemical durability. Several of these compositions were chosen, and glasses were made to fill poorly represented regions in Quadrant IV. To evaluate nepheline formation and chemical durability of these glasses, quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and the Product Consistency Test were conducted. A large amount of quantitative XRD data is collected here, both from new glasses and from glasses of previous studies that had not previously performed quantitative XRD on the phase assemblage. Appendix A critically discusses a large dataset to be considered for future quantitative studies on nepheline formation in glass. Appendix B provides a theoretical justification for choice of the oxide coefficients used to compute the OB criterion for nepheline formation.

Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Schweiger, M. J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Winschell, Abigail E.

2011-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

393

The Biological Implications of the PP2A Crystal Structure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Biological Implications of The Biological Implications of the PP2A Crystal Structure The Biological Implications of the PP2A Crystal Structure Print Wednesday, 30 January 2008 00:00 Phosphatases, enzymes that remove a phosphate group from amino-acid substrates, can be subdivided according to their substrate specificity. Myriad evidence has demonstrated that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a family of serine/threonine-specific (Ser/Thr) phosphatases, regulates many, if not most, aspects of cellular activities and is a critical tumor suppressor. A team at the University of Washington recently determined the first crystal structure of a PP2A holoenzyme (a form sufficient for full catalytic activity) composed of three different subunits (i.e., a heterotrimer). Their structure provides a foundation for understanding PP2A regulation, satisfactory mechanistic explanations for human tumorigenic mutations, and the structural basis for understanding PP2A substrate recruitment and specificity, a critical issue, given the high number of PP2A substrates.

394

New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding Print New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding Print Nature's proteins set a high bar for nanotechnology. Macromolecules forged from peptide chains of amino acids, these biomolecular nanomachines must first be folded into a dazzling variety of shapes and forms before they can perform the multitude of functions fundamental to life. However, the mechanisms behind the protein-folding process have remained a foggy mystery. Now the fog is lifting: a team of researchers from Berkeley Lab, Stanford University, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has deciphered the crystal structure of a critical control element within chaperonin, the protein complex responsible for the correct folding of other proteins. Chaperonins promote the proper folding of newly translated proteins and proteins that have been stress-denatured-meaning they've lost their structure-by encapsulating them inside a protective chamber formed from two rings of molecular complexes stacked back-to-back. There are two classes of chaperonins, group I found in prokaryotes and group II found in eukaryotes and archaea (organisms with no cell membrane or internal membrane-bound organelles). Much of the basic architecture has been evolutionarily preserved (conserved) across these two classes but they do differ in how the protective chamber is opened to accept proteins and closed to fold them. Whereas group I chaperonins require a detachable ring-shaped molecular lid to open and close the chamber, group II chaperonins have a built-in lid.

395

High-energy x-ray production with pyroelectric crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The invention of pyroelectric x-ray generator technology has enabled researchers to develop ultraportable, low-power x-ray sources for use in imaging, materials analysis, and other applications. For many applications, the usefulness of an x-ray source is determined by its yield and endpoint energy. In x-ray fluorescence, for example, high-energy sources enable the excitation of the K-shell x-ray peaks for high-Z materials as well as the lower-energy L-shell peaks, allowing more positive sample identification. This report shows how a paired-crystal pyroelectric source can be used to approximately double the endpoint x-ray energy, in addition to doubling the x-ray yield, versus a single-crystal source. As an example of the advantage of a paired-crystal system, we present a spectrum showing the fluorescence of the K shell of thorium using a pyroelectric source, as well as a spectrum showing the fluorescence of the K shell of lead. Also shown is an x-ray spectrum with an endpoint energy of 215 keV.

Geuther, Jeffrey A.; Danon, Yaron [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

396

Strength anomaly in B2 FeAl single crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Strength and deformation microstructure of B2 Fe-39 and 48%Al single crystals (composition given in atomic percent), which were fully annealed to remove frozen-in vacancies, have been investigated at temperatures between room temperature and 1073K. The hardness of as-homogenized Fe-48Al is higher than that of as-homogenized Fe-39Al while after additional annealing at 698K the hardness of Fe-48Al becomes lower than that of Fe-39Al. Fe-39Al single crystals slowly cooled after homogenizing at a high temperature were deformed in compression as a function of temperature and crystal orientation. A peak of yield strength appears around 0.5T{sub m} (T{sub m} = melting temperature). The orientation dependence of the critical resolved shear stress does not obey Schmid`s law even at room temperature and is quite different from that of b.c.c. metals and B2 intermetallics at low temperatures. At the peak temperature slip transition from -type to -type is found to occur macroscopically and microscopically, while it is observed in TEM that some of the [111] dislocations decompose into [101] and [010] on the (1096I) plane below the peak temperature. The physical sources for the positive temperature dependence of yield stress of B2 FeAl are discussed based on the obtained results.

Yoshimi, K.; Hanada, S.; Yoo, M.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matsumoto, N. [Tohoku Univ. (Japan). Graduate School

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

397

A study on dual readout crystal calorimeter for hadron and jet energy measurement at a future lepton collider  

SciTech Connect

Studies of requirements and specifications of crystals are necessary to develop a new generation of crystals for dual readout crystal hadron or total absorption calorimeter. This is a short and basic study of the characteristics and hadron energy measurement of PbWO4 and BGO crystals for scintillation and Cerenkov Dual Readout hadron calorimeter.

Yeh, G.P.; /Fermilab

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Recovery of valuable materials from waste liquid crystal display panel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Associated with the rapid development of the information and electronic industry, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have been increasingly sold as displays. However, during the discarding at their end-of-life stage, significant environmental hazards, impacts on health and a loss of resources may occur, if the scraps are not managed in an appropriate way. In order to improve the efficiency of the recovery of valuable materials from waste LCDs panel in an environmentally sound manner, this study presents a combined recycling technology process on the basis of manual dismantling and chemical treatment of LCDs. Three key processes of this technology have been studied, including the separation of LCD polarizing film by thermal shock method the removal of liquid crystals between the glass substrates by the ultrasonic cleaning, and the recovery of indium metal from glass by dissolution. The results show that valuable materials (e.g. indium) and harmful substances (e.g. liquid crystals) could be efficiently recovered or separated through above-mentioned combined technology. The optimal conditions are: (1) the peak temperature of thermal shock to separate polarizing film, ranges from 230 to 240 deg. C, where pyrolysis could be avoided; (2) the ultrasonic-assisted cleaning was most efficient at a frequency of 40 KHz (P = 40 W) and the exposure of the substrate to industrial detergents for 10 min; and (3) indium separation from glass in a mix of concentrated hydrochloric acid at 38% and nitric acid at 69% (HCl:HNO{sub 3}:H{sub 2}O = 45:5:50, volume ratio). The indium separation process was conducted with an exposure time of 30 min at a constant temperature of 60 deg. C.

Li Jinhui [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University (China); Sino-Italia Environmental Energy Building, Room 804, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: jinhui@tsinghua.edu.cn; Gao Song; Duan Huabo; Liu Lili [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University (China)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

Liquid-Phase Quartz Crystal Microbalance for Photovoltaics Research (Presentation)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The construction of a new QCM-based flow reactor has been completed. Initial results include: (1) stable oscillation achieved with crystals sputter coated at 200 C with 500 nm ZnO; (2) sub-Hz noise level means installation of membrane contactors; (4) determination of ZnO etch rates using dilute ethanolic NH{sub 4}Cl; (5) demonstration of use of an etchant as a probe of oxide-molecule interactions; (6) and use in flow rate-dependent CdS chemical deposition.

Perkins, C. L.; Li, X.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Producing KDP and DKDP crystals for the NIF laser  

SciTech Connect

The cost and physics requirements of the NIF have established two important roles for potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals. 1. To extract more laser energy per unit of flashlamp light and laser glass, the NIF has adopted a multipass architecture as shown in Figure 1. Light is injected in the transport spatial filter, first traverses the power amplifiers, and then is directed to main amplifiers, where it makes four passes before being redirected through the power amplifiers towards the target. To enable the multipass of the main amplifiers, a KDP-containing Pockels cell rotates the polarization of the beam to make it either transmit through or reflect off a polarizer held at Brewster's angle within the main laser cavity. If transmitted, the light reflects off a mirror and makes another pass through the cavity. If reflected, it proceeds through the power amplifier to the target. the original seed crystal as the pyramid faces grow. Unfortunately, this pyramidal growth is very slow, and it takes about two years to grow a crystal to NIF size. To provide more programmatic flexibility and reduce costs in the long run, we have developed an alternative technology commonly called rapid growth. Through a combination of higher temperatures and higher supersaturation of the growth solution, a NIF-size boule can be grown in 1 to 2 months from a small ''point'' seed. However, growing boules of adequate size is not sufficient. Care must be taken to prevent inclusions of growth solution and incorporation of atomically substituted 2. Implosions for ICF work far better at shorter wavelengths due to less generation of hot electrons, which preheat the fuel and make it harder to compress. Compromising between optic lifetime and implosion efficiency, both Nova and the NIF operate at a tripled frequency of the 1053-nm fundamental frequency of a neodymium glass laser. This tripling is accomplished by two crystals, one made of KDP and one made of deuterated KDP (DKDP). The first one mixes two 1053-nm photons to make 526-nm light, and the second one combines a residual 1053-nm photon with a 526-nm photon to make 351-nm light.

