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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tin selenium nanoparticle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Bioavailable nanoparticles obtained in laser ablation of a selenium target in water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The process of producing colloidal solutions of selenium nanoparticles in water using the laser ablation method is described. The prospects of using nanoparticles of elementary selenium as a nutrition source of this microelement are discussed. (nanoparticles)

Kuzmin, P G; Shafeev, Georgii A; Voronov, Valerii V; Raspopov, R V; Arianova, E A; Trushina, E N; Gmoshinskii, I V; Khotimchenko, S A

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

2

Conductive Polymer Binder-Enabled Cycling of Pure Tin Nanoparticle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conductive Polymer Binder-Enabled Cycling of Pure Tin Nanoparticle Conductive Polymer Binder-Enabled Cycling of Pure Tin Nanoparticle Composite Anode Electrodes for a Lithium-Ion Battery Title Conductive Polymer Binder-Enabled Cycling of Pure Tin Nanoparticle Composite Anode Electrodes for a Lithium-Ion Battery Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Xun, Shidi, Xiangyun Song, Vincent S. Battaglia, and Gao Liu Journal Journal of the Electrochemical Society Volume 160 Start Page A849 Issue 6 Pagination A849 - A855 Date Published 01/2013 ISSN 0013-4651 Abstract Pure tin (Sn) nanoparticles can be cycled in stable and high gravimetric capacity (>500 mAh/g) with a polyfluorene-type conductive polymer binder in composite electrodes. Crystalline Sn nanoparticles (<150 nanometers, nm) were used as anode materials in this study. The average diameter of Sn secondary particles is 270 nm, calculated based on BET surface area. The composite electrodes contain a conductive polymer binder that constitutes 2% to 10% of the material, without any conductive additives (e.g., acetylene black). The electrode containing the 5% conductive binder showed the best cycling performance, with a reversible capacity of 510 mAh/g. Crystallinity of Sn particles gradually degrades during cycling, and pulverization of particles was observed after long-term cycling, leading to the capacity fade. The conductive polymer binder shows advantages over other conventional binders, such as Poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) binders, because it can provide electrical conductivity and strong adhesion during Sn volume change.

3

Electromechanical properties of freestanding graphene functionalized with tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Freestanding graphene membranes were functionalized with SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. A detailed procedure providing uniform coverage and chemical synthesis is presented. Elemental composition was determined using scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive x-ray analysis. A technique called electrostatic-manipulation scanning tunneling microscopy was used to probe the electromechanical properties of functionalized freestanding graphene samples. We found ten times larger movement perpendicular to the plane compared to pristine freestanding graphene and propose a nanoparticle encapsulation model.

Dong, L. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Department of Physics, Astronomy, and Materials Science, Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri 65897 (United States); Hansen, J. [Department of Physics, Astronomy, and Materials Science, Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri 65897 (United States); Xu, P.; Ackerman, M. L.; Barber, S. D.; Schoelz, J. K.; Qi, D.; Thibado, P. M. [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States)

2012-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

4

Tin (Sn)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...Tin phase Interatomic distance, nm Number of neighbors α tin 0.279 4 0.456 8 β tin 0.302 4 0.318 2 0.376 4 Liquid tin (250 °C) 0.338 10 Source: Ref 433...

5

Microwave plasma CVD of NANO structured tin/carbon composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for forming a graphitic tin-carbon composite at low temperatures is described. The method involves using microwave radiation to produce a neutral gas plasma in a reactor cell. At least one organo tin precursor material in the reactor cell forms a tin-carbon film on a supporting substrate disposed in the cell under influence of the plasma. The three dimensional carbon matrix material with embedded tin nanoparticles can be used as an electrode in lithium-ion batteries.

Marcinek, Marek (Warszawa, PL); Kostecki, Robert (Lafayette, CA)

2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

6

Pure Tin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Corrosion of tin exposed in different environments for 10 and 20 years...? ? Marine (Florida) 0.0023 0.09 ? ? Marine (California) ? ? 0.0029 0.11 Semiarid ? ? 0.00044 0.017 Rural 0.00049 0.019 ? ? (a) Converted from weight

7

It's Elemental - The Element Tin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

carbon. Tin makes up only about 0.001% of the earth's crust and is chiefly mined in Malaysia. Two allotropes of tin occur near room temperature. The first form of tin is called...

8

Review of Selenium Thermodynamic Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilities need accurate equilibrium and nonequilibrium models to predict concentrations of toxic metals, such as selenium, in the environment. A comprehensive review of available information revealed the insufficiency and inaccuracy of selenium thermodynamic data available for equilibrium modeling.

1988-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

9

Chemical Attenuation Reactions of Selenium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selenium, which is often found in trace concentrations in coal combustion wastes, presents significant challenges to utility efforts to quantify its transport in the subsurface. This report focuses on the complex environmental chemistry and geochemistry of selenium to help utility engineers predict the movement of selenium from waste disposal operations.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Nanoparticles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Benjamin Gilbert1, Feng Huang1, Hengzhong Zhang1, Glenn A. Waychunas2, and Benjamin Gilbert1, Feng Huang1, Hengzhong Zhang1, Glenn A. Waychunas2, and Jillian F. Banfield1,2 1Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California at Berkeley 2Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Using synchrotron techniques, Benjamin Gilbert and colleagues in Jill Banfield's group at the University of California - Berkeley and Glenn Waychunas at LBNL have determined how the equilibrium structure and lattice dynamics of zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles differ from bulk ZnS. They combined size and shape information from small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) with structure information from wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) to analyze structural differences in the real-space pair distribution function (PDF). By combining SAXS and WAXS, they were able to remove the small-particle size contribution to x-ray diffraction peak broadening and quantify the excess disorder and strain in the nanoparticles relative to bulk ZnS.

11

Kinds of Scrap Tin Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...tin that is usually fairly high in tin content. Prices for this type are quoted in American Metal Market. The specific scrap grades within this type??block tin, and high-tin babbitt and pewter??are consistent enough to identify and define....

12

Production of selenium-72 and arsenic-72  

SciTech Connect

Methods for producing selenium-72, separating it from its daughter isotope arsenic-72, and generating multiple portions of a solution containing arsenic-72 from a reusable parent substance comprised of selenium-72.

Phillips, Dennis R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

What is a TIN/EIN?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TIN/EIN Information. As ... number. Please see the following Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for information. What is a TIN/EIN? ...

2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

14

Vacuum Distillation Refining of Crude Tin - Thermodynamics ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Vacuum Distillation Refining of Crude Tin - Thermodynamics Analysis and Experiments on the Removal of Arsenic from the Crude Tin.

15

Selenium metabolite levels in human urine after dosing selenium in different chemical forms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been well known that selenium in marine fish such as tuna and swordfish protects the toxicity of methylmercury in vivo. The protective potency might depend on the chemical forms of selenium in the meat of marine fish sebastes and sperm whale. Little has been revealed, however, on the chemical forms of selenium in the meat of these animals or the selenium metabolites in urine, because the amount of the element is very scarce. Urine is the major excretory route for selenium. The chemical forms of urinary selenium may reflect the metabolism of the element. We have developed methodology for analysis of selenium-containing components in human urine. Using this method, we have observed the time courses of excretory levels of urinary selenium components after a single dose of selenium as selenious acid, selenomethionine, trimethylselenonium ion or tuna meat. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Hasunuma, Ryoichi; Tsuda, Morizo; Ogawa, Tadao; Kawanishi, Yasuhiro [Kitasato Univ., Kanagawa (Japan)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Health and Ecological Effects of Selenium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selenium is a naturally occurring element that can be found at background levels in food, soil, and water. It is also present in coal combustion products (CCPs) and CCP leachate. While selenium is essential to human and animal life, it has the potential to cause toxicity to humans and other organisms above a certain threshold level. This report summarizes the adverse human and ecological effects that can potentially occur from overexposure to selenium and the levels at which the effects can occur, with p...

2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

17

Production of selenium-72 and arsenic-72  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and apparatus for producing selenium-72, separating it from its daughter isotope arsenic-72, and generating multiple portions of a solution containing arsenic-72 from a reusable parent substance comprised of selenium-72. The invention provides apparatus which can be located at a site where arsenic-72 is used, for purposes such as PET imaging, to produce arsenic-72 as needed, since the half-life of arsenic-72 is very short.

Phillips, Dennis R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Production of selenium-72 and arsenic-72  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and apparatus for producing selenium-72, separating it from its daughter isotope arsenic-72, and generating multiple portions of a solution containing arsenic-72 from a reusable parent substance comprised of selenium-72. The invention provides apparatus which can be located at a site where arsenic-72 is used, for purposes such as PET imaging, to produce arsenic-72 as needed, since the half-life of arsenic-72 is very short.

Phillips, Dennis R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

\\Chemical Constituents in Coal Combustion Product Leachate: Selenium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selenium is a common constituent in coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) and can be found in CCP leachate. The chemical profile provided here assembles and summarizes existing information on seleniums environmental characteristics, which are focused on conditions associated with CCP management. Extensive references provide a means for obtaining more detailed information on specific subject areas. The following topics are covered: 1) occurrence and sources of selenium; 2) environmental ...

2013-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

20

Infrared Images of Shock-Heated Tin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-resolution, gated infrared images were taken of tin samples shock heated to just below the 505 K melting point. Sample surfaces were either polished or diamond-turned, with grain sizes ranging from about 0.05 to 10 mm. A high explosive in contact with a 2-mm-thick tin sample induced a peak sample stress of 18 GPa. Interferometer data from similarly-driven tin shots indicate that immediately after shock breakout the samples spall near the free (imaged) surface with a scab thickness of about 0.1 mm.

Craig W. McCluskey; Mark D. Wilke; William D. Turley; Gerald D. Stevens; Lynn R. Veeser; Michael Grover

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tin selenium nanoparticle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

120122013 General Bulletin US TIN S TATE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

12012­2013 General Bulletin S TEPHENF.A US TIN S TATE UNIVERSITY 1 9 2 3 General Bulletin FOr 2012­2013 ..............................................................................................................................8 University Calendar for 2012-2013................................................................................................................. 10 May-mester, 2013

Long, Nicholas

22

Selenium in Oklahoma ground water and soil  

SciTech Connect

Selenium with a consumption of 2 liters per day (5). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of Se in Oklahoma ground water and soil samples. (2) to map the geographical distribution of Se species in Oklahoma. (3) to relate groundwater depth, pH and geology with concentration of Se.

Atalay, A.; Vir Maggon, D.

1991-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

23

Evaluation of Selenium Species in Flue Gas Desulfurization Waters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a process used in the electrical power industry to remove sulfur dioxide from flue gas produced by coal-fired power plants. The trace element selenium is found in coal and can become concentrated in the wastewater from the FGD process. Some chemical forms, or species, of selenium are more resistant to removal by water treatment processes than others; thus, understanding the speciation of selenium is important to designing effective wastewater treatment systems. In additi...

2009-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

24

99M-Technetium labeled tin colloid radiopharmaceuticals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved 99m-technetium labeled tin(II) colloid, size-stabilized for reticuloendothelial organ imaging without the use of macromolecular stabilizers and a packaged tin base reagent and an improved method for making it are disclosed.

Winchell, Harry S. (Lafayette, CA); Barak, Morton (Walnut Creek, CA); Van Fleet, III, Parmer (Walnut Creek, CA)

1976-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

25

Design and fabrication of a tin-sulfide annealing furnace  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A furnace was designed and its heat transfer properties were analyzed for use in annealing thin-film tins-ulfide solar cells. Tin sulfide has been explored as an earth abundant solar cell material, and the furnace was ...

Lewis, Raymond, S.M. (Raymond A.) Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Lead-Free Surface Finishes for Electronic Components: Tin ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... tin with the substrate. Our focused ion beam (FIB) milling has revealed this internal microstructure. We have also developed ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

27

Nanoparticle Metrology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Demonstrated more than an order of magnitude improvement in the ability to trap and manipulate nanoparticles while enhancing positioning ...

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

28

Electron Microscopy Study of Tin Whisker Growth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The growth of tin whiskers formed on sputtered tin layers deposited on brass was studied using electron microscopy. The occurrence of whiskers appeared to be largely independent of the macroscopic stress state in the film; rather it was microscopic compressive stresses arising from the formation of an intermetallic phase that appeared to be the necessary precursor. Whisker morphology was a result of whether nucleation had occurred on single grains or on multiple grains. In the latter case, the whiskers had a fluted or striated surface. The formation of whiskers on electron transparent samples was demonstrated. These samples showed the whiskers were monocrystalline and defect free, and that the growth direction could be determined.

Norton, Murray G. (Washington State University); Lebret, Joel (8392)

2003-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

29

Fate and Effects of Selenium in Lentic and Lotic Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document summarizes existing knowledge on the biological fate and effects of selenium in aquatic systems, with an emphasis on differences between flowing (lotic) versus standing (lentic) systems. The report is divided into three main areas: selenium chemistry and biogeochemistry, fate and disposition, and effects.

2006-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

30

How Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus Utilize Selenium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus How Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus Utilize Selenium How Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus Utilize Selenium Print Monday, 12 March 2012 13:50 Due to drought and limited freshwater supplies, the increased accumulation of naturally occurring salts, boron (B), and selenium (Se) has worsened in some agricultural areas, such as in the west side of the San Joaquin Valley, California. Growing Se-biofortified crops is an emerging method for utilizing these "semiretired lands" because the nutraceutical benefits of enhancing organic Se, an essential micronutrient in crops, is concomitant with the phytoremediation of inorganic Se pollutants. Researchers from the U.S. Department of Agriculture used ALS Beamline 10.3.2 to study the chemical forms and distribution of Se in the attractive alternative crop Opuntia ficus-indica, an edible spineless prickly pear cactus that tolerates both drought and adverse saline- and B-impacted soil conditions while accumulating and volatilizing organic Se. Micro x-ray fluorescence (mXRF) mapping showed Se concentrated in the tips of the plant's cladodes (edible pads), cladode vasculature, and seed embryos. Se K-edge x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy demonstrated that >90% of total Se in cladodes, fruit juice, fruit pulp, and seeds is in organic form (C-Se-C). Cladode tips contain both inorganic selenate (SeO42-) and C-Se-C. Enzymatic digestion confirmed that Se was mainly present in a "free," non-proteinaceous form inside cladode and fruit, whereas in the seed, Se was incorporated into proteins associated with lipids.

31

Identification of Unknown Selenium Species in Flue Gas Desulfurization Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a process used in the electrical power industry to remove sulfur dioxide (SO2) from flue gas produced by coal-fired power plants. In a wet FGD system, circulating water must be periodically blown down and treated to remove solids and dissolved chemicals. Along with SO2, other substances in flue gas may dissolve in water, including selenium (Se). In addition to the common selenium species selenite and selenate, past research has identified selenium-containing species that...

2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

32

Detailed sequential extraction study of selenium in coal and coal-associated strata from a coal mine in West Virginia.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study of the mode of occurrence and distribution of selenium in a rock core from southcentral West Virginia reveals that total selenium concentration varies (more)

Roy, Mimi.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Nanocomposite Carbon/Tin Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries ...  

An approach developed by Robert Kostecki and Marek Marcinek of Berkeley Lab has given rise to a new generation of nanostructured carbon-tin films that ...

34

Reliability of Copper Wire Bonding on Copper Substrate with Tin ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Suitable bonding conditions, Tin thickness, stage temperature, wire bonding power and bonding time are chosen through wire bonding tests. Peel strength of a...

35

Silicon/Graphite Tin Nano-structured Composites Synthesized by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Silicon/Graphite Tin Nano-structured Composites Synthesized by High Energy Mechanical Milling for Lithium-ion Rechargeable Batteries...

36

Arsenic and Selenium Treatment Technology Summary for Power Plant Wastewaters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the most suitable technologies available for the removal of arsenic and selenium from power plant wastewaters. The information stems from literature searches and the authors' experience in wastewater treatment systems from generally non-power plant sources since there are limited operating experiences for power plant applications. The report lists existing and potential technologies that meet the treatment goals of reducing arsenic and selenium to the levels set for U.S. En...

2004-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

37

THE NATURE AND IMPORTANCE OF SELENIUM METABOLITES IN THE ANIMAL  

SciTech Connect

Although the toxicity of selenium has been known for several decades and its essentiality has been established for over one decade, very little is known concerning the organic forms of selenium occurring within animals and their functions. Dimethyl selenide has been shown to be an exhalation product from rats injected with selenate or selenite. Recently trimethylselenonium ion has been shown to be excreted in the urine of rats receiving selenite. The work reported here concerns the biological activity and metabolism of trimethylselenonium ion.

Halverson, A W; Palmer, I S; Whitehead, E I

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Molten tin reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel elements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel is described. Within a containment vessel, a solid plug of tin and nitride precipitates supports a circulating bath of liquid tin therein. Spent nuclear fuel is immersed in the liquid tin under an atmosphere of nitrogen, resulting in the formation of nitride precipitates. The layer of liquid tin and nitride precipitates which interfaces the plug is solidified and integrated with the plug. Part of the plug is melted, removing nitride precipitates from the containment vessel, while a portion of the plug remains solidified to support the liquid tin and nitride precipitates remaining in the containment vessel. The process is practiced numerous times until substantially all of the precipitated nitrides are removed from the containment vessel.

Heckman, Richard A. (Castro Valley, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Solderability perservative coatings: Electroless tin vs. organic azoles  

SciTech Connect

This paper compares the solderability performance and corrosions ion protection effectiveness of electroless tin coatings versus organic azole films after exposure to a series of humidity and thermal (lead-free solders) cycling conditions. The solderability of immersion tin is directly related to the tin oxide growth on the surface and is not affected by the formation of Sn-Cu intermetallic phases as long as the intermetallic phase is protected by a Sn layer. For a nominal tin thickness of 60{mu}inches, the typical thermal excursions associated with assembly are not sufficient to cause the intermetallic phase to consume the entire tin layer. Exposure to humidity at moderate to elevated temperatures promotes heavy tin oxide formation which leads to solderability loss. In contrast, thin azole films are more robust to humidity exposure; however upon heating in the presence of oxygen, they decompose and lead to severe solderability degradation. Evaluations of lead-free solder pastes for surface mount assembly applications indicate that immersion tin significantly improves the spreading of Sn:Ag and Sn:Bi alloys as compared to azole surface finishes.

Artaki, I.; Ray, U.; Jackson, A.M.; Gordon, H.M. [AT and T Bell Labs., Princeton, NJ (United States); Vianco, P.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Mercury-selenium interactions in the environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to consider the need to control emissions of trace elements and compounds emitted from coal combustion, including coal-fired power plants. Concern has been expressed about emissions of mercury and arsenic, for example, since health effects may be associated with exposure to some of these compounds. By and large, effects of trace element emissions have been considered individually, without regard for possible interactions. To the extent that the relevant environmental pathways and health endpoints differ, this mode of analysis is appropriate. For example, arsenic is considered a carcinogen and mercury affects the brain. However, there may be compelling reasons to consider emissions of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) together: (1) Both Se and Hg are emitted from power plants primarily as vapors. (2) Hg and Se are both found in fish, which is the primary pathway for Hg health effects. (3) Se has been shown to suppress Hg methylation in aqueous systems, which is a necessary step for Hg health effects at current environmental concentrations. (4) Se is a trace element that is essential for health but that can also be toxic at high concentrations; it can thus have both beneficial and adverse health effects, depending on the dosage. This paper reviews some of the salient characteristics and interactions of the Hg-Se system, to consider the hypothesis that the effects of emissions of these compounds should be considered jointly.

Saroff, L. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Lipfert, W.; Moskowitz, P.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Science

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tin selenium nanoparticle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

JV Task - 116 Selenium's Role in the Seafood Safety Issue  

SciTech Connect

Continuing studies under these three funded projects - (JV Task 77 The Health Implications of the Mercury-Selenium Interaction, JV Task 96 Investigating the Importance of the Mercury-Selenium Interaction, and JV Task 116 Selenium's Role in the Seafood Safety Issue) - were performed to determine the effects of different levels of dietary mercury and selenium on the growth and development of test animals, and related tissue analyses, to understand the protective benefits of dietary selenium in reference to low-level exposure to mercury. Maternal exposure to methylmercury from seafood has been found to cause neurodevelopmental harm in children. However, significant nutritional benefits will be lost if fish consumption is needlessly avoided. The results of these studies support the hypothesis that intracellular Se itself is the physiologically important biomolecule and that the harm of mercury toxicity arises when Hg abundance becomes great enough to bind a significant portion of intracellular Se in vulnerable tissues such as the brain. Formation of HgSe limits bioavailability of Se for synthesis of Se-dependent enzymes, particularly in brain tissues. When production of these enzymes is impaired, the loss of their numerous essential functions results in the signs and symptoms of Hg toxicity. The finding that one mole of Se protects against many moles of Hg indicates that its beneficial effect is not due to sequestration of mercury as HgSe but rather due to the biological activity of the Se. Therefore, the selenium content of seafoods must be considered along with their methylmercury contents in evaluating the effect of dietary exposure to mercury.

Nicholas Ralston; Laura Raymond

2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

42

Arsenic and Selenium Speciation in Fly Ash and Wastewater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the work is to predict As and Se behavior in pond wastewater based on coal and power plant characteristics so that utilities will have tools for selection of coals (and blends) that will allow them to meet applicable water quality regulations in the ash pond discharge. Arsenic and selenium were chosen as the focus of this work because the behavior of arsenic and selenium is not well correlated with pH in ash pond water, but with speciation of these oxyanions in the fly ash. Furthermore, ...

2005-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

43

Properties of dc magnetron reactively sputtered TiN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Titanium nitride is of interest for IC fabrication because of its excellent performance as a metallic diffusion barrier. TiN films have been deposited in a batch sputtering system equipped with dc magnetron cathodes

Jim Stimmell

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Optoelectronic Manipulation, Assembly, and Patterning of Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

300-nm thick transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glasspreviously by actuating an indium-tin oxide (ITO) layer as alayer of sputtered indium tin oxide (ITO), with 10 ?/? sheet

Jamshidi, Arash

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Precipitation in a lead calcium tin anode  

SciTech Connect

Samples from a hot rolled sheet of a tin and calcium bearing lead alloy were solution heat treated at 300 Degree-Sign C and cooled down to room temperature at different rates; these samples were left at room temperature to study natural precipitation of CaSn{sub 3} particles. The samples were aged for 45 days before analysing their microstructure, which was carried out in a scanning electron microscope using secondary and backscattered electron detectors. Selected X-ray spectra analyses were conducted to verify the nature of the precipitates. Images were taken at different magnifications in both modes of observation to locate the precipitates and record their position within the images and calculate the distance between them. Differential scanning calorimeter analyses were conducted on selected samples. It was found that the mechanical properties of the material correlate with the minimum average distance between precipitates, which is related to the average cooling rate from solution heat treatment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distance between precipitates in a lead alloy is recorded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relationship between the distance and the cooling rate is established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is found that the strengthening of the alloy depends on the distance between precipitates.

Perez-Gonzalez, Francisco A., E-mail: fco.aurelio@inbox.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Camurri, Carlos G., E-mail: ccamurri@udec.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Carrasco, Claudia A., E-mail: ccarrascoc@udec.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Colas, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.colas@uanl.edu.mx [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

46

Aqueous speciation of selenium during its uptake by green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient, yet elevated Se can be toxic to aquatic organisms. The range of Se concentrations within which Se uptake goes from (more)

Zhang, Xu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Sorption of Arsenic, Mercury, Selenium onto Nanostructured Adsorbent Media and Stabilization via Surface Reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The overall goal of this study is to evaluate the ability of novel nanostructured adsorbent media (NTAs, iron sulfides (FeS2 and FeS)) to remove arsenic, selenium and mercury from ash and scrubber pond effluents. The NTAs aim to enhance arsenic removal from solution compared to conventional adsorbents. The iron sulfides are expected to produce stable residuals for ultimate disposal after removing As, Se and Hg from solution, so that removal of these compounds from wastewaters will not result in contamination of soils and groundwaters. Methods for reliably and economically producing these materials were developed. The synthesized NTAs and iron sulfides were characterized by surface analysis techniques such as XRD, FT-IR, SEM-EDS, TEM, XPS, AFM and N2-adsorption. These analyses indicated that Ti(25)-SBA-15 has highly ordered hexagonal mesopores, MT has interparticle mesopores, pyrite (FeS2) forms crystalline, nonporous rectangular nanoparticles (<500 nm), and mackinawite (FeS) forms amorphous, nonporous nanoparticles (<100 nm). Kinetic and equilibrium tests for As(III, V) removal were conducted with NTAs over a range of pH (4, 7, 9.5). The rates of arsenic uptake were very fast and followed a bi-phasic sorption pattern, where sorption was fast for the first 10 minutes, and then slowed and was almost completed within 200 minutes. Distinct sorption maxima for As(III) removal were observed between pH 7 and pH 9.5 for MT and between pH 4 and pH 7 for Ti(25)-SBA-15. The amount of As(V) adsorbed generally decreased as pH increased. In addition, a surface complexation model (SCM) based on the diffuse layer model (DLM) was used to predict arsenic adsorption envelopes by NTAs under various environmental conditions. The SCM for As(III, V) adsorption by NTAs demonstrated the role of mono- and bidentate surface complexes in arsenic adsorption. A batch reactor system was employed in an anaerobic chamber to conduct experiments to characterize both the removal of As, Se, Hg from solution and their subsequent reactions with iron sulfides. Experiment variables for removal experiments included: contaminant valence state (As(V), As(III), Se(VI), Se(IV), Hg(II)); adsorbent/reactant type (FeS, FeS2); adsorbent/reactant concentration; pH (7, 8, 9, 10); and competing ion (SO42-) concentration (0, 1, 10 mM). Experimental variables for reaction experiments were reaction time (up to 30 days) at pH 8 and oxidation states of contaminants. In addition, the stability of iron sulfides (FeS2, FeS) combined with target compounds was investigated by measuring the ability of the target compounds to resist release to the aqueous phase after removal. These experiments showed that iron sulfides were good adsorbent/reactants for target contaminants in spite of the presence of sulfate. This was particularly true at intermediate concentrations of target compounds. The experiments also demonstrated that iron sulfides interacted with target contaminants in such a way to improve their resistance to being released back to solution as pH was changed. Therefore, this study demonstrates the ability of novel nanostructured adsorbent media to remove arsenic, selenium and mercury from ash and scrubber pond effluents and the ability of iron sulfides to produce residuals that are stable when disposed in landfills.

Han, Dong Suk

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Multivitamin/Multielement Dietary Supplement SRM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... chromium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, phosphorous, potassium, selenium, silicon, tin, vanadium, and zinc. ...

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

49

Magnetic Nanoparticle Metrology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... T2 relaxation times, hysteretic energy loss, etc ... Optimization of magnetic nanoparticle synthesis for ... competition between lattice energies and dipolar ...

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

50

Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene Triple Junction Points  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Carbon-supported metal catalysts are widely used in heterogeneous catalysis and electrocatalysis. In this paper, we report a novel method to deposit metal catalysts and metal oxide nanoparticles on two-dimensional graphene sheets to improve the catalytic performance and stability of the catalyst materials. The new synthesis method allows indium tin oxide (ITO) nanocrystals to be directly grown on functionalized graphene sheets forming the ITO-graphene hybrids. Pt nanoparticles are then deposited to form a special triple-junction structure (Pt-ITO-graphene). Both experimental study and periodic density functional theory calculations show that the supported Pt nanoparticles are stable at Pt-ITO-graphene triple junction points. The new catalyst materials were tested for oxygen reduction for potential applications in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, and they exhibited greatly enhanced stability and activity. The reasons for the high stability and activity of Pt-ITO-graphene are analyzed.

Kou, Rong; Shao, Yuyan; Mei, Donghai; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Wang, Chong M.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Park, Seh K.; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

51

De-alloyed platinum nanoparticles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing de-alloyed nanoparticles. In an embodiment, the method comprises admixing metal precursors, freeze-drying, annealing, and de-alloying the nanoparticles in situ. Further, in an embodiment de-alloyed nanoparticle formed by the method, wherein the nanoparticle further comprises a core-shell arrangement. The nanoparticle is suitable for electrocatalytic processes and devices.

Strasser, Peter (Houston, TX); Koh, Shirlaine (Houston, TX); Mani, Prasanna (Houston, TX); Ratndeep, Srivastava (Houston, TX)

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

52

Magnetism and spin transport studies on indium tin oxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MAGNETISM AND SPIN TRANSPORT STUDIES ON INDIUM TIN OXIDE Ali Moraad Hakimi Darwin College University of Cambridge A dissertation submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Cambridge February 2011 In loving memory of my... Grandfathers, Cyrus and Peter Abstract This dissertation reports on a detailed systematic study of the investigation into using Indium Oxide based materials in next generation spin-transport electronic ap- plications. Initial studies focused on the optimisation...

Hakimi, Ali Moraad Heydar

2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

53

Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell - CellTech Power  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell-CellTech Power Background Direct carbon solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offer a theoretical efficiency advantage over traditional SOFCs operating on gasified carbon (syngas). CellTech Power LLC (CellTech) has been developing a liquid tin anode (LTA) SOFC that can directly convert carbonaceous fuels including coal into electricity without gasification. One of the most significant impediments

54

The Antioxidant Vitamins C & EChapter 15 Vitamin E and Selenium Effects on Differential Gene  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Antioxidant Vitamins C & E Chapter 15 Vitamin E and Selenium Effects on Differential Gene Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 15 Vitam

55

Lag and ghosting in a clinical flat-panel selenium digital mammography system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present measurements of lag and ghosting in a FDA-approved digital mammography system that uses a dielectric/selenium based detector structure. Lag is the carryover of signal from a previous image, whereas ghosting is the reduction of sensitivity caused by previous exposure history of the detector. Data from six selenium units were acquired. For the type of selenium detector tested, and under typical clinical usage conditions, the lag was as high as 0.15% of source signal and the ghosting could be as high as 15%. The amount of lag and ghosting varied from unit to unit. Results were compared with data acquired on a phosphor-based full-field digital mammography system. Modifications in the technology of the selenium detectors appear to have resulted in a marked decrease in both lag and ghosting effects in more recent systems.

Bloomquist, Aili K.; Yaffe, Martin J.; Mawdsley, Gordon E.; Hunter, David M.; Beideck, Daniel J. [Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Fletcher Allan Health Care, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05401 (United States)

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

56

Direct spark plasma erosion synthesis of tin and silicon alloy nano ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

However, silicon and tin must be reduced to the nano-level to mitigate pulverization from drastic volume changes during lithium insertion/extraction. Current...

57

Carbon Encapsulated Platinum Nanoparticles: Growth ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Such patterned assembly of carbon encapsulated nanoparticles was further studied for .... Silica Nanoparticles for His-tagged Proteins Capture and Separation.

58

Selenium hyperaccumulation offers protection from cell disruptor herbivores  

SciTech Connect

Hyperaccumulation, the rare capacity of certain plant species to accumulate toxic trace elements to levels several orders of magnitude higher than other species growing on the same site, is thought to be an elemental defense mechanism against herbivores and pathogens. Previous research has shown that selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation protects plants from a variety of herbivores and pathogens. Selenium hyperaccumulating plants sequester Se in discrete locations in the leaf periphery, making them potentially more susceptible to some herbivore feeding modes than others. In this study we investigate the protective function of Se in the Se hyperaccumulators Stanleya pinnata and Astragalus bisulcatus against two cell disrupting herbivores, the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) and the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae). Astragalus bisulcatus and S. pinnata with high Se concentrations (greater than 650 mg Se kg{sup -1}) were less subject to thrips herbivory than plants with low Se levels (less than 150 mg Se kg{sup -1}). Furthermore, in plants containing elevated Se levels, leaves with higher concentrations of Se suffered less herbivory than leaves with less Se. Spider mites also preferred to feed on low-Se A. bisulcatus and S. pinnata plants rather than high-Se plants. Spider mite populations on A. bisulcatus decreased after plants were given a higher concentration of Se. Interestingly, spider mites could colonize A. bisulcatus plants containing up to 200 mg Se kg{sup -1} dry weight, concentrations which are toxic to many other herbivores. Selenium distribution and speciation studies using microfocused X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) mapping and Se K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the spider mites accumulated primarily methylselenocysteine, the relatively non-toxic form of Se that is also the predominant form of Se in hyperaccumulators. This is the first reported study investigating the protective effect of hyperaccumulated Se against cell-disrupting herbivores. The finding that Se protected the two hyperaccumulator species from both cell disruptors lends further support to the elemental defense hypothesis and increases the number of herbivores and feeding modes against which Se has shown a protective effect. Because western flower thrips and two-spotted spider mites are widespread and economically important herbivores, the results from this study also have potential applications in agriculture or horticulture, and implications for the management of Se-rich crops.

Quinn, Colin F; Freeman, John L; Reynolds, Ray JB; Cappa, Jennifer J; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A; Lindblom, Stormy D; Quinn, Erin K; Bennett, Lindsay E; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth AH

2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

59

Modeling the behavior of selenium in Pulverized-Coal Combustion systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The behavior of Se during coal combustion is different from other trace metals because of the high degree of vaporization and high vapor pressures of the oxide (SeO{sub 2}) in coal flue gas. In a coal-fired boiler, these gaseous oxides are absorbed on the fly ash surface in the convective section by a chemical reaction. The composition of the fly ash (and of the parent coal) as well as the time-temperature history in the boiler therefore influences the formation of selenium compounds on the surface of the fly ash. A model was created for interactions between selenium and fly ash post-combustion. The reaction mechanism assumed that iron reacts with selenium at temperatures above 1200 C and that calcium reacts with selenium at temperatures less than 800 C. The model also included competing reactions of SO{sub 2} with calcium and iron in the ash. Predicted selenium distributions in fly ash (concentration versus particle size) were compared against measurements from pilot-scale experiments for combustion of six coals, four bituminous and two low-rank coals. The model predicted the selenium distribution in the fly ash from the pilot-scale experiments reasonably well for six coals of different compositions. (author)

Senior, Constance; Otten, Brydger Van; Wendt, Jost O.L.; Sarofim, Adel [Reaction Engineering International, 77 W. 200 South, Salt Lake City, UT 84101 (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

60

Silicon-tin oxynitride glassy composition and use as anode for lithium-ion battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions which are especially useful in the construction of anode material for thin-film electrochemical devices including rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, electrochromic mirrors, electrochromic windows, and actuators. Additional applications of silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions include optical fibers and optical waveguides.

Neudecker, Bernd J. (Knoxville, TN); Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tin selenium nanoparticle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Investigation of post-annealing indium tin oxide for future electro-optical device application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The nanostructure transformation associated with electro-optical properties via post-annealing of indium tin oxide film (ITO) is investigated by increasing post-annealing temperature in ambient oxygen. Although oxygen vacancy and activation Sn ions contribute ... Keywords: Burstein-Moss effect, indium tin oxide film (ITO), oxygen vacancy, photoluminescence, post-annealing

Ching-Yuan Ho; Tse-Yi Tu; Chun-Chieh Wang; Yuan Kang

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Impact of TiN post-treatment on metal insulator metal capacitor performances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), TiN layers must be post-treated with N"2/H"2 plasma. Metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors using CVD-TiN as electrodes and Al"2O"3 as insulator are studied from both electrical and physico-chemical ... Keywords: EELS analysis, Electrical characteristics, MIM capacitors, TiN post-treatment

A. Bajolet; J-P. Manceau; S. Bruyre; R. Clerc; M. Proust; N. Gaillard; J-C. Giraudin; P. Delpech; L. Monts; G. Ghibaudo

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Pulsed-magnetron-sputtered low-temperature indium tin oxide films for flat-panel display applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were prepared by unipolar and bipolar direct current (DC)-pulsed magnetron sputtering in a mixture of argon and oxygen onto unheated glass substrates. The target of ITO with 10 wt.% tin is used. The influences ... Keywords: DC-pulsed magnetron sputtering, Indium tin oxide, electrical and optical properties

William J. Lee; Yean-Kuen Fang; Jyh-Jier Ho; Chin-Ying Chen; Rung-Ywan Tsai; Daoyang Huang; Fang C. Ho; H. W. Chou; C. C. Chen

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Molten tin reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel elements. [Patent application; continuous process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel is described. Within a containment vessel, a solid plug of tin and nitride precipitates supports a circulating bath of liquid tin therein. Spent nuclear fuel is immersed in the liquid tin under an atmosphere of nitrogen, resulting in the formation of nitride precipitates. The layer of liquid tin and nitride precipitates which interfaces the plug is solidified and integrated with the plug. Part of the plug is melted, removing nitride precipitates from the containment vessel, while a portion of the plug remains solidified to support te liquid tin and nitride precipitates remaining in the containment vessel. The process is practiced numerous times until substantially all of the precipitated nitrides are removed from the containment vessel.

Heckman, R.A.

1980-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

65

Nanoparticle toxicity testing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoparticle toxicity testing Nanoparticle toxicity testing 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:November 2013 All Issues » submit Nanoparticle toxicity testing Assessing the potential health hazards of nanotechnology March 25, 2013 Robot In the search for more accurate and efficient techniques to evaluate the health hazards of nanoparticles, Los Alamos researchers are developing artificial human tissues and organs to replace animal test subjects. A new approach to toxicity testing under development at Los Alamos uses artificial tissue and artificial organs instead of animal testing Manufactured nanoparticles such as buckyballs and carbon nanotubes, used in products ranging from sunscreens to solar panels, are proliferating so quickly that safety testing for potential health hazards-similar to those

66

Divalent metal nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metal nanoparticles hold promise for many scientific and technological applications, such as chemical and biological sensors, vehicles for drug delivery, and subdiffraction limit waveguides. To fabricate such devices, a ...

DeVries, Gretchen Anne

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Determination of the toxicity, water-quality interactions, and biomagnification of selenium in aquatic food chains. Technical report for 15 August 1987-14 August 1989 (Final)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ecological degradation of aquatic ecosystems associated with the presence of elevated concentrations of the trace element selenium has been of considerable scientific, governmental, and public concern. The increased flux of selenium into several aquatic ecosystems, due to anthropogenic activities, has resulted in death, teratogenesis, reproductive impairment and decreased populations in fish and waterfowl communities in the systems. Research is continuing on several investigations into the toxicity, bioaccumulation, transfer, and biotransformation of selenium in aquatic organisms and laboratory food chains. Initial studies were primarily concerned with the comparative acute and chronic toxicity, water-quality interactions, and toxicological interactions of several chemical species of selenium to a variety of aquatic organisms. Further research was directed towards the biotransformation, transfer, and subsequent bioaccumulation of selenium in simplified laboratory aquatic food chains. Studies on the transfer, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of selenium from dietary sources to consumers were conducted. The development of methodology for determining and quantifying the biochemical speciation of selenium in aquatic organisms was initiated.

Maier, K.J.; Ogle, R.S.; Maier, K.A.R.; Williams, M.J.; Malchow, D.

1989-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

68

Microfluidic Synthesis of Nickel Nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the current investigation, we aim at synthesizing nickel nanoparticles of ... A Novel Type of Carbon Coated Sulfur Nanoparticles for Li/S Batteries .... Production and Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Copper and Copper Zinc Alloys.

69

Fabrication of heterojunction solar cells by improved tin oxide deposition on insulating layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Highly efficient tin oxide-silicon heterojunction solar cells are prepared by heating a silicon substrate, having an insulating layer thereon, to provide a substrate temperature in the range of about 300.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C. and thereafter spraying the so-heated substrate with a solution of tin tetrachloride in a organic ester boiling below about 250.degree. C. Preferably the insulating layer is naturally grown silicon oxide layer.

Feng, Tom (Morris Plains, NJ); Ghosh, Amal K. (New Providence, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

P-64: A Comparative Study of Metal Oxide Coated Indium-tin Oxide Anodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Indium-tin oxide anodes capped with certain oxides of metals enhance while other oxides degrade the hole-injection and quantum efficiencies of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The oxides of tin, zinc, praseodymium, yttrium, gallium, terbium and titanium have been investigated. The power efficiency of an OLED with a 1nm thick praseodymium oxide cap is improved by 2.5 times over that of a conventional OLED without an oxide capped anode.

For Organic Light-Emitting; Chengfeng Qiu; Haiying Chen; Zhilang Xie; Man Wong; Hoi Sing Kwok

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

GIS INTERNET MAP SERVICE FOR DISPLAYING SELENIUM CONTAMINATION DATA IN THE SOUTHEASTERN IDAHO PHOSPHATE MINING RESOURCE AREA  

SciTech Connect

Selenium is present in waste rock/overburden that is removed during phosphate mining in southeastern Idaho. Waste rock piles or rock used during reclamation can be a source of selenium (and other metals) to streams and vegetation. Some instances (in 1996) of selenium toxicity in grazing sheep and horses caused public health and environmental concerns, leading to Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) involvement. The Selenium Information System Project is a collaboration among the DEQ, the United States Forest Service (USFS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), the Idaho Mining Association (IMA), Idaho State University (ISU), and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL)2. The Selenium Information System is a centralized data repository for southeastern Idaho selenium data. The data repository combines information that was previously in numerous agency, mining company, and consultants databases and web sites. These data include selenium concentrations in soil, water, sediment, vegetation and other environmental media, as well as comprehensive mine information. The Idaho DEQ spearheaded a selenium area-wide investigation through voluntary agreements with the mining companies and interagency participants. The Selenium Information System contains the results of that area-wide investigation, and many other background documents. As studies are conducted and remedial action decisions are made the resulting data and documentation will be stored within the information system. Potential users of the information system are agency officials, students, lawmakers, mining company personnel, teachers, researchers, and the general public. The system, available from a central website, consists of a database that contains the area-wide sampling information and an ESRI ArcIMS map server. The user can easily acquire information pertaining to the area-wide study as well as the final area-wide report. Future work on this project includes creating custom tools to increase the simplicity of the website and increasing the amount of information available from site-specific studies at 15 mines.

