National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for timing trapping mechanism

  1. Real-Time Measurement of Diesel Trap Efficiency | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Measurement of Diesel Trap Efficiency Real-Time Measurement of Diesel Trap Efficiency 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters...

  2. Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and the Development of a Representative Model Development...

  3. Freely floating structures trapping time-harmonic water waves (revisited)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolay Kuznetsov; Oleg Motygin

    2014-10-22

    We study the coupled small-amplitude motion of the mechanical system consisting of infinitely deep water and a structure immersed in it. The former is bounded above by a free surface, whereas the latter is formed by an arbitrary finite number of surface-piercing bodies floating freely. The mathematical model of time-harmonic motion is a spectral problem in which the frequency of oscillations serves as the spectral parameter. It is proved that there exist axisymmetric structures consisting of $N \\geq 2$ bodies; every structure has the following properties: (i) a time-harmonic wave mode is trapped by it; (ii) some of its bodies (may be none) are motionless, whereas the rest of the bodies (may be none) are heaving at the same frequency as water. The construction of these structures is based on a generalization of the semi-inverse procedure applied earlier for obtaining trapping bodies that are motionless although float freely.

  4. Time in quantum mechanics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapin, Kimberly R.

    1997-01-01

    TIME IN QUANTUM MECHANICS A Thesis by KIMBERLY R. CHAPIN Submitted to Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Marian O. Scully (Chair... of Committee) Edward S. Fry (Member) aan Laane (Member) Thomas W. Adair, III (Head of Department) August 1997 Major Subject: Physics TIME IN QIJANTUM MECHANICS A Thesis by KIMBERLY R. CHAPIN Submitted to the Oflice of Graduate Studies of Texas A...

  5. Thermal Deactivation Mechanisms of Fully-Formed Lean NOx Trap...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Duty Linehaul Platform Project Update Effect of Thermal Aging on NO oxidation and NOx storage in a Fully-Formulated Lean NOx Trap Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts...

  6. Spin Self-Rephasing and Very Long Coherence Times in a Trapped Atomic Ensemble

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deutsch, C.; Reinhard, F.; Schneider, T.; Laloee, F.; Reichel, J. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, ENS, UPMC, CNRS, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Ramirez-Martinez, F.; Lacroute, C.; Rosenbusch, P. [LNE-SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, UPMC, CNRS, 61 av de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France); Fuchs, J. N.; Piechon, F. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, CNRS UMR 8502, Univ. Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2010-07-09

    We perform Ramsey spectroscopy on the ground state of ultracold {sup 87}Rb atoms magnetically trapped on a chip in the Knudsen regime. Field inhomogeneities over the sample should limit the 1/e contrast decay time to about 3 s, while decay times of 58{+-}12 s are actually observed. We explain this surprising result by a spin self-rephasing mechanism induced by the identical spin rotation effect originating from particle indistinguishability. We propose a theory of this synchronization mechanism and obtain good agreement with the experimental observations. The effect is general and may appear in other physical systems.

  7. Time in Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curt A. Moyer

    2013-05-23

    The failure of conventional quantum theory to recognize time as an observable and to admit time operators is addressed. Instead of focusing on the existence of a time operator for a given Hamiltonian, we emphasize the role of the Hamiltonian as the generator of translations in time to construct time states. Taken together, these states constitute what we call a timeline, or quantum history, that is adequate for the representation of any physical state of the system. Such timelines appear to exist even for the semi-bounded and discrete Hamiltonian systems ruled out by Pauli's theorem. However, the step from a timeline to a valid time operator requires additional assumptions that are not always met. Still, this approach illuminates the crucial issue surrounding the construction of time operators, and establishes quantum histories as legitimate alternatives to the familiar coordinate and momentum bases of standard quantum theory.

  8. Investigation of plasma hydrogenation and trapping mechanism for layer transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Peng; Chu, Paul K.; Hoechbauer, T.; Lee, J.-K.; Nastasi, M.; Buca, D.; Mantl, S.; Loo, R.; Caymax, M.; Alford, T.; Mayer, J.W.; Theodore, N. David; Cai, M.; Schmidt, B.; Lau, S.S. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 87545 (United States); Institut fuer Schicht- und Ionentechnik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B - 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Advanced Products R and D Lab., Motorola Inc., 2100 East Elliot Road, Tempe, Arizona 85284 (United States); University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California, 92093 (United States)

    2005-01-17

    Hydrogen ion implantation is conventionally used to initiate the transfer of Si thin layers onto Si wafers coated with thermal oxide. In this work, we studied the feasibility of using plasma hydrogenation to replace high dose H implantation for layer transfer. Boron ion implantation was used to introduce H-trapping centers into Si wafers to illustrate the idea. Instead of the widely recognized interactions between boron and hydrogen atoms, this study showed that lattice damage, i.e., dangling bonds, traps H atoms and can lead to surface blistering during hydrogenation or upon postannealing at higher temperature. The B implantation and subsequent processes control the uniformity of H trapping and the trap depths. While the trap centers were introduced by B implantation in this study, there are many other means to do the same without implantation. Our results suggest an innovative way to achieve high quality transfer of Si layers without H implantation at high energies and high doses.

  9. Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Crocker

    2010-03-31

    Lean NO{sub x} traps (LNTs) represent a promising technology for the abatement of NO{sub x} under lean conditions. Although LNTs are starting to find commercial application, the issue of catalyst durability remains problematic. LNT susceptibility to sulfur poisoning is the single most important factor determining effective catalyst lifetime. The NO{sub x} storage element of the catalyst has a greater affinity for SO{sub 3} than it does for NO{sub 2}, and the resulting sulfate is more stable than the stored nitrate. Although this sulfate can be removed from the catalyst by means of high temperature treatment under rich conditions, the required conditions give rise to deactivation mechanisms such as precious metal sintering, total surface area loss, and solid state reactions between the various oxides present. The principle objective of this project was to improve understanding of the mechanisms of lean NO{sub x} trap aging, and to understand the effect of washcoat composition on catalyst aging characteristics. The approach utilized involved detailed characterization of model catalysts prior to and after aging, in tandem with measurement of catalyst performance in NO{sub x} storage and reduction. In this manner, NO{sub x} storage and reduction characteristics were correlated with the evolution of catalyst physico-chemical properties upon aging. Rather than using poorly characterized proprietary catalysts, or simple model catalysts of the Pt/BaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} type (representing the first generation of LNTs), Pt/Rh/BaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts were employed which also incorporated CeO{sub 2} or CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, representing a model system which more accurately reflects current LNT formulations. Catalysts were prepared in which the concentration of each of the main components was systematically varied: Pt (50, 75 or 100 g/ft{sup 3}), Rh (10 or 20 g/ft{sup 3}), BaO (15, 30 or 45 g/L), and either CeO{sub 2} (0, 50 or 100 g/L) or CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} (0, 50 or 100 g/L). A high surface area La-stabilized alumina was used to support the BaO phase. Catalysts were obtained by washcoating onto standard cordierite substrates, the total washcoat loading being set at 260 g/L. La-stabilized alumina was used as the balance. Subsequent to de-greening, the NO{sub x} storage and reduction characteristics of the catalysts were evaluated on a bench reactor, after which the catalysts were aged on a bench reactor to the equivalent of ca. 75,000 miles of road aging using a published accelerated aging protocol. The aged catalysts were then subjected to the same evaluation proecdure used for the de-greened catalysts. In addition to the use of standard physico-chemical analytical techniques for studying the fresh and aged model catalysts, use was made of advanced analytical tools for characterizing their NO{sub x} storage/reduction and sulfation/desulfation characteristics, such as Spatially resolved capillary-inlet Mass Spectrometry (SpaciMS) and in situ Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS).

  10. On Time. 6b: Quantum Mechanical Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. K. Raju

    2008-08-09

    The existence of small amounts of advanced radiation, or a tilt in the arrow of time, makes the basic equations of physics mixed-type functional differential equations. The novel features of such equations point to a microphysical structure of time. This corresponds to a change of logic at the microphysical level. We show that the resulting logic is a quantum logic. This provides a natural and rigorous explanation of quantum interference. This structured-time interpretation of quantum mechanics is briefly compared with various other interpretations of q.m.

  11. Diurnal activity of soil surface arthropods in agroecosystems: design for an inexpensive time-sorting pitfall trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumberg, A.Y.; Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The design for an inexpensive time-sorting pitfall trap is presented. The basis of the mechanism is a rotary stepping solenoid powered by lantern batteries. Traps were utilized to sample soil surface arthropods at two hour intervals for five 24 hr periods in 1983. One trap each was placed in conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT) agroecosystems. Soil arthropod surface activity was greatest in CT on 9 July during the dawn and dusk periods but the data did not indicate other dominant trends. Activity in NT was greatest during dusk on 27 June, but again no other dominant trends were evident. When CT and NT are combined over the sample dates, surface soil arthropod activity peaked during dusk, with a smaller activity peak at dawn. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Actin filament mechanics in the laser trap D. E. DUPUIS1 , 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guilford, William

    Actin filament mechanics in the laser trap D. E. DUPUIS1 , 2 , W. H. GUILFORD1 , J. WU3 and D. M properties of actin filaments. One such property is resistance to bending (flexural rigidity, EI). To estimate EI, we attached the ends of fluorescently labelled actin filaments to two microsphere `handles

  13. Treating Time Travel Quantum Mechanically

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John-Mark A. Allen

    2014-10-10

    The fact that closed timelike curves (CTCs) are permitted by general relativity raises the question as to how quantum systems behave when time travel to the past occurs. Research into answering this question by utilising the quantum circuit formalism has given rise to two theories: Deutschian-CTCs (D-CTCs) and "postselected" CTCs (P-CTCs). In this paper the quantum circuit approach is thoroughly reviewed, and the strengths and shortcomings of D-CTCs and P-CTCs are presented in view of their non-linearity and time travel paradoxes. In particular, the "equivalent circuit model"---which aims to make equivalent predictions to D-CTCs, while avoiding some of the difficulties of the original theory---is shown to contain errors. The discussion of D-CTCs and P-CTCs is used to motivate an analysis of the features one might require of a theory of quantum time travel, following which two overlapping classes of new theories are identified. One such theory, the theory of "transition probability" CTCs (T-CTCs), is fully developed. The theory of T-CTCs is shown not to have certain undesirable features---such as time travel paradoxes, the ability to distinguish non-orthogonal states with certainty, and the ability to clone or delete arbitrary pure states---that are present with D-CTCs and P-CTCs. The problems with non-linear extensions to quantum mechanics are discussed in relation to the interpretation of these theories, and the physical motivations of all three theories are discussed and compared.

  14. Theoretical investigation of energy-trapping mechanism by atomic systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Rajendra P.

    1978-06-01

    The theoretical results are presented here in detail for the atomic device proposed earlier by the author. This device absorbs energy from a continuous radiation source and stores some of it with atoms in metastable states for a long time without...

  15. Mean first passage time for a small rotating trap inside a reflective disk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Justin C. Tzou; Theodore Kolokolnikov

    2014-11-16

    We compute the mean first passage time (MFPT) for a Brownian particle inside a two-dimensional disk with reflective boundaries and a small interior trap that is rotating at a constant angular velocity. The inherent symmetry of the problem allows for a detailed analytic study of the situation. For a given angular velocity, we determine the optimal radius of rotation that minimizes the average MFPT over the disk. Several distinct regimes are observed, depending on the ratio between the angular velocity $\\omega$ and the trap size $\\varepsilon$, and several intricate transitions are analyzed using the tools of asymptotic analysis and Fourier series. For $\\omega \\sim \\mathcal{O}(1)$, we compute a critical value $\\omega_c>0$ such that the optimal trap location is at the origin whenever $\\omega \\omega_c $. In the regime $1 \\ll \\omega \\ll \\mathcal{O}(\\varepsilon^{-1})$ the optimal trap path approaches the boundary of the disk. However as $\\omega$ is further increased to $\\mathcal{O}(\\varepsilon^{-1})$, the optimal trap path "jumps" closer to the origin. Finally for $\\omega \\gg \\mathcal{O}(\\varepsilon^{-1})$ the optimal trap path subdivides the disk into two regions of equal area. This simple geometry provides a good test case for future studies of MFPT with more complex trap motion.

  16. Long-term Variations of CO2 Trapped in Different Mechanisms in Deep Saline Formations: A Case Study of the Songliao Basin, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Yilian; Xu, Tianfu; Cheng, Huilin; Zheng, Yan; Xiong, Peng

    2008-06-10

    The geological storage of CO{sub 2} in deep saline formations is increasing seen as a viable strategy to reduce the release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. There are numerous sedimentary basins in China, in which a number of suitable CO{sub 2} geologic reservoirs are potentially available. To identify the multi-phase processes, geochemical changes and mineral alteration, and CO{sub 2} trapping mechanisms after CO{sub 2} injection, reactive geochemical transport simulations using a simple 2D model were performed. Mineralogical composition and water chemistry from a deep saline formation of Songliao Basin were used. Results indicate that different storage forms of CO{sub 2} vary with time. In the CO{sub 2} injection period, a large amount of CO{sub 2} remains as a free supercritical phase (gas trapping), and the amount dissolved in the formation water (solubility trapping) gradually increases. Later, gas trapping decreases, solubility trapping increases significantly due to migration and diffusion of the CO{sub 2} plume, and the amount trapped by carbonate minerals increases gradually with time. The residual CO{sub 2} gas keeps dissolving into groundwater and precipitating carbonate minerals. For the Songliao Basin sandstone, variations in the reaction rate and abundance of chlorite, and plagioclase composition affect significantly the estimates of mineral alteration and CO{sub 2} storage in different trapping mechanisms. The effect of vertical permeability and residual gas saturation on the overall storage is smaller compared to the geochemical factors. However, they can affect the spatial distribution of the injected CO{sub 2} in the formations. The CO{sub 2} mineral trapping capacity could be in the order of ten kilogram per cubic meter medium for the Songliao Basin sandstone, and may be higher depending on the composition of primary aluminosilicate minerals especially the content of Ca, Mg, and Fe.

  17. Experimental nonlinear dynamical studies in cesium magneto-optical trap using time-series analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anwar, M. Islam, R.; Faisal, M.; Sikandar, M.; Ahmed, M.

    2015-03-30

    A magneto-optical trap of neutral atoms is essentially a dissipative quantum system. The fast thermal atoms continuously dissipate their energy to the environment via spontaneous emissions during the cooling. The atoms are, therefore, strongly coupled with the vacuum reservoir and the laser field. The vacuum fluctuations as well as the field fluctuations are imparted to the atoms as random photon recoils. Consequently, the external and internal dynamics of atoms becomes stochastic. In this paper, we have investigated the stochastic dynamics of the atoms in a magneto-optical trap during the loading process. The time series analysis of the fluorescence signal shows that the dynamics of the atoms evolves, like all dissipative systems, from deterministic to the chaotic regime. The subsequent disappearance and revival of chaos was attributed to chaos synchronization between spatially different atoms in the magneto-optical trap.

  18. Two Cold Atoms in a Time-Dependent Harmonic Trap in One Dimension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ebert, M; Hammer, H -W

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of two atoms with a short-ranged pair interaction in a one-dimensional harmonic trap with time-dependent frequency. Our analysis is focused on two representative cases: (i) a sudden change of the trapping frequency from one value to another, and (ii) a periodic trapping frequency. In case (i), the dynamics of the interacting and the corresponding non-interacting systems turn out to be similar. In the second case, however, the interacting system can behave quite differently, especially close to parametric resonance. For instance, in the regions where such resonance occurs we find that the interaction can significantly reduce the rate of energy increase. The implications for applications of our findings to cool or heat the system are also dicussed.

  19. Mechanism of Radial Redistribution of Energetic Trapped Ions due to m=2/n=1 Internal Reconnection in JET Optimized Shear Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechanism of Radial Redistribution of Energetic Trapped Ions due to m=2/n=1 Internal Reconnection in JET Optimized Shear Plasmas

  20. Mechanism of Radial Redistribution of Energetic Trapped Ions due to m=2/n=1 Internal Reconnection in JET Optimized Shear Plasmas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechanism of Radial Redistribution of Energetic Trapped Ions due to m=2/n=1 Internal Reconnection in JET Optimized Shear Plasmas.

  1. Mechanisms for Fluorescence Blinking and Charge Carrier Trapping in Single Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cordones, Amy Ashbrook

    2012-01-01

    electron tunneling from the nanocrystal core to external trapelectron tunneling between the nanocrystal core and a static distribution of trap

  2. Investigation of the Trapping Mechanism for Transient Current-Voltage Behavior In CIGSS-Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    exposure, and applied bias in cells fabricated by Siemens Solar Industries (SSI). When a constant biasInvestigation of the Trapping Mechanism for Transient Current-Voltage Behavior In CIGSS-Based Solar Cells Pamela K. Johnson1 , James R. Sites1 and Dale E. Tarrant2 1 Colorado State University, Fort

  3. Long storage time of collective coherence in an optically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate Yutaka Yoshikawa,1,2,* Kazuyuki Nakayama,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torii, Yoshio

    Long storage time of collective coherence in an optically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate Yutaka of the storage time realized by loading the atoms into an optical dipole trap, wherein an unfavorable spin-dependent phase shift and spatial diffusion of atoms can be suppressed. The measured storage time was 0.57 2 ms

  4. Unfaulting mechanism of trapped self-interstitial atom clusters in bcc Fe: A kinetic study based on the potential energy landscape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yildiz, Bilge

    We report on the complete unfaulting mechanism of a trapped self-interstitial atom cluster in the form of a nonparallel configuration (NPC), investigated using the autonomous basin climbing (ABC) method. A detailed set of ...

  5. Structure and dynamics of ion clusters in linear octupole traps: Phase diagrams, chirality, and melting mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yurtsever, E.; Onal, E. D.; Calvo, F. [Koc University, Rumelifeneriyolu, Sariyer, Istanbul TR-34450 (Turkey); LASIM, Universite de Lyon and CNRS UMR 5579, 43 Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, FR-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2011-05-15

    The stable structures and melting dynamics of clusters of identical ions bound by linear octupole radiofrequency traps are theoretically investigated by global optimization methods and molecular dynamics simulations. By varying the cluster sizes in the range of 10-1000 ions and the extent of trap anisotropy by more than one order of magnitude, we find a broad variety of stable structures based on multiple rings at small sizes evolving into tubular geometries at large sizes. The binding energy of these clusters is well represented by two contributions arising from isotropic linear and octupolar traps. The structures generally exhibit strong size effects, and chiral arrangements spontaneously emerge in many crystals. Sufficiently large clusters form nested, coaxial tubes with different thermal stabilities. As in isotropic octupolar clusters, the inner tubes melt at temperatures that are lower than the overall melting point.

  6. Fibre bundle formulation of time-dependent mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Sardanashvily

    2013-03-07

    We address classical and quantum mechanics in a general setting of arbitrary time-dependent transformations. Classical non-relativistic mechanics is formulated as a particular field theory on smooth fibre bundles over a time axis. Connections on these bundles describe reference frames. Quantum time-dependent mechanics is phrased in geometric terms of Banach and Hilbert bundles and connections on these bundles. A quantization scheme speaking this language is leafwise geometric quantization.

  7. Percolation with trapping mechanism drives active gels to the critically connected state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Chiu Fan

    2015-01-01

    Cell motility and tissue morphogenesis depend crucially on the dynamic remodelling of actomyosin networks. An actomyosin network consists of an actin polymer network connected by crosslinker proteins and motor protein myosins that generate internal stresses on the network. A recent discovery shows that for a range of experimental parameters, actomyosin networks contract to clusters with a power-law size distribution [Alvarado J. et al. (2013) Nature Physics 9 591]. Here, we argue that actomyosin networks can exhibit robust critical signature without fine-tuning because the dynamics of the system can be mapped onto a modified version of percolation with trapping (PT), which is known to show critical behaviour belonging to the static percolation universality class without the need of fine-tuning of a control parameter. We further employ our PT model to generate experimentally testable predictions.

  8. Percolation with trapping mechanism drives active gels to the critically connected state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiu Fan Lee; Gunnar Pruessner

    2015-08-27

    Cell motility and tissue morphogenesis depend crucially on the dynamic remodelling of actomyosin networks. An actomyosin network consists of an actin polymer network connected by crosslinker proteins and motor protein myosins that generate internal stresses on the network. A recent discovery shows that for a range of experimental parameters, actomyosin networks contract to clusters with a power-law size distribution [Alvarado J. et al. (2013) Nature Physics 9 591]. Here, we argue that actomyosin networks can exhibit robust critical signature without fine-tuning because the dynamics of the system can be mapped onto a modified version of percolation with trapping (PT), which is known to show critical behaviour belonging to the static percolation universality class without the need of fine-tuning of a control parameter. We further employ our PT model to generate experimentally testable predictions.

  9. Neuropsychological mechanisms of interval timing behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkinson, Gerald S.

    perceiving a beat in a musical composition to returning to the stove just prior to the tea kettle whistling to expecting a traffic light to change from red to green. Furthermore, interval timing is exhibited in a wide

  10. Unraveling the Timing of Fluid Migration and Trap Formation in the Brooks Range Foothills: A Key to Discovering Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Catherine L. Hanks

    2008-12-31

    Naturally occurring fractures can play a key role in the evolution and producibility of a hydrocarbon accumulation. Understanding the evolution of fractures in the Brooks Range/Colville basin system of northern Alaska is critical to developing a better working model of the hydrocarbon potential of the region. This study addressed this problem by collecting detailed and regional data on fracture distribution and character, structural geometry, temperature, the timing of deformation along the Brooks Range rangefront and adjacent parts of the Colville basin, and the in situ stress distribution within the Colville basin. This new and existing data then were used to develop a model of how fractures evolved in northern Alaska, both spatially and temporally. The results of the study indicate that fractures formed episodically throughout the evolution of northern Alaska, due to a variety of mechanisms. Four distinct fracture sets were observed. The earliest fractures formed in deep parts of the Colville basin and in the underlying Ellesmerian sequence rocks as these rocks experienced compression associated with the growing Brooks Range fold-and-thrust belt. The orientation of these deep basin fractures was controlled by the maximum in situ horizontal stress in the basin at the time of their formation, which was perpendicular to the active Brooks Range thrust front. This orientation stayed consistently NS-striking for most of the early history of the Brooks Range and Colville basin, but changed to NW-striking with the development of the northeastern Brooks Range during the early Tertiary. Subsequent incorporation of these rocks into the fold-and-thrust belt resulted in overprinting of these deep basin fractures by fractures caused by thrusting and related folding. The youngest fractures developed as rocks were uplifted and exposed. While this general order of fracturing remains consistent across the Brooks Range and adjacent Colville basin, the absolute age at any one location varies. Fracturing started in the southwest deep in the stratigraphic section during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, moving northeastward and upsection as the Colville basin filled from the west. Active fracturing is occurring today in the northeastern parts of the Colville basin, north of the northeastern Brooks thrust front. Across northern Alaska, the early deep basin fractures were probably synchronous with hydrocarbon generation. Initially, these early fractures would have been good migration pathways, but would have been destroyed where subsequently overridden by the advancing Brooks Range fold-and-thrust belt. However, at these locations younger fracture sets related to folding and thrusting could have enhanced reservoir permeability and/or served as vertical migration pathways to overlying structural traps.

  11. Percolation mechanism through trapping/de-trapping process at defect states for resistive switching devices with structure of Ag/Si{sub x}C{sub 1?x}/p-Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yanhong; Gao, Ping; Li, La; Peng, Wei [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, No. 2 Linggong Road, Ganjingzi District, Dalian 116024 (China); Jiang, Xuening; Zhang, Jialiang [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, No. 2 Linggong Road, Ganjingzi District, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-08-14

    Pure Si{sub x}C{sub 1?x} (x?>?0.5) and B-containing Si{sub x}C{sub 1?x} (x?>?0.5) based resistive switching devices (RSD) with the structure of Ag/Si{sub x}C{sub 1?x}/p-Si were fabricated and their switching characteristics and mechanism were investigated systematically. Percolation mechanism through trapping/ de-trapping at defect states was suggested for the switching process. Through the introduction of B atoms into Si{sub x}C{sub 1?x}, the density of defect states was reduced, then, the SET and RESET voltages were also decreased. Based on the percolation theory, the dependence of SET/RESET voltage on the density of defect states was analyzed. These results supply a deep understanding for the SiC-based RSD, which have a potential application in extreme ambient conditions.

  12. Enhancement of Mechanical Q Factors by Optical Trapping D. J. Wilson,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Oskar

    the maximum response of an oscillator to a disturbance at its resonance frequency (signal) and the coupling frequency by storing most of the mechanical energy in a nearly lossless optical potential, thereby strongly wave, we achieve an increase in the pendulum center-of-mass frequency from 6.2 to 145 k

  13. Thermal Deactivation Mechanisms of Fully-Formed Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Aged by Lean/Rich Cycling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Catalysts in fully formulated lean NOx traps are aged and evaluated in a bench-flow reactor using simulated diesel engine exhaust.

  14. Mechanism(s) of Ni Sorption on Al-Hydroxy-Interlayered Vermiculite Using Time-Resolved EXAFS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Mechanism(s) of Ni Sorption on Al-Hydroxy-Interlayered Vermiculite Using Time-Resolved EXAFS D. R sorbed and the mechanism of Ni sorption. #12;

  15. Intermediate Scale Laboratory Testing to Understand Mechanisms of Capillary and Dissolution Trapping during Injection and Post-Injection of CO2 in Heterogeneous Geological Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Illangasekare, Tissa; Trevisan, Luca; Agartan, Elif; Mori, Hiroko; Vargas-Johnson, Javier; González-Nicolás, Ana; Cihan, Abdullah; Birkholzer, Jens; Zhou, Quanlin

    2015-03-31

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) represents a technology aimed to reduce atmospheric loading of CO2 from power plants and heavy industries by injecting it into deep geological formations, such as saline aquifers. A number of trapping mechanisms contribute to effective and secure storage of the injected CO2 in supercritical fluid phase (scCO2) in the formation over the long term. The primary trapping mechanisms are structural, residual, dissolution and mineralization. Knowledge gaps exist on how the heterogeneity of the formation manifested at all scales from the pore to the site scales affects trapping and parameterization of contributing mechanisms in models. An experimental and modeling study was conducted to fill these knowledge gaps. Experimental investigation of fundamental processes and mechanisms in field settings is not possible as it is not feasible to fully characterize the geologic heterogeneity at all relevant scales and gathering data on migration, trapping and dissolution of scCO2. Laboratory experiments using scCO2 under ambient conditions are also not feasible as it is technically challenging and cost prohibitive to develop large, two- or three-dimensional test systems with controlled high pressures to keep the scCO2 as a liquid. Hence, an innovative approach that used surrogate fluids in place of scCO2 and formation brine in multi-scale, synthetic aquifers test systems ranging in scales from centimeter to meter scale developed used. New modeling algorithms were developed to capture the processes controlled by the formation heterogeneity, and they were tested using the data from the laboratory test systems. The results and findings are expected to contribute toward better conceptual models, future improvements to DOE numerical codes, more accurate assessment of storage capacities, and optimized placement strategies. This report presents the experimental and modeling methods and research results.

  16. The Universal Arrow of Time II: Quantum mechanics case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg Kupervasser

    2013-05-23

    This paper is a natural continuation of our previous paper arXiv:1011.4173 . We illustrated earlier that in classical Hamilton mechanics, for overwhelming majority of real chaotic macroscopic systems, alignment of their thermodynamic time arrows occurs because of their low interaction. This fact and impossibility to observe entropy decrease at introspection explain the second law of thermodynamics. The situation in quantum mechanics is even a little bit easier: all closed systems of finite volume are periodic or nearly periodic. The proof in quantum mechanics is in many respects similar to the proof in classical Hamilton mechanics - it also uses small interaction between subsystems and impossibility to observe entropy decrease at introspection. However, there are special cases which were not found in the classical mechanics. In these cases one microstate corresponds to a set of possible macrostates (more precisely, their quantum superposition). Consideration of this property with use of decoherence theory and taking into account thermodynamic time arrows will introduce new outcomes in quantum mechanics. It allows to resolve basic paradoxes of quantum mechanics: (a) to explain the paradox of wave packet reduction at measurements when an observer is included in the system (introspection) (paradox of the Schrodinger cat); (b) to explain unobservability of superposition of macroscopic states by an external observer in real experiments (paradox of Wigner's friend); (c) to prove full equivalence of multi-world and Copenhagen interpretations of quantum mechanics; (d) to explain deviations from the exponential law at decay of particles and pass from one energy level to another (paradox of a kettle which will never begin to boil).

  17. Quantum Mechanics and Discrete Time from "Timeless" Classical Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. -T. Elze

    2003-07-03

    We study classical Hamiltonian systems in which the intrinsic proper time evolution parameter is related through a probability distribution to the physical time, which is assumed to be discrete. - This is motivated by the ``timeless'' reparametrization invariant model of a relativistic particle with two compactified extradimensions. In this example, discrete physical time is constructed based on quasi-local observables. - Generally, employing the path-integral formulation of classical mechanics developed by Gozzi et al., we show that these deterministic classical systems can be naturally described as unitary quantum mechanical models. The emergent quantum Hamiltonian is derived from the underlying classical one. It is closely related to the Liouville operator. We demonstrate in several examples the necessity of regularization, in order to arrive at quantum models with bounded spectrum and stable groundstate.

  18. Action spectroscopy of SrCl{sup +} using an integrated ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puri, Prateek Schowalter, Steven J.; Hudson, Eric R.; Kotochigova, Svetlana; Petrov, Alexander

    2014-07-07

    The photodissociation cross-section of SrCl{sup +} is measured in the spectral range of 36?000–46?000 cm{sup ?1} using a modular time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). By irradiating a sample of trapped SrCl{sup +} molecular ions with a pulsed dye laser, X{sup 1}?{sup +} state molecular ions are electronically excited to the repulsive wall of the A{sup 1}? state, resulting in dissociation. Using the TOF-MS, the product fragments are detected and the photodissociation cross-section is determined for a broad range of photon energies. Detailed ab initio calculations of the SrCl{sup +} molecular potentials and spectroscopic constants are also performed and are found to be in good agreement with experiment. The spectroscopic constants for SrCl{sup +} are also compared to those of another alkaline earth halogen, BaCl{sup +}, in order to highlight structural differences between the two molecular ions. This work represents the first spectroscopy and ab initio calculations of SrCl{sup +}.

  19. Collisionless Weibel shocks: Full formation mechanism and timing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Stockem, A. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Narayan, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51 Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Silva, L. O. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-07-15

    Collisionless shocks in plasmas play an important role in space physics (Earth's bow shock) and astrophysics (supernova remnants, relativistic jets, gamma-ray bursts, high energy cosmic rays). While the formation of a fluid shock through the steepening of a large amplitude sound wave has been understood for long, there is currently no detailed picture of the mechanism responsible for the formation of a collisionless shock. We unravel the physical mechanism at work and show that an electromagnetic Weibel shock always forms when two relativistic collisionless, initially unmagnetized, plasma shells encounter. The predicted shock formation time is in good agreement with 2D and 3D particle-in-cell simulations of counterstreaming pair plasmas. By predicting the shock formation time, experimental setups aiming at producing such shocks can be optimised to favourable conditions.

  20. Time and Entropy in the Foundations of Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R Assumpcao

    2007-06-17

    This contribution analyses the classical laws of motion by means of an approach relating time and entropy. We argue that adopting the notion of change of states as opposed to the usual derivation of Newton's laws in terms of fields a broader picture is obtained, suggesting that diverse branches of physics- classical, quantum, relativistic and statistical mechanics - turn out to be related by a common foundation.

  1. Lean NOx Traps - Microstructural Studies of Real World and Model...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Emission Control Pre-Competitive Catalysis Research: Fundamental SulfationDesulfation Studies of Lean NOx Traps Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps...

  2. Effect of trapped electron on the dust ion acoustic waves in dusty plasma using time fractional modified Korteweg-de Vries equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazari-Golshan, A.; Nourazar, S. S.; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran

    2013-10-15

    The time fractional modified Korteweg-de Vries (TFMKdV) equation is solved to study the nonlinear propagation of small but finite amplitude dust ion-acoustic (DIA) solitary waves in un-magnetized dusty plasma with trapped electrons. The plasma is composed of a cold ion fluid, stationary dust grains, and hot electrons obeying a trapped electron distribution. The TFMKdV equation is derived by using the semi-inverse and Agrawal's methods and then solved by the Laplace Adomian decomposition method. Our results show that the amplitude of the DIA solitary waves increases with the increase of time fractional order ?, the wave velocity v{sub 0}, and the population of the background free electrons ?. However, it is vice-versa for the deviation from isothermality parameter b, which is in agreement with the result obtained previously.

  3. Study Traps Avoid to Succeed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkle, Tom

    Study Traps Avoid to Succeed Study traps are all around you! If you have found yourself saying any. Interrupt study time with planned breaks. Begin studying early, but increase study time as exams approach. "I've got so much to study... and so little time." Preview and skim your reading! Read chapter

  4. Attonewton force detection using microspheres in a dual-beam optical trap in high vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranjit, Gambhir; Stutz, Jordan H; Cunningham, Mark; Geraci, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    We describe the implementation of laser-cooled silica microspheres as force sensors in a dual-beam optical dipole trap in high vacuum. Using this system we have demonstrated trap lifetimes exceeding several days, attonewton force detection capability, and wide tunability in trapping and cooling parameters. Measurements have been performed with charged and neutral beads to calibrate the sensitivity of the detector. This work establishes the suitability of dual beam optical dipole traps for precision force measurement in high vacuum with long averaging times, and enables future applications including the study of gravitational inverse square law violations at short range, Casimir forces, acceleration sensing, and quantum opto-mechanics.

  5. Attonewton force detection using microspheres in a dual-beam optical trap in high vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gambhir Ranjit; David P. Atherton; Jordan H. Stutz; Mark Cunningham; Andrew A. Geraci

    2015-04-03

    We describe the implementation of laser-cooled silica microspheres as force sensors in a dual-beam optical dipole trap in high vacuum. Using this system we have demonstrated trap lifetimes exceeding several days, attonewton force detection capability, and wide tunability in trapping and cooling parameters. Measurements have been performed with charged and neutral beads to calibrate the sensitivity of the detector. This work establishes the suitability of dual beam optical dipole traps for precision force measurement in high vacuum with long averaging times, and enables future applications including the study of gravitational inverse square law violations at short range, Casimir forces, acceleration sensing, and quantum opto-mechanics.

  6. Experimental investigation of supercritical CO2 trapping mechanisms at the Intermediate Laboratory Scale in well-defined heterogeneous porous media

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Trevisan, Luca; Pini, Ronny; Cihan, Abdullah; Birkholzer, Jens T.; Zhou, Quanlin; Illangasekare, Tissa H.

    2014-12-31

    The heterogeneous nature of typical sedimentary formations can play a major role in the propagation of the CO2 plume, eventually dampening the accumulation of mobile phase underneath the caprock. From core flooding experiments, it is also known that contrasts in capillary threshold pressure due to different pore size can affect the flow paths of the invading and displaced fluids and consequently influence the build- up of non-wetting phase (NWP) at interfaces between geological facies. The full characterization of the geologic variability at all relevant scales and the ability to make observations on the spatial and temporal distribution of the migrationmore »and trapping of supercritical CO2 is not feasible from a practical perspective. To provide insight into the impact of well-defined heterogeneous systems on the flow dynamics and trapping efficiency of supercritical CO2 under drainage and imbibition conditions, we present an experimental investigation at the meter scale conducted in synthetic sand reservoirs packed in a quasi-two-dimensional flow-cell. Two immiscible displacement experiments have been performed to observe the preferential entrapment of NWP in simple heterogeneous porous media. The experiments consisted of an injection, a fluid redistribution, and a forced imbibition stages conducted in an uncorrelated permeability field and a homogeneous base case scenario. We adopted x-ray attenuation analysis as a non-destructive technique that allows a precise measurement of phase saturations throughout the entire flow domain. By comparing a homogeneous and a heterogeneous scenario we have identified some important effects that can be attributed to capillary barriers, such as dampened plume advancement, higher non-wetting phase saturations, larger contact area between the injected and displaced phases, and a larger range of non-wetting phase saturations.« less

  7. Experimental Investigation of Supercritical CO2 Trapping Mechanisms at the Intermediate Laboratory Scale in Well-defined Heterogeneous Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trevisan, Luca [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Center for Experimental Study of Subsurface Environmental Processes (CESEP); Pini, Ronny [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Petroleum Engineering Dept.; Cihan, Abdullah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Zhou, Quanlin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Illangasekare, Tissa H. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Center for Experimental Study of Subsurface Environmental Processes (CESEP)

    2014-01-01

    The heterogeneous nature of typical sedimentary formations can play a major role in the propagation of the CO2 plume, eventually dampening the accumulation of mobile phase underneath the caprock. From core flooding experiments, it is also known that contrasts in capillary threshold pressure due to different pore size can affect the flow paths of the invading and displaced fluids and consequently influence the build- up of non-wetting phase (NWP) at interfaces between geological facies. The full characterization of the geologic variability at all relevant scales and the ability to make observations on the spatial and temporal distribution of the migration and trapping of supercritical CO2 is not feasible from a practical perspective. To provide insight into the impact of well-defined heterogeneous systems on the flow dynamics and trapping efficiency of supercritical CO2 under drainage and imbibition conditions, we present an experimental investigation at the meter scale conducted in synthetic sand reservoirs packed in a quasi-two-dimensional flow-cell. Two immiscible displacement experiments have been performed to observe the preferential entrapment of NWP in simple heterogeneous porous media. The experiments consisted of an injection, a fluid redistribution, and a forced imbibition stages conducted in an uncorrelated permeability field and a homogeneous base case scenario. We adopted x-ray attenuation analysis as a non-destructive technique that allows a precise measurement of phase saturations throughout the entire flow domain. By comparing a homogeneous and a heterogeneous scenario we have identified some important effects that can be attributed to capillary barriers, such as dampened plume advancement, higher non-wetting phase saturations, larger contact area between the injected and displaced phases, and a larger range of non-wetting phase saturations.

  8. A non-blocking buffer mechanism for real-time event message communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, KHK

    2006-01-01

    A Non-Blocking Buffer Mechanism for Real-Time Event Messagecomputing systems. An interaction mechanism, called the non-blocking writer (NBW) mechanism and invented by Kopetz, is

  9. A Comparative Study of State Saving Mechanisms for Time Warp Synchronized Parallel Discrete Event Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    A Comparative Study of State Saving Mechanisms for Time Warp Synchronized Parallel Discrete Event of Technology SWEDEN Abstract The state saving mechanism constitutes an essential part of any system in which Synchronization mechanism. In this type of systems the state saving and restoration mechanism is essential

  10. Incentive Mechanisms for Internet Congestion Management: Fixed-Budget Rebate Versus Time-of-Day Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loiseau, Patrick

    Mobile data traffic has been steadily rising in the past years. This has generated a significant interest in the deployment of incentive mechanisms to reduce peak-time congestion. Typically, the design of these mechanisms ...

  11. Fourth-order algorithms for solving the imaginary-time Gross-Pitaevskii equation in a rotating anisotropic trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, Siu A.

    Fourth-order algorithms for solving the imaginary-time Gross-Pitaevskii equation in a rotating fast and accurate fourth-order algorithms for evolving the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in imaginary time. Such fourth-order algorithms are possible only with the use of forward, positive time step factorization

  12. Observation of cooperatively enhanced atomic dipole forces from NV centers in optically trapped nanodiamonds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. L. Juan; C. Bradac; B. Besga; G. Brennen; G. Molina-Terriza; T. Volz

    2015-11-15

    Since the early work by Ashkin in 1970, optical trapping has become one of the most powerful tools for manipulating small particles, such as micron sized beads or single atoms. The optical trapping mechanism is based on the interaction energy of a dipole and the electric field of the laser light. In atom trapping, the dominant contribution typically comes from the allowed optical transition closest to the laser wavelength, whereas for mesoscopic particles it is given by the bulk polarizability of the material. These two different regimes of optical trapping have coexisted for decades without any direct link, resulting in two very different contexts of applications: one being the trapping of small objects mainly in biological settings, the other one being dipole traps for individual neutral atoms in the field of quantum optics. Here we show that for nanoscale diamond crystals containing artificial atoms, so-called nitrogen vacancy (NV) color centers, both regimes of optical trapping can be observed at the same time even in a noisy liquid environment. For wavelengths in the vicinity of the zero-phonon line transition of the color centers, we observe a significant modification ($10\\%$) of the overall trapping strength. Most remarkably, our experimental findings suggest that owing to the large number of artificial atoms, collective effects greatly contribute to the observed trapping strength modification. Our approach adds the powerful atomic-physics toolbox to the field of nano-manipulation.

  13. Emergent Semiclassical Time in Quantum Gravity. I. Mechanical Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward Anderson

    2007-11-04

    Strategies intended to resolve the problem of time in quantum gravity by means of emergent or hidden timefunctions are considered in the arena of relational particle toy models. In situations with `heavy' and `light' degrees of freedom, two notions of emergent semiclassical WKB time emerge; these are furthermore equivalent to two notions of emergent classical `Leibniz--Mach--Barbour' time. I futhermore study the semiclassical approach, in a geometric phase formalism, extended to include linear constraints, and with particular care to make explicit those approximations and assumptions used. I propose a new iterative scheme for this in the cosmologically-motivated case with one heavy degree of freedom. I find that the usual semiclassical quantum cosmology emergence of time comes hand in hand with the emergence of other qualitatively significant terms, including back-reactions on the heavy subsystem and second time derivatives. I illustrate my analysis by taking it further for relational particle models with linearly-coupled harmonic oscillator potentials. As these examples are exactly soluble by means outside the semiclassical approach, they are additionally useful for testing the justifiability of some of the approximations and assumptions habitually made in the semiclassical approach to quantum cosmology. Finally, I contrast the emergent semiclassical timefunction with its hidden dilational Euler time counterpart.

  14. Interaction of trapped ions with trapped atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, Andrew T. (Andrew Todd)

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, I present results from two Paul-trap based ion traps carried out in the Vuleti? laboratory: the Atom-Ion trap for collision studies between cold atoms and cold ions, and the Cavity-Array trap for studying ...