Atherton, L J; Burnham, A K; Combs, R C; Couture, S A; De Yoreo, J J; Hawley-Fedder, R A; Montesant, R C; Robey, H F; Runkel, M; Staggs, M; Wegner, P J; Yan, M; Zaitseva, N P

1999-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Diffusion on (110) Surface of Molecular Crystal Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate  

SciTech Connect

Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the diffusion mechanisms of admolecules on the (110) surface of molecular crystal pentaerythritol tetranitrate. Our results show that (1) admolecules are stable at off lattice sites, (2) admolecules diffuse along close-packed [1{bar 1}1] and [{bar 1}11] directions, and (3) admolecules detach from the surface at 350K and above. Based on the number of diffusion jumps as a function of temperature, we estimate the jump frequency to be v=1.14 x 10{sup 12} e{sup -0.08eV/kT} per second.

Wang, J; Golfinopoulos, T; Gee, R H; Huang, H

2007-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

402

Liquid-Phase Quartz Crystal Microbalance for Photovoltaics Research (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The construction of a new QCM-based flow reactor has been completed. Initial results include: (1) stable oscillation achieved with crystals sputter coated at 200 C with 500 nm ZnO; (2) sub-Hz noise level means << monolayer sensitivity; (3) Operation at elevated temperature possible after installation of membrane contactors; (4) determination of ZnO etch rates using dilute ethanolic NH{sub 4}Cl; (5) demonstration of use of an etchant as a probe of oxide-molecule interactions; (6) and use in flow rate-dependent CdS chemical deposition.

Perkins, C. L.; Li, X.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Thermal effects on the frequency response of piezoelectric crystals  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we describe a solution strategy to determine the natural frequencies of piezoelectric crystals subject to moderate changes in temperature and a variety of boundary constraints. The finite element equations governing piezoelectricity are derived based upon a Galerkin formulation of the problem. Suitable assumptions are made to linearize the steady-state (static) problem leading to an iteration scheme that can be used to refine the solution and include non-linear geometric effects caused by deformation. The eigenvalue problem is cast in this perturbed state to allow more accurate prediction of resonant frequencies.

Canfield, T.R.; Jones, M.T.; Plassmann, P.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Tang, M.S.H. [Motorola, Inc., Schaumburg, IL (United States)

1992-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

404

Beam combining using Orientational Stimulated Scattering in Liquid Crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Possibility of beam combining and clean-up using Orientational Stimulated Scattering in a Nematic Liquid Crystal is considered. We numerically study the dynamics of the process and find that back-conversion process tends to limit the effective interaction strength. Instability of the steady state of cross-phase modulation is demonstrated, when both waves have the same frequency. We show that high conversion efficiency can be achieved, and that the shape and wave-front of the amplified output signal are robust with respect to amplitude and phase distortions of the input pump.

Hakob Sarkissian; Chang Ching Tsai; Boris Zeldovich; Nelson Tabirian

2005-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

405

Analysis of Steam Generator Tubing from Crystal River, Unit 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four tubes were removed from Crystal River Unit 3 steam generator B during the 1994 refueling outage (RFO 9). The tubes were examined to characterize any tube degradation associated with eddy current (EC) indications occurring at the 7th and 9th tube support plate (TSP) intersections, which were identified during RFO 8. Mechanical wear observed at the 7th and 9th TSP lands had almost no effect on the tubing's burst strength. Small patches of intergranular attack (IGA) were observed in the first freespan ...

1997-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

406

Nonlinear Cerenkov Radiation in Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Waveguides  

SciTech Connect

We study nonlinear Cerenkov radiation generated from a nonlinear photonic crystal waveguide where the nonlinear susceptibility tensor is modulated by the ferroelectric domain. Nonlinear polarization driven by an incident light field may emit coherently harmonic waves at new frequencies along the direction of Cerenkov angles. Multiple radiation spots with different azimuth angles are simultaneously exhibited from such a hexagonally poled waveguide. A scattering involved nonlinear Cerenkov arc is also observed for the first time. Cerenkov radiation associated with quasi-phase matching leads to these novel nonlinear phenomena.

Zhang, Y.; Gao, Z. D.; Qi, Z.; Zhu, S. N.; Ming, N. B. [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China)

2008-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

407

HLW Glass Studies: Development of Crystal-Tolerant HLW Glasses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In our study, a series of lab-scale crucible tests were performed on designed glasses of different compositions to further investigate and simulate the effect of Cr, Ni, Fe, Al, Li, and RuO2 on the accumulation rate of spinel crystals in the glass discharge riser of the HLW melter. The experimental data were used to expand the compositional region covered by an empirical model developed previously (Matyáš et al. 2010b), improving its predictive performance. We also investigated the mechanism for agglomeration of particles and impact of agglomerates on accumulation rate. In addition, the TL was measured as a function of temperature and composition.

Matyas, Josef; Huckleberry, Adam R.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Lang, Jesse B.; Owen, Antionette T.; Kruger, Albert A.

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

408

Nanobeam Photonic Crystal Cavity Light-Emitting Diodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results on electrically driven nanobeam photonic crystal cavities formed out of a lateral p-i-n junction in gallium arsenide. Despite their small conducting dimensions, nanobeams have robust electrical properties with high current densities possible at low drive powers. Much like their two-dimensional counterparts, the nanobeam cavities exhibit bright electroluminescence at room temperature from embedded 1,250 nm InAs quantum dots. A small room temperature differential gain is observed in the cavities with minor beam self-heating suggesting that lasing is possible. These results open the door for efficient electrical control of active nanobeam cavities for diverse nanophotonic applications.

Shambat, Gary; Petykiewicz, Jan; Mayer, Marie A; Sarmiento, Tomas; Harris, James; Haller, Eugene E; Vuckovic, Jelena

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

ATMOSPHERIC EFFECTS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF CDZNTE SINGLE CRYSTAL DETECTORS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The production of high-quality ternary single-crystal materials for radiation detectors has progressed over the past 15 years. One of the more common materials being studied is CdZnTe (CZT), which can be grown using several methods to produce detector-grade materials. The work presented herein examines the effects of environmental conditions including temperature and humidity on detector performance [full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)] using the single pixel with guard detector configuration. The effects of electrical probe placement, reproducibility, and aging are also presented.

Washington, A.; Duff, M.; Teague, L.

2010-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

410

SYNCHROTRON X-RAY BASED CHARACTERIZATION OF CDZNTE CRYSTALS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synthetic CdZnTe or 'CZT' crystals can be used for the room temperature-based detection of {gamma}-radiation. Structural/morphological heterogeneities within CZT, such as twinning, inclusions, and polycrystallinity can affect detector performance. We used a synchrotron-based X-ray technique, specifically extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, to determine whether there are differences on a local structural level between intact CZT of high and low radiation detector performance. These studies were complemented by data on radiation detector performance and transmission IR imaging. The EXAFS studies revealed no detectable local structural differences between the two types of CZT materials.

Duff, M

2006-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

411

Method for preparing homogeneous single crystal ternary III-V alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing homogenous single crystal III--V ternary alloys of high crystal perfection using a floating crucible system in which the outer crucible holds a ternary alloy of the composition desired to be produced in the crystal and an inner floating crucible having a narrow, melt-passing channel in its bottom wall holds a small quantity of melt of a pseudo-binary liquidus composition which would freeze into the desired crystal composition. The alloy of the floating crucible is maintained at a predetermined lower temperature than the alloy of the outer crucible, and a single crystal of the desired homogeneous alloy is pulled out of the floating crucible melt, as melt from the outer crucible flows into a bottom channel of the floating crucible at a rate that corresponds to the rate of growth of the crystal.

Ciszek, T.F.

1990-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

412

Computational Models for Crystal Growth of Radiation Detector Materials: Growth of CZT by the EDG Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crystals are the central materials element of most gamma radiation detection systems, yet there remains surprisingly little fundamental understanding about how these crystals grow, how growth conditions affect crystal properties, and, ultimately, how detector performance is affected. Without this understanding, the prospect for significant materials improvement, i.e., growing larger crystals with superior quality and at a lower cost, remains a difficult and expensive exercise involving exhaustive trial-and-error experimentation in the laboratory. Thus, the overall goal of this research is to develop and apply computational modeling to better understand the processes used to grow bulk crystals employed in radiation detectors. Specifically, the work discussed here aims at understanding the growth of cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), a material of long interest to the detector community. We consider the growth of CZT via gradient freeze processes in electrodynamic multi-zone furnaces and show how crucible mounting and design are predicted to affect conditions for crystal growth. (authors)

Derby, Jeffrey J.; Gasperino, David [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0132 (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Proton Irradiation Response of CsI(Tl) Crystals for the GLAST Calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

The electromagnetic calorimeter of the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) consists of 16 towers of CsI(Tl) crystals. Each tower contains 8 layers of crystals (each 326.0 x 26.7 x 19.9 mm{sup 3}) arranged in a hodoscopic fashion. The crystals are read out at both ends with photodiodes. Crystals produced by Amcrys-H (Ukraine) are used. A full size crystal was irradiated with a 180 MeV proton beam and the radiation induced attenuation was measured. The induced radioactivity of the crystal was also studied. In this paper we will discuss the damage due to proton irradiation and compare this with the expected in-orbit background flux.