Roger Mayes; Sera White; Randy Lee

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Tin City Long Range Radar Station Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tin City Long Range Radar Station Wind Farm Tin City Long Range Radar Station Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Tin City Long Range Radar Station Wind Farm Facility Tin City Long Range Radar Station Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Tin City Long Range Radar Station Developer Tanadgusix Corp. Energy Purchaser Tin City Long Range Radar Station Location Nome AK Coordinates 65.559372°, -167.949686° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":65.559372,"lon":-167.949686,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

73

The influence of temperature and humidity on the wettability of immersion tin coated printed wiring boards  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates the merits and drawbacks of immersion tin coatings as potential printed wiring board (PWB) surface finishes. Immersion tin films applied in various thicknesses (0.2 to 2 {mu}m) to different copper substrates were characterized relative to thermal stability and shelflife. Thermal excursions included those typical in mixed technology assembly processes. Exposure to temperature/humidity was varied from near ambient (35{degree}C/85%RH) to harsh (steam aging). A minimum thickness of {approximately}60{mu}in (1.5{mu}m) was determined to be critical for assembly operations involving multiple thermal excursions. Even though formation of Cu-Sn intermetallic compounds (IMC) is facile, at the copper-tin interface, these compounds do not adversely affect the soldering performance, as long as the IMC phase is protected by a tin surface layer. Immersion tin finishes are relatively stable to thermal exposure, but are readily oxidized in the presence of humidity. This oxide growth is directly responsible for solderability degradation. The underlying copper substrate was also found to have a significant impact on the thermal stability of tin films. An electroless copper substrate caused significantly more intermetallic formation, that resulted in poor solderability even under moderate temperature, humidity conditions.

Ray, U.; Artaki, I. [AT and T Bell Labs., Princeton, NJ (United States); Vianco, P.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

74

Aspects of nitrogen surface chemistry relevant to TiN chemical vapor deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NH{sub 3} is an important component of many chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes for TiN films, which are used for diffusion barriers and other applications in microelectronic circuits. In this study, the interaction of NH{sub 3} with TiN surfaces is examined with temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and Auger electron spectroscopy. NH{sub 3} has two adsorption states on TiN: a chemisorbed state and a multilayer state. A new method for analyzing TPD spectra in systems with slow pumping speeds yields activation energies for desorption for the two states of 24 kcal/mol and 7.3 kcal/mol, respectively. The sticking probability into the chemisorption state is {approximately}0.06. These results are discussed in the context of TiN CVD. In addition, the high temperature stability of TiN is investigated. TiN decomposes to its elements only after heating to 1300 K, showing that decomposition is unlikely to occur under CVD conditions.

Schulberg, M.T.; Allendorf, M.D.; Outka, D.A.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Content and chemical form of mercury and selenium in Lake Ontario salmon and trout  

SciTech Connect

The content and chemical form of mercury and selenium were determined in the edible tissue of salmon (coho, chinook) and trout (lake, brown) taken offshore from Lake Ontario near Rochester, New York. For all species, total mercury content ranged from 0.3 to 0.8 micro g/g (fresh-weight), which is similar to concentrations commonly found in canned tuna. Most of the total mercury (63 to 79%) was present as methylmercury, the remainder being divalent inorganic mercury. For all species, 6 to 45% of the total selenium content was present as selenate (SeVI), the remainder being selenite (SeIV) and selenide (SEII). On a molar basis, total selenium content usually exceeded that of total mercury. Samples of smoked and unsmoked brown trout fillets were also examined. Based on the results of this study there is no immediate human health hazard from mercury and selenium. However, there is a need to report specific forms of these metals in Lake Ontario salmonid fish so that elevated concentrations can be better evaluated. 42 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

Cappon, C.J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Selenium in Oklahoma ground water and soil. Quarterly report No. 6  

SciTech Connect

Selenium with a consumption of 2 liters per day (5). The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the concentrations of Se in Oklahoma ground water and soil samples. (2) to map the geographical distribution of Se species in Oklahoma. (3) to relate groundwater depth, pH and geology with concentration of Se.

Atalay, A.; Vir Maggon, D.

1991-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

77

Speciation and Attenuation of Arsenic and Selenium at Coal Combustion By-Product Management Facilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project was to evaluate the impact of key constituents captured from power plant air streams (principally arsenic and selenium) on the disposal and utilization of coal combustion products (CCPs). Specific objectives of the project were: (1) to develop a comprehensive database of field leachate concentrations at a wide range of CCP management sites, including speciation of arsenic and selenium, and low-detection limit analyses for mercury; (2) to perform detailed evaluations of the release and attenuation of arsenic species at three CCP sites; and (3) to perform detailed evaluations of the release and attenuation of selenium species at three CCP sites. Each of these objectives was accomplished using a combination of field sampling and laboratory analysis and experimentation. All of the methods used and results obtained are contained in this report. For ease of use, the report is subdivided into three parts. Volume 1 contains methods and results for the field leachate characterization. Volume 2 contains methods and results for arsenic adsorption. Volume 3 contains methods and results for selenium adsorption.

K. Ladwig

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

78

Exploring the structural basis for selenium/mercury antagonism in Allium fistulosum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While continuing efforts are devoted to studying the mutually protective effect of mercury and selenium in mammals, few studies have investigated the mercury-selenium antagonism in plants. In this study, we report the metabolic fate of mercury and selenium in Allium fistulosum (green onion) after supplementation with sodium selenite and mercuric chloride. Analysis of homogenized root extracts via capillary reversed phase chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (capRPLC-ICP-MS) suggests the formation of a mercury-selenium containing compound. Micro-focused synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping of freshly excised roots show Hg sequestered on the root surface and outlining individual root cells, while Se is more evenly distributed throughout the root. There are also discrete Hg-only, Se-only regions and an overall strong correlation between Hg and Se throughout the root. Analysis of the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra show a 'background' of methylselenocysteine within the root with discrete spots of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, Se{sup 0} and solid HgSe on the root surface. Mercury outlining individual root cells is possibly binding to sulfhydryl groups or plasma membrane or cell wall proteins, and in some places reacting with reduced selenium in the rhizosphere to form a mercury(II) selenide species. Together with the formation of the root-bound mercury(II) selenide species, we also report on the formation of cinnabar (HgS) and Hg{sup 0} in the rhizosphere. The results presented herein shed light on the intricate chemical and biological processes occurring within the rhizosphere that influence Hg and Se bioavailability and will be instrumental in predicting the fate and assisting in the remediation of these metals in the environment and informing whether or not fruit and vegetable food selection from aerial plant compartments or roots from plants grown in Hg contaminated soils, are safe for consumption.

McNear, Jr., David H.; Afton, Scott E.; Caruso, Joseph A. (UCIN); (Kentucky)

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

79

Gated Conductance of Thin Indium Tin Oxide - The Simplest Transistor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transistors are the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices. So far, all transistors are based on various types of semiconductor junctions. The most common bipolar-junction transistors and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors contain p-n junctions to control the current, depending on applied biases across the junctions. Thin-film transistors need metal-semiconductor junctions for injecting and extracting electrons from their channels. Here, by coating a heavily-doped thin indium-tin-oxide (ITO) film through a shadow mask onto a biopolymer chitosan/ITO/glass substrate, we can have a high-performance junctionless transparent organic-inorganic hybrid thin film transistor. This could be the simplest transistor in the world, to our knowledge, not only in its structure, but also its fabrication process. In addition, the device performance is found to be greatly enhanced using a reinforced chitosan/SiO2 hybrid bilayer dielectric stack. Our results clearly show that this architecture can...

Jiang, Jie; Sun, Jia; Dou, Wei; Zhang, Qing

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Effect of Ag thickness on electrical transport and optical properties of indium tin oxide-Ag-indium tin oxide multilayers  

SciTech Connect

We report the dependence of electronic and optical properties on the Ag thickness in transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO)-Ag-ITO (IMI) multilayer films deposited on polyethylene naphthalate flexible substrate by sputtering at room temperature. The electrical properties (such as carrier concentration, mobility, and resistivity) changed significantly with incorporation of Ag between the ITO layers. Comparison of sheet resistance of the IMI multilayers and the calculated sheet resistance of the Ag midlayer indicates that most of the conduction is through the Ag film. The critical thickness of Ag to form a continuous conducting layer is found to be 8 nm using electrical and optical analysis. A conduction mechanism is proposed to elucidate the mobility variation with increased Ag thickness. Carrier transport is limited by either interface scattering or grain-boundary scattering depending on the thickness of the Ag midlayer. Interface scattering is dominant for thinner (5.5-7 nm) Ag and grain-boundary scattering is dominant for thicker (8-10.5 nm) Ag midlayers. In addition, the effect of varying Ag midlayer thickness on transmittance behavior is also discussed. A figure of merit is used to compare performance of the IMI multilayer systems as a function of Ag thickness.

Indluru, A.; Alford, T. L. [School of Materials and Flexible Display Center, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tin selenium nanoparticle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of tin oxide is a very important manufacturing technique used in the production of low-emissivity glass. It is also the primary method used to provide wear-resistant coatings on glass containers. The complexity of these systems, which involve chemical reactions in both the gas phase and on the deposition surface, as well as complex fluid dynamics, makes process optimization and design of new coating reactors a very difficult task. In 2001 the U.S. Dept. of Energy Industrial Technologies Program Glass Industry of the Future Team funded a project to address the need for more accurate data concerning the tin oxide APCVD process. This report presents a case study of on-line APCVD using organometallic precursors, which are the primary reactants used in industrial coating processes. Research staff at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA, and the PPG Industries Glass Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA collaborated to produce this work. In this report, we describe a detailed investigation of the factors controlling the growth of tin oxide films. The report begins with a discussion of the basic elements of the deposition chemistry, including gas-phase thermochemistry of tin species and mechanisms of chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of tin precursors. These results provide the basis for experimental investigations in which tin oxide growth rates were measured as a function of all major process variables. The experiments focused on growth from monobutyltintrichloride (MBTC) since this is one of the two primary precursors used industrially. There are almost no reliable growth-rate data available for this precursor. Robust models describing the growth rate as a function of these variables are derived from modeling of these data. Finally, the results are used to conduct computational fluid dynamic simulations of both pilot- and full-scale coating reactors. As a result, general conclusions are reached concerning the factors affecting the growth rate in on-line APCVD reactors. In addition, a substantial body of data was generated that can be used to model many different industrial tin oxide coating processes. These data include the most extensive compilation of thermochemistry for gas-phase tin-containing species as well as kinetic expressions describing tin oxide growth rates over a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and reactant concentrations.

Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA)

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Paraoccupational exposures to lead and tin carried by electric-cable splicers  

SciTech Connect

To test the hypothesis that electric-cable splicers contaminate their homes with lead and tin, nine splicers were matched with nine of their neighbors. House dust samples were collected in two areas within each home: a laundry room/dirty clothes area, and a composite sample from other areas in the house. Samples were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence for lead and tin (tin is a tracer to the occupational source of lead). The difference in the geometric mean lead concentrations in the laundry areas between the splicers' and neighbors' homes (1021 ppm and 390 ppm) was statistically significant (p < 0.025). The difference in concentrations from the other areas of the house (585 ppm and 329 ppm) was also significant (p < 0.05). Tin concentrations in house dust were very different between the two groups (p < 0.0005), suggesting that electric-cable splicers were contaminating their homes with lead and tin from work. Recommendations are included to prevent paraoccupational lead exposures by eliminating the pathways into the home. Another recommendation suggests that blood-lead levels be screened in children under the age of seven who live with electric-cable splicers.

Rinehart, R.D.; Yanagisawa, Y. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

It's Elemental - The Periodic Table of Elements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Selenium Bromine Krypton Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine...

84

Multistability, ionic doping, and charge dynamics in electrosynthesized polypyrrole, polymer-nanoparticle blend nonvolatile memory, and fixed p-i-n junction polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modification of indium tin oxide films by alkanethiol andwork function of indium tin oxide: Differentiating dipolarparent low-work-function indium tin oxide electrode obtained

Simon, Daniel Theodore

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Environmental Leaching of Nanoparticles from Consumer ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Nanoparticle-based consumer products are becoming available in the market at an increasing rate, but the safety of nanoparticles and the ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

86

Evaluation of monolayer protected metal nanoparticle technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Self assembling nanostructured nanoparticles represent a new class of synthesized materials with unique functionality. Such monolayer protected metal nanoparticles are capable of resisting protein adsorption, and if utilized ...

Wu, Diana J

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Optical properties of TiN thin films close to the superconductor-insulator transition.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the intrinsic optical properties over a broad spectral range of TiN thin films deposited on an Si/SiO{sub 2} substrate. We analyze the measured reflectivity spectra of the film-substrate multilayer structure within a well-establish procedure based on the Fresnel equation and extract the real part of the optical conductivity of TiN. We identify the metallic contribution as well as the finite energy excitations and disentangle the spectral weight distribution among them. The absorption spectrum of TiN bears some similarities with the electrodynamic response observed in the normal state of the high-temperature superconductors. Particularly, a mid-infrared feature in the optical conductivity is quite reminiscent of a pseudogap-like excitation.

Pfuner, F.; Degiorgi, L.; Baturina, T. I.; Vinokur, V. M.; Baklanov, M. R.; Materials Science Division; ETH Zurich; Inst. Semiconductor Physics; IMEC Kapeldreef

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

88

HYDROGEN OUTGASSING AND SURFACE PROPERTIES OF TIN COATED STAINLESS STEEL CHAMBERS.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The stainless steel vacuum chambers of the 248m accumulator ring of Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) are coated with {approx} 100 nm of titanium nitride (TiN) to reduce the secondary electron yield. The coating is produced by DC magnetron sputtering using a long cathode imbedded with permanent magnets. The outgassing rates of several SNS half-cell chambers were measured with and without TiN coating, and before and after in-situ bake. One potential benefit of a TiN coating is to serve as hydrogen permeation barrier that reduces the ultimate outgassing rate. By varying the coating parameters, films of different surface roughness were produced and analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy to illustrate the dependence of the outgassing on the film structure.

HE,P.; HSEUH,H.C.; MAPES,M.; TODD,R.; WEISS,D.; WILSON,D.

2002-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

89

State of the Art Power-in Tube Niobium-Tin Superconductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Powder-in-Tube (PIT) processed Niobium-Tin wires are commercially manufactured for nearly three decades and have demonstrated a combination of very high current density (presently up to 2500 A mm{sup -2} non-Cu at 12 T and 4.2 K) with fine (35 {micro}m), well separated filaments. We review the developments that have led to the present state of the art PIT Niobium-Tin wires, discuss the wire manufacturing and A15 formation processes, and describe typical superconducting performance in relation to magnetic field and strain. We further highlight successful applications of PIT wires and conclude with an outlook on possibilities for further improvements in the performance of PIT Niobium-Tin wires.

Godeke, A.; Ouden, A. Den; Nijhuis, A.; ten Kate, H.H.J.

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Detection and classification of volatile organic compounds using Indium Tin Oxide sensor array and artificial neural network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article reveals the novel approach of fabricating Indium Tin Oxide thin films grown on glass substrate at 648 K temperatures using direct evaporation method for detection of small concentration volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their ... Keywords: ANNs, ITO thin films, VOC mixtures, VOCs, artificial neural networks, direct evaporation, indium tin oxide, sensor arrays, thin film sensors, volatile organic compounds

H. J. Pandya

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Amino acid, lipid and red blood cell studies on selenium toxicity with the laboratory rat.  

SciTech Connect

The amino acid and lipid analysis on blood and liver and the amino acid analysis on urine gave irregular values for each determination. Therefore, the average values which were presented in the 1966 Technical Progress report (C00-1449-2) were not considered valid and were not submitted for publication. However, experiments on the in vivo conversion of 75 Se-labeled selenite-Se to urinary metabolites led to the observance of an unknown metabolite. This metabolite, which was different from the ordinary selenium analogues of sulfur, was designated as "U-1" (C00-1449-3). The use of the 59 Fe was involved in the study of the anemia of chronic selenium toxicity. The findings because of the labeled iron led to the conclusion that the anemia was from massive hemolysis (C00-1449-3).

Halverson, A W; Tsay, D -T; Triebwasser, K C; Whitehead, E I

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Improvement of Plants for Selenium and Heavy Metal Phytoremediation Through Genetic Engineering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Phytoremediation -- the use of plants to remove, stabilize, or detoxify pollutants -- has proved very promising for the cleanup of trace elements from contaminated soil and water. Under the EPRI-Genetics Research Program, investigators successfully used genetic engineering to create seven genetically altered lines of plants with superior capacities for the phytoremediation of selenium (Se) and heavy metals, such as Molybdenum (Mo), Tungsten (W), and Cadmium (Cd). These transgenic plants are more tolerant...

1999-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

93

Copper-tin anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries : an example of the matrix effect in an intermetallic system.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lithium batteries are typically constructed from a lithium cobalt oxide cathode and a carbon anode. We have investigated intermetallic anode materials based on tin, which can provide a high capacity at a slightly higher voltage (400 mV) than metallic lithium and thus reduce the safety concerns associated with the carbon anode. In particular, we have investigated the copper-tin system at around the composition Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and have determined the effect on cycling and capacity of electrodes with various ratios of copper to tin. Anode compositions that are slightly copper rich (Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 4}) were found to exhibit greater utilization of the tin than those with the stoichiometric bronze ratio (Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5}) or those having a slight excess of tin (Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 6}). The differences in electrochemical behavior are explained in terms of an inert matrix model.

Kepler, K. D.

1998-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

94

Revealing the Mechanisms behind SnO2 Nanoparticle Formation and Growth during Hydrothermal Synthesis: An In Situ Total Scattering Study  

SciTech Connect

The formation and growth mechanisms in the hydrothermal synthesis of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles from aqueous solutions of SnCl{sub 4} {center_dot} 5H{sub 2}O have been elucidated by means of in situ X-ray total scattering (PDF) measurements. The analysis of the data reveals that when the tin(IV) chloride precursor is dissolved, chloride ions and water coordinate octahedrally to tin(IV), forming aquachlorotin(IV) complexes of the form [SnCl{sub x}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6-x}]{sup (4-x)+} as well as hexaaquatin(IV) complexes [Sn(H{sub 2}O){sub 6-y}(OH){sub y}]{sup (4-y)+}. Upon heating, ellipsoidal SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles are formed uniquely from hexaaquatin(IV). The nanoparticle size and morphology (aspect ratio) are dependent on both the reaction temperature and the precursor concentration, and particles as small as 2 nm can be synthesized. Analysis of the growth curves shows that Ostwald ripening only takes place above 200 C, and in general the growth is limited by diffusion of precursor species to the growing particle. The c-parameter in the tetragonal lattice is observed to expand up to 0.5% for particle sizes down to 2-3 nm as compared to the bulk value. SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles below 3-4 nm do not form in the bulk rutile structure, but as an orthorhombic structural modification, which previously has only been reported at pressures above 5 GPa. Thus, adjustment of the synthesis temperature and precursor concentration not only allows control over nanoparticle size and morphology but also the structure.

Billinge S. J.; Jensen, K.M.O.; Christensen, M.; Juhas, P.; Tyrsted, C.; Bojesen, E.D.; Lock, N.; Iversen, B.B.

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

95

Argonne CNM News: Hollow Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Lithium...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hollow Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Lithium-Ion Battery Applications Hollow iron oxide nanoparticles Transmission electron micrograph of hollow iron oxide nanoparticles....

96

Functionalized nanoparticles for sensor applications.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We will describe our work on functionalized arrays of nanoparticles crosslinked with short conducting molecules that contain sensing functionalities. These bridging ligands modulate their conductivity based on their interaction with analytes. This functionalized nanoparticles organic ligand composite material once it is assembled between nanogaps electrodes will provide nanosized sensors that can be easily interrogated. These nanogap sensors will be engineered so that they can be fabricated into arrays of different sensor elements. This project consists of a number of different requirements that must be met in order to enable the use of functionalized nanoparticles for sensor applications. The first requirement is the appropriately functionalized nanoparticle. The second is a method to assemble the particles. The third requirement is the generation of a nanogap to contain the nanoparticles. The successes in each of these areas will be discussed as will the sensing behavior of the final films.

Simonson, Robert Joseph; Childs, Kenton David; Howell, Stephen Wayne; Dirk, Shawn M.; Wheeler, David Roger

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Microstructure development in Nb3Sn(Ti) internal tin superconducting wire  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the inner and outer rings of the 26-bundle wire (left) and in the 85-bundle wire (right). The voids observed to identify the phases present and X-ray microtomography (XMT) to investigate the void volume and distribution tin [1], powder-in-tube (PIT) [2] and bronze processes [3]. In this study, two commercially produced

Elliott, James

98

Correlation between the Indium Tin Oxide morphology and the performances of polymer light-emitting diodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: This paper reports on performance enhancement of polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) based on poly(2,5-bis. Keywords : Polymer light emitting diode; Indium tin oxide; Atomic force microscopy; Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy 1. Introduction Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) have received worldwide

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

99

Reduction of the Casimir Force from Indium Tin Oxide Film by UV Treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A significant decrease in the magnitude of the Casimir force (from 21% to 35%) was observed after an indium tin oxide sample interacting with an Au sphere was subjected to the UV treatment. Measurements were performed by using an atomic force microscope in high vacuum. The experimental results are compared with theory and a hypothetical explanation for the observed phenomenon is proposed.

Chang, C.-C.; Banishev, A. A.; Mohideen, U. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Klimchitskaya, G. L. [North-West Technical University, Millionnaya Street 5, St. Petersburg, 191065 (Russian Federation); Mostepanenko, V. M. [Noncommercial Partnership ''Scientific Instruments,'' Tverskaya Street 11, Moscow, 103905 (Russian Federation)

2011-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

100

Reduction of the Casimir force from indium tin oxide film by UV treatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A significant decrease in the magnitude of the Casimir force (from 21% to 35%) was observed after an indium tin oxide (ITO) sample interacting with an Au sphere was subjected to the UV treatment. Measurements were performed by using an atomic force microscope (AFM) in high vacuum. The experimental results are compared with theory, and a hypothetical explanation for the observed phenomenon is proposed.

Chang, C C; Klimchitskaya, G L; Mostepanenko, V M; Mohideen, U

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tin selenium nanoparticle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Reduction of the Casimir force from indium tin oxide film by UV treatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A significant decrease in the magnitude of the Casimir force (from 21% to 35%) was observed after an indium tin oxide (ITO) sample interacting with an Au sphere was subjected to the UV treatment. Measurements were performed by using an atomic force microscope (AFM) in high vacuum. The experimental results are compared with theory, and a hypothetical explanation for the observed phenomenon is proposed.

C. C. Chang; A. A. Banishev; G. L. Klimchitskaya; V. M. Mostepanenko; U. Mohideen

2011-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

102

Infrared Emissivity of Tin upon Release of a 25 GPa Shock into a LiF Window  

SciTech Connect

We measured the emissivity of a tin sample at its interface with a lithium-fluoride window upon release of a 25 GPa shock wave from the tin into the window. Measurements were made over four wavelength bands between 1.2 and 5.4 ?m. Thermal emission backgrounds from the tin, glue, and lithium fluoride were successfully removed from the reflectance signals. Emissivity changes for the sample, which was initially nearly specular, were small except for the longest wavelength band, where uncertainties were high because of poor signal-to-noise ratio at that wavelength. A thin glue layer, which bonds the sample to the window, was found to heat from reverberations of the shock wave between the tin and the lithium fluoride. At approximately 3.4 ?m the thermal emission from the glue was large compared to the tin, allowing a good estimate of the glue temperature from the thermal radiance. The glue appears to remain slightly colder than the tin, thereby minimizing heat conduction into or out of the tin immediately after the shock passage.

Turley, W. D., Holtkamp, D. B., Marshall, B. R., Stevens, G. D., Veeser, L. R.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Method of synthesizing tungsten nanoparticles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method to synthesize tungsten nanoparticles has been developed that enables synthesis of nanometer-scale, monodisperse particles that can be stabilized only by tetrahydrofuran. The method can be used at room temperature, is scalable, and the product concentrated by standard means. Since no additives or stabilizing surfactants are required, this method is particularly well suited for producing tungsten nanoparticles for dispersion in polymers. If complete dispersion is achieved due to the size of the nanoparticles, then the optical properties of the polymer can be largely maintained.

Thoma, Steven G; Anderson, Travis M

2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

104

Attacking the Kad Network Peng Wang, James Tyra, Eric Chan-Tin, Tyson Malchow, Denis Foo Kune,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Attacking the Kad Network Peng Wang, James Tyra, Eric Chan-Tin, Tyson Malchow, Denis Foo Kune 55455 {pwang,tyra,dchantin,malchow,foo,hopper,kyd}@cs.umn.edu ABSTRACT The Kad network

Kim, Dae-Shik

105

Methods for chemical recovery of non-carrier-added radioactive tin from irradiated intermetallic Ti-Sb targets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides a method of chemical recovery of no-carrier-added radioactive tin (NCA radiotin) from intermetallide TiSb irradiated with accelerated charged particles. An irradiated sample of TiSb can be dissolved in acidic solutions. Antimony can be removed from the solution by extraction with dibutyl ether. Titanium in the form of peroxide can be separated from tin using chromatography on strong anion-exchange resin. In another embodiment NCA radiotin can be separated from iodide solution containing titanium by extraction with benzene, toluene or chloroform. NCA radiotin can be finally purified from the remaining antimony and other impurities using chromatography on silica gel. NCA tin-117m can be obtained from this process. NCA tin-117m can be used for labeling organic compounds and biological objects to be applied in medicine for imaging and therapy of various diseases.

Lapshina, Elena V. (Troitsk, RU); Zhuikov, Boris L. (Troitsk, RU); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY); Ermolaev, Stanislav V. (Obninsk, RU); Togaeva, Natalia R. (Obninsk, RU)

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

106

Energy level alignment at the interfaces between typical electrodes and nucleobases: Al/adenine/indium-tin-oxide and Al/thymine/indium-tin-oxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigated the interfacial electronic structures of Al/adenine/indium-tin-oxide (ITO) and Al/thymine/ITO using in situ ultraviolet and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Adenine shows both an interface dipole and level bending, whereas thymine shows only an interface dipole in contact with ITO. In addition, thymine possesses a larger ionization energy than adenine. These are understood with delocalized {pi} states confirmed with theoretical calculations. For the interface between nucleobases and Al, both nucleobases show a prominent reduction of the electron injection barrier from Al to each base in accordance with a downward level shift.

Lee, Younjoo; Lee, Hyunbok; Park, Soohyung; Yi, Yeonjin [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemoon-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

107

Nanoparticle Gas-Phase Electrophoresis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. Nanoparticle Gas-Phase Electrophoresis ... L f d f ? = L f /d f , f is the fraction of diffuse gas collisions with the cylinder -V + and where ? ? ...

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

108

Defect structure of indium tin oxide and its relationship to conductivity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Doping In{sub 2}O{sub 3} with tin results in an improved transparent conducting oxide (TCO). Although indium tin oxide (ITO) is the most frequently used commercial TCO, its defect structure is still uncertain. Previously, its defect chemistry has been inferred based on the conductivity of the material. To directly study the defect structure of ITO, the authors prepared powders under different processing environments and performed neutron powder diffraction. Structural information was obtained by performing Rietveld analysis. The results include positions of the atoms, their thermal displacements, the fractional occupancy of the defect oxygen site, and the fractional occupancies of Sn on each of the two nonequivalent cation sites, showing a strong preference for the b site. These structural results are correlated with the measured electrical properties of the same samples.

Gonzalez, G. B.; Cohen, J. B.; Hwang, J.-H.; Mason, T. O.; Hodges, J. P.; Jorgensen, J. D.

2000-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

109

Nanopattern-stimulated superconductor-insulator transition in thin TiN films.  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of the comparative study of transport properties of continuous and nanoperforated TiN films, enabling us to separate the disorder and the geometry effects. Nanopatterning transforms a thin TiN film into an array of superconducting weak links and eo ipso stimulates the disorder- and magnetic-field-driven superconductor-to-insulator transitions, shifting both transitions to a lower degree of microscopic disorder. We observe magnetoresistance oscillations reflecting collective phase-frustration behaviour of the multiconnected superconducting weak link network in a wide range of temperatures. We find that nanopatterning enhances the role of the two-dimensional Coulomb interaction and changes the characteristic energies of the film on length scales significantly larger than the mean free path or the superconducting coherence length.

Baturina, T. I.; Vinokur, V. M.; Mironov, A. Yu.; Chtchelkatchev, N. M.; Nasimov, D. A.; Latyshev, A. V. (Materials Science Division); (A. V. Rzhanov Inst. Semoconductor Physics); (Russian Academy of Sciences)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

DC sputtered indium-tin oxide transparent cathode for organic light-emitting diodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AbstractThe performance of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes depends not just on the choice of the transparent cathodes but also on their techniques of formation. Compared to the damage induced by radio frequency sputtering of indium-tin oxide cathode, that induced by dc sputtering was verified to be less severe and relatively independent of the sputtering power. Consequently, a high dc sputtering power of 120 W could be employed to achieve a high deposition rate of 0.1 nm/s. Adequate emission efficiency was maintained, even with a relatively thin 7-nm copper (II) phthalocyanine buffer layer. Index TermsIndium-tin oxide, organic light-emitting diodes, sputtering, top-emission, transparent cathode. I.

Haiying Chen; Chengfeng Qiu; Man Wong; Hoi Sing Kwok

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Formation and evolution of self-organized Au nanorings on indium-tin-oxide surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work reports on the formation of Au nanoclusters and on their evolution in nanoring structures on indium-tin-oxide surface by sputtering deposition and annealing processes. The quantification of the characteristics of the nanorings (surface density, depth, height, and width) is performed by atomic force microscopy. The possibility to control these characteristics by tuning annealing temperature and time is demonstrated establishing relations which allow to set the process parameters to obtain nanostructures of desired morphological properties for various technological applications.

Ruffino, F.; Simone, F.; Grimaldi, M. G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); MATIS CNR-IMM, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Crupi, I. [MATIS CNR-IMM, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

112

The Role of Ate Complexes in the Lithium-Sulfur, Lithium-Selenium and Lithium-Tellurium Exchange Reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Role of Ate Complexes in the Lithium-Sulfur, Lithium-Selenium and Lithium-Tellurium Exchange/Se exchange was substantially faster than exchange of the lithium reagents with the ate complex. Therefore, these ate complexes are not on the actual Li/Se exchange pathway. Introduction. ± The lithium

Reich, Hans J.

113

Selenium Bioaccumulation in Stocked Fish as an Indicator of Fishery Potential in Pit Lakes on Reclaimed Coal Mines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on Reclaimed Coal Mines in Alberta, Canada L. L. Miller · J. B. Rasmussen · V. P. Palace · G. Sterling · A to selenium (Se) and other metals and metalloids in pit lakes formed by open pit coal mining in Tertiary (thermal coal) and in Cretaceous (metallurgical coal) bedrock. Juvenile hatchery rainbow trout

Hontela, Alice

114

Development of new sorbents to remove mercury and selenium from flue gas. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) are two of the volatile trace metals in coal, which are often not captured by conventional gas clean up devices of coal-fired boilers. An alternative is to use sorbents to capture the volatile components of trace metals after coal combustion. In this project sorbent screening tests were performed in which ten sorbents were selected to remove metallic mercury in N{sub 2}. These sorbents included activated carbon, char prepared from Ohio No. 5 coal, molecular sieves, silica gel, aluminum oxide, hydrated lime, Wyoming bentonite, kaolin, and Amberite IR-120 (an ion-exchanger). The sorbents were selected based on published information and B&W`s experience on mercury removal. The promising sorbent was then selected and modified for detailed studies of removal of mercury and selenium compounds. The sorbents were tested in a bench-scale adsorption facility. A known amount of each sorbent was loaded in the column as a packed bed. A carrier gas was bubbled through the mercury and selenium compounds. The vaporized species were carried by the gas and went through the sorbent beds. The amount of mercury and selenium compounds captured by the sorbents was determined by atomic absorption. Results are discussed.

Shiao, S.Y. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Quantification, Localization, and Speciation of Selenium in Seeds of Canola and Two Mustard Species Compared to Seed-Meals Produced  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantification, Localization, and Speciation of Selenium in Seeds of Canola and Two Mustard Species with Se. We report a chemical analysis of Se in Brassica seeds (canola, Indian mustard, and white mustard shoots of several Brassica species, canola (Brassica napus), Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), and white

116

Disordered surface structure of an ultra-thin tin oxide film on Rh(100)  

SciTech Connect

The composition and structure of an ultra-thin tin oxide film on Rh(100), prepared by the deposition of a submonolayer of tin followed by annealing in an O{sub 2} atmosphere, were examined by a combination of low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and ab initio calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). Although the LEED pattern exhibited c(2 x 8) spots clearly, a uniform periodicity of the c(2 x 8) unit cell was not observed in the STM images. The bright dots that were observed periodically in the STM image were similar to those of the ultra-thin Sn{sub 2}O{sub 3} film on Rh(111) and formed a zigzag arrangement with the numerous point and line defects. The XPS study revealed that the Sn 3d{sub 5/2} peak of the tin oxide film on Rh(100) showed a metallic state as well as an oxide state that was between the SnO{sub 2} and SnO states. The structural models, which were based on the Sn{sub 2}O{sub 3} structure on Rh(111), were determined using DFT total energy calculations. The simulated STM images of the two slightly different honeycomb-chain models well reproduced the zigzag arrangement in the STM image. The STM image and XPS spectrum were interpreted using a combination of the two models.

Zenkyu, R.; Tajima, D.; Yuhara, J. [Department of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

117

Roll Printed Electronics: Development and Scaling of Gravure Printing Techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gravure printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle patternsfor the deposition of indium tin oxide nanoparticles forwith and without Indium Zinc Oxide (IZO) conductive layers

de la Fuente Vornbrock, Alejandro

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Nanoparticle Superlattices for Custom-designed ...  

Wind Energy; Partners (27) Visual Patent Search; Success Stories; News; Events; Industrial Technologies Nanoparticle Superlattices for Custom-designed ...

119

Alloy nanoparticle synthesis using ionizing radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of forming stable nanoparticles comprising substantially uniform alloys of metals. A high dose of ionizing radiation is used to generate high concentrations of solvated electrons and optionally radical reducing species that rapidly reduce a mixture of metal ion source species to form alloy nanoparticles. The method can make uniform alloy nanoparticles from normally immiscible metals by overcoming the thermodynamic limitations that would preferentially produce core-shell nanoparticles.

Nenoff, Tina M. (Sandia Park, NM); Powers, Dana A. (Albuquerque, NM); Zhang, Zhenyuan (Durham, NC)

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

120

New Gold Nanoparticle RMs Support Nanotechnology ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Various types of nanoparticles (eg, dendrimers, quantum dots, gold nanospheres ... by a lack of comprehensive and accurate physical and chemical ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tin selenium nanoparticle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Selenium fractionation and cycling in the intertidal zone of the Carquinez Strait. Annual Report. October 1, 1995 through December 31, 1996.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from areas more distant from refinery outfall are shown in Acollected adjacent to the refinery outfalls are shown in B.selenium (Se) by local oil refineries, San Joaquin Valley

Zawislanski, P.T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Fabrication of transparent ceramics using nanoparticles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of fabrication of a transparent ceramic using nanoparticles synthesized via organic acid complexation-combustion includes providing metal salts, dissolving said metal salts to produce an aqueous salt solution, adding an organic chelating agent to produce a complexed-metal sol, heating said complexed-metal sol to produce a gel, drying said gel to produce a powder, combusting said powder to produce nano-particles, calcining said nano-particles to produce oxide nano-particles, forming said oxide nano-particles into a green body, and sintering said green body to produce the transparent ceramic.

Cherepy, Nerine J; Tillotson, Thomas M; Kuntz, Joshua D; Payne, Stephen A

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

123

Scintillation of rare earth doped fluoride nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

The scintillation response of rare earth (RE) doped core/undoped (multi-)shell fluoride nanoparticles was investigated under x-ray and alpha particle irradiation. A significant enhancement of the scintillation response was observed with increasing shells due: (i) to the passivation of surface quenching defects together with the activation of the REs on the surface of the core nanoparticle after the growth of a shell, and (ii) to the increase of the volume of the nanoparticles. These results are expected to reflect a general aspect of the scintillation process in nanoparticles, and to impact radiation sensing technologies that make use of nanoparticles.

Jacobsohn, L. G.; McPherson, C. L.; Sprinkle, K. B.; Ballato, J. [Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies (COMSET), and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Yukihara, E. G. [Physics Department, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078-3072 (United States); DeVol, T. A. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634-0905 (United States)

2011-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

124

Determination of the solubility of tin indium oxide using in situ and ex x-ray diffraction  

SciTech Connect

A novel approach to determine the thermodynamic solubility of tin in indium oxide via the exsolution from tin overdoped nano-ITO powders is presented. High-energy, in situ and ex situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction was utilized to study the solubility limit at temperatures ranging from 900 C to 1375 C. The tin exsolution from overdoped nanopowders and the formation of In{sub 4}Sn{sub 3}O{sub 12} were observed in situ during the first 4-48 h of high-temperature treatment. Samples annealed between 900 C and 1175 C were also studied ex situ with heat treatments for up to 2060 h. Structural results obtained from Rietveld analysis include compositional phase analysis, atomic positions, and lattice parameters. The tin solubility in In{sub 2}O{sub 3} was determined using the phase analysis compositions from X-ray diffraction and the elemental compositions obtained from X-ray fluorescence. Experimental complications that can lead to incorrect tin solubility values in the literature are discussed.

Gonzalez, G. B.; Mason, T. O.; Okasinski, J. S.; Buslaps, T.; Honkimaki, V. (X-Ray Science Division); (DePaul Univ.); (Northwestern Univ.); (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, France)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

DNA-guided nanoparticle assemblies  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In some embodiments, DNA-capped nanoparticles are used to define a degree of crystalline order in assemblies thereof. In some embodiments, thermodynamically reversible and stable body-centered cubic (bcc) structures, with particles occupying <.about.10% of the unit cell, are formed. Designs and pathways amenable to the crystallization of particle assemblies are identified. In some embodiments, a plasmonic crystal is provided. In some aspects, a method for controlling the properties of particle assemblages is provided. In some embodiments a catalyst is formed from nanoparticles linked by nucleic acid sequences and forming an open crystal structure with catalytically active agents attached to the crystal on its surface or in interstices.

Gang, Oleg; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Maye, Mathew; van der Lelie, Daniel

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

126

Selenium Speciation in Biofilms from Granular Sludge Bed Reactors Used for Wastewater Treatment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Se K-edge XAFS spectra were collected for various model compounds of Se as well as for 3 biofilm samples from bioreactors used for Se-contaminated wastewater treatment. In the biofilm samples, Se is dominantly as Se(0) despite Se K-edge XANES spectroscopy cannot easily distinguish between elemental Se and Se(-I)-bearing selenides. EXAFS spectra indicate that Se is located within aperiodic domains, markedly different to these known in monoclinic red selenium. However, Se can well occur within nanodivided domains related to monoclinic red Se, as this form was optically observed at the rim of some sludges. Aqueous selenate is then efficiently bioreduced, under sulfate reducing and methanogenic conditions.

van Hullenbusch, Eric; /Marne la Vallee U.; Farges, Francois; /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci. /Museum Natl. Hist. Natur., Paris; Lenz, Markus; Lens, Piet; /Wageningen U.; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.; /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci. /SLAC, SSRL

2006-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

127

Transient and steady-state dark current mechanisms in amorphous selenium avalanche radiation detectors  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical model for describing bias-dependent transient and steady-state behaviors of dark current in amorphous selenium (a-Se) avalanche detector structures has been developed. The analytical model considers bulk thermal generation current from mid-gap sates, transient carrier depletion, and carrier injection from the electrodes incorporating avalanche multiplication. The proposed physics-based dark current model is compared with the published experimental results on three potential a-Se avalanche detector structures. The steady-state dark current is the minimum for the structures that have effective blocking layers for both holes and electrons. The transient decay time to reach a plateau decreases considerably with increasing electric field.

Kabir, M. Z.; Imam, Safayat-Al [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 Blvd. de Maisonneuve West, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8 (Canada)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 Blvd. de Maisonneuve West, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8 (Canada)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

128

Speciation of Selenium, Arsenic, and Zinc in Class C Fly Ash  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A major environmental concern associated with coal fly ash is the mobilization of trace elements that may contaminate water. To better evaluate proper use of fly ash, determine appropriate disposal methods, and monitor postdisposal conditions, it is important to understand the speciation of trace elements in fly ash and their possible environmental impact. The speciation of selenium, arsenic, and zinc was determined in five representative Class C fly ash samples from combustion of sub-bituminous Powder River Basin coal using synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy to provide an improved understanding of the mechanisms of trace element association with the fly ash. Selenium in all fly ash samples occurs predominantly as Se(IV), with the exception of one sample, in which there was a minor amount of Se(0). Se(0) is likely associated with the high content of unburned coal in the sample. Arsenic exists in the fly ash as a single phase most consistent with calcium pyroarsenate. In contrast, zinc occurs as two distinct species in the silicate glass matrix of the fly ash. This work demonstrates that residual carbon in fly ash may reduce potential Se mobility in the environment by retaining it as less soluble elemental Se instead of Se(IV). Further, this work suggests that As and Zn in Class C fly ash will display substantially different release and mobilization behaviors in aquatic environments. While As release will primarily depend upon the dissolution and hydrolysis of calcium pyroarsenate, Zn release will be controlled by the dissolution of alkaline aluminosilicate glass in the ash.

Luo, Yun; Giammar, Daniel E.; Huhmann, Brittany L.; Catalano, Jeffrey G. (WU)

2011-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

129

The Implications of selenium deficiency for wild herbivore conservation: a review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selenium (Se) has been identified as an essential micronutrient in all animals. It is required at the most fundamental physiological level as a component of the selenoproteins containing the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine. Adequate levels of Se are vital to proper reproductive performance, bone metabolism, immune function and iodine metabolism. Yet, Se is a relatively rare element, and is often present at low concentrations in soil and vegetation. Selenium deficiencies are widespread in domestic stock and are unavoidable in some wildlife populations. This may be especially true for populations confined to high elevation ranges, or on areas with granitic bedrock with low Se content, or that have lost access to Se-containing parts of their ranges such as mineral licks or low-elevation winter range. The condition may be exacerbated by increased levels of oxidative stress. Because our understanding of Se as a micronutrient is relatively new, many wildlife managers are unaware of the elements importance in physiology and population dynamics. Severe deficiency results in obvious symptoms such as white muscle disease. However, more frequently, deficiency may be chronic and subclinical. Individuals then display no obvious signs of malady, yet performance suffers until their populations decline without apparent cause. While mysterious population declines are not always due to Se deficiency, the wildlife manager should be aware of the possibility. Therefore, this review presents not only a summary of the wildlife literature regarding Se nutrition, but also a comprehensive look at the role of Se in mammalian physiology, and the behavior of this important element in the environment. Finally, the role of the biogeochemical Se cycle is discussed, and evidence is provided that the levels of available Se in the environment are decreasing while physiological demands often are increasing.