  15. Status and Outlook of CHIP-TRAP: the Central Michigan University High Precision Penning Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew Redshaw; Richard A. Bryce; Paul Hawks; Nadeesha D. Gamage; Curtis Hunt; Rathnayake M. E. B. Kandegedara; Ishara S. Ratnayake; Lance Sharp

    2015-10-25

    At Central Michigan University we are developing a high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometer (CHIP-TRAP)that will focus on measurements with long-lived radioactive isotopes. CHIP-TRAP will consist of a pair of hyperbolic precision-measurement Penning traps, and a cylindrical capture/?filter trap in a 12 T magnetic field. Ions will be produced by external ion sources, including a laser ablation source, and transported to the capture trap at low energies enabling ions of a given m=q ratio to be selected via their time-of-flight. In the capture trap, contaminant ions will be removed with a mass-selective rf dipole excitation and the ion of interest will be transported to the measurement traps. A phase-sensitive image charge detection technique will be used for simultaneous cyclotron frequency measurements on single ions in the two precision traps, resulting in a reduction in statistical uncertainty due to magnetic field fluctuations.

  16. Status and Outlook of CHIP-TRAP: the Central Michigan University High Precision Penning Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Redshaw, Matthew; Hawks, Paul; Gamage, Nadeesha D; Hunt, Curtis; Kandegedara, Rathnayake M E B; Ratnayake, Ishara S; Sharp, Lance

    2015-01-01

    At Central Michigan University we are developing a high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometer (CHIP-TRAP)that will focus on measurements with long-lived radioactive isotopes. CHIP-TRAP will consist of a pair of hyperbolic precision-measurement Penning traps, and a cylindrical capture/?filter trap in a 12 T magnetic field. Ions will be produced by external ion sources, including a laser ablation source, and transported to the capture trap at low energies enabling ions of a given m=q ratio to be selected via their time-of-flight. In the capture trap, contaminant ions will be removed with a mass-selective rf dipole excitation and the ion of interest will be transported to the measurement traps. A phase-sensitive image charge detection technique will be used for simultaneous cyclotron frequency measurements on single ions in the two precision traps, resulting in a reduction in statistical uncertainty due to magnetic field fluctuations.

  17. Steam Trap Application 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The effective application of steam traps encompasses three primary areas which are the selection and sizing, the installation, and the monitoring of the steam trapping system. Proper application of steam traps will improve production rates, product...

  18. Time-Resolved AFM and XAFS Investigations of Nickel Surface Precipitate Dissolution Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Time-Resolved AFM and XAFS Investigations of Nickel Surface Precipitate Dissolution Mechanisms K. G that increase in stability with aging time. However, investigations into the stability of these surface, the relationship between aging time and stability is critical to predict potential mobility and fate of the metal

  19. In-situ, Real-Time Monitoring of Mechanical and Chemical Structure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: In-situ, Real-Time Monitoring of Mechanical and Chemical Structure Changes in a V2O5 Battery Electrode Using a MEMS Optical Sensor Citation Details In-Document Search...

  20. A New Derivation of the Time-Dependent Schrödinger Equation from Wave and Matrix Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luca Nanni

    2015-06-10

    An alternative method is proposed for deriving the time dependent Schroedinger equation from the pictures of wave and matrix mechanics. The derivation is of a mixed classical quantum character, since time is treated as a classical variable, thus avoiding any controversy over its meaning in quantum mechanics. The derivation method proposed in this paper requires no ad hoc assumption and avoids going through a second-order differential equation that can be reduced to the well known time-dependent Schroedinger equation only postulating a complex wavefunction with an exponential time dependence, as did by Schroedinger in its original paper of 1926.

  1. Damage mechanisms identification of polymer based composite materials: time-frequency investigation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Damage mechanisms identification of polymer based composite materials: time-frequency investigation 2012, Nantes, France 2045 #12;Presented in this paper, a time-frequency damage characterization Emission (AE) signals by the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). It is to be noted that the study of damage

  2. Pricing mechanism for real-time balancing in regional electricity markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weerdt, Mathijs

    for precisely controlling the real-time balance in electricity markets, where retail brokers aggregate of their retail customer loads and sources. We enumerate the desirable properties of a market-based balancingPricing mechanism for real-time balancing in regional electricity markets Mathijs de Weerdt

  3. Implications of surface noise for the motional coherence of trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talukdar, I; Daniilidis, N; Schindler, P; Ebadi, S; Kaufmann, H; Zhang, T; Häffner, H

    2015-01-01

    Electric noise from metallic surfaces is a major obstacle towards quantum applications with trapped ions. Here, we discuss how the same noise source may also lead to pure dephasing of motional quantum states. The mechanism is expected to become relevant at small ion-surface distances. By means of a free induction decay experiment, we measure the dephasing time of the motion of a single ion trapped 50~$\\mu$m above a Cu-Al surface. Our measurements may also provide new insights into which specific mechanisms are relevant for the electric noise emitted by metallic surfaces.

  4. 2100 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 59, NO. 8, AUGUST 2012 A Distributed Bulk-Oxide Trap Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    a distributed circuit model for bulk-oxide traps based on tunneling between the semiconductor surface and trap explained by the distributed bulk-oxide trap model. Index Terms--Bulk-oxide trap, III­V, MOS, tunneling. I-oxide traps or border traps, do have long time constants as they interact with the conduction band electrons

  5. Trapped-ion Lissajous trajectories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. F. Rossetti; G. D. de Moraes Neto; J. Carlos Egues; M. H. Y. Moussa

    2015-02-25

    Here we present a protocol for generating Lissajous curves with a trapped ion by engineering Rashba- and the Dresselhaus-type spin-orbit interactions in a Paul trap. The unique anisotropic Rashba $\\alpha_{x}$, $\\alpha_{y}$ and Dresselhaus $\\beta_{x}$, $\\beta_{y}$ couplings afforded by our setup also enables us to obtain an "unusual" Zitterbewegung, i.e., the semiconductor analog of the relativistic trembling motion of electrons, with cycloidal trajectories in the absence of magnetic fields. We have also introduced bounded SO interactions, confined to an upper-bound vibrational subspace of the Fock states, as an additional mechanism to manipulate the Lissajous motion of the trapped ion. Finally, we accounted for dissipative effects on the vibrational degrees of freedom of the ion and find that the Lissajous trajectories are still robust and well defined for realistic parameters.

  6. Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Diesel Emission Control Technology Review Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps Diesel Particulate Filters: Market Introducution...

  7. Microfabricated Ion Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcus D. Hughes; Bjoern Lekitsch; Jiddu A. Broersma; Winfried K. Hensinger

    2011-06-28

    Ion traps offer the opportunity to study fundamental quantum systems with high level of accuracy highly decoupled from the environment. Individual atomic ions can be controlled and manipulated with electric fields, cooled to the ground state of motion with laser cooling and coherently manipulated using optical and microwave radiation. Microfabricated ion traps hold the advantage of allowing for smaller trap dimensions and better scalability towards large ion trap arrays also making them a vital ingredient for next generation quantum technologies. Here we provide an introduction into the principles and operation of microfabricated ion traps. We show an overview of material and electrical considerations which are vital for the design of such trap structures. We provide guidance in how to choose the appropriate fabrication design, consider different methods for the fabrication of microfabricated ion traps and discuss previously realized structures. We also discuss the phenomenon of anomalous heating of ions within ion traps, which becomes an important factor in the miniaturization of ion traps.

  8. Quantum mechanical scattering on time-dependent potentials using nonequilibrium Green's functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter Foldi

    2015-05-13

    Time-dependent nonequilibrium Green's functions (TDNEGF) are shown to provide a flexible, effective tool for the description of quantum mechanical single particle scattering on a spatially localized, time-dependent potential. Focusing on numerical methods, arbitrary space and time dependence of the potential can be treated, provided it is zero before an initial time instant. In this case, appropriate version of the Dyson and Keldysh equations lead to a transparent description with clear physical interpretation. The interaction of a short laser pulse and an electron propagating initially in free space is discussed as an example.

  9. Superconducting microfabricated ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Shannon Xuanyue

    We fabricate superconducting ion traps with niobium and niobium nitride and trap single [superscript 88]Sr ions at cryogenic temperatures. The superconducting transition is verified and characterized by measuring the ...

  10. Superconducting microfabricated ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shannon X. Wang; Yufei Ge; Jaroslaw Labaziewicz; Eric Dauler; Karl Berggren; Isaac L. Chuang

    2010-12-14

    We fabricate superconducting ion traps with niobium and niobium nitride and trap single 88Sr ions at cryogenic temperatures. The superconducting transition is verified and characterized by measuring the resistance and critical current using a 4-wire measurement on the trap structure, and observing change in the rf reflection. The lowest observed heating rate is 2.1(3) quanta/sec at 800 kHz at 6 K and shows no significant change across the superconducting transition, suggesting that anomalous heating is primarily caused by noise sources on the surface. This demonstration of superconducting ion traps opens up possibilities for integrating trapped ions and molecular ions with superconducting devices.

  11. Microfabricated Ion Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Marcus D; Broersma, Jiddu A; Hensinger, Winfried K

    2011-01-01

    Ion traps offer the opportunity to study fundamental quantum systems with high level of accuracy highly decoupled from the environment. Individual atomic ions can be controlled and manipulated with electric fields, cooled to the ground state of motion with laser cooling and coherently manipulated using optical and microwave radiation. Microfabricated ion traps hold the advantage of allowing for smaller trap dimensions and better scalability towards large ion trap arrays also making them a vital ingredient for next generation quantum technologies. Here we provide an introduction into the principles and operation of microfabricated ion traps. We show an overview of material and electrical considerations which are vital for the design of such trap structures. We provide guidance in how to choose the appropriate fabrication design, consider different methods for the fabrication of microfabricated ion traps and discuss previously realized structures. We also discuss the phenomenon of anomalous heating of ions with...

  12. Microfabricated ion trap array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blain, Matthew G. (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-12-26

    A microfabricated ion trap array, comprising a plurality of ion traps having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale ion traps to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microfabricated ion trap array with on-chip circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of the microfabricated ion trap array can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  13. Neutron-Mirror-Neutron Oscillations in a Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Kerbikov; O. Lychkovskiy

    2008-06-01

    We calculate the rate of neutron-mirror-neutron oscillations for ultracold neutrons trapped in a storage vessel. Recent experimental bounds on the oscillation time are discussed.

  14. Chemical dynamics in the gas phase: Time-dependent quantum mechanics of chemical reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, S.K. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A major goal of this research is to obtain an understanding of the molecular reaction dynamics of three and four atom chemical reactions using numerically accurate quantum dynamics. This work involves: (i) the development and/or improvement of accurate quantum mechanical methods for the calculation and analysis of the properties of chemical reactions (e.g., rate constants and product distributions), and (ii) the determination of accurate dynamical results for selected chemical systems, which allow one to compare directly with experiment, determine the reliability of the underlying potential energy surfaces, and test the validity of approximate theories. This research emphasizes the use of recently developed time-dependent quantum mechanical methods, i.e. wave packet methods.

  15. Higgs-like Mechanism for Spontaneous Space-time Symmetry Breaking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimihide Nishimura

    2015-06-28

    The study of spontaneous breakdown of space-time symmetries discovers another type of Higgs mechanism operating in a chiral SU(2) model. Part of Nambu-Goldstone vector mesons emergent from simultaneous violations of gauge and Lorentz symmetries are in this case absorbed by a left-handed doublet and endow one of the fermions with a right-handed state, while another part becomes emergent photons. Accordingly, this mechanism allows a chiral fermion to acquire a mass, and enables the emergent theory to reproduce the electromagnetism equivalent to the QED sector of the standard theory. It is also mentioned that the "Fermion-Boson puzzle" reported in the presence of a 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole does not exist in our theory.

  16. Time Synchronization Attack in Smart Grid-Part II: Cross Layer Detection Mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhenghao; Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D; Li, Husheng

    2012-01-01

    A novel time synchronization attack (TSA) on wide area monitoring systems in smart grid has been identified in the first part of this paper. A cross layer detection mechanism is proposed to combat TSA in part II of this paper. In the physical layer, we propose a GPS carrier signal noise ratio (C/No) based spoofing detection technique. In addition, a patch-monopole hybrid antenna is applied to receive GPS signal. By computing the standard deviation of the C/No difference from two GPS receivers, a priori probability of spoofing detection is fed to the upper layer, where power system state is estimated and controlled. A trustworthiness based evaluation method is applied to identify the PMU being under TSA. Both the physical layer and upper layer algorithms are integrated to detect the TSA, thus forming a cross layer mechanism. Experiment is carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed TSA detection algorithm.

  17. Steam Trap Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, J. J.; Hirtner, H. H.

    1985-01-01

    A medium-sized plant of a high technology company is reaping the benefits of a Pro-active Steam Trap Program provided by Yarway's TECH/SERV Division. Initial work began March '84 and the most recent steam trap feasibility study conducted in March...

  18. Inertial measurement with trapped particles: A microdynamical system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, E. Rehmi; Popescu, George A.; Gershenfeld, Neil [Center for Bits and Atoms, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 20 Ames Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2010-04-05

    We describe an inertial measurement device based on an electrodynamically trapped proof mass. Mechanical constraints are replaced by guiding fields, permitting the trap stiffness to be tuned dynamically. Optical readout of the proof mass motion provides a measurement of acceleration and rotation, resulting in an integrated six degree of freedom inertial measurement device. We demonstrate such a device - constructed without microfabrication - with sensitivity comparable to that of commercial microelectromechanical systems technology and show how trapping parameters may be adjusted to increase dynamic range.

  19. Heating of trapped ultracold atoms by collapse dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franck Laloë; William J. Mullin; Philip Pearle

    2014-11-12

    {The Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) theory alters the Schr\\"odinger equation. It describes wave function collapse as a dynamical process instead of an ill-defined postulate, thereby providing macroscopic uniqueness and solving the so-called measurement problem of standard quantum theory. CSL contains a parameter $\\lambda$ giving the collapse rate of an isolated nucleon in a superposition of two spatially separated states and, more generally, characterizing the collapse time for any physical situation. CSL is experimentally testable, since it predicts some behavior different from that predicted by standard quantum theory. One example is the narrowing of wave functions, which results in energy imparted to particles. Here we consider energy given to trapped ultra-cold atoms. Since these are the coldest samples under experimental investigation, it is worth inquiring how they are affected by the CSL heating mechanism. We examine the CSL heating of a BEC in contact with its thermal cloud. Of course, other mechanisms also provide heat and also particle loss. From varied data on optically trapped cesium BEC's, we present an energy audit for known heating and loss mechanisms. The result provides an upper limit on CSL heating and thereby an upper limit on the parameter $\\lambda$. We obtain $\\lambda\\lesssim 1(\\pm1)\\times 10^{-7}$sec$^{-1}$.}

  20. Surface trap for ytterbium ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, Jonathan A. (Jonathan Alan)

    2006-01-01

    We conducted an experiment to load a shallow planar ion trap from a cold atom source of Ytterbium using photoionization. The surface trap consisted of a three-rod radio frequency Paul trap fabricated using standard printed ...

  1. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Print Wednesday, 27 April 2005 00:00 In photoelectron spectroscopy experiments performed at the...

  2. HP Steam Trap Monitoring 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascone, S.

    2011-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IC-11-10-61.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2024 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IC-11-10-61.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 STEAM MONITORING HP... Steam Trap Monitoring HP Steam Trap Monitoring ? 12-18 months payback! ? 3-5% permanent reduction in consumption ? LEED Pt.? Innovation in Operations EB O&M ? Saved clients over $1,000,000 Annual consumption Steam Trap Monitoring ? Real...

  3. Optimized holographic optical traps Marco Polin, Kosta Ladavac,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    approach for characterizing their performance. This combination makes possible real-time adaptive trap widely known as an optical tweezer [1]. Multiple beams of light pass- ing simultaneously through-time characterization and optimization of entire arrays of traps through digital video microscopy. Such adaptive

  4. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, M.J.

    1987-05-04

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (a hot finger) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellow in providing an indication of total energy (steam + condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the hot and cold fingers subtracts the former from the latter to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning. 2 figs.

  5. Microfabricated cylindrical ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blain, Matthew G.

    2005-03-22

    A microscale cylindrical ion trap, having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale cylindrical ion trap to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The microscale CIT has a reduced ion mean free path, allowing operation at higher pressures with less expensive and less bulky vacuum pumping system, and with lower battery power than conventional- and miniature-sized ion traps. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microscale cylindrical ion trap with on-chip integrated circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of microscale cylindrical ion traps can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  6. Heating rate and electrode charging measurements in a scalable, microfabricated, surface-electrode ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. T. C. Allcock; T. P. Harty; H. A. Janacek; N. M. Linke; C. J. Ballance; A. M. Steane; D. M. Lucas; R. L. Jarecki Jr.; S. D. Habermehl; M. G. Blain; D. Stick; D. L. Moehring

    2011-05-24

    We characterise the performance of a surface-electrode ion "chip" trap fabricated using established semiconductor integrated circuit and micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) microfabrication processes which are in principle scalable to much larger ion trap arrays, as proposed for implementing ion trap quantum information processing. We measure rf ion micromotion parallel and perpendicular to the plane of the trap electrodes, and find that on-package capacitors reduce this to heating rate for a single trapped ion. The performance of this trap is found to be comparable with others of the same size scale.

  7. Fast separation of two trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Palmero; S. Martínez-Garaot; U. G. Poschinger; A. Ruschhaupt; J. G. Muga

    2015-05-19

    We design fast protocols to separate or recombine two ions in a segmented Paul trap. By inverse engineering the time evolution of the trapping potential composed of a harmonic and a quartic term, it is possible to perform these processes in a few microseconds without final excitation. These times are much shorter than the ones reported so far experimentally. The design is based on dynamical invariants and dynamical normal modes. Anharmonicities beyond the harmonic approximation at potential minima are taken into account perturbatively. The stability versus an unknown potential bias is also studied.

  8. Reducing Timing Errors of Polling Mechanism Using Event Timpstamps for Safety-Critical Real-Time Control Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and responsiveness. A real-time control system only with polling mechanims can be designed to execute a set of tasks

  9. Antihydrogen Trapped in the ALPHA Experiment

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    In 2010 the ALPHA collaboration succeeded in trapping antihydrogen atoms for the first time.[i]  Stored antihydrogen promises to be a unique tool for making high precision measurements of the structure of this first anti-atom. Achieving this milestone presented several substantial experimental challenges and this talk will describe how they were overcome.   The unique design features of the ALPHA apparatus will be explained.[ii]  These allow a high intensity positron source and an antiproton imaging detector similar to the one used in the ATHENA[iii] experiment to be combined with an innovative magnet design of the anti-atom trap. This seeks to minimise the perturbations to trapped charged particles which may cause particle loss and heating[iv].   The diagnostic techniques used to measure the diameter, number, density, and temperatures of both plasmas will be presented as will the methods developed to actively compress and cool of both plasma species to sizes and temperatures [v],[vi], [vii] where trapping attempts with a reasonable chance of success can be tried.   The results of the successful trapping experiments will be outlined as well as some subsequent experiments to improve the trapping rate and storage time. [i] 'Trapped antihydrogen' G.B. Andresen et al., Nature 468, 673 (2010) [ii]'A Magnetic Trap for Antihydrogen Confinement' W. Bertsche et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A566, 746 (2006) [iii] Production and detection of cold antihydrogen atoms M.Amoretti et al., Nature 419, 456 (2002). [iv]' Antihydrogen formation dynamics in a multipolar neutral anti-atom trap' G.B. Andresen et al., Phys. Lett. B 685, 141 (2010) [v]' Evaporative Cooling of Antiprotons to Cryogenic Temperatures',                                   G.B. Andresen et al. Phys. Rev. Lett 105, 013003 (2010) [vi]'Compression of Antiproton Clouds for Antihydrogen Trapping' G. B. Andresen et al. Phys. Rev. Lett 100, 203401 (2008) [vii]  'Autoresonant Excitation of Antiproton Plasmas' G.B. Andresen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 025002 (2011) Organizer: Ferdinand Hahn PH/DT Detector Seminar webpage  

  10. Ion funnel ion trap and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belov, Mikhail E [Richland, WA; Ibrahim, Yehia M [Richland, WA; Clowers, Biran H [West Richland, WA; Prior, David C [Hermiston, OR; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2011-02-15

    An ion funnel trap is described that includes a inlet portion, a trapping portion, and a outlet portion that couples, in normal operation, with an ion funnel. The ion trap operates efficiently at a pressure of .about.1 Torr and provides for: 1) removal of low mass-to-charge (m/z) ion species, 2) ion accumulation efficiency of up to 80%, 3) charge capacity of .about.10,000,000 elementary charges, 4) ion ejection time of 40 to 200 .mu.s, and 5) optimized variable ion accumulation times. Ion accumulation with low concentration peptide mixtures has shown an increase in analyte signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of a factor of 30, and a greater than 10-fold improvement in SNR for multiply charged analytes.

  11. Fluctuation characteristics and transport properties of collisionless trapped electron mode turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao Yong; Holod, Ihor; Zhang Wenlu; Lin Zhihong [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Klasky, Scott [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The collisionless trapped electron mode turbulence is investigated by global gyrokinetic particle simulation. The zonal flow dominated by low frequency and short wavelength acts as a very important saturation mechanism. The turbulent eddies are mostly microscopic, but with a significant portion in the mesoscale. The ion heat transport is found to be diffusive and follows the local radial profile of the turbulence intensity. However, the electron heat transport demonstrates some nondiffusive features and only follows the global profile of the turbulence intensity. The nondiffusive features of the electron heat transport is further confirmed by nonlognormal statistics of the flux-surface-averaged electron heat flux. The radial and time correlation functions are calculated to obtain the radial correlation length and autocorrelation time. Characteristic time scale analysis shows that the zonal flow shearing time and eddy turnover time are very close to the effective decorrelation time, which suggests that the trapped electrons move with the fluid eddies. The fluidlike behaviors of the trapped electrons and the persistence of the mesoscale eddies contribute to the transition of the electron turbulent transport from gyro-Bohm scaling to Bohm scaling when the device size decreases.

  12. Thermoelectrically cooled water trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheels, Ronald H. (Concord, MA)

    2006-02-21

    A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

  13. Asymmetric ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barlow, S.E.; Alexander, M.L.; Follansbee, J.C.

    1997-12-02

    An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode is disclosed. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity. 4 figs.

  14. Asymmetric ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barlow, Stephan E. (Richland, WA); Alexander, Michael L. (Richland, WA); Follansbee, James C. (Pasco, WA)

    1997-01-01

    An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity.

  15. Evaluating Steam Trap Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, N. Y.

    1986-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-86-06-126.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 11555 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-86-06-126.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 EVALUATING STEAM... TRAP PERFORMANCE Noel Y Fuller, P.E. Holston Defense Corporation Kingsport, Tennessee ABSTRACT Laboratory tests were conducted on several types of steam traps at Holston Defense Corporation in Kingsport, Tennessee. Data from these tests...

  16. The fluid mechanics of dissolution trapping in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolster, Diogo

    supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) is injected into deep subsurface formations for long-term storage, the supercritical CO2 phase and the solid porous medium phase. This results in important dynamics associated). The density of supercritical CO2 is less than that of the resident fluid; thus buoyancy effects are important

  17. In-situ, Real-Time Monitoring of Mechanical and Chemical Structure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Mechanical and Chemical Structure Changes in a V2O5 Battery Electrode Using a MEMS Optical Sensor Jung, H. University of Maryland; Gerasopoulos, K. University of...

  18. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

  19. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, Michael J. (Plainfield, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (the combination of a hot finger and thermocouple well) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellows in providing an indication of total energy (steam+condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the thermocouple well hot and cold fingers subtracts the condensate energy as measured by the hot finger and thermocouple well from the total energy as measured by the cold finger to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning.

  20. Computational mechanics of molecular systems: Quantifying high-dimensional dynamics by distribution of Poincare recurrence times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nerukh, Dmitry

    Computational mechanics of molecular systems: Quantifying high- dimensional dynamics computational mechanics as a bridge between deterministic chaos in nonlinear dynamical systems with few degrees-Hakodate, School of Systems Information Science, Department of Complex System, 116-2 Kamedanakano-cho, Hakodate

  1. Master equation approach to protein folding and kinetic traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marek Cieplak; Malte Henkel; Jan Karbowski; Jayanth R. Banavar

    1998-04-21

    The master equation for 12-monomer lattice heteropolymers is solved numerically and the time evolution of the occupancy of the native state is determined. At low temperatures, the median folding time follows the Arrhenius law and is governed by the longest relaxation time. For good folders, significant kinetic traps appear in the folding funnel whereas for bad folders, the traps also occur in non-native energy valleys.

  2. Controlling fast transport of cold trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas Walther; Frank Ziesel; Thomas Ruster; Sam T. Dawkins; Konstantin Ott; Max Hettrich; Kilian Singer; Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler; Ulrich Poschinger

    2012-06-02

    We realize fast transport of ions in a segmented micro-structured Paul trap. The ion is shuttled over a distance of more than 10^4 times its groundstate wavefunction size during only 5 motional cycles of the trap (280 micro meter in 3.6 micro seconds). Starting from a ground-state-cooled ion, we find an optimized transport such that the energy increase is as low as 0.10 $\\pm$ 0.01 motional quanta. In addition, we demonstrate that quantum information stored in a spin-motion entangled state is preserved throughout the transport. Shuttling operations are concatenated, as a proof-of-principle for the shuttling-based architecture to scalable ion trap quantum computing.

  3. Final Technical Report of project: "Contactless Real-Time Monitoring of Paper Mechanical Behavior During Papermaking"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emmanuel Lafond; Paul Ridgway; Ted Jackson; Rick Russo; Ken Telschow; Vance Deason; Yves Berthelot; David Griggs; Xinya Zhang; Gary Baum

    2005-08-30

    The early precursors of laser ultrasonics on paper were Prof. Y. Berthelot from the Georgia Institute of Technology/Mechanical Engineering department, and Prof. P. Brodeur from the Institute of Paper Science and Technology, both located in Atlanta, Georgia. The first Ph.D. thesis that shed quite some light on the topic, but also left some questions unanswered, was completed by Mont A. Johnson in 1996. Mont Johnson was Prof. Berthelot's student at Georgia Tech. In 1997 P. Brodeur proposed a project involving himself, Y. Berthelot, Dr. Ken Telschow and Mr. Vance Deason from INL, Honeywell-Measurex and Dr. Rick Russo from LBNL. The first time the proposal was not accepted and P. Brodeur decided to re-propose it without the involvement from LBNL. Rick Russo proposed a separate project on the same topic on his side. Both proposals were finally accepted and work started in the fall of 1997 on the two projects. Early on, the biggest challenge was to find an optical detection method which could detect laser-induced displacements of the web surface that are of the order of .1 micron in the ultrasonic range. This was to be done while the web was having an out-of-plane amplitude of motion in the mm range due to web flutter; while moving at 10 m/s to 30 m/s in the plane of the web, on the paper machine. Both teams grappled with the same problems and tried similar methods in some cases, but came up with two similar but different solutions one year later. The IPST, GT, INL team found that an interferometer made by Lasson Technologies Inc. using the photo-induced electro-motive force in Gallium Arsenide was able to detect ultrasonic waves up to 12-15 m/s. It also developed in house an interferometer using the Two-Wave Mixing effect in photorefractive crystals that showed good promises for on-line applications, and experimented with a scanning mirror to reduce motion-induced texture noise from the web and improve signal to noise ratio. On its side, LBNL had the idea to combine a commercial Mach-Zehnder interferometer to a spinning mirror synchronized to the web speed, in order to make almost stationary measurements. The method was demonstrated at up to 10 m/s. Both teams developed their own version of a web simulator that was driving a web of paper at 10 m/s or higher. The Department of Energy and members of the Agenda 2020 started to make a push for merging the two projects. This made sense because their topics were really identical but this was not well received by Prof. Brodeur. Finally IPST decided to reassign the direction of the IPST-INL-GT project in the spring of 1999 to Prof. Chuck Habeger so that the two teams could work together. Also at this time, Honeywell-Measurex dropped as a member of the team. It was replaced by ABB Industrial Systems whose engineers had extensive previous experience of working with ultrasonic sensors on paperboard. INL also finished its work on the project as its competencies were partly redundant with LBNL. From the summer of 1999, the IPST-GT and LBNL teams were working together and helped each other often by collaborating and visiting either laboratory when was necessary. Around the beginning of 2000, began an effort at IPST to create an off-line laser-ultrasonics instrument that could perform automated measurements of paper and paperboard's bending stiffness. It was widely known that the mechanical bending tests of paper used for years by the paper industry were very inaccurate and exhibited poor reproducibility; therefore the team needed a new instrument of reference to validate its future on-line results. In 1999-2000, the focus of the on-line instrument was on a pre-industrial demonstration on a pilot coater while reducing the damage to the web caused by the generation laser, below the threshold where it could be visible by the naked eye. During the spring of 2000 Paul Ridgway traveled to IPST and brought with him a redesigned system still using the same Mach-Zehnder interferometer as before, but this time employing an electric motor-driven spinning mirror instead of the previously belt-driven m

  4. Atomistic simulation of defect structure evolution and mechanical properties at long time scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Yue, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is a computational and theoretical investigation of the response of materials' mechanical properties to a wide range of environmental conditions, with a particular focus on the coupled effects of strain rate ...

  5. Short time scale thermal mechanical shock wave propagation in high performance microelectronic packaging configuration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagaraj, Mahavir

    2004-11-15

    The generalized theory of thermoelasticity was employed to characterize the coupled thermal and mechanical wave propagation in high performance microelectronic packages. Application of a Gaussian heat source of spectral profile similar to high...

  6. Superstatistical velocity distributions of cold trapped ions in molecular dynamics simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rouse, I

    2015-01-01

    We present a realistic molecular-dynamics treatment of laser-cooled ions in radiofrequency ion traps which avoids previously made simplifications such as modeling laser cooling as a friction force and combining individual heating mechanisms into a single effective heating force. Based on this implementation, we show that infrequent energetic collisions of single ions with background gas molecules lead to pronounced heating of the entire ion ensemble and a time-varying secular ensemble temperature which manifests itself in a superstatistical time-averaged velocity distribution of the ions. The effect of this finding on the experimental determination of ion temperatures and rate constants for cold chemical reactions is discussed.

  7. Nanoantennas for enhanced light trapping in transparent organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voroshilov, Pavel M; Belov, Pavel A

    2014-01-01

    We propose a light-trapping structure offering a significant enhancement of photovoltaic absorption in transparent organic solar cells operating at infrared while the visible light transmission keeps sufficiently high. The main mechanism of light trapping is related with the excitation of collective oscillations of the metal nanoantenna arrays, characterized by advantageous field distribution in the volume of the solar cell. It allows more than triple increase of infrared photovoltaic absorption.

  8. What To Do With Cold Traps and Why 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risko, J. R.; Walter, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Increased emphasis on energy management has helped sites reduce system cost through the diagnosis and repair of “Leaking” or “Blowing” steam traps (“Leakage Failures”). Timely maintenance response is a significant action to lower energy use and GHG...

  9. Time Stamp Attack in Smart Grid: Physical Mechanism and Damage Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Shuping; Li, Husheng; Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D

    2012-01-01

    Many operations in power grids, such as fault detection and event location estimation, depend on precise timing information. In this paper, a novel time stamp attack (TSA) is proposed to attack the timing information in smart grid. Since many applications in smart grid utilize synchronous measurements and most of the measurement devices are equipped with global positioning system (GPS) for precise timing, it is highly probable to attack the measurement system by spoofing the GPS. The effectiveness of TSA is demonstrated for three applications of phasor measurement unit (PMU) in smart grid, namely transmission line fault detection, voltage stability monitoring and event locationing.

  10. Light-trapping concentrator cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keavney, C.J.; Geoffroy, L.M.; Sanfacon, M.M.; Tobin, S.P. (Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (USA))

    1989-11-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a thin, light-trapping silicon concentrator solar cell using a new structure, the cross-grooved cell. A process was developed for fabricating V-grooves on both sides of thin silicon wafers, the grooves on one side being perpendicular to those on the other side. A novel way of minimizing flat spots at the tops of the V-grooves was discovered. We experimentally verified the theoretical light-trapping superiority of the cross-grooved structure. We also demonstrated a reduction in grid line obscuration for grid lines running parallel to the V-grooves due to light reflection into the cell. high short-circuit current densities were achieved for p-i-n concentrator cells with the cross-grooved structure, proving the concept. The best efficiencies achieved were 18% at concentration, compared to 20% for a conventional planar low-resistivity cell. Recombination in the full-area emitter was identified as the major intrinsic loss mechanism in these thin, high-resistivity bifacial cells. Recombination on the emitter limits Voc and fill factor, and also leads to a large sublinearity of short-circuit current with light intensity. Reduction of the junction area is a major recommendation for future work. In addition, there were persistent problems with ohmic contacts and maintaining high minority-carrier lifetime during processing. We believe that these problems can be solved, and that the cross-grooved cell is a viable approach to the limit-efficiency silicon solar cell. This report covers research conducted between March 1987 and July 1989. 22 refs., 40 figs., 24 tabs.

  11. Simplified motional heating rate measurements of trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. J. Epstein; S. Seidelin; D. Leibfried; J. H. Wesenberg; J. J. Bollinger; J. M. Amini; R. B. Blakestad; J. Britton; J. P. Home; W. M. Itano; J. D. Jost; E. Knill; C. Langer; R. Ozeri; N. Shiga; D. J. Wineland

    2007-07-10

    We have measured motional heating rates of trapped atomic ions, a factor that can influence multi-ion quantum logic gate fidelities. Two simplified techniques were developed for this purpose: one relies on Raman sideband detection implemented with a single laser source, while the second is even simpler and is based on time-resolved fluorescence detection during Doppler recooling. We applied these methods to determine heating rates in a microfrabricated surface-electrode trap made of gold on fused quartz, which traps ions 40 microns above its surface. Heating rates obtained from the two techniques were found to be in reasonable agreement. In addition, the trap gives rise to a heating rate of 300 plus or minus 30 per second for a motional frequency of 5.25 MHz, substantially below the trend observed in other traps.

  12. Simplified motional heating rate measurements of trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epstein, R J; Leibfried, D; Wesenberg, J H; Bollinger, J J; Amini, J M; Blakestad, R B; Britton, J; Home, J P; Itano, W M; Jost, J D; Knill, E; Langer, C; Ozeri, R; Shiga, N; Wineland, D J

    2007-01-01

    We have measured motional heating rates of trapped atomic ions, a factor that can influence multi-ion quantum logic gate fidelities. Two simplified techniques were developed for this purpose: one relies on Raman sideband detection implemented with a single laser source, while the second is even simpler and is based on time-resolved fluorescence detection during Doppler recooling. We applied these methods to determine heating rates in a microfrabricated surface-electrode trap made of gold on fused quartz, which traps ions 40 microns above its surface. Heating rates obtained from the two techniques were found to be in reasonable agreement. In addition, the trap gives rise to a heating rate of 300 plus or minus 30 per second for a motional frequency of 5.25 MHz, substantially below the trend observed in other traps.

  13. Short-time asymptotics of a rigorous path integral for N = 1 supersymmetric quantum mechanics on a Riemannian manifold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fine, Dana S.; Sawin, Stephen

    2014-06-15

    Following Feynman's prescription for constructing a path integral representation of the propagator of a quantum theory, a short-time approximation to the propagator for imaginary-time, N = 1 supersymmetric quantum mechanics on a compact, even-dimensional Riemannian manifold is constructed. The path integral is interpreted as the limit of products, determined by a partition of a finite time interval, of this approximate propagator. The limit under refinements of the partition is shown to converge uniformly to the heat kernel for the Laplace-de Rham operator on forms. A version of the steepest descent approximation to the path integral is obtained, and shown to give the expected short-time behavior of the supertrace of the heat kernel.

  14. Time and location differentiated NOX control in competitive electricity markets using cap-and-trade mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Katherine C.

    2007-01-01

    Due to variations in weather and atmospheric chemistry, the timing and location of nitrogen oxide (NOX) reductions determine their effectiveness in reducing ground-level ozone, which adversely impacts human health. Electric ...

  15. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Print In photoelectron spectroscopy experiments performed at the ALS, a group of researchers has found that electronic transitions normally...

  16. Gated charged-particle trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W. Henry (Danville, CA)

    1999-01-01

    The design and operation of a new type of charged-particle trap provides simultaneous measurements of mass, charge, and velocity of large electrospray ions. The trap consists of a detector tube mounted between two sets of center-bored trapping plates. Voltages applied to the trapping plates define symmetrically-opposing potential valleys which guide axially-injected ions to cycle back and forth through the charge-detection tube. A low noise charge-sensitive amplifier, connected to the tube, reproduces the image charge of individual ions as they pass through the detector tube. Ion mass is calculated from measurement of ion charge and velocity following each passage through the detector.

  17. Exciton self-trapping in bulk polyethylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Ceresoli; M. C. Righi; E. Tosatti; S. Scandolo; G. Santoro; S. Serra

    2005-07-13

    We studied theoretically the behavior of an injected electron-hole pair in crystalline polyethylene. Time-dependent adiabatic evolution by ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations show that the pair will become self-trapped in the perfect crystal, with a trapping energy of about 0.38 eV, with formation of a pair of trans-gauche conformational defects, three C$_2$H$_4$ units apart on the same chain. The electron is confined in the inter-chain pocket created by a local, 120$^\\circ$ rotation of the chain between the two defects, while the hole resides on the chain and is much less bound. Despite the large energy stored in the trapped excitation, there does not appear to be a direct non-radiative channel for electron-hole recombination. This suggests that intrinsic self-trapping of electron-hole pairs inside the ideal quasi-crystalline fraction of PE might not be directly relevant for electrical damage in high-voltage cables.

  18. Dynamic trapping near a quantum critical point

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Kolodrubetz; Emanuel Katz; Anatoli Polkovnikov

    2015-03-02

    The study of dynamics in closed quantum systems has recently been revitalized by the emergence of experimental systems that are well-isolated from their environment. In this paper, we consider the closed-system dynamics of an archetypal model: spins near a second order quantum critical point, which are traditionally described by the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. Imbuing the driving field with Newtonian dynamics, we find that the full closed system exhibits a robust new phenomenon -- dynamic critical trapping -- in which the system is self-trapped near the critical point due to efficient absorption of field kinetic energy by heating the quantum spins. We quantify limits in which this phenomenon can be observed and generalize these results by developing a Kibble-Zurek scaling theory that incorporates the dynamic field. Our findings can potentially be interesting in the context of early universe physics, where the role of the driving field is played by the inflaton or a modulus.

  19. Trapped ion scaling with pulsed fast gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. D. B. Bentley; A. R. R. Carvalho; J. J. Hope

    2015-07-10

    Fast entangling gates for trapped ions offer vastly improved gate operation times relative to implemented gates, as well as approaches to trap scaling. Gates on neighbouring ions only involve local ions when performed sufficiently fast, and we find that even a fast gate between distant ions with few degrees of freedom restores all the motional modes given more stringent gate speed conditions. We compare pulsed fast gate schemes, defined by a timescale faster than the trap period, and find that our proposed scheme has less stringent requirements on laser repetition rate for achieving arbitrary gate time targets and infidelities well below $10^{-4}$. By extending gate schemes to ion crystals, we explore the effect of ion number on gate fidelity for coupling neighbouring pairs of ions in large crystals. Inter-ion distance determines the gate time, and a factor of five increase in repetition rate, or correspondingly the laser power, reduces the infidelity by almost two orders of magnitude. We also apply our fast gate scheme to entangle the first and last ions in a crystal. As the number of ions in the crystal increases, significant increases in the laser power are required to provide the short gate times corresponding to fidelity above 0.99.

  20. Stochastic modeling and survival analysis of marginally trapped neutrons for a magnetic trapping neutron lifetime experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. J. Coakley; M. S. Dewey; M. G. Huber; P. R. Huffman; C. R. Huffer; D. E. Marley; H. P. Mumm; C. M. O'Shaughnessy; K. W. Schelhammer; A. K. Thompson; A. T. Yue

    2015-08-10

    In a variety of neutron lifetime experiments, in addition to $\\beta-$decay, neutrons can be lost by other mechanisms including wall losses. Failure to account for these other loss mechanisms produces systematic measurement error and associated systematic uncertainties in neutron lifetime measurements. In this work, we develop a physical model for neutron wall losses and construct a competing risks survival analysis model to account for losses due to the joint effect of $\\beta-$decay losses, wall losses of marginally trapped neutrons, and an additional absorption mechanism. We determine the survival probability function associated with the wall loss mechanism by a Monte Carlo method. Based on a fit of the competing risks model to a subset of the NIST experimental data, we determine the mean lifetime of trapped neutrons to be approximately 700 s -- considerably less than the current best estimate of (880.1 $\\pm$ 1.1) s promulgated by the Particle Data Group [1]. Currently, experimental studies are underway to determine if this discrepancy can be explained by neutron capture by ${}^3$He impurities in the trapping volume. Analysis of the full NIST data will be presented in a later publication.

  1. Observation of cooperatively enhanced atomic dipole forces from NV centers in optically trapped nanodiamonds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juan, M L; Besga, B; Brennen, G; Molina-Terriza, G; Volz, T

    2015-01-01

    Since the early work by Ashkin in 1970, optical trapping has become one of the most powerful tools for manipulating small particles, such as micron sized beads or single atoms. The optical trapping mechanism is based on the interaction energy of a dipole and the electric field of the laser light. In atom trapping, the dominant contribution typically comes from the allowed optical transition closest to the laser wavelength, whereas for mesoscopic particles it is given by the bulk polarizability of the material. These two different regimes of optical trapping have coexisted for decades without any direct link, resulting in two very different contexts of applications: one being the trapping of small objects mainly in biological settings, the other one being dipole traps for individual neutral atoms in the field of quantum optics. Here we show that for nanoscale diamond crystals containing artificial atoms, so-called nitrogen vacancy (NV) color centers, both regimes of optical trapping can be observed at the same...

  2. Mechanisms for mechanical trapping of geologically sequestered carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Yossi

    Carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) sequestration in subsurface reservoirs is important for limiting atmospheric CO[subscript 2] concentrations. However, a complete physical picture able to predict the structure developing ...

  3. Zinc-oxide charge trapping memory cell with ultra-thin chromium-oxide trapping layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Atab, Nazek; Rizk, Ayman; Nayfeh, Ammar; Okyay, Ali K.; UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center and Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara

    2013-11-15

    A functional zinc-oxide based SONOS memory cell with ultra-thin chromium oxide trapping layer was fabricated. A 5 nm CrO{sub 2} layer is deposited between Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) steps. A threshold voltage (V{sub t}) shift of 2.6V was achieved with a 10V programming voltage. Also for a 2V V{sub t} shift, the memory with CrO{sub 2} layer has a low programming voltage of 7.2V. Moreover, the deep trapping levels in CrO{sub 2} layer allows for additional scaling of the tunnel oxide due to an increase in the retention time. In addition, the structure was simulated using Physics Based TCAD. The results of the simulation fit very well with the experimental results providing an understanding of the charge trapping and tunneling physics.