Bergenius, S.; Carius, S.; Carlson, P.; Grove, J.E.; Johansson, G.; Klamra, W.; Nilsson, L.; Pearce, M.; Metzler, S.D.

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

414

Electro-optic crystal mosaics for the generation of terahertz radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for the generation of high energy terahertz radiation is presented and comprises laser means effective to produce subpicosecond optical pulses and a mosaic comprising a plurality of planar electro-optic crystals fastened together edge to edge in the form of a grid. The electro-optic crystals are in optical communication with the subpicosecond optical pulses, and behave as a single large electro-optic crystal, producing high energy terahertz radiation by way of optical rectification. 5 figs.

Carrig, T.J.; Taylor, A.J.; Stewart, K.R.

1996-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

415

Crystal-based approach to beam collimation in RHIC and SNS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bent crystal serving as a scraper of the beam collimation system can channel halo particles directly into the absorber. By means of computer simulations, we analyse the capabilities of crystal technique for the beam cleaning process. Two applications are considered: the crystal collimator now being installed into RHIC for cleaning of the fully stripped gold ions, and a similar system being developed for the Accumulator Ring of the Spallation Neutron Source.

V. M. Biryukov; N. Catalan-Lasheras; A. Drees; N. Malitsky; D. Trbojevic

2001-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

416

Comment on "Quantum Time Crystals": a new paradigm or just another proposal of perpetuum mobile?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Comment on Frank Wilczek's paper "Quantum Time Crystals" (Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 160401 (2012); arXiv:1202.2539).

Patrick Bruno

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

417

Corrosion Control and Lay-up of the Crystal River-3 Steam ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 1, 1999 ... Corrosion Control and Lay-up of the Crystal River-3 Steam Generators and Secondary Plant during an Extended Outage by R.H. Thompson ...

418

Testing LaMgAl11O19 crystal for X-ray spectroscopy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We investigated the properties of the rare earth crystal LaMgAl{sub 11}O{sub 19} and its application to soft X-ray spectroscopy. Its relative reflectivity and half width rocking curve were measured to up to the reflection order of 28. In addition, a comparative measurement of the iron L-shell soft X-ray line emission was made on the EBIT-I Livermore electron beam ion trap by fielding the LaMgAl{sub 11}O{sub 19} crystal side by side with a rubidium hydrogen phthalate crystal in a flat crystal spectrometer. From these measurements, reflectivity and spectral resolving power were determined.

Chen, H; Beiersdorfer, P; Baronova, E; Kalashnikova, I; Stepanenko, M

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

419

In-situ neutron diffraction and crystal plasticity modeling of ?-Uranium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present study uses a combination of in-situ neutron diffraction and crystal plasticity modeling to elucidate the deformation mechanisms active in ?-Uranium.

420

Surface and Edge Quality Variation in Precision Machining of Single Crystal and Polycrystalline Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

single crystal cutting of b brass. Ann. CIRP, 1980, 8 Sato,micromilling of microgrooves on brass and stainless steelin microcutting of brass as a function of crystallographic

Min, Sangkee; Lee, D.E.; de Grave, A.; Valente, Carlos M. O.; Lin, J.; Dornfeld, David

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Surface and Edge Quality Variation in Precision Machining of Single Crystal and Polycrystalline Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single Crystal Cutting of b Brass,” Annals of the CIRP, vol.in microcutting of brass as a function of crystallographicmicromilling of microgrooves on brass and stainless steel

Min, Sangkee; Lee, Dae-Eun; de Grave, Arnaud; De Oliveira Valente, Carlos M; Lin, Judy; Dornfeld, David A

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Vise Squad: Putting the Squeeze on a Crystal Leads to Novel ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vise Squad: Putting the Squeeze on a Crystal Leads to Novel Electronics. ... Almost exactly two years ago, a team led by Joseph Woicik of NIST and ...

2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

423

Rene' N4: A First Generation Single Crystal Turbine Airfoil Alloy with ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

GE Aircraft Engine's first generation single crystal (SX) turbine airfoil alloy, Rene N ..... Aircraft Engines, and Warren King who is now with GE Power. Generation ...

424

Study on Nucleation and Growth Mechanism of Iron Crystal Grain in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Study on Nucleation and Growth Mechanism of Iron Crystal Grain in Coal-Based Shaft Furnace Direct Reduction Iron Pellets by Microwave ...

425

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of LipidsChapter 12 Solid Fat Index vs. Solid Fat Content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of Lipids Chapter 12 Solid Fat Index vs. Solid Fat Content Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry   Downloadable pdf of C

426

The use of carbonation and fractional evaporative crystallization in the pretreatment of Hanford nuclear wastes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this work was to explore the use of fractional evaporative crystallization as a technology that can be used to separate medium-curie waste… (more)

Dumont, George Pierre, Jr.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Parameterization of the scattering and absorption properties of individual ice crystals  

SciTech Connect

We present parameterizations of the single-scattering properties for individual ice crystals of various habits based on the results computed from the accurate light scattering calculations. The projected area, volume, and single-scattering properties of ice crystals with various shapes and sizes are computed for 56 narrow spectral bands covering 0.2-5 {mu}m. The ice crystal habits considered in this study are hexagonal plates, solid and hollow columns, planar and spatial bullet rosette, and aggregates that are commonly observed in cirrus clouds. Using the observational relationships between the aspect ratios and the sizes of ice crystals, we can define the three-dimensional structure of these ice crystal habits with respect to their maximum dimensions for light scattering calculations. The volume and projected area of ice crystals, expressed in terms of the diameters of the corresponding equivalent spheres, are first parameterized by employing the ice crystal maximum dimensions. Further, various analytical expressions as functions of the effective dimensions of ice crystals have been developed to parameterize the extinction and absorption efficiencies, asymmetry factor, and the truncation of the forward peak energy in the phase function. The present parameterization scheme provides an efficient approach to obtain the basic scattering and absorption properties of nonspherical ice crystals. (c) 2000 American Geophysical Union.

Yang, Ping [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles (United States)] [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Liou, K. N. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles (United States)] [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Wyser, Klaus [Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)] [Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Mitchell, David [Atmospheric Sciences Center, Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada (United States)] [Atmospheric Sciences Center, Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada (United States)

2000-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

428

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of LipidsChapter 20 Polymorphism and Texture of Fats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of Lipids Chapter 20 Polymorphism and Texture of Fats Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry   Downloadable pdf of Chapte

429

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of LipidsChapter 1 Molecular Aspects in Fat Polymorphism  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crystallization and Solidification Properties of Lipids Chapter 1 Molecular Aspects in Fat Polymorphism Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry   Downloadable pdf of Ch

430

NETL: Gasification - Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber Sensor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gasifier Optimization and Plant Supporting Systems Gasifier Optimization and Plant Supporting Systems Single-Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber Sensor Instrumentation Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Center for Photonics Technology Project Number: DE-FC26-99FT40685 Project Description Phase I - The Photonics Laboratory at Virginia Tech has successfully developed a novel temperature sensor capable of operating at temperatures up to 1600 °C and in harsh conditions. The sensor uses single-crystal sapphire to make an optically-based measurement and will fulfill the need for the real-time monitoring of high temperatures created in gasification processes. Phase II - Based on a successful Phase I laboratory demonstration of a Broadband Polarimetric Differential Interferometric (BPDI) temperature sensor, Virginia Tech's Phase II development objective is to further the development of the sensor for industrial use in slagging coal gasifiers. This will include ruggedizing the design of the sensor and creation of a suitable protective housing such that it can be placed into existing ports of coal gasifiers. The potential industrial use of the sensor will be determined through full-scale testing and development. The sensor design and fabrication has been completed and is undergoing testing. Overall performance and survivability of the sensor will be determined.

431

Applications of Mechanical Vapor Recompression to Evaporation and Crystallization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the past 10-15 years, mechanical vapor recompression (MVR) has become the preferred system in many industrial evaporation and crystallization applications, because of its economy and simplicity of operation. In most instances, the need for steam to provide heat for the evaporation and cooling water for condensing the overhead vapors is virtually eliminated; and, at the same time, a wide range of turndown is available. An MVR is generally found to be the most economical choice when there is no boiler plant available or when electrical power is priced competitively in comparison to steam. Vapor recompression is accomplished using centrifugal, axial-flow, or positive displacement compressors and these compressors can be powered by electricity, steam turbine or a gas turbine. The use of an MVR Evaporator/Crystallizer provides a comparatively low cost means of expanding the production capability of an existing evaporation plant either by adding a "stand alone" unit or by reconfiguring a multiple-effect system into several single-effect MVR's.