Werner T. Flueck; J.M. Smith Flueck; J. Mionczynski; B.J. Mincher

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Real-time X-ray Diffraction Measurements of Shocked Polycrystalline Tin and Aluminum  

SciTech Connect

A new, fast, single-pulse x-ray diffraction (XRD) diagnostic for determining phase transitions in shocked polycrystalline materials has been developed. The diagnostic consists of a 37-stage Marx bank high-voltage pulse generator coupled to a needle-and-washer electron beam diode via coaxial cable, producing line and bremsstrahlung x-ray emission in a 35-ns pulse. The characteristic K? lines from the selected anodes of silver and molybdenum are used to produce the diffraction patterns, with thin foil filters employed to remove the characteristic K? line emission. The x-ray beam passes through a pinhole collimator and is incident on the sample with an approximately 3-mm by 6-mm spot and 1 full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) angular divergence in a Bragg-reflecting geometry. For the experiments described in this report, the angle between the incident beam and the sample surface was 8.5. A Debye-Scherrer diffraction image was produced on a phosphor located 76 mm from the polycrystalline sample surface. The phosphor image was coupled to a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera through a coherent fiberoptic bundle. Dynamic single-pulse XRD experiments were conducted with thin foil samples of tin, shock loaded with a 1-mm vitreous carbon back window. Detasheet high explosive with a 2-mm-thick aluminum buffer was used to shock the sample. Analysis of the dynamic shock-loaded tin XRD images revealed a phase transformation of the tin beta phase into an amorphous or liquid state. Identical experiments with shock-loaded aluminum indicated compression of the face-centered-cubic (fcc) aluminum lattice with no phase transformation.

Dane V. Morgan, Don Macy, Gerald Stevens

2008-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

131

Microstructure evolution in TiN films reactively sputter deposited on multiphase substrates  

SciTech Connect

Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (X-TEM) has been used to investigate the microstructure of TiN films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering onto ASP 30 high speed steel (HSS) substrates. ASP 30 is a multiphase material consisting of a martensitic matrix with MC and M/sub 6/C transition--metal particles embedded in it. The TiN films were approx.4 ..mu..m thick and were grown at substrate temperatures T/sub s/ between 200 and 550/sup 0/C. The X-TEM results showed that the film microstructure was very nonhomogeneous. A dense columnar morphology was observed above both the martensitic and M/sub 6/C substrate phases. The average column diameter ranged from 15 nm (T/sub s/ = 200/sup 0/C) to 50 nm (T/sub s/ = 550/sup 0/C) near the film/substrate interface over the martensitic phase and was in a factor of 2 less in the film regions adjacent to the M/sub 6/C phase. increased in both regions to 100 nm (T/sub s/ = 200/sup 0/C) to 150 nm (T/sub s/ = 550/sup 0/C) near the surface of the films. TiN grew epitaxially on MC particles but contained a high dislocation density which (except at 550/sup 0/C where some of the epitaxial grains extended throughout the entire film thickness) eventually coalesced to form low-angle grain boundaries and, finally, high-angle boundaries.

Helmersson, U.; Sundgren, J.; Greene, J.E.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Spin-polarized relativistic linear-muffin-tin-orbital method: Volume-dependent electronic structure and magnetic moment of plutonium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The linear-muffin-tin-orbital method is generalized to the case of relativistic and spin-polarized self-consistent band calculations. Our formalism is analogous to the standard orthogonal--linear-muffin-tin-orbital formalism, except that the potential functions and the potential parameters are now matrices. The method is used to perform density-functional calculations for fcc plutonium with different atomic volumes. The formation of spin and orbital magnetic moments, as well as the changes in the energy bands for volume changes corresponding to the {alpha}-{delta} transition, are investigated. The calculated magnetic moments agree quite well with the experimental ones.

Solovyev, I.V. (Institute of Chemistry, Ural Branch of U.S.S.R. Academy of Science, Sverdlovsk GSP-145, U.S.S.R. (SU)); Liechtenstein, A.I. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-7000 Stuttgart 80, Federal Republic of Germany (DE)); Gubanov, V.A. (Institute of Chemistry, Ural Branch of U.S.S.R. Academy of Science, Sverdlovsk GSP-145, U.S.S.R. (SU)); Antropov, V.P. (Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch of U.S.S.R. Academy of Science, Sverdlosk GSP-145, U.S.S.R. (SU)); Andersen, O.K. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-7000 Stuttgart 80, Federal Republic of Germany (DE))

1991-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

133

REDUCTION AND STABILIZATION (IMMOBILIZATION) OF PERTECHNETATE TO AN IMMOBILE REDUCED TECHNETIUM SPECIES USING TIN(II) APATITE  

SciTech Connect

Synthetic tin(II)apatite reduces pertechnetate from the mobile +7 to a non-mobile oxidation state and sequesters the technetium, preventing re-oxidization to mobile +7 state under acidic or oxygenated conditions. Previous work indicated technetium reacted Sn(II)apatite can achieve an ANSI leachability index of 12.8 in Cast Stone. An effect by pH is observed on the distribution coefficient, the highest distribution coefficient being l70,900 observed at pH levels of 2.5 to 10.2. The tin apatite was resistant to releasing technetium under test conditions.

Duncan JB

2012-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

134

Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought- and Salt-Tolerant, Selenium-Enriched Nutraceutical Fruit Crop for Biofortified Foods  

SciTech Connect

The organ-specific accumulation, spatial distribution, and chemical speciation of selenium (Se) were previously unknown for any species of cactus. We investigated Se in Opuntia ficus-indica using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, microfocused x-ray fluorescence elemental and chemical mapping ({micro}XRF), Se K-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). {micro}XRF showed Se concentrated inside small conic, vestigial leaves (cladode tips), the cladode vasculature, and the seed embryos. Se K-edge XANES demonstrated that approximately 96% of total Se in cladode, fruit juice, fruit pulp, and seed is carbon-Se-carbon (C-Se-C). Micro and bulk XANES analysis showed that cladode tips contained both selenate and C-Se-C forms. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry quantification of Se in high-performance liquid chromatography fractions followed by LC-MS structural identification showed selenocystathionine-to-selenomethionine (SeMet) ratios of 75:25, 71:29, and 32:68, respectively in cladode, fruit, and seed. Enzymatic digestions and subsequent analysis confirmed that Se was mainly present in a 'free' nonproteinaceous form inside cladode and fruit, while in the seed, Se was incorporated into proteins associated with lipids. {micro}XRF chemical mapping illuminated the specific location of Se reduction and assimilation from selenate accumulated in the cladode tips into the two LC-MS-identified C-Se-C forms before they were transported into the cladode mesophyll. We conclude that Opuntia is a secondary Se-accumulating plant whose fruit and cladode contain mostly free selenocystathionine and SeMet, while seeds contain mainly SeMet in protein. When eaten, the organic Se forms in Opuntia fruit, cladode, and seed may improve health, increase Se mineral nutrition, and help prevent multiple human cancers.

Banuelos, Gary S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Walse, Spencer S.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Yang, Soo In; Pickering, Ingrid J.; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A.H.; Freeman, John L.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

JV Task 124 - Understanding Multi-Interactions of SO3, Mercury, Selenium, and Arsenic in Illinois Coal Flue Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project consisted of pilot-scale combustion testing with a representative Illinois basin coal to explore the multi-interactions of SO{sub 3}, mercury, selenium and arsenic. The parameters investigated for SO{sub 3} and mercury interactions included different flue gas conditions, i.e., temperature, moisture content, and particulate alkali content, both with and without activated carbon injection for mercury control. Measurements were also made to track the transformation of selenium and arsenic partitioning as a function of flue gas temperature through the system. The results from the mercury-SO{sub 3} testing support the concept that SO{sub 3} vapor is the predominant factor that impedes efficient mercury removal with activated carbon in an Illinois coal flue gas, while H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aerosol has less impact on activated carbon injection performance. Injection of a suitably mobile and reactive additives such as sodium- or calcium-based sorbents was the most effective strategy tested to mitigate the effect of SO{sub 3}. Transformation measurements indicate a significant fraction of selenium was associated with the vapor phase at the electrostatic precipitator inlet temperature. Arsenic was primarily particulate-bound and should be captured effectively with existing particulate control technology.

Ye Zhuang; Christopher Martin; John Pavlish

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

136

Rare Earth Oxide Fluoride Nanoparticles And Hydrothermal Method For Forming Nanoparticles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles of a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine has been discovered. Nanoparticles comprising a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine are also described. These nanoparticles can exhibit excellent refractory properties as well as remarkable stability in hydrothermal conditions. The nanoparticles can exhibit excellent properties for numerous applications including fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites, catalyst supports, and corrosion resistant coatings for high-temperature aqueous solutions.

Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA); Hoffmann, Markus M. (Richland, WA)

2003-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

137

Phase Structure and Cyclic Deformation in Eutectic Tin-Lead Alloy: A Numerical Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study is devoted to providing a mechanistic rationale of coarsening induced failure in solder alloys during thermomechanical fatigue. Micromechanical modeling of cyclic deformation of eutectic tin-lead alloy was undertaken using the finite element method. The models consist of regularly arranged tin-rich and lead-rich phases, simulating the lamellar array and colony structure in a typical eutectic system. A fine structure and a coarse structure, bearing the same phase fraction but different in the aspect ratio of each lead-rich layer and in the number of lead-rich layers in each colony, are utilized for representing the microstructure before and after coarsening, respectively. Both phases are treated as elastic-plastic solids with their respective properties. For simplicity the creep effect is ignored without compromising the main objective of this study. Cyclic loading under pure shear and uniaxial conditions is modeled. It is found that both the fine and coarse structures exhibit essentially the same macroscopic stress-strain response. The coarse structure, however, shows a greater maximum effective plastic strain on a local scale throughout the deformation. The numerical result implies that, in a solder joint, a locally coarsened region may not be mechanically weaker than its surrounding, but it is subject to early damage initiation due to accumulated plasticity. Other implications regarding solder alloy failure and micromechanical modeling of two-phase materials are discussed.

FANG,HUEI ELIOT; Li,W; SHEN,Y.-L

1999-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

138

Preparation of Polymer-Coated Functionalized Ferrimagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A simple chemical method to synthesize PMAA coated maghemite nanoparticles is described. Monomer methacrylic acid molecules were absorbed onto the synthesized ferrimagnetic nanoparticles followed by polymerization. The ...

Yu, Shi

139

Argonne CNM: Joint NSRC Workshop on Nanoparticle Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2012 NSRC Workshop on Nanoparticle Science Joint NSRC Workshop on Nanoparticle Science November 5-6, 2012 Argonne National Laboratory Agenda Posters Report This invitation-only...

140

Design and Development of Hybrid Nanoparticles for Energy and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PRESENTATION PRESENTATION " " Design and Development of Design and Development of Hybrid Hybrid Nanoparticles Nanoparticles for for Energy and Biomedical Energy and Biomedical...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tin selenium nanoparticle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Liquid-liquid interfacial nanoparticle assemblies  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Self-assembly of nanoparticles at the interface between two fluids, and methods to control such self-assembly process, e.g., the surface density of particles assembling at the interface; to utilize the assembled nanoparticles and their ligands in fabrication of capsules, where the elastic properties of the capsules can be varied from soft to tough; to develop capsules with well-defined porosities for ultimate use as delivery systems; and to develop chemistries whereby multiple ligands or ligands with multiple functionalities can be attached to the nanoparticles to promote the interfacial segregation and assembly of the nanoparticles. Certain embodiments use cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles, since the photoluminescence of the particles provides a convenient means by which the spatial location and organization of the particles can be probed. However, the systems and methodologies presented here are general and can, with suitable modification of the chemistries, be adapted to any type of nanoparticle.

Emrick, Todd S. (South Deerfield, MA); Russell, Thomas P. (Amherst, MA); Dinsmore, Anthony (Amherst, MA); Skaff, Habib (Amherst, MA); Lin, Yao (Amherst, MA)

2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

142

Synthesis and structural characterization of CZTS nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

The CZTS nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by Chemical co-precipitation method with different pH values in the range of 6 to 8. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. XRD studies revealed that the CZTS nanoparticles exhibited Kesterite Structure with preferential orientation along the (112) direction. Sample at pH value of 7 reached the nearly stoichiometric ratio.

Lydia, R.; Reddy, P. Sreedhara [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati-517502 (India)

2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

143

Mercury Sensing with Optically Responsive Gold Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We assume that the mass of mercury adsorbed at saturation istactics, nanoparticle based mercury sensing should advancemost sensitive method for mercury sensing. References "1!

James, Jay Zachary

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Nanoparticles in Magnesium Alloys: Novel Nanoscale Phenomena ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Also, the in-situ creation of nanoparticles in magnesium alloy and consequent simultaneous ... Processing and Mechanical Behavior of Unalloyed Plutonium.

145

Cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This dissertation mainly focuses on the investigation of the cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. We are interested in the study of endocytosis and exocytosis behaviors of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with desired surface functionality. The relationship between mesoporous silica nanoparticles and membrane trafficking of cells, either cancerous cells or normal cells was examined. Since mesoporous silica nanoparticles were applied in many drug delivery cases, the endocytotic efficiency of mesoporous silica nanoparticles needs to be investigated in more details in order to design the cellular drug delivery system in the controlled way. It is well known that cells can engulf some molecules outside of the cells through a receptor-ligand associated endocytosis. We are interested to determine if those biomolecules binding to cell surface receptors can be utilized on mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to improve the uptake efficiency or govern the mechanism of endocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) is a small peptide recognized by cell integrin receptors and it was reported that avidin internalization was highly promoted by tumor lectin. Both RGD and avidin were linked to the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to investigate the effect of receptor-associated biomolecule on cellular endocytosis efficiency. The effect of ligand types, ligand conformation and ligand density were discussed in Chapter 2 and 3. Furthermore, the exocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles is very attractive for biological applications. The cellular protein sequestration study of mesoporous silica nanoparticles was examined for further information of the intracellular pathway of endocytosed mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials. The surface functionality of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials demonstrated selectivity among the materials and cancer and normal cell lines. We aimed to determine the specific organelle that mesoporous silica nanoparticles could approach via the identification of harvested proteins from exocytosis process. Based on the study of endo- and exocytosis behavior of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials, we can design smarter drug delivery vehicles for cancer therapy that can be effectively controlled. The destination, uptake efficiency and the cellular distribution of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials can be programmable. As a result, release mechanism and release rate of drug delivery systems can be a well-controlled process. The deep investigation of an endo- and exocytosis study of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials promotes the development of drug delivery applications.

Fang, I-Ju

2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

146

Electrodynamic and Thermal Interaction of Nanoparticles in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of Nanoparticles in Hyperthermia Cancer Therapy and Solar Energy Systems. ... Case Studies in Organic Light Emitting Diodes and Plasma Display Panels.

147

Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Monte Carlo Simulation and Application...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Contact: Samuel Mao Venkat Srinivasan Nanoparticles are building blocks for nanotechnology and have been widely exploited for various applications. Numerous methods have...

148

Metallic Nanocomposites Powders Fabricated through Nanoparticle ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ultrasonic processing technique was utilized to distribute and disperse TiCN nanoparticles and Al droplets in the molten salt of eutectic NaCl/KCl.

149

Microbially Mediated Method for Making Semiconductor Nanoparticles  

or quantum dot nanoparticles, are increasingly used in a wide range of electronics, including LED displays, solar cells, and medical imaging.

150

Armored Enzyme Nanoparticles - Available Technologies - PNNL  

Search PNNL. PNNL Home; About; Research; Publications; Jobs; News; Contacts; Armored Enzyme Nanoparticles. Battelle Number(s): 13650-E. Patent(s) ...

151

Tin Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...descending order, Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Bolivia, and Australia. These countries supply more than 85% of total world production....

152

Microsoft Word - nanoparticles.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

July 2004 July 2004 Nanoparticles: Strained and Stiff Benjamin Gilbert 1 , Feng Huang 1 , Hengzhong Zhang 1 , Glenn A. Waychunas 2 , and Jillian F. Banfield 1,2 1 Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California at Berkeley 2 Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Using synchrotron techniques, Benjamin Gilbert and colleagues in Jill Banfield's group at the University of California - Berkeley and Glenn Waychunas at LBNL have determined how the equilibrium structure and lattice dynamics of zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles differ from bulk ZnS. They combined size and shape information from small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) with structure information from wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) to analyze structural differences in the real-space pair distribution function (PDF). By combining SAXS

153

Gold Nanoparticles by Alfalfa Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Jorge Gardea-Torresdey, University of Texas at El Paso Jorge Gardea-Torresdey, University of Texas at El Paso In the well-known Greek legend the touch of King Midas would convert anything to metallic gold. Recently, a team working at SSRL lead by Professor Jorge Gardea-Torresdey from the University of Texas at El Paso have shown that ordinary alfalfa plants can accumulate very small particles (nanoparticles) of metallic gold (1). The best-known materials that contain nanoparticles of metallic gold are gold colloids. These lack the familiar metallic luster, but show bright colors which range from red, violet or blue, depending upon the size of the nanoparticles (2,3). Colloidal gold has traditionally been used to color materials such as glass (e.g. gold ruby glass and cranberry glass) and enamels (e.g. famille rose enamels) since the 16th century. The earliest report of a colloidal gold preparation may be in the Bible. The book of Exodus reports that Moses destroyed the golden calf in a manner that may have resulted in an aqueous (water-based) gold colloid, which he then forced the Israelites to drink. In modern times gold colloids are imbibed for a variety of ailments (despite little or no evidence of any health-related benefits), but the most important applications may be in the field of nano-technology (see 1, and refs therein).

154

Studies of selenium and xenon in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Since its development, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been a widely used analytical technique. ICP-MS offers low detection limits, easy determination of isotope ratios, and simple mass spectra from analyte elements. ICP-MS has been successfully employed for many applications including geological, environmental, biological, metallurgical, food, medical, and industrial. One specific application important to many areas of study involves elemental speciation by using ICP-MS as an element specific detector interfaced to liquid chromatography. Elemental speciation information is important and cannot be obtained by atomic spectrometric methods alone which measure only the total concentration of the element present. Part 1 of this study describes the speciation of selenium in human serum by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and detection by ICP-MS. Although ICP-MS has been widely sued, room for improvement still exists. Difficulties in ICP-MS include noise in the background, matrix effects, clogging of the sampling orifice with deposited solids, and spectral interference caused by polyatomic ions. Previous work has shown that the addition of xenon into the central channel of the ICP decreases polyatomic ion levels. In Part 2 of this work, a fundamental study involving the measurement of the excitation temperature is carried out to further understand xenon`s role in the reduction of polyatomic ions. 155 refs.

Bricker, T.

1994-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

155

Recycling of cadmium and selenium from photovoltaic modules and manufacturing wastes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Since the development of the first silicon based photovoltaic cell in the 1950's, large advances have been made in photovoltaic material and processing options. At present there is growing interest in the commercial potential of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic modules. As the commercial potential of these technologies becomes more apparent, interest in the environmental, health and safety issues associated with their production, use and disposal has also increased because of the continuing regulatory focus on cadmium and selenium. In future, recycling of spent or broken CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes may be needed for environmental, economic or political reasons. To assist industry to identify recycling options early in the commercialization process, a Workshop was convened. At this Workshop, representatives from the photovoltaic, electric utility, and nonferrous metals industries met to explore technical and institutional options for the recycling of spent CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes. This report summarizes the results of the Workshop. This report includes: (1) A discussion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and their potential implications to the photovoltaic industry; (2) an assessment of the needs of the photovoltaic industry from the perspective of module manufacturers and consumers; (3) an overview of recycling technologies now employed by other industries for similar types of materials; and, (4) a list of recommendation.

Moskowitz, P.D.; Zweibel, K. (eds.)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Recycling of cadmium and selenium from photovoltaic modules and manufacturing wastes. A workshop report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Since the development of the first silicon based photovoltaic cell in the 1950`s, large advances have been made in photovoltaic material and processing options. At present there is growing interest in the commercial potential of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic modules. As the commercial potential of these technologies becomes more apparent, interest in the environmental, health and safety issues associated with their production, use and disposal has also increased because of the continuing regulatory focus on cadmium and selenium. In future, recycling of spent or broken CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes may be needed for environmental, economic or political reasons. To assist industry to identify recycling options early in the commercialization process, a Workshop was convened. At this Workshop, representatives from the photovoltaic, electric utility, and nonferrous metals industries met to explore technical and institutional options for the recycling of spent CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes. This report summarizes the results of the Workshop. This report includes: (1) A discussion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and their potential implications to the photovoltaic industry; (2) an assessment of the needs of the photovoltaic industry from the perspective of module manufacturers and consumers; (3) an overview of recycling technologies now employed by other industries for similar types of materials; and, (4) a list of recommendation.

Moskowitz, P.D.; Zweibel, K. [eds.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

C:\Documents and Settings\burris\My Documents\My Files\Eco-SSLs\Contaminant Specific Documents\Selenium\June 2007\Eco-SSL for S  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Selenium Selenium Interim Final OSWER Directive 9285.7-72 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20460 July 2007 This page intentionally left blank i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2.0 SUMMARY OF ECO-SSLs FOR SELENIUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3.0 ECO-SSL FOR TERRESTRIAL PLANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4.0 ECO-SSL FOR SOIL INVERTEBRATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5.0 ECO-SSL FOR AVIAN WILDLIFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5.1 Avian TRV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5.2 Estimation of Dose and Calculation of the Eco-SSL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6.0 ECO-SSL FOR MAMMALIAN WILDLIFE .

158

Pressure-temperature phase diagram for a tin modified lead zirconate titanate ceramic.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Structural phase transformations between ferroelectric (FE), antiferroelectric (AFE), and paraelectric (FE) phases are frequently observed in the zirconia-rich phase region on the lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) phase diagram. Since the free energy difference among these phases is small, phase transformation can be easily induced by temperature, pressure and electric field. These induced transformation characteristics have been used for many practical applications. This study focuses on a hydrostatic pressure induced FE-to-AFE phase transformation in a tin modified PZT ceramic (PSZT). The relative phase stability between FE and AFE phases is determined by the dielectric permittivity measurement as a function of temperature from -60 C to 125 C. A pressure-temperature phase diagram for the PSZT system will be presented.

Grubbs, Robert K.; DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Yang, Pin; Roesler, Alexander William; Montgomery, Stephen Tedford; Moore, Roger Howard

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Modifying the Casimir force between indium tin oxide film and Au sphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present complete results of the experiment on measuring the Casimir force between an Au-coated sphere and an untreated or, alternatively, UV-treated indium tin oxide film deposited on a quartz substrate. Measurements were performed using an atomic force microscope in a high vacuum chamber. The measurement system was calibrated electrostatically. Special analysis of the systematic deviations is performed, and respective corrections in the calibration parameters are introduced. The corrected parameters are free from anomalies discussed in the literature. The experimental data for the Casimir force from two measurement sets for both untreated and UV-treated samples are presented. The experimental errors are determined at a 95% confidence level. It is demonstrated that the UV treatment of an I TO plate results in a significant decrease in the magnitude of the Casimir force (from 21% to 35% depending on separation). However, ellipsometry measurements of the imaginary parts of dielectric permittivities of the un...

Banishev, A A; Castillo-Garza, R; Klimchitskaya, G L; Mostepanenko, V M; Mohideen, U; 10.1103/PhysRevB.85.045436

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

The electronic structure of co-sputtered zinc indium tin oxide thin films  

SciTech Connect

Zinc indium tin oxide (ZITO) transparent conductive oxide layers were deposited via radio frequency (RF) magnetron co-sputtering at room temperature. A series of samples with gradually varying zinc content was investigated. The samples were characterized with x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS, UPS) to determine the electronic structure of the surface. Valence and conduction bands maxima (VBM, CBM), and work function were determined. The experiments indicate that increasing Zn content results in films with a higher defect rate at the surface leading to the formation of a degenerately doped surface layer if the Zn content surpasses {approx}50%. Furthermore, the experiments demonstrate that ZITO is susceptible to ultraviolet light induced work function reduction, similar to what was earlier observed on ITO and TiO{sub 2} films.

Carreras, Paz; Antony, Aldrin; Bertomeu, Joan [Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gutmann, Sebastian [Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Schlaf, Rudy [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tin selenium nanoparticle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

A New Portable Instrument for In Situ Measurement of Atmospheric Methane Mole Fraction by Applying an Improved Tin DioxideBased Gas Sensor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new portable instrument based on a tin dioxide natural gas leak detector was developed to monitor the atmospheric methane mixing ratio in areas lacking sufficient infrastructure to sustain a conventional measurement system, such as a large ...

Hiroshi Suto; Gen Inoue

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Tuna fish diet influences cat behavior. [Elevated levels of selenium and mercury in commercial tuna fish cat food  

SciTech Connect

When observed in their home cages, cats fed commercial tuna fish cat food were less active, vocalized less, and spent more time on the floor and more time eating than cats fed commercial beef cat food. There were no differences in response to human handling between the two groups. There were no differences in learning ability on a two-choice point maze or in reversal learning in the same maze between beef- and tuna-fed cats. The behavior of the groups differed in a 15-min open field test only in the number of toys contacted. Cats fed the tuna had elevated tissue levels of mercury and selenium.

Houpt, K.A.; Essick, L.A.; Shaw, E.B.; Alo, D.K.; Gilmartin, J.E.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

NIDC: Online Catalog of Isotope Products | Add a Product to Quote...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rubidium Ruthenium Samarium Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium Strontium Sulfur Tantalum Technetium Tellurium Thallium Thorium Tin Titanium Tungsten Uranium Vanadium Xenon Ytterbium...

164

The Risk Assessment Information System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Niobium Scandium Selenium Silicon Silver Strontium, Stable Thallium (Soluble Salts) Thorium Tin Titanium Uranium, Insoluble Compounds Vanadium and Compounds Ytterbium Yttrium...

165

NIDC: Online Catalog of Isotope Products | Request a Quote  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium Strontium Sulfur Tantalum Technetium Tellurium Thallium Thorium Tin Titanium Tungsten Uranium Vanadium Xenon Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc Zirconium Find...

166

Refining Primary Lead by GranulationLeachingElectrowinning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For example, smelters of complex concentrates may have iron, copper, nickel, cobalt, zinc, arsenic, antimony, tin, bismuth, selenium, tellurium, silver, and gold, ...

167

Photochromic silver nanoparticles fabricated by sputter deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study a simple route to preparing photochromic silver nanoparticles in a TiO{sub 2} matrix is presented, which is based upon sputtering and subsequent annealing. The formation of silver nanoparticles with sizes of some tens of nanometers is confirmed by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The inhomogeneously broadened particle-plasmon resonance of the nanoparticle ensemble leads to a broad optical-absorption band, whose spectral profile can be tuned by varying the silver load and the annealing temperature. Multicolor photochromic behavior of this Ag-TiO{sub 2} system upon irradiation with laser light is demonstrated and discussed in terms of a particle-plasmon-assisted electron transfer from the silver nanoparticles to TiO{sub 2} and subsequent trapping by adsorbed molecular oxygen. The electron depletion in the nanoparticles reduces the light absorption at the wavelength of irradiation. A gradual recovery of the absorption band is observed after irradiation, which is explained with a slow thermal release of electrons from the oxygen trapping centers and subsequent capture into the nanoparticles. The recovery can be accelerated by ultraviolet irradiation; the explanation for this observation is that electrons photoexcited in the TiO{sub 2} are captured into the nanoparticles and restore the absorption band.

Okumu, J.; Dahmen, C.; Sprafke, A.N.; Luysberg, M.; Plessen, G. von; Wuttig, M. [Department of Physics, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844, Nairobi (Kenya); I. Physikalisches Institut (IA), Lehrstuhl fuer Physik neuer Materialien, Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung (IFF)/ Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52428 Juelich (Germany); I. Physikalisches Institut (IA), Lehrstuhl fuer Physik neuer Materialien, Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Synthesizing photovoltaic thin films of high quality copper-zinc-tin alloy with at least one chalcogen species  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for synthesizing a thin film of copper, zinc, tin, and a chalcogen species ("CZTCh" or "CZTSS") with well-controlled properties. The method includes depositing a thin film of precursor materials, e.g., approximately stoichiometric amounts of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), tin (Sn), and a chalcogen species (Ch). The method then involves re-crystallizing and grain growth at higher temperatures, e.g., between about 725 and 925 degrees K, and annealing the precursor film at relatively lower temperatures, e.g., between 600 and 650 degrees K. The processing of the precursor film takes place in the presence of a quasi-equilibrium vapor, e.g., Sn and chalcogen species. The quasi-equilibrium vapor is used to maintain the precursor film in a quasi-equilibrium condition to reduce and even prevent decomposition of the CZTCh and is provided at a rate to balance desorption fluxes of Sn and chalcogens.

Teeter, Glenn; Du, Hui; Young, Matthew

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

169

Low Cost TiOLow Cost TiO22 NanoparticlesNanoparticles  

uniform TiO2 nanoparticles show great potential in numerous markets, including lighting, signage, automotive and solar energy for their excellent

170

Kinetics of the wetting of tin on air-passivated copper in the absence of a fluxing agent  

SciTech Connect

A specially designed ultrahigh vacuum in situ surface analysis and wetting system has been constructed to study the spreading of liquid metal solders on carefully prepared and well-characterized solid substrates. Initial studies have been completed for the spreading of pure tin solder on copper substrates in the absence of any fluxing agent. Surface chemical analysis by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the air-exposed surface to consisted of about 3 nm of Cu{sub 2}O, while the as-received surface consisted of about 8 nm of Cu{sub 2}O. The sputter-cleaned surface contained less than one monolayer (0.3 nm) of Cu{sub 2}O. Sample surfaces were prepared and spreading experiments performed without intermediate exposure of the surfaces to contaminating atmospheres. Solder spreading was performed under 50 torr of highly purified helium gas to allow for adequate thermal coupling between the solder and the substrate. Spreading experiments utilizing a linear temperature ramp show that pure tin solder spreads readily on oxidized copper surfaces at elevated temperatures. The initiation temperature for rapid tin spreading on the as-received copper surface was 325{degrees}C, similar to the temperature where isothermal spreading changes activation energy or rate. Decreasing the thickness of the oxide on the surface lowered the observed temperature for the initiation of spreading and increased the rate of spreading. On the sputter-cleaned copper surface, rapid solder spreading was observed immediately upon melting of the solder.

Peebles, D.E.; Peebles, H.C.; Ohlhausen, J.A.; Yost, F.G.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Methods of making copper selenium precursor compositions with a targeted copper selenide content and precursor compositions and thin films resulting therefrom  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Precursor compositions containing copper and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semi-conductor applications. Methods of forming the precursor compositions using primary amine solvents and methods of forming the thin films wherein the selection of temperature and duration of heating controls the formation of a targeted species of copper selenide.

Curtis, Calvin J. (Lakewood, CO); Miedaner, Alexander (Boulder, CO); van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO); Leisch, Jennifer (Denver, CO); Taylor, Matthew (West Simsbury, CT); Stanbery, Billy J. (Austin, TX)

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

172

Nanoparticle-Enhanced Crystallization of Semicrystalline Polymer ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The introduction of nanoparticles into semicrystalline polymers can alter the development and ... Colloidal Ag-Pt/TiO2 Nanocomposites for Photocatalysis ... Positron Lifetime Analysis of Polyurea-Nanoclay Composites.

173

Silver nanoparticles in alveolar bone surgery devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Silver (Ag) ions have well-known antimicrobial properties and have been applied as nanostrategies in many medical and surgical fields, including dentistry. The use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) may be an option for reducing bacterial adhesion to dental ...

Stefano Sivolella, Edoardo Stellini, Giulia Brunello, Chiara Gardin, Letizia Ferroni, Eriberto Bressan, Barbara Zavan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Nanoparticles in cancer imaging and therapy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanoparticle contrast agents offer the potential to significantly improve existing methods of cancer diagnosis and treatment. Advantages include biocompatibility, selective accumulation in tumor cells, and reduced toxicity. Considerable research is underway ...

Leon Smith; Zdenka Kuncic; Kostya Ostrikov; Shailesh Kumar

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Antibody-conjugated nanoparticles for biomedical applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanoscience and Nanotechnology have found their way into the fields of Biotechnology and Medicine. Nanoparticles by themselves offer specific physicochemical properties that they do not exhibit in bulk form, where materials show constant physical properties ...

Manuel Arruebo; Mnica Valladares; frica Gonzlez-Fernndez

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Low Temperature Bonding Process Using Cu Nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol Route Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Using Copper Nitrate Solution AlGaAs-Based Optical ... Defect Energetics and Fission Product Transport in ZrC ... Enhancing Mineral Beneficiation by High Intensity Power Ultrasound.

177

Available Technologies: Precise Control of Nanoparticle ...  

... such as light and heat, can be used to reversibly vary the inter ... (5.6)(PDP)3 and 5.4-nm PbS nanoparticles (black dots) arranged in a hexagonal ...

178

Nanoparticle derived contacts for photovoltaic cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Contacts are becoming increasingly important as PV devices move to higher efficiency and lower cost. The authors present an approach to developing contacts using nanoparticle-based precursors. Both elemental, alloy and compound nanoparticles can be employed for contacts. Ink based approaches can be utilized at low temperatures and utilize direct write techniques such as ink jet and screen printing. The ability to control the composition of the nanoparticle allows improved control of the contact metallurgy and the potential for thermodynamically stable interfaces. A key requirement is the ability to control the interface between particles and between particles and the substrate. The authors illustrate some of these principals with recent results on Al, Cu and (Hg,Cu)Te. They show that for the elemental materials control of the surface can prevent oxide formation and act as glue to control the reactivity of the nanoparticles.

Ginley, D.S.

1999-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

179

BX CY NZ nanotubes and nanoparticles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides crystalline nanoscale particles and tubes made from a variety of stoichiometries of B.sub.x C.sub.y N.sub.z where x, y, and z indicate a relative amount of each element compared to the others and where no more than one of x, y, or z are zero for a single stoichiometry. The nanotubes and nanoparticles are useful as miniature electronic components, such as wires, coils, schotky barriers, diodes, etc. The nanotubes and nanoparticles are also useful as coating that will protect an item from detection by electromagnetic monitoring techniques like radar. The nanotubes and nanoparticles are additionally useful for their mechanical properties, being comparable in strength and stiffness to the best graphite fibers or carbon nanotubes. The inventive nanoparticles are useful in lubricants and composites.

Cohen, Marvin Lou (Piedmont, CA); Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Indium-Tin-Oxide-Based Transparent Conducting Layers for Highly Efficient Photovoltaic Devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Additional hydrogen (H{sub 2}) annealing and subsequent electrochemical treatment are found to make tin-doped indium oxide (ITO)-based photoelectrodes suitable for highly efficient dye sensitized solar cells. The additional H{sub 2} annealing process recovered the electrical conductivity of the ITO film the same as its initial high conductivity, which enhanced the charge collecting property. Moreover, the employment of electrochemical oxidation of TiO{sub 2}/ITO photoelectrode improved the energy conversion efficiency of the ITO-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), higher than that of a conventional FTO-based DSSC. Electrochemical impedance analysis showed that the H2 annealing process reduced the internal resistance of the cell, i.e., the resistance of the ITO and the Schottky barrier at the TiO{sub 2}/ITO interface were reduced, and that the electrochemical treatment recovered the diodelike characteristics of the DSSC by retarding back electron transfer from the photoelectrode to the electrolyte. The present work demonstrates that thermally and electrochemically modified ITO-based photoelectrode is another alternative to the conventionally used FTO-based photoelectrode.

Lee, S.; Noh, J. H.; Bae, S. T.; Cho, I. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Shin, H.; Lee, J. K.; Jung, H. S.; Hong, K. S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tin selenium nanoparticle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Interfacial reactions between indium tin oxide and triphenylamine tetramer layers induced by photoirradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of photoirradiation on the interfacial chemical reactions between indium tin oxide (ITO) films and layers of triphenylamine tetramer (TPTE) were investigated by using in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Thin TPTE layers deposited onto sputter-deposited ITO films were irradiated with violet light-emitting diodes (peak wavelength: 380 nm). Shifts in the peak positions of spectral components that originated in the organic layer toward the higher binding-energy side were observed in the XPS profiles during the early stages of irradiation. No further peak shifts were observed after additional irradiation. An increase in the ratio of the organic component in the O 1s spectra was also observed during the photoirradiation. The ratio of the organic component increased in proportion to the cube root of the irradiation time. These results suggest that photoirradiation induces an increase in the height of the carrier injection barrier at the interface between TPTE and ITO in the early stages of the irradiation, possibly due to the rapid diffusion controlled formation and growth of an oxidized TPTE layer, which is considered to act as a high resistance layer.

Satoh, Toshikazu; Fujikawa, Hisayoshi [Toyota Central R and D Laboratories, Inc., 41-1 Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Yamamoto, Ichiro; Murasaki, Takanori; Kato, Yoshifumi [Toyota Industries Corporation, 8 Chaya, Kyowa, Obu, Aichi 474-8601 (Japan)

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Performance enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes by chlorine plasma treatment of indium tin oxide  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics of green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) fabricated on ITO/glass substrates pretreated with low-energy O{sub 2} and Cl{sub 2} plasma were compared. At 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, the OLEDs with O{sub 2} and Cl{sub 2} plasma-treated indium tin oxide (ITO) had voltages of 9.6 and 7.6 eV, and brightness of 9580 and 12380 cd/m{sup 2}, respectively. At {approx}10{sup 4} cd/m{sup 2}, the latter had a 30% higher external quantum efficiency and a 74% higher power efficiency. Photoelectron spectroscopies revealed that Cl{sub 2} plasma treatment created stable In-Cl bonds and raised the work function of ITO by up to 0.9 eV. These results suggest that the better energy level alignment at the chlorinated ITO/organic interface enhances hole injection, leading to more efficient and more reliable operation of the OLEDs. The developed plasma chlorination process is very effective for surface modification of ITO and compatible with the fabrication of various organic electronics.

Cao, X. A.; Zhang, Y. Q. [Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

183

The crystallinity and mechanical properties of indium tin oxide coatings on polymer substrates  

SciTech Connect

We present the relationship between the microstructure and mechanical strength of indium tin oxide (ITO) on flexible substrates. With varying thickness (h{sub f}), ITO is deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) by dc magnetron sputtering. The microstructure of ITO is controlled by substrate surface conditions and sputtering parameters. The maximum substrate temperature during deposition is limited to 80 deg. C due to the low glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) of PET. The crystallinity and surface roughness (R{sub rms}) are analyzed by high resolution x-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and AFM. The crack resistance of ITO is evaluated by uniaxial tension test. The experimental results reveal that, at a fixed h{sub f}, the degree and quality of crystallinity of ITO are highly improved by increasing sputtering power and the substrate temperature. As the crystallinity is improved, the ratio of preferred growth orientations of (222) to (400) is increased and the degree of peak shifts to lower 2{theta} is decreased. They indicate that the crystallinity is improved as the lattice damage is reduced and film density is increased. The tension test results confirm that, up to a certain h{sub f}, the strength of ITO can be significantly enhanced by improving the microstructures.

Kim, Eun-Hye; Yang, Chan-Woo; Park, Jin-Woo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

184

Mitigation of Sulfur Poisoning of Ni/Zirconia SOFC Anodes by Antimony and Tin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface Ni/Sb and Ni/Sb alloys were found to efficiently minimize the negative effects of sulfur on the performance of Ni/zirconia anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Prior to operating on fuel gas containing low concentrations of H2S, the nickel/zirconia anodes were briefly exposed to antimony or tin vapor, which only slightly affected the SOFC performance. During the subsequent exposures to 1 and 5 ppm H2S, increases in anodic polarization losses were minimal compared to those observed for the standard nickel/zirconia anodes. Post-test XPS analyses showed that Sb and Sn tended to segregate to the surface of Ni particles, and further confirmed a significant reduction of adsorbed sulfur on the Ni surface in Ni/Sn and Ni/Sb samples compared to the Ni. The effect may be the result of weaker sulfur adsorption on bimetallic surfaces, adsorption site competition between sulfur and Sb or Sn on Ni, or other factors. The use of dilute binary alloys of Ni-Sb or Ni-Sn in the place of Ni, or brief exposure to Sb or Sn vapor, may be effective means to counteract the effects of sulfur poisoning in SOFC anodes and Ni catalysts. Other advantages, including suppression of coking or tailoring the anode composition for the internal reforming, are also expected.

Marina, Olga A.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Pederson, Larry R.

2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

185

Evaluation of nanoparticles-based thermotherapy for cancer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Under alternating magnetic field, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can be used to generate heat for the treatment of cancer. With suitable coating, these nanoparticles are biocompatible, stable in solution, and ...

Wiryaatmadja, Edwina

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Potential technologies based on stamped periodic nanoparticle array  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A stamped nanoparticle array patterning technology integrating interference lithography, self assembly and soft lithography is assessed. This technology is capable of parallel patterning of nanoparticles at a large scale. ...

Wang, Zongbin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes decorated with cobalt oxide nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) synthesized by spray pyrolysis were decorated with cobalt oxide nanoparticles using a simple synthesis route. This wet chemistry method yielded nanoparticles randomly anchored to the surface of the nanotubes by decomposition ...

D. G. Larrude; P. Ayala; M. E. H. Maia da Costa; F. L. Freire

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Nanostructure fabrication by electron and ion beam patterning of nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two modes of energetic beam-mediated fabrication have been investigated, namely focused ion beam (FIB) direct-writing of nanoparticles, and a technique for electrostatically patterning ionized inorganic nanoparticles, ...