  4. ME 354, MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY TIME-DEPENDENT DEFORMATION: CREEP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    forces. Specifically, short-term creep tests will be used to identify constants in the 'min = Bn relation from long-term creep tests of this same alloy. EQUIPMENT · Constant gage section diameter sections-weight," lever arm creep test machine. · Various "dead-weight" masses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 kg. · Timing

  5. The Penning trap system used by the BASE experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcastel, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    A cut-away schematic of the Penning trap system used by BASE. The experiment receives antiprotons from CERN's AD; negative hydrogen ions are formed during injection into the apparatus. The set-up works with only a pair of particles at a time, while a cloud of a few hundred others are held in the reservoir trap, for future use. Here, an antiproton is in the measurement trap, while the negative hydyrogen ion is in held by the downstream park electrode. When the antiproton has been measured, it is moved to the upstream park electrode and the hydrogen ion is brought in to the measurement trap. This is repeated thousands of times, enabling a high-precision comparison of the charge-to-mass ratios of the two particles.

  6. Optimal traps in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. A. Downing; A. R. Pearce; R. J. Churchill; M. E. Portnoi

    2015-03-27

    We transform the two-dimensional Dirac-Weyl equation, which governs the charge carriers in graphene, into a non-linear first-order differential equation for scattering phase shift, using the so-called variable phase method. This allows us to utilize the Levinson Theorem to find zero-energy bound states created electrostatically in realistic structures. These confined states are formed at critical potential strengths, which leads to us posit the use of `optimal traps' to combat the chiral tunneling found in graphene, which could be explored experimentally with an artificial network of point charges held above the graphene layer. We also discuss scattering on these states and find the zero angular momentum states create a dominant peak in scattering cross-section as energy tends towards the Dirac point energy, suggesting a dominant contribution to resistivity.

  7. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, Karan Kartik

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process ...

  8. Precursory signatures of protein folding/unfolding: From time series correlation analysis to atomistic mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, P. J.; Lai, S. K., E-mail: sklai@coll.phy.ncu.edu.tw [Complex Liquids Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Central University, Chungli 320 Taiwan (China); Molecular Science and Technology Program, Taiwan International Graduate Program, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Cheong, S. A. [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2014-05-28

    Folded conformations of proteins in thermodynamically stable states have long lifetimes. Before it folds into a stable conformation, or after unfolding from a stable conformation, the protein will generally stray from one random conformation to another leading thus to rapid fluctuations. Brief structural changes therefore occur before folding and unfolding events. These short-lived movements are easily overlooked in studies of folding/unfolding for they represent momentary excursions of the protein to explore conformations in the neighborhood of the stable conformation. The present study looks for precursory signatures of protein folding/unfolding within these rapid fluctuations through a combination of three techniques: (1) ultrafast shape recognition, (2) time series segmentation, and (3) time series correlation analysis. The first procedure measures the differences between statistical distance distributions of atoms in different conformations by calculating shape similarity indices from molecular dynamics simulation trajectories. The second procedure is used to discover the times at which the protein makes transitions from one conformation to another. Finally, we employ the third technique to exploit spatial fingerprints of the stable conformations; this procedure is to map out the sequences of changes preceding the actual folding and unfolding events, since strongly correlated atoms in different conformations are different due to bond and steric constraints. The aforementioned high-frequency fluctuations are therefore characterized by distinct correlational and structural changes that are associated with rate-limiting precursors that translate into brief segments. Guided by these technical procedures, we choose a model system, a fragment of the protein transthyretin, for identifying in this system not only the precursory signatures of transitions associated with ? helix and ? hairpin, but also the important role played by weaker correlations in such protein folding dynamics.

  9. In situ study on low-k interconnect time-dependent-dielectric-breakdown mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boon Yeap, Kong, E-mail: KongBoon.Yeap@globalfoundries.com [GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Fab8, 400 Stonebreak Rd. Extension, Malta, New York 12020 (United States); Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems, Maria-Reiche-Str. 2, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Gall, Martin; Liao, Zhongquan; Sander, Christoph; Muehle, Uwe; Zschech, Ehrenfried [Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems, Maria-Reiche-Str. 2, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Justison, Patrick [GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Fab8, 400 Stonebreak Rd. Extension, Malta, New York 12020 (United States); Aubel, Oliver; Hauschildt, Meike; Beyer, Armand; Vogel, Norman [GLOBALFOUNDRIES Dresden Module One LLC and Co. KG, Wilschdorfer Landstr. 101, D-01109 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-03-28

    An in situ transmission-electron-microscopy methodology is developed to observe time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) in an advanced Cu/ultra-low-k interconnect stack. A test structure, namely a “tip-to-tip” structure, was designed to localize the TDDB degradation in small dielectrics regions. A constant voltage is applied at 25?°C to the “tip-to-tip” structure, while structural changes are observed at nanoscale. Cu nanoparticle formation, agglomeration, and migration processes are observed after dielectric breakdown. The Cu nanoparticles are positively charged, since they move in opposite direction to the electron flow. Measurements of ionic current, using the Triangular-Voltage-Stress method, suggest that Cu migration is not possible before dielectric breakdown, unless the Cu/ultra-low-k interconnect stacks are heated to 200?°C and above.

  10. Protection #2: Trap and Remove Sediment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trap and Remove Sediment Protection 2: Trap and Remove Sediment The 3 Protections Defense in Depth August 1, 2013 Sediment behind LA Canyon weir is sampled and excavated...

  11. Cooling trapped atoms in optical resonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefano Zippilli; Giovanna Morigi

    2007-03-20

    We derive an equation for the cooling dynamics of the quantum motion of an atom trapped by an external potential inside an optical resonator. This equation has broad validity and allows us to identify novel regimes where the motion can be efficiently cooled to the potential ground state. Our result shows that the motion is critically affected by quantum correlations induced by the mechanical coupling with the resonator, which may lead to selective suppression of certain transitions for the appropriate parameters regimes, thereby increasing the cooling efficiency.

  12. Ion Trap Array-Based Systems And Methods For Chemical Analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitten, William B [Oak Ridge, TN; Ramsey, J Michael [Knoxville, TN

    2005-08-23

    An ion trap-based system for chemical analysis includes an ion trap array. The ion trap array includes a plurality of ion traps arranged in a 2-dimensional array for initially confining ions. Each of the ion traps comprise a central electrode having an aperture, a first and second insulator each having an aperture sandwiching the central electrode, and first and second end cap electrodes each having an aperture sandwiching the first and second insulator. A structure for simultaneously directing a plurality of different species of ions out from the ion traps is provided. A spectrometer including a detector receives and identifies the ions. The trap array can be used with spectrometers including time-of-flight mass spectrometers and ion mobility spectrometers.

  13. Time-local view of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. II. Generalized Langevin equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Der, R.

    1987-01-01

    On a semiphenomenological level, generalized Langevin equations are usually obtained by adding a random force (RF) term to macroscopic deterministic equations assumed to be known. Here this procedure is made rigorous by conveniently redefining the RF, which is shown to be colored noise weakly correlated with the observables at earlier times due to the finite lifetime of microscopic events. Corresponding fluctuation-dissipation theorems are derived. Explicit expressions for the spectral density of the fluctuations are obtained in a particularly simple form, with the deviation of the line shape from the Lorentzian being related most explicitly to the spectral density of the RF. Well-known low-frequency expressions and the Einstein relation of (generalized) Brownian motion theory are modified so as to include lifetime effects. New sum rules are obtained relating dissipative quantities to contour integrals (in the complex frequency domain) over spectral densities or corresponding response functions. The Heisenberg dynamics of a complete set of macroobservables is shown to be equivalent to a generalized Orstein-Uhlenbeck stochastic process which is a non-Markovian process due to the lifetime effects.

  14. Neutron lifetime measurements using gravitationally trapped ultracold neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. P. Serebrov; V. E. Varlamov; A. G. Kharitonov; A. K. Fomin; Yu. N. Pokotilovski; P. Geltenbort; I. A. Krasnoschekova; M. S. Lasakov; R. R. Taldaev; A. V. Vassiljev; O. M. Zherebtsov

    2009-02-02

    Our experiment using gravitationally trapped ultracold neutrons (UCN) to measure the neutron lifetime is reviewed. Ultracold neutrons were trapped in a material bottle covered with perfluoropolyether. The neutron lifetime was deduced from comparison of UCN losses in the traps with different surface-to-volume ratios. The precise value of the neutron lifetime is of fundamental importance to particle physics and cosmology. In this experiment, the UCN storage time is brought closer to the neutron lifetime than in any experiments before:the probability of UCN losses from the trap was only 1% of that for neutron beta decay. The neutron lifetime obtained,878.5+/-0.7stat+/-0.3sys s, is the most accurate experimental measurement to date.

  15. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, Daniel D. (Livermore, CA); Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA)

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  16. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  17. Hydrodynamic enhanced dielectrophoretic particle trapping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miles, Robin R.

    2003-12-09

    Hydrodynamic enhanced dielectrophoretic particle trapping carried out by introducing a side stream into the main stream to squeeze the fluid containing particles close to the electrodes producing the dielelectrophoretic forces. The region of most effective or the strongest forces in the manipulating fields of the electrodes producing the dielectrophoretic forces is close to the electrodes, within 100 .mu.m from the electrodes. The particle trapping arrangement uses a series of electrodes with an AC field placed between pairs of electrodes, which causes trapping of particles along the edges of the electrodes. By forcing an incoming flow stream containing cells and DNA, for example, close to the electrodes using another flow stream improves the efficiency of the DNA trapping.

  18. Transport quantum logic gates for trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Leibfried; E. Knill; C. Ospelkaus; D. J. Wineland

    2007-08-28

    Many efforts are currently underway to build a device capable of large scale quantum information processing (QIP). Whereas QIP has been demonstrated for a few qubits in several systems, many technical difficulties must be overcome in order to construct a large-scale device. In one proposal for large-scale QIP, trapped ions are manipulated by precisely controlled light pulses and moved through and stored in multizone trap arrays. The technical overhead necessary to precisely control both the ion geometrical configurations and the laser interactions is demanding. Here we propose methods that significantly reduce the overhead on laser beam control for performing single and multiple qubit operations on trapped ions. We show how a universal set of operations can be implemented by controlled transport of ions through stationary laser beams. At the same time, each laser beam can be used to perform many operations in parallel, potentially reducing the total laser power necessary to carry out QIP tasks. The overall setup necessary for implementing transport gates is simpler than for gates executed on stationary ions. We also suggest a transport-based two-qubit gate scheme utilizing microfabricated permanent magnets that can be executed without laser light.

  19. Electronic Trap States in Methanofullerenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julia Schafferhans; Carsten Deibel; Vladimir Dyakonov

    2011-07-18

    The trap states in three fullerene derivatives, namely PC61BM ([6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester), bisPC61BM (bis[6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester) and PC71BM ([6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester), are investigated by thermally stimulated current measurements (TSC). Thereby, the lower limit of the trap densities for all studied methanofullerenes exhibits values in the order of 10^22 m^-3 with the highest trap density in bisPC61BM and the lowest in PC61BM. Fractional TSC measurements on PC61BM reveal a broad trap distribution instead of discrete trap levels with activation energies ranging from 15 meV to 270 meV and the maximum at about 75 meV. The activation energies of the most prominent traps in the other two fullerene derivatives are significantly higher, being at 96 meV and 223 meV for PC71BM and 184 meV for bisPC61BM, respectively. The influence of these findings on the performance of organic solar cells is discussed.

  20. Universal collisional activation ion trap mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, Scott A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Goeringer, Douglas E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Glish, Gary L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A universal collisional activation ion trap comprises an ion trapping means containing a bath gas and having connected thereto a noise signal generator. A method of operating a universal collisional activation ion trap comprises the steps of: providing an ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a bath gas; and, generating a noise signal within the ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a substance that, when acted upon by the noise signal, undergoes collisional activation to form product ions.

  1. Universal collisional activation ion trap mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Glish, G.L.

    1993-04-27

    A universal collisional activation ion trap comprises an ion trapping means containing a bath gas and having connected thereto a noise signal generator. A method of operating a universal collisional activation ion trap comprises the steps of: providing an ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a bath gas; and, generating a noise signal within the ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a substance that, when acted upon by the noise signal, undergoes collisional activation to form product ions.

  2. Effect of Residence Time on Ni-Sorption Mechanisms on Clay and Oxide Minerals: An X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Effect of Residence Time on Ni-Sorption Mechanisms on Clay and Oxide Minerals: An X-ray Absorption minerals is typically fast initially, then the rates gradually diminish. In the literature the decline

  3. Scaling of volume to surface ratio and doubling time in growing unicellular organisms: Do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov, E-mail: atanastod@abv.bg [Department of Physics and Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Trakia University, 11 Armeiska Str., 6000 Stara Zagora (Bulgaria)

    2014-10-06

    The scaling of physical and biological characteristics of the living organisms is a basic method for searching of new biophysical laws. In series of previous studies the author showed that in Poikilotherms, Mammals and Aves, the volume to surface ratio V×S{sup ?1} (m) of organisms is proportional to their generation time T{sub gt}(s) via growth rate v (m s{sup ?1}): V×S{sup ?1}?=?v{sub gr}×T{sup r}. The power and the correlation coefficients are near to 1.0. Aim of this study is: i) to prove with experimental data the validity of the above equation for Unicellular organisms and ii) to show that perhaps, the cells are quantum-mechanical systems. The data for body mass M (kg), density ? (kg/m{sup 3}), minimum and maximum doubling time T{sub dt} (s) for 50 unicellular organisms are assembled from scientific sources, and the computer program ‘Statistics’ is used for calculations. In result i) the analytical relationship from type: V×S{sup ?1}?=?4.46?10{sup ?11}×T{sub dt} was found, where v{sub gr}?=?4.46×10{sup ?11} m/s and ii) it is shown that the products between cell mass M, cell length expressed by V/S ratio and growth rate v{sub gr} satisfied the Heisenberg uncertainty principle i.e. the inequalities V/S×M×v{sub gr}>h/2? and T{sub dt}×M×v{sub gr}{sup 2}>h/2? are valid, where h= 6.626×10{sup ?34} J?s is the Planck constant. This rise the question: do cells appear quantum-mechanical systems?.

  4. Integrated photonic structures for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    We explore the mechanisms for an efficient light trapping structure for thin-film silicon solar cells. The design combines a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and periodic gratings. Using photonic band theories and numerical ...

  5. Fast transport of two ions in an anharmonic trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Palmero; E. Torrontegui; D. Guéry-Odelin; J. G. Muga

    2013-10-08

    We design fast trajectories of a trap to transport two ions using a shortcut-to-adiabaticity technique based on invariants. The effects of anharmonicity are analyzed first perturbatively, with an approximate, single relative-motion mode, description. Then we use classical calculations and full quantum calculations. This allows to identify discrete transport times that minimize excitation in the presence of anharmonicity. An even better strategy to suppress the effects of anharmonicity in a continuous range of transport times is to modify the trajectory using an effective trap frequency shifted with respect to the actual frequency by the coupling between relative and center of mass motions.

  6. Nonlocal Phases of Local Quantum Mechanical Wavefunctions in Static and Time-Dependent Aharonov-Bohm Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konstantinos Moulopoulos

    2010-09-17

    We show that the standard Dirac phase factor is not the only solution of the gauge transformation equations. The full form of a general gauge function (that connects systems that move in different sets of scalar and vector potentials), apart from Dirac phases also contains terms of classical fields that act nonlocally (in spacetime) on the local solutions of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation: the phases of wavefunctions in the Schr\\"odinger picture are affected nonlocally by spatially and temporally remote magnetic and electric fields, in ways that are fully explored. These contributions go beyond the usual Aharonov-Bohm effects (magnetic or electric). (i) Application to cases of particles passing through static magnetic or electric fields leads to cancellations of Aharonov-Bohm phases at the observation point; these are linked to behaviors at the semiclassical level (to the old Werner & Brill experimental observations, or their "electric analogs" - or to recent reports of Batelaan & Tonomura) but are shown to be far more general (true not only for narrow wavepackets but also for completely delocalized quantum states). By using these cancellations, certain previously unnoticed sign-errors in the literature are corrected. (ii) Application to time-dependent situations provides a remedy for erroneous results in the literature (on improper uses of Dirac phase factors) and leads to phases that contain an Aharonov-Bohm part and a field-nonlocal part: their competition is shown to recover Relativistic Causality in earlier "paradoxes" (such as the van Kampen thought-experiment), while a more general consideration indicates that the temporal nonlocalities found here demonstrate in part a causal propagation of phases of quantum mechanical wavefunctions in the Schr\\"odinger picture. This may open a direct way to address time-dependent double-slit experiments and the associated causal issues

  7. Residence Time Effects on Arsenate Adsorption/Desorption Mechanisms on Goethite S. E. O'Reilly,* D. G. Strawn, and D. L. Sparks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Residence Time Effects on Arsenate Adsorption/Desorption Mechanisms on Goethite S. E. O'Reilly,* D and desorption on goethite, and to combine spectro- Xu et al., 1988). For example, arsenate sorption on scopic x and Glaubig, 1988).showed that arsenate sorption on goethite increased with time. Sorp- Goethite ( ­Fe

  8. Highly Charged Ions in Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Penning Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guise, Nicholas D; Tan, Joseph N

    2013-01-01

    A newly constructed apparatus at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is designed for the isolation, manipulation, and study of highly charged ions. Highly charged ions are produced in the NIST electron-beam ion trap (EBIT), extracted through a beamline that selects a single mass/charge species, then captured in a compact Penning trap. The magnetic field of the trap is generated by cylindrical NdFeB permanent magnets integrated into its electrodes. In a room-temperature prototype trap with a single NdFeB magnet, species including Ne10+ and N7+ were confined with storage times of order 1 second, showing the potential of this setup for manipulation and spectroscopy of highly charged ions in a controlled environment. Ion capture has since been demonstrated with similar storage times in a more-elaborate Penning trap that integrates two coaxial NdFeB magnets for improved B-field homogeneity. Ongoing experiments utilize a second-generation apparatus that incorporates this two-magnet Penning tra...

  9. Surface-electrode point Paul trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Tony Hyun; Herskind, Peter F.; Chuang, Isaac L. [Center for Ultracold Atoms, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Kim, Taehyun; Kim, Jungsang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    We present a model as well as experimental results for a surface electrode radiofrequency Paul trap that has a circular electrode geometry well suited for trapping single ions and two-dimensional planar ion crystals. The trap design is compatible with microfabrication and offers a simple method by which the height of the trapped ions above the surface may be changed in situ. We demonstrate trapping of single {sup 88}Sr{sup +} ions over an ion height range of 200-1000 {mu}m for several hours under Doppler laser cooling and use these to characterize the trap, finding good agreement with our model.

  10. Hybrid particle traps and conditioning procedure for gas insulated transmission lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Steinar J. (Monroeville, PA); Cookson, Alan H. (Churchill, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner condor within the outer sheath, insulating supports supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath, and an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath. An apertured particle trapping ring is disposed within the outer sheath, and the trapping ring has a pair of dielectric members secured at each longitudinal end thereof, with the dielectric members extending outwardly from the trapping ring along an arc. A support sheet having an adhesive coating thereon is secured to the trapping ring and disposed on the outer sheath within the low field region formed between the trapping ring and the outer sheath. A conditioning method used to condition the transmission line prior to activation in service comprises applying an AC voltage to the inner conductor in a plurality of voltage-time steps, with the voltage-time steps increasing in voltage magnitude while decreasing in time duration.

  11. New novel cleaning technique for extending mean time between mechanical cleans in a Genus tungsten CVD reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lujan, R.D.; Fleming, J.G.; Baird, J.L.; Gentry, M.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Microelectronics Technologies

    1994-12-31

    During the chemical vapor deposition of blanket tungsten from the reduction of tungsten hexafluoride (WF{sub 6}), metallic parts within the reaction chamber accumulate metallic tungsten, tungsten oxyfluorides, and other related tungsten species. The usual method for removal of the chamber deposits is to open the chamber and perform a labor intensive mechanical clean, which involves the use of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and deionized (DI) water, or an in-situ fluorine-base plasma clean. The authors have investigated the use of repetitive in-situ nitrogen trifluoride (NF{sub 3}) plasma cleans during the course of operating a Genuse 8721 tungsten chemical vapor deposition reactor. The Genuse reactor has been retrofitted with self-ratchetting linear slides, which allow the wafer clamps to be extended into the NF{sub 3} plasma. They have extended the mean time between failures (MTBF) due to the use of 10 minute plasma clean every 75--100 wafers. Deposition for this process is 8,000 angstroms per wafer, using 6 deposition sites. The total tungsten deposition for a 0.5 micron tungsten plug is 4 microns, per a 25 wafer lot. Instead of a total removal of the accumulated tungsten from the chamber hardware, a partial etchback of the deposition from the wafer clamps and wafer chucks was performed. With this, sources for particles and backside deposition were eliminated. They see an increase in wafer-to-wafer uniformity, lot-to-lot repeatability, and particle reduction due to the use of frequent plasma clean. Recovery time after a plasma clean is excellent and no detrimental effects from hydrogen fluoride ``poisoning`` were seen.

  12. Holographic microscopy of holographically trapped

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weeks, Eric R.

    . Padgett, "Permanent 3D microstructures in a polymeric host created using holographic optical tweezers," J to organize microscopic materials into three-dimensional structures. In a complementary manner, holographicHolographic microscopy of holographically trapped three-dimensional structures Sang-Hyuk Lee

  13. A study of the regeneration process in diesel particulate traps using a copper fuel additive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, J.C.; Opris, C.N.; Baumgard, K.J.; Johnson, J.H. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The goals of this research are to understand the regeneration process in ceramic (Cordierite) monolith traps using a copper fuel additive and to investigate the various conditions that lead to trap regeneration failure. The copper additive lowers the trap regeneration temperature from approximately 500 C to 375 C and decreases the time necessary for regeneration. Because of these characteristics, it is important to understand the effect of the additive on regeneration when excessive particulate matter accumulation occurs in the trap. The effects of particulate mass loading on regeneration temperatures and regeneration time were studied for both the controlled (engine operated at full load rated speed) and uncontrolled conditions. The trap peak temperatures were higher for the uncontrolled than the controlled regeneration. The higher peak trap temperatures were predominantly controlled by the effect of the exhaust flow rates on the energy transfer processes. The total regeneration time was faster for the controlled regeneration compared to the uncontrolled regeneration. All traps passed the controlled regeneration tests having maximum temperatures less than 900 C. During the uncontrolled regeneration tests, trap failure occurred at 135 and 139 g particulate matter loadings. The maximum temperatures were in excess of 1,150 C. The pressure drop across the trap was modeled using the one dimensional Darcy`s law which accounted for the pressure drop due to the ceramic wall and the particulate layer. The experimental results for the substrate correlate well with the empirical substrate pressure drop models available in the literature. The models also enable an estimate to be made regarding trap mass loading. These data along with the laboratory data have indicated that mass loadings greater than 110 g followed by high temperature operation and subsequent engine idling can result in trap failures during regeneration.

  14. Noise and microresonance of critical current in Josephson junction induced by Kondo trap states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ansari, Mohammad H

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the impact of trap states in the oxide layer of a superconducting tunnel junctions, on the fluctuation of the Josephson critical current, thus on coherence in superconducting qubits. Two mechanisms are usually considered: the current blockage due to repulsion at the occupied trap states, and the noise from electrons hopping across a trap. We extend previous studies of noninteracting traps to the case where the traps have on-site electron repulsion inside one ballistic channel. The repulsion not only allows the appropriate temperature dependence of 1/f noise, but also is a control to the coupling between the computational qubit and the spurious two-level systems inside the oxide dielectric. We use second order perturbation theory which allows to obtain analytical formulae for the interacting bound states and spectral weights, limited to small and intermediate repulsions. Remarkably, it still reproduces the main features of the model as identified from the Numerical Renormalization Group. We present ...

  15. Ion-neutral sympathetic cooling in a hybrid linear rf Paul and magneto-optical trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, D S; Wells, J E; Narducci, F A; Smith, W W

    2012-01-01

    Long range polarization forces between ions and neutral atoms result in large elastic scattering cross sections, e.g., 10^6 a.u. for Na+ on Na or Ca+ on Na at cold and ultracold temperatures. This suggests that a hybrid ion-neutral trap should offer a general means for significant sympathetic cooling of atomic or molecular ions. We present SIMION 7.0 simulation results concerning the advantages and limitations of sympathetic cooling within a hybrid trap apparatus, consisting of a linear rf Paul trap concentric with a Na magneto-optical trap (MOT). This paper explores the impact of various heating mechanisms on the hybrid system and how parameters related to the MOT, Paul trap, number of ions, and ion species affect the efficiency of the sympathetic cooling.

  16. Ion-neutral sympathetic cooling in a hybrid linear rf Paul and magneto-optical trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. S. Goodman; I. Sivarajah; J. E. Wells; F. A. Narducci; W. W. Smith

    2012-08-31

    Long range polarization forces between ions and neutral atoms result in large elastic scattering cross sections, e.g., 10^6 a.u. for Na+ on Na or Ca+ on Na at cold and ultracold temperatures. This suggests that a hybrid ion-neutral trap should offer a general means for significant sympathetic cooling of atomic or molecular ions. We present SIMION 7.0 simulation results concerning the advantages and limitations of sympathetic cooling within a hybrid trap apparatus, consisting of a linear rf Paul trap concentric with a Na magneto-optical trap (MOT). This paper explores the impact of various heating mechanisms on the hybrid system and how parameters related to the MOT, Paul trap, number of ions, and ion species affect the efficiency of the sympathetic cooling.

  17. The Ramsey method in high-precision mass spectrometry with Penning traps: Experimental results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. George; K. Blaum; F. Herfurth; A. Herlert; M. Kretzschmar; S. Nagy; S. Schwarz; L. Schweikhard; C. Yazidjian

    2007-01-22

    The highest precision in direct mass measurements is obtained with Penning trap mass spectrometry. Most experiments use the interconversion of the magnetron and cyclotron motional modes of the stored ion due to excitation by external radiofrequency-quadrupole fields. In this work a new excitation scheme, Ramsey's method of time-separated oscillatory fields, has been successfully tested. It has been shown to reduce significantly the uncertainty in the determination of the cyclotron frequency and thus of the ion mass of interest. The theoretical description of the ion motion excited with Ramsey's method in a Penning trap and subsequently the calculation of the resonance line shapes for different excitation times, pulse structures, and detunings of the quadrupole field has been carried out in a quantum mechanical framework and is discussed in detail in the preceding article in this journal by M. Kretzschmar. Here, the new excitation technique has been applied with the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN for mass measurements on stable as well as short-lived nuclides. The experimental resonances are in agreement with the theoretical predictions and a precision gain close to a factor of four was achieved compared to the use of the conventional excitation technique.

  18. Quantum chaos of an ion trapped in a linear ion trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berman, Gennady P. [Theoretical Division T-13, and CNLS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Theoretical Division T-13, and CNLS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); James, Daniel F. V. [Theoretical Division T-4, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Theoretical Division T-4, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Kamenev, Dimitri I. [Theoretical Division T-13, and CNLS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States) [Theoretical Division T-13, and CNLS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Nizhny Novgorod State University, Nizhny Novgorod, 603600, Russia (Russian Federation)

    2000-06-01

    We describe the transition to quantum chaos of an ion trapped in a linear ion trap and interacting with two laser fields. Under the conditions of adiabatic illumination of the upper level of the ion, and when the frequencies of the two laser beams are slightly different, the system is reduced to a quantum linear oscillator interacting with a monochromatic wave. The property of localization over the quantum resonance cells is proposed to exploit in order to facilitate the process of measurement of the probability distribution of an ion on the vibrational levels. In the regime of strong chaos the time-averaged values of the energy and dispersion of energy are computed and compared with the corresponding classical quantities for different values of the perturbation amplitude. In the exact resonance case, the classical analog of the system possesses an infinite inhomogeneous stochastic web. We analyze the quantum dynamics inside the inhomogeneous web. It is shown that the quantum system mimics on average the dynamics of the corresponding classical system. Formation of the quantum resonance cells is illustrated in the case of a finite detuning from the exact resonance, and under increasing of the wave amplitude. The parameters of the model and the initial conditions are close to the real physical situation which can be realized in the system of cold trapped ion perturbed by two lasers fields with close frequencies. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  19. LASER COOLING AND TRAPPING OF NEUTRAL ATOMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orozco, Luis A.

    LASER COOLING AND TRAPPING OF NEUTRAL ATOMS Luis A. Orozco Department of Physics and Astronomy. Laser cooling and trapping is now an important tool for many spectroscopic studies. It enhances, 4]. In these notes I treat only very general aspects of laser cooling and trapping without

  20. Bohmian mechanics contradicts quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    Bohmian mechanics contradicts quantum mechanics Arnold Neumaier Institut fur Mathematik, Universit://solon.cma.univie.ac.at/#24;neum/ Abstract. It is shown that, for a harmonic oscillator in the ground state, Bohmian mechanics and quantum mechanics predict values of opposite sign for certain time correlations. The discrepancy can

  1. Carrier-free Raman manipulation of trapped neutral atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    René Reimann; Wolfgang Alt; Tobias Macha; Dieter Meschede; Natalie Thau; Seokchan Yoon; Lothar Ratschbacher

    2014-12-02

    We experimentally realize an enhanced Raman control scheme for neutral atoms that features an intrinsic suppression of the two-photon carrier transition, but retains the sidebands which couple to the external degrees of freedom of the trapped atoms. This is achieved by trapping the atom at the node of a blue detuned standing wave dipole trap, that acts as one field for the two-photon Raman coupling. The improved ratio between cooling and heating processes in this configuration enables a five times lower fundamental temperature limit for resolved sideband cooling. We apply this method to perform Raman cooling to the two-dimensional vibrational ground state and to coherently manipulate the atomic motion. The presented scheme requires minimal additional resources and can be applied to experiments with challenging optical access, as we demonstrate by our implementation for atoms strongly coupled to an optical cavity.

  2. Charge Trapping Characteristics of SONOS Capacitors with Control Gates of Different Work Functions during Program/Erase Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong Duk

    (3.2 eV), which gives higher probability of the electron tunneling from control gate to the silicon traps as its program mechanism. When a positive bias stress is applied on the control gate, electrons gate and top oxide tunnel into the silicon nitride layer and recombine with holes which are trapped

  3. Energy trapping from Hagedorn densities of states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connor Behan; Klaus Larjo; Nima Lashkari; Brian Swingle; Mark Van Raamsdonk

    2013-04-26

    In this note, we construct simple stochastic toy models for holographic gauge theories in which distributions of energy on a collection of sites evolve by a master equation with some specified transition rates. We build in only energy conservation, locality, and the standard thermodynamic requirement that all states with a given energy are equally likely in equilibrium. In these models, we investigate the qualitative behavior of the dynamics of the energy distributions for different choices of the density of states for the individual sites. For typical field theory densities of states (\\log(\\rho(E)) ~ E^{\\alphaenergy spread out relatively quickly. For large N gauge theories with gravitational duals, the density of states for a finite volume of field theory degrees of freedom typically includes a Hagedorn regime (\\log(\\rho(E)) ~ E). We find that this gives rise to a trapping of energy in subsets of degrees of freedom for parametrically long time scales before the energy leaks away. We speculate that this Hagedorn trapping may be part of a holographic explanation for long-lived gravitational bound states (black holes) in gravitational theories.

  4. Qualitative analysis of trapped Dirac fermions in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vit Jakubsky; David Krejcirik

    2015-01-07

    We study the confinement of Dirac fermions in graphene and in carbon nanotubes by an external magnetic field, mechanical deformations or inhomogeneities in the substrate. By applying variational principles to the square of the Dirac operator, we obtain sufficient and necessary conditions for confinement of the quasi-particles. The rigorous theoretical results are illustrated on the realistic examples of the three classes of traps.

  5. Qualitative analysis of trapped Dirac fermions in graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jakubský, Vít Krej?i?ík, David

    2014-10-15

    We study the confinement of Dirac fermions in graphene and in carbon nanotubes by an external magnetic field, mechanical deformations or inhomogeneities in the substrate. By applying variational principles to the square of the Dirac operator, we obtain sufficient and necessary conditions for confinement of the quasi-particles. The rigorous theoretical results are illustrated on the realistic examples of the three classes of traps.

  6. Microscale ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Witten, William B. (Lancing, TN); Kornienko, Oleg (Lansdale, PA)

    2002-01-01

    An ion trap for mass spectrometric chemical analysis of ions is delineated. The ion trap includes a central electrode having an aperture; a pair of insulators, each having an aperture; a pair of end cap electrodes, each having an aperture; a first electronic signal source coupled to the central electrode; a second electronic signal source coupled to the end cap electrodes. The central electrode, insulators, and end cap electrodes are united in a sandwich construction where their respective apertures are coaxially aligned and symmetric about an axis to form a partially enclosed cavity having an effective radius r.sub.0 and an effective length 2z.sub.0, wherein r.sub.0 and/or z.sub.0 are less than 1.0 mm, and a ratio z.sub.0 /r.sub.0 is greater than 0.83.

  7. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, K K; Bruzewicz, C D; Chuang, I L; Ram, R J; Sage, J M; Chiaverini, J

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This is the first demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware, in any modality, utilizing a commercial CMOS process, and it opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  8. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. K. Mehta; A. M. Eltony; C. D. Bruzewicz; I. L. Chuang; R. J. Ram; J. M. Sage; J. Chiaverini

    2014-06-13

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This is the first demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware, in any modality, utilizing a commercial CMOS process, and it opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  9. Laser cooling and sympathetic cooling in a linear quadrupole rf trap 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryjkov, Vladimir Leonidovich

    2005-02-17

    cooling method for the studies of large ultra-cold molecular ions in a quadrupole ion trap has been conducted. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the rf heating mecha- nisms in the ion trap. The dependence of rf heating rates on the ion... temperature, trapping parameters, and the number of ions is obtained. New rf heating mechanism affecting ultra-cold ion clouds exposed to laser radiation is described. The saturation spectroscopy setup of the hyperfine spectra of the molecular io- dine has...

  10. Optimized holographic optical traps Marco Polin, Kosta Ladavac, # SangHyuk Lee, Yael Roichman, and David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    approach for characterizing their performance. This combination makes possible real­time adaptive trap widely known as an optical tweezer [1]. Multiple beams of light pass­ ing simultaneously through­time characterization and optimization of entire arrays of traps through digital video microscopy. Such adaptive

  11. The Elimination of Steam Traps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickman, F.

    1985-01-01

    compile published data by three leading steam trap facturers. ANNUAL COST OF STEAM LOSS FOR 100 PSIG STEAM AT $5/1000 LBS. TgpOrlflce l18nul8ctuNf M.,utectu,., DI.mNr A' 84 1/." . $ 3,150 $ 2,313 e to from nu ufKluNf co 3,1711 1/4" $12,eoo $ 9...

  12. Residence Time Effects on P Sorption/Desorption on Ferrihydrite Understanding mechanisms of P retention/release on soil mineral surfaces is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Residence Time Effects on P Sorption/Desorption on Ferrihydrite Y. Arai Understanding mechanisms of P retention/release on soil mineral surfaces is fundamental in assessing the P biogeochemistry that are high ammonium oxalate extractable P, due to long-term manure amendments. Since there is a high

  13. Generation of spin-motion entanglement in a trapped ion using long-wavelength radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Lake; S. Weidt; J. Randall; E. Standing; S. C. Webster; W. K. Hensinger

    2014-11-13

    Applying a magnetic field gradient to a trapped ion allows long-wavelength microwave radiation to produce a mechanical force on the ion's motion when internal transitions are driven. We demonstrate such a coupling using a single trapped \\Yb{171}~ion, and use it to produce entanglement between the spin and motional state, an essential step towards using such a field gradient to implement multi-qubit operations.

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of Semiconductor Ion Traps for Quantum Information Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monroe, Christopher

    the cleanroom to fabricate ion traps in collaboration with Keith Schwab. His frequent fabrication advice memories of my time spent at LPS not just from the draining but strangely satisfying cleanroom work

  15. EFFECT OF PORE SIZE ON TRAPPING ZINC VAPORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.

    2010-12-17

    A series of experiments were conducted to determine the effect of pore size on pumping efficiency and zinc vapor trapping efficiency. A simple pumping efficiency test was conducted for all five pore diameters where it was observed that evacuation times were adversely affected by reducing the pore size below 5 {micro}m. Common test conditions for the zinc trapping efficiency experiments were used. These conditions resulted in some variability, to ascribe different efficiencies to the filter media. However, the data suggest that there is no significant difference in trapping efficiency for filter media with pores from 0.2 to 20 {micro}m with a thickness of 0.065-inch. Consequently, the 20 {micro}m pore filter media that is currently used at SRS is a suitable filter material for to utilize for future extractions. There is evidence that smaller pore filter will adversely affect the pumping times for the TEF and little evidence to suggest that a smaller pore diameters have significant impact on the trapping efficiency.

  16. Texas A&M Penning Trap Facility - Design of the Measurement Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Mehlman; D. Melconian; P. D. Shidling

    2012-08-20

    A tandem Penning trap facility has been designed and is under construction at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Institute (TAMU-TRAP). The initial experimental program will be the study of correlation parameters for T=2 superallowed beta-delayed proton emitters. The measurement trap is a unique large-bore optimized 5-electrode cylindrical Penning trap, which features a 90 mm free radius, larger than in any existing Penning trap. This novel geometry allows for full radial containment of decay products of interest. The trap has also been designed to exhibit a "tunable" and "orthogonalized" geometry, which is useful for alternate experiments.

  17. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansas Nuclear ProfileMultiferroicAwardElectron Trapping by Molecular

  18. Bohmian mechanics contradicts quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Neumaier

    2000-02-16

    It is shown that, for a harmonic oscillator in the ground state, Bohmian mechanics and quantum mechanics predict values of opposite sign for certain time correlations. The discrepancy can be explained by the fact that Bohmian mechanics has no natural way to accomodate the Heisenberg picture, since the local expectation values that define the beables of the theory depend on the Heisenberg time being used to define the operators. Relations to measurement are discussed, too, and shown to leave no loophole for claiming that Bohmian mechanics reproduces all predictions of quantum mechanics exactly.

  19. Physical Mechanisms of Interaction of Cold Plasma with Polymer Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bormashenko, Edward; Multanen, Victor; Shulzinger, Evgeny; Chaniel, Gilad

    2015-01-01

    Physical mechanisms of the interaction of cold plasmas with organic surfaces are discussed. Trapping of plasma ions by the CH2 groups of polymer surfaces resulting in their electrical charging is treated. Polyethylene surfaces were exposed to the cold radiofrequency air plasma for different intervals of time. The change in the wettability of these surfaces was registered. The experimentally established characteristic time scales of the interaction of cold plasma with polymer surfaces are inversely proportional to the concentration of ions. The phenomenological kinetic model of the electrical charging of polymer surfaces by plasmas is introduced and analyzed.

  20. Cavity sideband cooling of trapped molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Vivie-Riedle, Regina de [Department of Chemistry, Ludwig-Maximilian-Universitaet, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Morigi, Giovanna [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Theoretische Physik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Pinkse, Pepijn W. H. [MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    The efficiency of cavity sideband cooling of trapped molecules is theoretically investigated for the case in which the infrared transition between two rovibrational states is used as a cycling transition. The molecules are assumed to be trapped either by a radiofrequency or optical trapping potential, depending on whether they are charged or neutral, and confined inside a high-finesse optical resonator that enhances radiative emission into the cavity mode. Using realistic experimental parameters and COS as a representative molecular example, we show that in this setup, cooling to the trap ground state is feasible.

  1. Update on microkinetic modeling of lean NOx trap chemistry.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, Richard S.; Daw, C. Stuart (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Pihl, Josh A. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Choi, Jae-Soon (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Chakravarthy, V, Kalyana (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN)

    2010-04-01

    Our previously developed microkinetic model for lean NOx trap (LNT) storage and regeneration has been updated to address some longstanding issues, in particular the formation of N2O during the regeneration phase at low temperatures. To this finalized mechanism has been added a relatively simple (12-step) scheme that accounts semi-quantitatively for the main features observed during sulfation and desulfation experiments, namely (a) the essentially complete trapping of SO2 at normal LNT operating temperatures, (b) the plug-like sulfation of both barium oxide (NOx storage) and cerium oxide (oxygen storage) sites, (c) the degradation of NOx storage behavior arising from sulfation, (d) the evolution of H2S and SO2 during high temperature desulfation (temperature programmed reduction) under H2, and (e) the complete restoration of NOx storage capacity achievable through the chosen desulfation procedure.

  2. Trapping and guiding surface plasmons in curved graphene landscapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smirnova, Daria; Wang, Zheng; Kivshar, Yuri S; Khanikaev, Alexander B

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that graphene placed on top of structured substrates offers a novel approach for trapping and guiding surface plasmons. A monolayer graphene with a spatially varying curvature exhibits an effective trapping potential for graphene plasmons near curved areas such as bumps, humps and wells. We derive the governing equation for describing such localized channel plasmons guided by curved graphene and validate our theory by the first-principle numerical simulations. The proposed confinement mechanism enables plasmon guiding by the regions of maximal curvature, and it offers a versatile platform for manipulating light in planar landscapes. In addition, isolated deformations of graphene such as bumps are shown to support localized surface modes and resonances suggesting a new way to engineer plasmonic metasurfaces.

  3. Anode initiated impulse breakdown in water: the dependence on pulse rise time for nanosecond and sub-nanosecond pulses and initiation mechanism based on electrostriction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seepersad, Yohan; Dobrynin, Danil

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the voltage rise time on nanosecond and sub-nanosecond impulse breakdown of distilled water is studied. The dependence of anode initiated streamer inception on this parameter is shown to be more intricate than previously reported, particularly as it relates to mechanisms directly in the liquid phase. Dynamics of the emission phase for sub-nanosecond pulses with 600ps rise time are presented to enable comparison with previous work on nanosecond initiation features. Schlieren imaging is also used to show the development of optical density perturbations and rarefactions as a result of electrostriction in the liquid which were previously found for nanosecond pulses as well. The mechanism of nanopore generation in the liquid due to fast impulses proposed by Shneider, Pekker and Fridman is used to explain the results.

  4. Enhanced trapping of colding lithium by using the multiple-sideband cooling in a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Kai; Gao, Tianyou; Peng, Shi-Guo; Jiang, Kaijun

    2015-01-01

    Trapping lithium with a big number in a simplified experimental setup has difficulties and challenges today. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate the enhancement of \\textsuperscript{6}Li trapping efficiency in a three-dimensional magneto-optical trap (3D MOT) by using the multiple-sideband cooling in a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap (2D MOT). To improve the number of trapped atoms, we broaden the cooling light spectrum to 102 MHz composed of seven frequency components and then trap atoms with a number of $6.0\\times10^8$ which is about 4 times compared to that in the single-frequency cooling. The capture velocity and dependence of atomic number on the laser detuning have been analyzed, where the experimental result has a good agreement with the theoretical prediction based on a simple two-level model. We also analyze the loss rate of alkali metals due to fine-structure exchanging collisions and find that the multiple-sideband cooling is special valid for lithium.