Outland, J. S.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Stable and metastable hard sphere crystals in Fundamental Measure Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using fully minimized fundamental measure functionals, we investigate free energies, vacancy concentrations and density distributions for bcc, fcc and hcp hard-sphere crystals. Results are complemented by an approach due to Stillinger which is based on expanding the crystal partition function in terms of the number n of free particles while the remaining particles are frozen at their ideal lattice positions. The free energies of fcc/hcp and one branch of bcc agree well with Stillinger's approach truncated at n=2. A second branch of bcc solutions features rather spread-out density distributions around lattice sites and large equilibrium vacancy concentrations and is presumably linked to the shear instability of the bcc phase. Within fundamental measure theory and the Stillinger approach (n=2), hcp is more stable than fcc by a free energy per particle of about 0.001 k_{B}T. In previous simulation work, the reverse situation has been found which can be rationalized in terms of effects due to a correlated motion of at least 5 particles in the Stillinger picture.

Mohammad Hossein Yamani; Martin Oettel

2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

433

Horizontal well taps bypassed Dundee oil in Crystal field, Mich.  

SciTech Connect

The Dundee formation (Middle Devonian) has yielded more oil than any other producing interval in Michigan. The Dundee trend, which forms an east-west band across the central Michigan basin, consists of 137 fields which together have yielded more than 350 million bbl of oil. The first commercial Dundee production was established at Mt. Pleasant field in 1928, and most Dundee fields were discovered and brought on production during the 1930s--40s. Wells in many of the fields had very high initial production (IP) rates. IPs in excess of 1,000 b/d of oil were common, with values as high as 9,000 b/d reported. These high flow rates, combined with a thin (10--30 ft) oil column and a strong water drive, resulted in water coning that left significant volumes of oil unrecovered in some fields. One such field, Crystal field in Montcalm County, is the focus of a US Department of energy (DOE) Class 2 Reservoir Demonstration Project designed to demonstrate that horizontal drilling can recover significant volumes of this bypassed oil. The paper describes the demonstration project, regional setting, and the history of the Crystal field.

Wood, J.R.; Allan, J.R.; Huntoon, J.E.; Pennington, W.D. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Harrison, W.B. III [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI (United States); Taylor, E.; Tester, C.J. [Cronus Development Corp., Traverse City, MI (United States)

1996-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

434

Johari–Goldstein relaxation and crystallization of sorbitol to ordered and disordered phases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The equilibrium permittivity ? s and the dielectric relaxation spectra of supercooled liquidD-sorbitol were measured during its crystallization to orientationally disordered or ordered phases depending on the sample preparation procedure at several fixed temperatures up to a period of 6 days. The ? s measurements showed that when the sample was contaminated by a minute amount of crystals

G. Power; J. K. Vij

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

The anisotropic free energy of the Lennard-Jones crystal-melt interface James R. Morris  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The anisotropic free energy of the Lennard-Jones crystal-melt interface James R. Morris Metal; accepted 22 May 2003 We have calculated the free energy of the crystal-melt interface for the Lennard are in good agreement with previous calculations of the free energies, based upon simulations used

Song, Xueyu

436

Tailoring the absorption in a photonic crystal membrane: A modal Romain Peretti*a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

crystal, absorption enhancement, photovoltaic solar cell, indoor solar cell, sensor 1. INTRODUCTION is of prime importance for solar [1] and indoor [2] photovoltaic cells or for sensors [3]. Parallel to this photovoltaic devices and sensors, we propose to implement photonic crystals on thin absorbing layers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

437

ICCG-10: Tenth international conference on crystal growth. Oral presentation abstracts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oral presentation abstracts from the tenth International Conference on Crystal Growth (ICCG) (Aug. 16-21, 1992) are provided. Topics discussed at the conference include superconductors, semiconductors, nucleation, crystal growth mechanisms, and laser materials. Organizing committees, ICCG advisory board and officers, and sponsors of the conference are also included.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Electromigration process for the purification of molten silicon during crystal growth  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the purification of molten materials during crystal growth by electromigration of impurities to localized dirty zones. The process has particular applications for silicon crystal growth according to Czochralski techniques and edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) conditions. In the Czochralski crystal growing process, the impurities are electromigrated away from the crystallization interface by applying a direct electrical current to the molten silicon for electromigrating the charged impurities away from the crystal growth interface. In the EFG crystal growth process, a direct electrical current is applied between the two faces which are used in forming the molten silicon into a ribbon. The impurities are thereby migrated to one side only of the crystal ribbon. The impurities may be removed or left in place. If left in place, they will not adversely affect the ribbon when used in solar collectors. The migration of the impurity to one side only of the silicon ribbon is especially suitable for use with asymmetric dies which preferentially crystallize uncharged impurities along one side or face of the ribbon.

Lovelace, Alan M. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space (San Pedro, CA); Shlichta, Paul J. (San Pedro, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Measuring Crystal Size in Cirrus Using 35- and 94-GHz Radars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are presented from a case study in which coincident 35- and 94-GHz radars located at Chilbolton, England, were used to measure crystal size in cirrus clouds. In the presence of larger crystals the 94-GHz radar scatters sufficiently beyond ...

Robin J. Hogan; Anthony J. Illingworth; Henri Sauvageot

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Arc-melting preparation of single crystal LaB.sub.6 cathodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for preparing single crystals of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB.sub.6) by arc melting a rod of compacted LaB.sub.6 powder. The method is especially suitable for preparing single crystal LaB.sub.6 cathodes for use in scanning electron microscopes (SEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEM).

Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA); Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA)

1977-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Tunable Fano resonance in large scale polymer-dielectric slab photonic crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using interference lithography and deposition technique we have fabricated large scale quasi one dimensional polymer-dielectric photonic crystal that provides sharp and deep Fano resonance in the transmission spectrum of the PC at normal incidence. Due ... Keywords: Interference lithography, Optical switch, Photonic crystals, Polymer, Tunable filter

Reza Asadi; Shahin Bagheri; Mahdi Khaje; Mohammad Malekmohammad; Mohammad-Taghi Tavassoly

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution Aurélien David of photonic crystal PhC -assisted gallium nitride light-emitting diodes LEDs to the existence of unextracted a promising but challenging solution towards efficient solid-state lighting. Conventional GaN-based light-emitting

Recanati, Catherine

443

Far-field radiation of photonic crystal organic light-emitting diode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Far-field radiation of photonic crystal organic light-emitting diode Yong-Jae Lee, Se-Heon Kim, Guk-field profile of a photonic crystal organic light emitting diode is studied to understand the viewing angle.3670) Light- emitting diodes References and links 1. M. R. Krames, H. Amano, J. J. Brown, P. L. Heremans

Lee, Yong-Hee

444

Coupled optical and electronic simulations of electrically pumped photonic-crystal-based LEDs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to investigate design tradeoffs in electrically pumped photonic crystal light emitting diodes. A finite. Keywords: Photonic crystal light emitting diode, electrically pumped device 1. INTRODUCTION Recently optoelectronic devices, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers. It has been suggested that a thin slab

Dutton, Robert W.

445

Discontinuous surface cracks during stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel single crystal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Discontinuous surface cracks during stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel single crystal L Keywords: A. Stainless steel B. SEM C. Stress corrosion a b s t r a c t Single crystal 321 stainless steel, and the river-markings exhibited microshear facets along the {1 1 1} plane. Interaction between the main crack

Volinsky, Alex A.

446

Dye-doped cholesteric-liquid-crystal room-temperature single-photon source*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dye-doped cholesteric-liquid-crystal room-temperature single-photon source* SVETLANA G. LUKISHOVAy, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299, USA (Received 30 June 2003) Abstract. Fluorescence antibunching from single terrylene molecules embedded in a cholesteric-liquid-crystal host is used

Stroud, Carlos R.

447

Nanoimprinted photonic crystals for the modification of the (CdSe)ZnS nanocrystals light emission  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report experimental results of photoluminescence (PL) enhancement in 2D photonic crystals nanoimprinted in functionalized poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) based polymer in which (CdSe)ZnS core-shell luminescent nanocrystals (NCs) have been incorporated. ... Keywords: (CdSe)ZnS nanocrystals, Light extraction, Nanoimprint lithography, Photoluminescence, Photonic crystal

V. Reboud; N. Kehagias; M. Zelsmann; M. Striccoli; M. Tamborra; M. L. Curri; A. Agostiano; D. Mecerreyes; J. A. Alduncín; C. M. Sotomayor Torres

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Liquid Crystal Technique Application for Heat Transfer Investigation in a Fin-Tube Heat Exchanger Element  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of thermochromic liquid crystal technique (LCT) and true-colour image processing system in heat transfer modelling is described. Experimental procedure, led on rig at Technical University of Gdansk, cover full-field flow patterns in heat exchanger ... Keywords: heat transfer, thermochromic liquid crystals, vortex generator, wind tunnel

M. Wierzbowski; J. Stasiek

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

A Hybrid Genetic Algorithm with Pattern Search for Finding Heavy Atoms in Protein Crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Hybrid Genetic Algorithm with Pattern Search for Finding Heavy Atoms in Protein Crystals Joshua L is a technique called iso-morphous replacement, in which crystallographers dope protein crystals with heavy atoms with and without the heavy atoms, the locations of the heavy atoms can be estimated. Once the locations

Eppstein, Margaret J.