Kong, David Sun, 1979-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Investigation of polarization anisotropy in individual porous silicon nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polarization anisotropy is investigated in single porous silicon nanoparticles containing multiple chromophores. Two forms of nanoparticle samples are studied; low current density (LCD) and high current density (HCD). Photoluminescence measurements reveal ... Keywords: Anisotropy, Photoluminescence, Polarization, Porous silicon, Silicon nanocrystal

Daniel J. Gargas; Donald J. Sirbuly; Michael D. Mason; Paul J. Carson; Steven K. Buratto

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Controlled Processing of Nanoparticle-Based Materials and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This includes high energy conversion efficiency fuel cells, smart materials, high ... Mechanical Characterization of Heat Treated Natural Nanoparticle-Based Material - Nacre ... Patterning Nanoparticle-Based Arrays through a Liquid Process.

191

Interim Results from a Study of the Impacts of Tin (II) Based Mercury Treatment in a Small Stream Ecosystem: Tims Branch, Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

A research team is assessing the impacts of an innovative mercury treatment system in Tims Branch, a small southeastern stream. The treatment system, installed in 2007, reduces and removes inorganic mercury from water using tin(II) (stannous) chloride addition followed by air stripping. The system results in discharge of inorganic tin to the ecosystem. This screening study is based on historical information combined with measurements of contaminant concentrations in water, fish, sediment, biofilms and invertebrates. Initial mercury data indicate that first few years of mercury treatment resulted in a significant decrease in mercury concentration in an upper trophic level fish, redfin pickerel, at all sampling locations in the impacted reach. For example, the whole body mercury concentration in redfin pickerel collected from the most impacted pond decreased approximately 72% between 2006 (pre-treatment) and 2010 (post-treatment). Over this same period, mercury concentrations in the fillet of redfin pickerel in this pond were estimated to have decreased from approximately 1.45 {micro}g/g (wet weight basis) to 0.45 {micro}g/g - a decrease from 4.8x to 1.5x the current EPA guideline concentration for mercury in fillet (0.3 {micro}g/g). Thermodynamic modeling, scanning electron microscopy, and other sampling data for tin suggest that particulate tin (IV) oxides are a significant geochemical species entering the ecosystem with elevated levels of tin measured in surficial sediments and biofilms. Detectable increases in tin in sediments and biofilms extended approximately 3km from the discharge location. Tin oxides are recalcitrant solids that are relatively non-toxic and resistant to dissolution. Work continues to develop and validate methods to analyze total tin in the collected biota samples. In general, the interim results of this screening study suggest that the treatment process has performed as predicted and that the concentration of mercury in upper trophic level fish, as a surrogate for all of the underlying transport and transformation processes in a complex ecosystem, has declined as a direct result of the elimination of inorganic mercury inputs. Inorganic tin released to the ecosystem has been found in compartments where particles accumulate with notable levels measured in biofilms.

Looney, Brian [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); BryanJr., Larry [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory; Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Roy, W Kelly [ORNL; Jett, Robert T [ORNL; Smith, John G [ORNL

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Rare Earth Oxide Fluoride: Ceramic Nano-particles via a ...  

Rare Earth Oxide Fluoride: Ceramic Nano-particles via a Hydrothermal Method. Battelle Number(s): 12234. ... Potential Industry Applications. ...

193

The Synthesis of Catalytic-upconversion Nanoparticles and their ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... the wide applicability of upconversion nanoparticles from biomedical fields to environmental remediations through photocatalysis and solar energy harvesting

194

Flash Lamp Curing of Printed Nano-Particle Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2009. Symposium, Controlled Processing of Nanoparticle-Based Materials and Nanostructured...

195

Computational Studies of Graphene-Supported Metal Nanoparticle ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Active Titania-Based Nanoparticles for Composite Propellant Combustion ... of Novel Nanostructured Electrolytes for Low Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells...

196

Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Open the Door to ...  

Using metal oxide semiconductor nanoparticles to target and control biological molecules could fuel medical breakthroughs in many areas, including ...

197

Nucleation Catalysis Potency of Ceramic Nanoparticles in Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Frontiers in Solidification Science. Presentation Title, Nucleation Catalysis Potency of Ceramic Nanoparticles in Aluminum Matrix Nanocomposites .

198

OXIDE NANOPARTICLES AND NANOSTRUCTURED COATINGS BY WET CHEMICAL PROCESSING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ultrafiltration membranes derived from carboxylate­alumoxane nanoparticles, C. D. Jones, M. Fidalgo, M. R. Wiesner

Verweij, Henk

199

Gold-coated nanoparticles for use in biotechnology applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of preparing gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles is disclosed and includes forming a suspension of magnetic nanoparticles within a suitable liquid, adding an amount of a reducible gold compound and a reducing agent to the suspension, and, maintaining the suspension for time sufficient to form gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles.

Berning, Douglas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Kraus, Jr., Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM); Atcher; Robert W. (Los Alamos, NM); Schmidt, Jurgen G. (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

200

Physicochemical characterization of point defects in fluorine doped tin oxide films  

SciTech Connect

The physical and chemical properties of spray deposited FTO films are studied using FESEM, x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrical and optical measurements. The results of XRD measurements showed that the films are polycrystalline (grain size 20-50 nm) with Rutile structure and mixed preferred orientation along the (200) and (110) planes. An angular shift of the XRD peaks after F-doping is observed and interpreted as being due to the formation of substitutional fluorine defects (F{sub O}) in presence of high concentration of oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}) that are electrically neutral. The electrical neutrality of oxygen vacancies is supported by the observation that the electron concentration n is two orders of magnitude lower than the V{sub O} concentration calculated from chemical analyses using XPS measurements. It is shown that an agreement between XPS, XRD, and Hall effect results is possible provided that the degree of deviation from stoichiometry is calculated with the assumption that the major part of the bulk carbon content is involved in O-C bonds. High temperature thermal annealing is found to cause an increase in the F{sub O} concentration and a decrease in both n and V{sub O} concentrations with the increase of the annealing temperature. These results could be interpreted in terms of a high temperature chemical exchange reaction between the SnO{sub 2} matrix and a precipitated fluoride phase. In this reaction, fluorine is released to the matrix and Sn is trapped by the fluoride phase, thus creating substitutional fluorine F{sub O} and tin vacancy V{sub Sn} defects. The enthalpy of this reaction is determined to be approximately 2.4 eV while the energy of formation of a V{sub Sn} through the migration of Sn{sub Sn} host atom to the fluoride phase is approximately 0.45 eV.

El Akkad, Fikry; Joseph, Sudeep [Physics Department, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tin selenium nanoparticle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Tin, Antimony, Bismuth, and Tellurium Lewis Acids in sigma-Accepting Ligands for Transition Metals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The interactions between ligands and transition metals have been an essential subject in inorganic chemistry. Other than the commonly known L-type (two-electron donors) and X-type ligands (one-electron donors), Z-type ligands (two-electron acceptors) have begun to surface in the past decade. Capable of drawing a pair of d-electrons away from a metal, Z-ligands affect the electronic structures of transition metals leading to fascinating properties as well as reactivity. In particular, recent advance in Z-ligand chemistry have resulted in the discovery of transition metal borane complexes featuring metal ? boron interactions. Owing to the presence of a metal ? boron interaction which stabilizes the low valent state, these complexes have been shown to activate small molecules such as H2, CO2, and CHCl3. Further, the concept of Z-ligand has been extended to s- and d-block Lewis acids. In spite of these achievements, Z-ligands that contain Group 14-16 elements as Lewis acids remain scarce and relatively unexplored. For this reason, we have launched a series of investigations targeting complexes with transition metal ? Group 14-16 interactions. These investigations have allowed us to synthesize a series of novel complexes with palladium, platinum, or gold as metallobasic late transition metals and tin, antimony, bismuth, and tellurium as Lewis acids. The transition metal ? Lewis acid interactions of these complexes, which are supported by o-phosphinophenylene, 1,8-naphthalenediyl or 8-quinolinyl buttresses, have been established experimentally and theoretically. Further, the reactivity of these complexes toward anions and oxidants has also been explored. These experiments have led to the discovery of tellurium-platinum complexes that sustain reversible two-electron redox processes including the photo-reductive elimination of chlorine. Other noteworthy outcomes of this research include the isolation of the first telluroxanyl-metal complex as well as the discovery of complexes with HgII ? SbV interactions.

Lin, Tzu-Pin

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Modifying the Casimir force between indium tin oxide film and Au sphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present complete results of the experiment on measuring the Casimir force between an Au-coated sphere and an untreated or, alternatively, UV-treated indium tin oxide film deposited on a quartz substrate. Measurements were performed using an atomic force microscope in a high vacuum chamber. The measurement system was calibrated electrostatically. Special analysis of the systematic deviations is performed, and respective corrections in the calibration parameters are introduced. The corrected parameters are free from anomalies discussed in the literature. The experimental data for the Casimir force from two measurement sets for both untreated and UV-treated samples are presented. The experimental errors are determined at a 95% confidence level. It is demonstrated that the UV treatment of an I TO plate results in a significant decrease in the magnitude of the Casimir force (from 21% to 35% depending on separation). However, ellipsometry measurements of the imaginary parts of dielectric permittivities of the untreated and UV-treated samples did not reveal any significant differences. The experimental data are compared with computations in the framework of the Lifshitz theory. It is found that the data for the untreated sample are in a very good agreement with theoretical results taking into account the free charge carriers in an ITO film. For the UV-treated sample the data exclude the theoretical results obtained with account of free charge carriers. These data are in a very good agreement with computations disregarding the contribution of free carriers. According to the explanation provided, this is caused by the phase transition of the ITO film from metallic to dielectric state caused by the UV treatment. Possible applications of the discovered phenomenon in nanotechnology are discussed.

A. A. Banishev; C. -C. Chang; R. Castillo-Garza; G. L. Klimchitskaya; V. M. Mostepanenko; U. Mohideen

2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

203

Electronic states at the interface between indium tin oxide and silicon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electronic properties and thermal stability of interfacial states between indium tin oxide (ITO) and monocrystalline silicon (Si) have been investigated. ITO films with thicknesses of about 300 nm were deposited by dc magnetron sputtering on n- and p-type (100) Si at room temperature. The samples were then annealed for 30 min at different temperatures in the range 100-600 deg. C, and the ITO-Si junction was found to exhibit rectifying behavior. Current-voltage (IV), capacitance-voltage (CV), and deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements have been used to electrically characterize the ITO-Si interface. DLTS measurements on p-type Si samples reveal a dominant hole trap at around 0.37 eV above the valence band edge. In the n-type samples, a broad band of electron traps occur in the range 0.1-0.2 eV below the conduction band edge. These electron traps display wide DLTS peaks, indicating a band of electronic energy levels rather than well-defined states originating from isolated point defects. All the traps in both the p- and n-type samples are found to be located near the ITO-Si interface. Investigations of the thermal stability of the observed electronic states show that the dominant hole trap anneal out after 30 min at 250 deg. C, while the dominant electron traps can be stable up to 500 deg. C. IV and DLTS measurements demonstrate a clear correlation between the annealing of the dominant electronic states and increase in the junction rectification.

Malmbekk, H.; Vines, L.; Monakhov, E. V.; Svensson, B. G. [University of Oslo, Physics Department/Center for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, P.O. Box 1048, Blindern, Oslo N-0316 (Norway)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Low Temperature, Self-nucleated Growth of Indium Tin Oxide Nanostructures by Pulsed Laser Deposition in Argon  

SciTech Connect

Indium tin oxide (ITO) nanostructures were successfully deposited on glass substrate by pulsed laser ablation in argon gas at 250 deg. C. Microstructural changes were observed in the argon gas pressure between 30 to 50 mTorr. The as-grown, nanostructured ITO exhibit In{sub 2}O{sub 3} bixbyite structure orientated at <111> direction. At the initial stage of growth, there was a large number of nucleation sites detected which eventually evolved into needle-like branches. The presence of spheres at the tip of these branches indicates that these nanostructured ITO were likely governed by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism.

Tan, S. S.; Lee, W. K.; Kee, Y. Y.; Wong, H. Y.; Tou, T. Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya (Malaysia)

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

205

Argonne CNM Highlight: Light Scattering by Nanoparticles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Light Scattering by Nanoparticles: Understanding Confinement of Light for Nanophotonics Applications through Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy Light Scattering by Nanoparticles: Understanding Confinement of Light for Nanophotonics Applications through Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy Schematic of the apertureless near-field optical microscope Schematic of the apertureless near-field optical microscope. The optical scattering from the AFM probe tip provides the subdiffraction-limited optical field information. One of the motivations of nanoscience is to achieve sufficient control over photon propagation in nanostructures so as to effectively replace the electron with the photon in all-optical integrated circuits. The much greater speed and bandwidth of light pulses versus electrons promise new capabilities and size reduction of photon based “electronics.” Arrays of metal nanoparticles are currently considered a leading candidate for photon

206

Selenium Removal by Iron Cementation from a Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater in a Continuous Flow System-- a Pilot Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update describes work funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and performed by MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) at a coal-fired power plant burning Powder River Basin (PRB) coal (identified in this report as Plant E). This work was based on encouraging results obtained during previous EPRI-funded work on flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater treatability testing by MSE, which focused on selenium removal from a variety of FGD wastewater sources. The results from th...

2009-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

207

Pilot-Scale and Full-Scale Evaluation of Treatment Technologies for the Removal of Mercury and Selenium in Flue Gas Desulphurization Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents an overall evaluation of the various advanced treatment technologies that the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has tested for removal of mercury and selenium from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) water. EPRI conducted a literature survey followed by a preliminary laboratory-scale evaluation to screen promising technologies. For the technologies that were selected based on the success of laboratory-scale testing, EPRI worked with treatment vendors to further evaluate these techn...

2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

208

Fluorescent Nanoparticles for Radiation DetectionFluorescent Nanoparticles for Radiation Detection  

Researchers at ORNL invented a promising material for more efficient nanoscalescintillators, or radiation detectors. The new material, which can detect most kindsof radiation, consists of fluorescent nanoparticles embedded in a transparent matrix.The ...

209

Measurements of Atmospheric Nanoparticles (18751980)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The atmosphere contains a large variety of particles, ranging in size from near molecular (~1 nm) to larger than 10,000 nm. The total number concentration N of particles is dominated by nanoparticles ? 100 nm in diameter. Discovery of atmospheric ...

Volker Mohnen; George M. Hidy

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Effects of varying ethanol and water concentrations as a gold nanoparticle gel solvent  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Striped gold nanoparticles are unique in several of their characteristics and applications. Recent experiments have determined a new medium with which contain the nanoparticles is that of a chemical gel. The nanoparticles ...

Schaefer, Thomas Gerard

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

The analysis of cross-sections of proton and deuteron induced reactions on tin isotopes at the beam energy of 3.65 GeV/nucleon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the given paper the total inelastic cross-sections of the reactions of protons and deuterons on nuclear targets of enriched tin isotopes were compared. The factorization of cross-sections of reactions was discussed. Furthermore, the comparison of theoretical estimations on total inelastic cross-sections with corresponding experimental ones was made.

A. R. Balabekyan; N. A. Demekhina; V. M. Zhamkochyan; G. S. Karapetyan

2013-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

212

Light output enhancement of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with contrasting indium tin-oxide nanopatterned structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Various nanopatterns on the transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) layer are investigated to enhance the light extraction efficiency of the InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Triangular, square, and circular nanohole patterns with the square ...

Sang Hyun Jung, Keun Man Song, Young Su Choi, Hyeong-Ho Park, Hyun-Beom Shin, Ho Kwan Kang, Jaejin Lee

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Growth and Properties of (001)-oriented Pb(Zr?.??Ti?.??)O?/LaNiO? Films on Si(001) Substrates with TiN Buffer Layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pulsed laser deposition has been used to grow Pb(Zr?.??Ti?.??)O? (PZT)/LaNiO? (LNO) heterostructures with restricted crystallographic orientations on bare Si(001) and SiO?-coated Si(001) substrates, using TiN buffer layers. ...

Zhu, Tie-Jun

214

Nanoparticle Solar Cell Final Technical Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this work was to demonstrate all-inorganic nanoparticle-based solar cells with photovoltaic performance extending into the near-IR region of the solar spectrum as a pathway towards improving power conversion efficiencies. The field of all-inorganic nanoparticle-based solar cells is very new, with only one literature publication in the prior to our project. Very little is understood regarding how these devices function. Inorganic solar cells with IR performance have previously been fabricated using traditional methods such as physical vapor deposition and sputtering, and solution-processed devices utilizing IR-absorbing organic polymers have been investigated. The solution-based deposition of nanoparticles offers the potential of a low-cost manufacturing process combined with the ability to tune the chemical synthesis and material properties to control the device properties. This work, in collaboration with the Sue Carter research group at the University of California, Santa Cruz, has greatly expanded the knowledge base in this field, exploring multiple material systems and several key areas of device physics including temperature, bandgap and electrode device behavior dependence, material morphological behavior, and the role of buffer layers. One publication has been accepted to Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells pending minor revision and another two papers are being written now. While device performance in the near-IR did not reach the level anticipated at the beginning of this grant, we did observe one of the highest near-IR efficiencies for a nanoparticle-based solar cell device to date. We also identified several key parameters of importance for improving both near-IR performance and nanoparticle solar cells in general, and demonstrated multiple pathways which showed promise for future commercialization with further research.

Breeze, Alison, J; Sahoo, Yudhisthira; Reddy, Damoder; Sholin, Veronica; Carter, Sue

2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

215

Lithium/selenium secondary battery for implantation. Annual report, 23 June 1970--30 July 1971. [Li/Se and Li--Al/S--Se--Tl, 400 C, 30 W  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A lithium/selenium battery is being developed as an implantable power source for an artificial heart or heart-assist device. During this period, the principal effort was directed toward extending the lifetimes of two types of lithium/selenium cells operating at about 400C. One type consists of a liquid lithium anode, a liquid selenium cathode, and a rigid past electrolyte composed of a molten-salt eutectic and lithium aluminate filler. The other type employs a molten-salt-eutectic liquid electrolyte, a solid lithium--aluminum alloy anode, and an immobilized sulfur--selenium--thallium alloy cathode. Cell cycle life had been severely limited by the transport of selenium to the anode; long-term, steady-state operation of single cells using Se--Tl cathodes demonstrated that this problem has been solved. An improved cell design (employing a liquid electrolyte and solid lithium--aluminum anode) which appears capable of meeting or exceeding the capacity density, power density, and weight objectives for an implantable 30-W battery is presented.

Chilenskas, A.A.; Walsh, W.J.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Webster, D.S.; Cairns, E.J.

1971-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Tubular Organization of SnO? Nanocrystallites for Improved Lithium Ion Battery Anode Performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Porous tin oxide nanotubes were obtained by vacuum infiltration of tin oxide nanoparticles into porous aluminum oxide membranes, followed by calcination. The porous tin oxide nanotube arrays so prepared were characterized ...

Wang, Yong

217

Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nanowire networks embedded in indium tin oxide nanoparticleoxide (i-ZnO) and indium tin oxide (ITO) by radio frequencyNetworks Embedded in Indium Tin Oxide Nanoparticle Matrices

Chung, Choong-Heui

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Chemically Modified Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nanoparticle seeded indium-tin oxide (ITO) substrate usingarrays were grown on an indium-tin oxide substrate followedof a double-sided indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate

Wang, Gongming

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Transparent and Conductive Carbon Nanotube Multilayer Thin Films Suitable as an Indium Tin Oxide Replacement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transparent electrodes made from metal oxides suffer from poor flexibility and durability. Highly transparent and electrically conductive thin films based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were assembled as a potential indium tin oxide (ITO) replacement using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. The ultimate objective of this dissertation work is to produce CNT-based assemblies with sheet resistance below 100 Omega/sq and visible light transmission greater than 85 percent. The alternate deposition of positively charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) [PDDA] and CNTs stabilized with negatively charged deoxycholate (DOC) exhibit linear film growth and thin film properties can be precisely tuned. Ellipsometry, quartz crystal microbalance, and UV-vis were used to measure the growth of these films as a function of PDDA-CNT bilayers deposited, while TEM, SEM, and AFM were used to visualize the nanostructure of these films. Following a literature review describing potential ITO substitutes and LbL technology, the influence of CNT type on optoelectronic performance of LbL assemblies is described. Three different types of nanotubes were investigated: (1) multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), (2) few-walled carbon nanotubes (FWNT), and (3) purified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). SWNTs produced the most transparent (>85 percent visible light transmittance) and electrically conductive (148 S/cm, 1.62 kOmega/sq) 20-bilayer films with a 41.6 nm thickness, while MWNT-based films are much thicker and more opaque. A 20-bilayer PDDA/(MWNT DOC) film is approximately 103 nm thick, with a conductivity of 36 S/cm and a transmittance of 30 percent. In an effort to improve both transparency and electrical conductivity, heat and acid treatments were studied. Heating films to 300 degree C reduced sheet resistance to 701 Omega/sq (618 S/cm conductivity, 38.4 nm thickness), with no change in transparency, owing to the removal of insulating component in the film. Despite improving conductivity, heating is not compatible with most plastic substrates, so acid doping was investigated as an alternate means to enhance properties. Exposing SWNT-based assemblies to HNO3 vapor reduced sheet resistance of a 10 BL film to 227 Omega/sq. Replacing SWNTs with double walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) provided further reduction in sheet resistance due to the greater metallic of DWNT. A 5 BL DWNT film exhibited the lowest 104 Omega/sq sheet resistance (4200 S/cm conductivity, 22.9 nm thickness) with 84 percent transmittance after nitric acid treatment. DWNT-based assemblies maintained their low sheet resistance after repeated bending and also showed electrochemical stability relative to ITO. This work demonstrates the excellent optoelectronic performance, mechanical flexibility, and electrochemical stability of CNT-based assemblies, which are potentially useful as flexible transparent electrodes for a variety of flexible electronics.

Park, Yong Tae

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Monte carlo simulations of segregation in Pt-Re catalyst nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and design of Pt-Re catalyst nanoparticles. ACKNOWLEDGMENTSJ.H. Sinfelt, Bimetallic Catalysts: Discoveries, concepts,of segregation in Pt-Re catalyst nanoparticles Guofeng Wang

Wang, Guofeng; Van Hove, M.A.; Ross, P.N.; Baskes, M.I.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tin selenium nanoparticle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Experimental and theoretical investigation of transport phenomena in nanoparticle colloids (nanofluids)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study investigates the thermal transport behavior of nanoparticle colloids or nanofluids. The major efforts are: to determine methods to characterize a nanoparticle colloid's mass loading, chemical constituents, ...

Williams, Wesley Charles, 1976-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Selective heating of multiple nanoparticles as a new strategy for controlled release applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Utilization of nanoparticle heating for controlled release application was proposed and its feasibility was explored. The proposed method was formulated by realizing that biomolecule - nanoparticle conjugation is heat ...

Wijaya, Andy

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

(001) textured L1{sub 0}-FePt pseudo spin valve with TiN spacer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TiN was investigated as a potential spacer material in L1{sub 0}-FePt based pseudo spin valves (PSV). PSVs with the structure MgO/L1{sub 0}-Fe{sub 50}Pt{sub 50} (20 nm)/TiN (5 nm)/L1{sub 0}-Fe{sub 50}Pt{sub 50} (x nm) were fabricated, where x was varied from 5 to 20 nm. The highest giant magnetoresistance (GMR) ratio of 0.61% was obtained for the PSV with a top L1{sub 0}-FePt thickness of 20 nm. Contributions to the GMR arose from both the spin dependent scattering at the FePt/TiN interfaces and domain wall resistivity. Magnon magnetoresistance was also observed in the fabricated PSVs.

Ho, P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 Singapore (Singapore) and Data Storage Institute, Agency of Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 117608 Singapore (Singapore); Han, G. C. [Data Storage Institute, Agency of Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 117608 Singapore (Singapore); He, K. H.; Chow, G. M.; Chen, J. S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 Singapore (Singapore)

2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

224

Reversible wettability of electron-beam deposited indium-tin-oxide driven by ns-UV irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Indium tin oxide (ITO) is one of the most widely used semiconductor oxides in the field of organic optoelectronics, especially for the realization of anode contacts. Here the authors report on the control of the wettability properties of ITO films deposited by reactive electron beam deposition and irradiated by means of nanosecond-pulsed UV irradiation. The enhancement of the surface water wettability, with a reduction of the water contact angle larger than 50 deg., is achieved by few tens of seconds of irradiation. The analyzed photo-induced wettability change is fully reversible in agreement with a surface-defect model, and it can be exploited to realize optically transparent, conductive surfaces with controllable wetting properties for sensors and microfluidic circuits.

Persano, Luana [NNL, National Nanotechnology Laboratory of CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Universita del Salento, via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnologies UNILE, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Barsanti, I-73010 Arnesano-LE (Italy); Del Carro, Pompilio [NNL, National Nanotechnology Laboratory of CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Universita del Salento, via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Pisignano, Dario [NNL, National Nanotechnology Laboratory of CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Universita del Salento, via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnologies UNILE, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Barsanti, I-73010 Arnesano-LE (Italy); Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica ''Ennio De Giorgi'', Universita del Salento, via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

2012-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

225

Alkaline earth lead and tin compounds Ae2Pb, Ae2Sn, Ae=Ca,Sr,Ba, as thermoelectric materials  

SciTech Connect

We present a detailed theoretical study of three alkaline earth compounds Ca2Pb, Sr2Pb and Ba2Pb, which have undergone little previous study, calculating electronic band structures and Boltzmann transport and bulk moduli using density functional theory. We also study the corresponding tin compounds Ca2 Sn, Sr2 Sn and Ba2 Sn. We find that these are all narrow band gap semiconductors with an electronic structure favorable for thermoelectric performance, with substantial thermopowers for the lead compounds at temperature ranges from 300 to 800 K. For the lead compounds, we further find very low calculated bulk moduli - roughly half of the values for the lead chalcogenides, suggestive of soft phonons and hence low lattice thermal conductivity. All these facts indicate that these materials merit experimental investigation as potential high performance thermoelectrics. We find good potential for thermoelectric performance in the environmentally friendly stannide materials, particularly at high temperature.

Parker, David S [ORNL; Singh, David J [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Unveiling the Secrets of Nanoparticle Haloing | Advanced Photon...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

halo, it opens a window to the systematic study of the entire nanoparticle-microsphere phase diagram for this type of novel colloidal stabilization mechanism," said Argonne's...

227

Legacy Project - Fate of Nanoparticles in Neural Environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Project: Fate of Nanoparticles in Neural Environments. ... and a stiff plastic environment that alters cell ... despite very limited environmental health and ...

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

228

Dynamics of Nanoparticle-Based Complex Fluids in Porous Media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Advances in the use of nanoparticle-based complex fluids are likely to transform exploration and production of oil and gas. The dependence of ...

229

Improvements in nanoparticles distribution in aluminium matrix nano ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mechanical stirring process is optimised to obtain distribution of nano- particle in entire volume of the liquid. However, locally, nanoparticle clusters have...

230

Thermo-Mechanical Treatment Process for Nano-Particle ...  

Thermo-Mechanical Treatment Process for Nano-Particle Strengthening of Nitrogen-Containing High-Temperature Commercial Ferritic and Martensitic Steels

231

Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Pave the Way for ...  

Argonne researchers have developed a unique application of technology that involves using metal oxide semiconductor nanoparticles to target and control biological ...

232

Dispersion of Ag Nanoparticles onto Porous Aluminum Hydroxide ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

And the optical property of the fabricated Ag nanoparticles dispersed ... Properties and Characterization of Nano-Structured Metal Oxides Used for Gas Sensor...

233

Development of Highly Active Titania-Based Nanoparticles for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Active Titania-Based Nanoparticles for Composite Propellant Combustion ... in the combustion rate of HTPB-AP based composite solid propellants with a...

234

Recent Advances of Nanojoining of Ag Nanoparticles by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the intermediate intensity regime, spherical nanoparticles are changed into a ... Challenges in the Oil and Gas Industry in Support of Large Capital Projects.

235

Controlling Composition at the Individual FePt Nanoparticle Level  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CNT Based Thermoelectric Devices for Energy Harvesting Controlling Composition at the Individual FePt Nanoparticle Level Corrosion Rates and Mechanical...

236

Use of Hybrid Nanoparticles to Enhance Thermal Energy Storage ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Use of Hybrid Nanoparticles to Enhance Thermal Energy Storage Capacity for Concentrated Solar Power. Author(s), Dileep Singh, Sreeram...

237

Low Cost TiO2 Nanoparticles - Energy Innovation Portal  

Solar Photovoltaic Advanced Materials Low Cost TiO2 Nanoparticles Sandia National Laboratories. Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: Market ...

238

Multi-Scale Molecular Designing of Nanoparticles and Functional ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Various bottom-up and top-down innovative procedures for the molecular designing of nanoparticles, enabling the preparation of powders and...

239

Patterning Nanoparticle-Based Arrays through a Liquid Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Author(s), Kathy Lu, Chase Hammond. On-Site Speaker (Planned), Kathy Lu ... Agricultural-Waste Biomass for Hydrogen Adsorption via Nano-Particle Synthesis

240

Velcro for Nanoparticles | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Molecular Fossil A Molecular Fossil Ultrafast Imaging of Electron Waves in Graphene When Size Matters: Yttrium Oxide Breaking Down Under Pressure Breakthrough in Nanocrystals' Growth Next Step to Drought-Resistant Plants? Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Velcro for Nanoparticles NOVEMBER 17, 2010 Bookmark and Share Different shapes of gold nanoparticles will self-assemble into different configurations when attached to single strands of DNA. DNA can do more than direct how bodies are made - it can also direct the composition of many kinds of materials, according to a new study from the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Photon Source at Argonne.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tin selenium nanoparticle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Mixed oxide nanoparticles and method of making  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methods and apparatus for producing mixed oxide nanoparticulates are disclosed. Selected thermophilic bacteria cultured with suitable reducible metals in the presence of an electron donor may be cultured under conditions that reduce at least one metal to form a doped crystal or mixed oxide composition. The bacteria will form nanoparticles outside the cell, allowing easy recovery. Selection of metals depends on the redox potentials of the reducing agents added to the culture. Typically hydrogen or glucose are used as electron donors.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Phelps, Tommy J. (Knoxville, TN); Zhang, Chuanlun (Columbia, MO); Roh, Yul (Oak Ridge, TN)

2002-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

242

Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems  

SciTech Connect

A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

243

Fabrication of magnetite/silica/titania core-shell nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized via a sol-gel method with the aid of sonication. Fe3O4 nanoparticles were being encapsulated within discrete silica nanospheres, ...

Suh Cem Pang; Sze Yun Kho; Suk Fun Chin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Weakly Charged Cationic Nanoparticles Induce DNA Bending and Strand Separation  

SciTech Connect

The understanding of interactions between double stranded (ds) DNA and charged nanoparticles will have a broad bearing on many important applications from drug delivery [ 1 4 ] to DNAtemplated metallization. [ 5 , 6 ] Cationic nanoparticles (NPs) can bind to DNA, a negatively charged molecule, through a combination of electrostatic attraction, groove binding, and intercalation. Such binding events induce changes in the conformation of a DNA strand. In nature, DNA wraps around a cylindrical protein assembly (diameter and height of 6 nm) [ 7 ] with an 220 positive charge, [ 8 ] creating the complex known as chromatin. Wrapping and bending of DNA has also been achieved in the laboratory through the binding of highly charged species such as molecular assemblies, [ 9 , 10 ] cationic dendrimers, [ 11 , 12 ] and nanoparticles. [ 13 15 ] The charge of a nanoparticle plays a crucial role in its ability to induce DNA structural changes. If a nanoparticle has a highly positive surface charge density, the DNA is likely to wrap and bend upon binding to the nanoparticle [ 13 ] (as in the case of chromatin). On the other hand, if a nanoparticle is weakly charged it will not induce dsDNA compaction. [ 9 , 10 , 15 ] Consequently, there is a transition zone from extended to compact DNA conformations which depends on the chemical nature of the nanoparticle and occurs for polycations with charges between 5 and 10. [ 9 ] While the interactions between highly charged NPs and DNA have been extensively studied, the processes that occur within the transition zone are less explored.

Railsback, Justin [North Carolina State University; Singh, Abhishek [North Carolina State University; Pearce, Ryan [North Carolina State University; McKnight, Timothy E [ORNL; Collazo, Ramon [North Carolina State University; Sitar, Zlatko [ORNL; Yingling, Yaroslava [North Carolina State University; Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Direct observation and localization of colloidal nanoparticles on patterned surface by capillary forces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precise localization of nanoparticles is often required to fully exploit the intrinsic physical properties as well as to develop methodologies for large-scale integration of nanodevice building-blocks with the macroscopic world. In this work, a simple ... Keywords: Indexing nanoparticles, Interfacial capillary forces, Nanoparticles wall, Tracking nanoparticles

D. Peyrade; M. Gordon; G. Hyvert; K. Berton; J. Tallal

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Optical Properties and Potential Applications of Doped Semiconductor Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies on the optical properties, in particular luminescence, of a variety of doped semiconductor nanoparticles are reviewed. The effects of quantum confinement, temperature, and pressure on luminescent properties are discussed. In addition, electroluminescence, cathodoluminescence, magnetoluminescence and related applications involving doped semiconductor nanoparticles are presented. A new phenomenon, upconversion luminescence of doped nanoparticles, is reviewed and its potential applications are discussed. While more research efforts are necessary in order to fully understand the fundamentals and explore the great technological potential behind doped nanoparticles, recent results already show that this is a new and exciting field with applications in many fields. In particular, the emerging field of ''spintronics'', where spin states are exploited in analogy to conventional electronic states, is discussed and the advantages of using doped semiconductor nanoparticles are elucidated.

Chen, Wei; Zhang, Jin Z.; Joly, Alan G.

2004-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

247

Photovoltaic devices having nanoparticle dipoles for enhanced performance and methods for making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photovoltaic device has nanoparticles sandwiched between a conductive substrate and a charge selective transport layer. Each of the nanoparticles has a ligand shell attached to the nanoparticle core. A first type of ligand is electron rich and attached to one hemisphere of the nanoparticle core, while a second type of ligand is electron poor and attached to an opposite hemisphere of the core. Consequently, the ligand shell induces an electric field within the nanoparticle, enhancing the photovoltaic effect. The arrangement of ligands types on different sides of the nanoparticle is obtained by a process involving ligand substitution after adhering the nanoparticles to the conductive substrate.

Williams, George M. (Portland, OR); Schut, David M. (Philomath, OR); Stonas, Andreas (Albany, OR)

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

248

INTERIM RESULTS FROM A STUDY OF THE IMPACTS OF TIN(II) BASED MERCURY TREATMENT IN A SMALL STREAM ECOSYSTEM: TIMS BRANCH, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mercury (Hg) has been identified as a 'persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic' pollutant with widespread impacts throughout North America and the world (EPA. 1997a, 1997b, 1998a, 1998b, 2000). Although most of the mercury in the environment is inorganic Hg, a small proportion of total Hg is transformed through the actions of aquatic microbes into methylmercury (MeHg). In contrast to virtually all other metals, MeHg biomagnifies or becomes increasingly concentrated as it is transferred through aquatic food chains so that the consumption of mercury contaminated fish is the primary route of this toxin to humans. For this reason, the ambient water quality criterion (AWQC) for mercury is based on a fish tissue endpoint rather than an aqueous Hg concentration, as the tissue concentration (e.g., fish are more closely linked to aqueous MeHg than to inorganic Hg concentrations (Sveinsdottir and Mason 2005), but MeHg production is not easily predicted or controlled. At point-source contaminated sites, mercury methylation is not only affected by the absolute mercury load, but also by the form of mercury loaded. In addition, once MeHg is formed, the hydrology, trophic structure, and water chemistry of a given system affect how it is transformed and transferred through the food chain to fish. Decreasing inorganic Hg concentrations and loading may often therefore be a more achievable remediation goal, but has led to mixed results in terms of responses in fish bioaccumulation. A number of source control measures have resulted in rapid responses in lake or reservoir fisheries (Joslin 1994, Turner and Southworth 1999; Orihel et al., 2007), but examples of similar responses in Hg-contaminated stream ecosystems are less common. Recent work suggests that stream systems may actually be more susceptible to mercury bioaccumulation than lakes, highlighting the need to better understand the ecological drivers of mercury bioaccumulation in stream-dwelling fish (Chasar et al. 2009, Ward et al. 2010). In the present study we examine the response of fish to remedial actions in Tims Branch, a point-source contaminated stream on the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. This second order stream received inorganic mercury inputs at its headwaters from the 1950s-2000s which contaminated the water, sediments, and biota downstream. In 2007, an innovative mercury removal system using tin (II) chloride (stannous chloride, SnCl{sub 2}) was implemented at a pre-existing air stripper. Tin(II) reduces dissolved Hg (II) to Hg (0), which is removed by the air stripper. During this process, tin(II) is oxidized to tin (IV) which is expected to precipitate as colloidal tin(IV) oxides and hydroxides, particulate materials with relatively low toxicity (Hallas and Cooney, 1981, EPA 2002, ATSDR, 2005). The objectives of the present research are to provide an initial assessment of the net impacts of the tin(II) based mercury treatment on key biota and to document the distribution and fate of inorganic tin in this small stream ecosystem after the first several years of operating a full scale system. To support these objectives, we collected fish, sediment, water, invertebrates, and biofilm samples from Tims Branch to quantify the general behavior and accumulation patterns for mercury and tin in the ecosystem and to determine if the treatment process has resulted in: (1) a measurable beneficial impact on (i.e., decrease of) mercury concentration in upper trophic level fish and other biota; this is a key environmental endpoint since reducing mercury concen

Looney, B.; Bryan, L.; Mathews, T.

2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

249

Dendritic functionalization of monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the facile synthesis of nanoparticle-cored dendrimers (NCDs) and nanoparticle megamers from monolayer-protected gold clusters using either single or multi-step reactions. First, 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid/hexanethiolate-protected gold clusters were synthesized using the Schiffrin reaction followed by the ligand place-exchange reaction. A convergent approach for the synthesis of nanoparticle-cored dendrimers uses a single step reaction that is an ester coupling reaction of hydroxy-functionalized dendrons with carboxylic acid-functionalized gold clusters. A divergent approach, which is based on multi-step reactions, employs the repetition of an amide coupling reaction and a Michael addition reaction to build polyamidoamine dendritic architectures around a nanoparticle core. Nanoparticle megamers, which are large dendrimer-induced nanoparticle aggregates with an average diameter of more than 300 nm, were prepared by the amide coupling reaction between polyamiodoamine [G-2] dendrimers and carboxylic acid-functionalized gold clusters. {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used for the characterization of these hybrid nanoparticles.

Cutler, Erin C. [Department of Chemistry, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky 42101 (United States); Lundin, Erik [Department of Chemistry, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky 42101 (United States); Garabato, B. Davis [Department of Chemistry, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky 42101 (United States); Choi, Daeock [Department of Chemistry, Sunchon National University, Suncheon 540-742 (Korea, Republic of); Shon, Young-Seok [Department of Chemistry, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky 42101 (United States)]. E-mail: young.shon@wku.edu

2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

250

Influence of defects and processing parameters on the properties of indium tin oxide films on polyethylene napthalate substrate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on polyethylene napthalate (PEN) by rf sputtering using different rf powers (60 and 120 W) and at different substrate temperatures (room temperature and 100 deg. C). Selected PEN substrates were pretreated using an Ar plasma before ITO sputter deposition. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry was used to determine the oxygen content in the films. Hall effect measurements were used to evaluate the electrical properties. In this paper the influence of defect structure, sputtering conditions, and the effect of annealing on the electrical and optical properties of ITO on PEN have been investigated. Electrical properties such as carrier concentration, mobility, and resistivity of the ITO films varied with rf power and substrate temperature. The electrical and optical properties of the films changed after annealing in air. This study also describes how the as-deposited amorphous ITO changes from amorphous to crystalline as a result of heat treatment, and investigates the effects of Sn defect clustering on electrical and optical properties of the ITO films.

Han, H.; Zoo, Yeongseok; Bhagat, S. K.; Lewis, J. S.; Alford, T. L. [School of Materials, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-8706 (United States); Center for Materials and Electronic Technologies, RTI International, P.O. Box 12194, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709-2194 (United States); School of Materials and Flexible Display Center, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-8706 (United States)

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

251

Hydrogen Sensor Based on Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Electrolyte and Tin-Doped Indium Oxide Sensing Electrode  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A solid state electrochemical sensor has been developed for hydrogen leak detection in ambient air. The sensor uses an yttria-stabilized electrolyte with a tin-doped indium oxide sensing electrode and a Pt reference electrode. Excellent sensitivity, and response time of one second or less, are reported for hydrogen gas over the concentration range of 0.03 to 5.5% in air. Cross-sensitivity to relative humidity and to CO{sub 2} are shown to be low. The response to methane, a potentially significant source of interference for such a sensor, is significantly less than that for hydrogen. The sensor shows good reproducibility and was unaffected by thermal cycling over the course of this investigation. The effects of sensing electrode thickness and thermal aging are also reported, and the sensing mechanism is discussed. The sensor is intended for use in vehicles powered by hydrogen fuel cells and hydrogen internal combustion engines. Those vehicles will use and/or store significant quantities of hydrogen, and will require safety sensor for monitoring potential hydrogen leakage in order to ensure passenger safety.

Martin, L P; Glass, R S

2004-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

252

Thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold of indium-tin oxide films at 1064 nm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser-induced-damage characteristics of commercial indium-tin oxide (ITO) films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering deposition on K9 glass substrates as a function of the film thickness have been studied at 1064 nm with a 10 ns laser pulse in the 1-on-1 mode, and the various mechanisms for thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold (LIDT) of the film have been discussed in detail. It is observed that laser-damage-resistance of ITO film shows dramatic thickness effect with the LIDT of the 50-nm ITO film 7.6 times as large as the value of 300 nm film, and the effect of depressed carrier density by decreasing the film thickness is demonstrated to be the primary reason. Our experiment findings indicate that searching transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film with low carrier density and high carrier mobility is an efficient technique to improve the laser-damage-resistance of TCO films based on maintaining their well electric conductivity.