  5. Coherence properties of nanofiber-trapped cesium atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reitz, D; Mitsch, R; Schneeweiss, P; Rauschenbeutel, A

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally study the ground state coherence properties of cesium atoms in a nanofiber-based two-color dipole trap, localized 200 nm away from the fiber surface. Using microwave radiation to coherently drive the clock transition, we record Ramsey fringes as well as spin echo signals and infer a reversible dephasing time $T_2^\\ast=0.6$ ms and an irreversible dephasing time $T_2^\\prime=3.7$ ms. By theoretically modelling the signals, we find that, for our experimental parameters, $T_2^\\ast$ and $T_2^\\prime$ are limited by the finite initial temperature of the atomic ensemble and the heating rate, respectively. Our results represent a fundamental step towards establishing nanofiber-based traps for cold atoms as a building block in an optical fiber quantum network.

  6. Coherence properties of nanofiber-trapped cesium atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Reitz; C. Sayrin; R. Mitsch; P. Schneeweiss; A. Rauschenbeutel

    2013-03-28

    We experimentally study the ground state coherence properties of cesium atoms in a nanofiber-based two-color dipole trap, localized 200 nm away from the fiber surface. Using microwave radiation to coherently drive the clock transition, we record Ramsey fringes as well as spin echo signals and infer a reversible dephasing time $T_2^\\ast=0.6$ ms and an irreversible dephasing time $T_2^\\prime=3.7$ ms. By theoretically modelling the signals, we find that, for our experimental parameters, $T_2^\\ast$ and $T_2^\\prime$ are limited by the finite initial temperature of the atomic ensemble and the heating rate, respectively. Our results represent a fundamental step towards establishing nanofiber-based traps for cold atoms as a building block in an optical fiber quantum network.

  7. Dipole Excitation With A Paul Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacAskill, J. A.; Madzunkov, S. M.; Chutjian, A. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Group, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Preliminary results are presented for the use of an auxiliary radiofrequency (rf) excitation voltage in combination with a high purity, high voltage rf generator to perform dipole excitation within a high precision Paul ion trap. These results show the effects of the excitation frequency over a continuous frequency range on the resultant mass spectra from the Paul trap with particular emphasis on ion ejection times, ion signal intensity, and peak shapes. Ion ejection times are found to decrease continuously with variations in dipole frequency about several resonant values and show remarkable symmetries. Signal intensities vary in a complex fashion with numerous resonant features and are driven to zero at specific frequency values. Observed intensity variations depict dipole excitations that target ions of all masses as well as individual masses. Substantial increases in mass resolution are obtained with resolving powers for nitrogen increasing from 114 to 325.

  8. Measurement of Ion Motional Heating Rates over a Range of Trap Frequencies and Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. D. Bruzewicz; J. M. Sage; J. Chiaverini

    2014-12-16

    We present measurements of the motional heating rate of a trapped ion at different trap frequencies and temperatures between $\\sim$0.6 and 1.5 MHz and $\\sim$4 and 295 K. Additionally, we examine the possible effect of adsorbed surface contaminants with boiling points below $\\sim$105$^{\\circ}$C by measuring the ion heating rate before and after locally baking our ion trap chip under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. We compare the heating rates presented here to those calculated from available electric-field noise models. We can tightly constrain a subset of these models based on their expected frequency and temperature scaling interdependence. Discrepancies between the measured results and predicted values point to the need for refinement of theoretical noise models in order to more fully understand the mechanisms behind motional trapped-ion heating.

  9. Optical trapping and rotation of airborne absorbing particles with a single focused laser beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jinda; Li, Yong-qing, E-mail: liy@ecu.edu [Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858-4353 (United States)] [Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858-4353 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We measure the periodic circular motion of single absorbing aerosol particles that are optically trapped with a single focused Gaussian beam and rotate around the laser propagation direction. The scattered light from the trapped particle is observed to be directional and change periodically at 0.4–20?kHz. The instantaneous positions of the moving particle within a rotation period are measured by a high-speed imaging technique using a charge coupled device camera and a repetitively pulsed light-emitting diode illumination. The centripetal acceleration of the trapped particle as high as ?20 times the gravitational acceleration is observed and is attributed to the photophoretic forces.

  10. Rare-earth neutral metal injection into an electron beam ion trap plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magee, E. W., E-mail: magee1@llnl.gov; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hell, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 96049 Bamberg (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    We have designed and implemented a neutral metal vapor injector on the SuperEBIT high-energy electron beam ion trap at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A horizontally directed vapor of a europium metal is created using a thermal evaporation technique. The metal vapor is then spatially collimated prior to injection into the trap. The source's form and quantity constraints are significantly reduced making plasmas out of metal with vapor pressures ?10{sup ?7} Torr at ?1000?°C more obtainable. A long pulsed or constant feed metal vapor injection method adds new flexibility by varying the timing of injection and rate of material being introduced into the trap.

  11. Detection of Fusion Neutrons on the Multimirror Trap GOL-3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdakov, A.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); England, A.C. [Korea Basic Science Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C.S. [Korea Basic Science Institute (Korea, Republic of); Koidan, V.S. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Kwon, M. [Korea Basic Science Institute (Korea, Republic of); Postupaev, V.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Rovenskikh, A.F. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Sulyaev, Yu.S. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2005-01-15

    Recently GOL-3 has been reconfigured to a multimirror trap with improved confinement and high ion temperature. A dense plasma is created with a life time in the millisecond range. BTI neutron bubble detectors, a stilbene scintillation crystal, a BC501A liquid scintillator, and a silver-activation counter have been used for measurements of the neutron emission from GOL-3. The results are in agreement with charge-exchange (CX), spectral broadening of the D{alpha} line, and diamagnetic measurements.

  12. Fast expansions and compressions of trapped-ion chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Palmero; S. Martínez-Garaot; J. Alonso; J. P. Home; J. G. Muga

    2015-02-03

    We investigate the dynamics under diabatic expansions/compressions of linear ion chains.Combining a dynamical normal-mode harmonic approximation with the invariant-based inverse-engineering technique, we design protocols that minimize the final motional excitation of the ions. This can substantially reduce the transition time between high and low trap-frequency operations, potentially contributing to the development of scalable quantum information processing.

  13. Photon trap for neutralization of negative ions beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, S S; Ivanov, A A; Kotelnikov, I A

    2015-01-01

    For effectively neutralization of the powerful negative ions beams of hydrogen and deuterium the photon target is considered in long time. The attractiveness of the traditional approach (Fabry-Perot resonators) to their creation is limited to a number of stringent technical requirements and large economic costs. In this paper we propose a new concept of non-resonant photon trap (storage) for creation more technologically simple optical neutralizers.

  14. Compression of Antiproton Clouds for Antihydrogen Trapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. B. Andresen; W. Bertsche; P. D. Bowe; C. C. Bray; E. Butler; C. L. Cesar; S. Chapman; M. Charlton; J. Fajans; M. C. Fujiwara; R. Funakoshi; D. R. Gill; J. S. Hangst; W. N. Hardy; R. S. Hayano; M. E. Hayden; R. Hydomako; M. J. Jenkins; L. V. Jorgensen; L. Kurchaninov; R. Lambo; N. Madsen; P. Nolan; K. Olchanski; A. Olin; A. Povilus; P. Pusa; F. Robicheaux; E. Sarid; S. Seif El Nasr; D. M. Silveira; J. W. Storey; R. I. Thompson; D. P. van der Werf; J. S. Wurtele; Y. Yamazaki

    2008-06-30

    Control of the radial profile of trapped antiproton clouds is critical to trapping antihydrogen. We report the first detailed measurements of the radial manipulation of antiproton clouds, including areal density compressions by factors as large as ten, by manipulating spatially overlapped electron plasmas. We show detailed measurements of the near-axis antiproton radial profile and its relation to that of the electron plasma.

  15. Holographic optical trapping David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Holographic optical trapping David G. Grier Yael Roichman Department of Physics and Center for Soft Matter Research, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 Holographic optical tweezers­beam optical traps use­ ful for capturing, moving and transforming mesoscopic objects. Through a combination

  16. Holographic optical trapping David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Holographic optical trapping David G. Grier Yael Roichman Department of Physics and Center for Soft Matter Research, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 Holographic optical tweezers-beam optical traps use- ful for capturing, moving and transforming mesoscopic objects. Through a combination

  17. Enhanced Magnetic Trap Loading for Atomic Strontium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barker, D S; Pisenti, N C; Campbell, G K

    2015-01-01

    We report on a technique to improve the continuous loading of atomic strontium into a magnetic trap from a Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT). This is achieved by adding a depumping laser tuned to the 3P1 to 3S1 (688-nm) transition. The depumping laser increases atom number in the magnetic trap and subsequent cooling stages by up to 65 % for the bosonic isotopes and up to 30 % for the fermionic isotope of strontium. We optimize this trap loading strategy with respect to the 688-nm laser detuning, intensity, and beam size. To understand the results, we develop a one-dimensional rate equation model of the system, which is in good agreement with the data. We discuss the use of other transitions in strontium for accelerated trap loading and the application of the technique to other alkaline-earth-like atoms.

  18. Fast transitionless expansions of Gaussian anharmonic traps for cold atoms: bang-singular-bang control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao-Jing Lu; Xi Chen; J. Alonso; J. G. Muga

    2014-01-07

    Combining invariant-based inverse engineering, perturbation theory, and Optimal Control Theory, we design fast, transitionless expansions of cold neutral atoms or ions in Gaussian anharmonic traps. Bounding the possible trap frequencies and using a "bang-singular-bang" control we find fast processes for a continuum of durations up to a minimum time that corresponds to a purely bang-bang (stepwise frequency constant) control.

  19. A quantum mechanical relation connecting time, temperature, and cosmological constant of the universe: Gamow's relation revisited as a special case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subodha Mishra

    2007-06-13

    Considering our expanding universe as made up of gravitationally interacting particles which describe particles of luminous matter and dark matter and dark energy which is described by a repulsive harmonic potential among the points in the flat 3-space, we derive a quantum mechanical relation connecting, temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation, age, and cosmological constant of the universe. When the cosmological constant is zero, we get back the Gamow's relation with a much better coefficient. Otherwise, our theory predicts a value of the cosmological constant $2.0 10^{-56} {\\rm {cm^{-2}}}$ when the present values of cosmic microwave background temperature of 2.728 K and age of the universe 14 billion years are taken as input.

  20. When a trap is not a trap: converging entry and exit rates and their effect on trap saturation of black sea bass (Centropristis striata)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at50 min, when the entry ratedeclined and the exit rate increased to a point where their confidenceWhen a trap is not a trap: converging entry and exit rates and their effect on trap saturation entries and exits of black sea bass (Centropristis striata) from chevron traps (n ¼ 26) to quantify catch

  1. Benchmark Reaction Mechanisms and Kinetics for Lean NOx Traps...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. acep01larson.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Chemical Kinetic Models for...

  2. Hydrogen trapping in bearing steels: mechanisms and alloy design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szost, Blanka Angelika

    2013-02-05

    diffusion into the steel microstructure from lubricant decomposi- tion [1]. 8 Embrittlement caused by hydrogen entering the steel from oil was reported also in an oil-hydraulic unit [16], and the feeding line of an oil refinery [17]. The results show... of dislocations against a grain boundary in vacuum (black numbers and dislocation lines) and an image taken from the same pile-up at constant stress, after introduction of 95 torr of hydrogen gas in the environmental cell (white numbers and dislocation lines...

  3. Benchmark Reaction Mechanisms and Kinetics for Lean NOx Traps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland.

  4. Benchmark Reaction Mechanisms and Kinetics for Lean NOx Traps | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Researchof Energy andandBeforeof Energy Beforeof Energy

  5. The effects of deep level traps on the electrical properties of semi-insulating CdZnTe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zha, Gangqiang; Yang, Jian; Xu, Lingyan; Feng, Tao; Wang, Ning; Jie, Wanqi

    2014-01-28

    Deep level traps have considerable effects on the electrical properties and radiation detection performance of high resistivity CdZnTe. A deep-trap model for high resistivity CdZnTe was proposed in this paper. The high resistivity mechanism and the electrical properties were analyzed based on this model. High resistivity CdZnTe with high trap ionization energy E{sub t} can withstand high bias voltages. The leakage current is dependent on both the deep traps and the shallow impurities. The performance of a CdZnTe radiation detector will deteriorate at low temperatures, and the way in which sub-bandgap light excitation could improve the low temperature performance can be explained using the deep trap model.

  6. Emittance and Current of Electrons Trapped in a Plasma Wakefield...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Emittance and Current of Electrons Trapped in a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Emittance and Current of Electrons Trapped in a Plasma...

  7. Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implication...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implications in Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Charge Trapping in...

  8. Atom-Probe Tomographic Measurement of Trapped Hydrogen Isotopes...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Atom-Probe Tomographic Measurement of Trapped Hydrogen Isotopes Atom-Probe Tomographic Measurement of Trapped Hydrogen Isotopes Presentation from the 34th Tritium Focus Group...

  9. Compliant mechanisms 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkataraghavan, Janarthanan T

    2001-01-01

    and a few mechanisms like a magneto active peristaltic pump, have been designed and tested for the first time using this material. In this mechanism, the pumping action is obtained when a moving magnetic field produces peristaltic waves in the magneto...

  10. Noise and microresonance of critical current in Josephson junction induced by Kondo trap states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammad H. Ansari; Frank K. Wilhelm

    2011-12-01

    We analyze the impact of trap states in the oxide layer of a superconducting tunnel junctions, on the fluctuation of the Josephson critical current, thus on coherence in superconducting qubits. Two mechanisms are usually considered: the current blockage due to repulsion at the occupied trap states, and the noise from electrons hopping across a trap. We extend previous studies of noninteracting traps to the case where the traps have on-site electron repulsion inside one ballistic channel. The repulsion not only allows the appropriate temperature dependence of 1/f noise, but also is a control to the coupling between the computational qubit and the spurious two-level systems inside the oxide dielectric. We use second order perturbation theory which allows to obtain analytical formulae for the interacting bound states and spectral weights, limited to small and intermediate repulsions. Remarkably, it still reproduces the main features of the model as identified from the Numerical Renormalization Group. We present analytical formulations for the subgap bound state energies, the singlet-doublet phase boundary, and the spectral weights. We show that interactions can reverse the supercurrent across the trap. We finally work out the spectrum of junction resonators for qubits in the presence of on-site repulsive electrons and analyze its dependence on microscopic parameters that may be controlled by fabrication.

  11. Location Of Hole And Electron Traps On Nanocrystalline Anatase TiO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mercado, Candy C.; Knorr, Fritz J.; McHale, Jeanne L.; Usmani, Shirin M.; Ichimura, Andrew S.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.

    2012-05-17

    The defect photoluminescence from TiO2 nanoparticles in the anatase phase is reported for nanosheets which expose predominantly (001) surfaces, and compared to that from conventional anatase nanoparticles which expose mostly (101) surfaces. Also reported is the weak defect photoluminescence of TiO2 nanotubes, which we find using electron back-scattered diffraction to consist of walls which expose (110) and (100) facets. The nanotubes exhibit photoluminescence that is blue-shifted and much weaker than that from conventional TiO2 nanoparticles. Despite the preponderance of (001) surfaces in the nanosheet samples, they exhibit photoluminescence similar to that of conventional nanoparticles. We assign the broad visible photoluminescence of anatase nanoparticles to two overlapping distributions: hole trap emission associated with oxygen vacancies on (101) exposed surfaces, which peaks in the green, and a broader emission extending into the red which results from electron traps on under-coordinated titanium atoms, which are prevalent on (001) facets. The results of this study suggest how morphology of TiO2 nanoparticles could be optimized to control the distribution and activity of surface traps. Our results also shed light on the mechanism by which the TiCl4 surface treatment heals traps on anatase and mixed-phase TiO2 films, and reveals distinct differences in the trap-state distributions of TiO2 nanoparticles and nanotubes. The molecular basis for electron and hole traps and their spatial separation on different facets is discussed.

  12. The time as an emergent property of quantum mechanics, a synthetic description of a first experimental approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E Moreva; G Brida; M Gramegna; V Giovannetti; L Maccone; M Genovese

    2015-02-11

    The "problem of time" in present physics substantially consists in the fact that a straightforward quantization of the general relativistic evolution equation and constraints generates for the Universe wave function the Wheeler-De Witt equation, which describes a static Universe. Page and Wootters considered the fact that there exist states of a system composed by entangled subsystems that are stationary, but one can interpret the component subsystems as evolving: this leads them to suppose that the global state of the universe can be envisaged as one of this static entangled state, whereas the state of the subsystems can evolve. Here we synthetically present an experiment, based on PDC polarization entangled photons, that allows showing with a practical example a situation where this idea works, i.e. a subsystem of an entangled state works as a "clock" of another subsystem.

  13. Trapping efficiency depending on particulate size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayer, A.; Czerwinski, J.; Scheidegger, P.

    1996-09-01

    There is growing concern about the risk potential of Diesel particulates. This prompted two Swiss R and D projects focused on the capabilities of different soot trap concepts for filtering finest particulates. Eight different filter media, some in numerous variants, were tested on four different Diesel engines. All traps attained their gravimetric target. However, there are noticeable performance differences for finest particulates at or smaller than 50 nm. Fiber deep filters seem to be noticeably better than other filter types. If the carcinogens are mainly the finest particulates, then this criterion may become important in future trap evaluation.

  14. Nuclear spin qubits in a trapped-ion quantum computer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Feng; Y. Y. Xu; F. Zhou; D. Suter

    2009-04-26

    Physical systems must fulfill a number of conditions to qualify as useful quantum bits (qubits) for quantum information processing, including ease of manipulation, long decoherence times, and high fidelity readout operations. Since these conditions are hard to satisfy with a single system, it may be necessary to combine different degrees of freedom. Here we discuss a possible system, based on electronic and nuclear spin degrees of freedom in trapped ions. The nuclear spin yields long decoherence times, while the electronic spin, in a magnetic field gradient, provides efficient manipulation, and the optical transitions of the ions assure a selective and efficient initialization and readout.

  15. All-Optical BEC in a 1.06 micron dipole trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. J. Arnold; M. D. Barrett

    2011-05-10

    We report the all-optical production of a Rb87 Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a simple 1.06 micron dipole trap experiment. We load a single beam dipole trap directly from a magneto-optic trap (MOT) using an optimized loading sequence. After evaporation in the single beam, a second crossed beam is used for compression. The intensity in both beams is then reduced for evaporation to BEC. We obtain a BEC with 3.5E4 atoms after 3 seconds of total evaporation time. We also give a detailed account of the thermal distribution in cross beam traps. This account highlights the possible difficulties in using shorter wavelength lasers to condense all optically.

  16. Nonlinear Spectroscopy of Trapped Ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank Schlawin; Manuel Gessner; Shaul Mukamel; Andreas Buchleitner

    2014-10-07

    Nonlinear spectroscopy employs a series of laser pulses to interrogate dynamics in large interacting many-body systems, and has become a highly successful method for experiments in chemical physics. Current quantum optical experiments approach system sizes and levels of complexity which require the development of efficient techniques to assess spectral and dynamical features with scalable experimental overhead. However, established methods from optical spectroscopy of macroscopic ensembles cannot be applied straightforwardly to few-atom systems. Based on the ideas proposed in [M. Gessner et al. New J. Phys. 16 092001 (2014)], we develop a diagrammatic approach to construct nonlinear measurement protocols for controlled quantum systems and discuss experimental implementations with trapped ion technology in detail. These methods in combination with distinct features of ultra-cold matter systems allow us to monitor and analyze excitation dynamics in both the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom. They are independent of system size, and can therefore reliably probe systems where, e.g., quantum state tomography becomes prohibitively expensive. We propose signals that can probe steady state currents, detect the influence of anharmonicities on phonon transport, and identify signatures of chaotic dynamics near a quantum phase transition in an Ising-type spin chain.

  17. Note: A novel design of a microwave feed for a microwave frequency standard with a linear ion trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J. W., E-mail: zhangjw@tsinghua.edu.cn; Miao, K.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, Z. B. [NIM-THU Joint Institute for Measurement Science (JMI), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Precision Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Linear ion traps are important tools in many applications, particularly in mass spectrum analyzers and frequency standards. Here a novel design of a microwave feed integrated into one electrode of a linear quadrupole ion trap is demonstrated for the application of a microwave frequency standard based on cadmium ions. The mechanical structure of the microwave feed is compact and easy to build. The ion trap integrated with this microwave feed is successfully applied to measure the hyperfine splitting of the ground state of {sup 113}Cd{sup +}, thus demonstrating the practicality and reliability of the microwave feed.

  18. Bottlenecks to vibrational energy flow in OCS: Structures and mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paškauskas, R; Uzer, T

    2008-01-01

    Finding the causes for the nonstatistical vibrational energy relaxation in the planar carbonyl sulfide (OCS) molecule is a longstanding problem in chemical physics: Not only is the relaxation incomplete long past the predicted statistical relaxation time, but it also consists of a sequence of abrupt transitions between long-lived regions of localized energy modes. We report on the phase space bottlenecks responsible for this slow and uneven vibrational energy flow in this Hamiltonian system with three degrees of freedom. They belong to a particular class of two-dimensional invariant tori which are organized around elliptic periodic orbits. We relate the trapping and transition mechanisms with the linear stability of these structures.

  19. Bottlenecks to vibrational energy flow in OCS: Structures and mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Paškauskas; C. Chandre; T. Uzer

    2008-11-27

    Finding the causes for the nonstatistical vibrational energy relaxation in the planar carbonyl sulfide (OCS) molecule is a longstanding problem in chemical physics: Not only is the relaxation incomplete long past the predicted statistical relaxation time, but it also consists of a sequence of abrupt transitions between long-lived regions of localized energy modes. We report on the phase space bottlenecks responsible for this slow and uneven vibrational energy flow in this Hamiltonian system with three degrees of freedom. They belong to a particular class of two-dimensional invariant tori which are organized around elliptic periodic orbits. We relate the trapping and transition mechanisms with the linear stability of these structures.

  20. Energy Savings Through Steam Trap Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbs, C.

    2008-01-01

    of continuous monitoring. In addition to energy loss failed open steam traps that go undetected can cause steam system issues. Over pressure on deairator tanks and return lines, electric condensate pump cavitation, and back pressure from undersized vent...

  1. Trapping cold rubidium in a fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, David Ross, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, we demonstrate the novel technique of loading cold ??Rb into a red-detuned optical dipole trap within a hollow core photonic fiber. This confines the atoms to 6 microns in two dimensions. We initially cooled ...

  2. A quantum information processor with trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schindler, Philipp

    Quantum computers hold the promise to solve certain problems exponentially faster than their classical counterparts. Trapped atomic ions are among the physical systems in which building such a computing device seems viable. ...

  3. Millikelvin cooling of an optically trapped microsphere in vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tongcang Li; Simon Kheifets; Mark G. Raizen

    2011-01-07

    The apparent conflict between general relativity and quantum mechanics remains one of the unresolved mysteries of the physical world. According to recent theories, this conflict results in gravity-induced quantum state reduction of "Schr\\"odinger cats", quantum superpositions of macroscopic observables. In recent years, great progress has been made in cooling micromechanical resonators towards their quantum mechanical ground state. This work is an important step towards the creation of Schr\\"odinger cats in the laboratory, and the study of their destruction by decoherence. A direct test of the gravity-induced state reduction scenario may therefore be within reach. However, a recent analysis shows that for all systems reported to date, quantum superpositions are destroyed by environmental decoherence long before gravitational state reduction takes effect. Here we report optical trapping of glass microspheres in vacuum with high oscillation frequencies, and cooling of the center-of-mass motion from room temperature to a minimum temperature of 1.5 mK. This new system eliminates the physical contact inherent to clamped cantilevers, and can allow ground-state cooling from room temperature. After cooling, the optical trap can be switched off, allowing a microsphere to undergo free-fall in vacuum. During free-fall, light scattering and other sources of environmental decoherence are absent, so this system is ideal for studying gravitational state reduction. A cooled optically trapped object in vacuum can also be used to search for non-Newtonian gravity forces at small scales, measure the impact of a single air molecule, and even produce Schr\\"odinger cats of living organisms.

  4. Dynamical traps and chaotic advection in a meandering jet flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. V. Budyansky; M. Yu. Uleysky; S. V. Prants

    2012-02-02

    We continue our study of chaotic mixing and transport of passive particles in a simple model of a meandering jet flow [Prants, et al, Chaos {\\bf 16}, 033117 (2006)]. In the present paper we study and explain phenomenologically a connection between dynamical, topological, and statistical properties of chaotic mixing and transport in the model flow in terms of dynamical traps, singular zones in the phase space where particles may spend arbitrary long but finite time [Zaslavsky, Phys. D {\\bf 168--169}, 292 (2002)]. The transport of passive particles is described in terms of lengths and durations of zonal flights which are events between two successive changes of sign of zonal velocity. Some peculiarities of the respective probability density functions for short flights are proven to be caused by the so-called rotational-islands traps connected with the boundaries of resonant islands (including those of the vortex cores) filled with the particles moving in the same frame. Whereas, the statistics of long flights can be explained by the influence of the so-called ballistic-islands traps filled with the particles moving from a frame to frame.

  5. Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering This presentation presents the stability analysis of time- delay of the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, where he has Gu Dept. of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville March 27

  6. Resonant interaction of trapped cold atoms with a magnetic cantilever tip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montoya, Cris; Geraci, Andrew A; Eardley, Matthew; Moreland, John; Hollberg, Leo; Kitching, John

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance in an ensemble of laser-cooled trapped Rb atoms is excited using a micro- cantilever with a magnetic tip. The cantilever is mounted on a multi-layer chip designed to capture, cool, and magnetically transport cold atoms. The coupling is observed by measuring the loss from a magnetic trap as the oscillating cantilever induces Zeeman state transitions in the atoms. Interfacing cold atoms with mechanical devices could enable probing and manipulating atomic spins with nanometer spatial resolution and single-spin sensitivity, leading to new capabilities in quantum computation, quantum simulation, or precision sensing.

  7. Resonant interaction of trapped cold atoms with a magnetic cantilever tip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cris Montoya; Jose Valencia; Andrew A. Geraci; Matthew Eardley; John Moreland; Leo Hollberg; John Kitching

    2015-03-26

    Magnetic resonance in an ensemble of laser-cooled trapped Rb atoms is excited using a micro- cantilever with a magnetic tip. The cantilever is mounted on a multi-layer chip designed to capture, cool, and magnetically transport cold atoms. The coupling is observed by measuring the loss from a magnetic trap as the oscillating cantilever induces Zeeman state transitions in the atoms. Interfacing cold atoms with mechanical devices could enable probing and manipulating atomic spins with nanometer spatial resolution and single-spin sensitivity, leading to new capabilities in quantum computation, quantum simulation, or precision sensing.

  8. Observations of indirect exciton trapping in one- and two-dimensional magnetic lattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed M. Abdelrahman; Byoung S. Ham

    2012-02-23

    A simple method to create and control magnetic potentials onto coupled quantum wells is demonstrated for indirect-exciton magnetic confinement. Localized inhomogeneous magnetic potentials with periodically distributed local minima and maxima, known as magnetic lattices, are projected into the plane of the coupled quantum wells and used for the spatially distributed two-dimensional indirect-exciton trapping, in which case localized indirect-excitons are observed. The indirect-exciton trapping mechanism is examined by controlling external magnetic field bias resulting in a shift of the localized excitonic lattice.

  9. Transport of ions in a segmented linear Paul trap in printed-circuit-board technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Huber; T. Deuschle; W. Schnitzler; R. Reichle; K. Singer; F. Schmidt-Kaler

    2007-11-19

    We describe the construction and operation of a segmented linear Paul trap, fabricated in printed-circuit-board technology with an electrode segment width of 500 microns. We prove the applicability of this technology to reliable ion trapping and report the observation of Doppler cooled ion crystals of Ca-40 with this kind of traps. Measured trap frequencies agree with numerical simulations at the level of a few percent from which we infer a high fabrication accuracy of the segmented trap. To demonstrate its usefulness and versatility for trapped ion experiments we study the fast transport of a single ion. Our experimental results show a success rate of 99.0(1)% for a transport distance of 2x2mm in a round-trip time of T=20us, which corresponds to 4 axial oscillations only. We theoretically and experimentally investigate the excitation of oscillations caused by fast ion transports with error-function voltage ramps: For a slightly slower transport (a round-trip shuttle within T=30us) we observe non-adiabatic motional excitation of 0.89(15)meV.

  10. Effect of dislocation trapping on deuterium diffusion in deformed, single-crystal Pd

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heuser, B.J.; King, J.S.

    1998-06-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to characterize deuterium trapping at dislocations in deformed, single-crystal Pd during in situ gas evolution experiments. Two methods of deformation were employed--cold rolling and hydride cycling--which create different dislocation arrangements or substructures in Pd. The reduction of the trapped deuterium concentration at dislocations during evolution was directly monitored with SANS. Exponential decay rates of the trapped concentration were observed for both sample types, as is expected in a bulk diffusion process modified by the dislocation trapping interaction. The deuterium concentration reduction proceeded 1.2 to 1.4 times faster in the cold-rolled sample material than in the cycled material. This is attributed to the presence of a smaller number of dislocation trapping sites in the cold-rolled material. The binding energy of deuterium at dislocations was determined by applying a diffusion-based model. A binding energy of 0.20 eV was found to characterize the trapping interaction in both cold-rolled and hydride-cycled Pd.

  11. Milling time and temperature dependence on Fe{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} nanoparticles synthesized by mechanical alloying method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fajarin, R. Purwaningsih, H. Widyastuti, Susanti, D. Helmy, R. Kurnia

    2014-09-25

    Fe{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} is one type of titanate oxides which has M{sub x}Ti{sub y}O{sub z} crystal structure. It has various kinds of applications due to its electric and magnetic properties such as spintronics, electromagnetic devices, and gas sensor. In this study, Fe{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} nanoparticles were synthesized by simple mechanical alloying using planetary ball milling machine with various milling times and sintering temperatures. TiO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders obtained from coprecipitation process were used as starting materials. The resulted Fe{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} powders were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Vibration Sample Magnetometer (VSM) in order to observe crystal quality, particles morphology, and magnetic properties respectively. As the milling time increases and the sintering temperature decreases, the crystal size of Fe{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} phase decreases. The smallest crystal size of the synthesized Fe{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} nanoparticles was ? 51 nm obtained by the milling time of 25 hours and sintering at 1100°C. The distribution of the resulted Fe{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} nanoparticles was not so homogeneous due to the appearance of small amount impurities. The VSM measurements show that a paramagnetic property was observed which should be analyzed more details on the low external magnetic fields.

  12. Quantum control of the motional states of trapped ions through fast switching of trapping potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Alonso; F. M. Leupold; B. C. Keitch; J. P. Home

    2012-12-21

    We propose a new scheme for supplying voltages to the electrodes of microfabricated ion traps, enabling access to a regime in which changes to the trapping potential are made on timescales much shorter than the period of the secular oscillation frequencies of the trapped ions. This opens up possibilities for speeding up the transport of ions in segmented ion traps and also provides access to control of multiple ions in a string faster than the Coulomb interaction between them. We perform a theoretical study of ion transport using these methods in a surface-electrode trap, characterizing the precision required for a number of important control parameters. We also consider the possibilities and limitations for generating motional state squeezing using these techniques, which could be used as a basis for investigations of Gaussian-state entanglement.

  13. Multi-particle trapping and manipulation by a high-frequency array transducer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Changhan; Kang, Bong Jin; Lee, Changyang; Kim, Hyung Ham Shung, K. Kirk

    2014-11-24

    We report the multiple micro-particle trapping and manipulation by a single-beam acoustic tweezer using a high-frequency array transducer. A single acoustic beam generated by a 30?MHz ultrasonic linear array transducer can entrap and transport multiple micro-particles located at the main lobe and the grating lobes. The distance between trapped particles can be adjusted by changing the transmit arrangement of array-based acoustic tweezers and subsequently the location of grating lobes. The experiment results showed that the proposed method can trap and manipulate multiple particles within a range of hundreds of micrometers. Due to its simplicity and low acoustic power, which is critical to protect cells from any thermal and mechanical damages, the technique may be used for transportation of cells in cell biology, biosensors, and tissue engineering.

  14. Ball-grid array architecture for microfabricated ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas D. Guise; Spencer D. Fallek; Kelly E. Stevens; K. R. Brown; Curtis Volin; Alexa W. Harter; Jason M. Amini; Robert E. Higashi; Son Thai Lu; Helen M. Chanhvongsak; Thi A. Nguyen; Matthew S. Marcus; Thomas R. Ohnstein; Daniel W. Youngner

    2015-05-05

    State-of-the-art microfabricated ion traps for quantum information research are approaching nearly one hundred control electrodes. We report here on the development and testing of a new architecture for microfabricated ion traps, built around ball-grid array (BGA) connections, that is suitable for increasingly complex trap designs. In the BGA trap, through-substrate vias bring electrical signals from the back side of the trap die to the surface trap structure on the top side. Gold-ball bump bonds connect the back side of the trap die to an interposer for signal routing from the carrier. Trench capacitors fabricated into the trap die replace area-intensive surface or edge capacitors. Wirebonds in the BGA architecture are moved to the interposer. These last two features allow the trap die to be reduced to only the area required to produce trapping fields. The smaller trap dimensions allow tight focusing of an addressing laser beam for fast single-qubit rotations. Performance of the BGA trap as characterized with $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions is comparable to previous surface-electrode traps in terms of ion heating rate, mode frequency stability, and storage lifetime. We demonstrate two-qubit entanglement operations with $^{171}$Yb$^+$ ions in a second BGA trap.

  15. INFLUENCE OF FILM STRUCTURE AND LIGHT ON CHARGE TRAPPING AND DISSIPATION DYNAMICS IN SPUN-CAST ORGANIC THIN-FILM TRANSISTORS MEASURED BY SCANNING KELVIN PROBE MICROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teague, L.; Moth, M.; Anthony, J.

    2012-05-03

    Herein, time-dependent scanning Kelvin probe microscopy of solution processed organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) reveals a correlation between film microstructure and OTFT device performance with the location of trapped charge within the device channel. The accumulation of the observed trapped charge is concurrent with the decrease in I{sub SD} during operation (V{sub G}=-40 V, V{sub SD}= -10 V). We discuss the charge trapping and dissipation dynamics as they relate to the film structure and show that application of light quickly dissipates the observed trapped charge.

  16. Signal enhancement using a switchable magnetic trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald (Pleasanton, CA)

    2012-05-29

    A system for analyzing a sample including providing a microchannel flow channel; associating the sample with magnetic nanoparticles or magnetic polystyrene-coated beads; moving the sample with said magnetic nanoparticles or magnetic polystyrene-coated beads in the microchannel flow channel; holding the sample with the magnetic nanoparticles or magnetic polystyrene-coated beads in a magnetic trap in the microchannel flow channel; and analyzing the sample obtaining an enhanced analysis signal. An apparatus for analysis of a sample includes magnetic particles connected to the sample, a microchip, a flow channel in the microchip, a source of carrier fluid connected to the flow channel for moving the sample in the flow channel, an electromagnet trap connected to the flow line for selectively magnetically trapping the sample and the magnetic particles, and an analyzer for analyzing the sample.

  17. Screening the Hanford tanks for trapped gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, P.

    1995-10-01

    The Hanford Site is home to 177 large, underground nuclear waste storage tanks. Hydrogen gas is generated within the waste in these tanks. This document presents the results of a screening of Hanford`s nuclear waste storage tanks for the presence of gas trapped in the waste. The method used for the screening is to look for an inverse correlation between waste level measurements and ambient atmospheric pressure. If the waste level in a tank decreases with an increase in ambient atmospheric pressure, then the compressibility may be attributed to gas trapped within the waste. In this report, this methodology is not used to estimate the volume of gas trapped in the waste. The waste level measurements used in this study were made primarily to monitor the tanks for leaks and intrusions. Four measurement devices are widely used in these tanks. Three of these measure the level of the waste surface. The remaining device measures from within a well embedded in the waste, thereby monitoring the liquid level even if the liquid level is below a dry waste crust. In the past, a steady rise in waste level has been taken as an indicator of trapped gas. This indicator is not part of the screening calculation described in this report; however, a possible explanation for the rise is given by the mathematical relation between atmospheric pressure and waste level used to support the screening calculation. The screening was applied to data from each measurement device in each tank. If any of these data for a single tank indicated trapped gas, that tank was flagged by this screening process. A total of 58 of the 177 Hanford tanks were flagged as containing trapped gas, including 21 of the 25 tanks currently on the flammable gas watch list.

  18. Capture and isolation of highly-charged ions in a unitary Penning trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Samuel M; Tan, Joseph N

    2013-01-01

    We recently used a compact Penning trap to capture and isolate highly-charged ions extracted from an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Isolated charge states of highly-stripped argon and neon ions with total charge $Q \\geq 10$, extracted at energies of up to $4\\times 10^3\\,Q$ eV, are captured in a trap with well depths of $\\,\\approx (4\\, {\\rm to}\\, 12)\\,Q$ eV. Here we discuss in detail the process to optimize velocity-tuning, capture, and storage of highly-charged ions in a unitary Penning trap designed to provide easy radial access for atomic or laser beams in charge exchange or spectroscopic experiments, such as those of interest for proposed studies of one-electron ions in Rydberg states or optical transitions of metastable states in multiply-charged ions. Under near-optimal conditions, ions captured and isolated in such rare-earth Penning traps can be characterized by an initial energy distribution that is $\\approx$ 60 times narrower than typically...

  19. Capturing Energy Savings with Steam Traps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bockwinkel, R. G.; French, S. A.

    1997-01-01

    , flanges and other connections. The economic loss can be significant. To appre ciate the massive economic impact of wasting steam, let's again look at the very small trap leak on 30 pound pressure typical for many process applications. Chart 1 shows... how much steam will be lost each hour from various size orifices and pressure ranges and the example calcula tions show how much steam is lost per year. Chart 1. Steam Loss Comparison For Various Pressures and Orifice Sizes Drip &Tracer Traps "1...

  20. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.

    1988-03-15

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself. 4 figs.

  1. Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeAngelis, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soilof Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Journals Tropicalof Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil

  2. Role of Trapping Impurities on He Desorption and Clustering in Irradiated a-Fe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, Christophe J.; Caturla, Maria Jose; Fu, Chu Chun; Willaime, Francois

    2008-07-01

    It is well-known that impurities affect the migration of intrinsic point defects in metals. For instance, carbon is a common impurity in Fe that significantly retards diffusion of vacancies. Under fusion irradiation conditions, high levels of He are produced by transmutation reactions. This element strongly interacts with vacancies produced during irradiation and agglomerate into stable He-vacancy clusters that can deteriorate the mechanical properties of the material. A physically-based model accounting for the interactions between He, point defects (interstitials and vacancies) and trapping impurities is therefore necessary to understand and predict damage evolution in Fe. We have used a multi-scale approach to predict the evolution of He in the presence of impurities in irradiated Fe. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations were performed to investigate the migration mechanisms and to determine the activation energies of the different atomistic processes. The influence of impurities - such as carbon - on the binding energies of small He-vacancy clusters was also studied. Using the information obtained by DFT a physically-based model was developed and implemented in a kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) code to follow the evolution of He in Fe. In addition, a model based on the rate theory (RT) was developed in order to achieve larger simulation times and volumes. Results obtained with this model, which is based on a mean field approximation are compared to those obtained with kMC. Using this multi-scale approach, the simulation results are used to interpret the different stages of thermal He desorption experiments and to determine the predominant migration mechanism. The influence of impurities which affect the diffusion of point defects or modify the binding energies of He-vacancy type clusters is also studied. (authors)

  3. Storage of very cold neutrons in a trap with nano-structured walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. V. Lychagin; A. Yu. Muzychka; V. V. Nesvizhevsky; G. Pignol; K. V. Protasov; A. V. Strelkov

    2008-12-09

    We report on storage of Very Cold Neutrons (VCN) in a trap with walls containing powder of diamond nanoparticles. The efficient VCN reflection is provided by multiple diffusive elastic scattering of VCN at single nanoparticles in powder. The VCN storage times are sufficiently long for accumulating large density of neutrons with complete VCN energy range of up to a few times 10(-4) eV. Methods for further improvements of VCN storage times are discussed.

  4. S9 -Kinetics & Mechanism of Metal Sorption/Release on Natural Materials KINETICS OF OXYANION SORPTION ON METAL OXIDES: A TIME-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    S9 - Kinetics & Mechanism of Metal Sorption/Release on Natural Materials KINETICS OF OXYANION Whilesulfateandborateareimportantforbothenvironmentalandagronomicreasons,thechemistry of these oxyanions in soils is still poorly understood.The mechanism of sulfate-sphere adsorption occurs at lower ionic strength.ApH and ionic strength dependent mechanism of adsorption has also

  5. Steam Trap Maintenance as a Profit Center 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouchillon, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    program at a large, 4000 trap chemical plant. The previously "good" maintenance program which was losing $565,000 per year in steam was turned into a $485,000 per year cost savings. This paper will also give the steps that can in as few as 3 months...

  6. Dynamical Localization in the Paul Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. El Ghafar; P. Torma; V. Savichev; E. Mayr; A. Zeiler; W. P. Schleich

    1996-12-18

    We show that quantum localization occurs in the center-of-mass motion of an ion stored in a Paul trap and interacting with a standing laser field. The present experimental state of the art makes the observation of this phenomenon feasible.

  7. Dynamical Localization in the Paul Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghafar, M E; Savichev, V; Mayr, E; Zeiler, A; Schleich, W P

    1997-01-01

    We show that quantum localization occurs in the center-of-mass motion of an ion stored in a Paul trap and interacting with a standing laser field. The present experimental state of the art makes the observation of this phenomenon feasible.

  8. Emerald Ash Borer TEXAS TRAPPING PROJECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emerald Ash Borer TEXAS TRAPPING PROJECT East Texas 2012 H. A. (Joe) Pase III Texas Forest Service Forest Health #12;#12;How To Identify Ash Trees Consider these quick points when identifying ash trees the EAB survey, ash trees do not need to be identified to species) Texas is home to at least six (6

  9. Selection, Sizing, and Testing of Stream Traps in Commercial Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armer, A.; Risko, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    For maximum effectiveness in steam systems, steam traps should have operating characteristics which closely match the requirements of the applications for which they are used. A trap which holds back condensate until it is subcooled and some...