450

SIMS Study of Elemental Diffusion During Solid Phase Crystallization of Amorphous Silicon  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films deposited on low-cost substrates shows potential for solar cell applications. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to study impurity incorporation, hydrogen evolution, and dopant diffusion during the crystallization process

Reedy, R. C.; Young, D.; Branz, H. M.; Wang, Q.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Bruker Workshop on Single Crystal X-Ray Diffraction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Diagnosis and Treatment of Problem Structures: Diagnosis and Treatment of Problem Structures: A Bruker Workshop on Single Crystal X-Ray Diffraction May 30, 2008 Chemistry Department University of Tennessee Knoxville, TN This meeting focuses on the scientific resources of four ORNL user facilities funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Who Should Attend Synopsis Goals Scheduled Agenda Workshop Materials Confirmed Speakers Important Dates Registration - now open Location - Directions and Map Sponsors Organizing and Local Committee Contacts Relevant Literature, References, Websites Local Information Bruker - UT Workshop Who Should Attend? The Workshop is directed to the newcomer as well as the experienced user of a Bruker Apex / Apex-II system and SHELX software. It will concentrate on hard to solve and/or refine problem structures. We envision it to be

452

Novel crystal phase in suspensions of hard ellipsoids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a computer simulation study on the crystalline phases of hard ellipsoids of revolution. For aspect ratios greater than or equal to 3 the previously suggested stretched-fcc phase [D. Frenkel and B. M. Mulder, Mol. Phys. 55, 1171 (1985)] is replaced by a novel crystalline phase. Its unit cell contains two ellipsoids with unequal orientations. The lattice is simple monoclinic. The angle of inclination of the lattice, beta, is a very soft degree of freedom, while the two right angles are stiff. For one particular value of beta, the close-packed version of this crystal is a specimen of the family of superdense packings recently reported [Donev et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 255506 (2004)]. These results are relevant for studies of nucleation and glassy dynamics of colloidal suspensions of ellipsoids.

Patrick Pfleiderer; Tanja Schilling

2006-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

453

City of Crystal Falls, Michigan (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Michigan (Utility Company) Michigan (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name City of Crystal Falls Place Michigan Utility Id 4604 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial 1 Phase Commercial Commercial 2 Phase Commercial Large Commercial/Industrial Commercial Residential Residential Average Rates Residential: $0.1490/kWh Commercial: $0.1220/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a"

454

Characteristics of crystallization of complex plasmas in narrow channels  

SciTech Connect

Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to analyze the dependence of the behavior of complex (dusty) plasmas in narrow three-dimensional channels on the confining potential. Dynamics of micrometer-sized particles is modeled by using Langevin thermostat and Yukawa (screened Coulomb) pair interaction potential. A detailed analysis shows that confinement strongly affects plasma crystallization characteristics and local ordering of dust grains. In particular, the formation of a new, quasi-crystalline phase induced by hard-wall confinement is revealed. Transitions between different lattice symmetries induced by changes in channel width are examined. Strong dependence of the transverse dust density profile on the shielding parameter (ratio between mean interparticle distance and screening length) can be used to manipulate the dust-grain flux in such a system.

Klumov, B. A., E-mail: klumov@mpe.pmg.de; Morfill, G. E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik (Germany)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

455

Results from the Crystal Ball at DORIS II  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented from studies of the inclusive photon spectra in hadronic decays of the UPSILON' and UPSILON and the exclusive channel UPSILON' ..-->.. ..gamma gamma..UPSILON ..-->.. ..cap alpha cap alpha..l/sup +/l/sup -/, by the Crystal Ball detector at DORIS II. We measure two signals in the UPSILON' ..-->.. ..gamma.. + anything inclusive channel at E(..gamma..) == 108.3 +- 0.9 +- 3.0 MeV and at E(..gamma..) == 127.5 +- 1.2 +- 4.0 MeV. Branching ratios obtained for these signals are: BR(UPSILON' ..-->.. ..gamma..(108) + anything) == (6.3 +- 1.3 +- 1.4)% BR(UPSILON' ..-->.. ..gamma..(128) + anything) == (6.0 +- 1.3 +- 1.4)%.

Gaiser, J.E.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Quartz crystal microbalance based on passive frequency to voltage converter  

SciTech Connect

In dynamics of evaporation or drying of microdrops from a solid surface, a faster and precise quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is needed. The fast QCM based on frequency to voltage converter is an attractive and powerful tool in the investigation of the dynamic regime of evaporation to translate the frequency shift in terms of a continuous voltage change. The frequency shift monitoring in fast QCM applications is a real challenge for electronic processing interface. Originally developed as a frequency shift processing interface, this novel passive frequency to voltage converter can produce faster, stable, and accurate results in regard to the QCM sensor behavior. In this article, the concept and circuit of passive frequency to voltage converter will be explained followed by static and dynamic characterization. Experimental results of microdrops evaporation will be given.

Burda, Ioan; Tunyagi, Arthur [Department of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, 400084 (Romania)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

457

Effective Light Dynamics in Photonic Crystals: Isotropic Perturbations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, we establish effective dynamics for light from a limited frequency range propagating in an isotropic photonic crystal that is modulated on the macroscopic level. We do that by reformulating the dynamical Maxwell equations as a Schr\\"odinger-type equation and adapting space-adiabatic perturbation theory. Just like in the case of the Bloch electron, we obtain a simpler, effective Maxwell operator which governs the dynamics for states from a relevant almost invariant subspace. A correct physical interpretation for the effective dynamics necessitates to establish two additional facts about the almost invariant subspace: (1) its elements need to verify the source-free condition and (2) it must contain real-valued elements.

Giuseppe De Nittis; Max Lein

2013-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

458

3-dimensional imaging system using crystal diffraction lenses  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for imaging a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation is provided. Diffracting crystals are used for focussing the radiation and directing the radiation to a detector which is used for analyzing their addition to collect data as to the location of the source of radiation. A computer is used for converting the data to an image. The invention also provides for a method for imaging x-ray and gamma radiation by supplying a plurality of sources of radiation; focussing the radiation onto a detector; analyzing the focused radiation to collect data as to the type and location of the radiation; and producing an image using the data.

Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Dislocation nucleation in bcc Ta single crystals studied by nanoindentation  

SciTech Connect

The study of dislocation nucleation in closed-packed metals by nanoindentation has recently attracted much interest. Here, we address the peculiarities of the incipient plasticity in body centered cubic (bcc) metals using low index Ta single-crystals as a model system. The combination of nanoindentation with high-resolution atomic force microscopy provides us with experimental atomic-scale information on the process of dislocation nucleation and multiplication. Our results reveal a unique deformation behavior of bcc Ta at the onset of plasticity which is distinctly different from that of closed-packed metals. Most noticeable, we observe only one rather than a sequence of discontinuities in the load-displacement curves. This and other differences are discussed in context of the characteristic plastic deformation behavior of bcc metals.

Biener, M M; Biener, J; Hodge, A M; Hamza, A V

2007-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

460

Single crystal metal wedges for surface acoustic wave propagation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ultrasonic testing device has been developed to evaluate flaws and inhomogeneities in the near-surface region of a test material. A metal single crystal wedge is used to generate high frequency Rayleigh surface waves in the test material surface by conversion of a slow velocity, bulk acoustic mode in the wedge into a Rayleigh wave at the metal-wedge test material interface. Particular classes of metals have been found to provide the bulk acoustic modes necessary for production of a surface wave with extremely high frequency and angular collimation. The high frequency allows flaws and inhomogeneities to be examined with greater resolution. The high degree of angular collimation for the outgoing ultrasonic beam permits precision angular location of flaws and inhomogeneities in the test material surface.

Fisher, E.S.

1980-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Single crystal metal wedges for surface acoustic wave propagation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ultrasonic testing device has been developed to evaluate flaws and inhomogeneities in the near-surface region of a test material. A metal single crystal wedge is used to generate high frequency Rayleigh surface waves in the test material surface by conversion of a slow velocity, bulk acoustic mode in the wedge into a Rayleigh wave at the metal-wedge test material interface. Particular classes of metals have been found to provide the bulk acoustic modes necessary for production of a surface wave with extremely high frequency and angular collimation. The high frequency allows flaws and inhomogeneities to be examined with greater resolution. The high degree of angular collimation for the outgoing ultrasonic beam permits precision angular location of flaws and inhomogeneities in the test material surface.