Wang Haifeng; Huang Zhimeng; Zhang Dayong; Luo Fei; Huang Lixian; Li Yanglong; Luo Yongquan; Wang Weiping; Zhao Xiangjie [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Indium-tin-oxide-free tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Al organic light-emitting diodes with 80% enhanced power efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Efficient indium tin oxide (ITO)-free small molecule organic light-emitting diodes (SMOLEDs) with multilayered highly conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as the anode are demonstrated. PEDOT:PSS/MoO{sub 3}/N,N'-diphenyl- N,N'-bis(1-naphthylphenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPD)/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Al (Alq{sub 3})/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen)/LiF/Al SMOLEDs exhibited a peak power efficiency of 3.82 lm/W, 81% higher than that of similar ITO-based SMOLEDs (2.11 lm/W). The improved performance is believed to be due to the higher work function, lower refractive index, and decreased surface roughness of PEDOT:PSS vs ITO, and to Ohmic hole injection from PEDOT:PSS to the NPD layer via the MoO{sub 3} interlayer. The results demonstrate that PEDOT:PSS can substitute ITO in SMOLEDs with strongly improved device performance.

Cai, Min; Xiao, Teng; Liu, Rui; Chen, Ying; Shinar, Ruth; Shinar, Joseph

2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

254

Detecting and Tracking Nonfluorescent Nanoparticles Probes in Live Cells  

SciTech Connect

Precisely imaging and tracking dynamic biological processes in live cells are crucial for both fundamental research in life sciences and biomedical applications. Nonfluorescent nanoparticles are emerging as important optical probes in live-cell imaging because of their excellent photostability, large optical cross sections, and low cytotoxicity. Here, we provide a review of recent development in optical imaging of nonfluorescent nanoparticle probes and their applications in dynamic tracking and biosensing in live cells. A brief discussion on cytotoxicity of nanoparticle probes is also provided.

Wang, Gufeng; Fang, Ning

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

255

Nanoparticle-based etching of silicon surfaces  

SciTech Connect

A method (300) of texturing silicon surfaces (116) such to reduce reflectivity of a silicon wafer (110) for use in solar cells. The method (300) includes filling (330, 340) a vessel (122) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface 116) of a wafer or substrate (112). The etching solution (124) is made up of a catalytic nanomaterial (140) and an oxidant-etchant solution (146). The catalytic nanomaterial (140) may include gold or silver nanoparticles or noble metal nanoparticles, each of which may be a colloidal solution. The oxidant-etchant solution (146) includes an etching agent (142), such as hydrofluoric acid, and an oxidizing agent (144), such as hydrogen peroxide. Etching (350) is performed for a period of time including agitating or stirring the etching solution (124). The etch time may be selected such that the etched silicon surface (116) has a reflectivity of less than about 15 percent such as 1 to 10 percent in a 350 to 1000 nanometer wavelength range.

Branz, Howard (Boulder, CO); Duda, Anna (Denver, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO); Yost, Vernon (Littleton, CO); Meier, Daniel (Atlanta, GA); Ward, James S. (Golden, CO)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

256

Thermal cycling effect on the nanoparticle distribution and specific heat of a carbonate eutectic with alumina nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this research was to measure the effect of thermal cycling on the nanoparticle distribution and specific heat of a nanocomposite material consisting of a eutectic of lithium carbonate and potassium carbonate and 1% by mass alumina nanoparticles. The material was subjected to thermal cycling in a stainless steel tube using a temperature controlled furnace. After thermal cycling, the stainless steel tube was sectioned into three equal parts top, middle and bottom. Composite material samples were taken from the central region and near the wall region of each section. The specific heat of this material in the temperature range of 290C-397C was measured using the Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimeter (MDSC) method. The concentration of alumina nanoparticles in this material was measured using neutron activation analysis. The average specific heat of the uncycled material was found to be 1.37 J/gC.The average specific heat of the thermally cycled material was between 1.7-2.1 J/gC. It was found that the concentration of the nanoparticle varied along the height of the sample tube. The nanoparticles tended to settle towards the bottom of the tube with thermal cycling. There was also migration of nanoparticles towards the wall of the sample tube with thermal cycling. Despite these gross movements of nanoparticles, there was no significant change in the specific heat of the nanocomposite due to thermal cycling.

Shankar, Sandhya

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Effect of Size, shape, and surface modification on cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles to human HEp-2 and canine MDCK cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There have been increasing interests in applying gold nanoparticles in biological research, drug delivery, and therapy. As the interaction of gold nanoparticles with cells relies on properties of nanoparticles, the cytotoxicity is complex and still under ...

Yinan Zhang; Dan Xu; Wenqin Li; Jun Yu; Yu Chen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Spatiotemporal controlled delivery of nanoparticles to injured vasculature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Complex multimodal nanoparticles (NP) that target and deliver therapeutic agents to a site of disease are a promising direction in modem medicine. As a starting point for innovation, we designed a hybrid NP system combining ...

Chan, Juliana Maria

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Argonne CNM News: Bifunctional Plasmonic/Magnetic Nanoparticles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bifunctional Plasmonic/Magnetic Nanoparticles Bifunctional Plasmonic/Magnetic Nanoparticles Mark Holt (Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials) examines a sample in the Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe Evolutional pathway from iron particle seeds with thin layers of amorphous iron oxide coating to hybrid nanoparticles composed of solid Ag nanodomains and hollow Fe3O4 nanoshells. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images (false colorized) and corresponding schematic illustration (silver: yellow, iron oxide: blue, iron core: black) of the hybrid particles at different stages along the reaction are highlighted on the edge. The TEM image at the center highlights Ag-Fe3O4 hybrid nanoparticles in which Ag and Fe3O4 are false colorized in orange yellow and blue, respectively. TEM analysis was done at Argonne's Electron Microscopy Center

260

Argonne CNM Highlight: Damping of acoustic vibrations in gold nanoparticles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Damping of acoustic vibrations in gold nanoparticles Damping of acoustic vibrations in gold nanoparticles Nanopatterning of STO Vibrations in nanostructures offer applications in molecular-scale biological sensing and ultrasensitive mass detection. To approach single-atom sensing, it is necessary to reduce the dimensions of the structures to the nanometer scale while preserving long-lived vibrations. This requires an understanding of how vibrations in nanoscale objects are damped - or lose their energy to the fluid surroundings and within themselves. Researchers have used fast laser pulses to produce and probe high-frequency vibrations in metal nanoparticles. However, significant variations in particle dimensions complicate measurements. By studying bipyramid-shaped gold nanoparticles with highly uniform sizes

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tin selenium nanoparticle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

The effect of stirring on the morphology of birnessite nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of mechanical stirring on the morphology of hexagonal layer-structure birnessite nanoparticles produced from decomposition of KMnO4 in dilute aqueous H2SO4 is investigated, with characterization by X-ray diffraction ...

Marcos A. Cheney; Pradip K. Bhowmik; Shingo Moriuchi; Mario Villalobos; Shizhi Qian; Sang W. Joo

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Strategies of Lithography for Trapping Nano-particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Current research in materials science and engineering continues to drive it's attention to systems on the nanoscale. Thin films, nano-particles, quantum dots, nano-wires, etc are just a few of the areas that are becoming ...

Rajter, Rick

263

Biosynthesis of nanoparticles by microorganisms and their applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of eco-friendly technologies in material synthesis is of considerable importance to expand their biological applications. Nowadays, a variety of inorganic nanoparticles with well-defined chemical composition, size, and morphology have ...

Xiangqian Li; Huizhong Xu; Zhe-Sheng Chen; Guofang Chen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Iran Thomas Auditorium, 8600 Fighting Cancer with Nanoparticle...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

October 13, 2011 4:00 pm Iran Thomas Auditorium, 8600 Fighting Cancer with Nanoparticle Medicines Mark E. Davis Chemical Engineering California Institute of Technology CNMS D D I I...

265

Aerosol Route Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Using ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Aerosol Route Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Using Copper Nitrate Solution ... Phase Transformation Hardening by Using High -Power Direct Diode Laser ... Defect Energetics and Fission Product Transport in ZrC.

266

Spatiotemporal controlled delivery of nanoparticles to injured vasculature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There are a number of challenges associated with designing nanoparticles for medical applications. We define two challenges here: (i) conventional targeting against up-regulated cell surface antigens is limited by heterogeneity ...

Chan, Juliana Maria

267

Multilayered and complex nanoparticle architectures through plasma synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the Aerosol Through Plasma (ATP) method in conjunction with simple chemical techniques a variety of complex and novel nanoparticle architectures were created. A TP was used to make metal-core/carbon shell nanoparticles (ca. 50 nm diameter) of SnlCarbon and AI/Carbon. These have, respectively, potential for application as battery anode (for hybrid and electric vehicles) and high energy fuel In one example of post processing, the Sn-core/carbon-shell material is treated in acidic solution and yields a true nano-sized hollow carbon shell. These shells have potential application as catalyst supports, gas storage, a neutral buoyancy material for applications as varied as proppants, and slow release capsules for pharmaceutical or agricultural applications. A different set of post-A-T-P processes were used to make three layer nanoparticles with a metal core, graphite inner shell and ceramic outer shell. This method extends the range of achievable nanoparticles architectures, hence enabling new applications.

Phillips, Jonathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wakeland, Stephen [UNM MECH.ENG.; Cui, Yuehua [UNM MECH.ENG.; Knapp, Angela [TOYOTA USA; Richard, Monique [TOYOTA USA; Luhrs, Claudia [UNM MECH.ENG.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Densification of Ductile Ceramic Nanoparticles by Spark Plasma ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of the elasto-plastic character of the ceramic nanoparticles was investigated during the densification by spark plasma sintering of LiF, Y2O3 and YAG...

269

Reversible and irreversible binding of nanoparticles to polymeric surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reversible and irreversible binding of CdSe-nanoparticles and nanorods to polymeric surfaces via a strong, multiple hydrogen bond (= Hamilton-receptor/barbituric acid) is described. Based on ROMP-copolymers, the supramolecular interaction on a thin polymer ...

Wolfgang H. Binder; Marina Lomoschitz; Robert Sachsenhofer; Gernot Friedbacher

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Devastated crops: multifunctional efficacy for the production of nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Integration of green chemistry principles to nanotechnology is one of the key issues in nanoscience research. Biological methods were used to synthesize metal and metal oxide nanoparticles of specific shape and size since they enhance the properties ...

G. Madhumitha, Selvaraj Mohana Roopan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Charge Effects on the Cu Pyramidal Nanoparticle and It's ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the chemical reaction, the different adsorption trend and sites are found in ... on the Cu Pyramidal Nanoparticle and It's Application as a CO2 Conversion Catalyst ... Performance Evaluation, Technical and Environmental Aspects of Biomass...

272

Colloidal stability of magnetic nanoparticles in molten salts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molten salts are important heat transfer fluids used in nuclear, solar and other high temperature engineering systems. Dispersing nanoparticles in molten salts can enhance the heat transfer capabilities of the fluid. High ...

Somani, Vaibhav (Vaibhav Basantkumar)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for medical imaging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the most versatile and safe materials used in medicine are polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. This dissertation describes several formulations for in vivo imaging applications. The paramagnetic polymer-coated ...

Chen, Suelin, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Effects and applications of capillary condensation in ultrathin nanoparticle assemblies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique can be used to make uniform, conformal multi-stack nanoparticle thin films from aqueous solution, with precise thickness and roughness control over each stack. Much ...

Gemici, Zekeriyya

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Protective Agent-Free Synthesis of Colloidal Cobalt Nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spherical colloidal cobalt (Co) nanoparticles of about 2-7 nm were synthesized by hydrazine reduction in ethylene glycol at 80 deg. C. The mean diameter of the Co nanoparticles was varied to some extent by changing the pH, temperature, Co(II) chloride hexahydrate concentration, and amount of hydrazine. The Co particle size was reduced by decreasing Co(II) chloride concentration and increasing amount of hydrazine.

Balela, M. D. L. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of the Philippines, 1101 Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Lockman, Z.; Azizan, A. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Matsubara, E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, 606-8501 Kyoto (Japan); Amorsolo, A. V. Jr. [Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of the Philippines, 1101 Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

2010-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

276

Improved Initial Performance of Si Nanoparticles by Surface Oxide Reduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improved Initial Performance of Si Nanoparticles by Surface Oxide Reduction Improved Initial Performance of Si Nanoparticles by Surface Oxide Reduction for Lithium-Ion Battery Application Title Improved Initial Performance of Si Nanoparticles by Surface Oxide Reduction for Lithium-Ion Battery Application Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2011 Authors Xun, Shidi, Xiangyun Song, Michael E. Grass, Daniel K. Roseguo, Z. Liu, Vincent S. Battaglia, and Gao Li Journal Electrochemical Solid-State Letters Volume 14 Start Page A61 Issue 5 Pagination A61-A63 Date Published 02/2001 Keywords Electrochemistry, elemental semiconductors, etching, lithium, nanoparticles, secondary cells, silicon, thermal analysis, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra Abstract This study characterizes the native oxide layer of Si nanoparticles and evaluates its effect on their performance for Li-ion batteries. x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied to identify the chemical state and morphology of the native oxide layer. Elemental and thermogravimetric analysis were used to estimate the oxide content for the Si samples. Hydrofluoric acid was used to reduce the oxide layer. A correlation between etching time and oxide content was established. The initial electrochemical performances indicate that the reversible capacity of etched Si nanoparticles was enhanced significantly compared with that of the as-received Si sample.

277

Argonne CNM News: Using Light to Build Nanoparticles into Superstructures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using Light to Build Nanoparticles into Superstructures Using Light to Build Nanoparticles into Superstructures Scientists in the Center for Nanoscale Materials and Argonne's Biosciences Division have demonstrated a remarkably simple, elegant, and cost-effective way of assembling nanoparticles into larger structures of any desired shape and form at will via a process called "optically directed assembly." Optically directed assembly (ODA) involves suspensions of gold and carbon nanoparticles in water. A small droplet of the suspension is placed on a glass slide, and a low-power laser is focused onto a small region within the droplet near its surface. Through a complex process involving optical trapping, heating, evaporation, convective fluid flow, and chemical interactions, the nanoparticles fuse near the laser focus and as the experimenter moves the laser focus around in the droplet, a continuous filament of the fused material follows. These remarkable structures remain completely intact even after the fluid is drained off. In this manner "handcrafted" filaments of up to millimeter lengths and 10-60 times wider than the original nanoparticles can be formed with arbitrary shape and design. The resulting hierarchical architectures may be useful for a variety of applications, including biological sensing, electronics, optics, and emerging energy technologies. As a first demonstration, the researchers handcrafted a microscopic glyph — the Chinese symbol for "king."

278

Advanced optical measurements for characterizing photophysical properties of single nanoparticles.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Formation of complex nanomaterials would ideally involve single-pot reaction conditions with one reactive site per nanoparticle, resulting in a high yield of incrementally modified or oriented structures. Many studies in nanoparticle functionalization have sought to generate highly uniform nanoparticles with tailorable surface chemistry necessary to produce such conjugates, with limited success. In order to overcome these limitations, we have modified commercially available nanoparticles with multiple potential reaction sites for conjugation with single ssDNAs, proteins, and small unilamellar vesicles. These approaches combined heterobifunctional and biochemical template chemistries with single molecule optical methods for improved control of nanomaterial functionalization. Several interesting analytical results have been achieved by leveraging techniques unique to SNL, and provide multiple paths for future improvements for multiplex nanoparticle synthesis and characterization. Hyperspectral imaging has proven especially useful for assaying substrate immobilized fluorescent particles. In dynamic environments, temporal correlation spectroscopies have been employed for tracking changes in diffusion/hydrodynamic radii, particle size distributions, and identifying mobile versus immobile sample fractions at unbounded dilution. Finally, Raman fingerprinting of biological conjugates has been enabled by resonant signal enhancement provided by intimate interactions with nanoparticles and composite nanoshells.

Polsky, Ronen; Davis, Ryan W.; Arango, Dulce C.; Brozik, Susan Marie; Wheeler, David Roger

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Size-dependent structure of silver nanoparticles under high pressure  

SciTech Connect

Silver noble metal nanoparticles that are<10 nm often possess multiply twinned grains allowing them to adopt shapes and atomic structures not observed in bulk materials. The properties exhibited by particles with multiply twinned polycrystalline structures are often far different from those of single-crystalline particles and from the bulk. I will present experimental evidence that silver nanoparticles<10 nm undergo a reversible structural transformation under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 GPa. Results for nanoparticles in the intermediate size range of 5 to 10 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent rhombohedral distortion which has not been previously observed in bulk silver. I propose a mechanism for this transitiion that considers the bond-length distribution in idealized multiply twinned icosahedral particles. Results for nanoparticles of 3.9 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent orthorhombic distortion. This distortion is interpreted in the context of idealized decahedral particles. In addition, given these size-dependent measurements of silver nanoparticle compression with pressure, we have constructed a pressure calibration curve. Encapsulating these silver nanoparticles in hollow metal oxide nanospheres then allows us to measure the pressure inside a nanoshell using x-ray diffraction. We demonstrate the measurement of pressure gradients across nanoshells and show that these nanoshells have maximum resolved shear strengths on the order of 500 MPa to IGPa.

Koski, Kristie Jo

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

280

Method for making nanotubes and nanoparticles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an apparatus and method for producing nano-scale tubes and particles. The apparatus comprises novel electrodes for use in arc discharge techniques. The electrodes have interior conduits for delivery and withdrawal of material from the arc region where product is formed. In one embodiment, the anode is optionally made from more than one material and is termed a compound anode. The materials used in the compound anode assist in the reaction that forms product in the arc region of the apparatus. The materials assist either by providing reaction ingredients, catalyst, or affecting the reaction kinetics. Among other uses, the inventive apparatus is used to produce nanotubes and nanoparticles having a variety of electrical and mechanical properties.

Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA); Cohen, Marvin Lou (Piedmont, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tin selenium nanoparticle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Monte Carlo Simulations of Segregation in Pt-Ni Catalyst Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Segregation in Pt-Ni Catalyst Nanoparticles Guofengsurface chemistry of catalyst nanoparticles (also called "Pt-Ni alloy is an electro-catalyst of interest in the air

Wang, Guofeng; Van Hove, Michel A.; Ross, Philip N.; Baskes, M.I.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Structure and activity of protein-nanoparticle conjugates: towards a strategy for optimizing the interface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanoparticle-protein conjugates have a variety of applications in imaging, sensing, assembly and control. The nanoparticle-protein interface is made of numerous complex interactions between protein side-chains and the ...

Aubin-Tam, Marie-Eve

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Evaluating the controlled release properties of inhaled nanoparticles using isolated, perfused, and ventilated lung models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polymeric nanoparticles meet the increasing interest for inhalation therapy and hold great promise to improve controlled drug delivery to the lung. The synthesis of tailored polymeric materials and the improvement of nanoparticle preparation techniques ...

Moritz Beck-Broichsitter; Thomas Schmehl; Werner Seeger; Tobias Gessler

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Synthesis and bioconjugation of gold nanoparticles as potential molecular probes for light-based imaging techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have synthesized and characterized gold nanoparticles (spheres and rods) with optical extinction bands within the "optical imaging window." The intense plasmon resonant driven absorption and scattering peaks of these nanoparticles make them suitable ...

Raja Gopal Rayavarapu; Wilma Petersen; Constantin Ungureanu; Janine N. Post; Ton G. van Leeuwen; Srirang Manohar

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Interaction of amphiphilic gold nanoparticles with lipid membranes and their application to cancer radiotherapy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Striped gold nanoparticles (NPs), inorganic particles protected by an amphiphilic mixed organic ligand shell, are the most recent and potent evolution of gold nanoparticle intracellular delivery vectors. Here we propose ...

Yang, Yu-Sang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Synthesis, characterization, and biotemplated assembly of indium nitride and indium gallium nitride nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A low-temperature, ambient pressure solution synthesis of colloidal InN nanoparticles is presented. This synthesis utilizes a previously dismissed precursor and results in individual, non-aggregated nanoparticles with ...

Hsieh, Jennifer Chia-Jen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Ostwald ripening of platinum nanoparticles confined in a carbon nanotube/silica-templated cylindrical space  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sintering of nanoparticles mediated by an Ostwald ripening mechanism is generally assessed examining the final particle size distributions. Based on this methodology, a general approach for depositing platinum nanoparticles onto carbon nanotubes in solution ...

Cintia Mateo-Mateo, Carmen Vzquez-Vzquez, Moiss Prez-Lorenzo, Vernica Salgueirio, Miguel A. Correa-Duarte

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Critical heat flux enhancement via surface modification using colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles (Nanofluids)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanofluids are engineered colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles (1-100nm) in common fluids (water, refrigerants, or ethanol...). Materials used for nanoparticles include chemically stable metals (e.g., gold, silver, ...

Truong, Bao H. (Bao Hoai)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Program on Technology Innovation: Nanoparticles at Coal and Gas Fired Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanoparticlesparticles with diameters less than 100 nanometerscan occur from the combustion of fossil fuel, such as coal and natural gas. Recently, nanoparticles have gained the industrys attention because they may be associated with adverse health effects. Despite potential health hazards, little published data exist concerning the types and concentrations of nanoparticles in work environments. This report is the first published study on concentration and composition of nanoparticles in power plant w...

2008-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

290

Probing the interaction of cells-nanoparticles using Force-Distance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microbial synthesis and fabrication of palladium nanoparticle catalysts by using the metal ion-reducing bacterium Shewanella algae Micromechanical...

291

Composition-Mediated Order-Disorder Transformation in FePt Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Thumbnail image of graphical abstract Heat-treated alloy FePt nanoparticles transform into L10 FePt and mixed L10/L12 FePt3 intermetallic phases. Enrichment in Pt in some nanoparticles, rather than intrinsic thermodynamic effects, drives phase segregation. FePt nanoparticles of uniform, equimolar composition are expected to transform into phase-pure, highly ordered L10 FePt nanoparticles.

Johnston-Peck, Aaron C [ORNL; Cullen, David A [ORNL; Tracy, Joseph B [North Carolina State University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Entropic Controlled Pathways for Nano-bands and Nano-particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Controlled Processing of Nanoparticle-based Materials and Nanostructured Films. Presentation Title, Entropic Controlled Pathways for Nano-

293

Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles and Nanoparticulate Thin Films by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical Synthesis and Structural Analysis of Gd2O3 Nanoparticles for Optical Applications Complex Crystallization Dynamics in Amorphous Germanium...

294

Single-step Precipitation of Ni Nanoparticle Catalyst on Zeolite and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Ni nanoparticle catalyst was prepared on zeolite (pores size: 2 production rate from the methanol stream reforming reaction...

295

Understanding the Formation and Evolution of Ceria Nanoparticles Under Hydrothermal Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The formation and evolution of ceria nanoparticles during hydrothermal synthesis was investigated by in-situ total scattering and powder diffraction. The nucleation of pristine crystalline ceria nanoparticles originated from previously unknown cerium dimer complexes. The nanoparticle growth was highly accelerated under supercritical conditions.

Tyrsted, Christoffer; rnsbjerg; #8197; Jensen, Kirsten Marie; Bjesen, Espen Drath; Lock, Nina; Christensen, Mogens; Billinge, Simon J.L.; Brummerstedt; #8197; Iversen, Bo (Aarhus); (Columbia)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

296

In-situ formation of nanoparticles within a silicon-based matrix  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for encapsulating nanoparticles with an encapsulating matrix that minimizes aggregation and maintains favorable properties of the nanoparticles. The matrix comprises silicon-based network-forming compounds such as ormosils and polysiloxanes. The nanoparticles are synthesized from precursors directly within the silicon-based matrix.

Thoma, Steven G. (Albuquerque, NM); Wilcoxon, Jess P. (Albuquerque, NM); Abrams, Billie L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

297

INTERIM RESULTS FROM A STUDY OF THE IMPACTS OF TIN(II) BASED MERCURY TREATMENT IN A SMALL STREAM ECOSYSTEM: TIMS BRANCH, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

SciTech Connect

Mercury (Hg) has been identified as a 'persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic' pollutant with widespread impacts throughout North America and the world (EPA. 1997a, 1997b, 1998a, 1998b, 2000). Although most of the mercury in the environment is inorganic Hg, a small proportion of total Hg is transformed through the actions of aquatic microbes into methylmercury (MeHg). In contrast to virtually all other metals, MeHg biomagnifies or becomes increasingly concentrated as it is transferred through aquatic food chains so that the consumption of mercury contaminated fish is the primary route of this toxin to humans. For this reason, the ambient water quality criterion (AWQC) for mercury is based on a fish tissue endpoint rather than an aqueous Hg concentration, as the tissue concentration (e.g., < 0.3 {mu}g/g fillet) is considered to be a more consistent indicator of exposure and risk (EPA, 2001). Effective mercury remediation at point-source contaminated sites requires an understanding of the nature and magnitude of mercury inputs, and also knowledge of how these inputs must be controlled in order to achieve the desired reduction of mercury contamination in biota necessary for compliance with AWQC targets. One of the challenges to remediation is that mercury body burdens in fish are more closely linked to aqueous MeHg than to inorganic Hg concentrations (Sveinsdottir and Mason 2005), but MeHg production is not easily predicted or controlled. At point-source contaminated sites, mercury methylation is not only affected by the absolute mercury load, but also by the form of mercury loaded. In addition, once MeHg is formed, the hydrology, trophic structure, and water chemistry of a given system affect how it is transformed and transferred through the food chain to fish. Decreasing inorganic Hg concentrations and loading may often therefore be a more achievable remediation goal, but has led to mixed results in terms of responses in fish bioaccumulation. A number of source control measures have resulted in rapid responses in lake or reservoir fisheries (Joslin 1994, Turner and Southworth 1999; Orihel et al., 2007), but examples of similar responses in Hg-contaminated stream ecosystems are less common. Recent work suggests that stream systems may actually be more susceptible to mercury bioaccumulation than lakes, highlighting the need to better understand the ecological drivers of mercury bioaccumulation in stream-dwelling fish (Chasar et al. 2009, Ward et al. 2010). In the present study we examine the response of fish to remedial actions in Tims Branch, a point-source contaminated stream on the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. This second order stream received inorganic mercury inputs at its headwaters from the 1950s-2000s which contaminated the water, sediments, and biota downstream. In 2007, an innovative mercury removal system using tin (II) chloride (stannous chloride, SnCl{sub 2}) was implemented at a pre-existing air stripper. Tin(II) reduces dissolved Hg (II) to Hg (0), which is removed by the air stripper. During this process, tin(II) is oxidized to tin (IV) which is expected to precipitate as colloidal tin(IV) oxides and hydroxides, particulate materials with relatively low toxicity (Hallas and Cooney, 1981, EPA 2002, ATSDR, 2005). The objectives of the present research are to provide an initial assessment of the net impacts of the tin(II) based mercury treatment on key biota and to document the distribution and fate of inorganic tin in this small stream ecosystem after the first several years of operating a full scale system. To support these objectives, we collected fish, sediment, water, invertebrates, and biofilm samples from Tims Branch to quantify the general behavior and accumulation patterns for mercury and tin in the ecosystem and to determine if the treatment process has resulted in: (1) a measurable beneficial impact on (i.e., decrease of) mercury concentration in upper trophic level fish and other biota; this is a key environmental endpoint since reducing mercury concen

Looney, B.; Bryan, L.; Mathews, T.

2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

298

Engineered nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge - Evidence and impacts  

SciTech Connect

Nanotechnology has widespread application in agricultural, environmental and industrial sectors ranging from fabrication of molecular assemblies to microbial array chips. Despite the booming application of nanotechnology, there have been serious implications which are coming into light in the recent years within different environmental compartments, namely air, water and soil and its likely impact on the human health. Health and environmental effects of common metals and materials are well-known, however, when the metals and materials take the form of nanoparticles - consequential hazards based on shape and size are yet to be explored. The nanoparticles released from different nanomaterials used in our household and industrial commodities find their way through waste disposal routes into the wastewater treatment facilities and end up in wastewater sludge. Further escape of these nanoparticles into the effluent will contaminate the aquatic and soil environment. Hence, an understanding of the presence, behavior and impact of these nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge is necessary and timely. Despite the lack of sufficient literature, the present review attempts to link various compartmentalization aspects of the nanoparticles, their physical properties and toxicity in wastewater and wastewater sludge through simile drawn from other environmental streams.

Brar, Satinder K., E-mail: satinder.brar@ete.inrs.c [INRS-ETE, Universite du Quebec, 490, Rue de la Couronne, Quebec, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Verma, Mausam [Department of Biological Engineering, Sexton Campus, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3J 2X4 (Canada); Tyagi, R.D. [INRS-ETE, Universite du Quebec, 490, Rue de la Couronne, Quebec, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Surampalli, R.Y. [US Environmental Protection Agency, P.O. Box 17-2141, Kansas City, KS 66117 (United States)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

299

Encapsulated Nanoparticle Synthesis and Characterization for Improved Storage Fluids: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Nanoparticles are typically composed of 50--500 atoms and exhibit properties that are significantly different from the properties of larger, macroscale particles that have the same composition. The addition of these particles to traditional fluids may improve the fluids' thermophysical properties. As an example, the addition of a nanoparticle or set of nanoparticles to a storage fluid may double its heat capacity. This increase in heat capacity would allow a sensible thermal energy storage system to store the same amount of thermal energy in half the amount of storage fluid. The benefit is lower costs for the storage fluid and the storage tanks, resulting in lower-cost electricity. The goal of this long-term research is to create a new class of fluids that enable concentrating solar power plants to operate with greater efficiency and lower electricity costs. Initial research on this topic developed molecular dynamic models that predicted the energy states and transition temperatures for these particles. Recent research has extended the modeling work, along with initiating the synthesis and characterization of bare metal nanoparticles and metal nanoparticles that are encapsulated with inert silica coatings. These particles possess properties that make them excellent candidates for enhancing the heat capacity of storage fluids.

Glatzmaier, G. C.; Pradhan, S.; Kang, J.; Curtis, C.; Blake, D.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts Print Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts Print Catalytic systems based on bimetallic particles with controlled size, composition, and structure dispersed on a high-surface-area support are widely used for catalytic reforming, pollution control, alcohol oxidation, and electrocatalysis in fuel cells. Owing to the nanoscale size of the particles, the modification of the surface structure and composition that may occur when reaction conditions change can have dramatic effects on catalyst activity and selectivity. Working at the ALS, a University of California, Berkeley-Berkeley Lab group has used an ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) apparatus to demonstrate that bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts can undergo profound structural and chemical changes in response to reactive environments at ambient pressures, thereby opening the way for engineering catalysts with enhanced activity and selectivity.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tin selenium nanoparticle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Sterling science: Strain in silver nanoparticles creates unusual  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sterling science: Strain in silver nanoparticles creates unusual Sterling science: Strain in silver nanoparticles creates unusual "twinning" By Jared Sagoff * August 27, 2012 Tweet EmailPrint When twins are forced to share, it can put a significant strain on their relationship. While this observation is perhaps unsurprising in the behavior of children, it is less obvious when it comes to nanoparticles. After spending close to a decade examining the structure of nanowires made of pure silver, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory have discovered a set of unusual behaviors in nanocrystals with a strained, five-fold symmetry formed by "twinning" in the crystal structure. The twinned crystals' unusual pentagonal symmetry and complicated structures distinguish them from the cubic

302

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts Print Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts Print Catalytic systems based on bimetallic particles with controlled size, composition, and structure dispersed on a high-surface-area support are widely used for catalytic reforming, pollution control, alcohol oxidation, and electrocatalysis in fuel cells. Owing to the nanoscale size of the particles, the modification of the surface structure and composition that may occur when reaction conditions change can have dramatic effects on catalyst activity and selectivity. Working at the ALS, a University of California, Berkeley-Berkeley Lab group has used an ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) apparatus to demonstrate that bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts can undergo profound structural and chemical changes in response to reactive environments at ambient pressures, thereby opening the way for engineering catalysts with enhanced activity and selectivity.

303

Nanoparticle Technology for Biorefining of Non-Food Source Feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this proposed work is to develop and optimize the synthesis of mesoporous nanoparticle materials that are able to selectively sequester fatty acids from hexane extracts from algae, and to catalyze their transformation, as well as waste oils, into biodiesel. The project involves studies of the interactions between the functionalized MSN surface and the sequestering molecules. We investigate the mechanisms of selective extraction of fatty acids and conversion of triglycerides and fatty acids into biodiesel by the produced nanoparticles. This knowledge is used to further improve the properties of the mesoporous nanoparticle materials for both tasks. Furthermore, we investigate the strategies for scaling the synthesis of the catalytic nanomaterials up from the current pilot plant scale to industrial level, such that the biodiesel obtained with this technology can successfully compete with food crop-based biodiesel and petroleum diesel.

Pruski, Marek; Trewyn, Brian G.; Lee, Young-Jin; Lin, Victor S.-Y.

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

304

Phospholipid-assisted synthesis of size-controlled gold nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Morphology and size control of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by phospholipids (PLs) has been reported. It was found that gold entities could form nanostructures with different sizes controlled by PLs in an aqueous solution. During the preparation of 1.5 nm gold seeds, AuNPs were obtained from the reduction of gold complex by sodium borohydride and capped by citrate for stabilization. With the different ratios between seed solution and growth solution, which was composed by gold complex and PLs, gold seeds grew into larger nanoparticles step by step until enough large size up to 30 nm. The main discovery of this work is that common biomolecules, such as PLs can be used to control nanoparticle size. This conclusion has been confirmed by transmission electron micrographs, particle size analysis, and UV-vis spectra.

He Peng [Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)]. E-mail: phe@ncsu.edu; Zhu Xinyuan [Instrumental Analysis Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)]. E-mail: xyzhu@sjtu.edu.cn

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

305

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts Print Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts Print Catalytic systems based on bimetallic particles with controlled size, composition, and structure dispersed on a high-surface-area support are widely used for catalytic reforming, pollution control, alcohol oxidation, and electrocatalysis in fuel cells. Owing to the nanoscale size of the particles, the modification of the surface structure and composition that may occur when reaction conditions change can have dramatic effects on catalyst activity and selectivity. Working at the ALS, a University of California, Berkeley-Berkeley Lab group has used an ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) apparatus to demonstrate that bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts can undergo profound structural and chemical changes in response to reactive environments at ambient pressures, thereby opening the way for engineering catalysts with enhanced activity and selectivity.

306

Novel strategies for ultrahigh specific activity targeted nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

We have developed novel strategies optimized for preparing high specific activity radiolabeled nanoparticles, targeting nuclear imaging of low abundance biomarkers. Several compounds have been labeled with F-18 and Cu-64 for radiolabeling of SCK-nanoparticles via Copper(I) catalyzed or copper-free alkyne-azide cyclolization. Novel strategies have been developed to achieve ultrahigh specific activity with administrable amount of dose for human study using copper-free chemistry. Ligands for carbonic anhydrase 12 (CA12), a low abundance extracellular biomarker for the responsiveness of breast cancer to endocrine therapie, have been labeled with F-18 and Cu-64, and one of them has been evaluated in animal models. The results of this project will lead to major improvements in the use of nanoparticles in nuclear imaging and will significantly advance their potential for detecting low abundance biomarkers of medical importance.

Zhou, Dong

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

307

Selection of nanoparticles using CO.sub.2-expanded liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for size selection of nanostructures comprising utilizing a gas-expanded liquids (GEL) and controlled pressure to precipitate desired size populations of nanostructures, e.g., monodisperse. The GEL can comprise CO.sub.2 antisolvent and an organic solvent. The method can be carried out in an apparatus comprising a first open vessel configured to allow movement of a liquid/particle solution to specific desired locations within the vessel, a second pressure vessel, a location controller for controlling location of the particles and solution within the first vessel, a inlet for addition of antisolvent to the first vessel, and a device for measuring the amount of antisolvent added. Also disclosed is a method for forming nanoparticle thin films comprising utilizing a GEL containing a substrate, pressurizing the solution to precipitate and deposit nanoparticles onto the substrate, removing the solvent thereby leaving a thin nanoparticle film, removing the solvent and antisolvent, and drying the film.

Roberts, Christopher B; McLeod, Marshall Chandler; Anand, Madhu

2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

308

Gold Coated Lanthanide Phosphate Nanoparticles for Targeted Alpha Generator Radiotherapy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Targeted radiotherapies maximize cytotoxicty to cancer cells. In vivo generators such as 225Ac, which emits four particles in its decay chain, can significantly amplify the radiation dose delivered to the target site. However, renal dose from unbound 213Bi escaping during the decay process limits the dose of 225Ac that can be administered. Traditional chelating moieties are unable to sequester the radioactive daughters because of the high recoil energy from alpha particle emission. To counter this, we demonstrate that an engineered multilayered nanoparticle-antibody conjugate can both deliver radiation and contain the decay daughters of the in vivo -generator 225Ac while targeting biologically relevant receptors. These multi-shell nanoparticles combine the radiation resistance of crystalline lanthanide phosphate to encapsulate and contain 225Ac and its radioactive decay daughters, the magnetic properties of gadolinium phosphate for easy separation, and established surface chemistry of gold for attachment of nanoparticles to targeting antibodies.

McLaughlin, Mark F [ORNL; Woodward, Jonathan [ORNL; Boll, Rose Ann [ORNL; Wall, Jonathan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rondinone, Adam Justin [ORNL; Kennel, Steve J [ORNL; Mirzadeh, Saed [ORNL; Robertson, David J. [University of Missouri

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Precipitation of heterogeneous nanostructures: Metal nanoparticles and dielectric nanocrystallites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heterogeneous precipitation of nanocrystallites of metallic Bi and anatase was observed in CaO-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} glass-ceramics. Addition of AlN reduced the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} to Bi metal nanoparticles, which were uniformly dispersed in the glass. After heat-treatment of the Bi-precipitated glass around the glass transition temperature, nanocrystalline anatase precipitated out without aggregation of the Bi metal particles. It was found that the anatase nanocrystal size was affected by the distance between a nanocrystal and a precipitated Bi nanoparticle. The glass-ceramic produced is a functional material containing a random dispersion of different types of nanoparticles with different dielectric constants.

Masai, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Fujiwara, Takumi [Department of Applied Physics, Tohoku University, 6-6-05, Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Tokuda, Yomei; Yoko, Toshinobu [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasyo, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

310

Deformation and tribology of multi-walled hollow nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multi-walled hollow nanoparticles made from tungsten disulphide (WS$_2$) show exceptional tribological performance as additives to liquid lubricants due to effective transfer of low shear strength material onto the sliding surfaces. Using a scaling approach based on continuum elasticity theory for shells and pairwise summation of van der Waals interactions, we show that van der Waals interactions cause strong adhesion to the substrate which favors release of delaminated layers onto the surfaces. For large and thin nanoparticles, van der Waals adhesion can cause considerable deformation and subsequent delamination. For the thick WS$_2$ nanoparticles, deformation due to van der Waals interactions remains small and the main mechanism for delamination is pressure which in fact leads to collapse beyond a critical value. We also discuss the effect of shear flow on deformation and rolling on the substrate.

U. S. Schwarz; S. Komura; S. A. Safran

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Lead Zinc and Tin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

"High Temperature Lead-free Solder for Microelectronics" (Overview), Frank R. Gayle, Gary Becka, Jerry Badgett, Gordon Whitten, Tsung-Yu Pan, Angela Grusd,

312

Lead Zinc and Tin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Title, Author, Publisher, Product Type, In Stock, Date Published. Add to Cart, Image, Click on Title to view details, Member (Student) Price, Non-member Price.

313

Ordered structures based on self-organized Au and CdSe nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Methods for obtaining cadmium selenide and gold nanoparticles have been developed. The sizes of the nanoparticles are determined and the morphology, structure, and chemical composition of these nanoparticles and their ensembles are studied by a complex of structural methods: electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Gold nanoparticles are mainly spherical and have an average size of 10 nm. They are single-phase and have an fcc crystal structure. Samples of synthesized CdSe nanoparticles contain monodisperse spherical particles 12 nm in size with a wurtzite structure. The deposition of nanoparticles on a carbon substrate is accompanied by their self-organization into a closely packed two-dimensional structure with a pronounced texture in which all nanoparticles are oriented in the [001] direction perpendicularly to the carbon substrate plane.

Zaporozhets, M. A., E-mail: zaporozhets_m.a@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Savilov, S. V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Zhigalina, O. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Sul'yanov, S. N.; Volkov, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Nikolaichik, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High Purity Materials (Russian Federation); Gubin, S. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Avilov, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

314

Direct observation of two-step crystallization in nanoparticle superlattice formation  

SciTech Connect

Direct imaging of nanoparticle solutions by liquid phase transmission electron microscopy has enabled unique in-situ studies of nanoparticle motion and growth. In the present work, we report on real-time formation of two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays in the very low diffusive limit, where nanoparticles are mainly driven by capillary forces and solvent fluctuations. We find that superlattice formation appears to be segregated into multiple regimes. Initially, the solvent front drags the nanoparticles, condensing them into an amorphous agglomerate. Subsequently, the nanoparticle crystallization into an array is driven by local fluctuations. Following the crystallization event, superlattice growth can also occur via the addition of individual nanoparticles drawn from outlying regions by different solvent fronts. The dragging mechanism is consistent with simulations based on a coarse-grained lattice gas model at the same limit.