  10. Efficient light-trapping nanostructures in thin silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Sang Eon

    We examine light-trapping in thin crystalline silicon periodic nanostructures for solar cell applications. Using group theory, we show that light-trapping can be improved over a broad band when structural mirror symmetry ...

  11. Energy Efficient Steam Trapping of Trace Heating Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krueger, R. G.; Wilt, G. W.

    1981-01-01

    required to achieve economic tracer lengths; 3. Maximum allowable trapping distance for specific applications 4.Data important to determine condensate loads; 5. Trap selection, sizing, good installation practices, and proper maintenance. Using...

  12. European Conference on Trapped Ions 1924 September 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hensinger, Winfried

    European Conference on Trapped Ions 1924 September 2010 Redworth Hall Conference Handbook Sponsored by: #12;ECTI 2010 Committees and Invited Wunderlich (Universität Siegen) ECTI 2010 1 #12;Scope of the Conference Ion traps are used as a basic tool

  13. Shuttling of ions for characterization of a microfabricated ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Zachary (Zachary Kenneth)

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, I present experimental results demonstrating the characterization of a planar Paul trap. I discuss the theory of ion trapping and analyze the voltages required for shuttling. Next, the characteristics of a ...

  14. Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps This guide was prepared to serve as a foundation for making informed decisions about when orifice plate...

  15. Microfabrication of surface electrode ion traps for quantum manipulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ge, Yufei, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2015-01-01

    Trapped ions are a promising approach to quantum computation. This approach uses a qubit state which is the atomic state and quantum motional state of a trapped ion to encode information, and uses laser-ion interactions ...

  16. Energy Savings with Computerized Steam Trap Maintenance Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klidzejs, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the efforts made at 3M Company plants to save energy in the steam distribution system by improving the maintenance of steam traps. The results from steam trap surveys for 17 facilities with over 6,400 ...

  17. Towards a cryogenic planar ion trap for Sr-88

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakr, Waseem (Waseem S.)

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes experiments with ion traps constructed with electrodes in a single two-dimensional plane, and ion traps operated in a cryogenic environment at 77K and 4K temperatures. These two technologies address ...

  18. Carbon dioxide dissolution in structural and stratigraphic traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hesse, M. A.

    The geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) in structural and stratigraphic traps is a viable option to reduce anthropogenic emissions. While dissolution of the CO[subscript 2] stored in these traps ...

  19. Effective Steam Trap Selection/Maintenance - Its Payback 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia, E.

    1984-01-01

    In oil refineries and petrochemical plants large number of steam traps are used to discharge condensate from steam mains, tracers and process equipment. Early efforts on steam traps focused almost exclusively on their selection and sizing...

  20. Cold and dense clouds of atoms in a Holographic Atom Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Thad G.

    for the encouragement and support he has provided throughout my graduate career. Since my arrival in Madison I have all invested their time in teaching me the nuts and bolts of atom trapping. Ian Nelson and Bien Chann members of the group, Earl Babcock, Erich Urban, and Jason Day have all provided support and companionship

  1. Quantum time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giovannetti, Vittorio

    We give a consistent quantum description of time, based on Page and Wootters’s conditional probabilities mechanism, which overcomes the criticisms that were raised against similar previous proposals. In particular we show ...

  2. Organic magnetoresistance from deep traps N. J. Harmon1,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flatte, Michael E.

    ,16 Traps that exhibit strong spin-orbit effects can enhance organic light-emitting diode (OLED) emission

  3. Photo-detection using Bose-condensed atoms in a micro trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Wallentowitz; A. B. Klimov

    2008-07-05

    A model of photo-detection using a Bose--Einstein condensate in an atom-chip based micro trap is analyzed. Atoms absorb photons from the incident light field, receive part of the photon momentum and leave the trap potential. Upon counting of escaped atoms within predetermined time intervals, the photon statistics of the incident light is mapped onto the atom-count statistics. Whereas traditional photo-detection theory treats the emission centers of photo electrons as distinguishable, here the centers of escaping atoms are condensed and thus indistinguishable atoms. From this an enhancement of the photon-number resolution as compared to the commonly known counting formula is derived.

  4. Commons as insurance: safety nets or poverty traps? Philippe Delacote

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langerhans, Brian

    Commons as insurance: safety nets or poverty traps? Philippe Delacote Economics Department, EUI. The aim of this paper is to consider the potential poverty-trap implications of this use. If the capacity, the introduction of an insurance scheme could be an exit to the poverty trap and relax pressure on the resource

  5. Coherent population trapping of a single nuclear spin under ambient conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Jamonneau; G. Hétet; A. Dréau; J. -F. Roch; V. Jacques

    2015-08-31

    Coherent control of quantum systems has far-reaching implications in quantum engineering. In this context, coherent population trapping (CPT) involving dark resonances has played a prominent role, leading to a wealth of major applications including laser cooling of atoms and molecules, optical magnetometry, light storage and highly precise atomic clocks. Extending CPT methods to individual solid-state quantum systems has been only achieved in cryogenic environments for electron spin impurities and superconducting circuits. Here, we demonstrate efficient CPT of a single nuclear spin in a room temperature solid. To this end, we make use of a three-level system with a $\\Lambda$-configuration in the microwave domain, which consists of nuclear spin states addressed through their hyperfine coupling to the electron spin of a single nitrogen-vacancy defect in diamond. Dark state pumping requires a relaxation mechanism which, in atomic systems, is simply provided by spontaneous emission. In this work, the relaxation process is externally controlled through incoherent optical pumping and separated in time from consecutive coherent microwave excitations of the nuclear spin $\\Lambda$-system. Such a pumping scheme with controlled relaxation allows us (i) to monitor the sequential accumulation of population into the dark state and (ii) to reach a new regime of CPT dynamics for which periodic arrays of dark resonances can be observed, owing to multiple constructive interferences. This work offers new prospects for quantum state preparation, information storage in hybrid quantum systems and metrology.

  6. Landau damping and the onset of particle trapping in quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daligault, Jérôme

    2014-04-15

    Using analytical theory and simulations, we assess the impact of quantum effects on non-linear wave-particle interactions in quantum plasmas. We more specifically focus on the resonant interaction between Langmuir waves and electrons, which, in classical plasmas, lead to particle trapping. Two regimes are identified depending on the difference between the time scale of oscillation t{sub B}(k)=?(m/eEk) of a trapped electron and the quantum time scale t{sub q}(k)=2m/?k{sup 2} related to recoil effect, where E and k are the wave amplitude and wave vector. In the classical-like regime, t{sub B}(k)?trapped in the wave troughs and greatly affect the evolution of the system long before the wave has had time to Landau damp by a large amount according to linear theory. In the quantum regime, t{sub B}(k)?>?t{sub q}(k), particle trapping is hampered by the finite recoil imparted to resonant electrons in their interactions with plasmons.

  7. Non-vanishing ponderomotive AC electrophoretic effect for particle trapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, Weihau; Park, Jae Hyun nmn; Krstic, Predrag S; Reed, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    We present here a study on overlooked aspects of alternating current (AC) electrokinetics AC electrophoretic (ACEP) phenomena. The dynamics of a particle with both polarizability and net charges in a non-uniform AC electric trapping field is investigated. It is found that either electrophoretic (EP) or dielectrophoretic (DEP) effects can dominate the trapping dynamics, depending on experimental conditions. A dimensionless parameter gamma is developed to predict the relative strength of EP and DEP effects in a quadrupole AC field. An ACEP trap is feasible for charged particles in salt-free or low salt concentration solutions. In contrast to DEP traps, an ACEP trap favors the downscaling of the particle size.

  8. Progress towards a practical multicell positron trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danielson, J. R. [Physics Department, University of California, San Diego La Jolla CA 92093-0319 (United States); Hurst, N. C.; Surko, C. M. [Physics Department, University of California, San Diego La Jolla CA 92093-0319 (United States)

    2013-03-19

    Described here is progress in an experimental program to develop a 21 cell multicell trap for the accumulation and storage of {approx} 10{sup 12} positrons. The basic architecture is an arrangement of multiple Penning-Malmberg (PM) trapped plasmas (i.e., cells) arranged in parallel in a common vacuum system and magnetic field. Experiments are described that are intended to address several key issues, including the effects of large space charge potentials and high plasma densities on: plasma heating, deterioration of confinement, and decreased efficiency of rotating electric fields in producing plasma compression. The confinement of PM plasmas displaced both radially and toward the ends of the uniform magnetic field region will also be investigated.

  9. Trapping in GaN-based metal-insulator-semiconductor transistors: Role of high drain bias and hot electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meneghini, M. Bisi, D.; Meneghesso, G.; Zanoni, E.

    2014-04-07

    This paper describes an extensive analysis of the role of off-state and semi-on state bias in inducing the trapping in GaN-based power High Electron Mobility Transistors. The study is based on combined pulsed characterization and on-resistance transient measurements. We demonstrate that—by changing the quiescent bias point from the off-state to the semi-on state—it is possible to separately analyze two relevant trapping mechanisms: (i) the trapping of electrons in the gate-drain access region, activated by the exposure to high drain bias in the off-state; (ii) the trapping of hot-electrons within the AlGaN barrier or the gate insulator, which occurs when the devices are operated in the semi-on state. The dependence of these two mechanisms on the bias conditions and on temperature, and the properties (activation energy and cross section) of the related traps are described in the text.

  10. 1120 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 53, NO. 5, MAY 2006 Theory of Interface-Trap-Induced NBTI Degradation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alam, Muhammad A.

    mechanisms that generate traps at the Si-channel/gate-oxide interface of MOSFETs during transistor operation. The semiconductor/oxide interface is a rough surface where the highly ordered crystalline channel and the amor lead to poor device performance; therefore, the transistors are annealed in hydrogen ambient during

  11. The dissipation of trapped lee waves. Part II: The relative importance of the1 boundary layer and the stratosphere2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blossey, Peter

    , including the roughness of the un-35 derlying surface, the efficiency with which wave energy can leak upward each of these decay mechanisms has been studied in isolation, their relative impor- tance has not been that trapped waves in the two-layer case do not leak much energy upwards is that the resonant wavelength

  12. Mitigation of Sulfur Effects on a Lean NOx Trap Catalyst by Sorbate Reapplication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Lean NOx trap catalysis has demonstrated the ability to reduce NOx emissions from lean natural gas reciprocating engines by >90%. The technology operates in a cyclic fashion where NOx is trapped on the catalyst during lean operation and released and reduced to N2 under rich exhaust conditions; the rich cleansing operation of the cycle is referred to as "regeneration" since the catalyst is reactivated for more NOx trapping. Natural gas combusted over partial oxidation catalysts in the exhaust can be used to obtain the rich exhaust conditions necessary for catalyst regeneration. Thus, the lean NOx trap technology is well suited for lean natural gas engine applications. One potential limitation of the lean NOx trap technology is sulfur poisoning. Sulfur compounds directly bond to the NOx trapping sites of the catalyst and render them ineffective; over time, the sulfur poisoning leads to degradation in overall NOx reduction performance. In order to mitigate the effects of sulfur poisoning, a process has been developed to restore catalyst activity after sulfur poisoning has occurred. The process is an aqueous-based wash process that removes the poisoned sorbate component of the catalyst. A new sorbate component is reapplied after removal of the poisoned sorbate. The process is low cost and does not involve reapplication of precious metal components of the catalyst. Experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of the washing process on a lean 8.3-liter natural gas engine on a dynamometer platform. The catalyst was rapidly sulfur poisoned with bottled SO2 gas; then, the catalyst sorbate was washed and reapplied and performance was re-evaluated. Results show that the sorbate reapplication process is effective at restoring lost performance due to sulfur poisoning. Specific details relative to the implementation of the process for large stationary natural gas engines will be discussed.

  13. Trapping and aerogelation of nanoparticles in negative gravity hydrocarbon flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakrabarty, Rajan K.; Novosselov, Igor V.; Beres, Nicholas D.; Moosmüller, Hans; Sorensen, Christopher M.; Stipe, Christopher B.

    2014-06-16

    We report the experimental realization of continuous carbon aerogel production using a flame aerosol reactor by operating it in negative gravity (?g; up-side-down configuration). Buoyancy opposes the fuel and air flow forces in ?g, which eliminates convectional outflow of nanoparticles from the flame and traps them in a distinctive non-tipping, flicker-free, cylindrical flame body, where they grow to millimeter-size aerogel particles and gravitationally fall out. Computational fluid dynamics simulations show that a closed-loop recirculation zone is set up in ?g flames, which reduces the time to gel for nanoparticles by ?10{sup 6}?s, compared to positive gravity (upward rising) flames. Our results open up new possibilities of one-step gas-phase synthesis of a wide variety of aerogels on an industrial scale.

  14. Graphene plasmonics for light trapping and absorption engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jianfa; Liu, Wei; Yuan, Xiaodong; Qin, Shiqiao

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonics can be used to improve absorption in optoelectronic devices and has been intensively studied for solar cells and photodetectors. Graphene has recently emerged as a powerful plasmonic material. It shows significantly less losses compared to traditional plasmonic materials such as gold and silver and its plasmons can be tuned by changing the Fermi energy with chemical or electrical doping. Here we propose the usage of graphene plasmonics for light trapping in optoelectronic devices and show that the excitation of localized plasmons in doped, nanostructured graphene can enhance optical absorption in its surrounding media including both bulky and two-dimensional materials by tens of times, which may lead to a new generation of highly efficient, spectrally selective photodetectors in mid-infrared and THz ranges. The proposed concept could even revolutionize the field of plasmonic solar cells if graphene plasmons in the visible and near-infrared are realized.

  15. Waldyr Muniz Oliva Geometric Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natário, José

    Waldyr Muniz Oliva Geometric Mechanics February 1, 2002 Springer Berlin Heidelberg New mechanics : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 51 4.1 Galilean space-time structure and Newton equations . . . . . . . . 51 4.2 Critical remarks on Newtonian mechanics

  16. Two dipolar atoms in a harmonic trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O?dziejewski, Rafa?; Rz??ewski, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Two identical dipolar atoms moving in a harmonic trap without an external magnetic field are investigated. Using the algebra of angular momentum a semi - analytical solutions are found. We show that the internal spin - spin interactions between the atoms couple to the orbital angular momentum causing an analogue of Einstein - de Haas effect. We show a possibility of adiabatically pumping our system from the s-wave to the d-wave relative motion. The effective spin-orbit coupling occurs at anti-crossings of the energy levels.

  17. Energy Conservation Through Effective Steam Trapping 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diamante, L.; Nagengast, C.

    1979-01-01

    the bottom edge and out, the bucket becomes bouyant, floats up, closes the valve and the flow stops. The slight static pressure the water around the bucket exerts on the steam inside will begin to drive it out through the small hole in the top we spoke... at which condensate is forming, thus steam will eventually flow into the trap. Steam unlike condensate, or air in a relative sense, is highly compressible and will undergo a substantial volume change in expanding from the inlet to outlet pressure...

  18. Isotopic abundance in atom trap trace analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Zheng-Tian; Hu, Shiu-Ming; Jiang, Wei; Mueller, Peter

    2014-03-18

    A method and system for detecting ratios and amounts of isotopes of noble gases. The method and system is constructed to be able to measure noble gas isotopes in water and ice, which helps reveal the geological age of the samples and understand their movements. The method and system uses a combination of a cooled discharge source, a beam collimator, a beam slower and magneto-optic trap with a laser to apply resonance frequency energy to the noble gas to be quenched and detected.

  19. Gas turbine engines with particle traps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Gary L. (Tempe, AZ); Sumner, D. Warren (Phoenix, AZ); Sheoran, Yogendra (Scottsdale, AZ); Judd, Z. Daniel (Phoenix, AZ)

    1992-01-01

    A gas turbine engine (10) incorporates a particle trap (46) that forms an entrapment region (73) in a plenum (24) which extends from within the combustor (18) to the inlet (32) of a radial-inflow turbine (52, 54). The engine (10) is thereby adapted to entrap particles that originate downstream from the compressor (14) and are otherwise propelled by combustion gas (22) into the turbine (52, 54). Carbonaceous particles that are dislodged from the inner wall (50) of the combustor (18) are incinerated within the entrapment region (73) during operation of the engine (10).

  20. Protection #2: Trap and Remove Sediment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgramExemptions |(Conference)ProjectProposedAmerica'sTrap and Remove

  1. Corrections to our results for optical nanofiber traps in Cesium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Ding; A. Goban; K. S. Choi; H. J. Kimble

    2012-12-20

    Several errors in Refs. [1, 2] are corrected related to the optical trapping potentials for a state-insensitive, compensated nanofiber trap for the D2 transition of atomic Cesium. Section I corrects our basic formalism in Ref. [1] for calculating dipole-force potentials. Section II corrects erroneous values for a partial lifetime and a transition wavelength in Ref. [1]. Sections III and IV present corrected figures for various trapping configurations considered in Refs. [1] and [2], respectively.

  2. Gas insulated transmission line having tapered particle trapping ring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, insulating supports and an insulating gas. A particle-trapping ring is secured to each insulating support, and it is comprised of a central portion and two tapered end portions. The ends of the particle trapping ring have a smaller diameter than the central portion of the ring, so as to enable the use of the particle trapping ring in a curved transmission line.

  3. Ion temperature gradient driven turbulence with strong trapped...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    depends on ion free energy and electron dissipation, which implies that non-adiabatic electrons are essential to recover non-trivial dynamics of trapped ion granulations. Relevant...

  4. Experimental demonstration of a surface-electrode multipole ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maurice, Mark; Green, Dylan; Farr, Andrew; Burke, Timothy; Hilleke, Russell; Clark, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We report on the design and experimental characterization of a surface-electrode multipole ion trap. Individual microscopic sugar particles are confined in the trap. The trajectories of driven particle motion are compared with a theoretical model, both to verify qualitative predictions of the model, and to measure the charge-to-mass ratio of the confined particle. The generation of harmonics of the driving frequency is observed as a key signature of the nonlinear nature of the trap. We remark on possible applications of our traps, including to mass spectrometry.

  5. Dynamically adjustable annular laser trapping based on axicons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Bing; Esener, Sadik C.; Nascimento, Jaclyn M.; Botvinick, Elliot L.; Berns, Michael W

    2006-09-01

    To study the chemotactic response of sperm to an egg and to characterize sperm motility, an annular laser trap based on axicons is designed, simulated with the ray-tracing tool, and implemented. The diameter of the trapping ring can be adjusted dynamically for a range of over 400 {mu}m by simply translating one axicon along the optical axis. Trapping experiments with microspheres and dog sperm demonstrate the feasibility of the system,and the power requirement agrees with theoretical expectation. This new type of laser trapping could provide a prototype of a parallel, objective, and quantitative tool for animal fertility and biotropism study.

  6. Bait formulations and longevity of navel orangeworm egg traps tested

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuenen, L.P.S. Bas; Bentley, Walt; Rowe, Heather; Ribeiro, Brian

    2008-01-01

    there were 1% or 3% crude almond oil received more eggshaving no letters crude almond oil or traps baited with inone standard error. crude almond oil received significantly

  7. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    installed steam traps may have failed-thus allowing live steam to escape into the condensate return system. In systems with a regularly scheduled maintenance program, leaking...

  8. Wavebreaking and Particle Trapping in Collisionless Plasmas: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shadwick, Bradley A [University of Nebraska-Lincoln

    2013-08-01

    The final report describing accomplishments in understanding phase-space processes involved in particle trapping and in developing advance numerical models of laser-plasma interactions.

  9. Anomalous dynamic behaviour of optically trapped high aspect ratio nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toe, Wen Jun; Angstmann, Christopher; Gao, Qiang; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Henry, Bruce; Reece, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of high aspect ratio nanowires trapped axially in a single gradient force optical tweezers. A power spectrum analysis of the Brownian dynamics reveals a broad spectral resonance of the order of a kHz with peak properties that are strongly dependent on the input trapping power. Modelling of the dynamical equations of motion of the trapped nanowire that incorporate non-conservative effects through asymmetric coupling between translational and rotational degrees of freedom provides excellent agreement with the experimental observations. An associated observation of persistent cyclical motion around the equilibrium trapping position using winding analysis provides further evidence for the influence of non-conservative forces.

  10. Light Trapping, Absorption and Solar Energy Harvesting by Artificial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 14 SOLAR ENERGY light-trapping, photonic crystals, high-efficiency thin-film solar cells Word Cloud...

  11. Ratchet Cellular Automata for Colloids in Dynamic Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. J. Olson Reichhardt; C. Reichhardt

    2006-02-13

    We numerically investigate the transport of kinks in a ratchet cellular automata geometry for colloids interacting with dynamical traps. We find that thermal effects can enhance the transport efficiency in agreement with recent experiments. At high temperatures we observe the creation and annihilation of thermally induced kinks that degrade the signal transmission. We consider both the deterministic and stochastic cases and show how the trap geometry can be adjusted to switch between these two cases. The operation of the dynamical trap geometry can be achieved with the adjustment of fewer parameters than ratchet cellular automata constructed using static traps.

  12. Transport dynamics of single ions in segmented microstructured Paul trap arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Reichle; D. Leibfried; R. B. Blakestad; J. Britton; J. D. Jost; E. Knill; C. Langer; R. Ozeri; S. Seidelin; D. J. Wineland

    2006-06-28

    It was recently proposed to use small groups of trapped ions as qubit carriers in miniaturized electrode arrays that comprise a large number of individual trapping zones, between which ions could be moved. This approach might be scalable for quantum information processing with a large numbers of qubits. Processing of quantum information is achieved by transporting ions to and from separate memory and qubit manipulation zones in between quantum logic operations. The transport of ion groups in this scheme plays a major role and requires precise experimental control and fast transport. In this paper we introduce a theoretical framework to study ion transport in external potentials that might be created by typical miniaturized Paul trap electrode arrays. In particular we discuss the relationship between classical and quantum descriptions of the transport and study the energy transfer to the oscillatory motion during near-adiabatic transport. Based on our findings we suggest a numerical method to find electrode potentials as a function of time to optimize the local potential an ion experiences during transport. We demonstrate this method for one specific electrode geometry that should closely represent the situation encountered in realistic trap arrays.

  13. Centrality measures highlight proton traps and access points to proton highways in kinetic Monte Carlo trajectories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krueger, Rachel A.; Haibach, Frederick G.; Fry, Dana L.; Gomez, Maria A.

    2015-04-21

    A centrality measure based on the time of first returns rather than the number of steps is developed and applied to finding proton traps and access points to proton highways in the doped perovskite oxides: AZr{sub 0.875}D{sub 0.125}O{sub 3}, where A is Ba or Sr and the dopant D is Y or Al. The high centrality region near the dopant is wider in the SrZrO{sub 3} systems than the BaZrO{sub 3} systems. In the aluminum-doped systems, a region of intermediate centrality (secondary region) is found in a plane away from the dopant. Kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) trajectories show that this secondary region is an entry to fast conduction planes in the aluminum-doped systems in contrast to the highest centrality area near the dopant trap. The yttrium-doped systems do not show this secondary region because the fast conduction routes are in the same plane as the dopant and hence already in the high centrality trapped area. This centrality measure complements kMC by highlighting key areas in trajectories. The limiting activation barriers found via kMC are in very good agreement with experiments and related to the barriers to escape dopant traps.

  14. Effect of dynamical traps on chaotic transport in a meandering jet flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Yu. Uleysky; M. V. Budyansky; S. V. Prants

    2011-12-20

    We continue our study of chaotic mixing and transport of passive particles in a simple model of a meandering jet flow [Prants, et al, Chaos {\\bf 16}, 033117 (2006)]. In the present paper we study and explain phenomenologically a connection between dynamical, topological, and statistical properties of chaotic mixing and transport in the model flow in terms of dynamical traps, singular zones in the phase space where particles may spend arbitrary long but finite time [Zaslavsky, Phys. D {\\bf 168--169}, 292 (2002)]. The transport of passive particles is described in terms of lengths and durations of zonal flights which are events between two successive changes of sign of zonal velocity. Some peculiarities of the respective probability density functions for short flights are proven to be caused by the so-called rotational-islands traps connected with the boundaries of resonant islands (including the vortex cores) filled with the particles moving in the same frame and the saddle traps connected with periodic saddle trajectories. Whereas, the statistics of long flights can be explained by the influence of the so-called ballistic-islands traps filled with the particles moving from a frame to frame.

  15. Bottom-trapped currents as statistical equilibrium states above topographic anomalies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venaille, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    Oceanic geostrophic turbulence is mostly forced at the surface, yet strong bottom-trapped flows are commonly observed along topographic anomalies. Here we consider the case of a freely evolving, initially surface-intensified velocity field above a topographic bump, and show that the self-organization into a bottom-trapped current can result from its turbulent dynamics. Using equilibrium statistical mechanics, we explain this phenomenon as the most probable outcome of turbulent stirring. We compute explicitly a class of solutions characterized by a linear relation between potential vorticity and streamfunction, and predict when the bottom intensification is expected. Using direct numerical simulations, we provide an illustration of this phenomenon that agrees qualitatively with theory, although the ergodicity hypothesis is not strictly fulfilled.

  16. Testing Wavefunction Collapse Models using Parametric Heating of a Trapped Nanosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Goldwater; Mauro Paternostro; P. F. Barker

    2015-06-29

    We propose a mechanism for testing the theory of continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) by examining the parametric heating rate of a trapped nanosphere. The random localizations of the centre of mass for a given particle predicted by the CSL model can be modelled as a stochastic force embodying a source of heating for the nanosphere. We show that by utilising a Paul trap to levitate the particle coupled with optical cooling, it is possible to reduce environmental decoherence to such a level that CSL dominates the dynamics and contributes the main source of heating. We show that this approach allows measurements to be made on the timescale of seconds, and that the full parameter ranges given by Adler [J. Phys. A {\\bf 40} 2935 (2006)] and Bassi [EPL {\\bf 92} 5006 (2010)] ought to be testable using this scheme.

  17. Storage of ultracold neutrons in the UCN$?$ magneto-gravitational trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. J. Salvat; E. R. Adamek; D. Barlow; L. J. Broussard; J. D. Bowman; N. B. Callahan; S. M. Clayton; C. Cude-Woods; S. Currie; E. B. Dees; W. Fox; P. Geltenbort; K. P. Hickerson; A. T. Holley; C. -Y. Liu; M. Makela; J. Medina; D. J. Morley; C. L. Morris; S. I. Penttila; J. Ramsey; A. Saunders; S. J. Seestrom; S. K. L. Sjue; B. A. Slaughter; E. I. Sharapov; J. Vanderwerp; B. VornDick; P. L. Walstrom; Z. Wang; T. L. Womack; A. R. Young

    2013-10-31

    The UCN$\\tau$ experiment is designed to measure the lifetime $\\tau_{n}$ of the free neutron by trapping ultracold neutrons (UCN) in a magneto-gravitational trap. An asymmetric bowl-shaped NdFeB magnet Halbach array confines low-field-seeking UCN within the apparatus, and a set of electromagnetic coils in a toroidal geometry provide a background "holding" field to eliminate depolarization-induced UCN loss caused by magnetic field nodes. We present a measurement of the storage time $\\tau_{store}$ of the trap by storing UCN for various times, and counting the survivors. The data are consistent with a single exponential decay, and we find $\\tau_{store}=860\\pm19$ s: within $1 \\sigma$ of current global averages for $\\tau_{n}$. The storage time with the holding field deactiveated is found to be $\\tau_{store}=470 \\pm 160$ s; this decreased storage time is due to the loss of UCN which undergo Majorana spin-flips while being stored. We discuss plans to increase the statistical sensitivity of the measurement and investigate potential systematic effects.

  18. Storage of Ultracold Neutrons in the Magneto-Gravitational Trap of the UCN Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvat, D. J. [Indiana University] [Indiana University; Adamek, E. R. [Indiana University] [Indiana University; Barlow, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bowman, James D [ORNL] [ORNL; Broussard, L. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Callahan, N. B. [Indiana University] [Indiana University; Clayton, S. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Cude-Woods, C. [Indiana University] [Indiana University; Currie, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Dees, E. B. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh] [North Carolina State University, Raleigh; Fox, W. [Indiana University] [Indiana University; Geltenbort, P. [Inst Max Von Laue Paul Langevin, Grenoble, France] [Inst Max Von Laue Paul Langevin, Grenoble, France; Hickerson, K. P. [University of California, Los Angeles] [University of California, Los Angeles; Holley, A. T. [Indiana University] [Indiana University; Liu, C.-Y. [Indiana University] [Indiana University; Makela, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Medina, J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Morley, D. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Morris, C. L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Penttila, Seppo I [ORNL] [ORNL; Ramsey, J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Saunders, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Seestrom, S. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Sharapov, E. I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia] [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Sjue, S. K. L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Slaughter, B. A. [Indiana University] [Indiana University; Vanderwerp, J. [Indiana University] [Indiana University; VornDick, B. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh] [North Carolina State University, Raleigh; Walstrom, P. L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wang, Z. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Womack, T. L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Young, A. R. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh] [North Carolina State University, Raleigh

    2014-01-01

    The UCN experiment is designed to measure the lifetime n of the free neutron by trapping ultracold neutrons (UCN) in a magneto-gravitational trap. An asymmetric bowl-shaped NdFeB magnet Halbach array confines low-field-seeking UCN within the apparatus, and a set of electromagnetic coils in a toroidal geometry provides a background holding field to eliminate depolarization-induced UCN loss caused by magnetic field nodes. We present a measurement of the storage time store of the trap by storing UCN for various times and counting the survivors. The data are consistent with a single exponential decay, and we find store = 860 19 s, within 1 of current global averages for n. The storage time with the holding field deactivated is found to be store = 470 160 s; this decreased storage time is due to the loss of UCN, which undergo Majorana spin flips while being stored. We discuss plans to increase the statistical sensitivity of the measurement and investigate potential systematic effects.

  19. Modelling the influence of temperature and relative humidity on the time-dependent mechanical behaviour of a short glass fibre reinforced polyamide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Introduction Carmakers are facing the challenge of reducing CO2 emis- sions, and are thus strongly interested. Both temperature and relative humidity are known to have an impact on mechanical properties strength of SGFR polyamides is highly sensitive to both temperature and relative humidity (Bernasconi et al

  20. Mesoscopic supersolid of dipoles in a trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golomedov, A. E.; Astrakharchik, G. E.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2011-09-15

    A mesoscopic system of dipolar bosons trapped by a harmonic potential is considered. The system has a number of physical realizations including dipole excitons, atoms with large dipolar moment, polar molecules, and Rydberg atoms in inhomogeneous electric field. We carry out a diffusion Monte Carlo simulation to define the quantum properties of a two-dimensional system of trapped dipoles at zero temperature. In dimensionless units the system is described by two control parameters, namely, the number of particles and the strength of the interparticle interaction. We have shown that when the interparticle interaction is strong enough a mesoscopic crystal is formed. As the strength of interactions is decreased a multistage melting takes place. Off-diagonal order in the system is tested using natural-orbitals analysis. We have found that the system might be Bose condensed even in the case of strong interparticle interactions. There is a set of parameters for which a spatially ordered structure is formed while simultaneously the fraction of Bose-condensed particles is nonzero. This might be considered as a realization of a mesoscopic supersolid.

  1. Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering The presentation will first review emerging joint time in Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Science from the Technical University in Athens, Greece and his, vehicle engineering, bio-mechanics, and composite materials. He is Editor-in-Chief of the International

  2. Chemical reactions between cold trapped Ba+ ions and neutral molecules in the gas phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiller, Stephan

    Chemical reactions between cold trapped Ba+ ions and neutral molecules in the gas phase B. Roth, D-cooled ion trapping apparatus, we have investigated laser-induced chemical reactions between cold trapped Ba is to investigate chemical reactions between cold atomic and molecular ions trapped in radio-frequency traps

  3. & Mechanical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    AME Aerospace & Mechanical Engineering #12;Aerospace and Mechanical Engineers design complex mechanical, thermal, uidic, acoustical, optical, and electronic systems, with characteristic sizes ranging and far underground, to near-Earth, planetary, interplanetary and galactic space. Aerospace and Mechanical

  4. Small-angle neutron scattering measurement of deuterium trapping at dislocations and grain boundaries in palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heuser, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    Small angle neutron scattering measurements have been performed on deformed single and polycrystalline palladium with and without deuterium dissolved in the solution phase at room temperature. The purpose of these experiments was to directly measure the spatial distribution of trapped deuterium at dislocations in the deformed metal. The net scattering cross section for the same smaple with and without deuterium shows a behavior expected from deuterium correlation with dislocations froming rod-like scattering structures. The measured cross sections indicate the trapped deuterium is within 2 to 3 Burgers vectors of the dislocation core. On average 1 to 3 deuterons per {angstrom} are trapped at the dislocations in the deformed samples. The measurements also indicate the straight, rod-like correlation geometry extends on average 50 to 100 {angstrom} along the dislocations. Dislocation densities on the order of 5 {times} 10{sup 11} cm/cm{sup 3} were found for all samples investigated. Net scattering from a well annealed polycrystalline palladium sample exhibiting a behavior expected from spherical shells has been observed. This net scattering is attributed to deuterium trapping at grain boundaries in the polycrystalline sample. net scattering in excess of that expected from deuterium correlated at dislocations was also observed in a deformed polycrystalline measurement. This too is attributed to deuterium trapping at grain boundaries. The dislocation substructure of the deformed palladium samples was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This analysis illustrated the cellular arrangement that evolved in palladium during cold working. The presence of MnO particles also was confirmed by TEM analysis.

  5. Successful Implementation of a Sustainable Trap Management Program. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, J.

    2013-01-01

    significant cost penalty in delaying implementation of a program to manage the steam trap population. Plants typically embark on a trap management initiative by focusing on a survey, but may not maximize returns because they fail to execute or sustain possible...

  6. Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Trap Selectivity Studies: Mesh Size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Trap Selectivity Studies: Mesh Size VINCENT GUILLORY and PAUL had replaced drop nets and trot lines as the dominant gear in the commercial blue crab, Callinectes, LA 70343. ABSTRACT-Catch rates and sizes of blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, were com pared in traps

  7. Laser desorption lamp ionization source for ion trap mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Laser desorption lamp ionization source for ion trap mass spectrometry Qinghao Wu and Richard N. Zare* A two-step laser desorption lamp ionization source coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (LDLI-ITMS) has been constructed and characterized. The pulsed infrared (IR) output of an Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm

  8. Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells Zongfu Yu1 , Aaswath Raman and is becoming increasingly urgent for current solar cell research. The standard theory of light trapping-generation solar cells. The ultimate success of photovoltaic (PV) cell technology requires great advancements

  9. Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grandidier, Jonathan

    Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere, photovoltaics, resonant dielectric structures, solar cells * Corresponding author: e-mail jgrandid for addressing the key challenge of light trapping in thin-film solar cells. We experimentally and theoretically

  10. Simulations of plasma confinement in an antihydrogen trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomberoff, K.; Fajans, J.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Vay, J.-L.; Wurtele, J.S.

    2007-10-15

    The three-dimensional particle-in-cell (3-D PIC) simulation code WARP is used to study positron confinement in antihydrogen traps. The magnetic geometry is close to that of a UC Berkeley experiment conducted, with electrons, as part of the ALPHA collaboration (W. Bertsche et al., AIP Conf. Proc. 796, 301 (2005)). In order to trap antihydrogen atoms, multipole magnetic fields are added to a conventional Malmberg-Penning trap. These multipole fields must be strong enough to confine the antihydrogen, leading to multipole field strengths at the trap wall comparable to those of the axial magnetic field. Numerical simulations reported here confirm recent experimental measurements of reduced particle confinement when a quadrupole field is added to a Malmberg-Penning trap. It is shown that, for parameters relevant to various antihydrogen experiments, the use of an octupole field significantly reducesthe positron losses seen with a quadrupole field. A unique method for obtaining a 3-D equilibrium of the positrons in the trap with a collisionless PIC code was developed especially for the study of the antihydrogen trap; however, it is of practical use for other traps as well.

  11. Surface-electrode ion trap with integrated light source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Tony Hyun

    An atomic ion is trapped at the tip of a single-mode optical fiber in a cryogenic (8 K) surface-electrode ion trap. The fiber serves as an integrated source of laser light, which drives the quadrupolequbit transition of ...

  12. Steam Trap Testing and Evaluation: An Actual Plant Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldman, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    With rising steam costs and a high failure rate on the Joliet Plants standard steam trap, a testing and evaluation program was begun to find a steam trap that would work at Olin-Joliet. The basis was to conduct the test on the actual process...

  13. Ionization-Induced Electron Trapping inUltrarelativistic Plasma Wakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oz, E.; Deng, S.; Katsouleas, T.; Muggli, P.; Barnes, C.D.; Blumenfeld, I.; Decker, F.J.; Emma, P.; Hogan, M.J.; Ischebeck, R.; Iverson, R.H.; Kirby, N.; Krejcik, P.; O'Connell, C.; Siemann, R.H.; Walz, D.; Auerbach, D.; Clayton, C.E.; Huang, C.; Johnson, D.K.; Joshi, C.; /UCLA

    2007-04-06

    The onset of trapping of electrons born inside a highly relativistic, 3D beam-driven plasma wake is investigated. Trapping occurs in the transition regions of a Li plasma confined by He gas. Li plasma electrons support the wake, and higher ionization potential He atoms are ionized as the beam is focused by Li ions and can be trapped. As the wake amplitude is increased, the onset of trapping is observed. Some electrons gain up to 7.6 GeV in a 30.5 cm plasma. The experimentally inferred trapping threshold is at a wake amplitude of 36 GV/m, in good agreement with an analytical model and PIC simulations.

  14. A Pneumatic Actuated Microfluidic Beads-Trapping Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Guocheng; Cai, Ziliang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-08-20

    The development of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic microbeads trapping device is reported in this paper. Besides fluid channels, the proposed device includes a pneumatic control chamber and a beads-trapping chamber with a filter array structure. The pneumatic flow control chamber and the beads-trapping chamber are vertically stacked and separated by a thin membrane. By adjusting the pressure in the pneumatic control chamber, the membrane can either be pushed against the filter array to set the device in trapping mode or be released to set the device in releasing mode. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics simulation was conducted to optimize the geometry design of the filter array structure; the device fabrication was also carried out. The prototype device was tested and the preliminary experimental results showed that it can be used as a beads-trapping unit for various biochemistry and analytical chemistry applications, especially for flow injection analysis systems.

  15. Energy Transport in Trapped Ion Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Ramm; Thaned Pruttivarasin; Hartmut Häffner

    2013-12-20

    We experimentally study energy transport in chains of trapped ions. We use a pulsed excitation scheme to rapidly add energy to the local motional mode of one of the ions in the chain. Subsequent energy readout allows us to determine how the excitation has propagated throughout the chain. We observe energy revivals that persist for many cycles. We study the behavior with an increasing number of ions of up to 37 in the chain, including a zig-zag configuration. The experimental results agree well with the theory of normal mode evolution. The described system provides an experimental toolbox for the study of thermodynamics of closed systems and energy transport in both classical and quantum regimes.

  16. Contaminant trap for gas-insulated apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adcock, James L. (Knoxville, TN); Pace, Marshall O. (Knoxville, TN); Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    A contaminant trap for a gas-insulated electrical conductor is provided. A resinous dielectric body such as Kel-F wax, grease or other sticky polymeric or oligomeric compound is disposed on the inside wall of the outer housing for the conductor. The resinous body is sufficiently sticky at ambient temperatures to immobilize contaminant particles in the insulating gas on the exposed surfaces thereof. An electric resistance heating element is disposed in the resinous body to selectively raise the temperature of the resinous body to a molten state so that the contaminant particles collected on the surface of the body sink into the body so that the surface of the resinous body is renewed to a particle-less condition and, when cooled, returns to a sticky collecting surface.

  17. Debris trap in a turbine cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Ian David (Clifton Park, NY)

    2002-01-01

    In a turbine having a rotor and a plurality of stages, each stage comprising a row of buckets mounted on the rotor for rotation therewith; and wherein the buckets of at least one of the stages are cooled by steam, the improvement comprising at least one axially extending cooling steam supply conduit communicating with an at least partially annular steam supply manifold; one or more axially extending cooling steam feed tubes connected to the manifold at a location radially outwardly of the cooling steam supply conduit, the feed tubes arranged to supply cooling steam to the buckets of at least one of the plurality of stages; the manifold extending radially beyond the feed tubes to thereby create a debris trap region for collecting debris under centrifugal loading caused by rotation of the rotor.

  18. Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeAngelis, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    PLoS ONE: Characterization of Trapped Lignin-DegradingAccess For Readers Hubs Characterization of Trapped Lignin-11:36:02 AM] PLoS ONE: Characterization of Trapped Lignin-

  19. Fabrication and heating rate study of microscopic surface electrode ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniilidis, N.

    We report heating rate measurements in a microfabricated gold-on-sapphire surface electrode ion trap with a trapping height of approximately 240 ?m. Using the Doppler recooling method, we characterize the trap heating rates ...

  20. Quantum Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Ashmead

    2010-05-05

    Normally we quantize along the space dimensions but treat time classically. But from relativity we expect a high level of symmetry between time and space. What happens if we quantize time using the same rules we use to quantize space? To do this, we generalize the paths in the Feynman path integral to include paths that vary in time as well as in space. We use Morlet wavelet decomposition to ensure convergence and normalization of the path integrals. We derive the Schr\\"odinger equation in four dimensions from the short time limit of the path integral expression. We verify that we recover standard quantum theory in the non-relativistic, semi-classical, and long time limits. Quantum time is an experiment factory: most foundational experiments in quantum mechanics can be modified in a way that makes them tests of quantum time. We look at single and double slits in time, scattering by time-varying electric and magnetic fields, and the Aharonov-Bohm effect in time.

  1. Modeling preasymptotic transport in flows with significant inertial and trapping effects The importance of velocity correlations and a spatial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolster, Diogo

    , demonstrated that at asymptotic times, for laminar flow conditions transport in a cylindrical tube canModeling preasymptotic transport in flows with significant inertial and trapping effects Borgne b , Jérémy Bouquain b , Phillipe Davy b a Environmental Fluid Dynamics Laboratories, Dept

  2. Sensitivity test of a blue-detuned dipole trap designed for parity non-conservation measurements in Fr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong Sheng; Jiehang Zhang; Luis A. Orozco

    2012-04-23

    A dynamic blue-detuned optical dipole trap with stable $^{87}Rb$ atoms produces a differential ac Stark shift of 18 Hz in the ground state hyperfine transition, and it preserves the ground state hyperfine superpositions for a long coherence time of 180 ms. The trapped atoms undergoing microwave Rabi oscillations are sensitive to a small signal, artificially generated with a second microwave source, phase locked to the first allow- ing a simple and effective method for determining signal-to-noise ratio limits through interference techniques. This provides an excellent means of calibrating sensitivity in experiments such as our ongoing Fr parity non-conservation measurement.

  3. Progress towards high precision measurements on ultracold metastable hydrogen and trapping deuterium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinberger, Julia K., 1974-

    2004-01-01

    (cont.) not achieve deuterium trapping through helium-surface cooling. It is proposed that buffer gas loading can be used to cryogenically cool and trap deuterium.

  4. Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts investigation of potential...

  5. Volumetric imaging of holographic optical traps Yohai Roichman, Ilias Cholis, and David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Volumetric imaging of holographic optical traps Yohai Roichman, Ilias Cholis, and David G. Grier distributions. We create volumetric representations by by holographically translating the traps through

  6. Charge-trapping characteristics of fluorinated thin ZrO{sub 2} film for nonvolatile memory applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, X. D., E-mail: eexdhuang@gmail.com, E-mail: laip@eee.hku.hk [Key Laboratory of MEMS of the Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Shi, R. P.; Lai, P. T., E-mail: eexdhuang@gmail.com, E-mail: laip@eee.hku.hk [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-04-21

    The effects of fluorine treatment on the charge-trapping characteristics of thin ZrO{sub 2} film are investigated by physical and electrical characterization techniques. The formation of silicate interlayer at the ZrO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} interface is effectively suppressed by fluorine passivation. However, excessive fluorine diffusion into the Si substrate deteriorates the quality of the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface. Compared with the ZrO{sub 2}-based memory devices with no or excessive fluorine treatment, the one with suitable fluorine-treatment time shows higher operating speed and better retention due to less resistance of built-in electric field (formed by trapped electrons) against electron injection from the substrate and smaller trap-assisted tunneling leakage, resulting from improved ZrO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}/Si interfaces.

  7. First Use of High Charge States for Mass Measurements of Short-Lived Nuclides in a Penning Trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ettenauer, S.; Gallant, A. T.; Dilling, J.; Simon, M. C.; Chaudhuri, A.; Mane, E.; Delheij, P.; Pearson, M. R.; Brunner, T.; Chowdhury, U.; Simon, V. V.; Brodeur, M.; Andreoiu, C.; Audi, G.; Lopez-Urrutia, J. R. Crespo; Ullrich, J.; Gwinner, G.; Lapierre, A.; Lunney, D.; Ringle, R.

    2011-12-30

    Penning trap mass measurements of short-lived nuclides have been performed for the first time with highly charged ions, using the TITAN facility at TRIUMF. Compared to singly charged ions, this provides an improvement in experimental precision that scales with the charge state q. Neutron-deficient Rb isotopes have been charge bred in an electron beam ion trap to q=8-12+ prior to injection into the Penning trap. In combination with the Ramsey excitation scheme, this unique setup creating low energy, highly charged ions at a radioactive beam facility opens the door to unrivaled precision with gains of 1-2 orders of magnitude. The method is particularly suited for short-lived nuclides such as the superallowed {beta} emitter {sup 74}Rb (T{sub 1/2}=65 ms). The determination of its atomic mass and an improved Q{sub EC} value are presented.

  8. First Use of High Charge States for Mass Measurements of Short-lived Nuclides in a Penning Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Ettenauer; M. C. Simon; A. T. Gallant; T. Brunner; U. Chowdhury; V. V. Simon; M. Brodeur; A. Chaudhuri; E. Mané; C. Andreoiu; G. Audi; J. R. Crespo López-Urrutia; P. Delheij; G. Gwinner; A. Lapierre; D. Lunney; M. R. Pearson; R. Ringle; J. Ullrich; J. Dilling

    2011-09-15

    Penning trap mass measurements of short-lived nuclides have been performed for the first time with highly-charged ions (HCI), using the TITAN facility at TRIUMF. Compared to singly-charged ions, this provides an improvement in experimental precision that scales with the charge state q. Neutron-deficient Rb-isotopes have been charge bred in an electron beam ion trap to q = 8 - 12+ prior to injection into the Penning trap. In combination with the Ramsey excitation scheme, this unique setup creating low energy, highly-charged ions at a radioactive beam facility opens the door to unrivalled precision with gains of 1-2 orders of magnitude. The method is particularly suited for short-lived nuclides such as the superallowed {\\beta} emitter 74Rb (T1/2 = 65 ms). The determination of its atomic mass and an improved QEC-value are presented.

  9. Two-dimensional water waves in the presence of a freely floating body: conditions for the absence of trapped modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolay Kuznetsov

    2015-03-07

    The coupled motion is investigated for a mechanical system consisting of water and a body freely floating in it. Water occupies either a half-space or a layer of constant depth into which an infinitely long surface-piercing cylinder is immersed, thus allowing us to study two-dimensional modes. Under the assumption that the motion is of small amplitude near equilibrium, a linear setting is applicable and for the time-harmonic oscillations it reduces to a spectral problem with the frequency of oscillations as the spectral parameter. It is essential that one of the problem's relations is linear with respect to the parameter, whereas two others are quadratic with respect to it. Within this framework, it is shown that the total energy of the water motion is finite and the equipartition of energy holds for the whole system. On this basis, it is proved that no wave modes can be trapped provided their frequencies exceed a bound depending on cylinder's properties, whereas its geometry is subject to some restrictions and, in some cases, certain restrictions are imposed on the type of mode.

  10. Broadband perfect light trapping in the thinnest monolayer graphene-MoS$_{2}$ photovoltaic cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yun-Beng; Wang, Tong-Biao; Deng, Xin-Hua; Liu, Jiang-Tao

    2015-01-01

    The light absorption of a monolayer graphene-molybdenum disulfide photovoltaic (GM-PV) cell in a wedge-shaped microcavity with a spectrum-splitting structure is investigated theoretically. The GM-PV cell, which is three times thinner than the traditional photovoltaic cell, exhibits up to 98\\% light absorptivity in a wide wavelength range. This rate exceeds the fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells. The effects of defect layer thickness, GM-PV cell position in the microcavity, incident angle, and lens aberration on the light absorption rate of the GM-PV cell is explored. Regardless of errors, the GM-PV cell can still achieve at least 90\\% light absorptivity with the current technology. Our proposal provides different methods to design light-trapping structures and apply spectrum-splitting systems.

  11. Thick-film technology for ultra high vacuum interfaces of micro-structured traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delia Kaufmann; Thomas Collath; M. Tanveer Baig; Peter Kaufmann; Eman Asenwar; Michael Johanning; Christof Wunderlich

    2012-01-26

    We adopt thick-film technology to produce ultra high vacuum compatible interfaces for electrical signals. These interfaces permit voltages of hundreds of Volts and currents of several Amperes and allow for very compact vacuum setups, useful in quantum optics in general, and especially for quantum information and quantum simulations using miniaturized traps for ions or neutral atoms. Such printed circuits can also be useful as pure in-vacuum devices. We demonstrate a specific interface, which provides eleven current feedthroughs, more than 70 dc feedthroughs and a feedthrough for radio frequencies. We achieve a pressure in the low 1e-11mbar range and demonstrate the full functionality of the interface by trapping chains of cold ytterbium ions, which requires all of the signals mentioned above being present. In addition, a versatile multi-channel device for supplying precise time-dependent voltages has been developed.

  12. Extending the applicability of an open-ring trap to perform experiments with a single laser-cooled ion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. M. Cornejo; M. Colombano; J. Doménech; M. Block; P. Delahaye; D. Rodríguez

    2015-07-08

    An open-ring ion trap, also referred to as transparent trap was initially built up to perform $\\beta$-$\

  13. AMEAerospace & Mechanical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Hai

    , emerging fuel cell technolo- gies, computational fluid mechanics, ground vehicle aerodynamics, combustion students develop problem solving skills in the areas of mechanics, thermody- namics, fluid mechanics, heat advance our understanding of such areas as continuum and particulate fluid mechanics, flight mechanics

  14. Bohmian Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Detlef Duerr; Sheldon Goldstein; Roderich Tumulka; Nino Zanghi

    2009-03-15

    Bohmian mechanics is a theory about point particles moving along trajectories. It has the property that in a world governed by Bohmian mechanics, observers see the same statistics for experimental results as predicted by quantum mechanics. Bohmian mechanics thus provides an explanation of quantum mechanics. Moreover, the Bohmian trajectories are defined in a non-conspiratorial way by a few simple laws.

  15. Quantum information processing with trapped electrons and superconducting electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikos Daniilidis; Dylan J Gorman; Lin Tian; Hartmut Häffner

    2013-04-17

    We describe a parametric frequency conversion scheme for trapped charged particles which enables a coherent interface between atomic and solid-state quantum systems. The scheme uses geometric non-linearities of the potential of a coupling electrode near a trapped particle. Our scheme does not rely on actively driven solid-state devices, and is hence largely immune to noise in such devices. We present a toolbox which can be used to build electron-based quantum information processing platforms, as well as quantum interfaces between trapped electrons and superconducting electronics.

  16. Steam Traps-The Oft Forgotten Energy Conservation Treasure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pychewicz, F. S.

    1985-01-01

    of every steam system. It is common to find 10-60% of the team traps in any facility malfunctioning. The result ant waste can easily equal 5-15% of a plant' total steam generation with concomitant processing and safety problems from failed open... into the effective utilization of st l am traps and, hopefully, will serve as a guide or your energy saving efforts in this vital are CHAMPION The key to the success of an effective team trap program rests with a single individual the person selected...

  17. Trap seal for open circuit liquid cooled turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grondahl, Clayton M. (Clifton Park, NY); Germain, Malcolm R. (Ballston Lake, NY)

    1980-01-01

    An improved trap seal for open circuit liquid cooled turbines is disclosed. The trap seal of the present invention includes an annular recess formed in the supply conduit of cooling channels formed in the airfoil of the turbine buckets. A cylindrical insert is located in the annular recesses and has a plurality of axial grooves formed along the outer periphery thereof and a central recess formed in one end thereof. The axial grooves and central recess formed in the cylindrical insert cooperate with the annular recess to define a plurality of S-shaped trap seals which permit the passage of liquid coolant but prohibit passage of gaseous coolant.

  18. Individual addressing of trapped $^{171}$Yb$^+$ ion qubits using a MEMS-based beam steering system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Crain; E. Mount; S. Baek; J. Kim

    2014-09-18

    The ability to individually manipulate the increasing number of qubits is one of the many challenges towards scalable quantum information processing with trapped ions. Using micro-mirrors fabricated with micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, we focus laser beams on individual ions in a linear chain and steer the focal point in two dimensions. We demonstrate sequential single qubit gates on multiple $^{171}$Yb$^+$ qubits and characterize the gate performance using quantum state tomography. Our system features negligible crosstalk to neighboring ions ($< 3\\times 10^{-4}$), and switching speed comparable to typical single qubit gate times ($<$ 2 $\\mu$s).

  19. Individual addressing of trapped $^{171}$Yb$^+$ ion qubits using a MEMS-based beam steering system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crain, S; Baek, S; Kim, J

    2014-01-01

    The ability to individually manipulate the increasing number of qubits is one of the many challenges towards scalable quantum information processing with trapped ions. Using micro-mirrors fabricated with micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, we focus laser beams on individual ions in a linear chain and steer the focal point in two dimensions. We demonstrate sequential single qubit gates on multiple $^{171}$Yb$^+$ qubits and characterize the gate performance using quantum state tomography. Our system features negligible crosstalk to neighboring ions ($< 3\\times 10^{-4}$), and switching speed comparable to typical single qubit gate times ($<$ 2 $\\mu$s).

  20. Perspective: Magnetic traps for nearly untrappable particles: "Invited Article: Development of high field superconducting Ioffe magnetic traps"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Jack

    mechanical properties of the materials used in its con- struction. The design of these magnets has been mea- surement times, thereby reducing the measurement's statisti- cal uncertainty. The most elementary, the magnet support structure must be carefully designed, with special attention paid to the cryo- genic

  1. Cast-to-shape electrokinetic trapping medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Franklin, Elizabeth; Prickett, Zane T.; Artau, Alexander

    2004-08-03

    A three-dimensional microporous polymer network material, or monolith, cast-to-shape in a microchannel. The polymer monolith, produced by a phase separation process, is capable of trapping and retaining charged protein species from a mixture of charged and uncharged species under the influence of an applied electric field. The retained charged protein species are released from the porous polymer monolith by a pressure driven flow in the substantial absence of the electric field. The pressure driven flow is independent of direction and thus neither means to reverse fluid flow nor a multi-directional flow field is required, a single flow through the porous polymer monolith can be employed, in contrast to prior art systems. The monolithic polymer material produced by the invention can function as a chromatographic medium. Moreover, by virtue of its ability to retain charged protein species and quantitatively release the retained species the porous polymer monolith can serve as a means for concentrating charged protein species from, for example, a dilute solution.

  2. Cast-to-shape electrokinetic trapping medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Franklin, Elizabeth (Rolla, MO); Prickett, Zane T. (Golden, CO); Artau, Alexander (Pleasanton, CA)

    2006-05-30

    A three-dimensional microporous polymer network material, or monolith, cast-to-shape in a microchannel. The polymer monolith, produced by a phase separation process, is capable of trapping and retaining charged protein species from a mixture of charged and uncharged species under the influence of an applied electric field. The retained charged protein species are released from the porous polymer monolith by a pressure driven flow in the substantial absence of the electric field. The pressure driven flow is independent of direction and thus neither means to reverse fluid flow nor a multi-directional flow field is required, a single flow through the porous polymer monolith can be employed, in contrast to prior art systems. The monolithic polymer material produced by the invention can function as a chromatographic medium. Moreover, by virtue of its ability to retain charged protein species and quantitatively release the retained species the porous polymer monolith can serve as a means for concentrating charged protein species from, for example, a dilute solution.

  3. Fast quantum algorithm for EC3 problem with trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hefeng Wang; Lian-Ao Wu

    2014-12-09

    Adiabatic quantum computing~(AQC) is based on the adiabatic principle, where a quantum system remains in an instantaneous eigenstate of the driving Hamiltonian. The final state of the Hamiltonian encodes solution to the problem of interest. While AQC has distinct advantages, recent researches have shown that quantumness such as quantum coherence in adiabatic processes may be lost entirely due to the system-bath interaction when the evolution time is long, and consequently the expected quantum speedup dose not show up. Here we propose a fast-signal assisted adiabatic quantum algorithm. We find that by applying a sequence of fast random or regular signals during the evolution process, the runtime can be reduced greatly, yet advantages of the adiabatic algorithm remain intact. Significantly, we present a \\emph{randomized} Trotter formula and show that the driving Hamiltonian and the sequence of fast signals can be implemented simultaneously. We apply the algorithm for solving the $3$-bit exact cover problem~(EC$3$) and put forward an approach for implementing the problem with trapped ions.

  4. Testing quantum physics in space using optically trapped nanospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rainer Kaltenbaek

    2013-07-26

    Recent developments in space technology like micro-propulsion systems for drag-free control, thermal shielding, ultra-stable laser sources and stable optical cavities set an ideal platform for quantum optomechanical experiments with optically trapped dielectric spheres. Here, we will provide an overview of the results of recent studies aiming at the realization of the space mission MAQRO to test the foundations of quantum physics in a parameter regime orders of magnitude beyond existing experiments. In particular, we will discuss DECIDE, which is an experiment to prepare and then study a Schr\\"odinger-cat-type state, where a dielectric nanosphere of around 100nm radius is prepared in a superposition of being in two clearly distinct positions at the same time. This superposition leads to double-slit-type interference, and the visibility of the interference pattern will be compared to the predictions of quantum theory. This approach allows for testing for possible deviations from quantum theory as our test objects approach macroscopic dimensions. With DECIDE, it will be possible to distinctly test several prominent theoretical models that predict such deviations, for example: the Di\\'osi-Pensrose model, the continuous-spontaneous-localization model of Ghirardi, Rimini, Weber and Pearle, and the model of K\\'arolyh\\'azy.

  5. Fast thermometry for trapped ions using dark resonances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johannes Roßnagel; Karl Nicolas Tolazzi; Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler; Kilian Singer

    2015-04-09

    We experimentally demonstrate a method to determine the temperature of trapped ions which is suitable for monitoring fast thermalization processes. We show that observing and analyzing the lineshape of dark resonances in the fluorescence spectrum provides a temperature measurement which accurate over a large dynamic range, applied to single ions and small ion crystals. Laser induced fluorescence is detected over a time of only $20\\,\\mu$s allowing for rapid determination of the ion temperature. In the measurement range of $10^{-1}-10^{+2}\\,$mK we reach better than $15\\,\\%$ accuracy. Tuning the cooling laser to selected resonance features allows for controlling the ion temperatures between $0.7\\,$mK and more than $10\\,$mK. Experimental work is supported by a solution of the 8-level optical Bloch equations when including the ions classical motion. This technique paves the way for many experiments comprising heat transport in ion strings, heat engines, non-equilibrium thermodynamics or thermometry of large ion crystals.

  6. ccsd-00000333(version2):29Apr2003 Schemes for loading a BoseEinstein condensate into a two-dimensional dipole trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ccsd-00000333(version2):29Apr2003 Schemes for loading a Bose­Einstein condensate into a two results are presented. PACS numbers: 03.75.Fi, 05.30.Jp, 32.80.Pj I. INTRODUCTION Bose­Einstein, California 90089-0484, USA We propose two loading mechanisms of a degenerate Bose gas into a surface trap

  7. Cavity Sideband Cooling of a Single Trapped Ion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuletic, Vladan

    We report a demonstration and quantitative characterization of one-dimensional cavity cooling of a single trapped [superscript 88]Sr[superscript +] ion in the resolved-sideband regime. We measure the spectrum of cavity ...

  8. Laser ablation loading of a surface-electrode ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David R. Leibrandt; Robert J. Clark; Jaroslaw Labaziewicz; Paul Antohi; Waseem Bakr; Kenneth R. Brown; Isaac L. Chuang

    2007-06-22

    We demonstrate loading by laser ablation of $^{88}$Sr$^+$ ions into a mm-scale surface-electrode ion trap. The laser used for ablation is a pulsed, frequency-tripled Nd:YAG with pulse energies of 1-10 mJ and durations of 3-5 ns. An additional laser is not required to photoionize the ablated material. The efficiency and lifetime of several candidate materials for the laser ablation target are characterized by measuring the trapped ion fluorescence signal for a number of consecutive loads. Additionally, laser ablation is used to load traps with a trap depth (40 meV) below where electron impact ionization loading is typically successful ($\\gtrsim$ 500 meV).

  9. Construction and Operation of a Floating Alaska Salmon Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dismantling a trap Storage . . ... Acknowledgments ill Page 2 4 4 4 4 6 6 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 12 12

  10. SOLAR CELLS Low trap-state density and long

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    REPORTS SOLAR CELLS Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide) perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have now achieved 20.1% certified power con- version efficiencies (1

  11. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, Daniel D. (Livermore, CA); Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA)

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  12. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-12-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  13. The Engineered Approach to Energy and Maintenance Effective Steam Trapping 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krueger, R. G.; Wilt, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    .0420" 21.85 0.0935" 51.84 0.1440" 91.20 0.1910" 1.10 0.0210" 4.62 0.0430" 21.94 0.0937" 54.02 0.1470" 93.60 0.1935" 1.26 0.0225" 5.40 0.0465" 23.04 0.0960" 55.87 0.1495" 96.04 0.1960" 1.44 0.0240" 5.49 0.0469" 24.01 0.0980" 57.76 0.1520" 99.00 0... and effective trap consumes 1-2 Ibs./hr. steam just to functionally efficient. Energy operating targets function properly. An inverted bucket trap loses 2-4 should include an analysis of steam trapping practices Ibs./hr. and a thermodynamic disc trap 0.5-1 lbs...

  14. Stable Metal-Organic Frameworks Containing Single-Molecule Traps...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stable Metal-Organic Frameworks Containing Single-Molecule Traps for Enzyme Encapsulation Previous Next List Dawei Feng, Tian-Fu Liu, Jie Su, Mathieu Bosch, Zhangwen Wei, Wei Wan,...

  15. From transistor to trapped-ion computers for quantum chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. -H. Yung; J. Casanova; A. Mezzacapo; J. McClean; L. Lamata; A. Aspuru-Guzik; E. Solano

    2013-07-16

    Over the last few decades, quantum chemistry has progressed through the development of computational methods based on modern digital computers. However, these methods can hardly fulfill the exponentially-growing resource requirements when applied to large quantum systems. As pointed out by Feynman, this restriction is intrinsic to all computational models based on classical physics. Recently, the rapid advancement of trapped-ion technologies has opened new possibilities for quantum control and quantum simulations. Here, we present an efficient toolkit that exploits both the internal and motional degrees of freedom of trapped ions for solving problems in quantum chemistry, including molecular electronic structure, molecular dynamics, and vibronic coupling. We focus on applications that go beyond the capacity of classical computers, but may be realizable on state-of-the-art trapped-ion systems. These results allow us to envision a new paradigm of quantum chemistry that shifts from the current transistor to a near-future trapped-ion-based technology.

  16. Light trapping limits in plasmonic solar cells: an analytical investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    We analytically investigate the light trapping performance in plasmonic solar cells with Si/metallic structures. We consider absorption enhancements for surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at planar Si/metal interfaces and ...

  17. Novel trapping techniques for shaping Bose-Einstein condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, Micah (Micah Scott)

    2007-01-01

    A combination of radio frequency radiation and magnetic field gradients was used to trap atoms in dressed states. In a magnetic field with a quadrupole minimum. RF fields resonant with the (I F. m)) 11. -1) -- 1, 0) ...

  18. Tests of Lorentz Symmetry with Penning Traps and Antihydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neil Russell

    2005-11-22

    Possibilities for testing Lorentz symmetry using precision experiments with antiprotons in Penning traps and with antihydrogen spectroscopy are reviewed. Estimates of bounds on relevant coefficients for Lorentz violation in the Standard-Model Extension (SME) are considered.

  19. Energy Conservation Thru Steam Trap Surveys and Preventive Maintenance Programs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boynton, T.; Dewhirst, B.

    1980-01-01

    justification for the survey program. Defective steam traps and their energy characteristics will also be discussed. An on-going preventive maintenance program can be initiated from the information derived from the survey. Sustained energy efficiency...

  20. Quantum gates, sensors, and systems with trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Shannon Xuanyue

    2012-01-01

    Quantum information science promises a host of new and useful applications in communication, simulation, and computational algorithms. Trapped atomic ions are one of the leading physical systems with potential to implement ...

  1. Low power zinc-oxide based charge trapping memory with embedded silicon nanoparticles via poole-frenkel hole emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Atab, Nazek; Nayfeh, Ammar; Ozcan, Ayse; Alkis, Sabri; Okyay, Ali K.; Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara

    2014-01-06

    A low power zinc-oxide (ZnO) charge trapping memory with embedded silicon (Si) nanoparticles is demonstrated. The charge trapping layer is formed by spin coating 2?nm silicon nanoparticles between Atomic Layer Deposited ZnO steps. The threshold voltage shift (?V{sub t}) vs. programming voltage is studied with and without the silicon nanoparticles. Applying ?1?V for 5?s at the gate of the memory with nanoparticles results in a ?V{sub t} of 3.4?V, and the memory window can be up to 8?V with an excellent retention characteristic (>10 yr). Without nanoparticles, at ?1?V programming voltage, the ?V{sub t} is negligible. In order to get ?V{sub t} of 3.4?V without nanoparticles, programming voltage in excess of 10?V is required. The negative voltage on the gate programs the memory indicating that holes are being trapped in the charge trapping layer. In addition, at 1?V the electric field across the 3.6?nm tunnel oxide is calculated to be 0.36 MV/cm, which is too small for significant tunneling. Moreover, the ?V{sub t} vs. electric field across the tunnel oxide shows square root dependence at low fields (E??2.7 MV/cm). This indicates that Poole-Frenkel Effect is the main mechanism for holes emission at low fields and Phonon Assisted Tunneling at higher fields.

  2. Laser induced rotation of trapped chiral and achiral nematic droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marjan Mosallaeipour; Yashodhan Hatwalne; N. V. Madhusudana; Sharath Ananthamurthy

    2010-02-05

    We study the response of optically trapped achiral and chiralised nematic liquid crystal droplets to linear as well as circular polarised light. We find that there is internal dissipation in rotating achiral nematic droplets trapped in glycerine. We also demonstrate that some chiralised droplets rotate under linearly polarised light. The best fit to our data on chiralised droplets indicates that rotational frequency of these droplets with radius R is approximately proportional to1/R^2, rather than to 1/R^3.

  3. Optical Trapping and Control of a Nanowire by a Nanoaperture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aporvari, Mehdi Shafiei; Volpe, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that a single sub-wavelength nanoaperture in a metallic thin film can be used to achieve dynamic optical trapping and control of a single dielectric nanowire. A nanoaperture can trap a nanowire, control its orientation when illuminated by a linearly-polarized incident field, and also rotate the nanowire when illuminated by a circularly-polarized incident field. Compared to other designs, this approach has the advantages of a low-power driving field entailing low heating and photodamage.

  4. The Effects of Derelict Blue Crab Traps on Marine Organisms in the Lower York River, Virginia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrizio, Mary C.

    addition of over 100,000 traps annually to the Chesapeake Bay derelict trap population in Virginia. The top are vandalized, or storms roll the traps, pulling the buoy below the surface. In Florida, Alabama, Mississippi waters. Blue crabs and various fish species that are entrapped and die in derelict traps can act

  5. Dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a symmetric triple-well trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. F. Viscondi; K. Furuya

    2010-11-04

    We present a complete analysis of the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a symmetric triple-well potential. Our classical analogue treatment, based on a time-dependent variational method using SU(3) coherent states, includes the parameter dependence analysis of the equilibrium points and their local stability, which is closely related to the condensate collective behaviour. We also consider the effects of off-site interactions, and how these "cross-collisions" may become relevant for a large number of trapped bosons. Besides, we have shown analytically, by means of a simple basis transformation in the single-particle space, that an integrable sub-regime, known as twin-condensate dynamics, corresponds in the classical phase space to invariant surfaces isomorphic to the unit sphere. However, the quantum dynamics preserves the twin-condensate defining characteristics only partially, thus breaking the invariance of the associated quantum subspace. Moreover, the periodic geometry of the trapping potential allowed us to investigate the dynamics of finite angular momentum collective excitations, which can be suppressed by the emergence of chaos. Finally, using the generalized purity associated to the su(3) algebra, we were able to quantify the dynamical classicality of a quantum evolved system, as compared to the corresponding classical trajectory.

  6. Influence of static electric fields on an optical ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Schneider; Martin Enderlein; Thomas Huber; Stephan Dürr; Tobias Schaetz

    2011-12-16

    We recently reported on a proof-of-principle experiment demonstrating optical trapping of an ion in a single-beam dipole trap superimposed by a static electric potential [Nat. Photonics 4, 772--775 (2010)]. Here, we first discuss the experimental procedures focussing on the influence and consequences of the static electric potential. These potentials can easily prevent successful optical trapping, if their configuration is not chosen carefully. Afterwards, we analyse the dipole trap experiments with different analytic models, in which different approximations are applied. According to these models the experimental results agree with recoil heating as the relevant heating effect. In addition, a Monte-Carlo simulation has been developed to refine the analysis. It reveals a large impact of the static electric potential on the dipole trap experiments in general. While it supports the results of the analytic models for the parameters used in the experiments, the analytic models cease their validity for significantly different parameters. Finally, we propose technical improvements for future realizations of experiments with optically trapped ions.

  7. Bichromatic State-insensitive Trapping of Caesium Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metbulut, M M

    2015-01-01

    State-insensitive dipole trapping of multilevel atoms can be achieved by an appropriate choice of the wavelength of the trapping laser, so that the interaction with the different transitions results in equal AC Stark shifts for the ground and excited states of interest. However this approach is severely limited by the availability of coherent sources at the required wavelength and of appropriate power. This work investigates state-insensitive trapping of caesium atoms for which the required wavelength of 935.6 nm is inconvenient in terms of experimental realization. Bichromatic state-insensitive trapping is proposed to overcome the lack of suitable laser sources. We first consider pairs of laser wavelengths in the ratio 1:2 and 1:3, as obtained via second- and third- harmonic generation. We found that the wavelength combinations 931.8-1863.6 nm and 927.5-2782.5 nm are suitable for state-insensitive trapping of caesium atoms. In addition, we examine bichromatic state-insensitive trapping produced by pairs of l...

  8. Time Crystals from Minimum Time Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mir Faizal; Mohammed M. Khalil; Saurya Das

    2014-12-29

    Motivated by the Generalized Uncertainty Principle, covariance, and a minimum measurable time, we propose a deformation of the Heisenberg algebra, and show that this leads to corrections to all quantum mechanical systems. We also demonstrate that such a deformation implies a discrete spectrum for time. In other words, time behaves like a crystal.

  9. EBIT (Electron Beam Ion Trap), N-Division Experimental Physics. Annual report, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, D. [ed.

    1995-10-01

    The experimental groups in the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) program continue to perform front-line research with trapped and extracted highly charged ions (HCI) in the areas of ion/surface interactions, atomic spectroscopy, electron-ion interaction and structure measurements, highly charged ion confinement, and EBIT development studies. The ion surface/interaction studies which were initiated five years ago have reached a stage where they an carry out routine investigations, as well as produce breakthrough results towards the development of novel nanotechnology. At EBIT and SuperEBIT studies of the x-ray emission from trapped ions continue to produce significant atomic structure data with high precision for few electron systems of high-Z ions. Furthermore, diagnostics development for magnetic and laser fusion, supporting research for the x-ray laser and weapons programs, and laboratory astrophysics experiments in support of NASA`s astrophysics program are a continuing effort. The two-electron contributions to the binding energy of helium like ions were measured for the first time. The results are significant because their precision is an order of magnitude better than those of competing measurements at accelerators, and the novel technique isolates the energy corrections that are the most interesting. The RETRAP project which was initiated three years ago has reached a stage where trapping, confining and electronic cooling of HCI ions up to Th{sup 80+} can be performed routinely. Measurements of the rates and cross sections for electron transfer from H{sub 2} performed to determine the lifetime of HCI up to Xe{sup q+} and Th{sup q+} (35 {le} q {le} 80) have been studied at mean energies estimated to be {approximately} 5 q eV. This combination of heavy ions with very high charges and very low energies is rare in nature, but may be encountered in planned fusion energy demonstration devices, in highly charged ion sources, or in certain astrophysical events.

  10. Advanced Mechanics. Mathematical Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Giachetta; L. Mangiarotti; G. Sardanashvily

    2010-01-20

    Classical non-relativistic mechanics in a general setting of time-dependent transformations and reference frame changes is formulated in the terms of fibre bundles over the time-axis R. Connections on fibre bundles are the main ingredient in this formulation of mechanics which thus is covariant under reference frame transformations. The basic notions of a non-relativistic reference frame, a relative velocity, a free motion equation, a relative acceleration, an external force are formulated. Newtonian, Lagrangian, Hamiltonian mechanical systems and the relations between them are defined. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian conservation laws are considered.

  11. Revealing the escape mechanism of three-dimensional orbits in a tidally limited star cluster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Euaggelos E. Zotos

    2014-11-18

    The aim of this work is to explore the escape process of three-dimensional orbits in a star cluster rotating around its parent galaxy in a circular orbit. The gravitational field of the cluster is represented by a smooth, spherically symmetric Plummer potential, while the tidal approximation was used to model the steady tidal field of the galaxy. We conduct a thorough numerical analysis distinguishing between regular and chaotic orbits as well as between trapped and escaping orbits, considering only unbounded motion for several energy levels. It is of particular interest to locate the escape basins towards the two exit channels and relate them with the corresponding escape times of the orbits. For this purpose, we split our investigation into three cases depending on the initial value of the $z$ coordinate which was used for launching the stars. The most noticeable finding is that the majority of stars initiated very close to the primary $(x,y)$ plane move in chaotic orbits and they remain trapped for vast time intervals, while orbits with relatively high values of $z_0$ on the other hand, form well-defined basins of escape. It was also observed, that for energy levels close to the critical escape energy the escape rates of orbits are large, while for much higher values of energy most of the orbits have low escape periods or they escape immediately to infinity. We hope our outcomes to be useful for a further understanding of the dissolution process and the escape mechanism in open star clusters.

  12. Simplified implementation of the quantum Fourier transform with Ising-type Hamiltonians: Example with ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svetoslav S. Ivanov; Michael Johanning; Christof Wunderlich

    2015-09-06

    We propose a simplified mathematical construction of the quantum Fourier transform which is suited for systems described by Ising-type Hamiltonians. By contrast to the standard Cooley-Tuckey scheme, which prescribes sequences of CPHASE gates, our implementation is based on one-qubit gates and a free evolution process. We also show how to obtain a quadratic speed-up by applying the conditional interactions simultaneously. Thus rather than O($N^2$) our implementation time scales as O($N$). Finally, we show a realization of our method with homogeneous microwave driven ion traps in a magnetic field with gradient.

  13. Born-Oppenheimer description of two atoms in a combined oscillator and lattice trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ole Søe Sørensen; Klaus Mølmer

    2012-06-26

    We analyze the quantum states of two atoms in a combined harmonic oscillator and periodic lattice trap in one spatial dimension. In the case of tight-binding and only nearest neighbor tunneling, the equations of motion are conveniently represented in the momentum representation. We show that in the case of strong attraction between the particles, the di?erent time scales of relative and center-of-mass motion validate a separation of the problem similar to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation applied in the description of electronic and nuclear motion in molecules.

  14. Born-Oppenheimer description of two atoms in a combined oscillator and lattice trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sørensen, Ole Søe

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the quantum states of two atoms in a combined harmonic oscillator and periodic lattice trap in one spatial dimension. In the case of tight-binding and only nearest neighbor tunneling, the equations of motion are conveniently represented in the momentum representation. We show that in the case of strong attraction between the particles, the di?erent time scales of relative and center-of-mass motion validate a separation of the problem similar to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation applied in the description of electronic and nuclear motion in molecules.

  15. Universal Time Tunneling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guenter Nimtz

    2009-01-26

    How much time does a tunneling wave packet spent in traversing a barrier? Quantum mechanical calculations result in zero time inside a barrier . In the nineties analogous tunneling experiments with microwaves were carried out. The results agreed with quantum mechanical calculations. Electron tunneling time is hard to measure being extremely short and parasitic effects due to the electric charge of electrons may be dominant. However, quite recently the atomic ionization tunneling time has been measured. Experimental data of photonic, phononic, and electronic tunneling time is available now and will be presented. It appears that the tunneling time is a universal property independent of the field in question.

  16. Sample-dependent first-passage time distribution in a disordered medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang Luo; Lei-Han Tang

    2015-09-26

    Above two dimensions, diffusion of a particle in a medium with quenched random traps is believed to be well-described by the annealed continuous time random walk (CTRW). We propose an approximate expression for the first-passage-time (FPT) distribution in a given sample that enables detailed comparison of the two problems. For a system of finite size, the number and spatial arrangement of deep traps yield significant sample-to-sample variations in the FPT statistics. Numerical simulations of a quenched trap model with power-law sojourn times confirm the existence of two characteristic time scales and a non-self-averaging FPT distribution, as predicted by theory.

  17. Simulation of lean NOx trap performance with microkinetic chemistry and without mass transfer.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, Rich; Daw, C. Stuart; Pihl, Josh A.; Chakravarthy, V. Kalyana

    2011-08-01

    A microkinetic chemical reaction mechanism capable of describing both the storage and regeneration processes in a fully formulated lean NO{sub x} trap (LNT) is presented. The mechanism includes steps occurring on the precious metal, barium oxide (NO{sub x} storage), and cerium oxide (oxygen storage) sites of the catalyst. The complete reaction set is used in conjunction with a transient plug flow reactor code to simulate not only conventional storage/regeneration cycles with a CO/H{sub 2} reductant, but also steady flow temperature sweep experiments that were previously analyzed with just a precious metal mechanism and a steady state code. The results show that NO{sub x} storage is not negligible during some of the temperature ramps, necessitating a re-evaluation of the precious metal kinetic parameters. The parameters for the entire mechanism are inferred by finding the best overall fit to the complete set of experiments. Rigorous thermodynamic consistency is enforced for parallel reaction pathways and with respect to known data for all of the gas phase species involved. It is found that, with a few minor exceptions, all of the basic experimental observations can be reproduced with these purely kinetic simulations, i.e., without including mass-transfer limitations. In addition to accounting for normal cycling behavior, the final mechanism should provide a starting point for the description of further LNT phenomena such as desulfation and the role of alternative reductants.

  18. Lean NOx Trap Modeling in Vehicle Systems Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; Conklin, Jim [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    A one-dimensional model for simulating lean NOx trap (LNT) performance is developed and validated using both steady state cycling data and transient data from FTP testing cycles. The model consists of the conservation equations for chemical species and energy in the bulk flow, energy of the solid walls, O2 storage and NOx storage (in the form of nitrites and nitrates). Nitrites and nitrates are formed by diffusion of NO and NO2, respectively, into sorbent particles (assumed to be hemi-spherical in shape) along with O2 and their formation rates are controlled by chemical kinetics as well as solid-phase diffusion rates of NOx species. The model also accounts for thermal aging and sulfation of LNTs. Empirical correlations are developed on the basis of published experimental data to capture these effects. These empirical correlations depend on total mileage for which the LNT has been in use, the mileage accumulated since the last desulfation event in addition to the freshly degreened catalyst characteristics. The model has been used in studies of vehicle systems (integration, performance etc.) including hybrid powertrain configurations. Since the engines in hybrid vehicles turn on and off multiple number of times during single drive cycles, the exhaust systems may encounter multiple cold start transients. Accurate modeling of catalyst warm-up and cooling is, therefore, very important to simulate LNT performance in such vehicles. For this purpose, the convective heat loss from the LNT to the ambient is modeled using a Nusselt number correlation that includes effects of both forced convection and natural convection (with later being important when vehicle is stationary). Using the model, the fuel penalty associated with operating LNTs on small diesel engine powered car during FTP drive cycles is estimated.

  19. Extremely scaled high-k/In?.??Ga?.??As gate stacks with low leakage and low interface trap densities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chobpattana, Varistha; Mikheev, Evgeny; Zhang, Jack Y.; Mates, Thomas E.; Stemmer, Susanne

    2014-09-28

    Highly scaled gate dielectric stacks with low leakage and low interface trap densities are required for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology with III-V semiconductor channels. Here, we show that a novel pre-deposition technique, consisting of alternating cycles of nitrogen plasma and tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium, allows for HfO? and ZrO? gate stacks with extremely high accumulation capacitance densities of more than 5 ?F/cm? at 1 MHz, low leakage current, low frequency dispersion, and low midgap interface trap densities (10¹²cm?²eV?¹range). Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we show that the interface contains TiO? and small quantities of In?O?, but no detectable Ga- or As-oxides, or As-As bonding. The results allow for insights into the microscopic mechanisms that control leakage and frequency dispersion in high-k/III-V gate stacks.

  20. Hole Trapping at Surfaces of m?ZrO2 and m?HfO2 Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolf, Matthew J.; Mckenna, Keith P.; Shlyuger, Alexander L.

    2012-12-03

    We investigate hole trapping at the most prevalent facets of monoclinic zirconia (m-ZrO2) and hafnia (m-HfO2) nanocrystals using first-principles methods. The localization of holes at surface oxygen ions is more favorable than in the bulk crystal by up to ?1 eV. This is caused mainly by the reduction of the absolute value of the electrostatic potential at the surface ions with respect to the bulk and by the significant surface distortion caused by the hole localization. The mobility of holes at surfaces is much lower than that found in the bulk and is fairly isotropic. Unlike in cubic oxides, such as MgO and CaO, we do not find a significant driving force for preferential trapping of holes at steps on the m-ZrO2 surface. These fundamental results are relevant to mechanisms of water oxidation, photocatalysis, contact charging, and photodesorption.

  1. Computer analysis of sodium cold trap design and performance. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1983-11-01

    Normal steam-side corrosion of steam-generator tubes in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) results in liberation of hydrogen, and most of this hydrogen diffuses through the tubes into the heat-transfer sodium and must be removed by the purification system. Cold traps are normally used to purify sodium, and they operate by cooling the sodium to temperatures near the melting point, where soluble impurities including hydrogen and oxygen precipitate as NaH and Na/sub 2/O, respectively. A computer model was developed to simulate the processes that occur in sodium cold traps. The Model for Analyzing Sodium Cold Traps (MASCOT) simulates any desired configuration of mesh arrangements and dimensions and calculates pressure drops and flow distributions, temperature profiles, impurity concentration profiles, and impurity mass distributions.

  2. Plasma-beam traps and radiofrequency quadrupole beam coolers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maggiore, M., E-mail: mario.maggiore@lnl.infn.it; Cavenago, M.; Comunian, M.; Chirulotto, F.; Galatà, A.; De Lazzari, M.; Porcellato, A. M.; Roncolato, C.; Stark, S. [INFN-LNL, viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)] [INFN-LNL, viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Caruso, A.; Longhitano, A. [INFN-LNS, via S. Sofia 54, 95123 Catania (Italy)] [INFN-LNS, via S. Sofia 54, 95123 Catania (Italy); Cavaliere, F.; Maero, G.; Paroli, B.; Pozzoli, R.; Romé, M. [INFN Sezione di Milano and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [INFN Sezione di Milano and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    Two linear trap devices for particle beam manipulation (including emittance reduction, cooling, control of instabilities, dust dynamics, and non-neutral plasmas) are here presented, namely, a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) beam cooler and a compact Penning trap with a dust injector. Both beam dynamics studies by means of dedicated codes including the interaction of the ions with a buffer gas (up to 3 Pa pressure), and the electromagnetic design of the RFQ beam cooler are reported. The compact multipurpose Penning trap is aimed to the study of multispecies charged particle samples, primarily electron beams interacting with a background gas and/or a micrometric dust contaminant. Using a 0.9 T solenoid and an electrode stack where both static and RF electric fields can be applied, both beam transport and confinement operations will be available. The design of the apparatus is presented.

  3. Parallel transport quantum logic gates with trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Clercq, Ludwig; Marinelli, Matteo; Nadlinger, David; Oswald, Robin; Negnevitsky, Vlad; Kienzler, Daniel; Keitch, Ben; Home, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    Quantum information processing will require combinations of gate operations and communication, with each applied in parallel to large numbers of quantum systems. These tasks are often performed sequentially, with gates implemented by pulsed fields and information transported either by moving the physical qubits or using photonic links. For trapped ions, an alternative approach is to implement quantum logic gates by transporting the ions through static laser beams, combining qubit operations with transport. This has significant advantages for scalability since the voltage waveforms required for transport can potentially be generated using micro-electronics integrated into the trap structure itself, while both optical and microwave control elements are significantly more bulky. Using a multi-zone ion trap, we demonstrate transport gates on a qubit encoded in the hyperfine structure of a beryllium ion. We show the ability to perform sequences of operations, and to perform parallel gates on two ions transported t...

  4. Recent progress in tailoring trap-based positron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natisin, M. R.; Hurst, N. C.; Danielson, J. R.; Surko, C. M. [Physics Department, University of California, San Diego La Jolla CA 92093-0319 (United States)

    2013-03-19

    Recent progress is described to implement two approaches to specially tailor trap-based positron beams. Experiments and simulations are presented to understand the limits on the energy spread and pulse duration of positron beams extracted from a Penning-Malmberg (PM) trap after the particles have been buffer-gas cooled (or heated) in the range of temperatures 1000 {>=} T {>=} 300 K. These simulations are also used to predict beam performance for cryogenically cooled positrons. Experiments and simulations are also presented to understand the properties of beams formed when plasmas are tailored in a PM trap in a 5 tesla magnetic field, then non-adiabatically extracted from the field using a specially designed high-permeability grid to create a new class of electrostatically guided beams.

  5. Reduce Steam Trap Failures at Chambers Works 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kouba, C.

    2010-01-01

    Failures at Chambers Works GB/BB Name: Cyndi Kouba Mentor/MBB: Andrew Degraff Team Members Michael Crowley(Site Energy Lead), (Charlie) Flanigan (Aramids-maintenance), Ben Snyder (Aramids-ATO), Michael Scruggs (Central Maintenance Mechanic), Rick... is it sustainable HOW we went about finding a solution What do you have learn from this 10/20/2010 3 Six Sigma Methodology was KEY to success Savings: $1MM annualized in only 6 months! 10/20/2010 4Define: Project CTQ?s Customer: Chambers Works site Voice...

  6. Mechanical Engineering 1 Mechanical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Gary L.

    , for example, in novel gas turbine or electric hybrid vehicles--require that students understand the fundamentals of mechanics, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, combustion, and materials science. In all members of the next generation of mechanical engineers. To implement this mission, the department adheres

  7. Electron beam ion source and electron beam ion trap (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, Reinard [Scientific Software Service, Kapellenweg 2a, D-63571 Gelnhausen (Germany); Kester, Oliver [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) and its trap variant [electron beam ion trap (EBIT)] celebrated their 40th and 20th anniversary, respectively, at the EBIS/T Symposium 2007 in Heidelberg. These technologically challenging sources of highly charged ions have seen a broad development in many countries over the last decades. In contrast to most other ion sources the recipe of improvement was not ''sorcery'' but a clear understanding of the physical laws and obeying the technological constraints. This review will report important achievements of the past as well as promising developments in the future.

  8. Narrowing of the coherent population trapping resonance under zone pumping in cells with different characteristics of the wall coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazakov, G A; Litvinov, A N; Matisov, B G [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2012-02-28

    It is shown that when coherent population trapping (CPT) resonance is excited by a narrow laser beam, the presence of elastic collisions with the cell wall significantly affects the line shape of the CPT-resonance. We have constructed a theoretical model, which is based on averaging over the random Ramsey sequences of the atom dwell time in the beam and dark zones and takes into account the probability of elastic bounce of an atom from the wall.

  9. Enhanced memory effect with embedded graphene nanoplatelets in ZnO charge trapping layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Atab, Nazek; Nayfeh, Ammar; Cimen, Furkan; Alkis, Sabri; Okyay, Ali K.

    2014-07-21

    A charge trapping memory with graphene nanoplatelets embedded in atomic layer deposited ZnO (GNIZ) is demonstrated. The memory shows a large threshold voltage V{sub t} shift (4?V) at low operating voltage (6/?6?V), good retention (>10 yr), and good endurance characteristic (>10{sup 4} cycles). This memory performance is compared to control devices with graphene nanoplatelets (or ZnO) and a thicker tunnel oxide. These structures showed a reduced V{sub t} shift and retention characteristic. The GNIZ structure allows for scaling down the tunnel oxide thickness along with improving the memory window and retention of data. The larger V{sub t} shift indicates that the ZnO adds available trap states and enhances the emission and retention of charges. The charge emission mechanism in the memory structures with graphene nanoplatelets at an electric field E???5.57 MV/cm is found to be based on Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. The fabrication of this memory device is compatible with current semiconductor processing, therefore, has great potential in low-cost nano-memory applications.

  10. Sympathetic cooling and detection of a hot trapped ion by a cold one

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guggemos, M; Herrera-Sancho, O A; Blatt, R; Roos, C F

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of an ion sympathetically cooled by another laser-cooled ion or small ion crystal. To this end, we develop simple models of the cooling dynamics in the limit of weak Coulomb interactions. Experimentally, we create a two-ion crystal of Ca$^+$ and Al$^+$ by photo-ionization of neutral atoms produced by laser ablation. We characterize the velocity distribution of the laser-ablated atoms crossing the trap by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. We observe neutral atom velocities much higher than the ones of thermally heated samples and find as a consequence long sympathethic cooling times before crystallization occurs. Our key result is a new technique for detecting the loading of an initially hot ion with energy in the eV range by monitoring the motional state of a Doppler-cooled ion already present in the trap. This technique not only detects the ion but also provides information about dynamics of the sympathetic cooling process.

  11. Sympathetic cooling and detection of a hot trapped ion by a cold one

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Guggemos; D. Heinrich; O. A. Herrera-Sancho; R. Blatt; C. F. Roos

    2015-08-11

    We investigate the dynamics of an ion sympathetically cooled by another laser-cooled ion or small ion crystal. To this end, we develop simple models of the cooling dynamics in the limit of weak Coulomb interactions. Experimentally, we create a two-ion crystal of Ca$^+$ and Al$^+$ by photo-ionization of neutral atoms produced by laser ablation. We characterize the velocity distribution of the laser-ablated atoms crossing the trap by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. We observe neutral atom velocities much higher than the ones of thermally heated samples and find as a consequence long sympathethic cooling times before crystallization occurs. Our key result is a new technique for detecting the loading of an initially hot ion with energy in the eV range by monitoring the motional state of a Doppler-cooled ion already present in the trap. This technique not only detects the ion but also provides information about dynamics of the sympathetic cooling process.

  12. Enhancing DNA binding rate using optical trapping of high-density gold nanodisks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, En-Hung; Pan, Ming-Yang [Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (China) [Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (China); Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 11529 (China); Lee, Ming-Chang [Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (China)] [Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (China); Wei, Pei-Kuen, E-mail: pkwei@sinica.edu.tw [Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 11529 (China) [Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 11529 (China); Institute of Biophotonics, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China)

    2014-03-15

    We present the dynamic study of optical trapping of fluorescent molecules using high-density gold nanodisk arrays. The gold nanodisks were fabricated by electron beam lithography with a diameter of 500 nm and a period of 1 ?m. Dark-field illumination showed ?15 times enhancement of fluorescence near edges of nanodisks. Such enhanced near-field generated an optical trapping force of ?10 fN under 3.58 × 10{sup 3} W/m{sup 2} illumination intensity as calculated from the Brownian motions of 590 nm polystyrene beads. Kinetic observation of thiolated DNA modified with Cy5 dye showed different binding rates of DNA under different illumination intensity. The binding rate increased from 2.14 × 10{sup 3} s{sup ?1} (I = 0.7 × 10{sup 3} W/m{sup 2}) to 1.15 × 10{sup 5} s{sup ?1} (I = 3.58 × 10{sup 3} W/m{sup 2}). Both enhanced fluorescence and binding rate indicate that gold nanodisks efficiently improve both detection limit and interaction time for microarrays.

  13. Development of monolithic 3D ion traps microfabricated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hensinger, Winfried

    surface traps [1,2], 2) 3D Au coated alumina [3-5],3) 3D degenerate Silicon [6], 4) monolithic 3D Ga. 6) Electroplating to 5 µm thickness of Au. Concept Fabrication method Potential -25 V 25 V 0 V

  14. Electron beam ion sources and traps ,,invited... Reinard Beckera)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electron beam ion sources and traps ,,invited... Reinard Beckera) Institut fu¨r Angewandte Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universita¨t, Frankfurt, Germany Presented on 7 September 1999 The electron beam method of stepwise ionization to highest charge states has found applications in electron beam ion

  15. Trapping and Frequency Variability in Electron Acoustic Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Trapping and Frequency Variability in Electron Acoustic Waves C.F. Driscoll, F. Anderegg, D 92093 USA Abstract. Electron Acoustic Waves (EAWs) with a phase velocity less than twice the plasma. Keywords: add some here PACS: 52.27.Jt, 52.35.Fp, 52.35.Sb Electron Acoustic Waves (EAWs) are the low

  16. Model of Flux Trapping in Cooling Down Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kubo, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    The flux trapping that occurs in the process of cooling down of the superconducting cavity is studied. The critical fields $B_{c2}$ and $B_{c1}$ depend on a position when a material temperature is not uniform. In a region with $T\\simeq T_c$, $B_{c2}$ and $B_{c1}$ are strongly suppressed and can be smaller than the ambient magnetic field, $B_a$. A region with $B_{c2}\\le B_a$ is normal conducting, that with $B_{c1}\\le B_a B_a$ is in the Meissner state. As a material is cooled down, these three domains including the vortex state domain sweep and pass through the material. In this process, vortices contained in the vortex state domain are trapped by pinning centers distributing in the material. A number of trapped fluxes can be evaluated by using the analogy with the beam-target collision event, where beams and a target correspond to pinning centers and the vortex state domain, respectively. We find a number of trapped fluxes and thus the residual resistance are proportional to the ambient magnetic field and the...

  17. Electrostatic trapping of single conducting nanoparticles between nanoelectrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dekker, Cees

    nanoparticle show single electron tunneling coexisting with tunnel-barrier suppression. © 1997 AmericanElectrostatic trapping of single conducting nanoparticles between nanoelectrodes A. Bezryadina Received 4 June 1997; accepted for publication 8 July 1997 For molecular electronics, one needs the ability

  18. ACOUSTIC WAVE TRAPPING IN ONE-DIMENSIONAL AXISYMMETRIC ARRAYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ACOUSTIC WAVE TRAPPING IN ONE- DIMENSIONAL AXISYMMETRIC ARRAYS by M. MCIVER (Department of the wave numbers of Rayleigh-Bloch modes for an array of circular plates. An integral equation for the acoustic wave-field in the neighbourhood of such an array is obtained and solved with the use of a Galerkin

  19. A computational introduction to quantum statistics using harmonically trapped particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ligare, Martin

    and multiplicities. The examples illustrate the effect of quantum statistics on the sharing of energy between weaklyA computational introduction to quantum statistics using harmonically trapped particles Martin the statistical definition of entropy and the second law of thermodynamics [Am. J. Phys. 65, 26 (1997)]. I

  20. Coronal Trapping of Energetic Flare Particles: Yohkoh/HXT Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metcalf, Thomas R.

    the energization of the solar corona. The most common interpretation for the production of the observed HXR fluxes Alexander Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Department H1­12, Bldg. 252, 3251 Hanover St in a search for spectral evidence of the coronal trapping of energetic particles during solar flares. Two

  1. An extension of the multiple-trapping model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shkilev, V. P.

    2012-07-15

    The hopping charge transport in disordered semiconductors is considered. Using the concept of the transport energy level, macroscopic equations are derived that extend a multiple-trapping model to the case of semiconductors with both energy and spatial disorders. It is shown that, although both types of disorder can cause dispersive transport, the frequency dependence of conductivity is determined exclusively by the spatial disorder.

  2. Molecular hydrogen traps within silicon B. Hourahine a,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Robert

    Molecular hydrogen traps within silicon B. Hourahine a,1 , R. Jones a,1 , S. ¨Oberg b,2 , P. R on the behaviour of molecular hydrogen within crystalline silicon, both as an isolated species, and within defects treated by either hydrogen plasma or soaked in hydrogen gas. The effect of Fermi­level position

  3. Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells Aaswath Raman, Zongfu@stanford.edu Abstract: Organic bulk heterojunction solar cells are a promising candidate for low-cost next lying on top of the organic solar cell stack produce a 8-15% increase in photocurrent for a model

  4. Light trapping in photonic crystals Ken Xingze Wang,ab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    improvement and cost reduction in practical solar cells.1,2 With the emergence of nanotechnology substantial bandwidths. Broader context Commercial solar cells use light trapping to maximize solar absorption optics. This limit could be surpassed in nanostructured solar cells, however, typically only for limited

  5. The TITAN in-trap decay spectroscopy facility at TRIUMF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. G. Leach; A. Grossheim; A. Lennarz; T. Brunner; J. R. Crespo López-Urrutia; A. T. Gallant; M. Good; R. Klawitter; A. A. Kwiatkowski; T. Ma; T. D. Macdonald; S. Seeraji; M. C. Simon; C. Andreoiu; J. Dilling; D. Frekers

    2014-11-22

    This article presents an upgraded in-trap decay spectroscopy apparatus which has been developed and constructed for use with TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN). This device consists of an open-access electron-beam ion-trap (EBIT), which is surrounded radially by seven low-energy planar Si(Li) detectors. The environment of the EBIT allows for the detection of low-energy photons by providing backing-free storage of the radioactive ions, while guiding charged decay particles away from the trap centre via the strong (up to 6 T) magnetic field. In addition to excellent ion confinement and storage, the EBIT also provides a venue for performing decay spectroscopy on highly-charged radioactive ions. Recent technical advancements have been able to provide a significant increase in sensitivity for low-energy photon detection, towards the goal of measuring weak electron-capture branching ratios of the intermediate nuclei in the two-neutrino double beta ($2\

  6. Radiation trapping in a cold atomic gas Guillaume Labeyrie,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    field of study deals with the transport of near resonant light in such media. Using cold atoms, one can at the end of the 20th century that studies of light transport in optically thick clouds of cold atomsRadiation trapping in a cold atomic gas Guillaume Labeyrie,1 Robin Kaiser,1, and Dominique Delande

  7. Light trapping in plasmonic solar cells Albert Polman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    light management team #12;Light is poorly absorbed in a thin-film solar cell Solar spectrum absorbed Management #12;Light trapping in a thin-film solar cell Nature Mater. 9, 205 (2010) #12;Back contact thin-film solar cell Optimum = closest packed Experiments so far Pitch (nm) Wavelength(nm) Photocurrent

  8. A BOLTZMANN MODEL FOR TRAPPED PARTICLES IN A SURFACE POTENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vignal, Marie-Hélène

    A BOLTZMANN MODEL FOR TRAPPED PARTICLES IN A SURFACE POTENTIAL PIERRE DEGOND, C´ELINE PARZANI particles in a surface potential. The potential confines particles close to the surface increasing the charged particle model with some numerical simulations of a gas discharge on a satellite solar array. We

  9. Enhanced Loss of Magnetic Mirror Trapped Fast Electrons by a Shear Alfven Wave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuhou

    2013-01-01

    35 3.2 Fast electron de-II: De-trapping 100 keV electrons 4.1 Generation of awaves and electron de-trapping . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 5

  10. MEMS-based arrays of micro ion traps for quantum simulation scaling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berkeland, Dana J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Blain, Matthew Glenn; Jokiel, Bernhard, Jr.

    2006-11-01

    In this late-start Tier I Seniors Council sponsored LDRD, we have designed, simulated, microfabricated, packaged, and tested ion traps to extend the current quantum simulation capabilities of macro-ion traps to tens of ions in one and two dimensions in monolithically microfabricated micrometer-scaled MEMS-based ion traps. Such traps are being microfabricated and packaged at Sandia's MESA facility in a unique tungsten MEMS process that has already made arrays of millions of micron-sized cylindrical ion traps for mass spectroscopy applications. We define and discuss the motivation for quantum simulation using the trapping of ions, show the results of efforts in designing, simulating, and microfabricating W based MEMS ion traps at Sandia's MESA facility, and describe is some detail our development of a custom based ion trap chip packaging technology that enables the implementation of these devices in quantum physics experiments.

  11. Combining Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields Progress Toward Targets of Efficient NOx Control for Diesels Combining Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields...

  12. Design of superconducting transmission line integrated surface-electrode ion-traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, David Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We fabricated superconducting surface electrode ion traps with integrated microwave coplanar waveguides using direct-write optical lithography and a niobium on sapphire process. We then tested these traps in a closed cycle ...

  13. Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Perovskite-based lean NOx catalysts shown to achieve comparable NOx reduction...

  14. Schemes of Quantum Computations with Trapped Ions J. F. Poyatos1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poyatos, Juan F.

    - lems efficiently which are considered intractable on classical Turing machines [2]. Another reason electric and magnetic fields to create such traps. In the case of a single ion Paul trap a combination

  15. Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Presentation given...

  16. Enumeration of Juvenile Salmonids in the Okanogan Basin Using Rotary Screw Traps, Performance Period: March 15, 2006 - July 15, 2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Peter N.; Rayton, Michael D.

    2007-05-01

    The Colville Tribes identified the need for collecting baseline census data on the timing and abundance of juvenile salmonids in the Okanogan River basin for the purpose of documenting local fish populations, augmenting existing fishery data and assessing natural production trends of salmonids. This report documents and assesses the pilot year of rotary trap capture of salmonid smolts on the Okanogan River. The project is a component of the Colville Tribes Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program (OBMEP) which began in 2004. Trapping for outmigrating fish began on 14 March 2006 and continued through 11 July 2006. Anadromous forms of Oncorhynchus, including summer steelhead (O. mykiss), Chinook (O. tshawytscha), and sockeye (O. nerka), were targeted for this study; all have verified, natural production in the Okanogan basin. Both 8-ft and 5-ft rotary screw traps were deployed on the Okanogan River from the Highway 20 Bridge and typically fished during evening hours or 24 hours per day, depending upon trap position and discharge conditions. Juvenile Chinook salmon were the most abundant species trapped in 2006 (10,682 fry and 2,024 smolts), followed by sockeye (205 parr and 3,291 smolts) and steelhead (1 fry and 333 smolts). Of the trapped Chinook, all fry were wild origin and all but five of the smolts were hatchery-reared. All trapped sockeye were wild origin and 88% of the steelhead smolts were hatchery-reared. Mark-recapture experiments were conducted using Chinook fry and hatchery-reared steelhead smolts (sockeye were not used in 2006 because the peak of the juvenile migration occurred prior to the onset of the mark-recapture experiments). A total of 930 chinook fry were marked and released across eight separate release dates (numbers of marked Chinook fry released per day ranged from 34 to 290 fish). A total of 11 chinook fry were recaptured for an overall trap efficiency of 1.18%. A total of 710 hatchery-reared steelhead were marked and released across three separate release dates (numbers of steelhead released per day ranged from 100 to 500 fish). A total of 12 steelhead were recaptured for an overall trap efficiency of 1.69%. A pooled Peterson estimator with a Chapman modification was used to produce population estimates for wild Chinook fry and hatchery-reared steelhead based on the results of the mark-recapture experiments. The 2006 populations for Chinook and steelhead were estimated to be 381,554 (95% confidence intervals: 175,731-587,377) and 14,164 (6,999-21,330), respectively. The population estimates were based on the periods in which mark-recapture experiments were initialized through the end of the trapping season (10 May for steelhead and 1 June for Chinook).

  17. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING What is Mechanical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    power plant energy conversion and generating systems; design, development, and manufactureof consumer of the broadest engineering fields. Mechanical engineers are found in virtually all productive industries, from

  18. Applications of Admittance Spectroscopy in Photovoltaic Devices Beyond Majority Carrier Trapping Defects: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J. V.; Crandall, R. S.; Repins, I. L.; Nardes, A. M.; Levi, D. H.; Sulima, O.

    2011-07-01

    Admittance spectroscopy is commonly used to characterize majority-carrier trapping defects. In today's practical photovoltaic devices, however, a number of other physical mechanisms may contribute to the admittance measurement and interfere with the data interpretation. Such challenges arise due to the violation of basic assumptions of conventional admittance spectroscopy such as single-junction, ohmic contact, highly conductive absorbers, and measurement in reverse bias. We exploit such violations to devise admittance spectroscopy-based methods for studying the respective origins of 'interference': majority-carrier mobility, non-ohmic contact potential barrier, minority-carrier inversion at hetero-interface, and minority-carrier lifetime in a device environment. These methods are applied to a variety of photovoltaic technologies: CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se2, Si HIT cells, and organic photovoltaic materials.

  19. Light trapping for emission from a photovoltaic cell under normally incident monochromatic illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeda, Yasuhiko Iizuka, Hideo; Mizuno, Shintaro; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Ichikawa, Tadashi; Ito, Hiroshi; Kajino, Tsutomu; Ichiki, Akihisa; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi

    2014-09-28

    We have theoretically demonstrated a new light-trapping mechanism to reduce emission from a photovoltaic (PV) cell used for a monochromatic light source, which improves limiting conversion efficiency determined by the detailed balance. A multilayered bandpass filter formed on the surface of a PV cell has been found to prevent the light generated inside by radiative recombination from escaping the cell, resulting in a remarkable decrease of the effective solid angle for the emission. We have clarified a guide to design a suitable configuration of the bandpass filter and achieved significant reduction of the emission. The resultant gain in monochromatic conversion efficiency in the radiative limit due to the optimally designed 18-layerd bandpass filters is as high as 6% under normally incident 1064 nm illumination of 10 mW/cm²~ 1 kW/cm², compared with the efficiency for the perfect anti-reflection treatment to the surface of a conventional solar cell.

  20. Time is not the problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olaf Dreyer

    2009-04-22

    Attempts to quantize general relativity encounter an odd problem. The Hamiltonian that normally generates time evolution vanishes in the case of general relativity as a result of diffeomorphism invariance. The theory seems to be saying that time does not exist. The most obvious feature of our world, namely that time seems to progress and that the world changes accordingly becomes a problem in this presumably fundamental theory. This is called the problem of time. In this essay we argue that this problem is the result of an unphysical idealization. We are caught in this "problem of time" trap because we took a wrong turn in the early days of relativity by permanently including a split of geometry and matter into our physical theories. We show that another possibility exists that circumvents the problem of time and also sheds new light on other problems like the cosmological constant problem and the horizon problem in early universe cosmology.

  1. On the redox origin of surface trapping in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Chen, Di; Tuller, Harry L.; Thompson, Carl V.; Palacios, Tomás

    2014-03-28

    Water-related redox couples in ambient air are identified as an important source of the surface trapping states, dynamic on-resistance, and drain current collapse in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Through in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), direct signature of the water-related species—hydroxyl groups (OH) was found at the AlGaN surface at room temperature. It was also found that these species, as well as the current collapse, can be thermally removed above 200?°C in vacuum conditions. An electron trapping mechanism based on the H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O/O{sub 2} redox couples is proposed to explain the 0.5?eV energy level commonly attributed to the surface trapping states. Finally, the role of silicon nitride passivation in successfully removing current collapse in these devices is explained by blocking the water molecules away from the AlGaN surface.

  2. Hysteretic voltage gap of a multijunction trap G. Y. Hu and R. F. O'Connell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Connell, Robert F.

    voltages for electrons to tunnel into and escape from a single-electron trap which consists of N gated) is the largest for an electron tunneling into the trap, while Vt(N,N m) is the largest for an electron escaping studied by many authors3­12 is the single-electron ``trap'' see Fig. 1 in Ref. 11 . Whereas numerous

  3. Quantum Insights in Gate Oxide Charge-Trapping Dynamics in Nanoscale MOSFETs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimov, Ivan

    , in this paper we investigate the trapping of a single electron in the gate oxide of a 25nm transistor including and scattering phenomena. Keywords--Reliability; Tunneling; Scattering; NBTI; RTN; Wigner Function; charge-trapping. The evolution of an initial electron packet subject to the action of device channel potential and the oxide trap

  4. IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 27, NO. 6, JUNE 2006 489 Modeling of Charge Trapping Induced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutton, Robert W.

    IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 27, NO. 6, JUNE 2006 489 Modeling of Charge Trapping Induced a distributed tunneling model to investigate the threshold-voltage instability induced by charge trapping bias varies [1], and the latter effect has been attributed to the distributed bulk electron traps [2

  5. Impact of non-hydrostatic effects and trapped lee waves on mountain wave drag

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Impact of non-hydrostatic effects and trapped lee waves on mountain wave drag in directionally effects and trapped lee waves on mountain wave drag in directionally sheared flow. Quarterly Journal;AcceptedArticle Impact of non-hydrostatic effects and trapped lee waves on mountain wave drag

  6. Nano-optical Trapping of Rayleigh Particles and Escherichia coli Bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nano-optical Trapping of Rayleigh Particles and Escherichia coli Bacteria with Resonant Optical demonstrate a novel optical trapping scheme that allows us to hold living Escherichia coli bacteria bacteria are trapped simultaneously with their orientation fixed by the asymmetry of the antennas

  7. Passive trapped modes in the water wave problem for a floating structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Passive trapped modes in the water wave problem for a floating structure C. J. Fitzgerald and P. Mc. These "passive trapped modes" are such that the net force on the structure exerted by the fluid oscillation to float freely. In the paper, methods are given for the construction of passive trapping structures

  8. DISSERTATION THE EFFECT OF TRAPPING DEFECTS ON CIGS SOLAR-CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    DISSERTATION THE EFFECT OF TRAPPING DEFECTS ON CIGS SOLAR-CELL PERFORMANCE Submitted by Pamela K ENTITLED THE EFFECT OF TRAPPING DEFECTS ON CIGS SOLAR-CELL PERFORMANCE BE ACCEPTED AS FULFILLING IN PART RE OF DISSERTATION THE EFFECT OF TRAPPING DEFECTS ON CIGS SOLAR-CELL PERFORMANCE The relationship between basic solar-cell

  9. Motion of guiding center drift atoms in the electric and magnetic field of a Penning trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Motion of guiding center drift atoms in the electric and magnetic field of a Penning trap S. G discusses the motion of the weakly bound atoms in the electric and magnetic field of the plasma and trap in the magnetic and electric field of the trap. Because the binding is so weak, even a modest electric field

  10. Resonances and Chaos in the Collective Oscillations of a Trapped Bose Condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Resonances and Chaos in the Collective Oscillations of a Trapped Bose Condensate Luca Salasnich condensate in an anisotropic harmonic trap. We analytically calculate the values of the trap deformation­Einstein condensation (BEC) is the macroscopic occupation of the single­ particle ground­state of a system of bosons

  11. Subsurface Trapping of Oil Plumes in Stratification: Laboratory Investigations David Adalsteinsson,1,2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camassa, Roberto

    Subsurface Trapping of Oil Plumes in Stratification: Laboratory Investigations David Adalsteinsson the Deepwater Horizon Gulf oil spill can be trapped as they rise through an ambient, strati ed uid. The addition and theory on trapping/escape of plumes containing an oil/water/surfactant mixture released into nonlinear

  12. Antiproton Confinement in a Penning-Ioffe Trap for Antihydrogen G. Gabrielse,1,* P. Larochelle,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabrielse, Gerald

    here the stable confinement of p in a Penning trap, when the radial magnetic field of a quadru- pole A long-term goal for H experiments is confining H in a magnetic trap for precise laser spectroscopy [1 gradient needed to trap H atoms upon the uniform magnetic field used to store the p and e from which H

  13. Efficient Dynamic Contracts: Enabling A Poor borrower To Get Out of Poverty Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    of poverty trap is synonymous to getting loan from the formal sector. The MFI discipline the borrower to saveEfficient Dynamic Contracts: Enabling A Poor borrower To Get Out of Poverty Trap Dyotona Dasgupta, New Delhi 110016, India Keywords: Dynamic Contracts, Progressive Lending, Collateral, Poverty Trap

  14. Optimal Phonon-to-Spin Mapping in a system of a trapped ion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthias M. Müller; Ulrich G. Poschinger; Tommaso Calarco; Simone Montangero; Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler

    2015-04-11

    We propose a protocol for measurement of the phonon number distribution of a harmonic oscillator based on selective mapping to a discrete spin-1/2 degree of freedom. We consider a system of a harmonically trapped ion, where a transition between two long lived states can be driven with resolved motional sidebands. The required unitary transforms are generated by amplitude-modulated polychromatic radiation fields, where the time-domain ramps are obtained from numerical optimization by application of the Chopped RAndom Basis (CRAB) algorithm. We provide a detailed analysis of the scaling behavior of the attainable fidelities and required times for the mapping transform with respect to the size of the Hilbert space. As one application we show how the mapping can be employed as a building block for experiments which require measurement of the work distribution of a quantum process.

  15. Visible, invisible and trapped ghosts as sources of wormholes and black universes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolokhov, S V; Korolyov, P A; Skvortsova, M V

    2015-01-01

    We construct explicit examples of globally regular static, spherically symmetric solutions in general relativity with scalar and electromagnetic fields, describing traversable wormholes with flat and AdS asymptotics and regular black holes, in particular, black universes. (A black universe is a regular black hole with an expanding, asymptotically isotropic space-time beyond the horizon.) Such objects exist in the presence of scalar fields with negative kinetic energy ("phantoms'', or "ghosts''), which are not observed under usual physical conditions. To account for that, we consider what we call "trapped ghosts'' (scalars whose kinetic energy is only negative in a strong-field region of space-time) and "invisible ghosts'', i.e., phantom scalar fields sufficiently rapidly decaying in the weak-field region. The resulting configurations contain different numbers of Killing horizons, from zero to four.

  16. Insights into the Mechanism of Memory Allocation Through the Trapping and Activating of Emotional Memories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogerson, Thomas William Arundel

    2013-01-01

    Secondly, synaptic allocation functions to allocate memorieswhile neuronal allocation functions to allocate memories onwill be how memory allocation functions in the formation of

  17. Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE INDUSTRIALU.S. Department of EnergyPresentationOverviewLetterAging

  18. Mechanical memory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C. (Albuquerque, NM); Duesterhaus, Michelle A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Renn, Rosemarie A. (Alburquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-08-15

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  19. Mechanical memory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C. (Albuquerque, NM); Duesterhaus, Michelle A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Renn, Rosemarie A. (Albuquerque, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-05-16

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  20. Magnetism induced by excess electrons trapped at diamagnetic edge-quantum well in multi-layer graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xi; Wang, Chao; Diao, Dongfeng; Sun, Chang Q

    2014-07-28

    In this paper, we clarified a robust mechanism of magnetism generated by excess electrons captured by edge-quantum well of diamagnetic armchair edges. Consistency between density functional theory calculations and electron cyclotron resonance experiments verified that: (1) Multi-layer armchair nanoribbons are stable with proper amounts of excess electrons which can provide net spin; (2) Since under-coordination induces lattice relaxation and potential well modulation, electrons tend to be trapped at edges; and (3) Neither large amount of excess electrons nor positive charges can induce magnetism. This work shed light on the development of graphene devices in its magnetic applications.

  1. EFFECT OF FILTER TEMPERATURE ON TRAPPING ZINC VAPOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.

    2011-03-25

    To address the {sup 65}Zn contamination issue in the TEF, a multi-task experimental program was initiated. The first experimental task was completed and is reported in Ref. 1. The results of the second experimental task are reported here. This task examined the effect of filter temperature on trapping efficiency and deposit morphology. Based on the first experimental tasks that examined filter pore size and trapping efficiency, stainless steel filter media with a 20 {micro}m pore size was selected. A series of experiments using these filters was conducted during this second task to determine the effect of filter temperature on zinc vapor trapping efficiency, adhesion and morphology. The tests were conducted with the filters heated to 60, 120, and 200 C; the zinc source material was heated to 400 C for all the experiments to provide a consistent zinc source. The samples were evaluated for mass change, deposit adhesion and morphology. As expected from the physical vapor deposition literature, a difference in deposit morphology and appearance was observed between the three filter temperatures. The filter held at 60 C had the largest average mass gain while the 120 and 200 C filters exhibited similar but lower weight gains. The standard deviations were large and suggest that all three temperatures exhibited comparable gains. No zinc was detected on the backside surface of the filters indicating high efficiency for front and internal trapping. A zinc rich deposit was formed on the surface of the 60 C filter. Based on a simple tape adhesion test, the surface zinc was readily removed from the 60 C filter while less zinc deposit was removed from the 120 and 200 C filter samples. It is surmised that the higher temperatures enable the zinc to deposit within the filter media rather than on the surface. Based on the findings that all three statistically trapped the same quantity of zinc vapor and that the higher temperatures resulted in a more adherent/better trapped product, operating the filters at 120 to 200 C is recommended.

  2. Asymmetric Two-dimensional Magnetic Lattices for Ultracold Atoms Trapping and Confinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Abdelrahman; P. Hannaford M. Vasiliev; K. Alameh

    2009-10-27

    A new method to implement an asymmetrical two-dimensional magnetic lattice is proposed. The asymmetrical two-dimensional magnetic lattice can be created by periodically distributing magnetic minima across the surface of magnetic thin film where the periodicity can be achieved by milling $n\\times n$ square holes on the surface of the film. The quantum device is proposed for trapping and confining ultracold atoms and quantum degenerate gases prepared in the low magnetic field seeking-state at low temperature, such as the Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) and ultracold fermions. We present detailed analysis of the analytical expressions and the numerical simulation procedure used to calculate the external magnetic field. We also, describe the magnetic band gap structure exhibited by the asymmetric effect of the magnetic minima and show some of the possible application. We analyze the effect of changing the characteristic parameters of the magnetic lattice, such as the separating periodicity length and the hole size along with the applications of the external magnetic bias fields to maintain and allocate a suitable non-zero magnetic local minima at effective $z$-distance above the thin film surface. Suitable values are shown which keep the trapped ultracold atoms away from the thermal Majorana spin-flip and the surface Casimir-Polder effect.

  3. Modeling of time dependence of hole current and prediction of QBD and tBD for thin gate MOS devices based upon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroder, Dieter K.

    near the hole charge trapped interface during F±N tunneling of electrons. The ®eld at the localized yield, ®rst order trapping kinetics and dierent tunneling conditions for determining the time variation for evaluating the time dependence of injected electron and generated substrate hole current under constant

  4. Suppression of Heating Rates in Cryogenic Surface-Electrode Ion Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaroslaw Labaziewicz; Yufei Ge; Paul Antohi; David Leibrandt; Kenneth R. Brown; Isaac L. Chuang

    2007-11-16

    Dense arrays of trapped ions provide one way of scaling up ion trap quantum information processing. However, miniaturization of ion traps is currently limited by sharply increasing motional state decoherence at sub-100 um ion-electrode distances. We characterize heating rates in cryogenically cooled surface-electrode traps, with characteristic sizes in 75 um to 150 um range. Upon cooling to 6 K, the measured rates are suppressed by 7 orders of magnitude, two orders of magnitude below previously published data of similarly sized traps operated at room temperature. The observed noise depends strongly on fabrication process, which suggests further improvements are possible.

  5. Trapped Modes and Steered Dirac Cones in Platonic Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. C. McPhedran; A. B. Movchan; N. V. Movchan; M. Brun; M. J. A. Smith

    2014-10-01

    This paper discusses the properties of flexural waves obeying the biharmonic equation, propagating in a thin plate pinned at doubly-periodic sets of points. The emphases are on the properties of dispersion surfaces having the Dirac cone topology, and on the related topic of trapped modes in plates with a finite set (cluster) of pinned points. The Dirac cone topologies we exhibit have at least two cones touching at a point in the reciprocal lattice, augmented by another band passing through the point. We show that the Dirac cones can be steered along symmetry lines in the Brillouin zone by varying the aspect ratio of rectangular lattices of pins, and that, as the cones are moved, the involved band surfaces tilt. We link Dirac points with a parabolic profile in their neighbourhood, and the characteristic of this parabolic profile decides the direction of propagation of the trapped mode in finite clusters.

  6. Passive regeneration of catalyst coated knitted fiber diesel particulate traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayer, A.; Emig, G.; Gmehling, B.; Popovska, N.; Hoelemann, K.; Buck, A.

    1996-09-01

    Knitted fiber particulate traps facilitate deep-bed structures. These have excellent filtration properties, particularly for ultra-fine particulates. They are also suitable as substrate for catalytic processes. The two characteristics are: high total surface area of the filaments, and good mass transfer. These are prerequisites for intense catalytic activity. The deposited soot is uniformly distributed. Therefore, temperature peaks are avoided during regeneration. The tested coatings lower the regeneration temperature by about 200 C to burn-off temperatures below 350 C. Further improvements seem attainable. Thus, a purely passive regeneration appears feasible for most applications. The system is autonomous and cost effective. However, in extreme low load situations, e.g. city bus services, the necessary exhaust temperatures are not attained. Hence, burners or electrical heating is necessary for trap regeneration. Nevertheless, catalytic coating is attractive for substantially reducing the regeneration energy requirements.

  7. Superradiance for atoms trapped along a photonic crystal waveguide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goban, A; Hood, J D; Yu, S -P; Muniz, J A; Painter, O; Kimble, H J

    2015-01-01

    We report observations of superradiance for atoms trapped in the near field of a photonic crystal waveguide (PCW). By fabricating the PCW with a band edge near the D$_1$ transition of atomic cesium, strong interaction is achieved between trapped atoms and guided-mode photons. Following short-pulse excitation, we record the decay of guided-mode emission and find a superradiant emission rate scaling as $\\bar{\\Gamma}_{\\rm SR}\\propto\\bar{N}\\cdot\\Gamma_{\\rm 1D}$ for average atom number $0.19 \\lesssim \\bar{N} \\lesssim 2.6$ atoms, where $\\Gamma_{\\rm 1D}/\\Gamma_0 =1.1\\pm0.1$ is the peak single-atom radiative decay rate into the PCW guided mode and $\\Gamma_{0}$ is the Einstein-$A$ coefficient for free space. These advances provide new tools for investigations of photon-mediated atom-atom interactions in the many-body regime.

  8. Influence of local capillary trapping on containment system effectiveness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryant, Steven

    2014-03-31

    Immobilization of CO2 injected into deep subsurface storage reservoirs is a critical component of risk assessment for geologic CO2 storage (GCS). Local capillary trapping (LCT) is a recently established mode of immobilization that arises when CO2 migrates due to buoyancy through heterogeneous storage reservoirs. This project sought to assess the amount and extent of LCT expected in storage formations under a range of injection conditions, and to confirm the persistence of LCT if the seal overlying the reservoir were to lose its integrity. Numerical simulation using commercial reservoir simulation software was conducted to assess the influence of injection. Laboratory experiments, modeling and numerical simulation were conducted to assess the effect of compromised seal integrity. Bench-scale (0.6 m by 0.6 m by 0.03 m) experiments with surrogate fluids provided the first empirical confirmation of the key concepts underlying LCT: accumulation of buoyant nonwetting phase at above residual saturations beneath capillary barriers in a variety of structures, which remains immobile under normal capillary pressure gradients. Immobilization of above-residual saturations is a critical distinction between LCT and the more familiar “residual saturation trapping.” To estimate the possible extent of LCT in a storage reservoir an algorithm was developed to identify all potential local traps, given the spatial distribution of capillary entry pressure in the reservoir. The algorithm assumes that the driving force for CO2 migration can be represented as a single value of “critical capillary entry pressure” Pc,entrycrit, such that cells with capillary entry pressure greater/less than Pc,entrycrit act as barriers/potential traps during CO2 migration. At intermediate values of Pc,entrycrit, the barrier regions become more laterally extensive in the reservoir, approaching a percolation threshold while non-barrier regions remain numerous. The maximum possible extent of LCT thus occurs at Pc,entrycrit near this threshold. Testing predictions of this simple algorithm against full-physics simulations of buoyancy-driven CO2 migration support the concept of critical capillary entry pressure. However, further research is needed to determine whether a single value of critical capillary entry pressure always applies and how that value can be determined a priori. Simulations of injection into high-resolution (cells 0.3 m on a side) 2D and 3D heterogeneous domains show two characteristic behaviors. At small gravity numbers (vertical flow velocity much less than horizontal flow velocity) the CO2 fills local traps as well as regions that would act as local barriers if CO2 were moving only due to buoyancy. When injection ceases, the CO2 migrates vertically to establish large saturations within local traps and residual saturation elsewhere. At large gravity numbers, the CO2 invades a smaller portion of the perforated interval. Within this smaller swept zone the local barriers are not invaded, but local traps are filled to large saturation during injection and remain during post-injection gravity-driven migration. The small gravity number behavior is expected in the region within 100 m of a vertical injection well at anticipated rates of injection for commercial GCS. Simulations of leakage scenarios (through-going region of large permeability imposed in overlying seal) indicate that LCT persists (i.e. CO2 remains held in a large fraction of the local iv traps) and the persistence is independent of injection rate during storage. Simulations of leakage for the limiting case of CO2 migrating vertically f

  9. Trapping of dust and dust acoustic waves in laboratory plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prabhakara, H.R.; Tanna, V.L. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 424 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 424 (India)

    1996-08-01

    Trapping of negatively charged dust particles is observed in a hot cathode plasma discharge when a layer of dust is exposed to the plasma. The particles are visible in the scattered He{endash}Ne laser light. The trajectories of individual particles have been photographed. The dust particles are excluded from the sheath region of any object in the plasma. The intensity of scattered light as well as the potential on a floating Langmuir probe show coherent fluctuations in the frequency range 1{endash}15 Hz. After several hours of exposure to the plasma, the dust layer develops striations similar to those on sand dunes. Trapping of dust particles by the plasma and the possible identification of the observed low-frequency fluctuations with dust acoustic waves are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Facilitated diffusion on mobile DNA: configurational traps and sequence heterogeneity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. A. Brackley; M. E. Cates; D. Marenduzzo

    2012-12-07

    We present Brownian dynamics simulations of the facilitated diffusion of a protein, modelled as a sphere with a binding site on its surface, along DNA, modelled as a semi-flexible polymer. We consider both the effect of DNA organisation in 3D, and of sequence heterogeneity. We find that in a network of DNA loops, as are thought to be present in bacterial DNA, the search process is very sensitive to the spatial location of the target within such loops. Therefore, specific genes might be repressed or promoted by changing the local topology of the genome. On the other hand, sequence heterogeneity creates traps which normally slow down facilitated diffusion. When suitably positioned, though, these traps can, surprisingly, render the search process much more efficient.

  11. Precision measurements in ion traps using slowly moving standing waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Walther; U. Poschinger; K. Singer; F. Schmidt-Kaler

    2011-05-09

    The present paper describes the experimental implementation of a measuring technique employing a slowly moving, near resonant, optical standing wave in the context of trapped ions. It is used to measure several figures of merit that are important for quantum computation in ion traps and which are otherwise not easily obtainable. Our technique is shown to offer high precision, and also in many cases using a much simpler setup than what is normally used. We demonstrate here measurements of i) the distance between two crystalline ions, ii) the Lamb-Dicke parameter, iii) temperature of the ion crystal, and iv) the interferometric stability of a Raman setup. The exact distance between two ions, in units of standing wave periods, is very important for motional entangling gates, and our method offers a practical way of calibrating this distance in the typical lab situation.

  12. Optimal electrode geometries for 2-dimensional ion arrays with bi-layer ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. N. Krauth; J. Alonso; J. P. Home

    2014-11-04

    We investigate electrode geometries required to produce periodic 2-dimensional ion-trap arrays with the ions placed between two planes of electrodes. We present a generalization of previous methods for traps containing a single electrode plane to this new geometry, and show that for a given ion-electrode distance and applied voltages, the inter-ion distance can be reduced by a factor of up to 3 relative to single-plane traps. This represents an increase by a factor of 9 in the trap density and a factor of 27 in the exchange coupling between the oscillatory motion of neighboring ions. The resulting traps are also considerably deeper for bi-layer structures than for single-plane traps. These results could offer a useful path towards 2-dimensional ion arrays for quantum simulation. We also discuss issues with the fabrication of such traps.

  13. Fabrication and heating rate study of microscopic surface electrode ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Daniilidis; S. Narayanan; S. A. Möller; R. Clark; T. E. Lee; P. J. Leek; A. Wallraff; St. Schulz; F. Schmidt-Kaler; H. Häffner

    2010-09-15

    We report heating rate measurements in a microfabricated gold-on-sapphire surface electrode ion trap with trapping height of approximately 240 micron. Using the Doppler recooling method, we characterize the trap heating rates over an extended region of the trap. The noise spectral density of the trap falls in the range of noise spectra reported in ion traps at room temperature. We find that during the first months of operation the heating rates increase by approximately one order of magnitude. The increase in heating rates is largest in the ion loading region of the trap, providing a strong hint that surface contamination plays a major role for excessive heating rates. We discuss data found in the literature and possible relation of anomalous heating to sources of noise and dissipation in other systems, namely impurity atoms adsorbed on metal surfaces and amorphous dielectrics.

  14. Cesium trapping characteristics on fly ash filter according to different carrier gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Jin-Myeong; Park, Jang-Jin; Song, Kee-Chan

    2007-07-01

    Fly ash, which is a kind of waste from a coal fired power plant, has been used as a trapping material because it contains silica and alumina suitable for forming pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}). Fly ash is sintered in order to fabricate it into a self-standing filter. The effect of a carrier gas on a cesium trapping quantity is investigated to analyze the cesium trapping characteristics by the fly ash filter in a lab-scale experimental apparatus. The chemical form of the cesium trapped on the filter after trapping cesium is identified to be a pollucite phase regardless of the type of carrier gas. The trapping efficiency of cesium by the fly ash filter under the air and NO{sub x}/air conditions is up to 99.0 %. However, the trapping efficiency of the cesium under the SO{sub x} condition was decreased to 80.0 %. (authors)

  15. Injection of CO2 with H2S and SO2 and Subsequent Mineral Trapping in Sandstone-Shale Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tianfu; Apps, John A.; Pruess, Karsten; Yamamoto, Hajime

    2004-09-07

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection into deep geologic formations can potentially reduce atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases. Sequestering less-pure CO{sub 2} waste streams (containing H{sub 2}S and/or SO{sub 2}) would be less expensive or would require less energy than separating CO{sub 2} from flue gas or a coal gasification process. The long-term interaction of these injected acid gases with shale-confining layers of a sandstone injection zone has not been well investigated. We therefore have developed a conceptual model of injection of CO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S and/or SO{sub 2} into a sandstone-shale sequence, using hydrogeologic properties and mineral compositions commonly encountered in Gulf Coast sediments of the United States. We have performed numerical simulations of a 1-D radial well region considering sandstone alone and a 2-D model using a sandstone-shale sequence under acid-gas injection conditions. Results indicate that shale plays a limited role in mineral alteration and sequestration of gases within a sandstone horizon for short time periods (10,000 years in present simulations). The co-injection of SO{sub 2} results in different pH distribution, mineral alteration patterns, and CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration than the co-injection of H{sub 2}S or injection of CO{sub 2} alone. Simulations generate a zonal distribution of mineral alteration and formation of carbon and sulfur trapping minerals that depends on the pH distribution. The co-injection of SO{sub 2} results in a larger and stronger acidified zone close to the well. Precipitation of carbon trapping minerals occurs within the higher pH regions beyond the acidified zones. In contrast, sulfur trapping minerals are stable at low pH ranges (below 5) within the front of the acidified zone. Corrosion and well abandonment due to the co-injection of SO{sub 2} could be important issues. Significant CO{sub 2} is sequestered in ankerite and dawsonite, and some in siderite. The CO{sub 2} mineral-trapping capability can reach 80 kg per cubic meter of medium. Most sulfur is trapped through alunite precipitation, although some is trapped by anhydrite precipitation and minor amount of pyrite. The addition of the acid gases and induced mineral alteration result in changes in porosity. The limited information currently available on the mineralogy of natural high-pressure acid-gas reservoirs is generally consistent with our simulations.

  16. Wolf Trap, Virginia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEtGeorgia:Illinois:Wizard Power Pty Ltd Jump to: navigation,Trap, Virginia:

  17. Non-hydrodynamic transport in trapped unitary Fermi gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jasmine Brewer; Paul Romatschke

    2015-08-05

    Many strongly coupled fluids are known to share similar hydrodynamic transport properties. In this work we argue that this similarity could extend beyond hydrodynamics to transient dynamics through the presence of non-hydrodynamic modes. We review non-hydrodynamic modes in kinetic theory and gauge/gravity duality and discuss their signatures in trapped Fermi gases close to unitarity. Reanalyzing previously published experimental data, we find hints of non-hydrodynamic modes in cold Fermi gases in two and three dimensions.

  18. Non-hydrodynamic transport in trapped unitary Fermi gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Jasmine

    2015-01-01

    Many strongly coupled fluids are known to share similar hydrodynamic transport properties. In this work we argue that this similarity could extend beyond hydrodynamics to transient dynamics through the presence of non-hydrodynamic modes. We review non-hydrodynamic modes in kinetic theory and gauge/gravity duality and discuss their signatures in trapped Fermi gases close to unitarity. Reanalyzing previously published experimental data, we find hints of non-hydrodynamic modes in cold Fermi gases in two and three dimensions.

  19. Time reversal in thermoacoustic tomography - an error estimate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hristova, Yulia

    2008-01-01

    The time reversal method in thermoacoustic tomography is used for approximating the initial pressure inside a biological object using measurements of the pressure wave made outside the object. This article presents error estimates for the time reversal method in the cases of variable, non-trapping sound speeds.

  20. Production trap improvements using high-efficiency internals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delavan, D.P.; Wilson, T.T.

    1995-10-01

    Most of the Gas-Oil Separation Plants (GOSP) in Southern Area Producing of Saudi Aramco will be producing between 40% and 75% water cuts by the turn of the century. Many GOSPs will be producing more than twice the amount of water they were originally designed for. Consequently, modifications must be made to the GOSPs so that they will have the capacity to separate and clean up these large volumes of produced water. The most attractive option is to improve the separation efficiency of the High Pressure Production Traps (HPPT) where formation water is first removed from the wellhead fluid. These traps have historically removed very little water from the wellhead fluid. However, the following modifications have proven to significantly improve the separation efficiency of the traps: double the height of the weir, and raise the oil level from 40% to 65% full; install a new inlet device to minimize the formation of foam; install coalescing and foam-breaking internals to enhance oil/water coalescing and separation and to break the foam on top of the oil layer.

  1. WATER TRAPPING ON TIDALLY LOCKED TERRESTRIAL PLANETS REQUIRES SPECIAL CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Jun; Abbot, Dorian S.; Liu, Yonggang; Hu, Yongyun

    2014-12-01

    Surface liquid water is essential for standard planetary habitability. Calculations of atmospheric circulation on tidally locked planets around M stars suggest that this peculiar orbital configuration lends itself to the trapping of large amounts of water in kilometers-thick ice on the night side, potentially removing all liquid water from the day side where photosynthesis is possible. We study this problem using a global climate model including coupled atmosphere, ocean, land, and sea ice components as well as a continental ice sheet model driven by the climate model output. For a waterworld, we find that surface winds transport sea ice toward the day side and the ocean carries heat toward the night side. As a result, nightside sea ice remains O(10 m) thick and nightside water trapping is insignificant. If a planet has large continents on its night side, they can grow ice sheets O(1000 m) thick if the geothermal heat flux is similar to Earth's or smaller. Planets with a water complement similar to Earth's would therefore experience a large decrease in sea level when plate tectonics drives their continents onto the night side, but would not experience complete dayside dessiccation. Only planets with a geothermal heat flux lower than Earth's, much of their surface covered by continents, and a surface water reservoir O(10%) of Earth's would be susceptible to complete water trapping.

  2. Tolerance in the Ramsey interference of a trapped nanodiamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Wan; M. Scala; S. Bose; A. C. Frangeskou; ATM A. Rahman; G. W. Morley; P. F. Barker; M. S. Kim

    2015-09-02

    The scheme recently proposed in [M. Scala et al., Phys Rev Lett 111, 180403 (2013)], where a gravity-dependent phase shift is induced on the spin of a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in a trapped nanodiamond by the interaction between its magnetic moment and the quantized motion of the particle, provides a way to detect spatial quantum superpositions by means of spin measurements only. Here, the effect of unwanted coupling with other motional degrees of freedom is considered and we show that it does not affect the validity of the scheme. Both this coupling and the additional error source due to misalignment between the quantization axis of the NV center spin and the trapping axis are shown not to change the qualitative behavior of the system, so that a proof-of- principle experiment can be neatly performed. Our analysis, which shows that the scheme retains the important features of not requiring ground state cooling and of being resistant to thermal fluctuations, can be useful for the several schemes which have been proposed recently for testing macroscopic superpositions in trapped microsystems.

  3. Single microbe trap and release in sub-microfluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.

    2013-05-08

    Lab-on-a-chip systems have substantially impacted the way life-sciences are explored; life on earth, however, comprises mostly of microbes, which due to their sub-micron dimensions and high mobility are more challenging to dynamically manipulate on-a-chip. To address this challenge, we developed a high resolution microfluidic system (submicrofluidics) fabricated by direct electron beam lithography that is capable of trapping single microbes and releasing them upon demand. The fabrication method enabled the integration of sub-micron indentations (400 nm) with millimetre-scale fluidic channels rapidly in a single processing step. The larger channels deliver the cell suspension and reagents, while the sub-micron indentations immobilize the cells by locally increasing the hydrodynamic resistance. By volume exclusion, single cell trapping was possible in this system without any surface treatment. By increasing the flow rate, the microbes overcome the trap barrier and pass through the narrow indentation without undergoing lysis with kinetics that depend on their size. The fabrication method and its performance are described, along with microbial characterisations using E. coli.

  4. Confinement Time Exceeding One Second for a Toroidal Electron Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marler, J. P.; Stoneking, M. R.

    2008-04-18

    Nearly steady-state electron plasmas are trapped in a toroidal magnetic field for the first time. We report the first results from a new toroidal electron plasma experiment, the Lawrence Non-neutral Torus II, in which electron densities on the order of 10{sup 7} cm{sup -3} are trapped in a 270 deg. toroidal arc (670 G toroidal magnetic field) by application of trapping potentials to segments of a conducting shell. The total charge inferred from measurements of the frequency of the m=1 diocotron mode is observed to decay on a 3 s time scale, a time scale that approaches the predicted limit due to magnetic pumping transport. Three seconds represents {approx_equal}10{sup 5} periods of the lowest frequency plasma mode, indicating that nearly steady-state conditions are achieved.

  5. A Sub-Millimeter Solenoid Device for Trapping Paramagnetic Microbeads...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Relation: Conference: 2001 American Society of Mechanical Engineers International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, New York, NY (US), 11112001--11162001;...

  6. Long-time evolution of sequestered CO$_2$ in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Yossi

    2014-01-01

    CO$_2$ sequestration in subsurface reservoirs is important for limiting atmospheric CO$_2$ concentrations. However, a complete physical picture able to predict the structure developing within the porous medium is lacking. We investigate theoretically reactive transport in the long-time evolution of carbon in the brine-rock environment. As CO$_2$ is injected into a brine-rock environment, a carbonate-rich region is created amid brine. Within the carbonate-rich region minerals dissolve and migrate from regions of high concentration to low concentration, along with other dissolved carbonate species. This causes mineral precipitation at the interface between the two regions. We argue that precipitation in a small layer reduces diffusivity, and eventually causes mechanical trapping of the CO$_2$. Consequently, only a small fraction of the CO$_2$ is converted to solid mineral; the remainder either dissolves in water or is trapped in its original form. We also study the case of a pure CO$_2$ bubble surrounded by bri...

  7. Kinetic and Performance Studies of the Regeneration Phase of Model Pt/Ba/Rh NOx Traps for Design and Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Harold; Vemuri Balakotaiah

    2010-05-31

    In this project a combined experimental and theoretical approach was taken to advance our understanding of lean NOx trap (LNT) technology. Fundamental kinetics studies were carried out of model LNT catalysts containing variable loadings of precious metals (Pt, Rh), and storage components (BaO, CeO{sub 2}). The Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP) reactor provided transient data under well-characterized conditions for both powder and monolith catalysts, enabling the identification of key reaction pathways and estimation of the corresponding kinetic parameters. The performance of model NOx storage and reduction (NSR) monolith catalysts were evaluated in a bench scale NOx trap using synthetic exhaust, with attention placed on the effect of the pulse timing and composition on the instantaneous and cycle-averaged product distributions. From these experiments we formulated a global model that predicts the main spatio-temporal features of the LNT and a mechanistic-based microkinetic models that incorporates a detailed understanding of the chemistry and predicts more detailed selectivity features of the LNT. The NOx trap models were used to determine its ability to simulate bench-scale data and ultimately to evaluate alternative LNT designs and operating strategies. The four-year project led to the training of several doctoral students and the dissemination of the findings as 47 presentations in conferences, catalysis societies, and academic departments as well 23 manuscripts in peer-reviewed journals. A condensed review of NOx storage and reduction was published in an encyclopedia of technology.

  8. Trapping in irradiated p-on-n silicon sensors at fluences anticipated at the HL-LHC outer tracker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam, W; Dragicevic, M; Friedl, M; Fruehwirth, R; Hoch, M; Hrubec, J; Krammer, M; Treberspurg, W; Waltenberger, W; Alderweireldt, S; Beaumont, W; Janssen, X; Luyckx, S; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Barria, P; Caillol, C; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dobur, D; Favart, L; Grebenyuk, A; Lenzi, Th; Léonard, A; Maerschalk, Th; Mohammadi, A; Perniè, L; Randle-Conde, A; Reis, T; Seva, T; Thomas, L; Velde, C Vander; Vanlaer, P; Wang, J; Zenoni, F; Zeid, S Abu; Blekman, F; De Bruyn, I; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; Deroover, K; Heracleous, N; Keaveney, J; Lowette, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Tavernier, S; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G; Van Parijs, I; Strom, D A; Caudron, A; Ceard, L; De Callatay, B; Delaere, C; Pree, T Du; Forthomme, L; Giammanco, A; Hollar, J; Jez, P; Michotte, D; Nuttens, C; Perrini, L; Pagano, D; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Marono, M Vidal; Beliy, N; Caebergs, T; Daubie, E; Hammad, G H; Härkönen, J; Lampén, T; Luukka, P -R; Mäenpää, T; Peltola, T; Tuominen, E; Tuovinen, E; Eerola, P; Tuuva, T; Beaulieu, G; Boudoul, G; Combaret, C; Contardo, D; Gallbit, G; Lumb, N; Mathez, H; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Sabes, D; Donckt, M Vander; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Zoccarato, Y; Agram, J -L; Conte, E; Fontaine, J -Ch; Andrea, J; Bloch, D; Bonnin, C; Brom, J -M; Chabert, E; Charles, L; Goetzmann, Ch; Gross, L; Hosselet, J; Mathieu, C; Richer, M; Skovpen, K; Autermann, C; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Klein, K; Lipinski, M; Ostapchuk, A; Pierschel, G; Preuten, M; Raupach, F; Sammet, J; Schael, S; Schwering, G; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Zhukov, V; Pistone, C; Fluegge, G; Kuensken, A; Geisler, M; Pooth, O; Stahl, A; Bartosik, N; Behr, J; Burgmeier, A; Calligaris, L; Dolinska, G; Eckerlin, G; Eckstein, D; Eichhorn, T; Fluke, G; Garcia, J Garay; Gizhko, A; Hansen, K; Harb, A; Hauk, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Kleinwort, C; Korol, I; Lange, W; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Maser, H; Mittag, G; Muhl, C; Mussgiller, A; Nayak, A; Ntomari, E; Perrey, H; Pitzl, D; Schroeder, M; Seitz, C; Spannagel, S; Zuber, A; Biskop, H; Blobel, V; Buhmann, P; Centis-Vignali, M; Draeger, A -R; Erfle, J; Garutti, E; Haller, J; Hoffmann, M; Junkes, A; Lapsien, T; Mättig, S; Matysek, M; Perieanu, A; Poehlsen, J; Poehlsen, T; Scharf, Ch; Schleper, P; Schmidt, A; Sola, V; Steinbrück, G; Wellhausen, J; Barvich, T; Barth, Ch; Boegelspacher, F; De Boer, W; Butz, E; Casele, M; Colombo, F; Dierlamm, A; Eber, R; Freund, B; Hartmann, F; Hauth, Th; Heindl, S; Hoffmann, K -H; Husemann, U; Kornmeyer, A; Mallows, S; Muller, Th; Nuernberg, A; Printz, M; Simonis, H J; Steck, P; Weber, M; Weiler, Th; Bhardwaj, A; Kumar, A; Ranjan, K; Bakhshiansohl, H; Behnamian, H; Khakzad, M; Naseri, M; Cariola, P; De Robertis, G; Fiore, L; Franco, M; Loddo, F; Sala, G; Silvestris, L; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Maggi, G; My, S; Selvaggi, G; Albergo, S; Cappello, G; Chiorboli, M; Costa, S; Giordano, F; Di Mattia, A; Potenza, R; Saizu, M A; Tricomi, A; Tuvè, C; Barbagli, G; Brianzi, M; Ciaranfi, R; Civinini, C; Gallo, E; Meschini, M; Paoletti, S; Sguazzoni, G; Ciulli, V; D'Alessandro, R; Gonzi, S; Gori, V; Focardi, E; Lenzi, P; Scarlini, E; Tropiano, A; Viliani, L; Ferro, F; Robutti, E; Vetere, M Lo; Gennai, S; Malvezzi, S; Menasce, D; Moroni, L; Pedrini, D; Dinardo, M; Fiorendi, S; Manzoni, R A; Azzi, P; Bacchetta, N; Bisello, D; Dall'Osso, M; Dorigo, T; Giubilato, P; Pozzobon, N; Tosi, M; Zucchetta, A; De Canio, F; Gaioni, L; Manghisoni, M; Nodari, B; Re, V; Traversi, G; Comotti, D; Ratti, L; Bilei, G M; Bissi, L; Checcucci, B; Magalotti, D; Menichelli, M; Saha, A; Servoli, L; Storchi, L; Biasini, M; Conti, E; Ciangottini, D; Fanò, L; Lariccia, P; Mantovani, G; Passeri, D; Placidi, P; Salvatore, M; Santocchia, A; Solestizi, L A; Spiezia, A; Androsov, K; Azzurri, P; Arezzini, S; Bagliesi, G; Basti, A; Boccali, T; Bosi, F; Castaldi, R; Ciampa, A; Cioccid, M A; Dell'Orso, R; Fedi, G; Giassi, A; Grippod, M T; Lomtadze, T; Magazzu, G; Mazzoni, E; Minuti, M; Moggi, A; Moond, C S; Morsani, F; Palla, F; Palmonari, F; Raffaelli, F; Savoy-Navarro, A; Serban, A T; Spagnolo, P; Tenchini, R; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Martini, L; Messineo, A; Rizzi, A; Tonelli, G; Calzolari, F; Donato, S; Fiori, F; Ligabue, F; Vernieri, C; Demaria, N; Rivetti, A; Bellan, R; Casasso, S; Costa, M; Covarelli, R; Migliore, E; Monteil, E; Musich, M; Pacher, L; Ravera, F; Romero, A; Solano, A; Trapani, P; Echeverria, R Jaramillo; Fernandez, M; Gomez, G; Moya, D; Sanchez, F J Gonzalez; Sanchez, F J Munoz; Vila, I; Virto, A L; Abbaneo, D; Ahmed, I; Albert, E; Auzinger, G; Berruti, G; Bianchi, G; Blanchot, G; Breuker, H; Ceresa, D; Christiansen, J; Cichy, K; Daguin, J; D'Alfonso, M; D'Auria, A; Detraz, S; De Visscher, S; Deyrail, D; Faccio, F; Felici, D; Frank, N; Gill, K; Giordano, D; Harris, P; Honma, A; Kaplon, J; Kornmayer, A; Kottelat, L; Kovacs, M

    2015-01-01

    The degradation of signal in silicon sensors is studied under conditions expected at the CERN High-Luminosity LHC. 200 $\\mu$m thick n-type silicon sensors are irradiated with protons of different energies to fluences of up to $3 \\cdot 10^{15}$ neq/cm$^2$. Pulsed red laser light with a wavelength of 672 nm is used to generate electron-hole pairs in the sensors. The induced signals are used to determine the charge collection efficiencies separately for electrons and holes drifting through the sensor. The effective trapping rates are extracted by comparing the results to simulation. The electric field is simulated using Synopsys device simulation assuming two effective defects. The generation and drift of charge carriers are simulated in an independent simulation based on PixelAV. The effective trapping rates are determined from the measured charge collection efficiencies and the simulated and measured time-resolved current pulses are compared. The effective trapping rates determined for both electrons and holes...

  9. Classical Mechanics (Prof. P. L. Read)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Read, Peter L.

    Classical Mechanics (Prof. P. L. Read) Lecture 1 Photograph © Andrew Dunn, 5 November 2004. #12;What is Classical Mechanics? · .. rational mechanics will be the science of motion resulting from any Mechanics? · System of mathematical physics developed since the time of Galileo, Newton & Kepler · Concerned

  10. Velocity tuning of friction with two trapped atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gangloff, Dorian; Counts, Ian; Jhe, Wonho; Vuleti?, Vladan

    2015-01-01

    Friction is the basic, ubiquitous mechanical interaction between two surfaces that results in resistance to motion and energy dissipation. In spite of its technological and economic significance, our ability to control friction remains modest, and our understanding of the microscopic processes incomplete. At the atomic scale, mismatch between the two contacting crystal lattices can lead to a reduction of stick-slip friction (structural lubricity), while thermally activated atomic motion can give rise to a complex velocity dependence, and nearly vanishing friction at sufficiently low velocities (thermal lubricity). Atomic force microscopy has provided a wealth of experimental results, but limitations in the dynamic range, time resolution, and control at the single-atom level have hampered a full quantitative description from first principles. Here, using an ion-crystal friction emulator with single-atom, single substrate-site spatial resolution and single-slip temporal resolution, we measure the friction force...

  11. Contact Mechanics Based Mechanical Characterization of Portland Cement Paste 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Christopher

    2012-02-14

    Current research interest in multi-scale modeling of cement paste requires accurate characterization of the time-dependent mechanical properties of the material, particularly the C-S-H phase. Nanoindentation is evaluated as a tool for measuring...

  12. Influence of Time-Varying External Magnetic Fields on Trapped Fields in Bulk Superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, Jin; Ainslie, Mark D.; Hu, Di; Cardwell, David A.

    2014-12-12

    than 2 T. Therefore, bulk HTS samples are ideal candidates to develop more compact and efficient devices, such as actuators, magnetic levitation systems, flywheel energy storage systems and electric machines. In electric machines, in particular...

  13. Ground-state cooling of a trapped ion using long-wavelength radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidt, S; Webster, S C; Standing, E D; Rodriguez, A; Webb, A E; Lekitsch, B; Hensinger, W K

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate ground-state cooling of a trapped ion using long-wavelength radiation. This is a powerful tool for the implementation of quantum operations, where long-wavelength radiation instead of lasers is used for motional quantum state engineering. We measure a mean phonon number of $\\overline{n} = 0.13(4)$ after sideband cooling, corresponding to a ground-state occupation probability of 88(7)\\%. After preparing in the vibrational Fock state $\\left|n=0\\right\\rangle$, we implement sideband Rabi oscillations which last for more than 10 ms, demonstrating the long coherence time of our system. We also use the ability to ground-state cool to accurately measure the motional heating rate and report a reduction by almost two orders of magnitude compared to our previously measured result, which we attribute to carefully eliminating sources of electrical noise in the system.

  14. Spectroscopy of Charge Carriers and Traps in Field-Doped Organic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2012-08-13

    This research project aims to achieve quantitative and molecular level understanding of charge carriers and traps in field-doped organic semiconductors via in situ optical absorption spectroscopy, in conjunction with time-resolved electrical measurements. During the funding period, we have made major progress in three general areas: (1) probed charge injection at the interface between a polymeric semiconductor and a polymer electrolyte dielectric and developed a thermodynamic model to quantitatively describe the transition from electrostatic to electrochemical doping; (2) developed vibrational Stark effect to probe electric field at buried organic semiconductor interfaces; (3) used displacement current measurement (DCM) to study charge transport at organic/dielectric interfaces and charge injection at metal/organic interfaces.

  15. Matter: Space without Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yousef Ghazi-Tabatabai

    2012-11-19

    While Quantum Gravity remains elusive and Quantum Field Theory retains the interpretational difficulties of Quantum Mechanics, we have introduced an alternate approach to the unification of particles, fields, space and time, suggesting that the concept of matter as space without time provides a framework which unifies matter with spacetime and in which we anticipate the development of complete theories (ideally a single unified theory) describing observed 'particles, charges, fields and forces' solely with the geometry of our matter-space-time universe.

  16. Charge Transfer Fluorescence and 34 nm Exciton Diffusion Length in Polymers with Electron Acceptor End Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaikowski, L.; Mauro, G.; Bird, M.; Karten, B.; Asaoka, S.; Wu, Q.; Cook, A. R.; Miller, J.

    2014-12-22

    Photoexcitation of conjugated poly-2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene) polyfluorenes with naphthylimide (NI) and anthraquinone (AQ) electron-acceptor end traps produces excitons that form charge transfer states at the end traps. Intramolecular singlet exciton transport to end traps was examined by steady state fluorescence for polyfluorenes of 17 to 127 repeat units in chloroform, dimethylformamide (DMF), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and p-xylene. End traps capture excitons and form charge transfer (CT) states at all polymer lengths and in all solvents. The CT nature of the end-trapped states is confirmed by their fluorescence spectra, solvent and trap group dependence and DFT descriptions. Quantum yields of CT fluorescence are as large as 46%. This strong CT emission is understood in terms of intensity borrowing. Energies of the CT states from onsets of the fluorescence spectra give the depths of the traps which vary with solvent polarity. For NI end traps the trap depths are 0.06 (p-xylene), 0.13 (THF) and 0.19 eV (CHCl3). For AQ, CT fluorescence could be observed only in p-xylene where the trap depth is 0.27 eV. Quantum yields, emission energies, charge transfer energies, solvent reorganization and vibrational energies were calculated. Fluorescence measurements on chains >100 repeat units indicate that end traps capture ~50% of the excitons, and that the exciton diffusion length LD =34 nm, which is much larger than diffusion lengths reported in polymer films or than previously known for diffusion along isolated chains. The efficiency of exciton capture depends on chain length, but not on trap depth, solvent polarity or which trap group is present.

  17. Charge transfer fluorescence and 34 nm exciton diffusion length in polymers with electron acceptor end traps

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zaikowski, Lori; Mauro, Gina; Bird, Matthew; Karten, Brianne; Asaoka, Sadayuki; Wu, Qin; Cook, Andrew R.; Miller, John R.

    2014-12-22

    Photoexcitation of conjugated poly-2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene) polyfluorenes with naphthylimide (NI) and anthraquinone (AQ) electron-acceptor end traps produces excitons that form charge transfer states at the end traps. Intramolecular singlet exciton transport to end traps was examined by steady state fluorescence for polyfluorenes of 17 to 127 repeat units in chloroform, dimethylformamide (DMF), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and p-xylene. End traps capture excitons and form charge transfer (CT) states at all polymer lengths and in all solvents. The CT nature of the end-trapped states is confirmed by their fluorescence spectra, solvent and trap group dependence and DFT descriptions. Quantum yields of CT fluorescence are asmore »large as 46%. This strong CT emission is understood in terms of intensity borrowing. Energies of the CT states from onsets of the fluorescence spectra give the depths of the traps which vary with solvent polarity. For NI end traps the trap depths are 0.06 (p-xylene), 0.13 (THF) and 0.19 eV (CHCl3). For AQ, CT fluorescence could be observed only in p-xylene where the trap depth is 0.27 eV. Quantum yields, emission energies, charge transfer energies, solvent reorganization and vibrational energies were calculated. Fluorescence measurements on chains >100 repeat units indicate that end traps capture ~50% of the excitons, and that the exciton diffusion length LD =34 nm, which is much larger than diffusion lengths reported in polymer films or than previously known for diffusion along isolated chains. As a result, the efficiency of exciton capture depends on chain length, but not on trap depth, solvent polarity or which trap group is present.« less

  18. Three Pictures of Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olszewski Jr., Edward A.

    Three Pictures of Quantum Mechanics Thomas R. Shafer April 17, 2009 #12;Outline of the Talk · Brief Three Pictures of Quantum Mechanics Schrödinger Heisenberg Dirac #12;The Three Pictures of Quantum picture, the operators stay fixed while the Schrödinger equation changes the basis with time. #12;The

  19. Absolute Time Derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Matolcsi; P. Van

    2006-10-23

    A four dimensional treatment of nonrelativistic space-time gives a natural frame to deal with objective time derivatives. In this framework some well known objective time derivatives of continuum mechanics appear as Lie-derivatives. Their coordinatized forms depends on the tensorial properties of the relevant physical quantities. We calculate the particular forms of objective time derivatives for scalars, vectors, covectors and different second order tensors from the point of view of a rotating observer. The relation of substantial, material and objective time derivatives is treated.

  20. Star Products for Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Henselder

    2007-05-24

    The star product formalism has proved to be an alternative formulation for nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. We want introduce here a covariant star product in order to extend the star product formalism to relativistic quantum mechanics in the proper time formulation.

  1. Fractofusion mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yasui, K. . Dept. of Physics)

    1992-11-01

    In this paper, the fractofusion mechanism of cold fusion is investigated theoretically. The conditions necessary for fractofusion during the absorption of deuterium atoms by palladium specimens (the condition of so-called cold fusion experiments) is clarified, including crack generation at grain boundaries, the high orientation angle of grains, rapid crack formation, the increase of electrical resistance around a crack, the large width of cracks, and the generation of many cracks. The origin and quantity of the electrical field inside cracks in the conductor are also clarified. By the fractofusion mechanism, the experimental facts that neutron emissions are observed in bursts, that sometimes they coincide with the deformation of a palladium specimen, and that in many experiments excess neutrons were not observed are qualitatively explained. The upper limit of the total fractofusion yields during the absorption of deuterium atoms by palladium specimens are estimated.

  2. Conformal mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonera, Joanna, E-mail: jgonera@uni.lodz.pl

    2013-08-15

    The SL(2,R) invariant Hamiltonian systems are discussed within the framework of the orbit method. It is shown that both the dynamics and the symmetry transformations are globally well-defined on phase space. The flexibility in the choice of the time variable and the Hamiltonian function described in the paper by de Alfaro et al. [Nuovo Cimento 34A (1976) 569] is related to the nontrivial global structure of 1+0-dimensional space–time. The operational definition of time is discussed.

  3. Interaction mechanisms of near-surface quantum wells with oxidized and H-passivated AlGaAs surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Presilla, Carlo

    the tunneling barrier, extending into the well; (iv) hydrogenation efficiently passivates electron trapping September 1993; accepted for publication 25 January 1994) The tunneling mechanism of electrons and holes-consistent quantum-mechanical approach. 1. INTRODUCTION The tunneling of electrons and holes to surface states (SS

  4. Grassmann Matrix Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dionysios Anninos; Frederik Denef; Ruben Monten

    2015-12-11

    We explore quantum mechanical theories whose fundamental degrees of freedom are rectangular matrices with Grassmann valued matrix elements. We study particular models where the low energy sector can be described in terms of a bosonic Hermitian matrix quantum mechanics. We describe the classical curved phase space that emerges in the low energy sector. The phase space lives on a compact Kahler manifold parameterized by a complex matrix, of the type discovered some time ago by Berezin. The emergence of a semiclassical bosonic matrix quantum mechanics at low energies requires that the original Grassmann matrices be in the long rectangular limit. We discuss possible holographic interpretations of such matrix models which, by construction, are endowed with a finite dimensional Hilbert space.

  5. Grassmann Matrix Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anninos, Dionysios; Monten, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    We explore quantum mechanical theories whose fundamental degrees of freedom are rectangular matrices with Grassmann valued matrix elements. We study particular models where the low energy sector can be described in terms of a bosonic Hermitian matrix quantum mechanics. We describe the classical curved phase space that emerges in the low energy sector. The phase space lives on a compact Kahler manifold parameterized by a complex matrix, of the type discovered some time ago by Berezin. The emergence of a semiclassical bosonic matrix quantum mechanics at low energies requires that the original Grassmann matrices be in the long rectangular limit. We discuss possible holographic interpretations of such matrix models which, by construction, are endowed with a finite dimensional Hilbert space.

  6. A Single-Ion Trap with Minimized Ion-Environment Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nisbet-Jones, P B R; Jones, J M; Godun, R M; Baynham, C F A; Bongs, K; Doležal, M; Balling, P; Gill, P

    2015-01-01

    We present a new single-ion endcap trap for high precision spectroscopy that has been designed to minimize ion-environment interactions. We describe the design in detail and then characterize the working trap using a single trapped 171 Yb ion. Excess micromotion has been eliminated to the resolution of the detection method and the trap exhibits an anomalous phonon heating rate of d /dt = 24 +30/-24 per second. The thermal properties of the trap structure have also been measured with an effective temperature rise at the ion's position of 0.14 +/- 0.14 K. The small perturbations to the ion caused by this trap make it suitable to be used for an optical frequency standard with fractional uncertainties below the 10^-18 level.

  7. Dark state cooling of a trapped ion using microwave coupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yong Lu; Jian-Qi Zhang; Jin-Ming Cui; Dong-Yang Cao; Shuo Zhang; Yun-Feng Huang; Chuan-Feng Li; Guang-Can Guo

    2015-07-09

    We propose a new dark-state cooling method of trapped ion systems in the Lamb-Dicke limit. With application of microwave dressing the ion, we can obtain two electromagnetically induced transparency structures. The heating effects caused by the carrier and the blue sideband transition vanish due to the EIT effects and the final mean phonon numbers can be much less than the recoil limit. Our scheme is robust to fluctuations of microwave power and laser intensities which provides a broad cooling bandwidth to cool motional modes of a linear ion chain. Moreover, it is more suitable to cool four-level ions on a large-scale ion chip.

  8. Photovoltaic cell with light trapping for enhanced efficiency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brener, Igal; Fofang, Nche Tumasang; Luk, Ting S.

    2015-11-19

    The efficiency of a photovoltaic cell is enhanced by light trapping using Mie-scattering nanostructures. In one embodiment, an array of nanocylinders is formed on the front surface of a silicon film to enhance forward scattering into the film, and an array of nanocylinders is formed on the back surface to enhance backscattering so that more light is absorbed within the silicon film. In an alternate embodiment, a mirror layer is formed on the back surface of the silicon film to reflect light within the film back toward the front-surface nanocylinder array.

  9. Mechanical Engineering ME 3720 FLUID MECHANICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panchagnula, Mahesh

    Mechanical Engineering ME 3720 FLUID MECHANICS Pre-requisite: ME 2330 Co-requisite: ME 3210) to develop an understanding of the physical mechanisms and the mathematical models of fluid mechanics of fluid mechanics problems in engineering practice. The basic principles of fluid mechanics

  10. Mechanical noise dependent Aging and Shear Banding behavior of a mesoscopic model of amorphous plasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damien Vandembroucq; Stéphane Roux

    2011-12-05

    We discuss aging and localization in a simple "Eshelby" mesoscopic model of amorphous plasticity. Plastic deformation is assumed to occur through a series of local reorganizations. Using a discretization of the mechanical fields on a discrete lattice, local reorganizations are modeled as local slip events. Local yield stresses are randomly distributed in space and invariant in time. Each plastic slip event induces a long-ranged elastic stress redistribution. Mimicking the effect of aging, we focus on the behavior of the model when the initial state is characterized by a distribution of high local yield stress values. A dramatic effect on the localization behavior is obtained: the system first spontaneously self-traps to form a shear band which then only slowly widens. The higher the "age" parameter the more localized the plastic strain field. Two-time correlation computed on the stress field show a divergent correlation time with the age parameter. The amplitude of a local slip event (the prefactor of the Eshelby singularity) as compared to the yield stress distribution width acts here as an effective temperature-like parameter: the lower the slip increment, the higher the localization and the decorrelation time.

  11. Variation of carrier concentration and interface trap density in 8MeV electron irradiated c-Si solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhat, Sathyanarayana, E-mail: asharao76@gmail.com; Rao, Asha, E-mail: asharao76@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mangalore Institute of Technology and Engineering, Moodabidri, Mangalore-574225 (India); Krishnan, Sheeja [Department of Physics, Sri Devi Institute of Technology, Kenjar, Mangalore-574142 (India); Sanjeev, Ganesh [Microtron Centre, Department of Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri-574199 (India); Suresh, E. P. [Solar Panel Division, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore-560017 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The capacitance and conductance measurements were carried out for c-Si solar cells, irradiated with 8 MeV electrons with doses ranging from 5kGy – 100kGy in order to investigate the anomalous degradation of the cells in the radiation harsh environments. Capacitance – Voltage measurements indicate that there is a slight reduction in the carrier concentration upon electron irradiation due to the creation of radiation induced defects. The conductance measurement results reveal that the interface state densities and the trap time constant increases with electron dose due to displacement damages in c-Si solar cells.

  12. Proposal for manipulating and detecting spin and orbital states of trapped electrons on helium using cavity quantum electrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. I. Schuster; A. Fragner; M. I. Dykman; S. A. Lyon; R. J. Schoelkopf

    2010-08-16

    We propose to couple an on-chip high finesse superconducting cavity to the lateral-motion and spin state of a single electron trapped on the surface of superfluid helium. We estimate the motional coherence times to exceed 15 microseconds, while energy will be coherently exchanged with the cavity photons in less than 10 nanoseconds for charge states and faster than 1 microsecond for spin states, making the system attractive for quantum information processing and cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. Strong interaction with cavity photons will provide the means for both nondestructive readout and coupling of distant electrons.

  13. Cryogenic surface electrode ion traps with integrated superconducting microwave resonators for polar molecular ion spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antohi, Paul Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    Trapped cold molecules open the possibility of studying ultracold chemistry and astrophysical processes in laboratory settings. Their rich internal structure also makes them suitable for quantum information manipulation ...

  14. HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Effect of Trap Design, Chemical Lure, Carbon Dioxide Release Rate,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Changlu

    HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Effect of Trap Design, Chemical Lure, Carbon Dioxide Release Rate passive monitor available in the market for bed bugs

  15. Characterization of trapped lignin-degrading microbes in tropical forest soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeAngelis, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    of trapped lignin-degrading microbes in tropical forest soilunseen majority: soil microbes as drivers of plant diversitya challenge for soil microbes and biofuels engineers alike.

  16. Bose-Einstein condensate in traps: A Diffusion Monte Carlo analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glyde, Henry R.

    Bosons, we note that the energy of a single particle in a typical harmonic trap (e.g. 87 Rb) is (3/2)¯hho

  17. Quantum jump mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Yu. Samarin

    2015-05-10

    The change with time of the system consisting of the quantum object and the macroscopic measuring instrument is described on the base of the uniform dynamic law, which is suitable both evolution and reduction processes description. It is the integral wave equation with kernel in the form of a path integral. It is shown, that wave function collapse is the specific transformation which is fundamentally differ from Shr\\"odinger's evolution. Specifically, a formal cause of the collapse is a local time derivative (infinite large) of the potential energy. Such transformation can not be described using mathematical apparatus of conventional quantum mechanics.

  18. Quantum Mechanics and Closed Timelike Curves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florin Moldoveanu

    2007-04-23

    General relativity allows solutions exhibiting closed timelike curves. Time travel generates paradoxes and quantum mechanics generalizations were proposed to solve those paradoxes. The implications of self-consistent interactions on acausal region of space-time are investigated. If the correspondence principle is true, then all generalizations of quantum mechanics on acausal manifolds are not renormalizable. Therefore quantum mechanics can only be defined on global hyperbolic manifolds and all general relativity solutions exhibiting time travel are unphysical.

  19. Mixed random walks with a trap in scale-free networks including nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor jumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhongzhi; Sheng, Yibin

    2015-01-01

    Random walks including non-nearest-neighbor jumps appear in many real situations such as the diffusion of adatoms and have found numerous applications including PageRank search algorithm, however, related theoretical results are much less for this dynamical process. In this paper, we present a study of mixed random walks in a family of fractal scale-free networks, where both nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor jumps are included. We focus on trapping problem in the network family, which is a particular case of random walks with a perfect trap fixed at the central high-degree node. We derive analytical expressions for the average trapping time (ATT), a quantitative indicator measuring the efficiency of the trapping process, by using two different methods, the results of which are consistent with each other. Furthermore, we analytically determine all the eigenvalues and their multiplicities for the fundamental matrix characterizing the dynamical process. Our results show that although next-nearest-neighb...

  20. Charge trapping and de-trapping in isolated CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals under an external electric field: Indirect evidence for a permanent dipole moment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zang, Huidong; Cristea, Mihail; Shen, Xuan; Liu, Mingzhao; Camino, Fernando; Cotlet, Mircea

    2015-08-05

    Single nanoparticle studies of charge trapping and de-trapping in core/shell CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals incorporated into an insulating matrix and subjected to an external electric field demonstrate the ability to reversibly modulate the exciton dynamics and photoluminescence blinking while providing indirect evidence for the existence of a permanent ground state dipole moment in such nanocrystals. A model assuming the presence of energetically deep charge traps physically aligned along the direction of the permanent dipole is proposed in order to explain the dynamics of nanocrystal blinking in the presence of a permanent dipole moment.