Fisher, Edward S. (Wheaton, IL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Structural conditionality of the piezoelectric properties of langasite family crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The atomic displacements upon isomorphic substitutions in crystals of the langasite family have been analyzed. The thermal parameters are determined and the probability density function of atoms is analyzed. Local potential energy minima are found which can be occupied by atoms under external effects. The contributions of cations in all four independent crystallographic positions and anions in all three such positions to the piezoelectric properties are established. One specific structural feature is the constant (at isomorphic substitutions) or possible (under external effects) but always opposite displacements of two cations along symmetry axis 2. Large cations in eight-vertex polyhedra make the main contribution to the piezoelectric properties. The cations in the tetrahedra on symmetry axis 2 weaken these properties. The cations in the octahedra in the origin of coordinates and in the tetrahedra on symmetry axes 3 only slightly affect the piezoelectricity.

Dudka, A. P., E-mail: dudka@ns.crys.ras.ru; Simonov, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

463

Study on thermal annealing of cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) has attracted increasing interest with its promising potential as a room-temperature nuclear-radiation-detector material. However, different defects in CZT crystals, especially Te inclusions and dislocations, can degrade the performance of CZT detectors. Post-growth annealing is a good approach potentially to eliminate the deleterious influence of these defects. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), we built up different facilities for investigating post-growth annealing of CZT. Here, we report our latest experimental results. Cd-vapor annealing reduces the density of Te inclusions, while large temperature gradient promotes the migration of small-size Te inclusions. Simultaneously, the annealing lowers the density of dislocations. However, only-Cd-vapor annealing decreases the resistivity, possibly reflecting the introduction of extra Cd in the lattice. Subsequent Te-vapor annealing is needed to ensure the recovery of the resistivity after removing the Te inclusions.

Yang, G.; Bolotnikov, A.E.; Fochuk, P.M.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Kim, K.; Horace, J.; McCall, B.; Gul, R.; Xu, L.; Kopach, O.V.; and James, R.B.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Cold chemistry with electronically excited Ca{sup +} Coulomb crystals  

SciTech Connect

Rate constants for chemical reactions of laser-cooled Ca{sup +} ions and neutral polar molecules (CH{sub 3}F, CH{sub 2}F{sub 2}, or CH{sub 3}Cl) have been measured at low collision energies (/k{sub B}=5-243 K). Low kinetic energy ensembles of {sup 40}Ca{sup +} ions are prepared through Doppler laser cooling to form ''Coulomb crystals'' in which the ions form a latticelike arrangement in the trapping potential. The trapped ions react with translationally cold beams of polar molecules produced by a quadrupole guide velocity selector or with room-temperature gas admitted into the vacuum chamber. Imaging of the Ca{sup +} ion fluorescence allows the progress of the reaction to be monitored. Product ions are sympathetically cooled into the crystal structure and are unambiguously identified through resonance-excitation mass spectrometry using just two trapped ions. Variations of the laser-cooling parameters are shown to result in different steady-state populations of the electronic states of {sup 40}Ca{sup +} involved in the laser-cooling cycle, and these are modeled by solving the optical Bloch equations for the eight-level system. Systematic variation of the steady-state populations over a series of reaction experiments allows the extraction of bimolecular rate constants for reactions of the ground state ({sup 2}S{sub 1/2}) and the combined excited states ({sup 2}D{sub 3/2} and {sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) of {sup 40}Ca{sup +}. These results are analyzed in the context of capture theories and ab initio electronic structure calculations of the reaction profiles. In each case, suppression of the ground state rate constant is explained by the presence of a submerged or real barrier on the ground state potential surface. Rate constants for the excited states are generally found to be in line with capture theories.

Gingell, Alexander D.; Bell, Martin T.; Oldham, James M.; Softley, Timothy P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Chemistry Research Laboratory, Oxford OX1 3TA (United Kingdom); Harvey, Jeremy N. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom)

2010-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

465

HYDROGEN CHEMISORPTION ON Pt SINGLE CRYSTAL SURFACES IN ACIDIC SOLUTIONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen chemisorption from dilute acidic solution onto Pt single crystal surfaces was examined using an electrochemical cell directly coupled to LEED/Auger analytical system. No pre-anodization was used prior to observing hydrogen adsorption by cyclic voltammetry so that clean surfaces having the ordered structures indicated by LEED were studied. The problem of contributions from non-ordered parts of the electrode like support wires and edges was solved by using a gold evaporation masking technique. The specific contribution of atomic imperfections to the voltammetry curve was deduced from the ordered and countable imperfections occurring on high Miller index single crystal surfaces that have a stepped structure. The H-Pt bond energy Has found to be structure sensitive, and sensitive both to local site geometry and long range order in the surface. The bond strength was found to vary systematically: n(111)x(100) > (100) > n(111)x(111) > (110) > (111). Distinct states for hydrogen at steps versus hydrogen on terraces could be distinguished. The (110) surface is shown to be a (111) vicinal, probably the [3(111) x 2(111)] microfacetted surface. The zero coverage heat of adsorption on the well-ordered (111) surface (48 kJ/mol) in solutions is the same as the value reported by Ertl and co-workers for adsorption on a (111) surface in vacuum. Adsorption Isotherms for hydrogen on the (111) and (100) surfaces is adequately fit by the classical model for immobile adsorption at single sites with nearest neighbor repulsive interaction.

Ross, Jr., Philip N.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

A High Resolution Monolithic Crystal, DOI, MR Compatible, PET Detector  

SciTech Connect

The principle objective of this proposal is to develop a positron emission tomography (PET) detector with depth-of-interaction (DOI) positioning capability that will achieve state of the art spatial resolution and sensitivity performance for small animal PET imaging. When arranged in a ring or box detector geometry, the proposed detector module will support <1 mm3 image resolution and >15% absolute detection efficiency. The detector will also be compatible with operation in a MR scanner to support simultaneous multi-modality imaging. The detector design will utilize a thick, monolithic crystal scintillator readout by a two-dimensional array of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) devices using a novel sensor on the entrance surface (SES) design. Our hypothesis is that our single-ended readout SES design will provide an effective DOI positioning performance equivalent to more expensive dual-ended readout techniques and at a significantly lower cost. Our monolithic crystal design will also lead to a significantly lower cost system. It is our goal to design a detector with state of the art performance but at a price point that is affordable so the technology can be disseminated to many laboratories. A second hypothesis is that using SiPM arrays, the detector will be able to operate in a MR scanner without any degradation in performance to support simultaneous PET/MR imaging. Having a co-registered MR image will assist in radiotracer localization and may also be used for partial volume corrections to improve radiotracer uptake quantitation. The far reaching goal of this research is to develop technology for medical research that will lead to improvements in human health care.

Robert S Miyaoka

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

467

X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Extended X-Ray Sources  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Spherically or toroidally curved, double focusing crystals are used in a spectrometer for X-ray diagnostics of an extended X-ray source such as a hot plasma produced in a tokamak fusion experiment to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on plasma parameters such as ion temperature, toroidal and poloidal rotation, electron temperature, impurity ion charge-state distributions, and impurity transport. The imaging properties of these spherically or toroidally curved crystals provide both spectrally and spatially resolved X-ray data from the plasma using only one small spherically or toroidally curved crystal, thus eliminating the requirement for a large array of crystal spectrometers and the need to cross-calibrate the various crystals.

Bitter, Manfred L.; Fraekel, Benjamin; Gorman, James L.; Hill, Kenneth W.; Roquemore, Lane A.; Stodiek, Wolfgang; Goeler, Schweickhard von

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Effects of crystal length on the angular spectrum of spontaneous parametric downconversion photon pairs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of the joint effects of the transverse electric field distribution and of the nonlinear crystal characteristics on the properties of photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC). While it is known that for a sufficiently short crystal the pump electric field distribution fully determines the joint signal-idler properties, for longer crystals the nonlinear crystal properties also play an important role. In this paper we present experimental measurements of the angular spectrum (AS) and of the conditional angular spectrum (CAS) of photon pairs produced by spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC), carried out through spatially-resolved photon counting. In our experiment we control whether or not the source operates in the short-crystal regime through the degree of pump focusing, and explicitly show how the AS and CAS measurements differ in these two regimes. Our theory provides an understanding of the boundary between these two regimes and also predicts the corresponding differing behaviors.

Roberto Ramirez-Alarcon; Hector Cruz-Ramirez; Alfred B. U'Ren

2013-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

469

Effects of crystal length on the angular spectrum of spontaneous parametric downconversion photon pairs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of the joint effects of the transverse electric field distribution and of the nonlinear crystal characteristics on the properties of photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC). While it is known that for a sufficiently short crystal the pump electric field distribution fully determines the joint signal-idler properties, for longer crystals the nonlinear crystal properties also play an important role. In this paper we present experimental measurements of the angular spectrum (AS) and of the conditional angular spectrum (CAS) of photon pairs produced by spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC), carried out through spatially-resolved photon counting. In our experiment we control whether or not the source operates in the short-crystal regime through the degree of pump focusing, and explicitly show how the AS and CAS measurements differ in these two regimes. Our theory provides an understanding of the boundary between these two regi...