Park, Jungwon; Zheng, Haimei; Lee, Won Chul; Geissler, Phillip L.; Rabani, Eran; Alivisatos, A. Paul

2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

315

LABORATORY REPORT ON THE REDUCTION AND STABILIZATION (IMMOBILIZATION) OF PERTECHNETATE TO TECHNETIUM DIOXIDE USING TIN(II)APATITE  

SciTech Connect

This effort is part of the technetium management initiative and provides data for the handling and disposition of technetium. To that end, the objective of this effort was to challenge tin(II)apatite (Sn(II)apatite) against double-shell tank 241-AN-105 simulant spiked with pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). The Sn(II)apatite used in this effort was synthesized on site using a recipe developed at and provided by Sandia National Laboratories; the synthesis provides a high quality product while requiring minimal laboratory effort. The Sn(II)apatite reduces pertechnetate from the mobile +7 oxidation state to the non-mobile +4 oxidation state. It also sequesters the technetium and does not allow for re-oxidization to the mo bile +7 state under acidic or oxygenated conditions within the tested period oftime (6 weeks). Previous work (RPP-RPT-39195, Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement-Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine) indicated that the Sn(II)apatite can achieve an ANSI leachability index in Cast Stone of 12.8. The technetium distribution coefficient for Sn(II)apatite exhibits a direct correlation with the pH of the contaminated media. Table A shows Sn(II)apatite distribution coefficients as a function of pH. The asterisked numbers indicate that the lower detection limit of the analytical instrument was used to calculate the distribution coefficient as the concentration of technetium left in solution was less than the detection limit. The loaded sample (200 mg of Sn(II)apatite loaded with O.311 mg of Tc-99) was subjected to different molarities of nitric acid to determine if the Sn(II)apatite would release the sequestered technetium. The acid was allowed to contact for 1 minute with gentle shaking ('1st wash'); the aqueous solution was then filtered, and the filtrate was analyzed for Tc-99. Table B shows the results ofthe nitric acid exposure. Another portion of acid was added, shaken for a minute, and filtered ('2nd wash'). The technetium-loaded Sn(II)apatite was also subjected to water leach tests. The loaded sample (0.2 g of Sn(II)apatite was loaded with 0.342 mg of Tc-99) was placed in a 200-mL distilled water column and sparged with air. Samples were taken weekly over a 6-week period, and the dissolved oxygen ranged from 8.4 to 8.7 mg/L (average 8.5 mg/L); all samples recorded less than the detection limit of 0.01 mg/L Tc-99. The mechanism by which TcO{sub 2} is sequestered and hence protected from re-oxidation appears to be an exchange with phosphate in the apatite lattice, as the phosphorus that appeared in solution after reaction with technetium was essentially the same moles of technetium that were taken up by the Sn(II)apatite (Table 6). Overall, the reduction of the mobile pertechnetate (+7) to the less mobile technetium dioxide (+4) by Sn(II)apatite and subsequent sequestration of the technetium in the material indicates that Sn(II)apatite is an excellent candidate for long-term immobilization of technetium. The indications are that the Sn(II)apatite will lend itself to sequestering and inhibiting the reoxidation to the mobile pertechnetate species, thus keeping the radionuclide out of the environment.

DUNCAN JB; HAGERTY K; MOORE WP; RHODES RN; JOHNSON JM; MOORE RC

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

41 - 5750 of 28,560 results. 41 - 5750 of 28,560 results. Download EIS-0287: Final Environmental Impact Statement Idaho High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/eis-0287-final-environmental-impact-statement Download EA-1591: Mitigation Action Plan Palisades-Goshen Transmission Line Reconstruction Project http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/ea-1591-mitigation-action-plan Download Evaluation Report: IG-0843 The Department's Unclassified Cyber Security Program - 2010 http://energy.gov/ig/downloads/evaluation-report-ig-0843 Download CX-005780: Categorical Exclusion Determination Sintered Copper Zinc Tin Selenium Nanoparticle Solar Cells on Metal Foil CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B3.6 Date: 05/11/2011 Location(s): San Jose, California Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

317

CX-005780: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

80: Categorical Exclusion Determination 80: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-005780: Categorical Exclusion Determination Sintered Copper Zinc Tin Selenium Nanoparticle Solar Cells on Metal Foil CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B3.6 Date: 05/11/2011 Location(s): San Jose, California Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office The Photovoltaic (PV) Technology Incubator project represents a significant component of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) business strategy of partnering with U.S. industry to accelerate the commercialization of photovoltaic system research and development (R&D) to meet aggressive cost and installed capacity goals. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-005780.pdf More Documents & Publications Bertrand Fillon, Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies

318

The relationship between structural evolution and electrical percolation of the initial stages of tungsten chemical vapor deposition on polycrystalline TiN  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents experimental results and a geometric model of the evolution of sheet resistance and surface morphology during the transition from nucleation to percolation of tungsten chemical vapor deposition over ultrathin polycrystalline titanium nitride (TiN). We observed two mechanisms of reduction in sheet resistance. At deposition temperatures higher than 310 deg. C, percolation effect is formed at {approx}35% of surface coverage, {theta}, and characterized with a sharp drop in resistance. At temperature below 310 deg. C, a reduction in resistance occurs in two steps. The first step occurs when {theta} = 35% and the second step at {theta} = 85%. We suggest a geometric model in which the electrical percolation pass is modulated by the thickness threshold of the islands at the instant of collision.

Rozenblat, A. [Micron Semiconductors Israel Ltd., Qiryat-Gat 82109 (Israel); Department of Physical Electronics, Electrical Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Haimson, S. [Material Science Program, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Shacham-Diamand, Y. [Department of Physical Electronics, Electrical Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Horvitz, D. [Micron Semiconductors Israel Ltd., Qiryat-Gat 82109 (Israel)

2012-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

319

Oxidation Kinetics of Gold Nanoparticles for Growth of Graphene ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Finally, in regard to the plasmonic applications of such hybrid nanoparticles, a series of ... A New Method for the Synthesis of Aluminum Oxide Nanofibers: Features and ... A Novel Electrochemical Process for Assembling Hierarchically Aligned ... Chemical Functionalization of Hydrogen-terminated Silicon Surfaces for...

320

Nano Research Kinetics of Molecular Recognition Mediated Nanoparticle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nano Research Kinetics of Molecular Recognition Mediated Nanoparticle Self-Assembly Chinmay Soman1 the streptavidin-biotin interaction [9] 0078 Nano Res (2009) 2: 78 84 DOI 10.1007/s12274-009-9005-z Research Article #12;79Nano Res (2009) 2: 78 84 are incubated with specific antigens in a physiological buffer

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321

Viscosity of alumina nanoparticles dispersed in car engine coolant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present paper, describes our experimental results on the viscosity of the nanofluid prepared by dispersing alumina nanoparticles (car coolant. The nanofluid prepared with calculated amount of oleic acid (surfactant) was tested to be stable for more than 80 days. The viscosity of the nanofluids is measured both as a function of alumina volume fraction and temperature between 10 and 50 C. While the pure base fluid display Newtonian behavior over the measured temperature, it transforms to a non-Newtonian fluid with addition of a small amount of alumina nanoparticles. Our results show that viscosity of the nanofluid increases with increasing nanoparticle concentration and decreases with increase in temperature. Most of the frequently used classical models severely under predict the measured viscosity. Volume fraction dependence of the nanofluid viscosity, however, is predicted fairly well on the basis of a recently reported theoretical model for nanofluids that takes into account the effect of Brownian motion of nanoparticles in the nanofluid. The temperature dependence of the viscosity of engine coolant based alumina nanofluids obeys the empirical correlation of the type: log ({mu}{sub nf}) = A exp(BT), proposed earlier by Namburu et al. (author)

Kole, Madhusree; Dey, T.K. [Thermophysical Measurements Laboratory, Cryogenic Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

322

Gold-Copper Nanoparticles: Nanostructural Evolution and Bifunctional Catalytic Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Understanding of the atomic-scale structure is essential for exploiting the unique catalytic properties of any nanoalloy catalyst. This report describes novel findings of an investigation of the nanoscale alloying of gold-copper (AuCu) nanoparticles and its impact on the surface catalytic functions. Two pathways have been explored for the formation of AuCu nanoparticles of different compositons, including wet chemical synthesis from mixed Au- and Cu-precursor molecules, and nanoscale alloying via an evolution of mixed Au- and Cu-precursor nanoparticles near the nanoscale melting temperatures. For the evolution of mixed precursor nanoparticles, synchrotron x-ray based in-situ real time XRD was used to monitor the structural changes, revealing nanoscale alloying and reshaping towards an fcc-type nanoalloy (particle or cube) via a partial meltingresolidification mechanism. The nanoalloys supported on carbon or silica were characterized by in-situ high-energy XRD/PDFs, revealing an intriguing lattice "expanding-shrinking" phenomenon depending on whether the catalyst is thermochemically processed under oxidative or reductive atmosphere. This type of controllable structural changes is found to play an important role in determining the catalytic activity of the catalysts for carbon monoxide oxidation reaction. The tunable catalytic activities of the nanoalloys under thermochemically oxidative and reductive atmospheres are also discussed in terms of the bifunctional sites and the surface oxygenated metal species for carbon monoxide and oxygen activation.

Yin, Jun; Shan, Shiyao; Yang, Lefu; Mott, Derrick; Malis, Oana; Petkov, Valeri; Cai, Fan; Ng, Mei; Luo, Jin; Chen, Bing H.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

323

Uniform Dispersion of Nanoparticles in Metal Matrix Nanocomposites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conference Tools for 2012 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition ... Two examples are presented in this report: (1) uniform dispersion of Al2O3 nanoparticles in A206 ... Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite via Direct Metal Laser Deposition: Processing And Mechanical Characterization ... Contact programming@

324

Gold nanoparticle-catalyzed reduction in a model system: Quantitative determination of reactive heterogeneity of a supported nanoparticle surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Kinetic poisoning experiments employing organic ligands were conducted using a gold nanoparticlecatalyzed reaction consisting of the reduction of resazurin to resorufin. The kinetic contributions of three distinct types of sites along with the number density of each of these site types during reaction were determined. The calculated number densities of each of the three types of sites, hypothesized to be corners, edges, and terraces, correlates well with atomic-resolution micrographs of the supported gold nanoparticles, obtained using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy and with predictions based on geometric models of idealized gold nanoparticles. The most active sites comprising 1% of the surface atoms exhibit at least 30% of the total activity of the catalyst for resazurin reduction. The selective mechanical blocking of surface sites on nanoparticles, particularly undercoordinated sites, paves the way for novel approaches utilizing organic ligands to quantify the activity of different active sites and control catalysis on metal surfaces. This work was supported in part by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The aberration-corrected electron microscopy was performed in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national scientific user facility located at PNNL and funded by BER. PNNL is operated by Battelle for the U.S. DOE under contract DE-AC05-76RL01830.

Nigra, Michael M.; Arslan, Ilke; Katz, Alexander

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Accelerated Publication: Ag nanoparticle-based inkjet printed planar transmission lines for RF and microwave applications: Considerations on ink composition, nanoparticle size distribution and sintering time  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sintering of Ag nanoparticle (NP)-based inkjet printed tracks is a crucial process for the next-generation digitally printed electronics. In particular, while the digital printing, as additive technology, is now well settled for what concerns either ... Keywords: Inkjet printing, Microwave planar transmission lines, Real-time measurements, Silver nanoparticles

A. Chiolerio; M. Cotto; P. Pandolfi; P. Martino; V. Camarchia; M. Pirola; G. Ghione

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Geek-Up[10.15.2010]: Growing Nanoparticles, Developing Plastic from  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

15.2010]: Growing Nanoparticles, Developing Plastic from 15.2010]: Growing Nanoparticles, Developing Plastic from Bacteria and Wireless Water Heaters Geek-Up[10.15.2010]: Growing Nanoparticles, Developing Plastic from Bacteria and Wireless Water Heaters October 15, 2010 - 5:56pm Addthis Nanoparticles grown under the irradiation of high-energy X-rays | Source: Argonne National Lab and Carnegie Institution of Washington Nanoparticles grown under the irradiation of high-energy X-rays | Source: Argonne National Lab and Carnegie Institution of Washington Niketa Kumar Niketa Kumar Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? Watching nanoparticles in real time can help improve the performance of their application as solar cells, chemical and biological sensors and diagnostic imaging. Scientists are using bacteria with free wastewater to develop

327

Quantum Mechanics of Insitu Synthesis of Inorganic Nanoparticles with in Anionic Microgels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, we discuss the quantum mechanics of many-body systems i.e. hybrid microgel consisting of negatively charged anionic microgels possessing thick sheath of water molecules solvating its protruding anionic moieties and nanoparticle captivated with in it. Thermodynamic feasibility of synthesis of particular nanoparticle with in the microgel is dependent upon the magnitude of interaction between nanoparticle, water molecules and microgel relative to sum of magnitude of self-interaction between counterions and interaction between counterions and microgel. Nanoparticles synthesized with in the microgels have thick electronic cloud that oscillates under the influence of net interaction potential of charged anionic moieties and solvent water molecules. Hamiltonian describing energy of oscillating electronic cloud wrapped around nanoparticle is mathematically derived to be equal to product of integral of electron density and its position vector overall space multiplied with net electric force acting on the oscillating electronic cloud of nanoparticle.

Mirza Wasif Baig; Muhammad Siddiq

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

328

Geek-Up[10.15.2010]: Growing Nanoparticles, Developing Plastic from  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Geek-Up[10.15.2010]: Growing Nanoparticles, Developing Plastic from Geek-Up[10.15.2010]: Growing Nanoparticles, Developing Plastic from Bacteria and Wireless Water Heaters Geek-Up[10.15.2010]: Growing Nanoparticles, Developing Plastic from Bacteria and Wireless Water Heaters October 15, 2010 - 5:56pm Addthis Nanoparticles grown under the irradiation of high-energy X-rays | Source: Argonne National Lab and Carnegie Institution of Washington Nanoparticles grown under the irradiation of high-energy X-rays | Source: Argonne National Lab and Carnegie Institution of Washington Niketa Kumar Niketa Kumar Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? Watching nanoparticles in real time can help improve the performance of their application as solar cells, chemical and biological sensors and diagnostic imaging.

329

Production of copper and brass nanoparticles upon laser ablation in liquids  

SciTech Connect

The production of nanoparticles upon ablation of copper and brass by pulsed radiation from Nd:YAG and copper lasers in water, ethanol, and acetone is studied. The nanoparticles were investigated by the methods of X-ray diffractometry, optical spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The produced copper and brass nanoparticles were shown to exhibit a plasmon resonance lying in the visible spectral range near 580 and 510 nm. The brass nanoparticles produced by ablation in ethanol have a shell approximately 10-nm thick for an average dimension of 20-30 nm. A chemical modification of ethanol was observed, which manifested itself in the appearance of intense UV absorption bands. Upon laser irradiation of brass nanoparticles in a liquid their absorption spectrum gradually transformed into the spectrum of copper nanoparticles. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

Kazakevich, Pavel V; Simakin, Aleksandr V; Shafeev, Georgii A [Scientific Center for Wave Studies, A.M.Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Voronov, Valerii V [Laser Materials and Technology Research Center, A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2004-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

330

Interferometric investigation and simulation of refractive index in glass matrixes containing nanoparticles of varying sizes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between refractive index and nanoparticle radii of cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles embedded within glass matrixes was investigated experimentally and by simulations. A homemade automated Michelson interferometer arrangement employing a rotating table and a He-Ne laser source at a wavelength of 632.8 nm determined the refractive index versus nanoparticle radii of embedded cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles. The refractive index was found to decrease linearly with nanoparticle radius increase. However, one sample showed a step increase in refractive index; on spectroscopic analysis, it was found that its resonant wavelength matched that of the He-Ne source wavelength. The simulations showed that two conditions caused the step increase in refractive index: low plasma frequency and matched sample and source resonances. This simple interferometer setup defines a new method of determining the radii of nanoparticles embedded in substrates and enables refractive index tailoring by modification of exact annealing conditions.

Feeney, Michael Gerard; Ince, Rabia; Yukselici, Mehmet Hikmet; Allahverdi, Cagdas

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Structural evolution in crystalline MoO{sub 3} nanoparticles with tunable size  

SciTech Connect

In this study MoO{sub 3} nanoparticles were prepared in porous Vycor glass by impregnation-decomposition cycles (IDC) with molybdenum(VI) 2-ethylhexanoate. X-ray diffraction data show that the nanoparticles are crystalline and are in the orthorhombic {alpha}-MoO{sub 3} phase. Raman spectroscopy data also indicate the formation of this phase. The profiles in the Raman spectra changed with the number of IDC, indicating a structural evolution of the MoO{sub 3} nanoparticles. The IDC methodology promoted a linear mass increase and allowed tuning the nanoparticle size. Analysis of HRTEM images revealed that for 3, 5 and 7 IDC, the MoO{sub 3} nanoparticle average diameters are 3.2, 3.6 and 4.2 nm. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicates a consistent red shift in the band gap from 3.35 to 3.29 eV as the size increases from 3.2 to 4.2 nm. This observed red shift in the band gap of the MoO{sub 3} nanoparticles is presumably due to quantum confinement effects. - Graphical abstract: Modification of profile Raman spectra for crystalline MoO{sub 3} nanoparticles in function of the particle size. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural evolution of the MoO{sub 3} nanoparticles as a function of the crystallite size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tunable optical properties by controlling the MoO{sub 3} nanoparticle size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The impregnation-decomposition methodology allowed tuning the nanoparticle size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The red shift in the band gap of the MoO{sub 3} nanoparticles is due to quantum size effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The short-distance order in MoO{sub 3} nanoparticle is function to area/volume ratio.

Barros Santos, Elias de; Aparecido Sigoli, Fernando [Functional Materials Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, PO Box 6154, Zip Code 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Odone Mazali, Italo, E-mail: mazali@iqm.unicamp.br [Functional Materials Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, PO Box 6154, Zip Code 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

332

Surface Structures of Cubo-octahedral Pt-Mo Catalyst Nanoparticles from Monte Carlo Simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Cubo-octahedral Pt-Mo Catalyst Nanoparticles from Montefuel cells, new electrode catalysts that have less preciousto designing Pt bimetallic catalysts is knowledge of the

Wang, Guofeng; Van Hove, M.A.; Ross, P.N.; Baskes, M.I.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Wet chemical synthesis and characterization of AgGaSe{sub 2} nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

AgGaSe{sub 2} compound semiconductor nanoparticles were synthesized by wet chemical method using mercaptoacetic acid as a capping agent at room temperature. The synthesized powders belong to chalcopyrite structure confirmed by powder XRD. The surface morphology and crystalline size were observed by high resolution scanning electron microscope (HR-SEM). The stoichiometric composition of AgGaSe{sub 2} nanoparticles was confirmed by Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Different functional group vibrations of mercaptoacetic acid capped nanoparticles were studied using FT-IR spectrum. The absorbance and optical bandgap of the nanoparticles were determined using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS).

Sugan, S.; Dhanasekaran, R. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai- 600 025 (India)

2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

334

Ion-exchanged MnO2 nanoparticles as cathodes of lithium ion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Ion-exchanged MnO2 nanoparticles as cathodes of lithium ion batteries at elevated temperatures. Author(s), Dawei Liu, Jasper Wright, Wei...

335

FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS OF REGENERATIVE CERIUM OXIDE NANOPARTICLES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN NANOBIOTECHNOLOGY.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Cerium oxide has been used extensively for various applications over the past two decades. The use of cerium oxide nanoparticles is beneficial in present applications (more)

Patil, Swanand

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Solid State Reactions in TEA Precipitated Cr-ZnO Nanoparticles and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, This work reports the preliminary results about solid state reactions ... Active Titania-Based Nanoparticles for Composite Propellant Combustion.

337

DOE O 456.1 Admin Chg 1, The Safe Handling of Unbound Engineered Nanoparticles  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The order establishes requirements and assigns responsibilities for activities involving unbound engineered nanoparticles (UNP). Cancels DOE N 456.1. Admin Chg ...

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

338

Geek-Up[10.15.2010]: Growing Nanoparticles, Developing Plastic...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Center for Nanoscale Materials adjoins the lab's Advanced Photon Source (ASP). When the electron microscope, the usual method for observing nanoparticles at the atomic level,...

339

A Novel Type of Carbon Coated Sulfur Nanoparticles for Li/S Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The SEM image shows that the size of carbon coated sulfur nanoparticles is ... Performances of Nanoporous Carbon Anode for Super Lithium Ion Capacitor.

340

Effects of Nanoparticle Geometry and Size Distribution on Diffusion Impedance of Battery Electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The short diffusion lengths in insertion battery nanoparticles render the capacitive behavior of bounded diffusion, which is rarely observable with conventional larger particles, now accessible to impedance measurements. ...

Song, Juhyun

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tin selenium nanoparticle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Self-Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles at the Surface of Amine- and ...  

showed that there was negligible assembly of the gold nano-particles at the surface of the BNNTs (Figure 10). Both control experiments demonstrate a significant lack of

342

Iron/Iron Oxide Core/Shell Nanoparticles for MRI and Magnetic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bulk Nanoceramics and Nanocomposites: Processed by Pulsed Electric Current ... Iron/Iron Oxide Core/Shell Nanoparticles for MRI and Magnetic Hyperthermia.

343

CdSe/ZnS Nanoparticle Composites with Amine-Functionalized Polyfluoren...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CdSeZnS Nanoparticle Composites with Amine-Functionalized Polyfluorene Derivatives for Polymeric Light-Emitting Diodes: Synthesis, Photophysical Properties, and the...

344

Controlling the structure of two-dimensional nanoparticle supracrystals from long-range order to anisotropy by tailoring ligand interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ligand-stabilized nanoparticles (NPs) assembled into long-range ordered arrays, also known as "nanoparticle supracrystals (NPSCs)", are expected to provide a powerful general platform for designing new types of solids. In ...

Kim, Jin Young, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Reactive self-heating model of aluminum spherical nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aluminum-oxygen reaction is important in many highly energetic, high pressure generating systems. Recent experiments with nanostructured thermites suggest that oxidation of aluminum nanoparticles occurs in a few microseconds. Such rapid reaction cannot be explained by a conventional diffusion-based mechanism. We present a rapid oxidation model of a spherical aluminum nanoparticle, using Cabrera-Mott moving boundary mechanism, and taking self-heating into account. In our model, electric potential solves the nonlinear Poisson equation. In contrast with the Coulomb potential, a "double-layer" type solution for the potential and self-heating leads to enhanced oxidation rates. At maximal reaction temperature of 2000 C, our model predicts overall oxidation time scale in microseconds range, in agreement with experimental evidence.

Karen S. Martirosyan; Maxim Zyskin

2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

346

Continuous Precipitation of Ceria Nanoparticles from a Continuous Flow Micromixer  

SciTech Connect

Cerium oxide nanoparticles were continuously precipitated from a solution of cerium(III) nitrate and ammonium hydroxide using a micro-scale T-mixer. Findings show that the method of mixing is important in the ceria precipitation process. In batch mixing and deposition, disintegration and agglomeration dominates the deposited film. In T-mixing and deposition, more uniform nanorod particles are attainable. In addition, it was found that the micromixing approach reduced the exposure of the Ce(OH)3 precipates to oxygen, yielding hydroxide precipates in place of CeO2 precipitates. Advantages of the micro-scale T-mixing approach include shorter mixing times, better control of nanoparticle shape and less agglomeration.

Tseng, Chih Heng; Paul, Brian; Chang, Chih-hung; Engelhard, Mark H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Synthesis of SnO{sub 2} Nanoparticles Using Ultrasonication  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of ultrasonic energy for chemical synthesis has recently become an interesting and growing area of research. Using this form of energy, we have synthesized nanoparticles of SnO{sub 2}(8-30 nm) at room temperature by a sonication assisted precipitation technique. In order to understand the effect of ultrasonic energy on particle size and their distribution, the precipitation time was varied during the preparation. A sonication time of 3 h was found to be optimum to produce SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles having size below 10 nm. We found that a gradual increase of the sonication time gradually decreases the particle size with interesting morphology and increased surface area. The butane sensing properties of the synthesized powders exhibited a direct influence of the sonication time on the sensing properties. A 3 h sonicated sample, exhibited a maximum response of around 98.88% towards 5000 ppm butane at 450 deg. C with a fast recovery time.

Majumdar, Sanhita; Devi, P. Sujatha [Nano-Structured Materials Division, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India)

2010-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

348

A possible scenario for volumetric display through nanoparticle suspensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss on the potential of suspensions of gold nanoparticles with variable refractive index for the possible physical realization of in-relief virtual dynamic display of plane images. A reasoning approach for a vision system to display in real-time volumetric moving images is proposed based on well-known properties of optical media, namely the anomalous dispersion of light on certain transparent media and the virtual image formed by a refracting transparent surface. The system relies on creating mechanisms to modify the refractive index of in-relief virtual dynamical display (iVDD) bulbs that ideally would contain a suspension of gold nanoparticles each and that might be ordered in an array filling up a whole screen.

E. Canessa

2001-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

349

The Formation and Binding of Gold Nanoparticles onto Wool Fibres  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the novel use of nanosize gold with different plasmon resonance colours, as stable colourfast colourants on wool fibres for use in high quality fabrics and textiles. The gold nanoparticles are synthesised by the controlled reduction of Au{sup 3+} in the AuCl{sub 4}{sup -} complex to Au{sup 0} onto the surface of the wool where they attach to the S in the cystine amino acids in wool keratin proteins. Scanning electronmicroscopy shows the nanoparticles are present on the cuticles of the fibre surface and are concentrated at the edges of these cuticles. EDS analysis shows a strong correlation of Au with S and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests Au-S bond formation. Hence the nanogold colourants are chemically bound to the wool fibre surface and do not fade as traditional organic dyes do. A range of coloured fibres have been produced.

Johnston, James H.; Burridge, Kerstin A.; Kelly, Fern M. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand)

2009-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

350

Gamma-Free Neutron Detector Based upon Lithium Phosphate Nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A gamma-free neutron-sensitive scintillator is needed to enhance radiaition sensing and detection for nonproliferation applications. Such a scintillator would allow very large detectors to be placed at the perimeter of spent-fuel storage facilities at commercial nuclear power plants, so that any movement of spontaneously emitted neutrons from spent nuclear fuel or weapons grade plutonium would be noted in real-time. This task is to demonstrate that the technology for manufacturing large panels of fluor-doped plastic containing lithium-6 phosphate nanoparticles can be achieved. In order to detect neutrons, the nanoparticles must be sufficiently small so that the plastic remains transparent. In this way, the triton and alpha particles generated by the capture of the neutron will result in a photon burst that can be coupled to a wavelength shifting fiber (WLS) producing an optical signal of about ten nanoseconds duration signaling the presence of a neutron emitting source.

Steven Wallace

2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

351

Lanthanum halide nanoparticle scintillators for nuclear radiation detection  

SciTech Connect

Nanoparticles with sizes <10 nm were fabricated and characterized for their nanocomposite radiation detector properties. This work investigated the properties of several nanostructured radiation scintillators, in order to determine the viability of using scintillators employing nanostructured lanthanum trifluoride. Preliminary results of this investigation are consistent with the idea that these materials have an intrinsic response to nuclear radiation that may be correlated to the energy of the incident radiation.

Guss, Paul; Guise, Ronald [Remote Sensing Laboratory, P.O. Box 98521, M/S RSL-48, Las Vegas, Nevada 89193 (United States); Yuan Ding [National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos Operations, P.O. Box 809, M/S LAO/C320, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy [Remote Sensing Laboratory-Andrews, Building 1783, Arnold Avenue Andrews AFB, Maryland 20762 (United States); O'Brien, Robert; Lowe, Daniel [University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 S. Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154 (United States); Kang Zhitao; Menkara, Hisham [Georgia Tech Research Institute, 925 Dalney St., Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Nagarkar, Vivek V. [RMD, Inc., 44 Hunt Street, Watertown, Massachusetts 02472 (United States)

2013-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

352

Optoelectronic device with nanoparticle embedded hole injection/transport layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optoelectronic device is disclosed that can function as an emitter of optical radiation, such as a light-emitting diode (LED), or as a photovoltaic (PV) device that can be used to convert optical radiation into electrical current, such as a photovoltaic solar cell. The optoelectronic device comprises an anode, a hole injection/transport layer, an active layer, and a cathode, where the hole injection/transport layer includes transparent conductive nanoparticles in a hole transport material.

Wang, Qingwu (Chelmsford, MA); Li, Wenguang (Andover, MA); Jiang, Hua (Methuen, MA)

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

353

Thermodynamically Tuned Nanophase Materials for Reversible Hydrogen Storage: Structure and Kinetics of Nanoparticle and Model System Materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the final report of our program on hydrogen storage in thin film and nanoparticle metal hydrides.

Bruce M. Clemens

2010-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

354

Nonlocal, grating-coupled scattering-type near-field scanning optical microscopy of individual gold nano-particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nano-particles D. Sadiq, J. Shirdel*, and C. Lienau Institut für Physik, Carl von Ossietzky Universität nano-particles. We demonstrate sub-30-nm-resolution imaging of localized SPP fields. By comparison onto a photodetector. When imaging small individual gold nano-particles with

Park, Namkyoo

355

Integration of organic insulator and self-assembled gold nanoparticles on Si MOSFET for novel non-volatile memory cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have fabricated a hybrid non-volatile gold nanoparticle floating-gate memory metal insulator semiconductor field effect transistor (MISFET) device combining silicon technology and organic thin film deposition. The nanoparticles are deposited by chemical ... Keywords: hybrid Silicon-organic memory, nanocrystal memory, nanoparticles, non-volatile memory

S. Kolliopoulou; P. Dimitrakis; P. Normand; H.-L. Zhang; N. Cant; S. D. Evans; S. Paul; C. Pearson; A. Molloy; M. C. Petty; D. Tsoukalas

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

HRTEM/AEM and SEM study of fluid-rock interactions: Interaction of copper, silver, selenium, chromium, and cadmium-bearing solutions with geological materials at near surface conditions, with an emphasis on phyllosilicates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biotite has been reacted with acidic solutions, at 25'' +/-3''C, bearing silver (Ag{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), selenium (selenite), chromium (hexavalent Cr), and copper (CuSO{sub 4}). The experiments were open to the atmosphere. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) show that biotite sorbs and reduces Ag+(aq) to metallic silver. Polygonal precipitates and inclusions of metallic silver (with diameters ranging from 10's of angstroms to > {ge} {mu}m) are concentrated on the edges of the biotite flakes and also in the interlayer region. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of biotites reacted with selenite-bearing solutions show that the oxidation state of selenium sorbed on the surface of biotite is Se{sup 4+}. XPS of biotites reacted with Cr{sup 6+}-bearing solutions show that the oxidation state of chromium sorbed on the surface of biotite is Cr{sup 3+}. Copper-bearing solutions were reacted with low-F biotite in contrast to our previous work with high-F biotite (Olden et al., in press). Results indicate that low-F biotite absorbs more readily and extensively than high-F biotite. Further work on copper-enriched biotite from the chrysocolla zone has revealed that the mode of copper incorporation in biotite is more complex than previously described.

Veblen, D.R.; Ilton, E.S.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Multimodality Imaging with Silica-Based Targeted Nanoparticle Platforms  

SciTech Connect

Objectives: To synthesize and characterize a C-Dot silica-based nanoparticle containing 'clickable' groups for the subsequent attachment of targeting moieties (e.g., peptides) and multiple contrast agents (e.g., radionuclides with high specific activity) [1,2]. These new constructs will be tested in suitable tumor models in vitro and in vivo to ensure maintenance of target-specificity and high specific activity. Methods: Cy5 dye molecules are cross-linked to a silica precursor which is reacted to form a dye-rich core particle. This core is then encapsulated in a layer of pure silica to create the core-shell C-Dot (Figure 1) [2]. A 'click' chemistry approach has been used to functionalize the silica shell with radionuclides conferring high contrast and specific activity (e.g. 64Cu and 89Zr) and peptides for tumor targeting (e.g. cRGD and octreotate) [3]. Based on the selective Diels-Alder reaction between tetrazine and norbornene, the reaction is bioorthogonal, highyielding, rapid, and water-compatible. This radiolabeling approach has already been employed successfully with both short peptides (e.g. octreotate) and antibodies (e.g. trastuzumab) as model systems for the ultimate labeling of the nanoparticles [1]. Results: PEGylated C-Dots with a Cy5 core and labeled with tetrazine have been synthesized (d = 55 nm, zeta potential = -3 mV) reliably and reproducibly and have been shown to be stable under physiological conditions for up to 1 month. Characterization of the nanoparticles revealed that the immobilized Cy5 dye within the C-Dots exhibited fluorescence intensities over twice that of the fluorophore alone. The nanoparticles were successfully radiolabeled with Cu-64. Efforts toward the conjugation of targeting peptides (e.g. cRGD) are underway. In vitro stability, specificity, and uptake studies as well as in vivo imaging and biodistribution investigations will be presented. Conclusions: C-Dot silica-based nanoparticles offer a robust, versatile, and multi-functional platform to enhance in vivo detection sensitivity and non-invasively assay receptor expression/status of tumor cellular targets, including those of low abundance, using nuclear-NIR fluorescence imaging approaches [2]. Improvements in molecular diagnostics, refined by the availability of nanotechnology platforms, will be a key determinant in driving early-stage disease detection and prevention, ultimately leading to decreases in mortality.

Jason S. Lewis

2012-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

358

Swift heavy-ion irradiation-induced shape and structural transformation in cobalt nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The shape and structural evolution of Co nanoparticles embedded in SiO{sub 2} and subjected to swift heavy-ion irradiation have been investigated over a wide energy and fluence range. Modifications of the nanoparticle size and shape were characterized with transmission electron microscopy and small-angle x-ray scattering. Nanoparticles below a threshold diameter remained spherical in shape and progressively decreased in size under irradiation due to dissolution. Nanoparticles above the threshold diameter transformed into nanorods with their major dimension parallel to the incident ion direction. Modifications of the atomic-scale structure of the Co nanoparticles were identified with x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Analysis of the x-ray absorption near-edge spectra showed that prior to irradiation all Co atoms were in a metallic state, while after irradiation Co atoms were in both oxidized and metallic environments, the former consistent with dissolution. The evolution of the nanoparticle short-range order was determined from extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Structural changes in the Co nanoparticles as a function of ion fluence included an increase in disorder and asymmetric deviation from a Gaussian interatomic distance distribution coupled with a decrease in bondlength. Such changes resulted from the irradiation-induced decrease in nanoparticle size and subsequent dissolution.

Sprouster, D.J.; Giulian, R.; Araujo, L.L.; Kluth, P.; Johannessen, B.; Cookson, D.J.; Ridgway, M.C. (Aust. Synch.); (ANU)

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

359

Assemblies of Nanoparticles as 3D Scaffolds for New Materials: from Mechanically Strong Polymer Crosslinked Aerogels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Crosslinked Aerogels to Porous Metals and Ceramics Nicholas Leventis Department of Chemistry, Missouri S of nanoparticles known as aerogels come at a high cost: fragility. A recent breakthrough at MS&T is the development of X-aerogels where skeletal inorganic nanoparticles (e.g., silica and >30 other metal oxides

Yamilov, Alexey

360

Effects of size, shape, crystal plane and atomic discrete structure on interactions between carbon nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Understanding various interaction forces between building blocks is of great importance to their selfassembly. In this paper, the effects of size, crystal plane, shape and atomic discrete structure on interaction potentials between carbon nanoparticles ... Keywords: Hamaker approach, carbon, interaction, molecular dynamics simulation, nanoparticle

Weifu Sun; Qinghua Zeng; Aibing Yu

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tin selenium nanoparticle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Plasmon resonance tuning in Ag nanoparticles arrays grown on ripple patterned templates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A bottom-up approach to grow highly ordered self-assembled silver nanoparticles arrays on ripple patterns produced by low energy ion irradiation is reported. The advantage of this approach over other self-assembling or lithographic methods is the flexibility ... Keywords: Ion erosion, LSPR, Metal nanoparticles, Plasmonics

M. Ranjan; S. Facsko; M. Fritzsche; S. Mukherjee

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Assembly of Colloidal Nanoparticles into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates by Dip-Coating Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the assembly behavior of colloidal nanoparticles into anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates is investigated. Approximately 20-nm-diameter iron oxide (Fe2O3) particles stabilized by oleic acid and 5-nm-diameter CdSe ... Keywords: Anodic aluminum oxide, colloid nanoparticle, dip coating, self-assembly

Il Seo; Chang-Woo Kwon; Hyun Ho Lee; Yong-Sang Kim; Ki-Bum Kim; Tae-Sik Yoon

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Chemiion evolution in motor vehicle exhaust: Further evidence of its role in nanoparticle formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemiion evolution in motor vehicle exhaust: Further evidence of its role in nanoparticle formation of the nanoparticles in motor vehicle exhaust. INDEX TERMS: 0305 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols [2001] found that total number of NPs formed in motor vehicle exhaust is very sensitive to CI

Yu, Fangqun

364

Characterization of Individual Nanoparticles and Applications of Nanoparticles in Mass Spectrometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The chemical characterization of individual nanoparticles (NPs)

Rajagopal Achary, Sidhartha Raja

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Structure, optical, and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films prepared by sputtering at room temperature and annealed in air or nitrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films have been grown onto soda-lime glass substrates by sputtering at room temperature with various oxygen to argon partial pressure ratios. After deposition, the samples have been annealed at temperatures ranging from 100 to 500 degree sign C in nitrogen or in air. The structure, optical, and electrical characteristics of the ITO coatings have been analyzed as a function of the deposition and the annealing parameters by x-ray diffraction, spectrophotometry, and Hall effect measurements. It has been found that the as-grown amorphous layers crystallize in the cubic structure by heating above 200 degree sign C. Simultaneously, the visible optical transmittance increases and the electrical resistance decreases, in proportions that depend mainly on the sputtering conditions. The lowest resistivity values have been obtained by annealing at 400 degree sign C in nitrogen, where the highest carrier concentrations are achieved, related to oxygen vacancy creation. Some relationships between the analyzed properties have been established, showing the dependence of the cubic lattice distortion and the infrared optical characteristics on the carrier concentration.

Guillen, C.; Herrero, J. [Departamento de Energia, CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Ti-Doped Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films for Transparent Field-Effect Transistors: Control of Charge-Carrier Density and Crystalline Structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Indium tin oxide (ITO) films are representative transparent conducting oxide media for organic light-emitting diodes, liquid crystal displays, and solar cell applications. Extending the utility of ITO films from passive electrodes to active channel layers in transparent field-effect transistors (FETs), however, has been largely limited because of the materials' high carrier density (>1 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup 03}), wide band gap, and polycrystalline structure. Here, we demonstrate that control over the cation composition in ITO-based oxide films via solid doping of titanium (Ti) can optimize the carrier concentration and suppress film crystallization. On 120 nm thick SiO{sub 2}/Mo (200 nm)/glass substrates, transparent n-type FETs prepared with 4 at % Ti-doped ITO films and fabricated via the cosputtering of ITO and TiO{sub 2} exhibited high electron mobilities of 13.4 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, a low subthreshold gate swing of 0.25 V decade{sup -1}, and a high I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratio of >1 x 10{sup 8}.

J Kim; K Ji; M Jang; H Yang; R Choi; J Jeong

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

367

Fabrication of Solid Electrolyte Dendrites for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fabrication of Solid Electrolyte Dendrites for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Miniaturizations Fabrication of TiN Nanoparticle Dispersed Si3N4 Ceramics by Wet Jet...

368

Time-dependent Protein-directed Growth of Gold Nanoparticles within a Single Crystal of Lysozyme  

SciTech Connect

Gold nanoparticles are useful in biomedical applications due to their distinct optical properties and high chemical stability. Reports of the biogenic formation of gold colloids from gold complexes has also led to an increased level of interest in the biomineralization of gold. However, the mechanism responsible for biomolecule-directed gold nanoparticle formation remains unclear due to the lack of structural information about biological systems and the fast kinetics of biomimetic chemical systems in solution. Here we show that intact single crystals of lysozyme can be used to study the time-dependent, protein-directed growth of gold nanoparticles. The protein crystals slow down the growth of the gold nanoparticles, allowing detailed kinetic studies to be carried out, and permit a three-dimensional structural characterization that would be difficult to achieve in solution. Furthermore, we show that additional chemical species can be used to fine-tune the growth rate of the gold nanoparticles.

H Wei; Z Wang; J Zhang; S House; Y Gao; L Yang; H Robinson; L Tan; H Xing; C Hou

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

369

Time-dependent, protein-directed growth of gold nanoparticles within a single crystal of lysozyme  

SciTech Connect

Gold nanoparticles are useful in biomedical applications due to their distinct optical properties and high chemical stability. Reports of the biogenic formation of gold colloids from gold complexes has also led to an increased level of interest in the biomineralization of gold. However, the mechanism responsible for biomolecule-directed gold nanoparticle formation remains unclear due to the lack of structural information about biological systems and the fast kinetics of biomimetic chemical systems in solution. Here we show that intact single crystals of lysozyme can be used to study the time-dependent, protein-directed growth of gold nanoparticles. The protein crystals slow down the growth of the gold nanoparticles, allowing detailed kinetic studies to be carried out, and permit a three-dimensional structural characterization that would be difficult to achieve in solution. Furthermore, we show that additional chemical species can be used to fine-tune the growth rate of the gold nanoparticles.

Wei, H.; Robinson, H.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, J.; House, S.; Gao, Y.-G.; Yang, L.; Tan, L. H.; Xing, H.; Hou, C.; Robertson, I. M.; Zuo, J.-M.; Lu, Y.

2011-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

370

Formation of metal nanoparticles by short-distance sputter deposition in a reactive ion etching chamber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method is reported to form metal nanoparticles by sputter deposition inside a reactive ion etching chamber with a very short target-substrate distance. The distribution and morphology of nanoparticles are found to be affected by the distance, the ion concentration, and the sputtering time. Densely distributed nanoparticles of various compositions were fabricated on the substrates that were kept at a distance of 130 mum or smaller from the target. When the distance was increased to 510 mum, island structures were formed, indicating the tendency to form continuous thin film with longer distance. The observed trend for nanoparticle formation is opposite to the previously reported mechanism for the formation of nanoparticles by sputtering. A new mechanism based on the seeding effect of the substrate is proposed to interpret the experimental results.

Nie Min; Meng, Dennis Desheng [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan 49931 (United States); Sun Kai [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Ordered porous mesostructured materials from nanoparticle-block copolymer self-assembly  

SciTech Connect

The invention provides mesostructured materials and methods of preparing mesostructured materials including metal-rich mesostructured nanoparticle-block copolymer hybrids, porous metal-nonmetal nanocomposite mesostructures, and ordered metal mesostructures with uniform pores. The nanoparticles can be metal, metal alloy, metal mixture, intermetallic, metal-carbon, metal-ceramic, semiconductor-carbon, semiconductor-ceramic, insulator-carbon or insulator-ceramic nanoparticles, or combinations thereof. A block copolymer/ligand-stabilized nanoparticle solution is cast, resulting in the formation of a metal-rich (or semiconductor-rich or insulator-rich) mesostructured nanoparticle-block copolymer hybrid. The hybrid is heated to an elevated temperature, resulting in the formation of an ordered porous nanocomposite mesostructure. A nonmetal component (e.g., carbon or ceramic) is then removed to produce an ordered mesostructure with ordered and large uniform pores.

Warren, Scott; Wiesner, Ulrich; DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

372

Optical investigations on indium oxide nano-particles prepared through precipitation method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Visible light emitting indium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation method. Sodium hydroxide dissolved in ethanol was used as a precipitating agent to obtain indium hydroxide precipitates. Precipitates, thus formed were calcined at 600 deg. C for 1 h to obtain indium oxide nanoparticles. The structure of the particles as determined from the X-Ray diffraction pattern was found to be body centered cubic. The phase transformation of the prepared nanoparticles was analyzed using thermogravimetry. Surface morphology of the prepared nanoparticles was analyzed using high resolution-scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results of the analysis show cube-like aggregates of size around 50 nm. It was found that the nanoparticles have a strong emission at 427 nm and a weak emission at 530 nm. These emissions were due to the presence of singly ionized oxygen vacancies and the nature of the defect was confirmed through Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis.

Seetha, M.; Bharathi, S.; Dhayal Raj, A. [Thin film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore (India); DRDO-BU center for life sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore (India); Mangalaraj, D., E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.com [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, 641 046 (India); DRDO-BU center for life sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore (India); Nataraj, D. [Thin film and Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore (India); DRDO-BU center for life sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore (India)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

373

Photoinduced Electron Transfer in Composites of Conjugated Polymers and Dendrimers with Branched Colloidal Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Charge generation and separation dynamics in donor:acceptor systems based on composites of branched CdSe nanoparticles with a phenyl-cored thiophene-containing dendrimer (4G1-3S), or a low-bandgap conjugated polymer (PCPDTBT) are reported upon exclusive excitation of the donor or the acceptor. Time-resolved microwave conductivity is used to study the dynamics of either transfer of holes from the nanoparticle to dendrimer, or conversely the transfer of electrons from the polymer to the nanoparticle. Higher photoconductance signals and longer decay-times are correlated with device efficiencies, where composites with higher nanoparticle concentration exhibit higher solar photovoltaic power conversion efficiencies and an increase in external quantum efficiencies. This work evaluates the contribution of both components to device performance, but specifically the role of photoexcited nanoparticles.

Dayal, S.; Kopidakis, N.; Rumbles, G.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Distribution of toenail selenium levels in young adult Caucasians and African Americans in the United States: The CARDIA Trace Element Study  

SciTech Connect

Background: Data on selenium (Se) levels in American young adults, especially in African Americans, are lacking. Objective: This study presented toenail Se distributions in American young adults of both genders, including both Caucasians and African Americans; and explored potential predictors of toenail Se levels. Data and methods: Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study among 4252 American young adults, aged 20-32 in 1987 was used to examine toenail Se levels by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The distribution of Se levels was described and multivariable linear regression was used to examine potential modifiers of toenail Se concentration within ethnicity-gender subgroups. Results: The geometric mean of toenail Se in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g) and the median was 0.837 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.833-0.844 {mu}g/g). Median levels from lowest to highest quintile were 0.691, 0.774, 0.838, 0.913 and 1.037 {mu}g/g. Se levels varied geographically, and were generally in accordance with its concentrations in local soil. Males, African Americans, current smokers, heavy drinkers and less educated participants were more likely to have low Se levels. Conclusion: This study suggests that toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. In addition to gender, ethnicity and education level, smoking status and alcohol consumption are two important indicators of Se status since they are modifiable lifestyle factors. Findings from this study might aid public health professionals in identifying people at relatively high or low Se levels, so that chronic disease prevention efforts can be directed toward these subgroups. - Research highlights: {yields} Average of toenail Se levels in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g). {yields} Toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. {yields} Males, African Americans and less educated participants have low Se levels. {yields} Smoking status and alcohol consumption are two important indicators of Se status.

Xun, Pengcheng; Bujnowski, Deborah [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2221 McGavran-Greenberg, Campus Box: 7461, Chapel Hill, NC (United States) [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2221 McGavran-Greenberg, Campus Box: 7461, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Liu, Kiang [Department of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States)] [Department of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Steve Morris, J. [Research Reactor Center, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO (United States)] [Research Reactor Center, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO (United States); Guo, Zhongqin [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Ningxia Medical University, Ningxia (China) [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Ningxia Medical University, Ningxia (China); Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2221 McGavran-Greenberg, Campus Box: 7461, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); He, Ka, E-mail: kahe@unc.edu [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2221 McGavran-Greenberg, Campus Box: 7461, Chapel Hill, NC (United States) [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2221 McGavran-Greenberg, Campus Box: 7461, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Hydrogen catalysis and scavenging action of Pd-POSS nanoparticles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Prompted by the need for a self-supported, chemically stable, and functionally flexible catalytic nanoparticle system, we explore a system involving Pd clusters coated with a monolayer of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) cages. With an initial theoretical focus on hydrogen catalysis and sequestration in the Pd-POSS system, we report Density Functional Theory (DFT) results on POSS binding energies to the Pd(110) surface, hydrogen storing ability of POSS, and possible pathways of hydrogen radicals from the catalyst surface to unsaturated bonds away from the surface.

Maiti, A; Gee, R H; Maxwell, R; Saab, A

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Nanoparticle modifications of photodefined nanostructures for energy applications.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The advancement of materials technology towards the development of novel 3D nanostructures for energy applications has been a long-standing challenge. The purpose of this project was to explore photolithographically defineable pyrolyzed photoresist carbon films for possible energy applications. The key attributes that we explored were as follows: (1) Photo-interferometric fabrication methods to produce highly porous (meso, micro, and nano) 3-D electrode structures, and (2) conducting polymer and nanoparticle-modification strategies on these structures to provide enhanced catalytic capabilities and increase conductivity. The resulting electrodes were then explored for specific applications towards possible use in battery and energy platforms.

Polsky, Ronen; Xiao, Xiaoyin; Burckel, David Bruce; Brozik, Susan Marie; Washburn, Cody M.; Wheeler, David Roger

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Hydrogen Adsorption Studies Using Surface Acoustic Waves on Nanoparticles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Vanadium nanoparticles, on the order of 20 nm, were deposited on a quartz crystal surface acoustic wave resonator (SAW) using a Nd:YAG pulsed laser deposition system. Due to the high Q and resonant frequency of the SAW, mass changes on the order of 0.1 nanogram can be quantitatively measured. Roughly 60 nanogram of V was deposited on the SAW for these experiments. The SAW was then moved into a hydrogen high pressure cell.At room temperature and 1 atmosphere of hydrogen pressure, 1 wt% H, or H/V {approx} 0.5 (atomic ratio) absorption was measured.

A.B. Phillips; G. Myneni; B.S. Shivaram

2005-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

378

ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH SAFE PACKAGING AND TRANSPORT OF NANOPARTICLES  

SciTech Connect

Nanoparticles have long been recognized a hazardous substances by personnel working in the field. They are not, however, listed as a separate, distinct category of dangerous goods at present. As dangerous goods or hazardous substances, they require packaging and transportation practices which parallel the established practices for hazardous materials transport. Pending establishment of a distinct category for such materials by the Department of Transportation, existing consensus or industrial protocols must be followed. Action by DOT to establish appropriate packaging and transport requirements is recommended.

Gupta, N.; Smith, A.

2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

379

Structure and Properties of Nanoparticles Formed by Ion Implantation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This chapter broadly describes the formation, basic microstructure, and fundamental optoelectronic properties of nanocomposites synthesized by ion implantation. It is not meant as a complete literature survey and by no means includes all references on a subject that has seen a considerable amount of research effort in the past 15 years. However, it should be a good starting point for those new to the field and in a concise way summarize the main lines of research by discussing the optical, magnetic, and smart properties of these nanoparticles and the dependence of these properties on the overall microstructure. The chapter concludes with an outlook for the future.

Meldrum, A. [University of Alberta, Edmondton, Canada; Lopez, R. [Vanderbilt University; Magruder, R H [Belmont University, Nashville; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; White, Clark W [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Assembly and magnetic properties of nickel nanoparticles on silicon nanowires  

SciTech Connect

The directed assembly of magnetic Ni nanoparticles at the tips of silicon nanowires is reported. Using electrodeposition Ni shells of thickness from 10 to 100 nm were selectively deposited on Au catalytic seeds at the ends of nanowires. Magnetic characterization confirms a low coercivity ({approx}115 Oe) ferromagnetic behavior at 300 K. This approach to multifunctional magnetic-semiconducting nanostructure assembly could be extended to electrodeposition of other materials on the nanowire ends, opening up novel ways of device integration. Such magnetically functionalized nanowires offer a new approach to developing novel highly localized magnetic probes for high resolution magnetic resonance force microscopy.

Picraux, Samuel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Manandhar, Pradeep [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nazaretski, E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tin selenium nanoparticle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Surface Structures of Cubo-octahedral Pt-Mo Catalyst Nanoparticles from Monte Carlo Simulations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The surface structures of cubo-octahedral Pt-Mo nanoparticles have been investigated using the Monte Carlo method and modified embedded atom method potentials that we developed for Pt-Mo alloys. The cubo-octahedral Pt-Mo nanoparticles are constructed with disordered fcc configurations, with sizes from 2.5 to 5.0 nm, and with Pt concentrations from 60 to 90 at. percent. The equilibrium Pt-Mo nanoparticle configurations were generated through Monte Carlo simulations allowing both atomic displacements and element exchanges at 600 K. We predict that the Pt atoms weakly segregate to the surfaces of such nanoparticles. The Pt concentrations in the surface are calculated to be 5 to 14 at. percent higher than the Pt concentrations of the nanoparticles. Moreover, the Pt atoms preferentially segregate to the facet sites of the surface, while the Pt and Mo atoms tend to alternate along the edges and vertices of these nanoparticles. We found that decreasing the size or increasing the Pt concentration leads to higher Pt concentrations but fewer Pt-Mo pairs in the Pt-Mo nanoparticle surfaces.

Wang, Guofeng; Van Hove, M.A.; Ross, P.N.; Baskes, M.I.

2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

382

Study of dithiol monolayer as the interface for controlled deposition of gold nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Self-assembled monolayer of dithiol molecules, deposited on polycrystalline Au (111), prepared at room atmosphere, was studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Dithiols were used as interface, which chemically bonds to the deposited gold nanoparticles through strong covalent bonds. The size and size distribution of the deposited nanoparticles were measured using dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM results showed that nanoparticles are immobilized and stable during scanning procedure and do not contaminate the AFM tip. The size of monodisperse nanoparticles obtained from the DLS measurements is slightly higher than that obtained from the AFM and SEM measurements. This is due to the fact that the DLS measures the hydrodynamic radius, dependent on the protective chemical layer on nanoparticles. - Research Highlights: {yields} Dithiols molecules create chemically bounded layers on a Au (111) surface. {yields} Gold nanoparticles can be chemically bounded to a self-assembled monolayer. {yields} Nanoparticles are stable during AFM probe interactions.

Cichomski, M., E-mail: mcichom@uni.lodz.pl [Department of Materials Technology and Chemistry, University of Lodz, Pomorska 163, 90-236 Lodz (Poland); Tomaszewska, E.; Kosla, K. [Department of Materials Technology and Chemistry, University of Lodz, Pomorska 163, 90-236 Lodz (Poland); Kozlowski, W. [Department of Solid State Physics, University of Lodz, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Lodz (Poland); Kowalczyk, P.J. [Department of Solid State Physics, University of Lodz, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Lodz (Poland); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Grobelny, J. [Department of Materials Technology and Chemistry, University of Lodz, Pomorska 163, 90-236 Lodz (Poland)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

Dynamics of water confined on the surface of titania and cassiterite nanoparticles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present low-temperature inelastic neutron scattering spectra collected on two metal oxide nanoparticle systems, isostructural TiO2 rutile and SnO2 cassiterite, between 0-550 meV. Data were collected on samples with varying levels of water coverage, and in the case of SnO2, particles of different sizes. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the structure and dynamics of the water confined on the surface of these particles. The translational movement of water confined on the surface of these nanoparticles is suppressed relative to that in ice-Ih and water molecules on the surface of rutile nanoparticles are more strongly restrained that molecules residing on the surface of cassiterite nanoparticles. The INS spectra also indicate that the hydrogen bond network within the hydration layers on rutile is more perturbed than for water on cassiterite. This result is indicative of stronger water-surface interactions between water on the rutile nanoparticles than for water confined on the surface of cassiterite nanoparticles. These differences are consistent with the recently reported differences in the surface energy of these two nanoparticle systems. The results of this study also support previous studies that suggest that water dissociation is more prevalent on the surface of SnO2 than TiO2.

Ross, Dr. Nancy [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Spencer, Elinor [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Levchenko, Andrey A. [Setaran Inc., Newark, CA; Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL; Abernathy, Douglas L [ORNL; Boerio-Goates, Juliana [Brigham Young University; Woodfield, Brian [Brigham Young University; Navrotsky, Alexandra [University of California, Davis; Li, Guangshe [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Wang, Weixing [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Development and characterization of acrylated palm oil nanoparticles using ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the utilization of radiation crosslinking methods which are known as intermolecular and intramolecular crosslinking for the formation of nanoparticles of Acrylated Palm Oil (APO) in the microemulsion system that also consists of Pluronic F-127 (PF-127) surfactant was demonstrated. This microemulsion system was subjected to the ionizing radiation i.e. gamma irradiation at different doses to form the crosslinked APO nanoparticles. The effects of radiation doses on the size of APO nanoparticles were investigated using the Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) method and their images were viewed using the Transmission Electron Microcrospy (TEM). The Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to characterize the chemical structure and the crosslinking conversion of carbon-carbon double bond (-C = C-) of the APO nanoparticles after irradiation. As a result, the size of the APO nanoparticle decreased when the irradiation dose increased. Reduce in size might be due to the effect of intramolecular crosslinking reaction of the APO nanoparticles during irradiation process. Meanwhile, the intramolecular -C C- crosslinking conversion percentage was increased at doses below 1kGy before decreasing at the higher dose that might due to the intermolecular crosslinking of the macromolecules. This study showed that radiation crosslinking methods of polymerization and crosslinking in the microemulsion were found to be promising for the synthesis of nanoparticles.

Tajau, Rida; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Mohd; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Hashim, Kamaruddin [Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Radiation Processing Technology Division (BTS), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Radiation Processing Technology Division (BTS), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

385

Final Report: Sintered CZTS Nanoparticle Solar Cells on Metal Foil; July 26, 2011 - July 25, 2012  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the final report covering 12 months of this subcontract for research on high-efficiency copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS)-based thin-film solar cells on flexible metal foil. Each of the first three quarters of the subcontract has been detailed in quarterly reports. In this final report highlights of the first three quarters will be provided and details will be given of the final quarter of the subcontract.

Leidholm, C.; Hotz, C.; Breeze, A.; Sunderland, C.; Ki, W.; Zehnder, D.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Multifunctional nanocomposites of carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles formed via vacuum filtration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In one aspect, the present invention provides a method of forming a film of nanocomposites of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and platinum (Pt) nanoparticles. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of (a) providing a first solution that contains a plurality of CNTs, (b) providing a second solution that contains a plurality of Pt nanoparticles, (c) combining the first solution and the second solution to form a third solution, and (d) filtering the third solution through a nanoporous membrane using vacuum filtration to obtain a film of nanocomposites of CNTs and Pt nanoparticles.

Hersam, Mark C; Ostojic, Gordana; Liang, Yu Teng

2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

387

THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF NANOPARTICLE-ENHANCED IONIC LIQUIDS HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS  

SciTech Connect

An experimental investigation was completed on nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids as an alternative to conventional organic based heat transfer fluids (HTFs). These nanoparticle-based HTFs have the potential to deliver higher thermal conductivity than the base fluid without a significant increase in viscosity at elevated temperatures. The effect of nanoparticle morphology and chemistry on thermophysical properties was examined. Whisker shaped nanomaterials were found to have the largest thermal conductivity temperature dependence and were also less likely to agglomerate in the base fluid than spherical shaped nanomaterials.

Fox, E.

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

388

Finite Size Effects on the Real-Space Pair Distribution Function of Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

The pair distribution function (PDF) method is a powerful approach for the analysis of the structure of nanoparticles. An important approximation used in nanoparticle PDF simulations is the incorporation of a form factor describing nanoparticle size and shape. The precise effect of the form factor on the PDF is determined by both particle shape and structure if these characteristics are both anisotropic and correlated. The correct incorporation of finite size effects is important for distinguishing and quantifying the structural consequences of small particle size in nanomaterials.

Gilbert, Benjamin

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Plasma stabilisation of metallic nanoparticles on silicon for the growth of carbon nanotubes  

SciTech Connect

Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) plasma pretreatment is used to form and temporarily reduce the mobility of Ni, Co, or Fe nanoparticles on boron-doped mono- and poly-crystalline silicon. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy proves that NH{sub 3} plasma nitrides the Si supports during nanoparticle formation which prevents excessive nanoparticle sintering/diffusion into the bulk of Si during carbon nanotube growth by chemical vapour deposition. The nitridation of Si thus leads to nanotube vertical alignment and the growth of nanotube forests by root growth mechanism.

Esconjauregui, S.; Fouquet, M.; Bayer, B. C.; Gamalski, A. D.; Chen Bingan; Xie Rongsi; Hofmann, S.; Robertson, J. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Cepek, C.; Bhardwaj, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR, Laboratorio TASC, s.s. 14 km 163.5, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Ducati, C. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

The Chemical Composition and Structure of Supported Sulfated Zirconia with Regulated Size Nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A set of model skeletal isomerization catalysts - sulfated zirconia nanoparticles of controlled thickness anchored on different supports - was prepared using colloidal solutions of Zr salt on titania as support. The nanoparticles of zirconia (1-5 nm) are epitaxially connected to the support surface, with S/Zr ratio equals to 1.3-1.5. It was shown by EXAFS that nanoparticles of non-stoichiometric zirconium sulfate Zr(SO4)1+x, where xbutane isomerisation at 150 deg. C, one can suggest that these species behave as the active component of sulfated zirconia. They are formed in subsurface layers as zirconium hydroxide undergoes sulfation followed by thermal treatment.

Kanazhevskiy, V. V. [Novosibirsk State University, 2 - Pirogova st. 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Shmachkova, V. P.; Kotsarenko, N. S.; Kochubey, D. I. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, 5 - Lavrentev av. 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Vedrine, J. C. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, ENSCP, 11 - Rue P. and M. Curie, F-75005, Paris, (France)

2007-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

391

Analysis of gas-phase condensation of nickel nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gas-phase condensation of 8000 nickel atoms is examined by molecular dynamics simulation with a tight-binding potential. A detailed study of the evolution of the system cooled at a constant rate from 1000 K to 77 K is presented. The results are used to identify four distinct stages of the evolution from a hot atomic gas to a few synthesized particles. An analysis of possible nanoparticle formation mechanisms suggests that cluster-cluster aggregation is the dominant one. The simulation shows that there two stages of cluster formation are of primary importance with regard to aggregation. At the first stage, spherical liquid clusters nucleate with uniform size distribution. The second stage is characterized by a distinct transition from uniform to bimodal size distribution due to aggregation of relatively large clusters. The particles obtained by gas-phase synthesis are analyzed by the CNA method [25]. It is found that most nanoparticles produced in the simulation have either icosahedral or mixed FCC/HCP structure.

Gafner, S. L.; Gafner, Yu. Ya. [Khakassian State University (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ygafner@khsu.ru

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

392

Methane ignition catalyzed by in situ generated palladium nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic ignition of methane over the surfaces of freely-suspended and in situ generated palladium nanoparticles was investigated experimentally and numerically. The experiments were conducted in a laminar flow reactor. The palladium precursor was a compound (Pd(THD){sub 2}, THD: 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione) dissolved in toluene and injected into the flow reactor as a fine aerosol, along with a methane-oxygen-nitrogen mixture. For experimental conditions chosen in this study, non-catalytic, homogeneous ignition was observed at a furnace temperature of {proportional_to}1123 K, whereas ignition of the same mixture with the precursor was found to be {proportional_to}973 K. In situ production of Pd/PdO nanoparticles was confirmed by scanning mobility, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses of particles collected at the reactor exit. The catalyst particle size distribution was log-normal. Depending on the precursor loading, the median diameter ranged from 10 to 30 nm. The mechanism behind catalytic ignition was examined using a combined gas-phase and gas-surface reaction model. Simulation results match the experiments closely and suggest that palladium nanocatalyst significantly shortens the ignition delay times of methane-air mixtures over a wide range of conditions. (author)

Shimizu, T.; Abid, A.D.; Poskrebyshev, G.; Wang, H. [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Nabity, J.; Engel, J.; Yu, J. [TDA Research, Inc., 12345 W. 52nd Ave, Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 (United States); Wickham, D. [Reaction Systems, LLC, 19039 E. Plaza Drive, Suite 290, Parker, CO 80134 (United States); Van Devener, B.; Anderson, S.L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Williams, S. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Mail Stop RZA, 1950 Fifth Street, WPAFB, OH 45433 (United States)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

393

Study of bound hydrogen in powders of diamond nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to access feasibility of increasing albedo of very cold neutrons from powder of diamond nanoparticles, we studied hydrogen bound to surface of diamond nanoparticles, which causes unwanted losses of neutrons. We showed that one could decrease a fraction of hydrogen atoms from a ratio C{sub 7.4{+-}0.15}H to a ratio C{sub 12.4{+-}0.2}H by means of thermal treatment and outgasing of powder. Measurements of atomic excitation spectra of these samples, using a method of inelastic incoherent neutron scattering, indicate that residual hydrogen is chemically bound to carbon, while a removed fraction was composed of adsorbed water. The total cross section of scattering of neutrons with a wavelength of 4.4 Angstrom-Sign on residual hydrogen atoms equals 108 {+-} 2 b; it weakly changes with temperature. Thus preliminary cleaning of powder from hydrogen and its moderate cooling do not improve considerably neutron albedo from powder of nano-diamonds. An alternative approach is isotopic replacement of hydrogen by deuterium.

Krylov, A. R.; Lychagin, E. V.; Muzychka, A. Yu. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Nesvizhevsky, V. V., E-mail: nesvizhevsky@ill.eu [Institut Laue-Langevin (Russian Federation); Nekhaev, G. V.; Strelkov, A. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Ivanov, A. S. [Institut Laue-Langevin (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

394

Wrapping of ellipsoidal nano-particles by fluid membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Membrane budding and wrapping of particles, such as viruses and nano-particles, play a key role in intracellular transport and have been studied for a variety of biological and soft matter systems. We study nano-particle wrapping by numerical minimization of bending, surface tension, and adhesion energies. We calculate deformation and adhesion energies as a function of membrane elastic parameters and adhesion strength to obtain wrapping diagrams. We predict unwrapped, partially-wrapped, and completely-wrapped states for prolate and oblate ellipsoids for various aspect ratios and particle sizes. In contrast to spherical particles, where partially-wrapped states exist only for finite surface tensions, partially-wrapped states for ellipsoids occur already for tensionless membranes. In addition, the partially-wrapped states are long-lived, because of an increased energy cost for wrapping of the highly-curved tips. Our results suggest a lower uptake rate of ellipsoidal particles by cells and thereby a higher virulence of tubular viruses compared with icosahedral viruses, as well as co-operative budding of ellipsoidal particles on membranes.

Sabyasachi Dasgupta; Thorsten Auth; Gerhard Gompper

2013-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

395

Dopant Site Determination in Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Utilizing X-ray  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dopant Site Determination in Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Utilizing X-ray Dopant Site Determination in Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Utilizing X-ray Absorption Techniques Monday, September 9, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Dr. Vanessa Pool The dopant behavior of spinels has been investigated for over half a century and yet new insight into this class of materials is still being made today. In this work, the question of dopant site preference is explored for the nanoparticle regime. Iron oxide nanoparticles have numerous exciting applications. To realize these applications, controlling the preferred dopant site and valence within the host material is important. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) are element specific techniques with magnetic contrast that give insights into the material composition. Using both

396

Size Influence on the Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity and Instability of Supported Pt Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Size-dependent oxygen reduction reaction activity (ORR) and instability of Pt nanoparticles is of great importance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications. In this study, the size-dependence of ORR activity on ...

Sheng, Wenchao

397

First-Principles Prediction of the Equilibrium Shape of Nanoparticles Under Realistic Electrochemical Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A first-principles model of the electrochemical double layer is applied to study surface energies and surface coverage under realistic electrochemical conditions and to determine the equilibrium shape of metal nanoparticles ...

Bonnet, Nicephore

398

Argonne CNM Highlight: Gold nanoparticles create visible-light catalysis in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Silver chloride-gold nanoparticles Gold-coated silver chloride (AgCl) nanowires at the microscopic level. In the News United Press International | PhysOrg.com | R&D Magazine| Nanotechnology Now | Photonics.com Gold nanoparticles create visible-light catalysis in nanowires A two-step approach has been developed within the Nanophotonics Group to synthesize AgCl nanowires decorated with gold nanoparticles by using silver nanowires as chemical templates. In the first step, the silver nanowires are chemically oxidized and converted to AgCl nanowires. In the second step, ions generated in the first step reduce gold precursors (e.g., NaAuCl4) to deposit gold nanoparticles on the AgCl nanowire surfaces, resulting in the formation of AgCl:gold composite nanowires. Because of the

399

Synthesis and Analysis of TiO2-Oligonucleotide Hybrid Nanoparticles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Synthesis and Analysis of TiO2-Oligonucleotide Hybrid Nanoparticles Synthesis and Analysis of TiO2-Oligonucleotide Hybrid Nanoparticles New developments in nanotechnology offer the creation of chemical-biological hybrid nanocomposites, which can be introduced into cells to initiate intracellular processes or biochemical reactions. Researchers from Northwestern University Medical Center (Chicago, IL) and Argonne National Laboratory synthesized TiO2-oligonucleotide nanocomposites made of DNA oligonucleotides attached to 45-Å TiO2 nanoparticles and tested them by using the 2-ID-E x-ray beamline at the X-ray Operations and Research sector 2 of the APS. A key benefit of nanocomposites is that they could advance medical biotechnology and open new doors in chemistry and materials sciences. Scan of a 21 x 21-m area with a single nucleus containing 3.6 x 106 nanoparticles.

400

Magnetic nanoparticles : synthesis, characterization, applications and systematic study of exchanging biasing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We systematically investigated the magnetic properties of colloidal cobalt nanoparticles after three extents of oxidation: The native sample has a thin (1.0 nm) CoO shell and exhibits no exchange biasing. The purposefully ...

Tracy, Joseph B. (Joseph Benjamin)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tin selenium nanoparticle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Mercury Removal from Aqueous Systems Using Commercial and Laboratory Prepared Metal Oxide Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Five commercial metal oxide nanoparticles (CuO, SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2 and Al2O3) have been individually screened for mercury removal in a batch reactor under bicarbonate buffered and non-buffered aqueous solutions (DI water). Copper oxide was then selected for surface modification to enhance mercury removal. The surfaces of both laboratory prepared and commercially available copper oxide nanoparticles were treated with 1-octanethiol to produce copper sulfide and/or copper alkanethiol nanoparticles. The resulting particles were characterized using X-Ray Fluorescence(XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The novel nanoparticles demonstrated very high mercury removal (> 99%) from both the buffered and non-buffered aqueous solutions.

Desai, Ishan

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Preparation of PtNi Nanoparticles for the Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Methanol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon supported PtNi nanoparticles were prepared by hydrazine reduction of Pt and Ni precursor salts under different conditions, namely by conventional heating (PtNi-1), by prolonged reaction at room temperature (PtNi-2) ...

Deivaraj, T.C.

403

High-Efficiency 6?? Multicrystalline Black Solar Cells Based on Metal-Nanoparticle-Assisted Chemical Etching  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) photovoltaic (PV) solar cells with nanoscale surface texturing by metal-nanoparticle-assisted etching are proposed to achieve high power efficiency. The investigation of average nanorod ...

Hsu, W. Chuck

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Suppression of Phase Separation in LiFePO 4 Nanoparticles During Battery Discharge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using a novel electrochemical phase-field model, we question the common belief that LiXFePO? nanoparticles always separate into Li-rich and Li-poor phases during battery discharge. For small currents, spinodal decomposition ...

Bai, Peng

405

Novel reactions of a neutral organic reductant : reductive coupling and nanoparticle synthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A recently developed bis-pyridinylidene neutral organic electron donor captured our interest as a potential source of new chemistries for reductive coupling and the synthesis of group IV nanoparticles. This super electron ...

Mork, Anna Jolene

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Dust Detection by the Wave Instrument on STEREO: Nanoparticles Picked up by the Solar Wind?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2007, Basics of the Solar Wind, Cambridge University Press,Picked up by the Solar Wind? N. Meyer-Vernet M. Maksimovicof magnitude of the solar wind speed. Nanoparticles, which

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Toxicological effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles: a review of in vivo studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The essence of nanotechnology is the production of nanoparticles (NPs) with unique physicochemical properties allowing worldwide application in new structures, materials, and devices. The consequently increasing human exposure to NPs has raised concerns ...

Ivo Iavicoli; Veruscka Leso; Antonio Bergamaschi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Characterization of nanoparticle-DNA conjugate and control of DNA conformation on particle surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nano-science has exploited the hybridization and de-hybridization phenomena of DNA which are one of its fundamental functions. In particular, conjugates of gold nanoparticles and DNA (Au NP-DNA) have been extensively ...

Park, Sunho, 1976-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Surface engineering using layer-by-layer assembly of pH-sensitive polymers and nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surface engineering of a variety of materials including colloidal particles and porous membranes has been achieved by using layer-by-layer assembly of pH-sensitive polymers and nanoparticles. In the first part of this ...

Lee, Daeyeon

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Combinatorial synthesis of chemically diverse core-shell nanoparticles for intracellular delivery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analogous to an assembly line, we employed a modular design for the high-throughput study of 1,536 structurally distinct nanoparticles with cationic cores and variable shells. This enabled elucidation of complexation, ...

Siegwart, Daniel

411

Gold nanoparticle sensor for the visual detection of pork adulteration in meatball formulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We visually identify pork adulteration in beef and chicken meatball preparations using 20nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as colorimetric sensors. Meatball is a popular food in certain Asian and European countries. Verification of pork adulteration in meatball ...

M. E. Ali; U. Hashim; S. Mustafa; Y. B. Che Man; Kh. N. Islam

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Influence of Aging and Environment on Nanoparticle Chemistry: Implication to Confinement Effects in Nanoceria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oxidation state switching of cerium in cerium oxide nanoparticles is studied in detail. The influence of synthesis medium, aging time and local environment on the oxidation state switching, between +3 and + 4, is analyzed by tracking the absorption edge using UV-Visible spectroscopy. It is observed that by tuning the local environment, the chemistry of the nanoparticles could be altered. These time dependent, environmentally induced changes likely contribute to inconsistencies in the literature regarding quantum-confinement effects for ceria nanoparticles. The results in this article indicate that there is a need to carry out comprehensive analysis of nanoparticles while considering the influence of synthesis and processing conditions, aging time and local environment.

Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Karakoti, Ajay S.; Baer, Donald R.; Samudrala, Saritha; Engelhard, Mark H.; Amonette, James E.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Seal, Sudipta

2012-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

413

Controlled synthesis and characterization of templated, magneto-responsive nanoparticle structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Magnetic fluids are colloidal dispersions of magnetic nanoparticles that are stable with respect to gravitational and moderate magnetic fields because of their small particle size, and to unbounded aggregation due to their ...

Singh, Harpreet, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Luminescence properties of mesoporous silica nanoparticles encapsulating different europium complexes: application for biolabelling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work we have synthesized and characterized new hybrid nanoplatforms for luminescent biolabeling based on the concept of Eu3+ complexes encapsulation in mesoporous silica nanoparticles (?100 nm). Eu complexes have been selected ...

S. Lechevallier, J. Jorge, R. M. Silveira, N. Ratel-Ramond, D. Neumeyer, M. J. Menu, M. Gressier, A. L. Maral, A. L. Rocha, M. A. U. Martines, E. Magdeleine, J. Dexpert-Ghys, M. Verelst

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

003 Biosynthesis of CdS and ZnS Nanoparticles by Fungi Biomass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, 003 Biosynthesis of CdS and ZnS Nanoparticles by Fungi Biomass. Author(s), Luis Reyes, Idalia Gomez, Teresa Garza. On-Site Speaker...

416

Size and shape dependence on melting temperature of gallium nitride nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study of variation of the size and shape effect on the melting property of gallium nitride nanoparticles with their spherical and cylindrical geometrical feature is theoretically explored. A numerical thermodynamical model has been devoted for the ...

Paneerselvam Antoniammal; Dakshanamoorthy Arivuoli

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Multistage nanoparticle delivery system for deep penetration into solid tumor and electrically controlled catalytic nanowire growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assembly of functional nanocomponents offers promising applications in drug delivery to solid tumors and bottom-up synthesis and integration of nanodevices. This thesis presents a novel multistage nanoparticle delivery ...

Wong, Cliff R. (Cliff Richard)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Brief Communication Liposome encapsulation of fluorescent nanoparticles: Quantum dots and silica  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nanoparticles Chien-Sheng Chen1 , Jie Yao2 and Richard A. Durst1, * 1 Department of Food Science & Technology & Durst, 2000; Esch et al., 2001; Ahn-Yoon et al., 2003; Baeumner et al., 2004; Ho et al., 2004

Chen, Chien-Sheng

419

Effect of fuel on the Photoluminescence properties of Gd2O3 nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent research on Ln2O3-type oxide nanomaterials provide challenges to both fundamental and breakthrough development of technologies in various areas such as electronics, photonics, display, lasing, detection, optical amplification, ... Keywords: combustion, gadolinium, nanoparticles, oxides, phosphor, photoluminescence

B. Rudraswamy; N. Dhananjaya

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Suspension of nanoparticles in SU-8: Processing and characterization of nanocomposite polymers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Composite materials consisting of polymers and nanoparticles can provide additional functionality to existing formulations. Diamondoids, single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT), and gold nanospheres were physically incorporated into the negative photoresist ... Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, Diamondoids, Nanocomposites, SU-8 photoresist

H. C. Chiamori; J. W. Brown; E. V. Adhiprakasha; E. T. Hantsoo; J. B. Straalsund; N. A. Melosh; B. L. Pruitt

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tin selenium nanoparticle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Distribution of CdSe nanoparticles synthesized in porous SiO{sub x} matrix  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Photoluminescence spectra of CdSe nanoparticles synthesized by the chemical method from an aqueous solution are studied in relation to nanoparticle location over depth in the porous SiO{sub x} layer consisting of a set of distinct SiO{sub x} columns {approx}(10-100) nm in diameter. An analysis of radiative characteristics of this structure shows that the distributions of different-size nanoparticle fractions over the nanocomposite layer depth are different. A model explaining the cause of such distributions is considered. Within this model the parameter defining the 'constrained geometry' notion for the used conditions of CdSe nanoparticles' growth in the SiO{sub x} matrix is estimated.

Bacherikov, Yu. Yu., E-mail: yuyu@isp.kiev.ua; Indutnyi, I. Z.; Okhrimenko, O. B.; Optasyuk, S. V.; Shepeliavyi, P. E.; Ponamarenko, V. V. [National Academy of Sciences, Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Ukraine)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

422

Surfactant removal for colloidal nanoparticles from solution systhesis: the effect on catalytic performance  

SciTech Connect

Colloidal nanoparticles prepared by solution synthesis with robust control over particle size, shape, composition, and structure have shown great potential for catalytic applications. However, such colloidal nanoparticles are usually capped with organic ligands (as surfactants) and cannot be directly used as catalyst. We have studied the effect of surfactant removal on the electrocatalytic performance of Pt nanoparticles made by organic solution synthesis. Various methods were applied to remove the oleylamine surfactant, which included thermal annealing, acetic acid washing, and UV-Ozone irradiation, and the treated nanoparticles were applied as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction. It was found that the electrocatalytic performance, including electrochemically active surface area and catalytic activity, was strongly dependent on the pretreatment. Among the methods studied here, low-temperature thermal annealing ({approx}185 C) in air was found to be the most effective for surface cleaning without inducing particle size and morphology changes.

Li, D.; Wang, C.; Tripkovic, D.; Sun, S.; Markovic, N. M.; Stamenkovic, V. R. (Materials Science Division); (Brown Univ.)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Characterization of CdTe Nanoparticles Fabricated by Pulsed Electron Deposition Technique at Different Ablation Parameters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Telluride (CdTe) is a front-runner photovoltaic (PV) material because it has already attained efficiencies above 16%. The fabrication of CdTe nanoparticles has aroused considerable interest because of their potential application as active layer in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells. They can also be used for sensitisation of wide band gap semiconductors. In this work, we explore pulsed electron beam deposition (PED) technique to fabricate CdTe nanoparticles. Two ablation parameters, namely background gas pressure and electron energy were varied to investigate their effects on the nanoparticle formation. AFM and optical transmission measurements indicate that we have fabricated CdTe nanocrystalline films exhibiting quantum confinement effect. These films contain scattered nanoparticles with diameters varying from 40 nm to 500 nm, which contribute to the optical absorption near the bulk bandgap energy. However, increasing the background pressure to 19 mTorr improves the nanocrystalline film uniformity.

Jackson, E.; Aga, R. Jr.; Steigerwald, A.; Ueda, A.; Pan, Z.; Collins, W. E.; Mu, R. [Department of Physics, Fisk University, 1000 17th Ave N, Nashville TN 37208 (United States)

2008-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

424

Physico-Chemical Characterization of Polylipid Nanoparticles for Gene Delivery to the Liver  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3-(tri- methylamonio)propane, LNP = lipid nanoparticle; PCLNY). (2) 3-Bromo-1, 2-bis(tetradecanoyloxy)propane (3).To a solution of 3-bromo-1,2- propane-diol (2) (9.20 g, 59.4

Wu, Jian

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Investigating transport of charged nanoparticles by multiphoton fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (MPFCS)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanoparticles have been demonstrated as a promising new generation of specific imaging agents and targeted delivery vehicles for the diagnosis and treatment of solid tumors. Nonetheless, for optimal therapy of tumors, the ...

Poh, Ming-Zher

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Catalysis of methanol-air mixture using platinum nanoparticles for microscale combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High surface area, active catalysts containing dispersed catalytic platinum nanoparticles (dp ?11.6 nm) on a cordierite substrate were fabricated and characterized using TEM, XRD, and SEM. The catalyst activity was evaluated for ...

James R. Applegate; Howard Pearlman; Smitesh D. Bakrania

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

The speciation and morphology of chromium oxide nanoparticles in a diffusion flame  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

along the centerline of a flame from the 7.5 mm ID nozzle,Oxide Nanoparticles in a Diffusion Flame Bing Guo and Ian M.in a hydrogen diffusion flame seeded with Cr(CO) 6 vapor.

Guo, B; Kennedy, Ian M

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Generation of Core/shell Nanoparticles with Laser Ablation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two types of core/shell nanoparticles (CS-NPs) generation based on laser ablation are developed in this study, namely, double pulse laser ablation and laser ablation in colloidal solutions. In addition to the study of the generation mechanism of CS-NPs in each scheme, the optical properties of designed CS-NPs are determined with UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy and EM field simulation. In the first scheme, which is double pulse laser ablation, two laser beams are fired in a sequence on two adjacent targets with different material. We have successfully demonstrated the generation of Sn/Glass, Zn/Glass, Zn/Si, Ge/Si, and Cu/Zn CS-NPs. Key factors affecting the generation of CS-NPs are (1) surface tensions of the constructing materials affecting the associated Gibbs free energy of CS-NPs, (2) physical properties of selected background gases (i.e., He and Ar), (3) delay time between two laser pulses, and (4) the amount of laser energy. The second scheme examined for the generation of CS-NPs is through laser ablation of solid targets in colloidal solutions. Compared to the double pulse laser ablation, this second approach provides better control of the size and shape of the resulting CS-NPs. Two colloidal solutions, namely, Au and SiO2 colloidal solution are applied in the second scheme. Key factors affecting the formation of CS-NPs with the second scheme and are (a) the adhesion energy between the shell and the core material, (b) the diameter of the core and (c) the laser ablation time and the laser energy. Red shift of absorption peaks are measured in both SiO2/Au and SiO2/Ag colloids compared with pure nanoparticles (NPs). The amount of red-shift is very sensitive to the shell thickness of the CS-NPs. The same red shift is reproduced with the corresponding full wave analysis. The observed red shift can be attributed to the additional surface plasmon resonance at the interface of metal/dielectric of the CS-NPs compared with pure nanoparticles. Through adjusting the material and size combination, the absorption peak of the CS-NPs can be tuned in a limit range around the intrinsic absorption peak of the metal of the CS-NPs. The freedom of adjusting the absorption peak makes CS-NPs is favorable in bio and optical applications.

Jo, Young Kyong

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Second harmonic nano-particles for femtosecond coherent control on the nanoscale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We provide a complete toolkit for coherent control experiments on the nano-scale. By exploiting the second harmonic emission from single (150 nm) nonlinear nano-particles, we show that ultrafast femtosecond laser pulses can be compressed and controlled in time with unprecedented spatial accuracy. The method is tested on various nano-particles of different sizes, shapes and materials, both dielectric BaTiO3, Fe(IO3)3) and metallic (Au) thus demonstrating its robustness and versatility.

Accanto, Nicol; Piatkowski, Lukasz; Castro-Lopez, Marta; Pastorelli, Francesco; Brinks, Daan; van Hulst, Niek F

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Enhanced relative biological effectiveness of proton radiotherapy in tumor cells with internalized gold nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development and use of sensitizing agents to improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy have long been sought to improve our ability to treat cancer. In this letter, we have studied the relative biological effectiveness of proton beam radiotherapy on prostate tumor cells with and without internalized gold nanoparticles. The effectiveness of proton radiotherapy for the killing of prostate tumor cells was increased by approximately 15%-20% for those cells containing internalized gold nanoparticles.

Polf, Jerimy C.; Gillin, Michael [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Bronk, Lawrence F. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); David H. Koch Center, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Driessen, Wouter H. P.; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata [David H. Koch Center, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

431

Application in the Ethanol Fermentation of Immobilized Yeast Cells in Matrix of Alginate/Magnetic Nanoparticles, on Chitosan-Magnetite Microparticles and Cellulose-coated Magnetic Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were entrapped in matrix of alginate and magnetic nanoparticles and covalently immobilized on magnetite-containing chitosan and cellulose-coated magnetic nanoparticles. Cellulose-coated magnetic nanoparticles with covalently immobilized thermostable {\\alpha}-amylase and chitosan particles with immobilized glucoamylase were also prepared. The immobilized cells and enzymes were applied in column reactors - 1/for simultaneous corn starch saccharification with the immobilized glucoamylase and production of ethanol with the entrapped or covalently immobilized yeast cells, 2/ for separate ethanol fermentation of the starch hydrolysates with the fixed yeasts. Hydrolysis of corn starch with the immobilized {\\alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase, and separate hydrolysis with the immobilized {\\alpha}-amylase were also examined. In the first reactor the ethanol yield reached approx. 91% of the theoretical; the yield was approx. 86% in the second. The ethanol fermentation was affected by the typ...

Ivanova, Viara; Hristov, Jordan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Stabilization of Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Using Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A long-chain polyelectrolyte, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA), has been employed to stabilize platinum nanoparticles for oxygen reduction in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Pt nanoparticles were synthesized by reducing H2PtCl6 with NaBH4 in the presence of PDDA and then deposited on carbon support (PDDA-Pt/C). Transmission electron microscope images showed that Pt nanoparticles of PDDA-Pt/C are uniformly dispersed on carbon support with a mean size of about 2.2 nm (2.1 nm for commercial Etek-Pt/C). PDDA-Pt/C exhibited a higher activity towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) than Etek-Pt/C. The durability of PDDA-Pt/C was improved by a factor of 2 as compared with Etek-Pt/C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization of PDDA-Pt/C revealed the interaction between Pt nanoparticles and PDDA, which increased Pt oxidation potential. PDDA-Nafion ionic crosslinking "entraps" Pt nanoparticles and prevents Pt nanoparticles from migrating/agglomerating on or detaching from carbon support. This provides a promising strategy to improve both the durability and activity of electrocatalysts for fuel cells.

Zhang, Sheng; Shao, Yuyan; Yin, Geping; Lin, Yuehe

2009-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

433

Magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles with diluted magnet-like behavior  

SciTech Connect

In the present work is reported the use of the biopolymer chitosan as template for the preparation of magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems, following a two step procedure of magnetite nanoparticles in situ precipitation and subsequent silver ions reduction. The crystalline and morphological characteristics of both magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems were analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and nanobeam diffraction patterns (NBD). The results of these studies corroborate the core/shell morphology and the crystalline structure of the magnetite core and the silver shell. Moreover, magnetization temperature dependent, M(T), measurements show an unusual diluted magnetic behavior attributed to the dilution of the magnetic ordering in the magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems. - Graphical abstract: Biopolymer chitosan was used as stabilization media to synthesize both magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles. Results of HRTEM and NBD patterns confirm core/shell morphology of the obtained nanoparticles. It was found that the composites show diluted magnet-like behavior.

Garza-Navarro, Marco [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Universidad s/n, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Torres-Castro, Alejandro, E-mail: alejandro.torrescs@uanl.edu.m [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Universidad s/n, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon 66600 (Mexico); Gonzalez, Virgilio; Ortiz, Ubaldo [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Universidad s/n, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon 66600 (Mexico); De la Rosa, Elder [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.P. 1-948, Leon Gto. 37160 (Mexico)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

434

Plasmonic Field Enhancement of Individual Nanoparticles by Correlated Scanning and Photoemission Electron Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

We present results of a combined two-photon photoemission and scanning electron microscopy investigation to determine the electromagnetic enhancement factors of silver-coated spherical nanoparticles deposited on an atomically flat mica substrate. Femtosecond laser excitation, of the nanoparticles, produces intense photoemission, attributed to near-resonant excitation of localized surface plasmons. Enhancement factors are determined by comparing the respective two-photon photoemission yield measured for equal areas between single nanoparticles to that of the surrounding flat surface. For s-polarized, 400 nm (~ 3.1 eV) femtosecond radiation a distribution of enhancement factors are found with a large percentage (77%) of the nanoparticles falling within a median range. A correlated scanning electron microscopy analysis demonstrated that the nanoparticles typifying the median of the distribution were characterized by ideal spherical shapes and defect-free morphologies. The single largest enhancement factors were in contrast produced by a very small percentage (8%) of the total, for which evidence of silver defect anomalies were found that contributed to the overall structure of the nanoparticle. Comparisons are made between the experimentally measured enhancement factors and previously reported theoretical predictions of the localized surface plasmon near-field intensities for isolated nanometer-sized silver spheres.

Peppernick, Samuel J.; Joly, Alan G.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Hess, Wayne P.

2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

435

Cs-Se (Cesium - Selenium)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cs-Se crystallographic data...Cs-Se crystallographic data Phase Composition, wt% Se Pearson symbol Space group (Cs) 0 cI 2 Im m Cs 2 Se 22.9 oP 12 Pnma Cs 3 Se 2 28 ? ? Cs 5 Se 4 32.2 ? ? CsSe 37.3 ? ? Cs 2 Se 3 47 oC 20 Cmc 2 1 Cs 2 Se 5 59.7 oP 28 P 2 1 2 1 2 1 (Se) 100 hP 3 P 3 1 2 1 High-pressure phase Cs 2 Se 22.9 oF 24 Fdd 2...

436

T I ENHANCING THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF FLUIDS WITH NANOPARTICLES*  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

JAM 1 1 1935 JAM 1 1 1935 b T I ENHANCING THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF FLUIDS WITH NANOPARTICLES* Stephen U. S. Choi 1 and J. A. Eastman 2 1 Energy Technology Division and ^Materials Science Division Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 October 1995 The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes. DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsi-

437

Nanowire Micronetworks from Carbon-Black Nanoparticles | Advanced Photon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Key Step in Repairing DNA Double-Strand Breaks A Key Step in Repairing DNA Double-Strand Breaks An X-ray Rainbow An Insulating Breakthrough Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Nanowire Micronetworks from Carbon-Black Nanoparticles JANUARY 11, 2007 Bookmark and Share Fig. 1. Diagram showing CB segregation to triple junctions during press sintering. Inset: USAXS image acquired from a press-sintered CB/PMMA sample with 1% CB mass fraction. Self-assembly is likely to play a decisive role in producing nanoscale elements for three dimensional (3D) electronic and nanoscale electro-mechanical systems. Until now, however, the difficult problem of fabricating a complex, interconnected 3D system of conductive nanoscale

438

Hydrogen and oxygen adsorption stoichiometries on silica supported ruthenium nanoparticles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Treatment under H{sub 2} at 300 C of Ru(COD)(COT) dispersed on silica yields 2 nm ruthenium nanoparticles, [Ru{sub p}/SiO{sub 2}], according to EXAFS, HRTEM and XPS. H{sub 2} adsorption measurements on [Ru{sub p}/SiO{sub 2}] in the absence of O{sub 2} show that Ru particles adsorb up to ca. 2 H per surface ruthenium atoms (2H/Ru{sub s}) on various samples; this technique can therefore be used to measure the dispersion of Ru particles. In contrast, O{sub 2} adsorption on [Ru{sub p}/SiO{sub 2}] leads to a partial oxidation of the bulk at 25 C, to RuO{sub 2} at 200 C and to sintering upon further reduction under H{sub 2}, showing that O{sub 2} adsorption cannot be used to measure the dispersion of Ru particles.

Berthoud, Romain; Delichere, Pierre; Gajan, David; Lukens, Wayne; Pelzer, Katrin; Basset, Jean-Marie; Candy, Jean-Pierre; Coperet, Christophe

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

LSM-YSZ Cathodes with Reaction-Infiltrated Nanoparticles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To improve the LSM-YSZ cathode performance of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), Sm0.6Sr0.4CoO3-sigma (SSC) perovskite nanoparticles are incorporated into the cathodes by a reaction-infiltration process. The SSC particles are {approx}20 to 80nm in diameter, and intimately adhere to the pore walls of the preformed LSM-YSZ cathodes. The SSC particles dramatically enhance single-cell performance with a 97 percent H2+3 percent H2O fuel, between 600 C and 800 C. Consideration of a simplified TPB (triple phase boundary) reaction geometry indicates that the enhancement may be attributed to the high electrocatalytic activity of SSC for electrochemical reduction of oxygen in a region that can be located a small distance away from the strict triple phase boundaries. The implication of this work for developing high-performance electrodes is also discussed.

Lu, Chun; Sholklapper, Tal Z.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, StevenJ.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

440

Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon monoxide oxidation over ruthenium catalysts has shown an unusual catalytic behavior. Here we report a particle size effect on CO oxidation over Ru nanoparticle (NP) catalysts. Uniform Ru NPs with a tunable particle size from 2 to 6 nm were synthesized by a polyol reduction of Ru(acac){sub 3} precursor in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) stabilizer. The measurement of catalytic activity of CO oxidation over two-dimensional Ru NPs arrays under oxidizing reaction conditions (40 Torr CO and 100 Torr O{sub 2}) showed an activity dependence on the Ru NP size. The CO oxidation activity increases with NP size, and the 6 nm Ru NP catalyst shows 8-fold higher activity than the 2 nm catalysts. The results gained from this study will provide the scientific basis for future design of Ru-based oxidation catalysts.

Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, Jeong Y.; Renzas, J. Russell; Butcher, Derek R.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

2010-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tin selenium nanoparticle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

s to remove the surface oxide. A 20 nm indium tin oxide ITO contact layer was then depos- ited by rf.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory for providing a-Si:H thin films for this work. 1 A. Luque and S An engineered enhancement in short-circuit current density and energy conversion efficiency in amorphous silicon

Yu, Edward T.

442

Au-Pt heteroaggregate dendritic nanostructures and Au-Pt alloy nanoparticles and their use as catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Au--Pt heteroaggregate dendritic nanostructures and AuPt alloy nanoparticles, and their use as anodic catalysts in fuel cells.

Eichhorn, Bryan W. (University Park, MD); Zhou, Shenghu (Greenbelt, MD); Jackson, Gregory Scott (University Park, MD)

2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

443

Lithium/selenium secondary battery for implantation. Annual technical progress report No. 1, 23 June 1969--22 June 1970. [10 W, 120 Wh, 1. 1 kg, LiF--LiCl--LiI + LiAlO/sub 2/ electrolyte  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A lithium/selenium battery is being developed as an implantable power source for an artificial heart or heart-assist device. Tests of 7.5-cm dia single cells operating at about 370C with a paste electrolyte consisting of LiF--LiCl--LiI and LiAlO/sub 2/ powder yielded energy densities exceeding 0.76 Wh/cm/sup 2/ at an average voltage above 1.7 V. This performance is sufficient to permit the construction of a 10-W, 120-Wh battery weighing about 1.1 kg. An unsealed battery test demonstrated that a battery of five 7.5-cm dia lithium/selenium cells will be capable of at least 12 W of power. In addition, a sealed lithium/selenium battery was operated in an air environment, and was found to be relatively insensitive to motion as well as orientation. Further work is needed on the development of sealed cells and batteries, on increasing the battery power level to 30 W, and on increased cell life.

Cairs, F.J.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Shimotake, H.; Steunenbert, R.K.; Tevebaugh, A.D.

1970-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Effect of temperature and iron-oxide nano-particle inclusions on the ultrasound vaporization pressure of perfluorocarbon droplets for disease detection and therapy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Temperature and Iron-Oxide Nano-particle inclusions on the22 1.9.1 Why Iron-Oxide NanoTemperature and Iron-Oxide Nano-particle inclusions on the

Amirriazi, Seyed Saleh

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Attenuation of corneal myofibroblast development through nanoparticle-mediated soluble transforming growth factor-? type II receptor (sTGF?RII) gene transfer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Purpose: To explore (i) the potential of polyethylenimine (PEI)-DNA nanoparticles as a vector for delivering genes into human corneal fibroblasts, and (ii) whether the nanoparticle-mediated soluble extracellular domain of ...

Sharma, Ajay

446

Charge-dipole acceleration of polar gas molecules towards charged nanoparticles: involvement in powerful charge-induced catalysis of heterophase chemical reactions and ball lightning phenomenon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In humid air, the substantial charge-dipole attraction and electrostatic acceleration of surrounding water vapour molecules towards charged combustible nanoparticles cause intense electrostatic hydration and preferential oxidation of these nanoparticles ...

Oleg Meshcheryakov

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

In-Sn (Indium - Tin)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In-Sn crystallographic data...In-Sn crystallographic data Phase Composition, wt% Sn Pearson symbol Space group (In) 0 to 12.4 tI 2 I 4/ mmm β 12.4 to 44.8 tI 2 I 4/ mmm γ 73 to ? hP 5 P 6/ mmm (βSn) ? to 100 tI 4 I 4 1 / amd (αSn) 100 cF 8 Fd m...

448

S-Sn (Sulfur - Tin)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

S-Sn crystallographic data...29 ? ? βSn 2 S 3 29 ? ? αSn 2 S 3 29 oP 20 Pnma SnS 2 35.1 hP * hP 3 P 6 3 mc P m 1 Metastable phases SnS (thin film) 21.3 cF 8 Fm m Sn 4 S 5 25.3 ? ? Sn 3 S 4 26.4 t ** ?...

449

Particle size effect on TL emission of ZnS nanoparticles and determination of its kinetic parameters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanoparticles have large surface area, and most of the ions are lying on its surface. Could these surface ions be contributed in thermoluminescence emission or enhanced nonradiative transition? In view of this, we have prepared small sizes of ZnS nanoparticles ...

L. Robindro Singh; S. Dorendrajit Singh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Magnetic nanoparticles for applications in oscillating magnetic field  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Enzymatic and thermochemical catalysis are both important industrial processes. However, the thermal requirements for each process often render them mutually exclusive: thermochemical catalysis requires high temperature that denatures enzymes. One of the long-term goals of this project is to design a thermocatalytic system that could be used with enzymatic systems in situ to catalyze reaction sequences in one pot; this system would be useful for numerous applications e.g. conversion of biomass to biofuel and other commodity products. The desired thermocatalytic system would need to supply enough thermal energy to catalyze thermochemical reactions, while keeping the enzymes from high temperature denaturation. Magnetic nanoparticles are known to generate heat in an oscillating magnetic field through mechanisms including hysteresis and relaxational losses. We envisioned using these magnetic nanoparticles as the local heat source embedded in sub-micron size mesoporous support to spatially separate the particles from the enzymes. In this study, we set out to find the magnetic materials and instrumental conditions that are sufficient for this purpose. Magnetite was chosen as the first model magnetic material in this study because of its high magnetization values, synthetic control over particle size, shape, functionalization and proven biocompatibility. Our experimental designs were guided by a series of theoretical calculations, which provided clues to the effects of particle size, size distribution, magnetic field, frequency and reaction medium. Materials of theoretically optimal size were synthesized, functionalized, and their effects in the oscillating magnetic field were subsequently investigated. Under our conditions, the materials that clustered e.g. silica-coated and PNIPAM-coated iron oxides exhibited the highest heat generation, while iron oxides embedded in MSNs and mesoporous iron oxides exhibited the least bulk heating. It is worth noting that the specific loss power of PNIPAM-coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was peculiarly high, and the heat loss mechanism of this material remains to be elucidated. Since thermocatalysis is a long-term goal of this project, we also investigated the effects of the oscillating magnetic field system for the synthesis of 7-hydroxycoumarin-3-carboxylic acid. Application of an oscillating magnetic field in the presence of magnetic particles with high thermal response was found to effectively increase the reaction rate of the uncatalyzed synthesis of the coumarin derivative compared to the room temperature control.

Peeraphatdit, Chorthip

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

451

Roles of Surface Step on Pt Nanoparticles in Electro-oxidation of Carbon Monoxide and Methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Design of highly active nanoscale catalysts for electro-oxidation of small organic molecules is of great importance to the development of efficient fuel cells. Increasing steps on single-crystal Pt surfaces is shown to enhance the activity of CO and methanol electro-oxidation up to several orders of magnitude. However, little is known about the surface atomic structure of nanoparticles with sizes of practical relevance, which limits the application of fundamental understanding in the reaction mechanisms established on single-crystal surfaces to the development of active, nanoscale catalysts. In this study, we reveal the surface atomic structure of Pt nanoparticles supported on multiwall carbon nanotubes, from which the amount of high-index surface facets on Pt nanoparticles is quantified. Correlating the surface steps on Pt nanoparticles with the electrochemical activity and stability clearly shows the significant role of surface steps in enhancing intrinsic activity for CO and methanol electro-oxidation. Here, we show that increasing surface steps on Pt nanoparticles of {approx}2 nm can lead to enhanced intrinsic activity up to {approx}200% (current normalized to Pt surface area) for electro-oxidation of methanol.

Lee, S.W.; Vescovo, E.; Chen, S.; Sheng, W.; Yabuuchi, N.; Kim, Y.T.; Mitani, T.; Shao-Horn, Y.

2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

452

Directed Self-assembly of Nanoparticles at the Polymer Surface by Highly Compressible Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report a versatile route for self-assembly of polymer-soluble nanoparticles at the polymer surface using highly compressible supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}). Polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate)-based nanocomposite thin films with functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane and phenyl C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester nanoparticles were prepared on Si substrates and exposed to scCO{sub 2} at different pressures under the isothermal condition of 36 C. The resultant structures could be then preserved by the vitrification process of the glassy polymers via quick pressure quench to atmospheric pressure and subsequently characterized by using various surface sensitive experimental techniques in air. We found that the surface segregation of these nanoparticles is induced in the close vicinity of P = 8.2 MPa where the excess absorption of the fluid into the polymers maximizes. However, when the film thickness becomes less than about 4R{sub g} thick (where R{sub g} is the radius of polymer gyration), the uniform dispersion of the nanoparticles is favorable instead even at the same CO{sub 2} conditions. We clarify that the phase transition is correlated with the emergence of a concentration gradient of the fluid at the polymer/CO{sub 2} interface and is a general phenomenon for different polymer-nanoparticle interactions.

M Asada; P Gin; M Endoh; S Satija; T Taniguchi; T Koga

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

453

Redox Active Layer-by-Layer Structures containing MnO2 Nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanoscale materials provide unique properties that will enable new technologies and enhance older ones. One area of intense activity in which nanoscale materials are being used is in the development of new functional materials for battery applications. This effort promises superior materials with properties that circumvent many of the problems associated with traditional battery materials. Previously we have worked on several approaches for using nanoscale materials for application as cathode materials in rechargeable Li batteries. Our recent work has focused on synthesizing MnO2 nanoparticles and using these in layer-by-layer (LbL) structures to probe the redox properties of the nanoparticles. We show that the aqueous colloidal nanoparticles produced by butanol reduction of tetramethylammonium permanganate can be trapped in thin films using a layer-by-layer deposition approach, and that these films are both redox active and exhibit kinetically facile electrochemical responses. We show cyclic voltammetry of MnO2 colloidal nanoparticles entrapped in a LbL thin film at an ITO electrode surface using poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA). CV experiments demonstrate that Li+ insertion accompanies Mn(IV) reduction in LiClO4 supporting electrolytes, and that reduction is hindered in supporting electrolytes containing only tetrabutylammonium cations. We also show that electron propagation through multilayer films is facile, suggesting that electrons percolate through the films via electron exchange between nanoparticles.

Bazito, Fernanda; O'Brien, Robert; Buttry, Daniel A.

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Adsorption of collagen to indium oxide nanoparticles and infrared emissivity study thereon  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption of collagen to indium oxide nanoparticles was carried out in water-acetone solution at volumetric ratio of 1:1 with pH value varying from 3.2 to 9.3. As indicated by TGA, maximum collagen adsorption to indium oxide nanoparticles occurred at pH of 3.2. It was proposed that noncovalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, hydrophilic and electrostatic interactions made main contributions to collagen adsorption. The IR emissivity values (8-14 {mu}m) of collagen-adsorbed indium oxide nanoparticles decreased significantly compared to either pure collagen or indium oxide nanoparticles possibly due to the interfacial interactions between collagen and indium oxide nanoparticles. And the lowest infrared emissivity value of 0.587 was obtained at collagen adsorption of 1.94 g/100 g In{sub 2}O{sub 3}. On the chance of improved compatibility with organic adhesives, the chemical activity of adsorbed collagen was further confirmed by grafting copolymerization with methyl methacrylate by formation of polymer shell outside, as evidenced by IR spectrum and transmission electron microscopy.

Zhou Yuming [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)], E-mail: fchem@seu.edu.cn; Shan Yun; Sun Yanqing [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Ju Huangxian [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2008-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

455

Nanoparticles Stabilize Thin Polymer Films: A Fundamental Study to Understand the Phenomenon  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new understanding of thermodynamics at the nanoscale resulted in a recently discovered first order phase transition that nanoparticles in a polymer film will all segregate to the supporting substrate. This is an unusual phase transition that was predicted using a modeling technique developed at Sandia National Laboratories and required the equivalent of many computational years on one computer. This project is a collaboration between Prof. Michael Mackay's group and Dr. Amalie Frischknecht (Sandia National Laboratories) where experimental observation and theoretical rationalization and prediction are brought together. Other discoveries were that this phase transition could be avoided by changing the nanoparticle properties yielding control of the assembly process at the nanoscale. In fact, the nanoparticles could be made to assemble to the supporting substrate, to the air interface or not assemble at all within a thin polymer film of order 100 nm in thickness. However, when the assembly process is present it is so robust that it is possible to make rough liquid films at the nanoscale due to nanoparticles assembling around three-dimensional objects. From this knowledge we are able to design and manufacture new coatings with particular emphasis on polymer-based solar cells. Careful control of the morphology at the nanoscale is expected to provide more efficient devices since the physics of these systems is dictated at this length scale and assembly of nanoparticles to various interfaces is critical to operation.

Michael E. Mackay

2009-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

456

Zero Valent Iron: Impact of Anions Present during Synthesis on Subsequent Nanoparticle Reactivity  

SciTech Connect

Zero-valent iron particles are an effective remediation technology for groundwater contaminated with halogenated organic compounds. In particular, nano-scale zero-valent iron is a promising material for remediation due to its high specific surface area, which results in faster rate constants and more effective use of the iron. An aspect of iron nanoparticle reactivity that has not been explored is the impact of anions present during iron metal nanoparticle synthesis. Solutions containing chloride, phosphate, sulfate, and nitrate anions and ferric ions were used to generate iron oxide nanoparticles. The resulting materials were dialyzed to remove dissolved byproducts and then dried and reduced by hydrogen gas at high temperature. The reactivity of the resulting zero valent iron nanoparticles was quantified by monitoring the kinetics as well as products of carbon tetrachloride reduction, and significant differences in reactivity and chloroform yield were observed. The reactivity of nanoparticles prepared in the presence of sulfate and phosphate demonstrated the highest reactivity and chloroform yield. Furthermore, substantial variations in the solid-state products of oxidation (magnetite, iron sulfide, and goethite, among others) were also observed.

Moore, Kirsten; Forsberg, Brady; Baer, Donald R.; Arnold, William A.; Penn, R. Lee

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Intense multimicrojoule high-order harmonics generated from neutral atoms of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We studied high-order harmonic generation from plasma that contains an abundance of indium oxide nanoparticles. We found that harmonics from nanoparticle-containing plasma are considerably more intense than from plasma produced on the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} bulk target, with high-order harmonic energy ranging from 6 {mu}J (for the ninth harmonic) to 1 {mu}J (for the 17th harmonic) in the former case. The harmonic cutoff from nanoparticles was at the 21st order, which is lower than that observed using indium oxide solid target. By comparing the harmonic spectra obtained from solid and nanoparticle indium oxide targets, we concluded that intense harmonics in the latter case are dominantly generated from neutral atoms of the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles.

Elouga Bom, L. B.; Abdul-Hadi, J.; Vidal, F.; Ozaki, T. [Centre Energie, Materiaux et Telecommunications, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1650 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Ganeev, R. A. [Centre Energie, Materiaux et Telecommunications, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1650 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Scientific Association Akadempribor, Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok, Tashkent 100125 (Uzbekistan)

2009-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

458

Effects of laser irradiation on the self-assembly of MnAs nanoparticles in a GaAs matrix  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the effects of laser irradiation on the self-assembly of MnAs nanoparticles during solid-phase decomposition in a GaAs matrix. It is found that laser irradiation suppresses the growth of MnAs nanoparticles from small to large size, and that the median diameter D{sub 1} in the size distribution of small MnAs nanoparticles depends on the incident photon energy E following D{sub 1} {approx} E{sup -1/5}. We explain this behavior by the desorption of Mn atoms on the MnAs nanoparticle surface due to resonant optical absorption, in which incident photons excite intersubband electronic transitions between the quantized energy levels in the MnAs nanoparticles.

Hai, Pham Nam; Nomura, Wataru [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Yatsui, Takashi; Ohtsu, Motoichi; Tanaka, Masaaki [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Nanophotonics Research Center, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

459

Super-iron Nanoparticles with Facile Cathodic Charge Transfer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Super-irons contain the + 6 valence state of iron. One advantage of this is that it provides a multiple electron opportunity to store additional battery charge. A decrease of particle size from the micrometer to the nanometer domain provides a higher surface area to volume ratio, and opportunity to facilitate charge transfer, and improve the power, voltage and depth of discharge of cathodes made from such salts. However, super-iron salts are fragile, readily reduced to the ferric state, with both heat and contact with water, and little is known of the resultant passivating and non-passivating ferric oxide products. A pathway to decrease the super-iron particle size to the nano-domain is introduced, which overcomes this fragility, and retains the battery capacity advantage of their Fe(VI) valence state. Time and power controlled mechanosynthesis, through less aggressive, dry ball milling, leads to facile charge transfer of super-iron nanoparticles. Ex-situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy is used to explore the oxidation state and structure of these iron oxides during discharge and shows the significant change in stability of the ferrate structure to lower oxidation state when the particle size is in the nano-domain.

M Farmand; D Jiang; B Wang; S Ghosh; D Ramaker; S Licht

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

460

Viscosity of aqueous and cyanate ester suspensions containing alumina nanoparticles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The viscosities of both aqueous and cyanate ester monomer (BECy) based suspensions of alumina nanoparticle were studied. The applications for these suspensions are different: aqueous suspensions of alumina nanoparticles are used in the production of technical ceramics made by slip casting or tape casting, and the BECy based suspensions are being developed for use in an injection-type composite repair resin. In the case of aqueous suspensions, it is advantageous to achieve a high solids content with low viscosity in order to produce a high quality product. The addition of a dispersant is useful so that higher solids content suspensions can be used with lower viscosities. For BECy suspensions, the addition of nanoparticles to the BECy resin is expected to enhance the mechanical properties of the cured composite. The addition of saccharides to aqueous suspensions leads to viscosity reduction. Through DSC measurements it was found that the saccharide molecules formed a solution with water and this resulted in lowering the melting temperature of the free water according to classic freezing point depression. Saccharides also lowered the melting temperature of the bound water, but this followed a different rule. The shear thinning and melting behaviors of the suspensions were used to develop a model based on fractal-type agglomeration. It is believed that the structure of the particle flocs in these suspensions changes with the addition of saccharides which leads to the resultant viscosity decrease. The viscosity of the BECy suspensions increased with solids content, and the viscosity increase was greater than predicted by the classical Einstein equation for dilute suspensions. Instead, the Mooney equation fits the viscosity behavior well from 0-20 vol% solids. The viscosity reduction achieved at high particle loadings by the addition of benzoic acid was also investigated by NMR. It appears that the benzoic acid interacts with the surface of the alumina particle which may be the cause of the viscosity reduction. The flow behavior of alumina particles in water and BECy is markedly different. Aqueous alumina suspensions are shear thinning at all alumina loadings and capable of 50 vol% loading before losing fluidity whereas BECy/alumina suspensions show Newtonian behavior up to 5 vol%, and above 5 vol% show shear thinning at all shear rates. Highly loaded suspensions (i.e. 20vol% alumina) exhibit shear thinning at low and moderate shear rates and shear thickening at higher shear rates. The maximum particle loading for a fluid suspension, in this case, appears to be about 20 vol%. The difference in the viscosity of these suspensions must be related to the solvent-particle interactions for each system. The reason is not exactly known, but there are some notable differences between BECy and water. Water molecules are {approx}0.28 nm in length and highly hydrogen bonded with a low viscosity (1 mPa's) whereas in the cyanate ester (BECy) system, the solvent molecule is about 1.2 nm, in the largest dimension, with surfaces of varied charge distribution throughout the molecule. The viscosity of the monomer is also reasonably low for organic polymer precursor, about 7 mPa's. Nanoparticles in water tend to agglomerate and form flocs which are broken with the shear force applied during viscosity measurement. The particle-particle interaction is very important in this system. In BECy, the particles appear to be well dispersed and not as interactive. The solvent-particle interaction appears to be most important. It is not known exactly how the alumina particles interact with the monomer, but NMR suggests hydrogen bonding. These hydrogen bonds between the particle and monomer could very well affect the viscosity. A conclusion that can be reached in this work is that the presence of hydroxyl groups on the surface of the alumina particles is significant and seems to affect the interactions between other particles and the solvent. Thus, the hydrogen bonding between particles, particle/additive and/or particle/solvent dictates the behavior of nanos

Lawler, Katherine

2009-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

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461

Selective Electrocatalytic Activity of Ligand Stabilized Copper Oxide Nanoparticles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ligand stabilization can influence the surface chemistry of Cu oxide nanoparticles (NPs) and provide unique product distributions for electrocatalytic methanol (MeOH) oxidation and CO{sub 2} reduction reactions. Oleic acid (OA) stabilized Cu{sub 2}O and CuO NPs promote the MeOH oxidation reaction with 88% and 99.97% selective HCOH formation, respectively. Alternatively, CO{sub 2} is the only reaction product detected for bulk Cu oxides and Cu oxide NPs with no ligands or weakly interacting ligands. We also demonstrate that OA stabilized Cu oxide NPs can reduce CO{sub 2} into CO with a {approx}1.7-fold increase in CO/H{sub 2} production ratios compared to bulk Cu oxides. The OA stabilized Cu oxide NPs also show 7.6 and 9.1-fold increases in CO/H{sub 2} production ratios compared to weakly stabilized and non-stabilized Cu oxide NPs, respectively. Our data illustrates that the presence and type of surface ligand can substantially influence the catalytic product selectivity of Cu oxide NPs.

Kauffman, Douglas R.; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Kail, Brian W; Matranga, Christopher

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Scaling analysis and application: Phase diagram of magnetic nanorings and elliptical nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The magnetic properties of single-domain nanoparticles with different geometric shapes, crystalline anisotropies, and lattice structures are investigated. A recently proposed scaling approach is shown to be universal and in agreement with dimensional analysis coupled with the assumption of incomplete self-similarity. It is used to obtain phase diagrams of magnetic nanoparticles featuring three competing configurations: in-plane ferromagnetism, out-of-plane ferromagnetism, and vortex formation. The influence of the vortex core on the scaling behavior and phase diagram is analyzed. Three-dimensional phase diagrams are obtained for cylindrical nanorings depending on their height and outer and inner radii. The triple points in these phase diagrams are shown to be in a linear relationship with the inner radius of the ring. Elliptically shaped magnetic nanoparticles are also studied. A new parametrization for double vortex configurations is proposed, and regions in the phase diagram where the double vortex is a stable ground state are identified.

Zhang Wen; Singh, Rohit; Bray-Ali, Noah; Haas, Stephan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

UV Spectra of Amino Acid Immobilized at Nanoparticles Formation through Nanosphere Lithography (NSL) by Plasma Treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The modifying of nanospheres structures by plasma treatments to the fabricated nanoparticles arrays by Nanosphere Lithography (NSL) techniques to create Periodic Particles Arrays (PPAs) with different size, shape and orientation. Spectra of amino acid that immobilized to the nanoparticles arrays under Ultra Violet (UV) spectrums were studied. The PPAs with different sizes, shapes and orientation were fabricated by plasma treatment of 5 sec, 7 sec and 10 sec to the Polystyrene Nanosphere (PSN). Plasma treatment will effect to the PSN including etching part of the PSN to produce a much bigger channel to the single layer template of the PSN. Metal was deposited at interstitial sites between of the polymer balls and later removed by dissolving them in organic solvent, leaving a hexagonal pattern of metal structures at the interstitial sites. The nanoparticles immobilized with the standard amino acid, which later investigated under UV spectrums. The spectrums shows the possibilities use as biosensor devices.

Mohamad, Farizan [Microelectronic and Nanotechnology-Shamsuddin Research Centre, Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (Malaysia); Agam, Mohd Arif [Microelectronic and Nanotechnology-Shamsuddin Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Arts and Heritage, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat (Malaysia); Nur, Hadi [Microelectronic and Nanotechnology-Shamsuddin Research Centre, Faculty Sciences, Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai (Malaysia)

2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

464

Laser interactions with embedded Ca metal nanoparticles in single crystal CaF{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

Single crystal calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) is an important material for vacuum-ultraviolet optics. Nevertheless, prolonged exposure to energetic radiation can color the material by producing calcium metal nanoparticles. We compare the effectiveness of laser conditioning treatments at wavelengths ranging from the near infrared to the deep ultraviolet in removing this coloration. Treatments at 157, 532, and 1064 nm can significantly reduce the visible coloration due to nanoparticles. In contrast, irradiation at 248 nm has little effect at fluences below the damage threshold for the material employed in this work. We present evidence that the effect of laser irradiation on coloration is principally thermal and is largely confined to the first 50 ns after each laser pulse. We attribute the wavelength dependence of the bleaching process to the wavelength dependence associated with Mie absorption by metal nanoparticles. The consequences of these observations with regard to laser conditioning processes in bulk optical materials are discussed.

Cramer, L.P.; Schubert, B.E.; Petite, P.S.; Langford, S.C.; Dickinson, J.T. [Materials Science Program and Physics Department, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 (United States)

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Selection and deposition of nanoparticles using CO.sub.2-expanded liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for size selection of nanostructures comprising utilizing a gas-expanded liquids (GEL) and controlled pressure to precipitate desired size populations of nanostructures, e.g., monodisperse. The GEL can comprise CO.sub.2 antisolvent and an organic solvent. The method can be carried out in an apparatus comprising a first open vessel configured to allow movement of a liquid/particle solution to specific desired locations within the vessel, a second pressure vessel, a location controller for controlling location of the particles and solution within the first vessel, a inlet for addition of antisolvent to the first vessel, and a device for measuring the amount of antisolvent added. Also disclosed is a method for forming nanoparticle thin films comprising utilizing a GEL containing a substrate, pressurizing the solution to precipitate and deposit nanoparticles onto the substrate, removing the solvent thereby leaving a thin nanoparticle film, removing the solvent and antisolvent, and drying the film.

Roberts, Christopher B. (Auburn, AL); McLeod, Marshall Chandler (Hillsboro, OR); Anand, Madhu (Auburn, AL)

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

466

Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy of Pyridine Hydrogenation on Platinum Nanoparticles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pyridine hydrogenation in the presence of a surface monolayer consisting of cubic Pt nanoparticles stabilized by tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) was investigated by sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy using total internal reflection (TIR) geometry. TIR-SFG spectra analysis revealed that a pyridinium cation (C{sub 5}H{sub 5}NH{sup +}) forms during pyridine hydrogenation on the Pt nanoparticle surface, and the NH group in the C{sub 5}H{sub 5}NH{sup +} cation becomes more hydrogen bound with the increase of the temperature. In addition, the surface coverage of the cation decreases with the increase of the temperature. An important contribution of this study is the in situ identification of reaction intermediates adsorbed on the Pt nanoparticle monolayer during pyridine hydrogenation.

Bratlie, Kaitlin M.; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos; Somorjai, Gabor A.

2008-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

467

Surface Plasmon Excitation via Au Nanoparticles in CdSe Semiconductor  

SciTech Connect

We present experimental evidence for the large Raman and photoluminescence enhancement in CdSe semiconductor films grown on Si and glass substrates due to excitation of surface plasmon resonances in proximate gold metal nanoparticles deposited on the surface of CdSe film. Heterojunction diodes containing n-CdSe on p-Si semiconductor were fabricated and the surface of the diodes was in situ coated with Au nanoparticles using the ultra-high vacuum pulsed-laser deposition technique. A significant enhancement of the photocurrent was obtained in CdSe/p-Si containing Au nanoparticles on the surface compared to CdSe/p-Si due to the enhanced photo-absorption within the semiconductor by the phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance. These observations suggest a variety of approaches for improving the performance of devices such as photodetectors, photovoltaic, and related devices, including biosensors.

Pradhan, A. K. [Department of Engineering Norfolk State University, 700 Park Avenue, Norfolk, VA 23504 (United States); Department of Physics, Fisk University, 1000, 17 Avenue North, Nashville, TN 37208 (United States); Konda, R. B.; Mundle, R.; Mustafa, H.; Bamiduro, O. [Department of Engineering Norfolk State University, 700 Park Avenue, Norfolk, VA 23504 (United States); Roy, U. N.; Cui, Y. [Department of Physics, Fisk University, 1000, 17 Avenue North, Nashville, TN 37208 (United States); Burger, A. [Department of Physics, Fisk University, 1000, 17 Avenue North, Nashville, TN 37208 (United States); Department of Engineering Norfolk State University, 700 Park Avenue, Norfolk, VA 23504 (United States)

2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

468

The Effect of Nanoparticle Concentration on Thermo-physical Properties of Alumina-nitrate Nanofluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to determine how Al2O3 nanoparticle concentration affected the specific heat, heat of fusion, melting point, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of Alumina-Nitrate nanofluids. Al2O3 nanoparticles were dispersed in a eutectic of sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate (60:40 for mole fraction) to create nanofluids using a hot plate evaporation method and an air dryer method. The nominal Al2O3 (alumina) mass fraction was between 0 and 2%, and was determined as the ratio of the mass of Al2O3 nanoparticles to the total mass of the nanofluid. After the preparation of the nanofluids, Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was used to measure the actual Al2O3 mass fraction in the nanofluids. The specific heat, heat of fusion, and melting point were measured with a Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimeter (MDSC). The thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity were measured with Laser Flash Analysis (LFA). The MDSC results showed that the addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles enhanced the specific heat of the nanofluids synthesize from both methods. There was a parabolic relation between the specific heat and the Al2O3 mass fraction for the nanofluids synthesized from the hot plate evaporation method, with a maximum 31% enhancement at 0.78% Al2O3 mass fraction. The nanofluids synthesized from the air dryer method also resulted in enhanced specific heats which were higher at the same Al2O3 mass fraction than those of the nanofluids synthesized from the hot plate evaporation method. It was not determined why this enhancement occurred. The results also showed that the introduction of Al2O3 nanoparticles had no significant effect on the heat of fusion and melting point of the nanofluids synthesized from either method. The LFA results showed that adding Al2O3 nanoparticles decreased the thermal diffusivity and the thermal conductivity of the nitrate eutectic.

Shao, Qian

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

In vivo uptake and acute immune response to orally administered chitosan and PEG coated PLGA nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems offer great promise in addressing challenges of drug toxicity, poor bioavailability and non-specificity for a number of drugs. Much progress has been reported for nano drug delivery systems for intravenous administration, however very little is known about the effects of orally administered nanoparticles. Furthermore, the development of nanoparticulate systems necessitates a thorough understanding of the biological response post exposure. This study aimed to elucidate the in vivo uptake of chitosan and polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated Poly, DL, lactic-co-glycolic Acid (PLGA) nanoparticles and the immunological response within 24 h of oral and peritoneal administration. These PLGA nanoparticles were administered orally and peritoneally to female Balb/C mice, they were taken up by macrophages of the peritoneum. When these particles were fluorescently labelled, intracellular localisation was observed. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, IL-6, IL-12p70 and TNF-{alpha} in plasma and peritoneal lavage was found to remain at low concentration in PLGA nanoparticles treated mice as well as ZnO nanoparticles during the 24 hour period. However, these were significantly increased in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated mice. Of these pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and IL-12p70 were produced at the highest concentration in the positive control group. The anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and chemokines INF-{gamma}, IL-4, IL-5 remained at normal levels in PLGA treated mice. IL-10 and INF-{gamma} were significantly increased in LPS treated mice. MCP-1 was found to be significantly produced in all groups in the first hours, except the saline treated mice. These results provide the first report to detail the induction of cytokine production by PLGA nanoparticles engineered for oral applications.

Semete, B., E-mail: Bsemete@csir.co.z [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Polymers and Composites, P O Box 395 Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa); Booysen, L.I.J. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Polymers and Composites, P O Box 395 Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa); Department of Pharmaceutics, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Potchefstroom, 2520 (South Africa); Kalombo, L. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Polymers and Composites, P O Box 395 Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa); Venter, J.D. [South African Medical Research Council, TB laboratory, Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa); Katata, L.; Ramalapa, B. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Polymers and Composites, P O Box 395 Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa); Verschoor, J.A. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa); Swai, H. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Polymers and Composites, P O Box 395 Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

NiO as a peculiar support for metal nanoparticles in polyols oxidation  

SciTech Connect

The peculiar influence of a NiO support was studied by preparing gold catalysts supported on NiO(1-x) TiO2(x) mixed oxides. PVA protected Au nanoparticles showed high activity when supported on NiO for the selective oxidation of glycerol and ethan-1,2-diol. A detailed characterization of the resulting Au catalysts revealed a preferential deposition of the metal nanoparticles on the NiO phase. However, the activity of Au on NiO(1-x)-TiO2(x) decreased with respect to pure NiO and the selectivity evolved with changes to the support.

Villa, Alberto [Universita di Milano, Italy; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Ferri, Davide [EMPA, Laboratory for High Performance Ceramics, Duebendorf, Switzerland; Weidenkaff, Anke [EMPA, Laboratory for High Performance Ceramics, Duebendorf, Switzerland; Perry, Kelly A [ORNL; Campisi, Sebastiano [University of Milan and INFN, Milano, Italy; Prati, Laura [Universita di Milano, Italy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z