Ramirez-Alarcon, Roberto; U'Ren, Alfred B

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Inclusion free cadmium zinc tellurium and cadmium tellurium crystals and associated growth method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present disclosure provides systems and methods for crystal growth of cadmium zinc tellurium (CZT) and cadmium tellurium (CdTe) crystals with an inverted growth reactor chamber. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables growth of single, large, high purity CZT and CdTe crystals that can be used, for example, in X-ray and gamma detection, substrates for infrared detectors, or the like. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables reductions in the presence of Te inclusions, which are recognized as an important limiting factor in using CZT or CdTe as radiation detectors. The inverted growth reactor chamber can be utilized with existing crystal growth techniques such as the Bridgman crystal growth mechanism and the like. In an exemplary embodiment, the inverted growth reactor chamber is a U-shaped ampoule.

Bolotnikov, Aleskey E. (South Setauket, NY); James, Ralph B. (Ridge, NY)

2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

471

Characterization of Ice Crystals in Clouds by Simple Mathematical Expressions Based on Successive Modification of Simple Shapes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The technique based on the concept of successive modification of simple shapes using elementary mathematical functions to represent the shape and size of ice crystals in clouds is discussed. Two hypothetical samples of ice crystals, a single-...

Pao K. Wang

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

A Comprehensive Habit Diagram for Atmospheric Ice Crystals: Confirmation from the Laboratory, AIRS II, and Other Field Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent laboratory experiments and in situ observations have produced results in broad agreement with respect to ice crystal habits in the atmosphere. These studies reveal that the ice crystal habit at ?20°C is platelike, extending to ?40°C, and ...

Matthew P. Bailey; John Hallett

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Novel Protein Crystal Growth Electrochemical Cell For Applications in X-ray Diffraction and Atomic Force Microscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new crystal growth cell based on transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) glass-electrodes for electrochemically assisted protein crystallization allows for reduced nucleation and crystal quality enhancement. The crystallization behavior of lysozyme and ferritin was monitored as a function of the electric current applied to the growth cell. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed that for specific currents, the crystal quality is substantially improved. No conformational changes were observed in the 3D crystallographic structures determined for crystals grown under different electric current regimes. Finally, the strong crystal adhesion on the surface of ITO electrode because of the electroadhesion allows a sufficiently strong fixing of the protein crystals, to undergo atomic force microscopy investigations in a fluid cell.

G Gil-Alvaradejo; R Ruiz-Arellano; C Owen; A Rodriguez-Romero; E Rudino-Pinera; M Antwi; V Stojanoff; A Moreno

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

474

The Influence of Radiative Transfer on the Mass and Heat Budgets of Ice Crystals Failing in the Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A theoretical study was carried out to investigate the effect of radiative heating and cooling on the mass and heat budgets of an ice crystal. Equations describing the radiative budget of an ice crystal were derived and particle absorption ...

Graeme L. Stephens

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Mineral Chemistry of Basalts Recovered from Hotspot Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, Idaho: Source and Crystallization Characteristics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

recovered by Hotspot: Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, Idaho establish crystallization conditionsMineral Chemistry of Basalts Recovered from Hotspot Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, Idaho: Source and Crystallization Characteristics Richard W. Bradshaw A thesis submitted to the faculty

Seamons, Kent E.

476

Single crystal silicon as a macro-world structural material : application to compact, lightweight high pressure vessels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single crystal silicon has promising inherent structural properties which are attractive for weight sensitive applications. Single crystal silicon, however, is a brittle material which makes the usable strength that can ...

Garza, Tanya Cruz

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Nutritionally Enhanced Edible Oil and Oilseed ProcessingChapter 11 Crystallization for Nutritionally Enhanced Fats and Oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nutritionally Enhanced Edible Oil and Oilseed Processing Chapter 11 Crystallization for Nutritionally Enhanced Fats and Oils Processing eChapters Processing Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 11 Crystallization for

478

Anisotropic Interfacial Free Energies of the Hard-Sphere Crystal-Melt Interfaces Yan Mu, Andrew Houk, and Xueyu Song*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anisotropic Interfacial Free Energies of the Hard-Sphere Crystal-Melt Interfaces Yan Mu, Andrew-melt interfacial free energy calculations using capillary wave approach. Using this method, we have calculated the free energies of the fcc crystal-melt interfaces for the hard-sphere system as a function of crystal

Song, Xueyu

479

Study of Horizontally Oriented Ice Crystals with CALIPSO Observations and Comparison with Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer Simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study of Horizontally Oriented Ice Crystals with CALIPSO Observations and Comparison with Monte oriented ice crystals (HOIC) occur frequently in both ice and mixed-phase clouds. When compared with the case for clouds consisting of randomly oriented ice crystals (ROIC), lidar measurements from clouds

Baum, Bryan A.

480

Ann. Geophysicae 14, 1192--1197 (1996) EGS --Springer-Verlag 1996 Pyramidal ice crystal scattering phase functions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

domination in the scattering phase function between 18° and 35°. For solid pyramidal ice crystals randomly phase functions for different ice crystal shapes, such as hexagonal column- and plate-like ice crys- tal. This method has been extended to study the scattering phase functions for more complicated ice crystal shapes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tiny crystals glow" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

CRYSTALLIZATION IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE GLASSES U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF RIVER PROTECTION WTP ENGINEERING DIVISION  

SciTech Connect

Various circumstances influence crystallization in glassmaking, for example: (1) crystals nucleate and grow before the glass-forming melt occurs; (2) crystals grow or dissolve in flowing melt and during changing temperature; (3) crystals move under the influence of gravity; (4) crystals agglomerate and interact with gas bubbles; (5) high-level wastes (HLW) are mixtures of a large number of components in unusual proportions; (6) melter processing of HLW and the slow cooling of HLW glass in canisters provides an opportunity for a variety of crystalline forms to precipitate; (7) settling of crystals in a HLW glass melter may produce undesirable sludge at the melter bottom; and (8) crystallization of the glass product may increase, but also ruin chemical durability. The conclusions are: (1) crystal growth and dissolution typically proceed in a convective medium at changing temperature; (2) to represent crystallization or dissolution the kinetics must be expressed in the form of rate equations, such as dC/dt = f(C,T) and the temperature dependence of kinetic coefficients and equilibrium concentrations must be accounted for; and (3) non-equilibrium phenomena commonly occur - metastable crystallization, periodic distribution of crystals; and dendritic crystal growth.

KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

2009-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

482

The Particle Adventure | How do we experiment with tiny particles? | What  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What makes particles go in a circle? What makes particles go in a circle? What makes particles go in a circle? To keep any object going in a circle, there needs to be a constant force on that object towards the center of the circle. In a circular accelerator, an electric field makes the charged particle accelerate, while large magnets provide the necessary inward force to bend the particle's path in a circle. (In the image to the left, the particle's velocity is represented by the white arrow, while the inward force supplied by the magnet is the yellow arrow.) The presence of a magnetic field does not add or subtract energy from the particles. The magnetic field only bends the particles' paths along the arc of the accelerator. Magnets are also used to direct charged particle beams toward targets and to "focus" the beams, just as optical lenses focus light.

483

"Printing" Tiny Batteries | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Office of Science (SC) Website

for Teachers and Scientists Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Project Assessment Laboratories Ames Laboratory Argonne National...

484

NIST and Partners Identify Tiny Gold Clusters as Top-Notch ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... to catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions, including the oxidation of poisonous carbon monoxide (CO) into harmless carbon dioxide at room ...

2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

485

Si Thin Film Electrode on TiNi Shape Memory Alloy (Current Collector)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

3D Nanostructured Bicontinuous Electrodes: Path to Ultra-High Power and Energy ... High Energy Density Lithium Capacitors Using Carbon-Carbon Electrodes.

486

The single pixel GPS: learning big data signals from tiny coresets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present algorithms for simplifying and clustering patterns from sensors such as GPS, LiDAR, and other devices that can produce high-dimensional signals. The algorithms are suitable for handling very large (e.g. terabytes) streaming data and can be ... Keywords: Douglas Peucker, big data, coresets, line simplification, streaming, trajectories clustering

Dan Feldman; Cynthia Sung; Daniela Rus

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Low-power TinyOS tuned processor platform for wireless sensor network motes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article we describe a low-power processor platform for use in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) nodes (motes). WSN motes are small, battery-powered devices comprised of a processor, sensors, and a radio frequency transceiver. It is expected that ... Keywords: Embedded system design, Wireless Sensor Network, hardware-software codesign, low power processor

R. K. Raval; C. H. Fernandez; C. J. Bleakley

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Tiny web services: design and implementation of interoperable and evolvable sensor networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a web service based approach to enable an evolutionary sensornet system where additional sensor nodes may be added after the initial deployment. The functionality and data provided by the new nodes is exposed in a structured manner, so that ... Keywords: battery life, tcp/ip, web services

Nissanka B. Priyantha; Aman Kansal; Michel Goraczko; Feng Zhao

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Fabrication of Engineered TiNi Matrix Composites with Near-Zero ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Functional Composites: Fluorescent Carbon Nanotubes in Silica Aerogel ... Novel Metallo-Organic Derived Ti-Si-Cr-C-N Nanocomposite Coatings: Part II ...

490

TinyEARS: spying on house appliances with audio sensor nodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fine-grained awareness on how and where energy is spent is being increasingly recognized as the key to conserve energy. While several solutions to monitor the energy consumption patterns for commercial and industrial users exist, energy reporting systems ... Keywords: audio data classification, energy monitoring, house appliances, wireless audio sensor networks

Z. Cihan Taysi; M. Amac Guvensan; Tommaso Melodia

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

A Customized Web Search Engine Using a Tiny WebSQL Query Language  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and indexed to be stored in the search engine's database. When a user enters a #12; 7 search query After the user enters the keywords as the search query, the search engine will perform the search with the stemming, which is the grammatical variation of search terms such as "eat" and "eating". 3. It cannot

492

NREL: News - Novel Enzyme from Tiny Gribble Could Prove a Boon...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kingdom, the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and the University of Kentucky have recently published a paper describing a novel...

493

To grate a liquid into tiny droplets by its impact on a hydrophobic microgrid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on experiments of drop impacting a hydrophobic microgrid of typical spacing a few tens of micrometers. Above a threshold in impact speed

P. Brunet; F. Lapierre; F. Zoueshtiagh; V. Thomy; A. Merlen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Performance of cryogenically cooled, high-heat-load silicon crystal monochromators with porous media augmentation  

SciTech Connect

The performance of two Si crystal x-ray monochromators internally cooled with liquid nitrogen was tested on the F2-wiggler beamline at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). Both crystals were (111)-oriented blocks of rectangular cross section having identical dimensions. Seven 6.4-mm-diameter coolant channels were drilled through the crystals along the beam direction. In one of the crystals, porous Cu mesh inserts were bonded into the channels to enhance the heat transfer. The channels of the second crystal were left as drilled. Symmetric, double-crystal rocking curves were recorded simultaneously for both the first and third order reflections at 8 and 24 keV. The power load on the cooled crystal was adjusted by varying the horizontal beam size using slits. The measured Si(333) rocking curve of the unenhanced crystal at 24 keV at low power was 1.9 arcsec FWHM. The theoretical width is 0.63 arcsec. The difference is due to residual fabrication and mounting strain. For a maximum incident power of 601 W and an average power density of about 10 W/MM{sup 2}, the rocking curve was 2.7 arcsec. The rocking curve for the enhanced crystal at low power was 2.4 arcsec. At a maximum incident power of 1803 W and an average power density of about 19 W/mm{sup 2} the rocking curve width was 2.2 arcsec FWHM. The use of porous mesh augmentation is a simple, but very effective, means to improve the performance of cryogenically cooled Si monochromators exposed to high power x-ray beams.

Rogers, C.S.; Mills, D.M.; Assoufid, L.; Graber, T.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

THE RESULTS OF TESTING TO EVALUATE CRYSTAL FORMATION AND SETTLING IN THE COLD CRUCIBLE INDUCTION MELTER  

SciTech Connect

The Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) technology offers the potential to increase waste loading for High Level Waste (HLW) glasses leading to significant improvements in waste throughput rates compared to the reference Joule Heated Melter (JHM). Prior to implementation of a CCIM in a production facility it is necessary to better understand processing constraints associated with the CCIM. The glass liquidus temperature requirement for processing in the CCIM is an open issue. Testing was conducted to evaluate crystal formation and crystal settling during processing in the CCIM to gain insight into the effects on processing. A high aluminum/high iron content glass composition with known crystal formation tendencies was selected for testing. A continuous melter test was conducted for approximately 51 hours. To evaluate crystal formation, glass samples were obtained from pours and from glass receipt canisters where the glass melt had varying residence time in the melter. Additionally, upon conclusion of the testing, glass samples from the bottom of the melter were obtained to assess the degree of crystal settling. Glass samples were characterized in an attempt to determine quantitative fractions of crystals in the glass matrix. Crystal identity and relative composition were determined using a combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Select samples were also analyzed by digesting the glass and determining the composition using inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). There was evidence of crystal formation (primarily spinels) in the melt and during cooling of the collected glass. There was evidence of crystal settling in the melt over the duration of the melter campaign.

Marra, J.

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

496

Nanostructured crystals of Sr{sub 1-x}R{sub x}F{sub 2+x} fluorite phases and their ordering: 6. Microindentation analysis of crystals  

SciTech Connect

Hardness, crack resistance, brittleness, and effective fracture energy have been studied for crystals of 24 fluorite phases Sr{sub 1-x}R{sub x}F{sub 2+x} (R are 14 rare earth elements (REEs); 0 < x {<=} 0.5) and SrF2 grown by the Bridgman method from a melt. These characteristics change nonlinearly with an increase in the REE content for Sr{sub 1-x}R{sub x}F{sub 2+x} (0 < x {<=} 0.5) with R = La, Nd, Sm, Gd, and Lu; it is maximum in the range x < 0.1 for all REEs. The changes in a number of REEs have been traced for an isoconcentration series of Sr{sub 0.90}R{sub 0.10}F{sub 2.10} crystals (R = La, Nd, Sm, Gd, Ho, Er-Lu, or Y) and crystals (similar in composition) with R = Tb and Dy. The hardness of Sr{sub 1-x}R{sub x}F{sub 2+x} crystals is higher by a factor of {approx}2-3 than that of SrF2. The effect of decrease in microstresses in SrF{sub 2} crystals is confirmed by the isomorphic introduction of R{sup 3+} ions into this crystalline matrix.

Gryaznov, M. Yu., E-mail: fluorides@ns.crys.ras.ru; Shotin, S. V.; Chuvil'deev, V. N.; Marychev, M. O. [Nizhni Novgorod State University, Physicotechnical Research Institute (Russian Federation); Sul'yanova, E. A.; Sul'yanov, S. N.; Sobolev, B. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

497

Quadrupolar Effect on Two Layered Thin Film Antiferroelectric Smectic Liquid Crystal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Within the framework of the discrete Landau phenomenological model, the free energy of an antiferroelectric smectic liquid crystal is analyzed. This model considers the interactions between the liquid crystal molecules within the nearest and the next nearest layers. Electrostatic quadrupolar interaction up to the nearest layers is included. This quadrupolar term, b{sub q{xi}}???{sub i{center_dot}{xi}}???{sub i+1}{sup 2} is positive, thus favouring a perpendicular orientation in the adjacent layer respectively. We show how quadrupolar interaction can affects the planar regions of the phase diagram of a two layered thin antiferroelectric smectic liquid crystal film.

Lum, Chia-Yuee; Ong, Lye-Hock [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Cepic, Mojca [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, Faculty of Education, University of Ljubljana, Kardeljeva pl. 16. 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

498

Slow light enhanced correlated photon pair generation in photonic-crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate the generation of quantum-correlated photon pairs from a Si photonic-crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguide. A slow-light supermode realized by the collective resonance of high-Q and small-mode-volume photonic-crystal cavities successfully enhanced the efficiency of the spontaneous four-wave mixing process. The generation rate of photon pairs was improved by two orders of magnitude compared with that of a photonic-crystal line defect waveguide without a slow-light effect.

Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Kaoru; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Notomi, Masaya; 10.1364/OE.21.008596

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Analysis of plasma-magnetic photonic crystal with a tunable band gap  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, electromagnetic wave propagation through the one-dimensional plasma-magnetic photonic crystal in the presence of external magnetic field has been analyzed. The dispersion relation, transmission and reflection coefficients have been obtained by using the transfer matrix method. It is investigated how photonic band gap of photonic crystals will be tuned when both dielectric function {epsilon} and magnetic permeability {mu} of the constitutive materials, depend on applied magnetic field. This is shown by one dimensional photonic crystals consisting of plasma and ferrite material layers stacked alternately.

Mehdian, H.; Mohammadzahery, Z.; Hasanbeigi, A. [Department of Physics and Plasma Research Institute of Tarbiat Moallem University, 49 Dr Mofatteh Avenue, Tehran 15614 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

500

Sound velocity and attenuation in single-crystal C sub 60  

SciTech Connect

We report the studies of the elasticity of O{sub 60} single crystals. For sublimed fcc crystals, Young's modulus has an 8% jump at the first-order transition at 260 K. At {similar to}160 K there is a frequency-dependent elastic anomaly resulting from time dependent stress relaxation. Comparison with rotation rates seen in NMR suggests that the dynamics below 260 K is more complex than jumps between equivalent molecular configurations. Solvent grown monoclinic crystals have a second-order transition at 242 K, while the 160-K glass transition remains unchanged.

Shi, X.D.; Kortan, A.R.; Williams, J.M.; Kini, A.M.; Savall, B.M.; Chaikin, P.M. (Department of Physics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States) Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States) Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States) / AT T Bell Laboratory, 600 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (