National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for time m-f electronic

  1. M F

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M F 3 S N O i i 0 3 r o y d ' , , , , * g . ; & . ' y ; ' ; ' . ^ ' i r , , » , , , » - ^ j M O O l i n O A O U 3 N 3 ( D I . / 9 6 ) 2 0 2 0 - V I 3 / 3 O C This publication and other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. Telephone orders may be directed to: Superintendent of Documents U.S. Government Printing Office Main Order Desk (202) 512-1800 FAX: (202)512-2250 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.,

  2. A compact electron gun for time-resolved electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Matthew S.; Lane, Paul D.; Wann, Derek A.

    2015-01-15

    A novel compact time-resolved electron diffractometer has been built with the primary goal of studying the ultrafast molecular dynamics of photoexcited gas-phase molecules. Here, we discuss the design of the electron gun, which is triggered by a Ti:Sapphire laser, before detailing a series of calibration experiments relating to the electron-beam properties. As a further test of the apparatus, initial diffraction patterns have been collected for thin, polycrystalline platinum samples, which have been shown to match theoretical patterns. The data collected demonstrate the focusing effects of the magnetic lens on the electron beam, and how this relates to the spatial resolution of the diffraction pattern.

  3. Short rise time intense electron beam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Craig L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A generator for producing an intense relativistic electron beam having a subnanosecond current rise time includes a conventional generator of intense relativistic electrons feeding into a short electrically conductive drift tube including a cavity containing a working gas at a low enough pressure to prevent the input beam from significantly ionizing the working gas. Ionizing means such as a laser simultaneously ionize the entire volume of working gas in the cavity to generate an output beam having a rise time less than one nanosecond.

  4. Short rise time intense electron beam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, C.L.

    1984-03-16

    A generator for producing an intense relativisitc electron beam having a subnanosecond current rise time includes a conventional generator of intense relativistic electrons feeding into a short electrically conductive drift tube including a cavity containing a working gas at a low enough pressure to prevent the input beam from significantly ionizing the working gas. Ionizing means such as a laser simultaneously ionize the entire volume of working gas in the cavity to generate an output beam having a rise time less than one nanosecond.

  5. Correlated electron dynamics with time-dependent quantum Monte Carlo:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Three-dimensional helium (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Correlated electron dynamics with time-dependent quantum Monte Carlo: Three-dimensional helium Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Correlated electron dynamics with time-dependent quantum Monte Carlo: Three-dimensional helium Here the recently proposed time-dependent quantum Monte Carlo method is applied to three dimensional para- and ortho-helium atoms subjected to an external electromagnetic field with amplitude sufficient

  6. Confinement Time Exceeding One Second for a Toroidal Electron Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marler, J. P.; Stoneking, M. R.

    2008-04-18

    Nearly steady-state electron plasmas are trapped in a toroidal magnetic field for the first time. We report the first results from a new toroidal electron plasma experiment, the Lawrence Non-neutral Torus II, in which electron densities on the order of 10{sup 7} cm{sup -3} are trapped in a 270 deg. toroidal arc (670 G toroidal magnetic field) by application of trapping potentials to segments of a conducting shell. The total charge inferred from measurements of the frequency of the m=1 diocotron mode is observed to decay on a 3 s time scale, a time scale that approaches the predicted limit due to magnetic pumping transport. Three seconds represents {approx_equal}10{sup 5} periods of the lowest frequency plasma mode, indicating that nearly steady-state conditions are achieved.

  7. Time resolved electron microscopy for in situ experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Geoffrey H. McKeown, Joseph T.; Santala, Melissa K.

    2014-12-15

    Transmission electron microscopy has functioned for decades as a platform for in situ observation of materials and processes with high spatial resolution. Yet, the dynamics often remain elusive, as they unfold too fast to discern at these small spatial scales under traditional imaging conditions. Simply shortening the exposure time in hopes of capturing the action has limitations, as the number of electrons will eventually be reduced to the point where noise overtakes the signal in the image. Pulsed electron sources with high instantaneous current have successfully shortened exposure times (thus increasing the temporal resolution) by about six orders of magnitude over conventional sources while providing the necessary signal-to-noise ratio for dynamic imaging. We describe here the development of this new class of microscope and the principles of its operation, with examples of its application to problems in materials science.

  8. Radial electron-beam-breakup transit-time oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwan, Thomas J. T. (Los Alamos, NM); Mostrom, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A radial electron-beam-breakup transit-time oscillator (RBTO) provides a compact high power microwave generator. The RBTO includes a coaxial vacuum transmission line having an outer conductor and an inner conductor. The inner conductor defines an annular cavity with dimensions effective to support an electromagnetic field in a TEM.sub.00m mode. A radial field emission cathode is formed on the outer conductor for providing an electron beam directed toward the annular cavity electrode. Microwave energy is then extracted from the annular cavity electrode.

  9. Linear electronic field time-of-flight ion mass spectrometers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funsten, Herbert O. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-08-24

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometer comprising a first drift region and a second drift region enclosed within an evacuation chamber; a means of introducing an analyte of interest into the first drift region; a pulsed ionization source which produces molecular ions from said analyte of interest; a first foil positioned between the first drift region and the second drift region, which dissociates said molecular ions into constituent atomic ions and emits secondary electrons; an electrode which produces secondary electrons upon contact with a constituent atomic ion in second drift region; a stop detector comprising a first ion detection region and a second ion detection region; and a timing means connected to the pulsed ionization source, to the first ion detection region, and to the second ion detection region.

  10. Electron-paramagnetic resonance detection with software time locking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aloisi, Giovanni Mannini, Matteo; Caneschi, Andrea; Dolci, David; Department of Physics, University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino ; Carl, Marcello

    2014-02-15

    A setup for electron paramagnetic resonance with narrow band digital detection is described. A low frequency reference tone is added to the radio frequency signal. This reference signal, after digital detection, is used to lock the resonance signal, even in the absence of hardware time locking among the radio frequency generator, the conversion local oscillators, and the sampling stage. Results obtained with 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Pycryl-Hydrazil are presented and discussed.

  11. Transcript: OSTI Highlights First-Time Electronic Availability of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Geothermal Documents at San Diego Geothermal Conference, Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Department of Energy, www.osti.gov | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information Transcript: OSTI Highlights First-Time Electronic Availability of Geothermal Documents at San Diego Geothermal Conference, Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Department of Energy, www.osti.gov September 2006 Geothermal Subject Portal Listen Now Now, more than

  12. Electronics for a Picosecond Time-of-flight Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, Andrew Gerhart; Rijssenbeek, Michael

    2014-11-03

    TITLE: Electronics for a Picosecond Time-of-flight Measurement ABSTRACT: Time-of-flight (TOF) detectors have historically been used as part of the particle identification capability of multi-purpose particle physics detectors. An accurate time measurement, combined with a momentum measurement based on the curvature of the track in a magnetic field, is often sufficient to determine the particle's mass, and thus its identity. Such detectors typically have measured the particle flight time extremely precisely, with an uncertainty of one hundred trillionths of a second (also referred to as 100 picoseconds). To put this in perspective it would be like counting all the people on the Earth and getting it right within 1 person! Another use of TOFs is to measure the vertex of the event, which is the location along the beam line where the incoming particles (typically protons) collide. This vertex positon is a well measured quantity for events where the protons collide “head on” as the outgoing particles produced when you blast the proton apart can be used to trace back to a vertex point from which they originated. More frequently the protons just strike a glancing blow and remain intact—in this case they are nearly parallel to the beam and you cannot tell their vertex without this ability to precisely measure the time of flight of the protons. Occasionally both happen in the same event, that is, a central system and two protons are produced. But are they from the same collision, or just a boring background where more than one collision in the same bunch crossing conspire to fake the signal of interest? That’s where the timing of the protons comes into play. The main idea is to measure the time it takes for the two protons to reach TOF detectors positioned equidistant from the center of the main detector. If the vertex is displaced to one side than that detector will measure a shorter time while the other side detector will measure a correspondingly longer time. Taking into account the speed of the particles, which is very close to the speed of light, an accuracy of 100 ps gives a vertex measurement of a few cm or a little more than an inch. At the Large Hadron Collider, where there are up to a hundred billion protons per bunch, and the collision region is compressed to a few inches, that is just not good enough. A higher level of precision is needed to determine whether the vertex of the protons and that of the central system are the same. A factor 10 improvement in the timing measurement to the 10 trillionths of a second level, for example would give the requisite 10 times improvement in the vertex measurement. An accurate measurement of the flight time depends on three key elements: the radiator that produces light when the proton passes through it, the photo-sensor that converts the light to an electrical signal, and the electronics that convert this electrical signal into a time measurement with a compact recordable format. With recent improvements in detector design featuring a series of quartz radiators connected to a micro-channel plate photomultiplier tube, this superior measurement capability is within reach if the readout electronics are sufficiently performant. As a result of the funding of this proposal, we have achieved our primary goals. 1) We have developed from scratch or improved upon existing designs of the full chain of electronics that can maintain the performance of a TOF detector from the output of the photo-sensor to the recording of a compressed data packet containing the timing information. We have accomplished this with a cost effective modular approach such that some or all of the components in the chain could easily be adapted for use in diverse particle physics experiments or in other areas where precise timing is required, such as medical and homeland security devices.

  13. Determination of equilibrium electron temperature and times using an electron swarm model with BOLSIG+ calculated collision frequencies and rate coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pusateri, Elise N.; Morris, Heidi E.; Nelson, Eric M.; Ji, Wei

    2015-08-04

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) events produce low-energy conduction electrons from Compton electron or photoelectron ionizations with air. It is important to understand how conduction electrons interact with air in order to accurately predict EMP evolution and propagation. An electron swarm model can be used to monitor the time evolution of conduction electrons in an environment characterized by electric field and pressure. Here a swarm model is developed that is based on the coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) described by Higgins et al. (1973), hereinafter HLO. The ODEs characterize the swarm electric field, electron temperature, electron number density, and drift velocity. Important swarm parameters, the momentum transfer collision frequency, energy transfer collision frequency, and ionization rate, are calculated and compared to the previously reported fitted functions given in HLO. These swarm parameters are found using BOLSIG+, a two term Boltzmann solver developed by Hagelaar and Pitchford (2005), which utilizes updated cross sections from the LXcat website created by Pancheshnyi et al. (2012). We validate the swarm model by comparing to experimental effective ionization coefficient data in Dutton (1975) and drift velocity data in Ruiz-Vargas et al. (2010). In addition, we report on electron equilibrium temperatures and times for a uniform electric field of 1 StatV/cm for atmospheric heights from 0 to 40 km. We show that the equilibrium temperature and time are sensitive to the modifications in the collision frequencies and ionization rate based on the updated electron interaction cross sections.

  14. Determination of equilibrium electron temperature and times using an electron swarm model with BOLSIG+ calculated collision frequencies and rate coefficients

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pusateri, Elise N.; Morris, Heidi E.; Nelson, Eric M.; Ji, Wei

    2015-08-04

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) events produce low-energy conduction electrons from Compton electron or photoelectron ionizations with air. It is important to understand how conduction electrons interact with air in order to accurately predict EMP evolution and propagation. An electron swarm model can be used to monitor the time evolution of conduction electrons in an environment characterized by electric field and pressure. Here a swarm model is developed that is based on the coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) described by Higgins et al. (1973), hereinafter HLO. The ODEs characterize the swarm electric field, electron temperature, electron number density, and drift velocity. Importantmore » swarm parameters, the momentum transfer collision frequency, energy transfer collision frequency, and ionization rate, are calculated and compared to the previously reported fitted functions given in HLO. These swarm parameters are found using BOLSIG+, a two term Boltzmann solver developed by Hagelaar and Pitchford (2005), which utilizes updated cross sections from the LXcat website created by Pancheshnyi et al. (2012). We validate the swarm model by comparing to experimental effective ionization coefficient data in Dutton (1975) and drift velocity data in Ruiz-Vargas et al. (2010). In addition, we report on electron equilibrium temperatures and times for a uniform electric field of 1 StatV/cm for atmospheric heights from 0 to 40 km. We show that the equilibrium temperature and time are sensitive to the modifications in the collision frequencies and ionization rate based on the updated electron interaction cross sections.« less

  15. Determination of equilibrium electron temperature and times using an electron swarm model with BOLSIG+ calculated collision frequencies and rate coefficients

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pusateri, Elise N.; Morris, Heidi E.; Nelson, Eric M.; Ji, Wei

    2015-08-04

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) events produce low-energy conduction electrons from Compton electron or photoelectron ionizations with air. It is important to understand how conduction electrons interact with air in order to accurately predict EMP evolution and propagation. An electron swarm model can be used to monitor the time evolution of conduction electrons in an environment characterized by electric field and pressure. Here a swarm model is developed that is based on the coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) described by Higgins et al. (1973), hereinafter HLO. The ODEs characterize the swarm electric field, electron temperature, electron number density, and drift velocity. Importantmore »swarm parameters, the momentum transfer collision frequency, energy transfer collision frequency, and ionization rate, are calculated and compared to the previously reported fitted functions given in HLO. These swarm parameters are found using BOLSIG+, a two term Boltzmann solver developed by Hagelaar and Pitchford (2005), which utilizes updated cross sections from the LXcat website created by Pancheshnyi et al. (2012). We validate the swarm model by comparing to experimental effective ionization coefficient data in Dutton (1975) and drift velocity data in Ruiz-Vargas et al. (2010). In addition, we report on electron equilibrium temperatures and times for a uniform electric field of 1 StatV/cm for atmospheric heights from 0 to 40 km. We show that the equilibrium temperature and time are sensitive to the modifications in the collision frequencies and ionization rate based on the updated electron interaction cross sections.« less

  16. Prospects for Electron Imaging with Ultrafast Time Resolution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Service, Springfield, VA at www.ntis.gov. Many pivotal aspects of material science, biomechanics, and chemistry would benefit from nanometer imaging with ultrafast time resolution....

  17. Analysis of electron capture process in charge pumping sequence using time domain measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hori, Masahiro Watanabe, Tokinobu; Ono, Yukinori; Tsuchiya, Toshiaki

    2014-12-29

    A method for analyzing the electron capture process in the charge pumping (CP) sequence is proposed and demonstrated. The method monitors the electron current in the CP sequence in time domain. This time-domain measurements enable us to directly access the process of the electron capture to the interface defects, which are obscured in the conventional CP method. Using the time-domain measurements, the rise time dependence of the capture process is systematically investigated. We formulate the capture process based on the rate equation and derive an analytic form of the current due to the electron capture to the defects. Based on the formula, the experimental data are analyzed and the capture cross section is obtained. In addition, the time-domain data unveil that the electron capture process completes before the electron channel opens, or below the threshold voltage in a low frequency range of the pulse.

  18. Effect of sulfur isotopic composition of zinc and lead sulfides on the E. M. F. of electrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, J.; Krouse, H.R.; Batts, B.D.

    1988-03-01

    A new effect is reported in which unexpectedly large voltages are produced by electrochemical cells containing sulfides at natural isotopic abundance levels. Room temperature experiments were undertaken to determine whether electrochemical cells employing silver bromide and silver beta alumina as solid electrolytes would be sufficiently sensitive to detect small variations in sulfur isotopic composition for zinc and lead sulfides. Voltages obtained for silver bromide cells tended to increase progressively over at least 20 days, and increased in a regular fashion with increasing differences in isotopic composition between charges. Voltages exceeding 150 mV were obtained for /sup delta/S/sup 3,4/ differences up to 85 per mil for zinc sulfide, but reached only about 20 mV for lead sulfide. Silver beta alumina cells with opposing zinc and lead sulfide charges yielded larger voltages and E.M.F. minimum corresponding to a +8(/plus minus/2) per mil difference. This value shows reasonable agreement with interpolated 20/degrees/C equilibrium values of between +7.5 to +9.8 obtained from the literature. Matured silver bromide cells with opposed zinc and lead sulfide charges behaved similarly but yielded lower voltages. Silver concentration cells of the opposed type are thus able to detect isotopic equilibrium and this will permit calibration of sulfur isotope thermometers down to unexpectedly low temperatures.

  19. Electron dynamics in complex environments with real-time time dependent density functional theory in a QM-MM framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morzan, Uriel N.; Ramrez, Francisco F.; Scherlis, Damin A. E-mail: mcgl@qb.ffyb.uba.ar; Lebrero, Mariano C. Gonzlez E-mail: mcgl@qb.ffyb.uba.ar

    2014-04-28

    This article presents a time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) implementation to propagate the Kohn-Sham equations in real time, including the effects of a molecular environment through a Quantum-Mechanics Molecular-Mechanics (QM-MM) hamiltonian. The code delivers an all-electron description employing Gaussian basis functions, and incorporates the Amber force-field in the QM-MM treatment. The most expensive parts of the computation, comprising the commutators between the hamiltonian and the density matrixrequired to propagate the electron dynamics, and the evaluation of the exchange-correlation energy, were migrated to the CUDA platform to run on graphics processing units, which remarkably accelerates the performance of the code. The method was validated by reproducing linear-response TDDFT results for the absorption spectra of several molecular species. Two different schemes were tested to propagate the quantum dynamics: (i) a leap-frog Verlet algorithm, and (ii) the Magnus expansion to first-order. These two approaches were confronted, to find that the Magnus scheme is more efficient by a factor of six in small molecules. Interestingly, the presence of iron was found to seriously limitate the length of the integration time step, due to the high frequencies associated with the core-electrons. This highlights the importance of pseudopotentials to alleviate the cost of the propagation of the inner states when heavy nuclei are present. Finally, the methodology was applied to investigate the shifts induced by the chemical environment on the most intense UV absorption bands of two model systems of general relevance: the formamide molecule in water solution, and the carboxy-heme group in Flavohemoglobin. In both cases, shifts of several nanometers are observed, consistently with the available experimental data.

  20. Time domain analysis of a gyrotron traveling wave amplifier with misaligned electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiushi Peng, Shuyuan; Luo, Jirun

    2014-08-15

    This article develops a time-domain theory to study the beam-wave interaction in gyrotron traveling wave amplifier (gyro-TWA) with a misaligned electron beam. The effects of beam misalignment on the TE{sub 01} mode gyro-TWA operating at the fundamental are discussed. Numerical results show that the effect of misalignment is less obvious when the input power is larger, and the influences of misalignment on the stable gain and the stable time are basically opposite.

  1. Three axis electronic flight motion simulator real time control system design and implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiyuan; Miao, Zhonghua Wang, Xiaohua; Wang, Xuyong

    2014-12-15

    A three axis electronic flight motion simulator is reported in this paper including the modelling, the controller design as well as the hardware implementation. This flight motion simulator could be used for inertial navigation test and high precision inertial navigation system with good dynamic and static performances. A real time control system is designed, several control system implementation problems were solved including time unification with parallel port interrupt, high speed finding-zero method of rotary inductosyn, zero-crossing management with continuous rotary, etc. Tests were carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed real time control system.

  2. Time-dependent simulation of prebunched one and two-beam free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirian, N. S.; Maraghechi, B.

    2014-04-15

    A numerical simulation in one-dimension is conducted to study the slippage effects on prebunched free electron laser. A technique for the simulation of time dependent free electron lasers (FEL) to model the slippage effects is introduced, and the slowly varying envelope approximation in both z and t is used to illustrate the temporal behaviour in the prebunched FEL. Slippage effect on prebunched two-beam FEL is compared with the one-beam modeling. The evaluation of the radiation pulse energy, thermal and phase distribution, and radiation pulse shape in one-beam and two-beam modeling is studied. It was shown that the performance is considerably undermined when the slippage time is comparable to the pulse duration. However, prebunching reduces the slippage. Prebunching also leads to the radiation pulse with a single smooth spike.

  3. Simulation of Electron Cloud Density Distributions in RHIC Dipoles at Injection and Transition and Estimates for Scrubbing Times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He,P.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Fischer, W.

    2009-01-02

    In this report we summarize electron-cloud simulations for the RHIC dipole regions at injection and transition to estimate if scrubbing over practical time scales at injection would reduce the electron cloud density at transition to significantly lower values. The lower electron cloud density at transition will allow for an increase in the ion intensity.

  4. ON QUIET-TIME SOLAR WIND ELECTRON DISTRIBUTIONS IN DYNAMICAL EQUILIBRIUM WITH LANGMUIR TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaheer, S.; Yoon, P. H.

    2013-10-01

    A recent series of papers put forth a self-consistent theory of an asymptotically steady-state electron distribution function and Langmuir turbulence intensity. The theory was developed in terms of the ? distribution which features Maxwellian low-energy electrons and a non-Maxwellian energetic power-law tail component. The present paper discusses a generalized ? distribution that features a Davydov-Druyvesteyn type of core component and an energetic power-law tail component. The physical motivation for such a generalization is so that the model may reflect the influence of low-energy electrons interacting with low-frequency kinetic Alfvnic turbulence as well as with high-frequency Langmuir turbulence. It is shown that such a solution and the accompanying Langmuir wave spectrum rigorously satisfy the balance requirement between the spontaneous and induced emission processes in both the particle and wave kinetic equations, and approximately satisfy the similar balance requirement between the spontaneous and induced scattering processes, which are nonlinear. In spite of the low velocity modification of the electron distribution function, it is shown that the resulting asymptotic velocity power-law index ?, where f{sub e} ? v {sup ?} is close to the average index observed during the quiet-time solar wind condition, i.e., ? ? O(6.5) whereas ?{sub average} ? 6.69, according to observation.

  5. Geometrical effects on the electron residence time in semiconductor nano-particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koochi, Hakimeh; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh

    2014-09-07

    We have used random walk (RW) numerical simulations to investigate the influence of the geometry on the statistics of the electron residence time ?{sub r} in a trap-limited diffusion process through semiconductor nano-particles. This is an important parameter in coarse-grained modeling of charge carrier transport in nano-structured semiconductor films. The traps have been distributed randomly on the surface (r{sup 2} model) or through the whole particle (r{sup 3} model) with a specified density. The trap energies have been taken from an exponential distribution and the traps release time is assumed to be a stochastic variable. We have carried out (RW) simulations to study the effect of coordination number, the spatial arrangement of the neighbors and the size of nano-particles on the statistics of ?{sub r}. It has been observed that by increasing the coordination number n, the average value of electron residence time, ?{sup }{sub r} rapidly decreases to an asymptotic value. For a fixed coordination number n, the electron's mean residence time does not depend on the neighbors' spatial arrangement. In other words, ?{sup }{sub r} is a porosity-dependence, local parameter which generally varies remarkably from site to site, unless we are dealing with highly ordered structures. We have also examined the effect of nano-particle size d on the statistical behavior of ?{sup }{sub r}. Our simulations indicate that for volume distribution of traps, ?{sup }{sub r} scales as d{sup 2}. For a surface distribution of traps ?{sup }{sub r} increases almost linearly with d. This leads to the prediction of a linear dependence of the diffusion coefficient D on the particle size d in ordered structures or random structures above the critical concentration which is in accordance with experimental observations.

  6. Wave function for harmonically confined electrons in time-dependent electric and magnetostatic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Chen, Jin-Wang; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Sahni, Viraht

    2014-01-14

    We derive via the interaction representation the many-body wave function for harmonically confined electrons in the presence of a magnetostatic field and perturbed by a spatially homogeneous time-dependent electric fieldthe Generalized Kohn Theorem (GKT) wave function. In the absence of the harmonic confinement the uniform electron gas the GKT wave function reduces to the Kohn Theorem wave function. Without the magnetostatic field, the GKT wave function is the Harmonic Potential Theorem wave function. We further prove the validity of the connection between the GKT wave function derived and the system in an accelerated frame of reference. Finally, we provide examples of the application of the GKT wave function.

  7. Fidelity of a Time-Resolved Imaging Diagnostic for Electron Beam Profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frayer, Daniel; Ekdahl, Carl A.; Johnson, Douglas

    2014-10-01

    An optical tomographic diagnostic instrument has been fielded at the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Four optical lines of sight create projections of an image of an electron beam on a Cerenkov target, which are relayed via optical fiber to streak cameras. From these projections, a reconstruction algorithm creates time histories of the beams cross section. The instrument was fielded during and after facility commissioning, and tomographic reconstructions reported beam parameters. Results from reconstructions and analysis are noted.

  8. Time evolution analysis of the electron distribution in Thomson/Compton back-scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrillo, V.; Bacci, A.; Curatolo, C.; Maroli, C.; Serafini, L.; Rossi, A. R.

    2013-07-28

    We present the time evolution of the energy distribution of a relativistic electron beam after the Compton back-scattering with a counter-propagating laser field, performed in the framework of the Quantum Electrodynamics, by means of the code CAIN. As the correct angular distribution of the spontaneous emission is accounted, the main effect is the formation of few stripes, followed by the diffusion of the more energetic particles toward lower values in the longitudinal phase space. The Chapman-Kolmogorov master equation gives results in striking agreement with the numerical ones. An experiment on the Thomson source at SPARC-LAB is proposed.

  9. Real-time studies of battery electrochemical reactions inside a transmission electron microscope.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Kevin; Hudak, Nicholas S.; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiaohua H.; Fan, Hongyou; Subramanian, Arunkumar; Shaw, Michael J.; Sullivan, John Patrick; Huang, Jian Yu

    2012-01-01

    We report the development of new experimental capabilities and ab initio modeling for real-time studies of Li-ion battery electrochemical reactions. We developed three capabilities for in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies: a capability that uses a nanomanipulator inside the TEM to assemble electrochemical cells with ionic liquid or solid state electrolytes, a capability that uses on-chip assembly of battery components on to TEM-compatible multi-electrode arrays, and a capability that uses a TEM-compatible sealed electrochemical cell that we developed for performing in-situ TEM using volatile battery electrolytes. These capabilities were used to understand lithiation mechanisms in nanoscale battery materials, including SnO{sub 2}, Si, Ge, Al, ZnO, and MnO{sub 2}. The modeling approaches used ab initio molecular dynamics to understand early stages of ethylene carbonate reduction on lithiated-graphite and lithium surfaces and constrained density functional theory to understand ethylene carbonate reduction on passivated electrode surfaces.

  10. Real-time study of fast-electron transport inside dense hot plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandhu, A.S.; Kumar, G. Ravindra; Sengupta, S.; Das, A.; Kaw, P.K.

    2006-03-15

    We offer a method to study transport of fast electrons in dense hot media. The technique relies on temporal profiling of the laser induced magnetic fields and offers a unique capability to map the hot electron currents and their neutralization (or lack of it) by the return currents in the plasma. We report direct quantitative measurements of strong electric inhibition in insulators and turbulence induced anomalous stopping of hot electrons in conductors. The present technique can prove extremely important from the point of view of fast ignition scheme, which relies on the penetration of fast electrons into the fusion core.

  11. Electron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    density measurement by differential interferometry W. X. Ding, D. L. Brower, B. H. Deng, and T. Yates Electrical Engineering Department, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 ͑Received 5 May 2006; presented on 10 May 2006; accepted 16 June 2006; published online 26 September 2006͒ A novel differential interferometer is being developed to measure the electron density gradient and its fluctuations. Two separate laser beams with slight spatial offset and frequency

  12. Electron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron thermal transport within magnetic islands in the reversed-field pinch a... H. D. Stephens, 1,b͒ D. J. Den Hartog, 1,3 C. C. Hegna, 1,2 and J. A. Reusch 1 1 Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Ave., Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA 2 Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA 3 Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, University of

  13. Direct measurement of the characteristic three-body electron attachment time in the atmospheric air in direct current electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shutov, A. V.; Smetanin, I. V.; Ionin, A. A.; Levchenko, A. O.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Ustinovskii, N. N.; Zvorykin, V. D.

    2013-07-15

    We report the results of theoretical and experimental study of the characteristic time for three-body attachment of electrons produced by 100 fs UV laser pulse in the atmosphere air in the external DC electric field ranged from 0.2 to 10 kV/cm.

  14. High-speed multiframe dynamic transmission electron microscope image acquisition system with arbitrary timing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Bryan W.; DeHope, William J.; Huete, Glenn; LaGrange, Thomas B.; Shuttlesworth, Richard M.

    2015-10-20

    An electron microscope is disclosed which has a laser-driven photocathode and an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) laser system ("laser"). The laser produces a train of temporally-shaped laser pulses of a predefined pulse duration and waveform, and directs the laser pulses to the laser-driven photocathode to produce a train of electron pulses. An image sensor is used along with a deflector subsystem. The deflector subsystem is arranged downstream of the target but upstream of the image sensor, and has two pairs of plates arranged perpendicular to one another. A control system controls the laser and a plurality of switching components synchronized with the laser, to independently control excitation of each one of the deflector plates. This allows each electron pulse to be directed to a different portion of the image sensor, as well as to be provided with an independently set duration and independently set inter-pulse spacings.

  15. Exploring the Limits of the Dipole Approximation with Angle-Resolved Electron Time-of-Flight Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laidman, S.; Pangilinan, J.; Guillemin, R.; Yu, S.U.; Ohrwall, G.; Lindle, D.; Hemmers, O.

    2002-01-01

    Understanding the electronic structure of atoms and molecules is fundamental in determining their basic properties as well as the interactions that occur with different particles such as light. One such interaction is single photoionization; a process in which a photon collides with an atom or molecule and an electron with a certain kinetic energy is emitted, leaving behind a residual ion. Theoretical models of electronic structures use the dipole approximation to simplify x-ray interactions by assuming that the electromagnetic field of the radiation, expressed as a Taylor-series expansion, can be simplified by using only the first term. It has been known for some time that the dipole approximation becomes inaccurate at high photon energies, but the threshold at which this discrepancy begins is ambiguous. In order to enhance our understanding of these limitations, we measured the electron emissions of nitrogen. Beamline 8.0.1 at the Advanced Light Source was used with an electron Time-of-Flight (TOF) end station, which measures the time required for electrons emitted to travel a fixed distance. Data were collected over a broad range of photon energies (413 - 664 eV) using five analyzers rotated to 15 chamber angles. Preliminary analysis indicates that these results confirm the breakdown of the dipole approximation at photon energies well below 1 keV and that this breakdown is greatly enhanced in molecules just above the core-level ionization threshold. As a result, new theoretical models must be made that use higher order terms that were previously truncated.

  16. REAL-TIME TRACER MONITORING OF RESERVOIR STIMULATION PROCEDURES VIA ELECTRONIC WIRELINE AND TELEMETRY DATA TRANSMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George L. Scott III

    2005-01-01

    Finalized Phase 2-3 project work has field-proven two separate real-time reservoir processes that were co-developed via funding by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Both technologies are presently patented in the United States and select foreign markets; a downhole-commingled reservoir stimulation procedure and a real-time tracer-logged fracturing diagnostic system. Phase 2 and early Phase 3 project work included the research, development and well testing of a U.S. patented gamma tracer fracturing diagnostic system. This stimulation logging process was successfully field-demonstrated; real-time tracer measurement of fracture height while fracturing was accomplished and proven technically possible. However, after the initial well tests, there were several licensing issues that developed between service providers that restricted and minimized Realtimezone's (RTZ) ability to field-test the real-time gamma diagnostic system as was originally outlined for this project. Said restrictions were encountered after when one major provider agreed to license their gamma logging tools to another. Both of these companies previously promised contributory support toward Realtimezone's DE-FC26-99FT40129 project work, however, actual support was less than desired when newly-licensed wireline gamma logging tools from one company were converted by the other from electric wireline into slickline, batter-powered ''memory'' tools for post-stimulation logging purposes. Unfortunately, the converted post-fracture measurement memory tools have no applications in experimentally monitoring real-time movement of tracers in the reservoir concurrent with the fracturing treatment. RTZ subsequently worked with other tracer gamma-logging tool companies for basic gamma logging services, but with lessened results due to lack of multiple-isotope detection capability. In addition to real-time logging system development and well testing, final Phase 2 and Phase 3 project work included the development of a real-time reservoir stimulation procedure, which was successfully field-demonstrated and is presently patented in the U.S. and select foreign countries, including Venezuela, Brazil and Canada. Said patents are co-owned by RTZ and the National Energy Technology Lab (NETL). In 2002, Realtimezone and the NETL licensed said patents to Halliburton Energy Services (HES). Additional licensing agreements (LA) are anticipated with other service industry companies in 2005. Final Phase 3 work has led to commercial applications of the real-time reservoir stimulation procedure. Four successfully downhole-mixed well tests were conducted with commercially expected production results. The most recent, fourth field test was a downhole-mixed stimulated well completed in June, 2004, which currently produces 11 BOPD with 90 barrels of water per day. Conducted Phase 2 and Phase 3 field-test work to date has resulted in the fine-tuning of a real-time enhanced stimulation system that will significantly increase future petroleum well recoveries in the United States and foreign petroleum fields, both onshore and offshore, and in vertical and horizontal wells.

  17. Improving the accuracy and efficiency of time-resolved electronic spectra calculations: Cellular dephasing representation with a prefactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zambrano, Eduardo; ulc, Miroslav; Van?ek, Ji?

    2013-08-07

    Time-resolved electronic spectra can be obtained as the Fourier transform of a special type of time correlation function known as fidelity amplitude, which, in turn, can be evaluated approximately and efficiently with the dephasing representation. Here we improve both the accuracy of this approximationwith an amplitude correction derived from the phase-space propagatorand its efficiencywith an improved cellular scheme employing inverse Weierstrass transform and optimal scaling of the cell size. We demonstrate the advantages of the new methodology by computing dispersed time-resolved stimulated emission spectra in the harmonic potential, pyrazine, and the NCO molecule. In contrast, we show that in strongly chaotic systems such as the quartic oscillator the original dephasing representation is more appropriate than either the cellular or prefactor-corrected methods.

  18. REAL-TIME TRACER MONITORING OF RESERVOIR STIMULATION PROCEDURES VIA ELECTRONIC WIRELINE AND TELEMETRY DATA TRANSMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Scott III

    2003-08-01

    Ongoing Phase 2-3 work comprises the final development and field-testing of two complementary real-time reservoir technologies; a stimulation process and a tracer fracturing diagnostic system. Initial DE-FC26-99FT40129 project work included research, development, and testing of the patented gamma tracer fracturing diagnostic system. This process was field-proven to be technically useful in providing tracer measurement of fracture height while fracturing; however, technical licensing restrictions blocked Realtimezone from fully field-testing this real-time gamma diagnostic system, as originally planned. Said restrictions were encountered during Phase 2 field test work as result of licensing limitations and potential conflicts between service companies participating in project work, as related to their gamma tracer logging tool technology. Phase 3 work principally demonstrated field-testing of Realtimezone (RTZ) and NETL's Downhole-mixed Reservoir Stimulation process. Early on, the simplicity of and success of downhole-mixing was evident from well tests, which were made commercially productive. A downhole-mixed acid stimulation process was tested successfully and is currently commercially used in Canada. The fourth well test was aborted due to well bore conditions, and an alternate test project is scheduled April, 2004. Realtimezone continues to effectuate ongoing patent protection in the United States and foreign markets. In 2002, Realtimezone and the NETL licensed their United States patent to Halliburton Energy Services (HES). Additional licensing arrangements with other industry companies are anticipated in 2004-2005. Ongoing Phase 2 and Phase 3 field-testing continues to confirm applications of both real-time technologies. Technical data transfer to industry is ongoing via Internet tech-transfer and various industry presentations and publications including Society of Petroleum Engineers. These real-time enhanced stimulation procedures should significantly increase future petroleum well recoveries in the United States, onshore and offshore, and in vertical and horizontal wells.

  19. Landau electron in a rotating environment: A general factorization of time evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chee, J.

    2012-11-15

    For the Landau problem with a rotating magnetic field and a confining potential in the (changing) direction of the field, we derive a general factorization of the time evolution operator that includes the adiabatic factorization as a special case. The confining potential is assumed to be of a general form and it can correspond to nonlinear Heisenberg equations of motion. The rotation operator associated with the solid angle Berry phase is used to transform the problem to a rotating reference frame. In the rotating reference frame, we derive a natural factorization of the time evolution operator by recognizing the crucial role played by a gauge transformation. The major complexity of the problem arises from the coupling between motion in the direction of the magnetic field and motion perpendicular to the field. In the factorization, this complexity is consolidated into a single operator which approaches the identity operator when the potential confines the particle sufficiently close to a rotating plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. The structure of this operator is clarified by deriving an expression for its generating Hamiltonian. The adiabatic limit and non-adiabatic effects follow as consequences of the general factorization which are clarified using the magnetic translation concept.

  20. Attosecond Light and Science at the Time-scale of the Electron - Coherent X-Rays from Tabletop Ultrafast Lasers

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Margaret, Murnane [University of Colorado, Boulder and NIST

    2010-09-01

    Ever since the invention of the laser 50 years ago and its application in nonlinear optics, scientists have been striving to extend coherent laser beams into the x-ray region of the spectrum. Very recently however, the prospects for tabletop coherent sources at very short wavelengths, even in the hard x-ray region of the spectrum at wavelengths < 1nm, have brightened considerably. This advance is possible by taking nonlinear optics techniques to an extreme - physics that is the direct result of a new ability to manipulate electrons on the fastest, attosecond, time-scales of our natural world. Several applications have already been demonstrated, including making a movie of how electrons rearrange in a chemical bond changes shape as a molecule breaks apart, following how fast a magnetic material can flip orientation, understanding how fast heat flows in a nanocircuit, or building a microscope without lenses. Nature 460, 1088 (2009); Science 317, 775 (2007); Physical Review Letters 103, 257402 (2009); Nature Materials 9, 26 (2010); Nature 463, 214 (2010); Science 322, 1207 (2008).

  1. Real time nanoscale structural evaluation of gold structures on Si (100) surface using in-situ transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rath, A. E-mail: ashutosh.phy@gmail.com E-mail: pvsatyam22@gmail.com; Juluri, R. R.; Satyam, P. V. E-mail: ashutosh.phy@gmail.com E-mail: pvsatyam22@gmail.com

    2014-05-14

    Transport behavior of gold nanostructures on Si(100) substrate during annealing under high vacuum has been investigated using in-situ real time transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A comparative study has been done on the morphological changes due to annealing under different vacuum environments. Au thin films of thickness ?2.0?nm were deposited on native oxide covered silicon substrate by using thermal evaporation system. In-situ real time TEM measurements at 850?C showed the isotropic growth of rectangular/square shaped gold-silicon alloy structures. During the growth, it is observed that the alloying occurs in liquid phase followed by transformation into the rectangular shapes. For similar system, ex-situ annealing in low vacuum (10{sup ?2} millibars) at 850?C showed the spherical gold nanostructures with no Au-Si alloy formation. Under low vacuum annealing conditions, the rate of formation of the oxide layer dominates the oxide desorption rate, resulting in the creation of a barrier layer between Au and Si, which restricts the inter diffusion of Au in to Si. This work demonstrates the important role of interfacial oxide layer on the growth of nanoscale Au-Si alloy structures during the initial growth. The time dependent TEM images are presented to offer a direct insight into the fundamental dynamics of the sintering process at the nanoscale.

  2. Coal-water slurry sprays from an electronically controlled accumulator fuel injection system: Break-up distances and times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caton, J.A.; Payne, S.E.; Terracina, D.P.; Kihm, K.D.

    1993-12-31

    Experiments have been completed to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of a diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions (50% (by man) coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m{sup 3}), the break-up time was 0.30 ms. An empirical correlation for spray tip penetration, break-up time and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

  3. High resolution low dose transmission electron microscopy real-time imaging and manipulation of nano-scale objects in the electron beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Jr., R. Malcolm (Austin, TX); Barnes, Zack (Austin, TX); Sawatari, Chie (Shizuoka, JP); Kondo, Tetsuo (Kukuoka, JP)

    2008-02-26

    The present invention includes a method, apparatus and system for nanofabrication in which one or more target molecules are identified for manipulation with an electron beam and the one or more target molecules are manipulated with the electron beam to produce new useful materials.

  4. First measurement of time evolution of electron temperature profiles with Nd:YAG Thomson scattering system on Heliotron J

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenmochi, N. Tei, S.; Zang, L.; Ohtani, Y.; Kasajima, K.; Minami, T.; Takahashi, C.; Mizuuchi, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Nagasaki, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Okada, H.; Kado, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Ohshima, S.; Konoshima, S.; Shi, N.; Sano, F.

    2014-11-15

    A Nd:YAG Thomson scattering system has been developed for Heliotron J. The system consists of two 550 mJ 50 Hz lasers, large collection optics, and 25 radial channel (?1 cm spatial resolution) interference polychromators. This measurement system achieves a S/N ratio of ?50 for low-density plasma (n{sub e} ? 0.5 10{sup 19} m{sup ?3}). A time evolution of electron temperature profiles was measured with this system for a high-intensity gas-puff (HIGP) fueling neutral-beam-injection plasma. The peripheral temperature of the higher-density phase after HIGP recovers to the low-density pre-HIGP level, suggesting that improving particle transport in the HIGP plasma may be possible.

  5. Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: Analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Kelly, H.; Instituto de Fsica del Plasma , Departamento de Fsica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires

    2013-12-15

    This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 0.07 eV (= 11400 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core.

  6. Attenuation of wall disturbances in an electron cyclotron resonance oxygenargon plasma using real time control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keville, Bernard, E-mail: bernard.keville@dcu.ie; Gaman, Cezar; Turner, Miles M. [National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology (NCPST), Research and Engineering Building, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Ireland and School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Zhang, Yang; Daniels, Stephen [National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology (NCPST), Research and Engineering Building, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Ireland and School of Electronic Engineering, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Holohan, Anthony M. [School of Electronic Engineering, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2014-07-01

    Present practice in plasma-assisted semiconductor manufacturing specifies recipes in terms of inputs such as gas flow rates, power and pressure. However, ostensibly identical chambers running identical recipes may produce very different results. Extensive chamber matching, i.e., initial iterative, empirical tuning of the process recipe, which entails time-consuming, ex situ statistical analysis of process metrics such as etch depth, uniformity, anisotropy and selectivity, is required to ensure acceptable results. Once matched, chambers are run open loop and are thus sensitive to disturbances such as actuator drift, wall seasoning and substrate loading, which may impact negatively on process reproducibility. An alternative approach, which may obviate the need for chamber matching and reduce the sensitivity of process metrics to exogenous disturbances, would be to specify a recipe in terms of quantities such as active species densities, and to regulate these in real time by adjusting the inputs with a suitable control algorithm. In this work, real time control of an electron cyclotron resonance O{sub 2}/Ar plasma used for photoresist ashing has been implemented. The design of elementary, model-based algorithms for the control of the argon 750 and oxygen 844 line intensities measured by optical emission spectroscopy is described. Fluorination of the chamber walls by means of an SF{sub 6} plasma prior to ashing inhibits wall recombination of oxygen radicals resulting in an approximately 20% increase in ash rate in the open loop case. However, closed loop control almost completely attenuates the effect of fluorination, thus demonstrating the efficacy of the control algorithms in ensuring a reproducible ash rate in the face of a wall disturbance.

  7. Effect of trapped electron on the dust ion acoustic waves in dusty plasma using time fractional modified Korteweg-de Vries equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazari-Golshan, A.; Nourazar, S. S.; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran

    2013-10-15

    The time fractional modified Korteweg-de Vries (TFMKdV) equation is solved to study the nonlinear propagation of small but finite amplitude dust ion-acoustic (DIA) solitary waves in un-magnetized dusty plasma with trapped electrons. The plasma is composed of a cold ion fluid, stationary dust grains, and hot electrons obeying a trapped electron distribution. The TFMKdV equation is derived by using the semi-inverse and Agrawal's methods and then solved by the Laplace Adomian decomposition method. Our results show that the amplitude of the DIA solitary waves increases with the increase of time fractional order ?, the wave velocity v{sub 0}, and the population of the background free electrons ?. However, it is vice-versa for the deviation from isothermality parameter b, which is in agreement with the result obtained previously.

  8. GHz laser-free time-resolved transmission electron microscopy: A stroboscopic high-duty-cycle method

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Qiu, Jiaqi; Zhu, Yimei; Ha, Gwanghui; Jing, Chunguang; Baryshev, Sergey V.; Reed, Bryan W.; Lau, June W.

    2015-11-10

    In this study, a device and a method for producing ultrashort electron pulses with GHz repetition rates via pulsing an input direct current (dc) electron beam are provided. The device and the method are based on an electromagnetic-mechanical pulser (EMMP) that consists of a series of transverse deflecting cavities and magnetic quadrupoles. The EMMP modulates and chops the incoming dc electron beam and converts it into pico- and sub-pico-second electron pulse sequences (pulse trains) at >1 GHz repetition rates, as well as controllably manipulates the resulting pulses. Ultimately, it leads to negligible electron pulse phase-space degradation compared to the incomingmore » dc beam parameters. The temporal pulse length and repetition rate for the EMMP can be continuously tunable over wide ranges.« less

  9. GHz laser-free time-resolved transmission electron microscopy: A stroboscopic high-duty-cycle method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiu, Jiaqi; Zhu, Yimei; Ha, Gwanghui; Jing, Chunguang; Baryshev, Sergey V.; Reed, Bryan W.; Lau, June W.

    2015-11-10

    In this study, a device and a method for producing ultrashort electron pulses with GHz repetition rates via pulsing an input direct current (dc) electron beam are provided. The device and the method are based on an electromagnetic-mechanical pulser (EMMP) that consists of a series of transverse deflecting cavities and magnetic quadrupoles. The EMMP modulates and chops the incoming dc electron beam and converts it into pico- and sub-pico-second electron pulse sequences (pulse trains) at >1 GHz repetition rates, as well as controllably manipulates the resulting pulses. Ultimately, it leads to negligible electron pulse phase-space degradation compared to the incoming dc beam parameters. The temporal pulse length and repetition rate for the EMMP can be continuously tunable over wide ranges.

  10. Time-series product and substance flow analyses of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habuer, Nakatani, Jun; Moriguchi, Yuichi

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: We estimate the possession and obsolescence of household appliances (HAs) in China. Over 4.85.1 billion units of major HAs will be discarded in the next 20 years. We calculate the amounts of substances contained in end-of-life (EoL) TV sets. Less common metals will tend to decrease in content in generation of EoL TV sets. Precious metals will tend to increase in content in EoL TV sets in 20152030. - Abstract: Given the amounts of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EoL-EEE) being generated and their contents of both harmful and valuable materials, the EoL-EEE issue should be regarded not only as an emerging environmental problem but also as a resource management strategy in China. At present, in order to provide the basis for managing EoL-EEE at both product and substance levels in China, it is necessary to carry out a quantitative analysis on EoL-EEE and to determine how much of it will be generated and how much materials and substances it contains. In this study, the possession and obsolescence amounts of five types of household appliance (HA) including television (TV) sets and the amounts of substances contained in EoL TV sets were estimated using time-series product flow analysis (PFA) and substance flow analysis (SFA). The results of PFA indicated that the total possession amounts of those five types of HAs will exceed 3.1 billion units in 2030, which will be two times higher than those in 2010. In addition, it was estimated that cumulatively over 4.85.1 billion units of these five types of EoL HA would be obsoleted between 20102030. The results of SFA on TV sets indicated that the generated amounts of most of the less common metals and a part of common metals such as copper (Cu) would tend to decrease, whereas those of other common metals such as iron (Fe) as well as precious metals would tend to increase in EoL TV sets in 20152030. The results of this study provide a quantitative basis for helping decision makers develop strategic policies for the management of EoL-EEE considering both environmental and resource aspects. Moreover, a calculation scheme of obsolete HAs presented in this study can be applied to estimate other types of EoL durable good. Meanwhile, the frameworks of this study will help not only the policy decision makers in the Chinese government but also those in developing countries that are facing similar problems.

  11. Time-resolved Kα spectroscopy measurements of hot-electron equilibration dynamics in thin-foil solid targets: Collisional and collective effects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nilson, P. M.; Solodov, A. A.; Davies, J. R.; Theobald, W.; Mileham, C.; Stoeckl, C.; Begishev, I. A.; Zuegel, J. D.; Froula, D. H.; Betti, R.; et al

    2015-09-25

    Time-resolved Kα spectroscopy measurements from high-intensity laser interactions with thin-foil solid targets are reviewed. Thin Cu foils were irradiated with 1- to 10-J, 1-ps pulses at focused intensities from 1018 to 1019 W/cm2. The experimental data show Kα-emission pulse widths from 3 to 6 ps, increasing with laser intensity. The time-resolved Kα-emission data are compared to a hot-electron transport and Kα-production model that includes collisional electron-energy coupling, resistive heating, and electromagnetic field effects. The experimental data show good agreement with the model when a reduced ponderomotive scaling is used to describe the initial mean hot-electron energy over the relevant intensitymore » range.« less

  12. Time-resolved measurements of the hot-electron population in ignition-scale experiments on the National Ignition Facility (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohenberger, M. Stoeckl, C.; Albert, F.; Palmer, N. E.; Dppner, T.; Divol, L.; Dewald, E. L.; Bachmann, B.; MacPhee, A. G.; LaCaille, G.; Bradley, D. K.; Lee, J. J.

    2014-11-15

    In laser-driven inertial confinement fusion, hot electrons can preheat the fuel and prevent fusion-pellet compression to ignition conditions. Measuring the hot-electron population is key to designing an optimized ignition platform. The hot electrons in these high-intensity, laser-driven experiments, created via laser-plasma interactions, can be inferred from the bremsstrahlung generated by hot electrons interacting with the target. At the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)], the filter-fluorescer x-ray (FFLEX) diagnostica multichannel, hard x-ray spectrometer operating in the 20500 keV rangehas been upgraded to provide fully time-resolved, absolute measurements of the bremsstrahlung spectrum with ?300 ps resolution. Initial time-resolved data exhibited significant background and low signal-to-noise ratio, leading to a redesign of the FFLEX housing and enhanced shielding around the detector. The FFLEX x-ray sensitivity was characterized with an absolutely calibrated, energy-dispersive high-purity germanium detector using the high-energy x-ray source at NSTec Livermore Operations over a range of K-shell fluorescence energies up to 111 keV (U K{sub ?}). The detectors impulse response function was measured in situ on NIF short-pulse (?90 ps) experiments, and in off-line tests.

  13. Communication: Satisfying fermionic statistics in the modeling of open time-dependent quantum systems with one-electron reduced density matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Head-Marsden, Kade; Mazziotti, David A.

    2015-02-07

    For an open, time-dependent quantum system, Lindblad derived the most general modification of the quantum Liouville equation in the Markovian approximation that models environmental effects while preserving the non-negativity of the systems density matrix. While Lindblads modification is correct for N-electron density matrices, solution of the Liouville equation with a Lindblad operator causes the one-electron reduced density matrix (1-RDM) to violate the Pauli exclusion principle. Consequently, after a short time, the 1-RDM is not representable by an ensemble N-electron density matrix (not ensemble N-representable). In this communication, we derive the necessary and sufficient constraints on the Lindbladian matrix within the Lindblad operator to ensure that the 1-RDM remains N-representable for all time. The theory is illustrated by considering the relaxation of an excitation in several molecules F{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO, and BeH{sub 2} subject to environmental noise.

  14. Real-time observation of morphological transformations in II-VI semiconducting nanobelts via environmental transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, Rahul; Zakharov, Dmitri N.; Krook, Nadia M.; Liu, Wenjing; Berger, Jacob; Stach, Eric A.; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-05-01

    It has been observed that wurtzite II–VI semiconducting nanobelts transform into single-crystal, periodically branched nanostructures upon heating. The mechanism of this novel transformation has been elucidated by heating II–VI nanobelts in an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) in oxidizing, reducing and inert atmospheres while observing their structural changes with high spatial resolution. The interplay of surface reconstruction of high-energy surfaces of the wurtzite phase and environment-dependent anisotropic chemical etching of certain crystal surfaces in the branching mechanism of nanobelts has been observed. Understanding of structural and chemical transformations of materials via in situ microscopy techniques and their role in designing new nanostructured materials is discussed.

  15. Real-time observation of morphological transformations in II-VI semiconducting nanobelts via environmental transmission electron microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Agarwal, Rahul; Zakharov, Dmitri N.; Krook, Nadia M.; Liu, Wenjing; Berger, Jacob; Stach, Eric A.; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-05-01

    It has been observed that wurtzite II–VI semiconducting nanobelts transform into single-crystal, periodically branched nanostructures upon heating. The mechanism of this novel transformation has been elucidated by heating II–VI nanobelts in an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) in oxidizing, reducing and inert atmospheres while observing their structural changes with high spatial resolution. The interplay of surface reconstruction of high-energy surfaces of the wurtzite phase and environment-dependent anisotropic chemical etching of certain crystal surfaces in the branching mechanism of nanobelts has been observed. Understanding of structural and chemical transformations of materials via in situ microscopy techniques and their role in designingmore » new nanostructured materials is discussed.« less

  16. Time-fractional Gardner equation for ion-acoustic waves in negative-ion-beam plasma with negative ions and nonthermal nonextensive electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Shimin Mei, Liquan; Zhang, Zhengqiang

    2015-05-15

    Nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves is investigated in a one-dimensional, unmagnetized plasma consisting of positive ions, negative ions, and nonthermal electrons featuring Tsallis distribution that is penetrated by a negative-ion-beam. The classical Gardner equation is derived to describe nonlinear behavior of ion-acoustic waves in the considered plasma system via reductive perturbation technique. We convert the classical Gardner equation into the time-fractional Gardner equation by Agrawal's method, where the time-fractional term is under the sense of Riesz fractional derivative. Employing variational iteration method, we construct solitary wave solutions of the time-fractional Gardner equation with initial condition which depends on the nonlinear and dispersion coefficients. The effect of the plasma parameters on the compressive and rarefactive ion-acoustic solitary waves is also discussed in detail.

  17. Simulating Ru L3-Edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy with Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory: Model Complexes and Electron Localization in Mixed-Valence Metal Dimers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuiken, Benjamin E. Van; Valiev, Marat; Daifuku, Stephanie L.; Bannan, Caitlin; Strader, Matthew L.; Cho, Hana; Huse, Nils; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Govind, Niranjan; Khalil, Munira

    2013-04-26

    Ruthenium L3-edge X-ray absorption (XA) spectroscopy probes unoccupied 4d orbitals of the metal atom and is increasingly being used to investigate the local electronic structure in ground and excited electronic states of Ru complexes. The simultaneous development of computational tools for simulating Ru L3-edge spectra is crucial for interpreting the spectral features at a molecular level. This study demonstrates that time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is a viable and predictive tool for simulating ruthenium L3-edge XA spectroscopy. We systematically investigate the effects of exchange correlation functional and implicit and explicit solvent interactions on a series of RuII and RuIII complexes in their ground and electronic excited states. The TDDFT simulations reproduce all of the experimentally observed features in Ru L3-edge XA spectra within the experimental resolution (0.4 eV). Our simulations identify ligand-specific charge transfer features in complicated Ru L3-edge spectra of [Ru(CN)6]4- and RuII polypyridyl complexes illustrating the advantage of using TDDFT in complex systems. We conclude that the B3LYP functional most accurately predicts the transition energies of charge transfer features in these systems. We use our TDDFT approach to simulate experimental Ru L3-edge XA spectra of transition metal mixed-valence dimers of the form [(NC)5MII-CN-RuIII(NH3)5] (where M = Fe or Ru) dissolved in water. Our study determines the spectral signatures of electron delocalization in Ru L3-edge XA spectra. We find that the inclusion of explicit solvent molecules is necessary for reproducing the spectral features and the experimentally determined valencies in these mixed-valence complexes. This study validates the use of TDDFT for simulating Ru 2p excitations using popular quantum chemistry codes and providing a powerful interpretive tool for equilibrium and ultrafast Ru L3-edge XA spectroscopy.

  18. Application of electron stimulated desorption techniques to measure the isotherm and the mean residence time of hydrogen physisorbed on a metal surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arakawa, Ichiro Shimizu, Hideyuki; Kawarabuki, Taku; Yamakawa, Koichiro; Miura, Takashi

    2015-03-15

    Electron stimulated desorption techniques were applied to probe the density of H{sub 2} physisorbed on a cold surface. The adsorption isotherm of H{sub 2} on a copper surface was measured in the equilibrium pressure range between 10{sup ?9} and 10{sup ?4} Pa at surface temperatures of 6.5 and 4.2?K. The mean residence times of H{sub 2} on copper were obtained from the observation of the time development of the surface density in a transitional state approaching equilibrium, and are 50500?s for the coverage between 1 and 0.18 at 4.2?K of the substrate temperature. The adsorption energies of 1.181.27?kJ/mol, and the condensation coefficient of 0.0740.018 were also deduced.

  19. Electronic and optical properties of pure and modified diamondoids studied by many-body perturbation theory and time-dependent density functional theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demján, Tamás; Vörös, Márton; Palummo, Maurizia; Gali, Adam

    2014-08-14

    Diamondoids are small diamond nanoparticles (NPs) that are built up from diamond cages. Unlike usual semiconductor NPs, their atomic structure is exactly known, thus they are ideal test-beds for benchmarking quantum chemical calculations. Their usage in spintronics and bioimaging applications requires a detailed knowledge of their electronic structure and optical properties. In this paper, we apply density functional theory (DFT) based methods to understand the electronic and optical properties of a few selected pure and modified diamondoids for which accurate experimental data exist. In particular, we use many-body perturbation theory methods, in the G{sub 0}W{sub 0} and G{sub 0}W{sub 0}+BSE approximations, and time-dependent DFT in the adiabatic local density approximation. We find large quasiparticle gap corrections that can exceed thrice the DFT gap. The electron-hole binding energy can be as large as 4 eV but it is considerably smaller than the GW corrections and thus G{sub 0}W{sub 0}+BSE optical gaps are about 50% larger than the Kohn-Sham (KS) DFT gaps. We find significant differences between KS time-dependent DFT and GW+BSE optical spectra on the selected diamondoids. The calculated G{sub 0}W{sub 0} quasiparticle levels agree well with the corresponding experimental vertical ionization energies. We show that nuclei dynamics in the ionization process can be significant and its contribution may reach about 0.5 eV in the adiabatic ionization energies.

  20. Massively-parallel electron dynamics calculations in real-time and real-space: Toward applications to nanostructures of more than ten-nanometers in size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noda, Masashi; Ishimura, Kazuya; Nobusada, Katsuyuki; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Boku, Taisuke

    2014-05-15

    A highly efficient program of massively parallel calculations for electron dynamics has been developed in an effort to apply the method to optical response of nanostructures of more than ten-nanometers in size. The approach is based on time-dependent density functional theory calculations in real-time and real-space. The computational code is implemented by using simple algorithms with a finite-difference method in space derivative and Taylor expansion in time-propagation. Since the computational program is free from the algorithms of eigenvalue problems and fast-Fourier-transformation, which are usually implemented in conventional quantum chemistry or band structure calculations, it is highly suitable for massively parallel calculations. Benchmark calculations using the K computer at RIKEN demonstrate that the parallel efficiency of the program is very high on more than 60 000 CPU cores. The method is applied to optical response of arrays of C{sub 60} orderly nanostructures of more than 10 nm in size. The computed absorption spectrum is in good agreement with the experimental observation.

  1. Using real-time electron microscopy to explore the effects of transition-metal composition on the local thermal stability in charged LixNiyMnzCo1-y-zO2 cathode materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hwang, Sooyeon; Kim, Seung Min; Bak, Seong -Min; Kim, Se Young; Cho, Byung -Won; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Lee, Jeong Yong; Stach, Eric A.; Chang, Wonyoung

    2015-05-08

    In this study, we use in-situ transmission electron microcopy (TEM) to investigate the thermal decomposition that occurs at the surface of charged LixNiyMnzCo1-y-zO2 (NMC) cathode materials of different composition (with y, z=0.8, 0.1 and 0.6, 0.2 and 0.4, 0.3), after they have been charged to their practical upper limit voltage (4.3V). By heating these materials inside the TEM, we are able to directly characterize near surface changes in both their electronic structure (using electron energy loss spectroscopy) and crystal structure and morphology (using electron diffraction and bright-field imaging). The most Ni-rich material (y, z = 0.8, 0.1) is found tomore » be thermally unstable at significantly lower temperatures than the other compositions – this is manifested by changes in both the electronic structure and the onset of phase transitions at temperatures as low as 100°C. Electron energy loss spectroscopy indicates that the thermally induced reduction of Ni ions drives these changes, and that this is exacerbated by the presence of an additional redox reaction that occurs at 4.2V in the y, z = 0.8, 0.1 material. Exploration of individual particles shows that there are substantial variations in the onset temperatures and overall extent of these changes. Of the compositions studied, the composition of y, z = 0.6, 0.2 has the optimal combination of high energy density and reasonable thermal stability. The observations herein demonstrate that real time electron microscopy provide direct insight into the changes that occur in cathode materials with temperature, allowing optimization of different alloy concentrations to maximize overall performance.« less

  2. RHIC electron lenses upgrades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, X.; Altinbas, Z.; Bruno, D.; Binello, S.; Costanzo, M.; Drees, A.; Fischer, W.; Gassner, D. M.; Hock, J.; Hock, K.; Harvey, M.; Luo, Y.; Marusic, A.; Mi, C.; Mernick, K.; Minty, M.; Michnoff, R.; Miller, T. A.; Pikin, A. I.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Samms, T.; Shrey, T. C.; Schoefer, V.; Tan, Y.; Than, R.; Thieberger, P.; White, S. M.

    2015-05-03

    In the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 100 GeV polarized proton run in 2015, two electron lenses were used to partially compensate for the head-on beam-beam effect for the first time. Here, we describe the design of the current electron lens, detailing the hardware modifications made after the 2014 commissioning run with heavy ions. A new electron gun with 15-mm diameter cathode is characterized. The electron beam transverse profile was measured using a YAG screen and fitted with a Gaussian distribution. During operation, the overlap of the electron and proton beams was achieved using the electron backscattering detector in conjunction with an automated orbit control program.

  3. Electron radiography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  4. Ceramic Electron Multiplier

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Comby, G.

    1996-10-01

    The Ceramic Electron Multipliers (CEM) is a compact, robust, linear and fast multi-channel electron multiplier. The Multi Layer Ceramic Technique (MLCT) allows to build metallic dynodes inside a compact ceramic block. The activation of the metallic dynodes enhances their secondary electron emission (SEE). The CEM can be used in multi-channel photomultipliers, multi-channel light intensifiers, ion detection, spectroscopy, analysis of time of flight events, particle detection or Cherenkov imaging detectors. (auth)

  5. Time and space resolved measurement of the electron temperature, mass density and ionization state in the ablation plasma between two exploding Al wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, P. F.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.; Hansen, S. B.

    2012-05-15

    We have determined the properties of plasma around and between two exploding wires using high-resolution x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Plasma densities and temperatures ranging from Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 0.1g/cm{sup 3} and a few eV to less than 0.01 g/cm{sup 3} and 30 eV have been measured in experiments at Cornell University with two 40 {mu}m aluminum (Al) wires spaced 1 mm apart driven by {approx}150 kA peak current pulses with 100 ns rise time. The wire plasma was backlit by the 1.4-1.6 keV continuum radiation produced by a Mo wire X-pinch. The spectrometer employed two spherically bent quartz crystals to record the absorption and backlighter spectra simultaneously. The transition between the dense Al wire core and the coronal plasma is seen as a transition from cold K-edge absorption to Mg-, Na-, and finally Ne-like absorption at the boundary. In the plasma that accumulates between the wires, ionization states up to C-Like Al are observed. The spectrometer geometry and {approx}2{mu}m X-pinch source size provide 0.3 eV spectral resolution and 20 {mu}m spatial resolution enabling us to see 1s{yields} 2p satellite transitions as separate lines as well as O-, F-, and Ne-like 1s{yields} 3p transitions that have not been seen before. A step wedge was used to calibrate the transmission, enabling density to be measured within a factor of two and temperature to be measured within {+-}25%. A genetic algorithm was developed to fit synthetic spectra calculated using the collisional-radiative code SCRAM to the experimental spectra. In order to obtain agreement it was necessary to assume multiple plasma regions with variable thicknesses, thereby allowing the inferred plasma conditions to vary along the absorption path.

  6. NREL: Transportation Research - Power Electronics and Electric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    subsystem at the appropriate time. Examples of power electronics components include inverters, converters, and chargers. Power electronics also determine the exact nature and...

  7. Electron Transfer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Pierre Kennepohl1,2 and Edward Solomon1* 1Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 Electron transfer, or the act of moving an electron from one place to another, is amongst the simplest of chemical processes, yet certainly one of the most critical. The process of efficiently and controllably moving electrons around is one of the primary regulation mechanisms in biology. Without stringent control of electrons in living organisms, life could simply not exist. For example,

  8. Fast electron microscopy via compressive sensing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, Kurt W; Anderson, Hyrum S; Wheeler, Jason W

    2014-12-09

    Various technologies described herein pertain to compressive sensing electron microscopy. A compressive sensing electron microscope includes a multi-beam generator and a detector. The multi-beam generator emits a sequence of electron patterns over time. Each of the electron patterns can include a plurality of electron beams, where the plurality of electron beams is configured to impart a spatially varying electron density on a sample. Further, the spatially varying electron density varies between each of the electron patterns in the sequence. Moreover, the detector collects signals respectively corresponding to interactions between the sample and each of the electron patterns in the sequence.

  9. Consumer Electronics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  10. Coherent electron cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko,V.

    2009-05-04

    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation is still too feeble, while the efficiency of two other cooling methods, stochastic and electron, falls rapidly either at high bunch intensities (i.e. stochastic of protons) or at high energies (e-cooling). In this talk a specific scheme of a unique cooling technique, Coherent Electron Cooling, will be discussed. The idea of coherent electron cooling using electron beam instabilities was suggested by Derbenev in the early 1980s, but the scheme presented in this talk, with cooling times under an hour for 7 TeV protons in the LHC, would be possible only with present-day accelerator technology. This talk will discuss the principles and the main limitations of the Coherent Electron Cooling process. The talk will describe the main system components, based on a high-gain free electron laser driven by an energy recovery linac, and will present some numerical examples for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC and for electron-hadron options for these colliders. BNL plans a demonstration of the idea in the near future.

  11. Electron tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suyama, Motohiro (Hamamatsu, JP); Fukasawa, Atsuhito (Hamamatsu, JP); Arisaka, Katsushi (Los Angeles, CA); Wang, Hanguo (North Hills, CA)

    2011-12-20

    An electron tube of the present invention includes: a vacuum vessel including a face plate portion made of synthetic silica and having a surface on which a photoelectric surface is provided, a stem portion arranged facing the photoelectric surface and made of synthetic silica, and a side tube portion having one end connected to the face plate portion and the other end connected to the stem portion and made of synthetic silica; a projection portion arranged in the vacuum vessel, extending from the stem portion toward the photoelectric surface, and made of synthetic silica; and an electron detector arranged on the projection portion, for detecting electrons from the photoelectric surface, and made of silicon.

  12. Electronic Registration Form - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About Us Hanford Site Wide Programs Health & Safety Exposition Electronic Registration Form About Us Charging Your Time Committee Members Contact Us Electronic Registration Form Exhibitor and Vendor Information EXPO 2016 Sponsors EXPO Award Criteria Special Events What is EXPO Why Should I Participate in EXPO Electronic Registration Form Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size * Fields marked with an asterisk are required. Exhibit

  13. Electronic Coupling Dependence of Ultrafast Interfacial Electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electron Transfer on Nanocrystalline Thin Films and Single Crystal Lian, Tianquan 14 SOLAR ENERGY The long-term goal of the proposed research is to understand electron transfer...

  14. Using real-time electron microscopy to explore the effects of transition-metal composition on the local thermal stability in charged LixNiyMnzCo1-y-zO2 cathode materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, Sooyeon; Kim, Seung Min; Bak, Seong -Min; Kim, Se Young; Cho, Byung -Won; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Lee, Jeong Yong; Stach, Eric A.; Chang, Wonyoung

    2015-05-08

    In this study, we use in-situ transmission electron microcopy (TEM) to investigate the thermal decomposition that occurs at the surface of charged LixNiyMnzCo1-y-zO2 (NMC) cathode materials of different composition (with y, z=0.8, 0.1 and 0.6, 0.2 and 0.4, 0.3), after they have been charged to their practical upper limit voltage (4.3V). By heating these materials inside the TEM, we are able to directly characterize near surface changes in both their electronic structure (using electron energy loss spectroscopy) and crystal structure and morphology (using electron diffraction and bright-field imaging). The most Ni-rich material (y, z = 0.8, 0.1) is found to be thermally unstable at significantly lower temperatures than the other compositions this is manifested by changes in both the electronic structure and the onset of phase transitions at temperatures as low as 100C. Electron energy loss spectroscopy indicates that the thermally induced reduction of Ni ions drives these changes, and that this is exacerbated by the presence of an additional redox reaction that occurs at 4.2V in the y, z = 0.8, 0.1 material. Exploration of individual particles shows that there are substantial variations in the onset temperatures and overall extent of these changes. Of the compositions studied, the composition of y, z = 0.6, 0.2 has the optimal combination of high energy density and reasonable thermal stability. The observations herein demonstrate that real time electron microscopy provide direct insight into the changes that occur in cathode materials with temperature, allowing optimization of different alloy concentrations to maximize overall performance.

  15. following an electron bunch for free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    A video artist's ultra-slow-motion impression of an APEX-style electron gun firing a continuous train of electron bunches into a superconducting linear accelerator (in reality this would happen a million times a second). As they approach the speed of light the bunches contract, maintaining beam quality. After acceleration, the electron bunches are diverted into one or more undulators, the key components of free electron lasers. Oscillating back and forth in the changing magnetic field, they create beams of structured x-ray pulses. Before entering the experimental areas the electron bunches are diverted to a beam dump. (Animation created by Illumina Visual, http://www.illuminavisual.com/, for Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Music for this excerpt, "Feeling Dark (Behind The Mask)" is by 7OOP3D http://ccmixter.org/files/7OOP3D/29126 and is licensed under a Creative Commons license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/)

  16. Scientists Train Electrons with Microwaves

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientists Train Electrons with Microwaves

  17. Time Off

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time Off Time Off A comprehensive benefits package with plan options for health care and retirement to take care of our employees today and tomorrow. Contact Benefits Office (505)...

  18. Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, James E.; Jungjohann, K. L.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2012-10-12

    Dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM) combines the benefits of high spatial resolution electron microscopy with the high temporal resolution of ultrafast lasers. The incorporation of these two components into a single instrument provides a perfect platform for in situ observations of material processes. However, previous DTEM applications have focused on observing structural changes occurring in samples exposed to high vacuum. Therefore, in order to expand the pump-probe experimental regime to more natural environmental conditions, in situ gas and liquid chambers must be coupled with Dynamic TEM. This chapter describes the current and future applications of in situ liquid DTEM to permit time-resolved atomic scale observations in an aqueous environment, Although this chapter focuses mostly on in situ liquid imaging, the same research potential exists for in situ gas experiments and the successful integration of these techniques promises new insights for understanding nanoparticle, catalyst and biological protein dynamics with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution.

  19. Micro-Electron Spin Resonance for Airborne Soot Measurement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A real-time method for airborne soot concentration measurement using a miniaturized electron spin resonance sensor is presented.

  20. Sandia Energy - Time-Resolved FTIR

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    these vibrationally or electronically excited molecules, emission-based time-resolved Fourier transform spectroscopy (TR-FTS) can be a fruitful way to study the reaction rate,...

  1. Electron beam generation in Tevatron electron lenses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamerdzhiev, V.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Solyak, N.; Tiunov, M.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2006-08-01

    New type of high perveance electron guns with convex cathode has been developed. Three guns described in this article are built to provide transverse electron current density distributions needed for Electron Lenses for beam-beam compensation in the Tevatron collider. The current distribution can be controlled either by the gun geometry or by voltage on a special control electrode located near cathode. We present the designs of the guns and report results of beam measurements on the test bench. Because of their high current density and low transverse temperature of electrons, electron guns of this type can be used in electron cooling and beam-beam compensation devices.

  2. Charging Your Time - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Health & Safety Exposition Charging Your Time About Us Charging Your Time Committee Members Contact Us Electronic Registration Form Exhibitor and Vendor Information EXPO 2016 Sponsors EXPO Award Criteria Special Events What is EXPO Why Should I Participate in EXPO Charging Your Time Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size How Do I Charge My Time Spent at EXPO? Each Hanford Prime Contractor may have different policies for attending EXPO during working

  3. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraser, J.S.; Sheffield, R.L.

    1985-05-20

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radiofrequency-powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  4. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraser, John S. (Los Alamos, NM); Sheffield, Richard L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radio frequency powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  5. Time-dependent quantum wave packet study of the Ar+H{sub 2}{sup +}{yields}ArH{sup +}+H reaction on a new ab initio potential energy surface for the ground electronic state (1{sup 2}A Prime )

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Mei; Liu Xinguo; Tan Ruishan; Li Hongzheng; Xu Wenwu

    2013-05-07

    A new global potential energy surface for the ground electronic state (1{sup 2}A Prime ) of the Ar+H{sub 2}{sup +}{yields}ArH{sup +}+H reaction has been constructed by multi-reference configuration interaction method with Davidson correction and a basis set of aug-cc-pVQZ. Using 6080 ab initio single-point energies of all the regions for the dynamics, a many-body expansion function form has been used to fit these points. The quantum reactive scattering dynamics calculations taking into account the Coriolis coupling (CC) were carried out on the new potential energy surface over a range of collision energies (0.03-1.0 eV). The reaction probabilities and integral cross sections for the title reaction were calculated. The significance of including the CC quantum scattering calculation has been revealed by the comparison between the CC and the centrifugal sudden approximation calculation. The calculated cross section is in agreement with the experimental result at collision energy 1.0 eV.

  6. Measurement of electron-ion relaxation in warm dense copper

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cho, B. I.; Ogitsu, T.; Engelhorn, K.; Correa, A. A.; Ping, Y.; Lee, J. W.; Bae, L. J.; Prendergast, D.; Falcone, R. W.; Heimann, P. A.

    2016-01-06

    Experimental investigation of electron-ion coupling and electron heat capacity of copper in warm and dense states are presented. From time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy, the temporal evolution of electron temperature is obtained for non-equilibrium warm dense copper heated by an intense femtosecond laser pulse. Electron heat capacity and electron-ion coupling are inferred from the initial electron temperature and its decrease over 10 ps. As a result, data are compared with various theoretical models.

  7. Electronic security device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eschbach, E.A.; LeBlanc, E.J.; Griffin, J.W.

    1992-03-17

    The present invention relates to a security device having a control box containing an electronic system and a communications loop over which the system transmits a signal. The device is constructed so that the communications loop can extend from the control box across the boundary of a portal such as a door into a sealed enclosure into which access is restricted whereby the loop must be damaged or moved in order for an entry to be made into the enclosure. The device is adapted for detecting unauthorized entries into such enclosures such as rooms or containers and for recording the time at which such entries occur for later reference. Additionally, the device detects attempts to tamper or interfere with the operation of the device itself and records the time at which such events take place. In the preferred embodiment, the security device includes a microprocessor-based electronic system and a detection module capable of registering changes in the voltage and phase of the signal transmitted over the loop. 11 figs.

  8. Electronic security device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eschbach, Eugene A. (Richland, WA); LeBlanc, Edward J. (Kennewick, WA); Griffin, Jeffrey W. (Kennewick, WA)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to a security device having a control box (12) containing an electronic system (50) and a communications loop (14) over which the system transmits a signal. The device is constructed so that the communications loop can extend from the control box across the boundary of a portal such as a door into a sealed enclosure into which access is restricted whereby the loop must be damaged or moved in order for an entry to be made into the enclosure. The device is adapted for detecting unauthorized entries into such enclosures such as rooms or containers and for recording the time at which such entries occur for later reference. Additionally, the device detects attempts to tamper or interfere with the operation of the device itself and records the time at which such events take place. In the preferred embodiment, the security device includes a microprocessor-based electronic system (50) and a detection module (72) capable of registering changes in the voltage and phase of the signal transmitted over the loop.

  9. Dynamic imaging with electron microscopy

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Campbell, Geoffrey; McKeown, Joe; Santala, Melissa

    2014-05-30

    Livermore researchers have perfected an electron microscope to study fast-evolving material processes and chemical reactions. By applying engineering, microscopy, and laser expertise to the decades-old technology of electron microscopy, the dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) team has developed a technique that can capture images of phenomena that are both very small and very fast. DTEM uses a precisely timed laser pulse to achieve a short but intense electron beam for imaging. When synchronized with a dynamic event in the microscope's field of view, DTEM allows scientists to record and measure material changes in action. A new movie-mode capability, which earned a 2013 R&D 100 Award from R&D Magazine, uses up to nine laser pulses to sequentially capture fast, irreversible, even one-of-a-kind material changes at the nanometer scale. DTEM projects are advancing basic and applied materials research, including such areas as nanostructure growth, phase transformations, and chemical reactions.

  10. MODEL 9977 B(M)F-96 SAFETY ANALYSIS REPORT FOR PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abramczyk, G; Paul Blanton, P; Kurt Eberl, K

    2006-05-18

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the analysis and testing performed on and for the 9977 Shipping Package, referred to as the General Purpose Fissile Package (GPFP). The performance evaluation presented in this SARP documents the compliance of the 9977 package with the regulatory safety requirements for Type B packages. Per 10 CFR 71.59, for the 9977 packages evaluated in this SARP, the value of ''N'' is 50, and the Transport Index based on nuclear criticality control is 1.0. The 9977 package is designed with a high degree of single containment. The 9977 complies with 10 CFR 71 (2002), Department of Energy (DOE) Order 460.1B, DOE Order 460.2, and 10 CFR 20 (2003) for As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principles. The 9977 also satisfies the requirements of the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material--1996 Edition (Revised)--Requirements. IAEA Safety Standards, Safety Series No. TS-R-1 (ST-1, Rev.), International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria (2000). The 9977 package is designed, analyzed and fabricated in accordance with Section III of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code, 1992 edition.

  11. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has enormous potential for use in...

  12. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Wednesday, 25 April 2007 00:00 Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale,...

  13. Laser, Supercomputer Measure Speedy Electrons in Silicon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser, Supercomputer Measure Speedy Electrons in Silicon Laser, Supercomputer Measure Speedy Electrons in Silicon Simulations at NERSC Help Illuminate Attosecond Laser Experiment Findings December 19, 2014 Contact: Robert Sanders, rlsanders@berkeley.edu, (510) 643-6998 speedyelectrons In silicon, electrons attached to atoms in the crystal lattice can be mobilized into the conduction band by light or voltage. Berkeley scientists have taken snapshots of this very brief band-gap jump and timed it

  14. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - Correlated Electrons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Correlated Electrons

  15. Electron Microscopy Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Microscopy Lab Electron Microscopy Lab Focusing on the study of microstructures with electron and ion beam instruments, including crystallographic and chemical techniques. April 12, 2012 Transmission electron microscope Rob Dickerson examines a multiphase oxide scale using the FEI Titan 80-300 transmission electron microscope. Contact Rob Dickerson (505) 667-6337 Email Rod McCabe (505) 606-1649 Email Pat Dickerson (505) 665-3036 Email Tom Wynn (505) 665-6861 Email Dedicated to the

  16. A Community of Electrons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Community of Electrons 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:October 2015 past issues All Issues » submit A Community of Electrons A new experiment solving the mystery of plutonium's missing magnetism also provides a groundbreaking insight into the overall nature of matter. November 20, 2015 A Community of Electrons With electronic correlations, electrons from many different atoms interact in a coordinated fashion that brings about special material properties. The

  17. Time Card Entry System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-05-07

    The Time Card Entry System was developed for the Department of Enegy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) to interface with the DOE headquarters (DOE-HQ) Electronic Time and Attendance (ETA) system for payroll. It features pop-up window pick lists for Work Breakdown Structure numbers and Hour Codes and has extensive processing that ensures that time and attendance reported by the employee fulfills U.S. Government/OMB requirements before Timekeepers process the data at the end of the two weekmore » payroll cycle using ETA. A tour of duty profile (e.g., ten hour day, four day week with Sunday, friday and Saturday off), previously established in the ETA system, is imported into the Time Card Entry System by the timekeepers. An individual''s profile establishes the basis for validation of time of day and number of hours worked per day. At the end of the two cycle, data is exported by the timekeepers from the Time Card Entry System into ETA files.« less

  18. Shimmed electron beam welding process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Ganjiang (Clifton Park, NY); Nowak, Daniel Anthony (Alplaus, NY); Murphy, John Thomas (Niskayuna, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A modified electron beam welding process effects welding of joints between superalloy materials by inserting a weldable shim in the joint and heating the superalloy materials with an electron beam. The process insures a full penetration of joints with a consistent percentage of filler material and thereby improves fatigue life of the joint by three to four times as compared with the prior art. The process also allows variable shim thickness and joint fit-up gaps to provide increased flexibility for manufacturing when joining complex airfoil structures and the like.

  19. Personnel electronic neutron dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falk, Roger B. (Lafayette, CO); Tyree, William H. (Boulder, CO)

    1984-12-18

    A personnel electronic dosimeter includes a neutron-proton and neutron-alpha converter for providing an electrical signal having a magnitude proportional to the energy of a detected proton or alpha particle produced from the converter, a pulse generator circuit for generating a pulse having a duration controlled by the weighed effect of the amplitude of the electrical signal, an oscillator enabled by the pulse for generating a train of clock pulses for a time dependent upon the pulse length, a counter for counting the clock pulses, and an indicator for providing a direct reading and aural alarm when the count indicates that the wearer has been exposed to a selected level of neutron dose equivalent.

  20. Personnel electronic neutron dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falk, R.B.; Tyree, W.H.

    1982-03-03

    A personnel electronic dosimeter includes a neutron-proton and neutron-alpha converter for providing an electrical signal having a magnitude proportional to the energy of a detected proton or alpha particle produced from the converter, a pulse generator circuit for generating a pulse having a duration controlled by the weighed effect of the amplitude of the electrical signal, an oscillator enabled by the pulse for generating a train of clock pulses for a time dependent upon the pulse length, a counter for counting the clock pulses, and an indicator for providing a direct reading and aural alarm when the count indicates that the wearer has been exposed to a selected level of neutron dose equivalent.

  1. Ultrafast electron diffraction from aligned molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Centurion, Martin

    2015-08-17

    The aim of this project was to record time-resolved electron diffraction patterns of aligned molecules and to reconstruct the 3D molecular structure. The molecules are aligned non-adiabatically using a femtosecond laser pulse. A femtosecond electron pulse then records a diffraction pattern while the molecules are aligned. The diffraction patterns are then be processed to obtain the molecular structure.

  2. Catalac free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, Charles A. (Los Alamos, NM); Swenson, Donald A. (Los Alamos, NM); Boyd, Jr., Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1982-01-01

    A catalac free electron laser using a rf linac (catalac) which acts as a catalyst to accelerate an electron beam in an initial pass through the catalac and decelerate the electron beam during a second pass through the catalac. During the second pass through the catalac, energy is extracted from the electron beam and transformed to energy of the accelerating fields of the catalac to increase efficiency of the device. Various embodiments disclose the use of post linacs to add electron beam energy extracted by the wiggler and the use of supplementary catalacs to extract energy at various energy peaks produced by the free electron laser wiggler to further enhance efficiency of the catalac free electron laser. The catalac free electron laser can be used in conjunction with a simple resonator, a ring resonator or as an amplifier in conjunction with a master oscillator laser.

  3. Electron Heat Transport Measured

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science program. *Electronic address: tbiewer@pppl.gov Electronic address: cbforest@wisc.edu 1 A. B. Rechester and T. H. Stix, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 587 (1976). 2 J. D....

  4. Correlated electron dynamics with time-dependent quantum Monte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Journal Name: Journal of Chemical Physics; Journal Volume: 135; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: (c) 2011 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: ...

  5. Prospects for Electron Imaging with Ultrafast Time Resolution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUMM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; CHEMISTRY;...

  6. Power Electronics Block Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-12-31

    The software consists of code that will allow rapid prototyping of advanced power electronics for use in renewable energy systems.

  7. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has enormous potential for use in ultrafast electronic transistors. It exhibits high conductivity and an anomalous quantum Hall effect (a phenomenon exhibited by certain semiconductor devices at low temperatures and high magnetic fields). Among its novel properties, graphene's electrical charge carriers (electrons and holes) move through a solid with

  8. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has enormous potential for use in ultrafast electronic transistors. It exhibits high conductivity and an anomalous quantum Hall effect (a phenomenon exhibited by certain semiconductor devices at low temperatures and high magnetic fields). Among its novel properties, graphene's electrical charge carriers (electrons and holes) move through a solid with

  9. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has enormous potential for use in ultrafast electronic transistors. It exhibits high conductivity and an anomalous quantum Hall effect (a phenomenon exhibited by certain semiconductor devices at low temperatures and high magnetic fields). Among its novel properties, graphene's electrical charge carriers (electrons and holes) move through a solid with

  10. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has enormous potential for use in ultrafast electronic transistors. It exhibits high conductivity and an anomalous quantum Hall effect (a phenomenon exhibited by certain semiconductor devices at low temperatures and high magnetic fields). Among its novel properties, graphene's electrical charge carriers (electrons and holes) move through a solid with

  11. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Wednesday, 25 April 2007 00:00 Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has enormous potential for use in ultrafast electronic transistors. It exhibits high conductivity and an anomalous quantum Hall effect (a phenomenon exhibited by certain semiconductor devices at low temperatures and high magnetic fields). Among its novel properties, graphene's

  12. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has enormous potential for use in ultrafast electronic transistors. It exhibits high conductivity and an anomalous quantum Hall effect (a phenomenon exhibited by certain semiconductor devices at low temperatures and high magnetic fields). Among its novel properties, graphene's electrical charge carriers (electrons and holes) move through a solid with

  13. Ion-induced electron emission microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doyle, Barney L. (Albuquerque, NM); Vizkelethy, Gyorgy (Albuquerque, NM); Weller, Robert A. (Brentwood, TN)

    2001-01-01

    An ion beam analysis system that creates multidimensional maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the secondary electrons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted secondary electrons are collected in a strong electric field perpendicular to the sample surface and (optionally) projected and refocused by the electron lenses found in a photon emission electron microscope, amplified by microchannel plates and then their exact position is sensed by a very sensitive X Y position detector. Position signals from this secondary electron detector are then correlated in time with nuclear, atomic or electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these secondary electrons in the fit place.

  14. Electron Microscopy Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Electron Microscopy Center Argonne Home > EMC > EMC Home Electron Microscopy Center Web Site has moved This page has moved to http://www.anl.gov/cnm/group/electron-microscopy-center. UChicago Argonne LLC Privacy & Security Notice

  15. Application of electron stimulated desorption techniques to measure the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    isotherm and the mean residence time of hydrogen physisorbed on a metal surface (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Application of electron stimulated desorption techniques to measure the isotherm and the mean residence time of hydrogen physisorbed on a metal surface Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Application of electron stimulated desorption techniques to measure the isotherm and the mean residence time of hydrogen physisorbed on a metal surface Electron stimulated desorption

  16. Design of a proton-electron beam overlap monitor for the new RHIC electron lens, based on detecting energetic backscattered electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thieberger T.; Beebe, E.; Fischer, W.; Gassner, D.; Gu, X.; Hamdi, K.; Hock, J.; Minty, M.; Miller, T.; Montag, C.; Pikin, A.

    2012-04-15

    The optimal performance of the two electron lenses that are being implemented for high intensity polarized proton operation of RHIC requires excellent collinearity of the {approx}0.3 mm RMS wide electron beams with the proton bunch trajectories over the {approx}2m interaction lengths. The main beam overlap diagnostic tool will make use of electrons backscattered in close encounters with the relativistic protons. These electrons will spiral along the electron guiding magnetic field and will be detected in a plastic scintillator located close to the electron gun. A fraction of these electrons will have energies high enough to emerge from the vacuum chamber through a thin window thus simplifying the design and operation of the detector. The intensity of the detected electrons provides a measure of the overlap between the e- and the opposing proton beams. Joint electron arrival time and energy discrimination may be used additionally to gain some longitudinal position information with a single detector per lens.

  17. Electronics Stewardship | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electronics Stewardship Electronics Stewardship Mission The team promotes sustainable management of LM's electronic equipment, as deemed appropriate for LM operations and approved ...

  18. Electron emitting filaments for electron discharge devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.; Pincosy, P.A.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1983-06-10

    Electrons are copiously emitted by a device comprising a loop-shaped filament made of lanthanum hexaboride. The filament is directly heated by an electrical current produced along the filament by a power supply connected to the terminal legs of the filament. To produce a filament, a diamond saw or the like is used to cut a slice from a bar made of lanthanum hexaboride. The diamond saw is then used to cut the slice into the shape of a loop which may be generally rectangular, U-shaped, hairpin-shaped, zigzag-shaped, or generally circular. The filaments provide high electron emission at a relatively low operating temperature, such as 1600/sup 0/C. To achieve uniform heating, the filament is formed with a cross section which is tapered between the opposite ends of the filament to compensate for nonuniform current distribution along the filament due to the emission of electrons from the filament.

  19. Electron emitting filaments for electron discharge devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Pincosy, Philip A. (Oakland, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

    1988-01-01

    Electrons are copiously emitted by a device comprising a loop-shaped filament made of lanthanum hexaboride. The filament is directly heated by an electrical current produced along the filament by a power supply connected to the terminal legs of the filament. To produce a filament, a diamond saw or the like is used to cut a slice from a bar made of lanthanum hexaboride. The diamond saw is then used to cut the slice into the shape of a loop which may be generally rectangular, U-shaped, hairpin-shaped, zigzag-shaped, or generally circular. The filaments provide high electron emission at a relatively low operating temperature, such as 1600.degree. C. To achieve uniform heating, the filament is formed with a cross section which is tapered between the opposite ends of the filament to compensate for non-uniform current distribution along the filament due to the emission of electrons from the filament.

  20. Electronic Status Board

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-06-02

    This software was developed to post real-time process status and building conditions to operators, system engineers, system managers, and all support personnel. Data input is via operator console, strategically located throughout the facility, or by electronic rounds tablet. The system requires a person to log in with a unique user id and password to edit data. Viewing system status does not require log in and can be done from any desktop location running FileMaker. Oncemore » logged into the system, all new records saved are stamped with date, time and user name, and a historical copy is created that can be brought up to review status. There is no limitation to the amount of records that can be saved in the historical databases. The system will flag all out of limit conditions on the screen and enter that record on a turnover summery page which displays only flagged items. System conditions are displayed on a plasma display which scrolls through the various system condition screens. The system also shows floor plans that reflect specific building radiological conditions which aides in pre job briefings to show all hazards to personnel entering specific locations. The input screen is displayed on a second standard computer monitor connected to the input PC. There are several popup screens that require user intervention to ensure that the user wants to edit the data, is editing the appropriate sytem, and if they want to continue to stay logged into the system. Each workstation is connected to a Uninterrupted Power Supply which will shut each system down safely in a power failure. The server is configured to print out current status upon notification from the UPS that power has failed. The system also has a video input card which is connected to a DVD/VCR which shows safety meetings, and images taken from a digital camera used to show specific locations/items for pre-job briefings.« less

  1. Polyplanar optical display electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSanto, L.; Biscardi, C.

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments. In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) circuit board is removed from the Texas Instruments DLP light engine assembly. Due to the compact architecture of the projection system within the display chassis, the DMD{trademark} chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. The authors discuss the operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with various video formats (CVBS, Y/C or S-video and RGB) including the format specific to the B-52 aircraft. A brief discussion of the electronics required to drive the laser is also presented.

  2. Field emission electron source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA); Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  3. Electronic Recordkeeping System Questionnaire

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    5 (04/2015) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Electronic Recordkeeping System Questionnaire INSTRUCTIONS: System owners should work in consultation with their organization's records contacts to ensure the accurate completion of a separate questionnaire for each electronic recordkeeping system. Federal regulations require proper address of recordkeeping requirements and disposition before approving new electronic information systems (EIS) or enhancements to existing EISes. OMB Circular A-130 requires

  4. Multispacecraft observations of the electron current sheet, neighboring magnetic islands, and electron acceleration during magnetotail reconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Lijen; Bessho, Naoki; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Lefebvre, Bertrand; Vaith, Hans; Puhl-Quinn, Pamela; Torbert, Roy; Asnes, Arne; Fazakerley, Andrew; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Daly, Patrick

    2009-05-15

    Open questions concerning structures and dynamics of diffusion regions and electron acceleration in collisionless magnetic reconnection are addressed based on data from the four-spacecraft mission Cluster and particle-in-cell simulations. Using time series of electron distribution functions measured by the four spacecraft, distinct electron regions around a reconnection layer are mapped out to set the framework for studying diffusion regions. A spatially extended electron current sheet (ecs), a series of magnetic islands, and bursts of energetic electrons within islands are identified during magnetotail reconnection with no appreciable guide field. The ecs is collocated with a layer of electron-scale electric fields normal to the ecs and pointing toward the ecs center plane. Both the observed electron and ion densities vary by more than a factor of 2 within one ion skin depth north and south of the ecs, and from the ecs into magnetic islands. Within each of the identified islands, there is a burst of suprathermal electrons whose fluxes peak at density compression sites [L.-J. Chen et al., Nat. Phys. 4, 19 (2008)] and whose energy spectra exhibit power laws with indices ranging from 6 to 7.3. These results indicate that the in-plane electric field normal to the ecs can be of the electron scale at certain phases of reconnection, electrons and ions are highly compressible within the ion diffusion region, and for reconnection involving magnetic islands, primary electron acceleration occurs within the islands.

  5. FREE ELECTRON LASERS AND HIGH-ENERGY ELECTRON COOLING.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LITVINENKO,V.N.

    2007-08-31

    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation of such beams is too feeble to provide significant cooling: even in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with 7 TeV protons, the longitudinal damping time is about thirteen hours. Decrements of traditional electron cooling decrease rapidly as the high power of beam energy, and an effective electron cooling of protons or antiprotons at energies above 100 GeV seems unlikely. Traditional stochastic cooling still cannot catch up with the challenge of cooling high-intensity bunched proton beams--to be effective, its bandwidth must be increased by about two orders-of-magnitude. Two techniques offering the potential to cool high-energy hadron beams are optical stochastic cooling (OSC) and coherent electron cooling (CEC)--the latter is the focus of this paper. In the early 1980s, CEC was suggested as a possibility for using various instabilities in an electron beam to enhance its interaction with hadrons (i.e., cooling them). The capabilities of present-day accelerator technology, Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), and high-gain Free-Electron Lasers (FELs), finally caught up with the idea and provided the all necessary ingredients for realizing such a process. In this paper, we discuss the principles, and the main limitations of the CEC process based on a high-gain FEL driven by an ERL. We also present, and summarize in Table 1, some numerical examples of CEC for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC.

  6. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    charge carriers (electrons and holes) move through a solid with effectively zero mass and constant velocity, like photons. Graphene's intrinsically low scattering rate from defects...

  7. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spectroscopy (ARPES) at ALS Beamline 7.0.1, a team of scientists from the ALS and Germany characterized the electronic band structure and successfully controlled the gap...

  8. Electronic Structure Changes in Supercapacitor Electrodes Observed In

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operando Electronic Structure Changes in Supercapacitor Electrodes Observed In Operando Electronic Structure Changes in Supercapacitor Electrodes Observed In Operando Print Monday, 09 March 2015 16:58 Profound bias- and time-dependent changes in the electronic structure of graphene-based supercapacitor electrodes are demonstrated under operating conditions via a combination of in operando x-ray spectroscopy and ab initio modeling by J.R.I. Lee and co-workers. The evolution in electronic

  9. Electronic Mail Analysis Capability

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-01-08

    Establishes the pilot program to test the Department of Energy (DOE) Electronic Mail Analysis Capability (EMAC), which will be used to monitor and analyze outgoing and incoming electronic mail (e-mail) from the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and DOE laboratories that are engaged in nuclear weapons design or work involving special nuclear material. No cancellation.

  10. Theoretical studies of electronically excited states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besley, Nicholas A.

    2014-10-06

    Time-dependent density functional theory is the most widely used quantum chemical method for studying molecules in electronically excited states. However, excited states can also be computed within Kohn-Sham density functional theory by exploiting methods that converge the self-consistent field equations to give excited state solutions. The usefulness of single reference self-consistent field based approaches for studying excited states is demonstrated by considering the calculation of several types of spectroscopy including the infrared spectroscopy of molecules in an electronically excited state, the rovibrational spectrum of the NO-Ar complex, core electron binding energies and the emission spectroscopy of BODIPY in water.

  11. Electron: Cluster interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheidemann, A.A.; Kresin, V.V.; Knight, W.D.

    1994-02-01

    Beam depletion spectroscopy has been used to measure absolute total inelastic electron-sodium cluster collision cross sections in the energy range from E {approximately} 0.1 to E {approximately} 6 eV. The investigation focused on the closed shell clusters Na{sub 8}, Na{sub 20}, Na{sub 40}. The measured cross sections show an increase for the lowest collision energies where electron attachment is the primary scattering channel. The electron attachment cross section can be understood in terms of Langevin scattering, connecting this measurement with the polarizability of the cluster. For energies above the dissociation energy the measured electron-cluster cross section is energy independent, thus defining an electron-cluster interaction range. This interaction range increases with the cluster size.

  12. High brightness electron accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheffield, Richard L. (Los Alamos, NM); Carlsten, Bruce E. (Los Alamos, NM); Young, Lloyd M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of acclerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electons as the electrons enter the first cavity.

  13. Electrons and Mirror Symmetry

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Kumar, Krishna

    2009-09-01

    The neutral weak force between an electron and a target particle, mediated by the Z boson, can be isolated by measuring the fractional change under a mirror reflection of the scattering probability of relativistic longitudinally polarized electrons off unpolarized targets. This technique yields neutral weak force measurements at a length scale of 1 femtometer, in contrast to high energy collider measurements that probe much smaller length scales. Study of the variation of the weak force over a range of length scales provides a stringent test of theory, complementing collider measurements. We describe a recent measurement of the neutral weak force between two electrons by the E158 experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. While the weak force between an electron and positron has been extensively studied, that between two electrons had never directly been measured. We conclude by discussing prospects for even more precise measurements at future facilities.

  14. Simulations of Gaussian electron guns for RHIC electron lens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pikin, A.

    2014-02-28

    Simulations of two versions of the electron gun for RHIC electron lens are presented. The electron guns have to generate an electron beam with Gaussian radial profile of the electron beam density. To achieve the Gaussian electron emission profile on the cathode we used a combination of the gun electrodes and shaping of the cathode surface. Dependence of electron gun performance parameters on the geometry of electrodes and the margins for electrodes positioning are presented.

  15. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Huang, Wenqian R.; Hong, Kyung-Han; Ravi, Koustuban; Fallahi, Arya; Moriena, Gustavo; Dwayne Miller, R. J.; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2015-10-06

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30–50 MeVm-1 gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/proton accelerators with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. As a result, these ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams.

  16. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Huang, Wenqian R.; Hong, Kyung-Han; Ravi, Koustuban; Fallahi, Arya; Moriena, Gustavo; Dwayne Miller, R. J.; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2015-10-06

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30–50 MeVm-1 gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/proton acceleratorsmore » with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. As a result, these ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams.« less

  17. Aerogels for electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrubesh, L.W.

    1994-10-01

    In addition to their other exceptional properties, aerogels also exhibit unusual dielectric and electronic properties due to their nano-sized structures and high porosities. For example, aerogels have the lowest dielectric constants measured for a solid material (having values approaching 1.0); they have exceptionally high dielectric resistivities and strengths (i.e., ability to insulate very high voltages); they exhibit low dielectric loss at microwave frequencies; and some aerogels are electrically conductive and photoconductive. These properties are being exploited to provide the next generation of materials for energy storage, low power consumption, and ultra-fast electronics. We are working toward adapting these unusual materials for microelectronic applications, particularly, making thin aerogel films for dielectric substrates and for energy storage devices such as supercapacitors. Measurements are presented in this paper for the dielectric and electronic properties of aerogels, including the dielectric constant, loss factor, dielectric and electrical conductivity, volume resistivity, and dielectric strength. We also describe methods to form and characterize thin aerogel films which are being developed for numerous electronic applications. Finally, some of the electronic applications proposed for aerogels are presented. Commercialization of aerogels for electronics must await further feasibility, prototype development, and cost studies, but they are one of the key materials and are sure to have a major impact on future electronics.

  18. UGE Scheduler Cycle Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UGE Scheduler Cycle Time UGE Scheduler Cycle Time Genepool Cycle Time Genepool Daily Genepool Weekly Phoebe Cycle Time Phoebe Daily Phoebe Weekly What is the Scheduler Cycle? The...

  19. Electron Microscope Facility

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    Brookhaven Lab is home to one of only a few Scanning Transmision Electron Microscope (STEM) machines in the world and one of the few that can image single heavy atoms.

  20. Wide Bandgap Power Electronics

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Wide Bandgap Power Electronics 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ............................................................................................... 1 4 2. Technology Assessment and Potential ................................................................................................. 3 5 2.1 Performance advances in SiC ........................................................................................................ 3 6 2.2

  1. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    momentum because the electrons are restricted to motion in a two-dimensional plane. The Dirac crossing points are at energy ED. 2D Perfection in a 3D World Graphene, a perfect...

  2. Laser induced electron acceleration in an ion-channel guiding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi; Taghavi, Amin; Hanifpour, Maryam

    2011-09-15

    Direct electron acceleration by a propagating laser pulse of circular polarization in an ion-channel guiding is studied by developing a relativistic three-dimensional single particle code. The electron chaotic dynamic is also studied using time series, power spectrum, and Liapunov exponent. It is found that the electron motion is regular (non-chaotic) for laser pulse with short time duration, while for long enough time duration, the electron motion may be chaotic. In the case of non-chaotic motion, the electron can gain and retain very high energy in the presence of ion-channel before reaching the steady-state, whereas in the case of chaotic motion, the electron gains energy and then loses it very rapidly in an unpredictable manner.

  3. Electronics Stewardship | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Electronics Stewardship Electronics Stewardship DOE is committed to responsible environmental stewardship of its electronics, including computers, displays, printers and cell phones. In order to comply with Executive Order 13693, Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade, and other statutory requirements, DOE policy and actions support the following principles of electronic stewardship: procuring environmentally sustainable electronics, including EPEAT-registered, ENERGY STAR

  4. Free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Villa, Francesco (Alameda, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A high gain, single-pass free electron laser formed of a high brilliance electron injector source, a linear accelerator which imparts high energy to the electron beam, and an undulator capable of extremely high magnetic fields, yet with a very short period. The electron injector source is the first stage (gap) of the linear accelerator or a radial line transformer driven by fast circular switch. The linear accelerator is formed of a plurality of accelerating gaps arranged in series. These gaps are energized in sequence by releasing a single pulse of energy which propagates simultaneously along a plurality of transmission lines, each of which feeds the gaps. The transmission lines are graduated in length so that pulse power is present at each gap as the accelerated electrons pass therethrough. The transmission lines for each gap are open circuited at their ends. The undualtor has a structure similar to the accelerator, except that the transmission lines for each gap are substantially short circuited at their ends, thus converting the electric field into magnetic field. A small amount of resistance is retained in order to generate a small electric field for replenishing the electron bunch with the energy lost as it traverses through the undulator structure.

  5. Non-ambipolar radio-frequency plasma electron source and systems and methods for generating electron beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershkowitz, Noah (Madison, WI); Longmier, Benjamin (Madison, WI); Baalrud, Scott (Madison, WI)

    2009-03-03

    An electron generating device extracts electrons, through an electron sheath, from plasma produced using RF fields. The electron sheath is located near a grounded ring at one end of a negatively biased conducting surface, which is normally a cylinder. Extracted electrons pass through the grounded ring in the presence of a steady state axial magnetic field. Sufficiently large magnetic fields and/or RF power into the plasma allow for helicon plasma generation. The ion loss area is sufficiently large compared to the electron loss area to allow for total non-ambipolar extraction of all electrons leaving the plasma. Voids in the negatively-biased conducting surface allow the time-varying magnetic fields provided by the antenna to inductively couple to the plasma within the conducting surface. The conducting surface acts as a Faraday shield, which reduces any time-varying electric fields from entering the conductive surface, i.e. blocks capacitive coupling between the antenna and the plasma.

  6. Coronal electron confinement by double layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, T. C.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.

    2013-12-01

    In observations of flare-heated electrons in the solar corona, a longstanding problem is the unexplained prolonged lifetime of the electrons compared to their transit time across the source. This suggests confinement. Recent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, which explored the transport of pre-accelerated hot electrons through ambient cold plasma, showed that the formation of a highly localized electrostatic potential drop, in the form of a double layer (DL), significantly inhibited the transport of hot electrons. The effectiveness of confinement by a DL is linked to the strength of the DL as defined by its potential drop. In this work, we investigate the scaling of the DL strength with the hot electron temperature by PIC simulations and find a linear scaling. We demonstrate that the strength is limited by the formation of parallel shocks. Based on this, we analytically determine the maximum DL strength, and also find a linear scaling with the hot electron temperature. The DL strength obtained from the analytic calculation is comparable to that from the simulations. At the maximum strength, the DL is capable of confining a significant fraction of hot electrons in the source.

  7. Passive runaway electron suppression in tokamak disruptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, H. M.; Helander, P.

    2013-07-15

    Runaway electrons created in disruptions pose a serious problem for tokamaks with large current. It would be desirable to have a runaway electron suppression method which is passive, i.e., a method that does not rely on an uncertain disruption prediction system. One option is to let the large electric field inherent in the disruption drive helical currents in the wall. This would create ergodic regions in the plasma and increase the runaway losses. Whether these regions appear at a suitable time and place to affect the formation of the runaway beam depends on disruption parameters, such as electron temperature and density. We find that it is difficult to ergodize the central plasma before a beam of runaway current has formed. However, the ergodic outer region will make the Ohmic current profile contract, which can lead to instabilities that yield large runaway electron losses.

  8. Cooling system for electronic components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderl, William James; Colgan, Evan George; Gerken, James Dorance; Marroquin, Christopher Michael; Tian, Shurong

    2015-12-15

    Embodiments of the present invention provide for non interruptive fluid cooling of an electronic enclosure. One or more electronic component packages may be removable from a circuit card having a fluid flow system. When installed, the electronic component packages are coincident to and in a thermal relationship with the fluid flow system. If a particular electronic component package becomes non-functional, it may be removed from the electronic enclosure without affecting either the fluid flow system or other neighboring electronic component packages.

  9. Power Electronics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems Integration » Power Electronics Power Electronics PowerElectronics graphic.png Power electronics, critical components in PV systems and the larger electric grid, are used to convert electricity from one form to another and deliver it from generation to end consumption. The objective of the Power Electronics activity area is to develop solutions that leverage transformative power electronics technologies-including wide band gap semiconductors, advanced magnetics, thin film capacitors,

  10. Quasi-linear analysis of the extraordinary electron wave destabilized by runaway electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokol, G. I.; Kmr, A.; Budai, A.; Stahl, A.; Flp, T.

    2014-10-15

    Runaway electrons with strongly anisotropic distributions present in post-disruption tokamak plasmas can destabilize the extraordinary electron (EXEL) wave. The present work investigates the dynamics of the quasi-linear evolution of the EXEL instability for a range of different plasma parameters using a model runaway distribution function valid for highly relativistic runaway electron beams produced primarily by the avalanche process. Simulations show a rapid pitch-angle scattering of the runaway electrons in the high energy tail on the 1001000??s time scale. Due to the wave-particle interaction, a modification to the synchrotron radiation spectrum emitted by the runaway electron population is foreseen, exposing a possible experimental detection method for such an interaction.

  11. Electron microscope phase enhancement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Jian; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2010-06-15

    A microfabricated electron phase shift element is used for modifying the phase characteristics of an electron beam passing though its center aperture, while not affecting the more divergent portion of an incident beam to selectively provide a ninety-degree phase shift to the unscattered beam in the back focal plan of the objective lens, in order to realize Zernike-type, in-focus phase contrast in an electron microscope. One application of the element is to increase the contrast of an electron microscope for viewing weakly scattering samples while in focus. Typical weakly scattering samples include biological samples such as macromolecules, or perhaps cells. Preliminary experimental images demonstrate that these devices do apply a ninety degree phase shift as expected. Electrostatic calculations have been used to determine that fringing fields in the region of the scattered electron beams will cause a negligible phase shift as long as the ratio of electrode length to the transverse feature-size aperture is about 5:1. Calculations are underway to determine the feasibility of aspect smaller aspect ratios of about 3:1 and about 2:1.

  12. Manasa Electronics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Manasa Electronics Jump to: navigation, search Name: Manasa Electronics Place: Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India Zip: 201 005 Sector: Solar Product: Ghaziabad-based manufacturer of...

  13. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Print In photoelectron spectroscopy experiments performed at the ALS, a group of researchers has found that electronic transitions normally...

  14. The Future of Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Haimei

    2015-05-06

    Berkeley Lab scientist Haimei Zheng discusses the future of electron microscopy and her breakthrough research into examining liquids using an electron microscope.

  15. Tim Kuneli, Electronics Maintenance Group

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tim Kuneli, Electronics Maintenance Group Print The recent ALS power supply failure was one of the most challenging projects that Electronics Engineer Technical Superintendent Tim...

  16. Tokyo Electron | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electron Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tokyo Electron Place: Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Zip: 107-8481 Product: As a leading global supplier of semiconductor production equipment,...

  17. Circular free-electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, Charles A. (Los Alamos, NM); Kurnit, Norman A. (Santa Fe, NM); Cooper, Richard K. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A high efficiency, free electron laser utilizing a circular relativistic electron beam accelerator and a circular whispering mode optical waveguide for guiding optical energy in a circular path in the circular relativistic electron beam accelerator such that the circular relativistic electron beam and the optical energy are spatially contiguous in a resonant condition for free electron laser operation. Both a betatron and synchrotron are disclosed for use in the present invention. A free electron laser wiggler is disposed around the circular relativistic electron beam accelerator for generating a periodic magnetic field to transform energy from the circular relativistic electron beam to optical energy.

  18. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendel, C.W.; Savage, M.E.

    1992-03-17

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors. 5 figs.

  19. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendel, Clifford W. (Albuquerque, NM); Savage, Mark E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors.

  20. Foil Electron Multiplier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funsten, Herbert O. (Los Alamos, NM); Baldonado, Juan R. (Los Alamos, NM); Dors, Eric E. (Los Alamos, NM); Harper, Ronnie W. (Los Alamos, NM); Skoug, Ruth M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-03-28

    An apparatus for electron multiplication by transmission that is designed with at least one foil having a front side for receiving incident particles and a back side for transmitting secondary electrons that are produced from the incident particles transiting through the foil. The foil thickness enables the incident particles to travel through the foil and continue on to an anode or to a next foil in series with the first foil. The foil, or foils, and anode are contained within a supporting structure that is attached within an evacuated enclosure. An electrical power supply is connected to the foil, or foils, and the anode to provide an electrical field gradient effective to accelerate negatively charged incident particles and the generated secondary electrons through the foil, or foils, to the anode for collection.

  1. Development of an (e,2e) electron momentum spectroscopy apparatus using an ultrashort pulsed electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamazaki, M.; Kasai, Y.; Oishi, K.; Nakazawa, H.; Takahashi, M.

    2013-06-15

    An (e,2e) apparatus for electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS) has been developed, which employs an ultrashort-pulsed incident electron beam with a repetition rate of 5 kHz and a pulse duration in the order of a picosecond. Its instrumental design and technical details are reported, involving demonstration of a new method for finding time-zero. Furthermore, EMS data for the neutral Ne atom in the ground state measured by using the pulsed electron beam are presented to illustrate the potential abilities of the apparatus for ultrafast molecular dynamics, such as by combining EMS with the pump-and-probe technique.

  2. Electron beam magnetic switch for a plurality of free electron lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlitt, Leland G. (Livermore, CA)

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for forming and utilizing a sequence of electron beam segments, each of the same temporal length (substantially 15 nsec), with consecutive beams being separated by a constant time interval of the order of 3 nsec. The beam sequence is used for simultaneous inputs to a plurality of wiggler magnet systems that also accept the laser beams to be amplified by interaction with the co-propagating electron beams. The electron beams are arranged substantially in a circle to allow proper distribution of and simultaneous switching out of the beam segments to their respective wiggler magnets.

  3. Precision electron polarimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chudakov, Eugene A.

    2013-11-01

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. M{\\o}ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at ~300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100\\%-polarized electron target for M{\\o}ller polarimetry.

  4. Electronic Coupling Dependence of Ultrafast Interfacial Electron Transfer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on Nanocrystalline Thin Films and Single Crystal (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Electronic Coupling Dependence of Ultrafast Interfacial Electron Transfer on Nanocrystalline Thin Films and Single Crystal Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronic Coupling Dependence of Ultrafast Interfacial Electron Transfer on Nanocrystalline Thin Films and Single Crystal The long-term goal of the proposed research is to understand electron transfer dynamics in nanoparticle/liquid interface.

  5. MEIC electron cooling program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-12-01

    Cooling of proton and ion beams is essential for achieving high luminosities (up to above 1034 cm-2s-1) for MEIC, a Medium energy Electron-Ion Collider envisioned at JLab [1] for advanced nuclear science research. In the present conceptual design, we utilize the conventional election cooling method and adopted a multi-staged cooling scheme for reduction of and maintaining low beam emittances [2,3,4]. Two electron cooling facilities are required to support the scheme: one is a low energy (up to 2 MeV) DC cooler installed in the MEIC ion pre-booster (with the proton kinetic energy up to 3 GeV); the other is a high electron energy (up to 55 MeV) cooler in the collider ring (with the proton kinetic energy from 25 to 100 GeV). The high energy cooler, which is based on the ERL technology and a circulator ring, utilizes a bunched electron beam to cool bunched proton or ion beams. To complete the MEIC cooling concept and a technical design of the ERL cooler as well as to develop supporting technologies, an R&D program has been initiated at Jefferson Lab and significant progresses have been made since then. In this study, we present a brief description of the cooler design and a summary of the progress in this cooling R&D.

  6. MEIC electron cooling program

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-12-01

    Cooling of proton and ion beams is essential for achieving high luminosities (up to above 1034 cm-2s-1) for MEIC, a Medium energy Electron-Ion Collider envisioned at JLab [1] for advanced nuclear science research. In the present conceptual design, we utilize the conventional election cooling method and adopted a multi-staged cooling scheme for reduction of and maintaining low beam emittances [2,3,4]. Two electron cooling facilities are required to support the scheme: one is a low energy (up to 2 MeV) DC cooler installed in the MEIC ion pre-booster (with the proton kinetic energy up to 3 GeV); the other is amore » high electron energy (up to 55 MeV) cooler in the collider ring (with the proton kinetic energy from 25 to 100 GeV). The high energy cooler, which is based on the ERL technology and a circulator ring, utilizes a bunched electron beam to cool bunched proton or ion beams. To complete the MEIC cooling concept and a technical design of the ERL cooler as well as to develop supporting technologies, an R&D program has been initiated at Jefferson Lab and significant progresses have been made since then. In this study, we present a brief description of the cooler design and a summary of the progress in this cooling R&D.« less

  7. Weight Loss Regime for Massive Low Temperature Electrons | The Ames

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Weight Loss Regime for Massive Low Temperature Electrons A compound made out of ytterbium (Yb), platinum (Pt), and bismuth (Bi) offers researchers the opportunity to watch the birth of magnetic behavior by applying small changes in magnetic field or temperature. Despite the electrons having effective masses of nearly 10,000 times their normal mass when YbPtBi becomes magnetic, researchers have been able to monitor its quantum oscillations, key for determining important electronic

  8. Diamondoid monolayers as electron emitters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Wanli (El Cerrito, CA); Fabbri, Jason D. (San Francisco, CA); Melosh, Nicholas A. (Menlo Park, CA); Hussain, Zahid (Orinda, CA); Shen, Zhi-Xun (Stanford, CA)

    2012-04-10

    Provided are electron emitters based upon diamondoid monolayers, preferably self-assembled higher diamondoid monolayers. High intensity electron emission has been demonstrated employing such diamondoid monolayers, particularly when the monolayers are comprised of higher diamondoids. The application of such diamondoid monolayers can alter the band structure of substrates, as well as emit monochromatic electrons, and the high intensity electron emissions can also greatly improve the efficiency of field-effect electron emitters as applied to industrial and commercial applications.

  9. Diamondoid monolayers as electron emitters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Wanli; Fabbri, Jason D.; Melosh, Nicholas A.; Hussain, Zahid; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2013-10-29

    Provided are electron emitters based upon diamondoid monolayers, preferably self-assembled higher diamondoid monolayers. High intensity electron emission has been demonstrated employing such diamondoid monolayers, particularly when the monolayers are comprised of higher diamondoids. The application of such diamondoid monolayers can alter the band structure of substrates, as well as emit monochromatic electrons, and the high intensity electron emissions can also greatly improve the efficiency of field-effect electron emitters as applied to industrial and commercial applications.

  10. Control and manipulation of electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piot, Philippe; /NICADD, DeKalb /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab

    2008-09-01

    The concepts of the advanced accelerators and light source rely on the production of bright electron beams. The rms areas of the beam phase space often need to be tailored to the specific applications. Furthermore, a new class of the forefront research calls for detailed specific distribution such as the particle density in the time coordinate. Several groups are tackling these various challenges and in this report we attempt to give a review of the state-of-the-art of the control and manipulation of the electron beams.

  11. Self-bunching electron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mako, F.M.; Len, L.K.

    1999-05-01

    We report on three electron gun projects that are aimed at power tube and injector applications. The purpose of the work is to develop robust electron guns which produce self-bunched, high-current-density beams. We have demonstrated, in a microwave cavity, self-bunching, cold electron emission, long life, and tolerance to contamination. The cold process is based on secondary electron emission. FMT has studied using simulation codes the resonant bunching process which gives rise to high current densities (0.01{endash}5 kA/cm{sup 2}), high charge bunches (up to 500 nC/bunch), and short pulses (1{endash}100 ps) for frequencies from 1 to 12 GHz. The beam pulse width is nominally {approximately}5{percent} of the {ital rf} period. The first project is the L-Band Micro-Pulse Gun (MPG). Measurements show {approximately}40 ps long micro-bunches at {approximately}20 A/cm{sup 2} without contamination due to air exposure. Lifetime testing has been carried out for about 18 months operating at 1.25 GHz for almost 24 hours per day at a repetition rate of 300 Hz and 5 {mu}s-long macro-pulses. Approximately 5.8{times}10{sup 13} micro-bunches or 62,000 coulombs have passed through this gun and it is still working fine. The second project, the S-Band MPG, is now operational. It is functioning at a frequency of 2.85 GHz, a repetition rate of 30 Hz, with a 2 {mu}s-long macro-pulse. It produces about 45 A in the macro-pulse. The third project is a 34.2 GHz frequency-multiplied source driven by an X-Band MPG. A point design was performed at an {ital rf} output power of 150 MW at 34.2 GHz. The resulting system efficiency is 53{percent} and the gain is 60 dB. The system efficiency includes the input cavity efficiency, input driver efficiency (a 50 MW klystron at 11.4 GHz), output cavity efficiency, and the post-acceleration efficiency. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. The effect of electron-electron interaction induced dephasing on electronic transport in graphene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahnoj, Sina Soleimani; Touski, Shoeib Babaee; Pourfath, Mahdi E-mail: pourfath@iue.tuwien.ac.at

    2014-09-08

    The effect of dephasing induced by electron-electron interaction on electronic transport in graphene nanoribbons is theoretically investigated. In the presence of disorder in graphene nanoribbons, wavefunction of electrons can set up standing waves along the channel and the conductance exponentially decreases with the ribbon's length. Employing the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism along with an accurate model for describing the dephasing induced by electron-electron interaction, we show that this kind of interaction prevents localization and transport of electrons remains in the diffusive regime where the conductance is inversely proportional to the ribbon's length.

  13. custom electronic circuitry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    custom electronic circuitry - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  14. Xyce parallel electronic simulator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiter, Eric Richard; Mei, Ting; Russo, Thomas V.; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Fixel, Deborah A.; Coffey, Todd Stirling; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick; Santarelli, Keith R.

    2010-05-01

    This document is a reference guide to the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator, and is a companion document to the Xyce Users' Guide. The focus of this document is (to the extent possible) exhaustively list device parameters, solver options, parser options, and other usage details of Xyce. This document is not intended to be a tutorial. Users who are new to circuit simulation are better served by the Xyce Users' Guide.

  15. Atmosphere to Electrons program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Electrons program - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  16. Via Electronic Submission

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Via Electronic Submission January 22, 2015 Mr. David Henderson U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Mailstop NE-52 19901 Germantown Road Germantown, Maryland 20874-1290 Re: Excess Uranium Management: Effects of DOE Transfers of Excess Uranium on Domestic Uranium Mining, Conversion and Enrichment Industries: Request for Information Dear Mr. Henderson: URENCO USA Inc. ("UUSA, Inc.") appreciates the opportunity to submit comments to assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in

  17. Future directions in electron--ion collision physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, K.J. ); Griffin, D.C. )

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Summary of session on synergistic co-ordination of theory and experiment; synergism between experiment and theory in atomic physics; comparison of theory and experiment for electron-ion excitation and ionization; summary of session on new theoretical and computational methods; new theoretical and computational methods-r-matrix calculations; the coulomb three-body problem: a progress report; summary of session on needs and applications for electron-ion collisional data; electron-ion collisions in the plasma edge; needs and applications of theoretical data for electron impact excitation; summary of session on relativistic effects, indirect effects, resonance, etc; direct and resonant processes in electron-ion collisions; relativistic calculations of electron impact ionization and dielectronic recombination cross section for highly charged ions; electron-ion recombination in the close-coupling approximation; modified resonance amplitudes with strongly correlated channels; a density-matrix approach to the broadening of spectral lines by autoionization, radiative transitions and electron-ion collisions; towards a time-dependent description of electron-atom/ion collisions two electron systems; and comments on inclusion of the generalized bright interaction in electron impact excitation of highly charged ions.

  18. Future directions in electron--ion collision physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, K.J.; Griffin, D.C.

    1992-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Summary of session on synergistic co-ordination of theory and experiment; synergism between experiment and theory in atomic physics; comparison of theory and experiment for electron-ion excitation and ionization; summary of session on new theoretical and computational methods; new theoretical and computational methods-r-matrix calculations; the coulomb three-body problem: a progress report; summary of session on needs and applications for electron-ion collisional data; electron-ion collisions in the plasma edge; needs and applications of theoretical data for electron impact excitation; summary of session on relativistic effects, indirect effects, resonance, etc; direct and resonant processes in electron-ion collisions; relativistic calculations of electron impact ionization and dielectronic recombination cross section for highly charged ions; electron-ion recombination in the close-coupling approximation; modified resonance amplitudes with strongly correlated channels; a density-matrix approach to the broadening of spectral lines by autoionization, radiative transitions and electron-ion collisions; towards a time-dependent description of electron-atom/ion collisions two electron systems; and comments on inclusion of the generalized bright interaction in electron impact excitation of highly charged ions.

  19. Electron states in semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhayal, Suman S.; Ramaniah, Lavanya M.; Ruda, Harry E.; Nair, Selvakumar V.

    2014-11-28

    In this work, the electronic structures of quantum dots (QDs) of nine direct band gap semiconductor materials belonging to the group II-VI and III-V families are investigated, within the empirical tight-binding framework, in the effective bond orbital model. This methodology is shown to accurately describe these systems, yielding, at the same time, qualitative insights into their electronic properties. Various features of the bulk band structure such as band-gaps, band curvature, and band widths around symmetry points affect the quantum confinement of electrons and holes. These effects are identified and quantified. A comparison with experimental data yields good agreement with the calculations. These theoretical results would help quantify the optical response of QDs of these materials and provide useful input for applications.

  20. ELECTRON COOLING STUDY FOR MEIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Zhang; Douglas, David R.; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2015-09-01

    Electron cooling of the ion beams is one critical R&D to achieve high luminosities in JLab's MEIC proposal. In the present MEIC design, a multi-staged cooling scheme is adapted, which includes DC electron cooling in the booster ring and bunched beam electron cooling in the collider ring at both the injection energy and the collision energy. We explored the feasibility of using both magnetized and non-magnetized electron beam for cooling, and concluded that a magnetized electron beam is necessary. Electron cooling simulation results for the newly updated MEIC design is also presented.

  1. Single electron beam rf feedback free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, C.A.; Stein, W.E.; Rockwood, S.D.

    1981-02-11

    A free electron laser system and electron beam system for a free electron laser which uses rf feedback to enhance efficiency are described. Rf energy is extracted from a single electron beam by decelerating cavities and energy is returned to accelerating cavities using rf returns, such as rf waveguides, rf feedthroughs, resonant feedthroughs, etc. This rf energy is added to rf klystron energy to reduce the required input energy and thereby enhance energy efficiency of the system.

  2. Electronic Coupling Dependence of Ultrafast Interfacial Electron Transfer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on Nanocrystalline Thin Films and Single Crystal (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Electronic Coupling Dependence of Ultrafast Interfacial Electron Transfer on Nanocrystalline Thin Films and Single Crystal Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronic Coupling Dependence of Ultrafast Interfacial Electron Transfer on Nanocrystalline Thin Films and Single Crystal × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's

  3. Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer Review - Power Electronics

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    (PE) Systems Presentations | Department of Energy Power Electronics (PE) Systems Presentations Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer Review - Power Electronics (PE) Systems Presentations The 2008 Peer Review Meeting for the DOE Energy Storage and Power Electronics Program (ESPE) was held in Washington DC on Sept. 29-30, 2008. Current and completed program projects were presented and reviewed by a group of industry professionals. The 2008 agenda was composed of 28 projects that

  4. Electron beam accelerator with magnetic pulse compression and accelerator switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birx, Daniel L. (Brentwood, CA); Reginato, Louis L. (Orinda, CA)

    1988-01-01

    An electron beam accelerator comprising an electron beam generator-injector to produce a focused beam of .gtoreq.0.1 MeV energy electrons; a plurality of substantially identical, aligned accelerator modules to sequentially receive and increase the kinetic energies of the beam electrons by about 0.1-1 MeV per module. Each accelerator module includes a pulse-forming network that delivers a voltage pulse to the module of substantially .gtoreq.0.1-1 MeV maximum energy over a time duration of .ltoreq.1 .mu.sec.

  5. Electron beam accelerator with magnetic pulse compression and accelerator switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birx, D.L.; Reginato, L.L.

    1984-03-22

    An electron beam accelerator is described comprising an electron beam generator-injector to produce a focused beam of greater than or equal to .1 MeV energy electrons; a plurality of substantially identical, aligned accelerator modules to sequentially receive and increase the kinetic energies of the beam electron by about .1-1 MeV per module. Each accelerator module includes a pulse-forming network that delivers a voltage pulse to the module of substantially .1-1 MeV maximum energy over a time duration of less than or equal to 1 ..mu..sec.

  6. Electron beam accelerator with magnetic pulse compression and accelerator switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birx, Daniel L. (Brentwood, CA); Reginato, Louis L. (Orinda, CA)

    1987-01-01

    An electron beam accelerator comprising an electron beam generator-injector to produce a focused beam of .gtoreq.0.1 MeV energy electrons; a plurality of substantially identical, aligned accelerator modules to sequentially receive and increase the kinetic energies of the beam electrons by about 0.1-1 MeV per module. Each accelerator module includes a pulse-forming network that delivers a voltage pulse to the module of substantially 0.1-1 MeV maximum energy over a time duration of .ltoreq.1 .mu.sec.

  7. Daylight Savings Time Starts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Daylight Savings Time Starts Daylight Savings Time Starts WHEN: Mar 08, 2015 3:00 AM - 11:59 PM WHERE: World Time Zones CATEGORY: Holiday INTERNAL: Calendar Login Daylight Savings...

  8. UGE Scheduler Cycle Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UGE Scheduler Cycle Time UGE Scheduler Cycle Time Genepool Cycle Time Genepool Daily Genepool Weekly Phoebe Cycle Time Phoebe Daily Phoebe Weekly What is the Scheduler Cycle? The Univa Grid Engine Scheduler cycle performs a number of important tasks, including: Prioritizing Jobs Reserving Resources for jobs requesting more resources (slots / memory) Dispatching jobs or tasks to the compute nodes Evaluating job dependencies The "cycle time" is the length of time it takes the scheduler

  9. Visualization of electronic density

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Grosso, Bastien; Cooper, Valentino R.; Pine, Polina; Hashibon, Adham; Yaish, Yuval; Adler, Joan

    2015-04-22

    An atoms volume depends on its electronic density. Although this density can only be evaluated exactly for hydrogen-like atoms, there are many excellent numerical algorithms and packages to calculate it for other materials. 3D visualization of charge density is challenging, especially when several molecular/atomic levels are intertwined in space. We explore several approaches to 3D charge density visualization, including the extension of an anaglyphic stereo visualization application based on the AViz package to larger structures such as nanotubes. We will describe motivations and potential applications of these tools for answering interesting questions about nanotube properties.

  10. Calculation of Electron Trajectories

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1982-06-01

    EGUN, the SLAC Electron Trajectory Program, computes trajectories of charged particles in electrostatic and magnetostatic focusing systems including the effects of space charge and self-magnetic fields. Starting options include Child''s Law conditions on cathodes of various shapes, user-specified initial conditions for each ray, and a combination of Child''s Law conditions and user specifications. Either rectangular or cylindrically symmetric geometry may be used. Magnetic fields may be specified using arbitrary configuration of coils, or the outputmore » of a magnet program, such as Poisson, or by an externally calculated array of the axial fields.« less

  11. VIA ELECTRONIC SUBMISSION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    39 MacDougal Street, Third Floor * New York, New York 10012 * (212) 992-8932 * www.policyintegrity.org March 21, 2011 VIA ELECTRONIC SUBMISSION Office of the General Counsel US Department of Energy Washington, DC Attention: Regulatory Burden RFI - Docket No. DOE-HQ-2011-0014-0001 Subject: Response to Request for Information on "Reducing Regulatory Burden," 76 Fed. Reg. 6123 (Feb. 3, 2011) The Institute for Policy Integrity at New York University School of Law submits the following

  12. High Availability Electronics Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, R.S.; /SLAC

    2006-12-13

    Availability modeling of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) predicts unacceptably low uptime with current electronics systems designs. High Availability (HA) analysis is being used as a guideline for all major machine systems including sources, utilities, cryogenics, magnets, power supplies, instrumentation and controls. R&D teams are seeking to achieve total machine high availability with nominal impact on system cost. The focus of this paper is the investigation of commercial standard HA architectures and packaging for Accelerator Controls and Instrumentation. Application of HA design principles to power systems and detector instrumentation are also discussed.

  13. Rf Feedback free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, Charles A. (Los Alamos, NM); Swenson, Donald A. (Los Alamos, NM); Boyd, Jr., Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    A free electron laser system and electron beam system for a free electron laser which use rf feedback to enhance efficiency. Rf energy is extracted from an electron beam by decelerating cavities and returned to accelerating cavities using rf returns such as rf waveguides, rf feedthroughs, etc. This rf energy is added to rf klystron energy to lower the required input energy and thereby enhance energy efficiency of the system.

  14. Forward Electronics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    focussed on optoelectronics, information appliances, consumer electronics and communication. Coordinates: 25.080441, 121.564194 Show Map Loading map......

  15. Transmission electron microscope CCD camera

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Downing, Kenneth H. (Lafayette, CA)

    1999-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of a CCD camera on a high voltage electron microscope, an electron decelerator is inserted between the microscope column and the CCD. This arrangement optimizes the interaction of the electron beam with the scintillator of the CCD camera while retaining optimization of the microscope optics and of the interaction of the beam with the specimen. Changing the electron beam energy between the specimen and camera allows both to be optimized.

  16. Unbalanced field RF electron gun

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hofler, Alicia

    2013-11-12

    A design for an RF electron gun having a gun cavity utilizing an unbalanced electric field arrangement. Essentially, the electric field in the first (partial) cell has higher field strength than the electric field in the second (full) cell of the electron gun. The accompanying method discloses the use of the unbalanced field arrangement in the operation of an RF electron gun in order to accelerate an electron beam.

  17. Electron localization of anions probed by nitrile vibrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, Tomoyasu; Grills, David C.; Newton, Marshall D.; Miller, John R.

    2015-08-02

    Localization and delocalization of electrons is a key concept in chemistry, and is one of the important factors determining the efficiency of electron transport through organic conjugated molecules, which have potential to act as “molecular wires”. This, in turn, substantially influences the efficiencies of organic solar cells and other molecular electronic devices. It is also necessary to understand the electronic energy landscape and the dynamics of electrons through molecular chain that govern their transport capabilities in one-dimensional conjugated chains so that we can better define the design principles of conjugated molecules for their applications. We show that nitrile ν(C≡N) vibrations respond to the degree of electron localization in nitrile-substituted organic anions by utilizing time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection combined with pulse radiolysis. Measurements of a series of aryl nitrile anions allow us to construct a semi-empirical calibration curve between the changes in the ν(C≡N) IR shifts and the changes in the electronic charges from the neutral to the anion states in the nitriles; more electron localization in the nitrile anion results in larger IR shifts. Furthermore, the IR linewidth in anions can report a structural change accompanying changes in the electronic density distribution. Probing the shift of the nitrile ν(C≡N) IR vibrational bands enables us to determine how the electron is localized in anions of nitrile-functionalized oligofluorenes, considered as organic mixed-valence compounds. We estimate the diabatic electron transfer distance, electronic coupling strengths, and energy barriers in these organic mixed-valence compounds. The analysis reveals a dynamic picture, showing that the electron is moving back and forth within the oligomers with a small activation energy of ≤ kBT, likely controlled by the movement of dihedral angles between monomer units. Thus, implications for the electron transport capability in "molecular wires" are discussed.

  18. Electron localization of anions probed by nitrile vibrations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mani, Tomoyasu; Grills, David C.; Newton, Marshall D.; Miller, John R.

    2015-08-02

    Localization and delocalization of electrons is a key concept in chemistry, and is one of the important factors determining the efficiency of electron transport through organic conjugated molecules, which have potential to act as “molecular wires”. This, in turn, substantially influences the efficiencies of organic solar cells and other molecular electronic devices. It is also necessary to understand the electronic energy landscape and the dynamics of electrons through molecular chain that govern their transport capabilities in one-dimensional conjugated chains so that we can better define the design principles of conjugated molecules for their applications. We show that nitrile ν(C≡N) vibrationsmore » respond to the degree of electron localization in nitrile-substituted organic anions by utilizing time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection combined with pulse radiolysis. Measurements of a series of aryl nitrile anions allow us to construct a semi-empirical calibration curve between the changes in the ν(C≡N) IR shifts and the changes in the electronic charges from the neutral to the anion states in the nitriles; more electron localization in the nitrile anion results in larger IR shifts. Furthermore, the IR linewidth in anions can report a structural change accompanying changes in the electronic density distribution. Probing the shift of the nitrile ν(C≡N) IR vibrational bands enables us to determine how the electron is localized in anions of nitrile-functionalized oligofluorenes, considered as organic mixed-valence compounds. We estimate the diabatic electron transfer distance, electronic coupling strengths, and energy barriers in these organic mixed-valence compounds. The analysis reveals a dynamic picture, showing that the electron is moving back and forth within the oligomers with a small activation energy of ≤ kBT, likely controlled by the movement of dihedral angles between monomer units. Thus, implications for the electron transport capability in "molecular wires" are discussed.« less

  19. Time-resolved protein nanocrystallography using an X-ray free...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-resolved protein nanocrystallography using an X-ray free-electron laser Authors: ... protein nanocrystallography using an X-ray free-electron laser Source: OPTICS EXPRESS ...

  20. Proposed electron halo detector system as one of the beam overlap diagnostic tools for the new RHIC electron lens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thieberger, P.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Chasman, C.; Fischer, W.; Gassner, D.; Gu, X.; Gupta, R.; Hock, J.; Lambiase, R.; Montag, C.; Luo, Y.; Minty, M.; Okamura, M.; Pikin, A.; Tan, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zhang, W.

    2011-03-28

    An electron lens for head-on beam-beam compensation planned for RHIC requires precise overlap of the electron and proton beams which both can have down to 0.3 mm rms transverse radial widths along the 2m long interaction region. Here we describe a new diagnostic tool that is being considered to aid in the tuning and verification of this overlap. Some of ultra relativistic protons (100 or 250 GeV) colliding with low energy electrons (2 to 10 keV) will transfer sufficient transverse momentum to cause the electrons to spiral around the magnetic guiding field in a way that will make them detectable outside of the main solenoid. Time-of-flight of the halo electron signals will provide position-sensitive information along the overlap region. Scattering cross sections are calculated and counting rate estimates are presented as function of electron energy and detector position.

  1. High accuracy electronic material level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-03-11

    The High Accuracy Electronic Material Level Sensor (electronic dipstick) is a sensor based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line or guide wire that is partially immersed in the material being measured; a launcher plate is positioned at the beginning of the guide wire. Reflected pulses are produced at the material interface due to the change in dielectric constant. The time difference of the reflections at the launcher plate and at the material interface are used to determine the material level. Improved performance is obtained by the incorporation of: (1) a high accuracy time base that is referenced to a quartz crystal, (2) an ultrawideband directional sampler to allow operation without an interconnect cable between the electronics module and the guide wire, (3) constant fraction discriminators (CFDs) that allow accurate measurements regardless of material dielectric constants, and reduce or eliminate errors induced by triple-transit or ``ghost`` reflections on the interconnect cable. These improvements make the dipstick accurate to better than 0.1%. 4 figs.

  2. High accuracy electronic material level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    The High Accuracy Electronic Material Level Sensor (electronic dipstick) is a sensor based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line or guide wire that is partially immersed in the material being measured; a launcher plate is positioned at the beginning of the guide wire. Reflected pulses are produced at the material interface due to the change in dielectric constant. The time difference of the reflections at the launcher plate and at the material interface are used to determine the material level. Improved performance is obtained by the incorporation of: 1) a high accuracy time base that is referenced to a quartz crystal, 2) an ultrawideband directional sampler to allow operation without an interconnect cable between the electronics module and the guide wire, 3) constant fraction discriminators (CFDs) that allow accurate measurements regardless of material dielectric constants, and reduce or eliminate errors induced by triple-transit or "ghost" reflections on the interconnect cable. These improvements make the dipstick accurate to better than 0.1%.

  3. Response-time improved hydrothermal-method-grown ZnO scintillator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Response-time improved hydrothermal-method-grown ZnO scintillator for soft x-ray free-electron laser timing-observation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Response-time...

  4. Methods for synchronizing a countdown routine of a timer key and electronic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Condit, Reston A.; Daniels, Michael A.; Clemens, Gregory P.; Tomberlin, Eric S.; Johnson, Joel A.

    2015-06-02

    A timer key relating to monitoring a countdown time of a countdown routine of an electronic device is disclosed. The timer key comprises a processor configured to respond to a countdown time associated with operation of the electronic device, a display operably coupled with the processor, and a housing configured to house at least the processor. The housing has an associated structure configured to engage with the electronic device to share the countdown time between the electronic device and the timer key. The processor is configured to begin a countdown routine based at least in part on the countdown time, wherein the countdown routine is at least substantially synchronized with a countdown routine of the electronic device when the timer key is removed from the electronic device. A system and method for synchronizing countdown routines of a timer key and an electronic device are also disclosed.

  5. ELECTRONIC TRIGGER CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, J.A.G.

    1958-01-01

    An electronic trigger circuit is described of the type where an output pulse is obtained only after an input voltage has cqualed or exceeded a selected reference voltage. In general, the invention comprises a source of direct current reference voltage in series with an impedance and a diode rectifying element. An input pulse of preselected amplitude causes the diode to conduct and develop a signal across the impedance. The signal is delivered to an amplifier where an output pulse is produced and part of the output is fed back in a positive manner to the diode so that the amplifier produces a steep wave front trigger pulsc at the output. The trigger point of the described circuit is not subject to variation due to the aging, etc., of multi-electrode tabes, since the diode circuit essentially determines the trigger point.

  6. Electron gun jitter effects on beam bunching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, M. S.; Iqbal, M.

    2014-02-15

    For routine operation of Beijing Electron Positron Collider II (BEPCII) linac, many factors may affect the beam bunching process directly or indirectly. We present the measurements and analyses of the gun timing jitter, gun high voltage jitter, and beam energy at the exit of the standard acceleration section of the linac quantitatively. Almost 80 mV and more than 200 ps of gun high voltage and time jitters have ever been measured, respectively. It was analyzed that the gun timing jitter produced severe effects on beam energy than the gun high voltage jitter, if the timing jitter exceeded 100 ps which eventually deteriorates both the beam performance and the injection rate to the storage ring.

  7. New Real-Time Quantum Efficiency Measurement System: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, D. L.; Egaas, B.; Pinegar, S.; Stradins, P.

    2008-05-01

    This paper describes a newly developed technique for measuring the quantum eficiiency in solar cells in real-time using a unique, electronically controlled, full-spectrum light source.

  8. Femtosecond Time-Delay X-ray Holography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Delay X-ray Holography X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) will produce photon pulses with a unique and desirable combination of properties. Their short X-ray wavelengths allow...

  9. Comments of consumer electronics association | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    consumer electronics association Comments of consumer electronics association The Consumer Electronics Association ("CEA") respectfully submits these comments in response to the ...

  10. Tokyo Electron PV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PV Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tokyo Electron PV Place: Nirasaki City, Yamanashi, Japan Product: Japanese electronics giants Tokyo Electron and Sharp have announced their...

  11. Time of Flight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    beam is pulsed, the energy of the neutrons that are produced can be determined by Time-of-Flight (TOF) techniques. Neutron Time-of-Flight Since the LANSCE proton beam is...

  12. Time-Resolved

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and time) three correspond to the three broad categories of synchrotron experimental measurement techniques: spectroscopy (energy), scattering (momentum), and imaging...

  13. Precision timing measurements for high energy photons

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Anderson, Dustin; Apreysan, Artur; Bornheim, Adi; Duarte, Javier; Newman, Harvey; Pena, Cristian; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si; et al

    2014-11-21

    Particle colliders operating at high luminosities present challenging environments for high energy physics event reconstruction and analysis. We discuss how timing information, with a precision on the order of 10 ps, can aid in the reconstruction of physics events under such conditions. We present calorimeter based timing measurements from test beam experiments in which we explore the ultimate timing precision achievable for high energy photons or electrons of 10 GeV and above. Using a prototype calorimeter consisting of a 1.71.71.7 cm3 lutetiumyttrium oxyortho-silicate (LYSO) crystal cube, read out by micro-channel plate photomultipliers, we demonstrate a time resolution of 33.52.1 psmorefor an incoming beam energy of 32 GeV. In a second measurement, using a 2.52.520 cm3 LYSO crystal placed perpendicularly to the electron beam, we achieve a time resolution of 5911 ps using a beam energy of 4 GeV. We also present timing measurements made using a shashlik-style calorimeter cell made of LYSO and tungsten plates, and demonstrate that the apparatus achieves a time resolution of 545 ps for an incoming beam energy of 32 GeV.less

  14. Positron source position sensing detector and electronics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnham, Charles A. (South Essex, MA); Bradshaw, Jr., John F. (Winthrop, MA); Kaufman, David E. (Brockton, MA); Chesler, David A. (Newton Highlands, MA); Brownell, Gordon L. (Cambridge, MA)

    1985-01-01

    A positron source, position sensing device, particularly with medical applications, in which positron induced gamma radiation is detected using a ring of stacked, individual scintillation crystals, a plurality of photodetectors, separated from the scintillation crystals by a light guide, and high resolution position interpolation electronics. Preferably the scintillation crystals are several times more numerous than the photodetectors with each crystal being responsible for a single scintillation event from a received gamma ray. The light guide will disperse the light emitted from gamma ray absorption over several photodetectors. Processing electronics for the output of the photodetectors resolves the location of the scintillation event to a fraction of the dimension of each photodetector. Because each positron absorption results in two 180.degree. oppositely traveling gamma rays, the detection of scintillation in pairs permits location of the positron source in a manner useful for diagnostic purposes. The processing electronics simultaneously responds to the outputs of the photodetectors to locate the scintillations to the source crystal. While it is preferable that the scintillation crystal include a plurality of stacked crystal elements, the resolving power of the processing electronics is also applicable to continuous crystal scintillators.

  15. W-band free-electron masers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freund, H. P. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, Virginia 22102 (United States); Jackson, R. H.; Danly, B. G.; Levush, B. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States)

    1999-05-07

    Theoretical analyses of high power W-band (i.e., {approx_equal}94 GHz) free-electron maser amplifiers are presented for a helical wiggler/cylindrical waveguide configuration using the three-dimensional slow-time-scale ARACHNE simulation code [9]. The geometry treated by ARACHNE is that of an electron beam propagating through the cylindrical waveguide subject to a helical wiggler and an axial guide magnetic field. Two configurations are discussed. The first is the case of a reversed-guide field geometry where the guide field is oriented antiparallel to the helicity of the wiggler field. Using a 330 kV/20 A electron beam, efficiencies of the order of 7% are calculated with a bandwidth (FWHM) of 5 GHz. The second example employs a strong guide field of 20 kG oriented parallel to the helicity of the wiggler. Here, efficiencies of greater than 8% are possible with a FWHM bandwidth of 4.5 GHz using a 300 kV/20 A electron beam. A normalized emittance of 95 mm-mrad is assumed in both cases, and no beam losses are observed for either case. Both cases assume interaction with the fundamental TE{sub 11} mode, which has acceptably low losses in the W-band.

  16. Wisconsin SRF Electron Gun Commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bisognano, Joseph J.; Bissen, M.; Bosch, R.; Efremov, M.; Eisert, D.; Fisher, M.; Green, M.; Jacobs, K.; Keil, R.; Kleman, K.; Rogers, G.; Severson, M.; Yavuz, D. D.; Legg, Robert A.; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna; Hovater, J. Curtis; Plawski, Tomasz; Powers, Thomas J.

    2013-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin has completed fabrication and commissioning of a low frequency (199.6 MHz) superconducting electron gun based on a quarter wave resonator (QWR) cavity. Its concept was optimized to be the source for a CW free electron laser facility. The gun design includes active tuning and a high temperature superconducting solenoid. We will report on the status of the Wisconsin SRF electron gun program, including commissioning experience and first beam measurements.

  17. Ion plated electronic tube device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meek, T.T.

    1983-10-18

    An electronic tube and associated circuitry which is produced by ion plating techniques. The process is carried out in an automated process whereby both active and passive devices are produced at very low cost. The circuitry is extremely reliable and is capable of functioning in both high radiation and high temperature environments. The size of the electronic tubes produced are more than an order of magnitude smaller than conventional electronic tubes.

  18. Electronic structure of superconductivity refined

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic structure of superconductivity refined Electronic structure of superconductivity refined A team of physicists propose a new model that expands on a little understood aspect of the electronic structure in high-temperature superconductors. July 10, 2008 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma

  19. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Print Wednesday, 27 April 2005 00:00 In photoelectron spectroscopy experiments performed at the ALS, a group of researchers has found that electronic transitions normally thought to be forbidden can in fact be excited in conjunction with certain types of molecular vibrations. Specifically, they found that when the symmetry of a linear triatomic molecule is broken by asymmetric vibrational modes, photoelectrons can

  20. Power Electronics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Electronics Power Electronics Power electronics (PE) play a critical role in transforming the current electric grid into the next-generation grid. PE enable utilities to deliver power to their customers effectively while providing increased reliability, security, and flexibility to the electric power system. While approximately 30% of all power generation utilize PE somewhere between the point of generation and its end use today, by 2030 it is expected that up to 80% of generated

  1. Electronic field permeameter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chandler, Mark A. (Madison, WI); Goggin, David J. (Austin, TX); Horne, Patrick J. (Austin, TX); Kocurek, Gary G. (Roundrock, TX); Lake, Larry W. (Austin, TX)

    1989-01-01

    For making rapid, non-destructive permeability measurements in the field, a portable minipermeameter of the kind having a manually-operated gas injection tip is provided with a microcomputer system which operates a flow controller to precisely regulate gas flow rate to a test sample, and reads a pressure sensor which senses the pressure across the test sample. The microcomputer system automatically turns on the gas supply at the start of each measurement, senses when a steady-state is reached, collects and records pressure and flow rate data, and shuts off the gas supply immediately after the measurement is completed. Preferably temperature is also sensed to correct for changes in gas viscosity. The microcomputer system may also provide automatic zero-point adjustment, sensor calibration, over-range sensing, and may select controllers, sensors, and set-points for obtaining the most precise measurements. Electronic sensors may provide increased accuracy and precision. Preferably one microcomputer is used for sensing instrument control and data collection, and a second microcomputer is used which is dedicated to recording and processing the data, selecting the sensors and set-points for obtaining the most precise measurements, and instructing the user how to set-up and operate the minipermeameter. To provide mass data collection and user-friendly operation, the second microcomputer is preferably a lap-type portable microcomputer having a non-volatile or battery-backed CMOS memory.

  2. Genesis Electronics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Product: Technology company, focusing on consumer applications for solar energy and alternative energy sources. References: Genesis Electronics1 This article is a stub. You...

  3. Advance Electronics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    transient suppressors, automatic voltage stablisers, voltmeters oscilloscopes, and signal generators. References: Advance Electronics1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  4. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that has not been observed previously but appears to be widespread. Such coupling between electronic motion and nuclear motion becomes increasingly important as scientists learn...

  5. Tyco Electronics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: Pennsylvania-based passive component manufacturer. The firm produces power storage devices. References: Tyco Electronics1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI...

  6. Cookson Electronics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Providence, Rhode Island Zip: 2903 Product: Rhode Island-based materials science company. The division produces PV junction boxes. References: Cookson Electronics1...

  7. Federal Electronics Challenge Gold Award

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On June 18th, DOE Headquarters was presented the Federal Electronics Challenge Gold Award for exemplary performance in Green Computing, including green procurement, energy efficient operations and...

  8. Deep Inelastic Electron Scattering: Experimental

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Friedman, J. I.

    1971-10-01

    This report reviews and brings up to date the experimental information on high energy inelastic electron scattering from proton and neutron.

  9. Electronic Records Management Software Applications Design Criteria...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electronic Records Management Software Applications Design Criteria Standard Electronic Records Management Software Applications Design Criteria Standard This Standard is reissued...

  10. VDE Association for Electrical Electronic Information Technologies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    VDE Association for Electrical Electronic Information Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name: VDE (Association for Electrical, Electronic & Information Technologies) Place:...

  11. FACTSHEET: Next Generation Power Electronics Manufacturing Innovation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FACTSHEET: Next Generation Power Electronics Manufacturing Innovation Institute FACTSHEET: Next Generation Power Electronics Manufacturing Innovation Institute January 15, 2014 - ...

  12. PROJECT PROFILE: Correlative Electronic Spectroscopies for Increasing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PROJECT PROFILE: Correlative Electronic Spectroscopies for Increasing Photovoltaic Efficiency PROJECT PROFILE: Correlative Electronic Spectroscopies for Increasing Photovoltaic ...

  13. Controlled cooling of an electronic system based on projected conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2015-08-18

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided based, in part, on projected conditions. The control includes automatically determining an adjusted control setting(s) for an adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on projected power consumed by the electronic system at a future time and projected temperature at the future time of a heat sink to which heat extracted is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on an experimentally obtained model(s) relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system.

  14. Adaptive method for electron bunch profile prediction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheinker, Alexander; Gessner, Spencer

    2015-10-01

    We report on an experiment performed at the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, in which a new adaptive control algorithm, one with known, bounded update rates, despite operating on analytically unknown cost functions, was utilized in order to provide quasi-real-time bunch property estimates of the electron beam. Multiple parameters, such as arbitrary rf phase settings and other time-varying accelerator properties, were simultaneously tuned in order to match a simulated bunch energy spectrum with a measured energy spectrum. The simple adaptive scheme was digitally implemented using matlab and the experimental physics and industrial control system. The main result is a nonintrusive, nondestructive, real-time diagnostic scheme for prediction of bunch profiles, as well as other beam parameters, the precise control of which are important for the plasma wakefield acceleration experiments being explored at FACET. © 2015 authors. Published by the American Physical Society.

  15. Adaptive method for electron bunch profile prediction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheinker, Alexander; Gessner, Spencer

    2015-10-15

    We report on an experiment performed at the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, in which a new adaptive control algorithm, one with known, bounded update rates, despite operating on analytically unknown cost functions, was utilized in order to provide quasi-real-time bunch property estimates of the electron beam. Multiple parameters, such as arbitrary rf phase settings and other time-varying accelerator properties, were simultaneously tuned in order to match a simulated bunch energy spectrum with a measured energy spectrum. The simple adaptive scheme was digitally implemented using matlab and the experimental physics and industrial control system. Thus, the main result is a nonintrusive, nondestructive, real-time diagnostic scheme for prediction of bunch profiles, as well as other beam parameters, the precise control of which are important for the plasma wakefield acceleration experiments being explored at FACET.

  16. Three-dimensional simulation of efficiency enhancement in free-electron laser with prebunched electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chitsazi, Mahboobeh; Maraghechi, B.; Rouhani, M. H.

    2010-10-15

    The effect of prebunching of the electron beam and tapering of the wiggler amplitude on the harmonic upconversion in free-electron laser amplifier is studied in three dimensions. A set of coupled nonlinear first-order differential equations that describe the three-dimensional simulation of the system is solved numerically. This set of equation describes self-consistently the longitudinal spatial dependence of radiation waists, curvatures, and amplitudes together with the evaluation of the electron beam. The analysis is related to extreme ultraviolet and x-ray emission. In addition to uniform beam, prebunched electron beam has also been studied. The effect of sinusoidal distribution of entry times for the electron beam on the evolution of radiation is compared with uniform distribution. It is shown that prebunching reduces the saturation length substantially. For efficiency enhancement, the wiggler is set to decrease linearly when the radiation of the third harmonic saturates. The optimum starting point and the slope of tapering of the amplitude of the wiggler are found by a successive run of the code. It was found that tapering can increase the saturated power of the third harmonic considerably.

  17. Longitudinal Diagnostics for Short Electron Beam Bunches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loos, H.; ,

    2010-06-11

    Single-pass free electron lasers require high peak currents from ultra-short electron bunches to reach saturation and an accurate measurement of bunch length and longitudinal bunch profile is necessary to control the bunch compression process from low to high beam energy. The various state-of-the-art diagnostics methods from ps to fs time scales using coherent radiation detection, RF deflection, and other techniques are presented. The use of linear accelerators as drivers for free electron lasers (FEL) and the advent of single-pass (SASE) FELs has driven the development of a wide range of diagnostic techniques for measuring the length and longitudinal distribution of short and ultra-short electron bunches. For SASE FELs the radiation power and the length of the undulator needed to achieve saturation depend strongly on the charge density of the electron beam. In the case of X-ray FELs, this requires the accelerator to produce ultra-high brightness beams with micron size transverse normalized emittances and peak currents of several kA through several stages of magnetic bunch compression. Different longitudinal diagnostics are employed to measure the peak current and bunch profile along these stages. The measurement techniques can be distinguished into different classes. Coherent methods detect the light emitted from the beam by some coherent radiation process (spectroscopic measurement), or directly measure the Coulomb field traveling with the beam (electro-optic). Phase space manipulation techniques map the time coordinate onto a transverse dimension and then use conventional transverse beam diagnostics (transverse deflector, rf zero-phasing). Further methods measure the profile or duration of an incoherent light pulse emitted by the bunch at wavelengths much shorted than the bunch length (streak camera, fluctuation technique) or modulate the electron beam at an optical wavelength and then generate a narrow bandwidth radiation pulse with the longitudinal profile of the beam mapped onto (optical replicator). The operational needs for bunch length measurements to have fast acquisitions, to be used in feedback systems, to distinguish pulse to pulse changes and to be nondestructive or parasitically have resulted into developing many of the diagnostics into single-shot techniques and in the following the main discussion will emphasize them.

  18. The electron geodesic acoustic mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakrabarti, N. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Calcutta 700 064 (India); Guzdar, P. N. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Kaw, P. K. [Institute for Plasma Research Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2012-09-15

    In this report, a novel new mode, named the electron geodesic acoustic mode, is presented. This mode can occur in toroidal plasmas like the conventional geodesic acoustic mode (GAM). The frequency of this new mode is much larger than that of the conventional GAM by a factor equal to the square root of the ion to electron mass ratio.

  19. ILC Electron Source Injector Simuations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lakshmanan, Manu; /Cornell U., LNS /SLAC

    2007-08-29

    As part of the global project aimed at proposing an efficient design for the ILC (International Linear Collider), we simulated possible setups for the electron source injector, which will provide insight into how the electron injector for the ILC should be designed in order to efficiently accelerate the electron beams through the bunching system. This study uses three types of software: E-Gun to simulate electron beam emission, Superfish to calculate solenoidal magnetic fields, and GPT (General Particle Tracer) to trace charged particles after emission through magnetic fields and subharmonic bunchers. We performed simulations of the electron source injector using various electron gun bias voltages (140kV - 200kV), emitted beam lengths (500ps - 1ns) and radii (7mm - 10mm), and electromagnetic field strengths of the first subharmonic buncher (5 - 20 MV/m). The results of the simulations show that for the current setup of the ILC, a modest electron gun bias voltage ({approx}140kV) is sufficient to achieve the required bunching of the beam in the injector. Extensive simulations of parameters also involving the second subharmonic buncher should be performed in order to gain more insight into possible efficient designs for the ILC electron source injector.

  20. Task Time Tracker

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-07-24

    This client-side web app tracks the amount of time spent on arbitrary tasks. It allosw the creation of an unlimited number of arbitrarily named tasks ans via simple interactions, tracks the amount of time spent working on the drfined tasks.

  1. Superthermal electron distribution measurements from polarized electron cyclotron emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luce, T.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Fisch, N.J.

    1988-06-01

    Measurements of the superthermal electron distribution can be made by observing the polarized electron cyclotron emission. The emission is viewed along a constant magnetic field surface. This simplifies the resonance condition and gives a direct correlation between emission frequency and kinetic energy of the emitting electron. A transformation technique is formulated which determines the anisotropy of the distribution and number density of superthermals at each energy measured. The steady-state distribution during lower hybrid current drive and examples of the superthermal dynamics as the runaway conditions is varied are presented for discharges in the PLT tokamak. 15 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Real-space representation of electron correlation in ?-conjugated systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jian E-mail: e.j.baerends@vu.nl; Baerends, Evert Jan E-mail: e.j.baerends@vu.nl

    2015-05-28

    ?-electron conjugation and aromaticity are commonly associated with delocalization and especially high mobility of the ? electrons. We investigate if also the electron correlation (pair density) exhibits signatures of the special electronic structure of conjugated systems. To that end the shape and extent of the pair density and derived quantities (exchange-correlation hole, Coulomb hole, and conditional density) are investigated for the prototype systems ethylene, hexatriene, and benzene. The answer is that the effects of ? electron conjugation are hardly discernible in the real space representations of the electron correlation. We find the xc hole to be as localized (confined to atomic or diatomic regions) in conjugated systems as in small molecules. This result is relevant for density functional theory (DFT). The potential of the electron exchange-correlation hole is the largest part of v{sub xc}, the exchange-correlation Kohn-Sham potential. So the extent of the hole directly affects the orbital energies of both occupied and unoccupied Kohn-Sham orbitals and therefore has direct relevance for the excitation spectrum as calculated with time-dependent DFT calculations. The potential of the localized xc hole is comparatively more attractive than the actual hole left behind by an electron excited from a delocalized molecular orbital of a conjugated system.

  3. Photocathode Optimization for a Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, P; Flom, Z; Heinselman, K; Nguyen, T; Tung, S; Haskell, R; Reed, B W; LaGrange, T

    2011-08-04

    The Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope (DTEM) team at Harvey Mudd College has been sponsored by LLNL to design and build a test setup for optimizing the performance of the DTEM's electron source. Unlike a traditional TEM, the DTEM achieves much faster exposure times by using photoemission from a photocathode to produce electrons for imaging. The DTEM team's work is motivated by the need to improve the coherence and current density of the electron cloud produced by the electron gun in order to increase the image resolution and contrast achievable by DTEM. The photoemission test setup is nearly complete and the team will soon complete baseline tests of electron gun performance. The photoemission laser and high voltage power supply have been repaired; the optics path for relaying the laser to the photocathode has been finalized, assembled, and aligned; the internal setup of the vacuum chamber has been finalized and mostly implemented; and system control, synchronization, and data acquisition has been implemented in LabVIEW. Immediate future work includes determining a consistent alignment procedure to place the laser waist on the photocathode, and taking baseline performance measurements of the tantalum photocathode. Future research will examine the performance of the electron gun as a function of the photoemission laser profile, the photocathode material, and the geometry and voltages of the accelerating and focusing components in the electron gun. This report presents the team's progress and outlines the work that remains.

  4. Digital time delay

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay provides a first output signal at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits latch the high resolution data to form a first synchronizing data set. A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an internal which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD to generate a second set of synchronizing data which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data for presentation to logic circuits. The logic circuits further delay the internal output signal with the internal pulses. The final delayed output signal thereafter enables the output pulse generator to produce the desired output pulse at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse.

  5. Parallel time integration software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-07-01

    This package implements an optimal-scaling multigrid solver for the (non) linear systems that arise from the discretization of problems with evolutionary behavior. Typically, solution algorithms for evolution equations are based on a time-marching approach, solving sequentially for one time step after the other. Parallelism in these traditional time-integrarion techniques is limited to spatial parallelism. However, current trends in computer architectures are leading twards system with more, but not faster. processors. Therefore, faster compute speeds mustmore » come from greater parallelism. One approach to achieve parallelism in time is with multigrid, but extending classical multigrid methods for elliptic poerators to this setting is a significant achievement. In this software, we implement a non-intrusive, optimal-scaling time-parallel method based on multigrid reduction techniques. The examples in the package demonstrate optimality of our multigrid-reduction-in-time algorithm (MGRIT) for solving a variety of parabolic equations in two and three sparial dimensions. These examples can also be used to show that MGRIT can achieve significant speedup in comparison to sequential time marching on modern architectures.« less

  6. Xyce parallel electronic simulator release notes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiter, Eric Richard; Hoekstra, Robert John; Mei, Ting; Russo, Thomas V.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Coffey, Todd Stirling; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick; Santarelli, Keith R.

    2010-05-01

    The Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator has been written to support, in a rigorous manner, the simulation needs of the Sandia National Laboratories electrical designers. Specific requirements include, among others, the ability to solve extremely large circuit problems by supporting large-scale parallel computing platforms, improved numerical performance and object-oriented code design and implementation. The Xyce release notes describe: Hardware and software requirements New features and enhancements Any defects fixed since the last release Current known defects and defect workarounds For up-to-date information not available at the time these notes were produced, please visit the Xyce web page at http://www.cs.sandia.gov/xyce.

  7. VARIABLE TIME DELAY MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clemensen, R.E.

    1959-11-01

    An electrically variable time delay line is described which may be readily controlled simuitaneously with variable impedance matching means coupied thereto such that reflections are prevented. Broadly, the delay line includes a signal winding about a magnetic core whose permeability is electrically variable. Inasmuch as the inductance of the line varies directly with the permeability, the time delay and characteristic impedance of the line both vary as the square root of the permeability. Consequently, impedance matching means may be varied similariy and simultaneously w:th the electrically variable permeability to match the line impedance over the entire range of time delay whereby reflections are prevented.

  8. X Time Series

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    11 Figure 5-11: 1-Hour Ozone Time Series Observed (C506) v. Predicted (CAMx) for WRF AACOG Base Case Run 3, 2006 5-12 5.3.2 Hourly NO X Time Series Time series plots of modeled and predicted hourly NO X for each monitor located in the San Antonio MSA were constructed. The model over predicted NO X emissions at the C58 monitor on almost every day during the June 2006 episode. The average predicted hourly NO X was 7.3 ppb, while the average observed hourly NO X was only 3.9 ppb. Likewise, the

  9. A high-current electron gun for the electron beam ion trap at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarz, S. Baumann, T. M.; Kittimanapun, K.; Lapierre, A.; Snyder, A.

    2014-02-15

    The Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) in NSCL’s reaccelerator ReA uses continuous ion injection and accumulation. In order to maximize capture efficiency and minimize breeding time into high charge states, the EBIT requires a high-current/high current-density electron beam. A new electron gun insert based on a concave Ba-dispenser cathode has been designed and built to increase the current transmitted through the EBIT’s superconducting magnet. With the new insert, stable EBIT operating conditions with 0.8 A of electron beam have been established. The design of the electron gun is presented together with calculated and measured perveance data. In order to assess the experimental compression of the electron beam, a pinhole CCD camera has been set up to measure the electron beam radius. The camera observes X-rays emitted from highly charged ions, excited by the electron beam. Initial tests with this camera setup will be presented. They indicate that a current density of 640 A/cm{sup 2} has been reached when the EBIT magnet was operated at 4 T.

  10. ASYMMETRIC SOLAR WIND ELECTRON DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Kim, Sunjung; Lee, Junggi; Lee, Junhyun; Park, Jongsun; Park, Kyungsun; Seough, Jungjoon [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jinhy [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-20

    The present paper provides a possible explanation for the solar wind electron velocity distribution functions possessing asymmetric energetic tails. By numerically solving the electrostatic weak turbulence equations that involve nonlinear interactions among electrons, Langmuir waves, and ion-sound waves, it is shown that different ratios of ion-to-electron temperatures lead to the generation of varying degrees of asymmetric tails. The present finding may be applicable to observations in the solar wind near 1 AU and in other regions of the heliosphere and interplanetary space.

  11. High Intensity Polarized Electron Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redwine, Robert P.

    2012-07-31

    The goal of the project was to investigate the possibility of building a very high intensity polarized electron gun for the Electron-Ion Collider. This development is crucial for the eRHIC project. The gun implements a large area cathode, ring-shaped laser beam and active cathode cooling. A polarized electron gun chamber with a large area cathode and active cathode cooling has been built and tested. A preparation chamber for cathode activation has been built and initial tests have been performed. Major parts for a load-lock chamber, where cathodes are loaded into the vacuum system, have been manufactured.

  12. Drug Retention Times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  13. Drug Retention Times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user

  14. Time-Resolved

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter Real-Time Chemical Imaging of Bacterial Biofilm Development Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter X-Ray Imaging of...

  15. Spin-dependent delay time in ferromagnet/insulator/ferromagnet heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, ZhengWei; Zheng Shi, De; Lv, HouXiang

    2014-07-07

    We study theoretically spin-dependent group delay and dwell time in ferromagnet/insulator/ferromagnet (FM/I/FM) heterostructure. The results indicate that, when the electrons with different spin orientations tunnel through the FM/I/FM junction, the spin-up process and the spin-down process are separated on the time scales. As the self-interference delay has the spin-dependent features, the variations of spin-dependent dwell-time and spin-dependent group-delay time with the structure parameters appear different features, especially, in low incident energy range. These different features show up as that the group delay times for the spin-up electrons are always longer than those for spin-down electrons when the barrier height or incident energy increase. In contrast, the dwell times for the spin-up electrons are longer (shorter) than those for spin-down electrons when the barrier heights (the incident energy) are under a certain value. When the barrier heights (the incident energy) exceed a certain value, the dwell times for the spin-up electrons turn out to be shorter (longer) than those for spin-down electrons. In addition, the group delay time and the dwell time for spin-up and down electrons also relies on the comparative direction of magnetization in two FM layers and tends to saturation with the thickness of the barrier.

  16. Rose Electronics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and enclosure products. Ni-Cd, Ni-MH, Li-Ion, Li-Polymer, Sealed Lead, Alkaline and Lithium Primary chemistries. References: Rose Electronics1 This article is a stub. You can...

  17. Electronic Structure of Buried Interfaces - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, Zachary

    2015-08-25

    In the electronics behind computer memory storage, the speed and size are dictated by the performance of permanent magnets inside devices called read heads. Complicated magnets made of stacked layers of thin films can be engineered to have properties that yield more energy storage and faster switching times compared to conventional iron or cobalt magnets. The reason is that magnetism is a result of subtle interactions amongst electrons; just how neurons come together on large scales to make cat brains and dog brains, ensembles of electrons interact and become ferromagnets and paramagnets. These interactions make magnets too difficult to study in their entirety, so I focus on the interfaces between layers, which are responsible for the coupling materials physicists hope to exploit to produce next-generation magnets. This project, I study a transition metal oxide material called LSCO, Lanthanum Cobaltite, which can be a paramagnet or a ferromagnet depending on how you tweak the electronic structure. It exhibits an exciting behavior: its sum is greater than the sum of its parts. When another similar material called a LSMO, Lanthanum Manganite, is grown on top of it, their interface has a different type of magnetism from the LSCO or the LSMO! I hope to explain this by demonstrating differently charged ions in the interface. The typical method for quantifying this is x-ray absorption, but all conventional techniques look at every layer simultaneously, averaging the interfaces and the LSCO layers that we want to characterize separately. Instead, I must use a new reflectivity technique, which tracks the intensity of reflected x-rays at different angles, at energies near the absorption peaks of certain elements, to track changes in the electronic structure of the material. The samples were grown by collaborators at the Takamura group at U.C. Davis and probed with this “resonant reflectivity” technique on Beamline 2-1 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. This project was funded by the Department of Energy and supported by the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Preliminary results suggest that different ionic charges are indeed responsible for the different magnetic properties at the interface, which is promising because charge is easy to control. Once scientists understand how to tune the magnetic properties of materials like LSCO and LSMO, industries get closer to designing the magnets that will soon revolutionize consumer electronics.

  18. Free electron laser with masked chicane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Dinh C. (Los Alamos, NM); Carlsten, Bruce E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A free electron laser (FEL) is provided with an accelerator for outputting electron beam pulses; a buncher for modulating each one of the electron beam pulses to form each pulse into longitudinally dispersed bunches of electrons; and a wiggler for generating coherent light from the longitudinally dispersed bunches of electrons. The electron beam buncher is a chicane having a mask for physically modulating the electron beam pulses to form a series of electron beam bunches for input to the wiggler. In a preferred embodiment, the mask is located in the chicane at a position where each electron beam pulse has a maximum dispersion.

  19. Power Electronics Thermal Control (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2010-05-05

    Thermal management plays an important part in the cost of electric drives in terms of power electronics packaging. Very promising results have been obtained by using microporous coatings and skived surfaces in conjunction with single-phase and two-phase flows. Sintered materials and thermoplastics with embedded fibers show significant promise as thermal interface materials, or TIMs. Appropriate cooling technologies depend on the power electronics package application and reliability.

  20. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Print In photoelectron spectroscopy experiments performed at the ALS, a group of researchers has found that electronic transitions normally thought to be forbidden can in fact be excited in conjunction with certain types of molecular vibrations. Specifically, they found that when the symmetry of a linear triatomic molecule is broken by asymmetric vibrational modes, photoelectrons can become temporarily trapped by the molecule before ultimately escaping,

  1. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Print In photoelectron spectroscopy experiments performed at the ALS, a group of researchers has found that electronic transitions normally thought to be forbidden can in fact be excited in conjunction with certain types of molecular vibrations. Specifically, they found that when the symmetry of a linear triatomic molecule is broken by asymmetric vibrational modes, photoelectrons can become temporarily trapped by the molecule before ultimately escaping,

  2. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Print In photoelectron spectroscopy experiments performed at the ALS, a group of researchers has found that electronic transitions normally thought to be forbidden can in fact be excited in conjunction with certain types of molecular vibrations. Specifically, they found that when the symmetry of a linear triatomic molecule is broken by asymmetric vibrational modes, photoelectrons can become temporarily trapped by the molecule before ultimately escaping,

  3. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Print In photoelectron spectroscopy experiments performed at the ALS, a group of researchers has found that electronic transitions normally thought to be forbidden can in fact be excited in conjunction with certain types of molecular vibrations. Specifically, they found that when the symmetry of a linear triatomic molecule is broken by asymmetric vibrational modes, photoelectrons can become temporarily trapped by the molecule before ultimately escaping,

  4. Consumer Electronics Association Comment | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Consumer Electronics Association Comment Consumer Electronics Association Comment The Consumer Electronics Association (CEA) is the preeminent trade association promoting growth in the $285 billion U.S. consumer electronics industry. PDF icon CEA comments re DOE Regulatory Burden RFI_7-17-15 More Documents & Publications Comments of consumer electronics association Re: NBP RFI: Data Access AHAM Comments Regulatory Burden RFI

  5. Electronic multi-purpose material level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    The present electronic multi-purpose material level sensor is based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line that is partially immersed in a liquid, powder, or other substance such as grain in a silo. The time difference of the reflections at the start of the transmission line and the air/liquid interface are used to determine levels to better than 0.01 inch. The sensor is essentially independent of circuit element and temperature variations, and can be mass produced at an extremely low price. The transmission line may be a Goubau line, microstrip, coaxial cable, twin lead, CPS or CPW, and may typically be a strip placed along the inside wall of a tank. The reflected pulses also contain information about strata within the liquid such as sludge-build-up at the bottom of an oil tank.

  6. Electronic multi-purpose material level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-03-11

    The present electronic multi-purpose material level sensor is based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line that is partially immersed in a liquid, powder, or other substance such as grain in a silo. The time difference of the reflections at the start of the transmission line and the air/liquid interface are used to determine levels to better than 0.01 inch. The sensor is essentially independent of circuit element and temperature variations, and can be mass produced at an extremely low price. The transmission line may be a Goubau line, microstrip, coaxial cable, twin lead, CPS or CPW, and may typically be a strip placed along the inside wall of a tank. The reflected pulses also contain information about strata within the liquid such as sludge-build-up at the bottom of an oil tank. 9 figs.

  7. Terahertz electron cyclotron maser interactions with an axis-encircling electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, G. D.; Kao, S. H.; Chang, P. C.; Chu, K. R.

    2015-04-15

    To generate terahertz radiation via the electron cyclotron maser instability, harmonic interactions are essential in order to reduce the required magnetic field to a practical value. Also, high-order mode operation is required to avoid excessive Ohmic losses. The weaker harmonic interaction and mode competition associated with an over-moded structure present challenging problems to overcome. The axis-encircling electron beam is a well-known recipe for both problems. It strengthens the harmonic interaction, as well as minimizing the competing modes. Here, we examine these advantages through a broad data base obtained for a low-power, step-tunable, gyrotron oscillator. Linear results indicate far more higher-harmonic modes can be excited with an axis-encircling electron beam than with an off-axis electron beam. However, multi-mode, time-dependent simulations reveal an intrinsic tendency for a higher-harmonic mode to switch over to a lower-harmonic mode at a high beam current or upon a rapid current rise. Methods are presented to identify the narrow windows in the parameter space for stable harmonic interactions.

  8. Method for electronically publishing a single organization's requirements in an electronic publication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cannella, Timothy Patrick; Brown, Zopalla Deyar; Leverenz, Julia B.; Danforth, Teresa Marie; Kyte, Shannan Dyan; Dempster, Karen Congiu

    2008-08-12

    A system for electronically publishing the requirements of a buyer that reduces the time and paperwork required by vendors to transact business with the buyer. The electronic publication includes one or more categorized lists of items that the buyer is seeking to procure. Each listed item includes the name of the item, a brief description of the item, the name of a contact person within the buyer's organization, and one or more dates relevant to the item. The name of the item is presented as a hyperlink that leads to a detailed description of the item and a list of electronically editable forms required by the buyer. The name of the contact person is also presented as a hyperlink that leads to contact information for the contact person. Within the electronic publication, vendors can register with the buyer regarding any listed item(s). Registered vendors receive automatic updates relating to items for which they registered. An administration section, accessible only to the buyer, allows the buyer to organize information and forms submitted by the vendors.

  9. Onset of electron acceleration in a flare loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharykin, Ivan; Liu, Siming [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Fletcher, Lyndsay, E-mail: liusm@pmo.ac.cn [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-20

    We carried out a detailed analysis of X-ray and radio observations of a simple flare loop that occurred on 2002 August 12, with the impulsive hard X-ray (HXR) light curves dominated by a single pulse. The emission spectra of the early impulsive phase are consistent with an isothermal model in the coronal loop with a temperature reaching several keV. A power-law high-energy spectral tail is evident near the HXR peak time, in accordance with the appearance of footpoints at high energies, and is well correlated with the radio emission. The energy content of the thermal component keeps increasing gradually after the disappearance of this nonthermal component. These results suggest that electron acceleration only covers the central period of a longer and more gradual energy dissipation process and that the electron transport within the loop plays a crucial role in the formation of the inferred power-law electron distribution. The spectral index of power-law photons shows a very gradual evolution, indicating that the electron accelerator is in a quasi-steady state, which is confirmed by radio observations. These results are consistent with the theory of stochastic electron acceleration from a thermal background. Advanced modeling with coupled electron acceleration and spatial transport processes is needed to explain these observations more quantitatively, which may reveal the dependence of the electron acceleration on the spatial structure of the acceleration region.

  10. Doppler electron velocimetry : notes on creating a practical tool.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reu, Phillip L.; Milster, Tom

    2008-11-01

    The Doppler electron velocimeter (DEV) has been shown to be theoretically possible. This report attempts to answer the next logical question: Is it a practical instrument? The answer hinges upon whether enough electrons are available to create a time-varying Doppler current to be measured by a detector with enough sensitivity and bandwidth. The answer to both of these questions is a qualified yes. A target Doppler frequency of 1 MHz was set as a minimum rate of interest. At this target a theoretical beam current signal-to-noise ratio of 25-to-1 is shown for existing electron holography equipment. A detector is also demonstrated with a bandwidth of 1-MHz at a current of 10 pA. Additionally, a Linnik-type interferometer that would increase the available beam current is shown that would offer a more flexible arrangement for Doppler electron measurements over the traditional biprism.

  11. Nonlinear model for thermal effects in free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter, E. Endler, A. Rizzato, F. B.

    2014-11-15

    In the present work, we extend results of a previous paper [Peter et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 12?3104 (2013)] and develop a semi-analytical model to account for thermal effects on the nonlinear dynamics of the electron beam in free-electron lasers. We relax the condition of a cold electron beam but still use the concept of compressibility, now associated with a warm beam model, to evaluate the time scale for saturation and the peak laser intensity in high-gain regimes. Although vanishing compressibilites and the associated divergent densities are absent in warm models, a series of discontinuities in the electron density precede the saturation process. We show that full wave-particle simulations agree well with the predictions of the model.

  12. Ultrafast electron transport across nano gaps in nanowire circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potma, Eric O.

    2015-07-31

    In this Program we aim for a closer look at electron transfer through single molecules. To achieve this, we use ultrafast laser pulses to time stamp an electron tunneling event in a molecule that is connected between two metallic electrodes, while reading out the electron current. A key aspect of this project is the use of metallic substrates with plasmonic activity to efficiently manipulate the tunneling probability. The first Phase of this program is concerned with developing highly sensitive tools for the ultrafast optical manipulation of tethered molecules through the evanescent surface field of plasmonic substrates. The second Phase of the program aims to use these tools for exercising control over the electron tunneling probability.

  13. Time-dependent first-principles approaches to PV materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki

    2013-12-10

    Computational scheme for designing photovoltaic (PV) materials is presented. First-principles electron dynamics of photo-excitation and subsequent electron-hole splitting is performed based on the time-dependent density functional theory. Photo-induced enhancement of dipole moment was observed in a polar crystal and a donor-acceptor molecular pair. These experiences will pave a way to design PV material from first-principles simulations.

  14. ECR ion source with electron gun

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.

    1993-10-26

    An Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source having an electron gun for introducing electrons into the plasma chamber of the ion source is described. The ion source has a injection enclosure and a plasma chamber tank. The plasma chamber is defined by a plurality of longitudinal magnets. The electron gun injects electrons axially into the plasma chamber such that ionization within the plasma chamber occurs in the presence of the additional electrons produced by the electron gun. The electron gun has a cathode for emitting electrons therefrom which is heated by current supplied from an AC power supply while bias potential is provided by a bias power supply. A concentric inner conductor and outer conductor carry heating current to a carbon chuck and carbon pusher which hold the cathode in place and also heat the cathode. In the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, the electron gun replaces the conventional first stage used in prior electron cyclotron resonance ion generators. 5 figures.

  15. Genepool Time Heatmaps

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Genepool Time Heatmaps Heatmap of Time and Slots Requested vs Time Waited (in hours) | Queue: All | Last 7 Days Time Requested Slots <1h 1-2h 2-6h 6-12h 12-24h 24-36h 36-48h 48h-1wk >1wk Job Count Longest Wait 1 23.0 (233) 0.37 (1819) 27.54 (49888) 5.85 (124593) 1.23 (39835) 0.34 (732) 0 0.4 (224) 0.02 (1) 217325 538.96 2 0 0.01 (19) 2.54 (78) 0.2 (140) 0.99 (2683) 0 0 0 0 2920 9.1 4 0.08 (1) 0 2.82 (141) 0.36 (143) 1.07 (12) 0.06 (5) 0.01 (5) 0.06 (1) 1.3 (5) 313 20.48 6 0.01 (2) 0 0.09

  16. Time reversal communication system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Candy, James V. (Danville, CA); Meyer, Alan W. (Danville, CA)

    2008-12-02

    A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

  17. Time-Encoded Imagers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik

    2014-11-01

    This report provides a short overview of the DNN R&D funded project, Time-Encoded Imagers. The project began in FY11 and concluded in FY14. The Project Description below provides the overall motivation and objectives for the project as well as a summary of programmatic direction. It is followed by a short description of each task and the resulting deliverables.

  18. Time and Attendance Reporting

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-10-22

    DOE O 535.1 establishes the Department's requirements and responsibilities governing time and attendance reporting. The purpose of this revision is to reflect the transition of payroll processing from the Capital Accounting Center to the Defense Finance and Accounting System. Cancels DOE O 3600.1B. Canceled by DOE O 322.1C.

  19. ELECTRON CORRELATION AND RELATIVITY OF THE 5F ELECTRONS IN THE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ELECTRON CORRELATION AND RELATIVITY OF THE 5F ELECTRONS IN THE U-ZR ALLOY SYSTEM Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ELECTRON CORRELATION AND RELATIVITY OF THE 5F ELECTRONS...

  20. Electron beam ion source and electron beam ion trap (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, Reinard [Scientific Software Service, Kapellenweg 2a, D-63571 Gelnhausen (Germany); Kester, Oliver [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) and its trap variant [electron beam ion trap (EBIT)] celebrated their 40th and 20th anniversary, respectively, at the EBIS/T Symposium 2007 in Heidelberg. These technologically challenging sources of highly charged ions have seen a broad development in many countries over the last decades. In contrast to most other ion sources the recipe of improvement was not ''sorcery'' but a clear understanding of the physical laws and obeying the technological constraints. This review will report important achievements of the past as well as promising developments in the future.

  1. Electron geodesic acoustic modes in electron temperature gradient mode turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Johan; Nordman, Hans [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Singh, Raghvendra; Kaw, Predhiman [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2012-08-15

    In this work, the first demonstration of an electron branch of the geodesic acoustic mode (el-GAM) driven by electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes is presented. The work is based on a fluid description of the ETG mode retaining non-adiabatic ions and the dispersion relation for el-GAMs driven nonlinearly by ETG modes is derived. A new saturation mechanism for ETG turbulence through the interaction with el-GAMs is found, resulting in a significantly enhanced ETG turbulence saturation level compared to the mixing length estimate.

  2. Study of nonlinear electron-acoustic solitary and shock waves in a dissipative, nonplanar space plasma with superthermal hot electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Jiu-Ning He, Yong-Lin; Luo, Jun-Hua; Nan, Ya-Gong; Han, Zhen-Hai; Dong, Guang-Xing; Duan, Wen-Shan; Li, Jun-Xiu

    2014-01-15

    With the consideration of the superthermal electron distribution, we present a theoretical investigation about the nonlinear propagation of electron-acoustic solitary and shock waves in a dissipative, nonplanar non-Maxwellian plasma comprised of cold electrons, superthermal hot electrons, and stationary ions. The reductive perturbation technique is used to obtain a modified Korteweg-de Vries Burgers equation for nonlinear waves in this plasma. We discuss the effects of various plasma parameters on the time evolution of nonplanar solitary waves, the profile of shock waves, and the nonlinear structure induced by the collision between planar solitary waves. It is found that these parameters have significant effects on the properties of nonlinear waves and collision-induced nonlinear structure.

  3. Vickers Electronics Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vickers Electronics Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Vickers Electronics Ltd Place: United Kingdom Product: Manchester-based company which installs an Energy Management System...

  4. Suzhou Good Ark Electronics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Good Ark Electronics Jump to: navigation, search Name: Suzhou Good-Ark Electronics Place: Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China Zip: 215011 Product: Good-Ark mainly offers diodes, bridge...

  5. Central Electronics Limited CEL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electronics Limited CEL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Central Electronics Limited (CEL) Place: Sahibabad, Uttar Pradesh, India Zip: 201010 Sector: Solar Product: String...

  6. MGI Electronics LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MGI Electronics LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: MGI Electronics LLC Place: Temple, Arizona Zip: 85282 Product: US-based manufacturer of wafer transfer and PV cell handling...

  7. Green Electronics Council | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electronics Council Jump to: navigation, search Name: Green Electronics Council Place: Portland, Oregon Product: Oregon-based program that supports the design, manufacture, use and...

  8. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    between different theoretical models and experimental data indicated that, instead of localized states due to strong electron interactions, electrons in iron pnictides prefer...

  9. Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration Integrated Power Module Cooling Vehicle Technologies Office: 2009 Advanced Power Electronics R&D Annual Progress Report

  10. Solera Sustainable Energies Company formerly Phantom Electron...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solera Sustainable Energies Company formerly Phantom Electron Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solera Sustainable Energies Company (formerly Phantom Electron Corp) Place:...

  11. Materials Compatibility of Power Electronics | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Materials Compatibility of Power Electronics Vehicle Technologies Office: 2008 Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machinery R&D Annual Progress ...

  12. Consumer Electronics Show 2013 Highlights Sustainable Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Consumer Electronics Show 2013 Highlights Sustainable Energy Technology Consumer Electronics Show 2013 Highlights Sustainable Energy Technology January 18, 2013 - 4:52pm Addthis ...

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2008 Advanced Power Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Electronics and Electric Machinery R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2008 Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machinery R&D Annual Progress Report ...

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2012 Advanced Power Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2012 Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors R&D Annual Progress ...

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2011 Advanced Power Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Electronics and Electric Motors R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2011 Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors R&D Annual Progress Report The ...

  16. Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Machines Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and ... More Documents & Publications Advnaced Power Electronics and Electric Machines (APEEM) R&D ...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Advanced Power Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Electronics and Electric Motors R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors R&D Annual Progress Report The ...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2009 Advanced Power Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Electronics R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2009 Advanced Power Electronics R&D Annual Progress Report Annual report focusing on understanding and ...

  19. Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Applications Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen ...

  20. Scientific Achievement Analytical Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analytical Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) method was developed to determine thickness and wrinkles in electron beam sensitive 2-dimensional (2D) MFI nanosheets....

  1. Electronic Spin Transition in Nanosize Stoichiometric Lithium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Electronic Spin Transition in Nanosize Stoichiometric Lithium Cobalt Oxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronic ...

  2. Appliances and Electronics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    appliances Home office and electronics. Follow Us followontwitter.png followonfacebook.png Appliance & Electronics Blogs Save Energy on Appliances this Holiday Season...

  3. Sharp Electronics Corporation USA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electronics Corporation USA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sharp Electronics Corporation (USA) Place: Huntington Beach, California Zip: 92647 Product: North American division of...

  4. Bihar State Electronics Development Corporation Ltd Beltron ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    lanterns and other PV systems, as part of a business involving other electronic and computer goods and services. References: Bihar State Electronics Development Corporation Ltd...

  5. MEMC Electronic Materials Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MEMC Electronic Materials Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: MEMC Electronic Materials Inc Place: St. Peters, Missouri Zip: 63376 Product: US-based manufacturer of silicon-based...

  6. Attosecond Electron Wave-Packet Interference Observed by Transient Absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holler, M.; Schapper, F.; Gallmann, L.; Keller, U.

    2011-03-25

    We perform attosecond time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy around the first ionization threshold of helium and observe rapid oscillations of the absorption of the individual harmonics as a function of time delay with respect to a superimposed, moderately strong infrared laser field. The phase relation between the absorption modulation of individual harmonics gives direct evidence for the interference of transiently bound electronic wave packets as the mechanism behind the absorption modulation.

  7. Nanomaterials Analysis using a Scanning Electron Microscope | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Nanomaterials Analysis using a Scanning Electron Microscope Technology available for licensing: Steradian X-ray detection system increases the detection capability of SEMs during nanomaterials analysis. Increases detection capabilities of SEMs at the nanoscale by up to 500% Reduces the time and cost of routine nanomaterials analysis PDF icon PiSteradian

  8. Quantum and classical correlations in electron-nuclear spin echo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zobov, V. E.

    2014-11-15

    The quantum properties of dynamic correlations in a system of an electron spin surrounded by nuclear spins under the conditions of free induction decay and electron spin echo have been studied. Analytical results for the time evolution of mutual information, classical part of correlations, and quantum part characterized by quantum discord have been obtained within the central-spin model in the high-temperature approximation. The same formulas describe discord in both free induction decay and spin echo although the time and magnetic field dependences are different because of difference in the parameters entering into the formulas. Changes in discord in the presence of the nuclear polarization ?{sub I} in addition to the electron polarization ?{sub S} have been calculated. It has been shown that the method of reduction of the density matrix to a two-spin electron-nuclear system provides a qualitatively correct description of pair correlations playing the main role at ?{sub S} ? ?{sub I} and small times. At large times, such correlations decay and multispin correlations ensuring nonzero mutual information and zero quantum discord become dominant.

  9. Polymer electronic devices and materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schubert, William Kent; Baca, Paul Martin; Dirk, Shawn M.; Anderson, G. Ronald; Wheeler, David Roger

    2006-01-01

    Polymer electronic devices and materials have vast potential for future microsystems and could have many advantages over conventional inorganic semiconductor based systems, including ease of manufacturing, cost, weight, flexibility, and the ability to integrate a wide variety of functions on a single platform. Starting materials and substrates are relatively inexpensive and amenable to mass manufacturing methods. This project attempted to plant the seeds for a new core competency in polymer electronics at Sandia National Laboratories. As part of this effort a wide variety of polymer components and devices, ranging from simple resistors to infrared sensitive devices, were fabricated and characterized. Ink jet printing capabilities were established. In addition to promising results on prototype devices the project highlighted the directions where future investments must be made to establish a viable polymer electronics competency.

  10. Modeling Incoherent Electron Cloud Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vay, Jean-Luc; Benedetto, E.; Fischer, W.; Franchetti, G.; Ohmi, K.; Schulte, D.; Sonnad, K.; Tomas, R.; Vay, J.-L.; Zimmermann, F.; Rumolo, G.; Pivi, M.; Raubenheimer, T.

    2007-06-18

    Incoherent electron effects could seriously limit the beam lifetime in proton or ion storage rings, such as LHC, SPS, or RHIC, or blow up the vertical emittance of positron beams, e.g., at the B factories or in linear-collider damping rings. Different approaches to modeling these effects each have their own merits and drawbacks. We describe several simulation codes which simplify the descriptions of the beam-electron interaction and of the accelerator structure in various different ways, and present results for a toy model of the SPS. In addition, we present evidence that for positron beams the interplay of incoherent electron-cloud effects and synchrotron radiation can lead to a significant increase in vertical equilibrium emittance. The magnitude of a few incoherent e+e- scattering processes is also estimated. Options for future code development are reviewed.

  11. Tevatron injection timing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saritepe, S.; Annala, G.

    1993-06-01

    Bunched beam transfer from one accelerator to another requires coordination and synchronization of many ramped devices. During collider operation timing issues are more complicated since one has to switch from proton injection devices to antiproton injection devices. Proton and antiproton transfers are clearly distinct sequences since protons and antiprotons circulate in opposite directions in the Main Ring (MR) and in the Tevatron. The time bumps are different, the kicker firing delays are different, the kickers and lambertson magnets are different, etc. Antiprotons are too precious to be used for tuning purposes, therefore protons are transferred from the Tevatron back into the Main Ring, tracing the path of antiprotons backwards. This tuning operation is called ``reverse injection.`` Previously, the reverse injection was handled in one supercycle. One batch of uncoalesced bunches was injected into the Tevatron and ejected after 40 seconds. Then the orbit closure was performed in the MR. In the new scheme the lambertson magnets have to be moved and separator polarities have to be switched, activities that cannot be completed in one supercycle. Therefore, the reverse injection sequence was changed. This involved the redefinition of TVBS clock event $D8 as MRBS $D8 thus making it possible to inject 6 proton batches (or coalesced bunches) and eject them one at a time on command, performing orbit closure each time in the MR. Injection devices are clock event driven. The TCLK is used as the reference clock. Certain TCLK events are triggered by the MR beam synchronized clock (MRBS) events. Some delays are measured in terms of MRBS ticks and MR revolutions. See Appendix A for a brief description of the beam synchronized clocks.

  12. The acceleration of electrons at perpendicular shocks and its implication for solar energetic particle events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo Fan; Giacalone, Joe

    2012-11-20

    We present a study of the acceleration of electrons at a perpendicular shock that propagates through a turbulent magnetic field. The energization process of electrons is investigated by utilizing a combination of hybrid (kinetic ions and fluid electron) simulations and test-particle electron simulations. In this method, the motions of the test-particle electrons are numerically integrated in the time-dependent electric and magnetic fields generated by two-dimensional hybrid simulations. We show that large-scale magnetic fluctuations effect electrons in a number of ways and lead to efficient and rapid energization at the shock front. Since the electrons mainly follow along magnetic lines of force, the large-scale braiding of field lines in space allows the fast-moving electrons to interact with the shock front and get accelerated multiple times. Ripples in the shock front occurring at various scales will also contribute to the acceleration by mirroring the electrons. Our calculation shows that this process favors electron acceleration at perpendicular shocks. The acceleration efficiency is critically dependent on the turbulence amplitude and coherence length. We also discuss the implication of this study for solar energetic particles (SEPs) by comparing the acceleration of electrons with that of protons. Their correlation indicates that perpendicular shocks play an important role in SEP events.

  13. Sifting Through a Trillion Electrons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sifting Through a Trillion Electrons Sifting Through a Trillion Electrons Berkeley researchers design strategies for extracting interesting data from massive scientific datasets June 26, 2012 Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, +1 510 495 2402 VPIC1.jpg After querying a dataset of approximately 114,875,956,837 particles for those with Energy values less than 1.5, FastQuery identifies 57,740,614 particles, which are mapped on this plot. Image by Oliver Rubel, Berkeley Lab. Modern research tools like

  14. Direct cooled power electronics substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W. [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T. [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-14

    The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

  15. Electronic imaging system and technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolstad, J.O.

    1984-06-12

    A method and system for viewing objects obscurred by intense plasmas or flames (such as a welding arc) includes a pulsed light source to illuminate the object, the peak brightness of the light reflected from the object being greater than the brightness of the intense plasma or flame; an electronic image sensor for detecting a pulsed image of the illuminated object, the sensor being operated as a high-speed shutter; and electronic means for synchronizing the shutter operation with the pulsed light source.

  16. Electronic imaging system and technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolstad, Jon O. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1987-01-01

    A method and system for viewing objects obscurred by intense plasmas or flames (such as a welding arc) includes a pulsed light source to illuminate the object, the peak brightness of the light reflected from the object being greater than the brightness of the intense plasma or flame; an electronic image sensor for detecting a pulsed image of the illuminated object, the sensor being operated as a high-speed shutter; and electronic means for synchronizing the shutter operation with the pulsed light source.

  17. Electronic Medical Business Operations System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-04-16

    Electronic Management of medical records has taken a back seat both in private industry and in the government. Record volumes continue to rise every day and management of these paper records is inefficient and very expensive. In 2005, the White House announced support for the development of electronic medical records across the federal government. In 2006, the DOE issued 10 CFR 851 requiring all medical records be electronically available by 2015. The Y-12 National Securitymore » Complex is currently investing funds to develop a comprehensive EMR to incorporate the requirements of an occupational health facility which are common across the Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC). Scheduling, workflow, and data capture from medical surveillance, certification, and qualification examinations are core pieces of the system. The Electronic Medical Business Operations System (EMBOS) will provide a comprehensive health tool solution to 10 CFR 851 for Y-12 and can be leveraged to the Nuclear Weapon Complex (NWC); all site in the NWC must meet the requirements of 10 CFR 851 which states that all medical records must be electronically available by 2015. There is also potential to leverage EMBOS to the private4 sector. EMBOS is being developed and deployed in phases. When fully deployed the EMBOS will be a state-of-the-art web-enabled integrated electronic solution providing a complete electronic medical record (EMR). EMBOS has been deployed and provides a dynamic electronic medical history and surveillance program (e.g., Asbestos, Hearing Conservation, and Respirator Wearer) questionnaire. Table 1 below lists EMBOS capabilities and data to be tracked. Data to be tracked: Patient Demographics – Current/Historical; Physical Examination Data; Employee Medical Health History; Medical Surveillance Programs; Patient and Provider Schedules; Medical Qualification/Certifications; Laboratory Data; Standardized Abnormal Lab Notifications; Prescription Medication Tracking and Dispensing; Allergies; Non-Occupational Illness and Injury Visits; Occupational Recommendations/Restrictions; Diagnosis/Vital Signs/Blood Pressures; Immunizations; Return to Work Visits Capabilities: Targeted Health Assessments; Patient Input Capabilities for Questionnaires; Medical Health History; Surveillance Programs; Human Reliability Program; Scheduling; Automated Patient Check-in/Check-out; Provider & Patient Workflow; Laboratory Interface & Device Integration; Human Reliability Program Processing; Interoperability with SAP, IH, IS, RADCON; Coding: ICED-9/10; Desktop Integration; Interface/Storage of Digital X-Rays (PACS)« less

  18. Direct observation of the structural and electronic changes of Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} during electron irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Klie, Robert F. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Iddir, Hakim [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Abraham, Daniel P. [Argonne National Laboratory, Chemical Sciences and Engineering, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    This study focuses on the effects of electron beam induced irradiation to the layered oxide Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy are used to characterize structural and electronic transitions in the material during irradiation, with a focus on changes in Mn valence and O content. This truly in situ irradiation allows for specific particle tracking, dose quantification, and real-time observation, while demonstrating many parallels to the oxide's structure evolution observed during electrochemical cycling. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that typical imaging conditions are not severe enough to induce damage to the pristine oxide.

  19. Sublinear scaling for time-dependent stochastic density functional theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yi; Neuhauser, Daniel; Baer, Roi; Rabani, Eran

    2015-01-21

    A stochastic approach to time-dependent density functional theory is developed for computing the absorption cross section and the random phase approximation (RPA) correlation energy. The core idea of the approach involves time-propagation of a small set of stochastic orbitals which are first projected on the occupied space and then propagated in time according to the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations. The evolving electron density is exactly represented when the number of random orbitals is infinite, but even a small number (≈16) of such orbitals is enough to obtain meaningful results for absorption spectrum and the RPA correlation energy per electron. We implement the approach for silicon nanocrystals using real-space grids and find that the overall scaling of the algorithm is sublinear with computational time and memory.

  20. Aug 2010 Times

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 August 2010 www.y12.doe.gov/news/times.php P.O. Box 2009 Oak Ridge, TN 37831-8245 W H A T ' S I N S I D E Page 2 ARRA work continues Page 4 Sharing secrets with the public Page 5 Apprentices are a sure bet Page 6 Need a yo-yo? Stop by JA BizTown's Y-12 booth Page 8 Employees drop the pounds B&W Technical Services Y-12, LLC, a partnership between Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Group Inc. and Bechtel National Inc., operates the Y-12 National Security Complex. A newsletter for

  1. Dec 09 Times

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 December 2009 www.y12.doe.gov/news/times.php P.O. Box 2009 Oak Ridge, TN 37831-8245 W H A T ' S I N S I D E Pages 2 and 3 The Top 10 of 2009 Pages 4 and 5 More Q and A with Darrel Kohlhorst: What's ahead for 2010 Page 6 Holiday wishes to you and yours Page 8 Sharing the holiday spirit with those who protect our country B&W Technical Services Y-12, LLC, a partnership between Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Group Inc. and Bechtel National Inc., operates the Y-12 National Security

  2. Real time Faraday spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Tommy E. (Fremont, CA); Struve, Kenneth W. (Albuquerque, NM); Colella, Nicholas J. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    This invention uses a dipole magnet to bend the path of a charged particle beam. As the deflected particles exit the magnet, they are spatially dispersed in the bend-plane of the magnet according to their respective momenta and pass to a plurality of chambers having Faraday probes positioned therein. Both the current and energy distribution of the particles is then determined by the non-intersecting Faraday probes located along the chambers. The Faraday probes are magnetically isolated from each other by thin metal walls of the chambers, effectively providing real time current-versus-energy particle measurements.

  3. Electron gun controlled smart structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Jeffrey W.; Main, John Alan; Redmond, James M.; Henson, Tammy D.; Watson, Robert D.

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is a method and system for actively controlling the shape of a sheet of electroactive material; the system comprising: one or more electrodes attached to the frontside of the electroactive sheet; a charged particle generator, disposed so as to direct a beam of charged particles (e.g. electrons) onto the electrode; a conductive substrate attached to the backside of the sheet; and a power supply electrically connected to the conductive substrate; whereby the sheet changes its shape in response to an electric field created across the sheet by an accumulation of electric charge within the electrode(s), relative to a potential applied to the conductive substrate. Use of multiple electrodes distributed across on the frontside ensures a uniform distribution of the charge with a single point of e-beam incidence, thereby greatly simplifying the beam scanning algorithm and raster control electronics, and reducing the problems associated with "blooming". By placing a distribution of electrodes over the front surface of a piezoelectric film (or other electroactive material), this arrangement enables improved control over the distribution of surface electric charges (e.g. electrons) by creating uniform (and possibly different) charge distributions within each individual electrode. Removal or deposition of net electric charge can be affected by controlling the secondary electron yield through manipulation of the backside electric potential with the power supply. The system can be used for actively controlling the shape of space-based deployable optics, such as adaptive mirrors and inflatable antennae.

  4. Secondary electron ion source neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, J.P.; McCollister, D.R.

    1998-04-28

    A neutron generator employing an electron emitter, an ion source bombarded by the electrons from the electron emitter, a plasma containment zone, and a target situated between the plasma containment zone and the electron emitter is disclosed. The target contains occluded deuterium, tritium, or a mixture thereof. 4 figs.

  5. Secondary electron ion source neutron generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); McCollister, Daryl R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A neutron generator employing an electron emitter, an ion source bombarded by the electrons from the electron emitter, a plasma containment zone, and a target situated between the plasma containment zone and the electron emitter. The target contains occluded deuterium, tritium, or a mixture thereof

  6. Fluctuation characteristics and transport properties of collisionless trapped electron mode turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao Yong; Holod, Ihor; Zhang Wenlu; Lin Zhihong [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Klasky, Scott [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The collisionless trapped electron mode turbulence is investigated by global gyrokinetic particle simulation. The zonal flow dominated by low frequency and short wavelength acts as a very important saturation mechanism. The turbulent eddies are mostly microscopic, but with a significant portion in the mesoscale. The ion heat transport is found to be diffusive and follows the local radial profile of the turbulence intensity. However, the electron heat transport demonstrates some nondiffusive features and only follows the global profile of the turbulence intensity. The nondiffusive features of the electron heat transport is further confirmed by nonlognormal statistics of the flux-surface-averaged electron heat flux. The radial and time correlation functions are calculated to obtain the radial correlation length and autocorrelation time. Characteristic time scale analysis shows that the zonal flow shearing time and eddy turnover time are very close to the effective decorrelation time, which suggests that the trapped electrons move with the fluid eddies. The fluidlike behaviors of the trapped electrons and the persistence of the mesoscale eddies contribute to the transition of the electron turbulent transport from gyro-Bohm scaling to Bohm scaling when the device size decreases.

  7. Electron Solvation Dynamics and Reactivity in Ionic Liquids Observed by Picosecond RadiolysisTechniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wishart J. F.; Funston, A.M.; Szreder, T.; Cook, A.R.; Gohdo, M.

    2012-01-01

    On time scales of a nanosecond or less, radiolytically-generated excess electrons in ionic liquids undergo solvation processes and reactions that determine all subsequent chemistry and the accumulation of radiolytic damage. Using picosecond pulse radiolysis detection methods, we observed and quantified the solvation response of the electron in 1-methyl-1-butyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide and used it to understand electron scavenging by a typical solute, duroquinone.

  8. Airborne Tactical Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy Whitney; George Neil

    2007-02-01

    The goal of 100 kilowatts (kW) of directed energy from an airborne tactical platform has proved challenging due to the size and weight of most of the options that have been considered. However, recent advances in Free-Electron Lasers appear to offer a solution along with significant tactical advantages: a nearly unlimited magazine, time structures for periods from milliseconds to hours, radar like functionality, and the choice of the wavelength of light that best meets mission requirements. For an Airborne Tactical Free-Electron Laser (ATFEL) on a platforms such as a Lockheed C-130J-30 and airships, the two most challenging requirements, weight and size, can be met by generating the light at a higher harmonic, aggressively managing magnet weights, managing cryogenic heat loads using recent SRF R&D results, and using FEL super compact design concepts that greatly reduce the number of components. The initial R&D roadmap for achieving an ATFEL is provided in this paper. Performing this R&D is expected to further reduce the weight, size and power requirements for the FELs the Navy is currently developing for shipboard applications, as well as providing performance enhancements for the strategic airborne MW class FELs. The 100 kW ATFEL with its tactical advantages may prove sufficiently attractive for early advancement in the queue of deployed FELs.

  9. High-performance computing of electron microstructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Birnir, B.; Galdrikian, B.; Wang, L. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1998-12-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project was a collaboration between the Quantum Institute at the University of California-Santa Barbara (UCSB) and the Condensed Matter and Statistical Physics Group at LANL. The project objective, which was successfully accomplished, was to model quantum properties of semiconductor nanostructures that were fabricated and measured at UCSB using dedicated molecular-beam epitaxy and free-electron laser facilities. A nonperturbative dynamic quantum theory was developed for systems driven by time-periodic external fields. For such systems, dynamic energy spectra of electrons and photons and their corresponding wave functions were obtained. The results are in good agreement with experimental investigations. The algorithms developed are ideally suited for massively parallel computing facilities and provide a fundamental advance in the ability to predict quantum-well properties and guide their engineering. This is a definite step forward in the development of nonlinear optical devices.

  10. Study of electron transport in hydrocarbon gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasegawa, H.; Date, H.

    2015-04-07

    The drift velocity and the effective ionization coefficient of electrons in the organic gases, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, CH{sub 3}OH, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH, C{sub 6}H{sub 6}, and C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 3}, have been measured over relatively wide ranges of density-reduced electric fields (E/N) at room temperature (around 300?K). The drift velocity was measured, based on the arrival-time spectra of electrons by using a double-shutter drift tube over the E/N range from 300 to 2800 Td, and the effective ionization coefficient (?????) was determined by the steady-state Townsend method from 150 to 3000 Td. Whenever possible, these parameters were compared with those available in the literature. It has been shown that the swarm parameters for these gases have specific tendencies, depending on their molecular configurations.

  11. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scanning Electron Microscopy Researcher using field-emission scanning electron microscope. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) JEOL 6320F. This FE-SEM equipped with a cold field-emission source and in-lens detectors is designed for ultra-high resolution at low accelerating voltage. Compositional mapping by energy-dispersive microscopy and Electron Backscattered Diffraction are available. In basic scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a beam of highly energetic (0.1-50 keV)

  12. Date Times Group Speakers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Meetings - Spring 2014 Date Times Group Speakers Tues, 1-13 2:30-3:30pm Faculty Meeting Fri, 1-24 12:30-1:30pm Group Research Meeting Emmanuel Giannelis Fri, 1-31 12:30-1:30pm Student & Postdoc Mtg Apostolos Enotiadis; Nikki Ritzert & Megan Holtz Fri, 2-7 12:30-1:30pm Group Research Meeting CHESS Mon, 2-10 2:30-3:30pm Faculty Meeting Will Dichtel Fri, 2-14 12:30-1:30pm Student & Postdoc Mtg Frank DiSalvo Fri, 2-21 12:30-1:30pm Group Research Meeting Lynden Archer Fri, 2-28

  13. Real time automated inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fant, K.M.; Fundakowski, R.A.; Levitt, T.S.; Overland, J.E.; Suresh, B.R.; Ulrich, F.W.

    1985-05-21

    A method and apparatus are described relating to the real time automatic detection and classification of characteristic type surface imperfections occurring on the surfaces of material of interest such as moving hot metal slabs produced by a continuous steel caster. A data camera transversely scans continuous lines of such a surface to sense light intensities of scanned pixels and generates corresponding voltage values. The voltage values are converted to corresponding digital values to form a digital image of the surface which is subsequently processed to form an edge-enhanced image having scan lines characterized by intervals corresponding to the edges of the image. The edge-enhanced image is thresholded to segment out the edges and objects formed by the edges by interval matching and bin tracking. Features of the objects are derived and such features are utilized to classify the objects into characteristic type surface imperfections. 43 figs.

  14. Real time automated inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fant, Karl M. (Minneapolis, MN); Fundakowski, Richard A. (Saint Paul, MN); Levitt, Tod S. (Minneapolis, MN); Overland, John E. (Plymouth, MN); Suresh, Bindinganavle R. (New Brighton, MN); Ulrich, Franz W. (Minneapolis, MN)

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus relating to the real time automatic detection and classification of characteristic type surface imperfections occurring on the surfaces of material of interest such as moving hot metal slabs produced by a continuous steel caster. A data camera transversely scans continuous lines of such a surface to sense light intensities of scanned pixels and generates corresponding voltage values. The voltage values are converted to corresponding digital values to form a digital image of the surface which is subsequently processed to form an edge-enhanced image having scan lines characterized by intervals corresponding to the edges of the image. The edge-enhanced image is thresholded to segment out the edges and objects formed by the edges are segmented out by interval matching and bin tracking. Features of the objects are derived and such features are utilized to classify the objects into characteristic type surface imperfections.

  15. Time encoded radiation imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik; Kiff, Scott

    2014-10-21

    The various technologies presented herein relate to detecting nuclear material at a large stand-off distance. An imaging system is presented which can detect nuclear material by utilizing time encoded imaging relating to maximum and minimum radiation particle counts rates. The imaging system is integrated with a data acquisition system that can utilize variations in photon pulse shape to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray interactions. Modulation in the detected neutron count rates as a function of the angular orientation of the detector due to attenuation of neighboring detectors is utilized to reconstruct the neutron source distribution over 360 degrees around the imaging system. Neutrons (e.g., fast neutrons) and/or gamma-rays are incident upon scintillation material in the imager, the photons generated by the scintillation material are converted to electrical energy from which the respective neutrons/gamma rays can be determined and, accordingly, a direction to, and the location of, a radiation source identified.

  16. Electronically induced surface reactions: Evolution, concepts, and perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menzel, Dietrich

    2012-09-07

    This is a personal account of the development of the title subject which is the broader field encompassing surface photochemistry. It describes the early times when the main interest centered on desorption induced by slow electrons, follows its evolution in experiment (use of synchrotron radiation and connections to electron spectroscopies; use of lasers) and mechanisms, and briefly mentions the many different subfields that have evolved. It discusses some practically important aspects and applications and ends with an account of an evolving new subfield, the application to photochemistry on nanoparticles.

  17. Molecular shock response of explosives: electronic absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcgrne, Shawn D; Moore, David S; Whitley, Von H; Bolme, Cindy A; Eakins, Daniel E

    2009-01-01

    Electronic absorption spectroscopy in the range 400-800 nm was coupled to ultrafast laser generated shocks to begin addressing the question of the extent to which electronic excitations are involved in shock induced reactions. Data are presented on shocked polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) thin films and single crystal pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). Shocked PMMA exhibited thin film interference effects from the shock front. Shocked PETN exhibited interference from the shock front as well as broadband increased absorption. Relation to shock initiation hypotheses and the need for time dependent absorption data (future experiments) is briefly discussed.

  18. Concurrent in situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscope

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hattar, K.; Bufford, D. C.; Buller, D. L.

    2014-08-29

    An in situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscope has been developed and is operational at Sandia National Laboratories. This facility permits high spatial resolution, real time observation of electron transparent samples under ion irradiation, implantation, mechanical loading, corrosive environments, and combinations thereof. This includes the simultaneous implantation of low-energy gas ions (0.8–30 keV) during high-energy heavy ion irradiation (0.8–48 MeV). In addition, initial results in polycrystalline gold foils are provided to demonstrate the range of capabilities.

  19. Multifunctional bulk plasma source based on discharge with electron injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klimov, A. S.; Medovnik, A. V.; Tyunkov, A. V.; Savkin, K. P.; Shandrikov, M. V.; Vizir, A. V.

    2013-01-15

    A bulk plasma source, based on a high-current dc glow discharge with electron injection, is described. Electron injection and some special design features of the plasma arc emitter provide a plasma source with very long periods between maintenance down-times and a long overall lifetime. The source uses a sectioned sputter-electrode array with six individual sputter targets, each of which can be independently biased. This discharge assembly configuration provides multifunctional operation, including plasma generation from different gases (argon, nitrogen, oxygen, acetylene) and deposition of composite metal nitride and oxide coatings.

  20. Testing aspects of advanced coherent electron cooling technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, V.; Jing, Y.; Pinayev, I.; Wang, G.; Samulyak, R.; Ratner, D.

    2015-05-03

    An advanced version of the Coherent-electron Cooling (CeC) based on the micro-bunching instability was proposed. This approach promises significant increase in the bandwidth of the CeC system and, therefore, significant shortening of cooling time in high-energy hadron colliders. In this paper we present our plans of simulating and testing the key aspects of this proposed technique using the set-up of the coherent-electron-cooling proof-of-principle experiment at BNL.

  1. Electron density and electron temperature measurement in a bi-Maxwellian electron distribution using a derivative method of Langmuir probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Ikjin; Chung, ChinWook [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Youn Moon, Se [High-Enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)] [High-Enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    In plasma diagnostics with a single Langmuir probe, the electron temperature T{sub e} is usually obtained from the slope of the logarithm of the electron current or from the electron energy probability functions of current (I)-voltage (V) curve. Recently, Chen [F. F. Chen, Phys. Plasmas 8, 3029 (2001)] suggested a derivative analysis method to obtain T{sub e} by the ratio between the probe current and the derivative of the probe current at a plasma potential where the ion current becomes zero. Based on this method, electron temperatures and electron densities were measured and compared with those from the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) measurement in Maxwellian and bi-Maxwellian electron distribution conditions. In a bi-Maxwellian electron distribution, we found the electron temperature T{sub e} obtained from the method is always lower than the effective temperatures T{sub eff} derived from EEDFs. The theoretical analysis for this is presented.

  2. Xyce parallel electronic simulator : users' guide.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Ting; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Santarelli, Keith R.; Fixel, Deborah A.; Coffey, Todd Stirling; Russo, Thomas V.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Warrender, Christina E.; Keiter, Eric Richard; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick

    2011-05-01

    This manual describes the use of the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator. Xyce has been designed as a SPICE-compatible, high-performance analog circuit simulator, and has been written to support the simulation needs of the Sandia National Laboratories electrical designers. This development has focused on improving capability over the current state-of-the-art in the following areas: (1) Capability to solve extremely large circuit problems by supporting large-scale parallel computing platforms (up to thousands of processors). Note that this includes support for most popular parallel and serial computers; (2) Improved performance for all numerical kernels (e.g., time integrator, nonlinear and linear solvers) through state-of-the-art algorithms and novel techniques. (3) Device models which are specifically tailored to meet Sandia's needs, including some radiation-aware devices (for Sandia users only); and (4) Object-oriented code design and implementation using modern coding practices that ensure that the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator will be maintainable and extensible far into the future. Xyce is a parallel code in the most general sense of the phrase - a message passing parallel implementation - which allows it to run efficiently on the widest possible number of computing platforms. These include serial, shared-memory and distributed-memory parallel as well as heterogeneous platforms. Careful attention has been paid to the specific nature of circuit-simulation problems to ensure that optimal parallel efficiency is achieved as the number of processors grows. The development of Xyce provides a platform for computational research and development aimed specifically at the needs of the Laboratory. With Xyce, Sandia has an 'in-house' capability with which both new electrical (e.g., device model development) and algorithmic (e.g., faster time-integration methods, parallel solver algorithms) research and development can be performed. As a result, Xyce is a unique electrical simulation capability, designed to meet the unique needs of the laboratory.

  3. Webinar October 21: Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department will present a live webinar titled "Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Applications" on Tuesday, October 21, from 12:00 to 1:00 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time. Representatives of Cree Inc., leading innovators in the WBG electronics industry, will be presenting.

  4. LHC RF System Time-Domain Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastorides, T.; Rivetta, C.

    2010-09-14

    Non-linear time-domain simulations have been developed for the Positron-Electron Project (PEP-II) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These simulations capture the dynamic behavior of the RF station-beam interaction and are structured to reproduce the technical characteristics of the system (noise contributions, non-linear elements, and more). As such, they provide useful results and insight for the development and design of future LLRF feedback systems. They are also a valuable tool for the study of diverse longitudinal beam dynamics effects such as coupled-bunch impedance driven instabilities and single bunch longitudinal emittance growth. Results from these studies and related measurements from PEP-II and LHC have been presented in multiple places. This report presents an example of the time-domain simulation implementation for the LHC.

  5. Electron capture and electron transport by fast ions penetrating solids: An open quantum system approach with sources and sinks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seliger, Marek; Reinhold, Carlos O.; Minami, Tatsuya; Schultz, David R.; Pindzola, Michael S.; Yoshida, Shuhei; Burgdoerfer, Joachim; Lamour, Emily; Rozet, Jean-Pierre; Vernhet, Dominique

    2007-03-15

    We present a joint theoretical and experimental study of the time evolution of electronic states of highly charged hydrogenic ions formed by capture during transmission through solids as they undergo multiple collisions and radiative decay. For this transport problem we have developed an inhomogeneous nonunitary Lindblad master equation that allows for a description of open quantum systems with both sinks (electron loss) and source (capture) present. We apply this theoretical framework to study transient coherences created in electron capture by 13.6 MeV/amu Ar{sup 18+} ions transmitted through amorphous carbon foils and decoherence during subsequent interaction with the foil. In the limit of thin targets we can directly probe electron capture cross sections under single collision conditions, while for thicker targets we follow the partially coherent dynamics of the open quantum system in interaction with the solid as a function of interaction time. The calculated results are in close agreement with experimental data obtained at the LISE facility in GANIL. Photon intensities from excited argon ions were determined through high resolution x-ray spectroscopy in which individual fine structure components were resolved. Measurements were performed for a wide range of carbon foil thickness to study the time development of the excited state populations.

  6. Electron Capture and Electron Transport by Fast Ions Penetrating Solids: An open Quantum System Approach with Sources and Sinks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seliger, M.

    2007-03-01

    We present a joint theoretical and experimental study of the time evolution of electronic states of highly charged hydrogenic ions formed by capture during transmission through solids as they undergo multiple collisions and radiative decay. For this transport problem we have developed an inhomogeneous nonunitary Lindblad master equation that allows for a description of open quantum systems with both sinks (electron loss) and source (capture) present. We apply this theoretical framework to study transient coherences created in electron capture by 13.6 MeV/amu Ar18+ ions transmitted through amorphous carbon foils and decoherence during subsequent interaction with the foil. In the limit of thin targets we can directly probe electron capture cross sections under single collision conditions, while for thicker targets we follow the partially coherent dynamics of the open quantum system in interaction with the solid as a function of interaction time. The calculated results are in close agreement with experimental data obtained at the LISE facility in GANIL. Photon intensities from excited argon ions were determined through high resolution x-ray spectroscopy in which individual fine structure components were resolved. Measurements were performed for a wide range of carbon foil thickness to study the time development of the excited state populations.

  7. Electronic transitions of palladium dimer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yue; Ng, Y. W.; Chen, Zhihua; Cheung, A. S.-C., E-mail: hrsccsc@hku.hk [Department of Chemistry, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    2013-11-21

    The laser induced fluorescence spectrum of palladium dimer (Pd{sub 2}) in the visible region between 480 and 700 nm has been observed and analyzed. The gas-phase Pd{sub 2} molecule was produced by laser ablation of palladium metal rod. Eleven vibrational bands were observed and assigned to the [17.1] {sup 3}II{sub g} - X{sup 3}?{sub u}{sup +} transition system. The bond length (r{sub o}) and vibrational frequency (?G{sub 1/2}) of the ground X{sup 3}?{sub u}{sup +} state were determined to be 2.47(4) and 211.4(5) cm{sup ?1}, respectively. A molecular orbital energy level diagram was used to understand the observed ground and excited electronic states. This is the first gas-phase experimental investigation of the electronic transitions of Pd{sub 2}.

  8. Generation of Femtosecond Electron Pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jinamoon, V.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Rimjaem, S.; Saisut, J.; Thongbai, C.; Vilaithong, T.; Rhodes, M.W.; Wichaisirimongkol, P.; Chumphongphan, S.; Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-05-09

    At the Fast Neutron Research Facility (FNRF), Chiang Mai University (Thailand), the SURIYA project has been established aiming to produce femtosecond electron pulses utilizing a combination of an S-band thermionic rf gun and a magnetic bunch compressor ({alpha}-magnet). A specially designed rf-gun has been constructed to obtain optimum beam characteristics for the best bunch compression. Simulation results show that bunch lengths as short as about 50 fs rms can be expected at the experimental station. The electron bunch lengths will be determined using autocorrelation of coherent transition radiation (TR) through a Michelson interferometer. The paper discusses beam dynamics studies, design, fabrication and cold tests of the rf-gun as well as presents the project current status and forth-coming experiments.

  9. Amorphous-diamond electron emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falabella, Steven

    2001-01-01

    An electron emitter comprising a textured silicon wafer overcoated with a thin (200 .ANG.) layer of nitrogen-doped, amorphous-diamond (a:D-N), which lowers the field below 20 volts/micrometer have been demonstrated using this emitter compared to uncoated or diamond coated emitters wherein the emission is at fields of nearly 60 volts/micrometer. The silicon/nitrogen-doped, amorphous-diamond (Si/a:D-N) emitter may be produced by overcoating a textured silicon wafer with amorphous-diamond (a:D) in a nitrogen atmosphere using a filtered cathodic-arc system. The enhanced performance of the Si/a:D-N emitter lowers the voltages required to the point where field-emission displays are practical. Thus, this emitter can be used, for example, in flat-panel emission displays (FEDs), and cold-cathode vacuum electronics.

  10. In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Katherine Jungjohann & Yang Liu Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 cint.lanl.gov * Adjustable HT: 100-300 kV * EDAX EDS Detector * Gatan Tridiem GIF * ADF STEM Detector * HAADF STEM Detector * BF STEM Detector * 2.0 A resolution in TEM * 1.9 A resolution in STEM * High resolution videos using Gatan Ultrascan CCD camera * Simultaneous BF and HAADF STEM imaging * EDS and EELS mapping * Energy-filtered imaging Sample Preparation

  11. Atmosphere to Electrons Program Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) Initiative Overview DOE Wind and Water Power Technologies Office January 2014 2 * Motivation for a new R&D framework * A2e initiative overview - Strategic planning framework - Management construct - Executive Management Committee (EMC) - National Laboratory Leadership * Strategic thrust area planning introduction * Program objectives * Open discussion of approach Overview Agenda 3 Wind energy today ..... * Multi-Billion dollar industry with involvement of

  12. Threshold electron excitation of Na

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinkovic, B.; Wang, P.; Gallagher, A. )

    1992-09-01

    Electron collisional excitation of the 4{ital D}, 5{ital D}, 4{ital P}, and 6{ital S} states of Na has been measured with about 30-meV energy resolution. Very rapid, unresolved threshold onsets are seen for all but the 4{ital P} state, and a near-threshold resonance is suggested by the 5{ital D} data. However, only weak undulations in the cross sections are observed above threshold.

  13. Day/Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Day/Time Mon, 12:00 - 6:00 pm Mon, 5:00 pm Mon, 7:00 pm Tues, 7:00 am Tues, 8:00 am Tues, 8:10 am Tues, 8:25 am Tues, 9:25 am Tues, 9:45 am Tues, 11:15 am Tues, 3:45 pm Tues, 4:05 pm Tues, 6:00 pm Wednesday, March 30th Wed, 7:00 am Tues, 7:45 am Tues, 8:00 am Wed, 8:30 am Wed, 12:20 pm Wed, 4:10 pm Wed, 4:30 pm Thursday, March 31st Thurs, 7:00 am Thurs, 11:00 am Thurs, 11:20 am Thurs, 12:30 pm Thurs, 1:00 pm - 4:00 pm P o s t e r s D i s p l a y e d Continental Breakfast / Posters (Salon Del Ray

  14. Electronic networking and sustainable development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daudpota, Q.I.

    1995-12-01

    To increase the capacity of institutions in various countries to implement the ambitious plans of Agenda 21, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) set up the Sustainable Development Networking Programme (SDNP) to help the process of sustainable development nationally and globally. Started initially in 15 developing countries, SDNPs are considered as a medium for individuals, organizations and governments to communicate ideas, share information resources, and exchange experiences among each other and globally to learn the appropriate ways to solve our ecological problems. The paper will review the idea of SDNPs globally and will describe in detail its successful implementation in Pakistan. In a country with, hitherto, virtually no electronic mail service, the SDNP has shown how its provision has had a significant impact on obtaining useful information on environmental problems, and in one case has helped save lives. SDNP Pakistan has made an effort to demonstrate the benefits of electronic communications to wide range users in the country. Some of these will be described. It is suggested how electronic networks linking organizations and people in the developing world with experts, organizations and data sources internationally, can greatly assist developmental effort globally.

  15. Electron inertial effects on rotating magnetic field current drive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrari, Hugo E.; Farengo, Ricardo; Clemente, Roberto A.

    2006-03-15

    The effect of finite electron mass on the formation and sustainment of a field reversed configuration (FRC) by rotating magnetic fields (RMF) is studied. The importance of inertial effects is measured by the ratio between the RMF frequency ({omega}) and the electron-ion collision frequency ({nu}). In the limit where this ratio is very small ({omega}/{nu}{yields}0), previous results corresponding to massless electrons are recovered. When {omega}/{nu} increases there are significant changes in the value of the minimum external rotating field needed to sustain the FRC and the time required to reach a steady state. Since {nu} decreases with increasing temperature and decreasing density, these effects are expected to become more important as fusion relevant temperatures are approached.

  16. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Abe

    2014-04-09

    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine—, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon-#12;fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning a timing-belt based hydroEngine —powertrain: 1. Can a belt handle the high torques and power loads demanded by the SLH? (Yes.) 2. Can the SLH blades be mounted to belt with a connection that can withstand the loads encountered in operation? (Yes.) 3. Can the belt, with blade attachments, live through the required cyclic loading? (Yes.) The research adds to the general understanding of sustainable small hydropower systems by using innovative system testing to develop and demonstrate performance of a novel powertrain solution, enabling a new type of hydroelectric turbine to be commercially developed. The technical effectiveness of the methods investigated has been shown to be positive through an extensive design and testing process accommodating many constraints and goals, with a major emphasis on high cycle fatigue life. Economic feasibility of the innovations has been demonstrated through many iterations of design for manufacturability and cost reduction. The project is of benefit to the public because it has helped to develop a solution to a major problem -- despite the large available potential for new low-head hydropower, high capital costs and high levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) continue to be major barriers to project development. The hydroEngine— represents a significant innovation, leveraging novel fluid mechanics and mechanical configuration to allow lower-cost turbine manufacture and development of low head hydropower resources.

  17. Counting graphene layers with very slow electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, Lud?k; Mikmekov, Elika; Mllerov, Ilona; Lejeune, Michal

    2015-01-05

    The study aimed at collection of data regarding the transmissivity of freestanding graphene for electrons across their full energy scale down to the lowest energies. Here, we show that the electron transmissivity of graphene drops with the decreasing energy of the electrons and remains below 10% for energies below 30?eV, and that the slow electron transmissivity value is suitable for reliable determination of the number of graphene layers. Moreover, electrons incident below 50?eV release adsorbed hydrocarbon molecules and effectively clean graphene in contrast to faster electrons that decompose these molecules and create carbonaceous contamination.

  18. EC-5 fifth international workshop on electron cyclotron emission and electron cyclotron heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prater, R.; Lohr, J.

    1985-12-31

    This report contains papers on the following topics: electron cyclotron emission measurements; electron cyclotron emission theory; electron cyclotron heating; gyrotron development; and ECH systems and waveguide development. These paper have been indexed separately elsewhere. (LSP).

  19. Optimum Electron Distributions for Space Charge Dominated Beams in Photoinjectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Limborg-Deprey, C.; Bolton, P.R.; /SLAC

    2006-06-15

    The optimum photo-electron distribution from the cathode of an RF photoinjector producing a space charge dominated beam is a uniform distribution contained in an ellipsoid. For such a bunch distribution, the space charge forces are linear and the emittance growth induced by those forces is totally reversible and consequently can be compensated. With the appropriate tuning of the emittance compensation optics, the emittance, at the end of photoinjector beamline, for an ellipsoidal laser pulse, would only have two contributions, the cathode emittance and the RF emittance. For the peak currents of 50A and 100 A required from the SBand and L-Band RF gun photoinjectors discussed here, the RF emittance contribution is negligible. If such an ellipsoidal photo-electron distribution were available, the emittance at the end of the beamline could be reduced to the cathode emittance. Its value would be reduced by more than 40% from that obtained using cylindrical shape laser pulses. This potentially dramatic improvement warrants review of the challenges associated with the production of ellipsoidal photo-electrons. We assume the photo-electrons emission time to be short enough that the ellipsoidal electron pulse shape will come directly from the laser pulse. We shift the challenge to ellipsoidal laser pulse shaping. To expose limiting technical issues, we consider the generation of ellipsoidal laser pulse shape in terms of three different concepts.

  20. Method for integrating microelectromechanical devices with electronic circuitry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barron, Carole C. (Austin, TX); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Montague, Stephen (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A method is disclosed for integrating one or more microelectromechanical (MEM) devices with electronic circuitry on a common substrate. The MEM device can be fabricated within a substrate cavity and encapsulated with a sacrificial material. This allows the MEM device to be annealed and the substrate planarized prior to forming electronic circuitry on the substrate using a series of standard processing steps. After fabrication of the electronic circuitry, the electronic circuitry can be protected by a two-ply protection layer of titanium nitride (TiN) and tungsten (W) during an etch release process whereby the MEM device is released for operation by etching away a portion of a sacrificial material (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) that encapsulates the MEM device. The etch release process is preferably performed using a mixture of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and hydrochloric acid (HCI) which reduces the time for releasing the MEM device compared to use of a buffered oxide etchant. After release of the MEM device, the TiN:W protection layer can be removed with a peroxide-based etchant without damaging the electronic circuitry.

  1. Electron transfer statistics and thermal fluctuations in molecular junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goswami, Himangshu Prabal; Harbola, Upendra

    2015-02-28

    We derive analytical expressions for probability distribution function (PDF) for electron transport in a simple model of quantum junction in presence of thermal fluctuations. Our approach is based on the large deviation theory combined with the generating function method. For large number of electrons transferred, the PDF is found to decay exponentially in the tails with different rates due to applied bias. This asymmetry in the PDF is related to the fluctuation theorem. Statistics of fluctuations are analyzed in terms of the Fano factor. Thermal fluctuations play a quantitative role in determining the statistics of electron transfer; they tend to suppress the average current while enhancing the fluctuations in particle transfer. This gives rise to both bunching and antibunching phenomena as determined by the Fano factor. The thermal fluctuations and shot noise compete with each other and determine the net (effective) statistics of particle transfer. Exact analytical expression is obtained for delay time distribution. The optimal values of the delay time between successive electron transfers can be lowered below the corresponding shot noise values by tuning the thermal effects.

  2. Custom Organic Electronics Out of the Printer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Custom Organic Electronics Out of the Printer Custom Organic Electronics Out of the Printer Print Thursday, 03 December 2015 12:14 They are thin, light-weight, flexible, and can be...

  3. Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural transition in Tb5Si2.2Ge1.8 from first principles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronic structure, ...

  4. Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which prevents two electrons from occupying the same site, resulting in a so-called Mott insulator. The lack of information on the strength of electron correlation in the iron...

  5. Leader Electronics: Data Request (2010-SE-2301)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE requested test data from Leader Electronics Inc. for various models of external power supplies after Leader Electronics certified energy values that did not meet federal energy conservation standards.

  6. Laboratory's Electronic Public Reading room training

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    October Electronic Public Reading Room Training Laboratory's Electronic Public Reading room training WHEN: Oct 14, 2015 4:00 PM - 6:00 PM WHERE: J. Robert Oppenheimer Study...

  7. Kinetic electron and ion instability of the lunar wake simulated at physical mass ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haakonsen, Christian Bernt Hutchinson, Ian H. Zhou, Chuteng

    2015-03-15

    The solar wind wake behind the moon is studied with 1D electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations using a physical ion to electron mass ratio (unlike prior investigations); the simulations also apply more generally to supersonic flow of dense magnetized plasma past non-magnetic objects. A hybrid electrostatic Boltzmann electron treatment is first used to investigate the ion stability in the absence of kinetic electron effects, showing that the ions are two-stream unstable for downstream wake distances (in lunar radii) greater than about three times the solar wind Mach number. Simulations with PIC electrons are then used to show that kinetic electron effects can lead to disruption of the ion beams at least three times closer to the moon than in the hybrid simulations. This disruption occurs as the result of a novel wake phenomenon: the non-linear growth of electron holes spawned from a narrow dimple in the electron velocity distribution. Most of the holes arising from the dimple are small and quickly leave the wake, approximately following the unperturbed electron phase-space trajectories, but some holes originating near the center of the wake remain and grow large enough to trigger disruption of the ion beams. Non-linear kinetic-electron effects are therefore essential to a comprehensive understanding of the 1D electrostatic stability of such wakes, and possible observational signatures in ARTEMIS data from the lunar wake are discussed.

  8. Self-bunching electron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mako, F.; Len, L. K.; Peter, W.

    1999-07-12

    We report on three electron gun projects that are aimed at power tube and injector applications. The purpose of the work is to develop robust electron guns which produce self-bunched, high-current-density beams. We have demonstrated cold emission, long life, and tolerance to contamination. The cold emission process is based on secondary electron emission. FMT has studied this resonant bunching process which gives rise to high current densities (0.01-5 kA/cm{sup 2}), high charge bunches (up to 100 nC/bunch), and short pulses (1-100 ps) for frequencies from 1 to 12 GHz. The beam pulse width is nominally {approx}5% of the rf period. The first project is the L-Band Micro-Pulse Gun (MPG). Measurements show {approx}40 ps long micro-bunches at {approx}20 A/cm{sup 2} without contamination due to air exposure. Lifetime testing has been carried out for about 18 months operating at 1.25 GHz for almost 24 hours per day at a repetition rate of 300 Hz and 5 {mu}s-long macro-pulses. About 5.8x10{sup 13} micro-bunches or {approx}62,000 coulombs have passed through this gun and it is still working fine. The second project, the S-Band MPG{sup {dagger}}, is now operational. It is functioning at a frequency of 2.85 GHz, a repetition rate of 30 Hz, with a 2 {mu}s-long macro-pulse. It produces about 150 A/cm{sup 2}. The third project involves the construction of a 34.2 GHz frequency-multiplied source driven by an X-Band MPG. Analytical work has been carried out on this device, and we are ready to proceed with design, fabrication, and testing.

  9. Representing the thermal state in time-dependent density functional theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Modine, N. A.; Hatcher, R. M.

    2015-05-28

    Classical molecular dynamics (MD) provides a powerful and widely used approach to determining thermodynamic properties by integrating the classical equations of motion of a system of atoms. Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) provides a powerful and increasingly useful approach to integrating the quantum equations of motion for a system of electrons. TDDFT efficiently captures the unitary evolution of a many-electron state by mapping the system into a fictitious non-interacting system. In analogy to MD, one could imagine obtaining the thermodynamic properties of an electronic system from a TDDFT simulation in which the electrons are excited from their ground state by a time-dependent potential and then allowed to evolve freely in time while statistical data are captured from periodic snapshots of the system. For a variety of systems (e.g., many metals), the electrons reach an effective state of internal equilibrium due to electron-electron interactions on a time scale that is short compared to electron-phonon equilibration. During the initial time-evolution of such systems following electronic excitation, electron-phonon interactions should be negligible, and therefore, TDDFT should successfully capture the internal thermalization of the electrons. However, it is unclear how TDDFT represents the resulting thermal state. In particular, the thermal state is usually represented in quantum statistical mechanics as a mixed state, while the occupations of the TDDFT wavefunctions are fixed by the initial state in TDDFT. We work to address this puzzle by (A) reformulating quantum statistical mechanics so that thermodynamic expectations can be obtained as an unweighted average over a set of many-body pure states and (B) constructing a family of non-interacting (single determinant) TDDFT states that approximate the required many-body states for the canonical ensemble.

  10. Liquid-film electron stripper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leemann, Beat T. (Walnut Creek, CA); Yourd, Roland B. (Kensington, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A thin freestanding oil film is produced in vacuum by directing an oil stream radially inward to the hollow-ground sharp outer edge of a rotating disc. The sides of the edge are roughened somewhat to aid in dispersing oil from the disc. Oil is removed from the surface of disc to prevent formation of oil droplets which might spin off the disc and disrupt the oil film. An ion beam is directed through the thin oil film so that electrons are stripped from the ions to increase their charge.

  11. Liquid-film electron stripper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leemann, B.T.; Yourd, R.B.

    1982-03-09

    A thin freestanding oil film is produced in vacuum by directing an oil stream radially inward to the hollow-ground sharp outer edge of a rotating disc. The sides of the edge are roughened somewhat to aid in dispersing oil from the disc. Oil is removed from the surface of disc to prevent formation of oil droplets which might spin off the disc and disrupt the oil film. An ion beam is directed through the thin oil film so that electrons are stripped from the ions to increase their charge.

  12. Electron Cloud Effects in Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furman, M.A.

    2012-11-30

    Abstract We present a brief summary of various aspects of the electron-cloud effect (ECE) in accelerators. For further details, the reader is encouraged to refer to the proceedings of many prior workshops, either dedicated to EC or with significant EC contents, including the entire ?ECLOUD? series [1?22]. In addition, the proceedings of the various flavors of Particle Accelerator Conferences [23] contain a large number of EC-related publications. The ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter series [24] contains one dedicated issue, and several occasional articles, on EC. An extensive reference database is the LHC website on EC [25].

  13. Nuclear astrophysics and electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwenk, A.

    2013-11-07

    Electron beams provide important probes and constraints for nuclear astrophysics. This is especially exciting at energies within the regime of chiral effective field theory (EFT), which provides a systematic expansion for nuclear forces and electroweak operators based on quantum chromodynamics. This talk discusses some recent highlights and future directions based on chiral EFT, including nuclear structure and reactions for astrophysics, the neutron skin and constraints for the properties of neutron-rich matter in neutron stars and core-collapse supernovae, and the dark matter response of nuclei.

  14. Stretchable and foldable electronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A; Huang, Yonggang; Ko, Heung Cho; Stoykovich, Mark; Choi, Won Mook; Song, Jizhou; Ahn, Jong Hyun; Kim, Dae Hyeong

    2014-12-09

    Disclosed herein are stretchable, foldable and optionally printable, processes for making devices and devices such as semiconductors, electronic circuits and components thereof that are capable of providing good performance when stretched, compressed, flexed or otherwise deformed. Strain isolation layers provide good strain isolation to functional device layers. Multilayer devices are constructed to position a neutral mechanical surface coincident or proximate to a functional layer having a material that is susceptible to strain-induced failure. Neutral mechanical surfaces are positioned by one or more layers having a property that is spatially inhomogeneous, such as by patterning any of the layers of the multilayer device.

  15. Stretchable and foldable electronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2013-10-08

    Disclosed herein are stretchable, foldable and optionally printable, processes for making devices and devices such as semiconductors, electronic circuits and components thereof that are capable of providing good performance when stretched, compressed, flexed or otherwise deformed. Strain isolation layers provide good strain isolation to functional device layers. Multilayer devices are constructed to position a neutral mechanical surface coincident or proximate to a functional layer having a material that is susceptible to strain-induced failure. Neutral mechanical surfaces are positioned by one or more layers having a property that is spatially inhomogeneous, such as by patterning any of the layers of the multilayer device.

  16. TOF Electron Energy Analyzer for Spin and Angular Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedev, Gennadi; Jozwiak, Chris; Andresen, Nord; Lanzara, Alessandra; Hussain, Zahid

    2008-07-09

    Current pulsed laser and synchrotron x-ray sources provide new opportunities for Time-Of- Flight (TOF) based photoemission spectroscopy to increase photoelectron energy resolution and efficiency compared to current standard techniques. The principals of photoelectron timing front formation, temporal aberration minimization, and optimization of electron beam transmission are presented. We have developed these concepts into a high resolution Electron Optical Scheme (EOS) of a TOF Electron Energy Analyzer (TOF-EEA) for photoemission spectroscopy. The EOS of the analyzer includes an electrostatic objective lens, three columns of transport lenses and a 90 degree energy band pass filter (BPF). The analyzer has two modes of operation: Spectrometer Mode (SM) with straight passage of electrons through the EOS undeflected by the BPF, allowing the entire spectrum to be measured, and Monochromator Mode (MM) in which the BPF defines a certain energy window inside the scope of the electron energy spectrum.

  17. Real-Time Benchmark Suite

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-01-17

    This software provides a portable benchmark suite for real time kernels. It tests the performance of many of the system calls, as well as the interrupt response time and task response time to interrupts. These numbers provide a baseline for comparing various real-time kernels and hardware platforms.

  18. Electronic Fabrication & Repair | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic Fabrication & Repair The Electronics group provides custom design and fabrication of electronic equipment.. We convert ideas into custom-finished equipment in our shop using ORCAD Schematic Capture and PCB Layout software in conjunction with our PCB machine to make prototype circuit boards in-house. Our technicians also aid in automating and controlling research project instrumentation using Texas Instruments LabView. We repair all kinds of scientific and laboratory electronic and

  19. Home Office and Electronics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Home Office and Electronics Home Office and Electronics Addthis Keep Your Home Office Efficient with ENERGY STAR. 1 of 2 Keep Your Home Office Efficient with ENERGY STAR. Laptops are far more efficient than desktop computers, especially ENERGY STAR qualified models. Use Smart Power Strips to Save Energy. 2 of 2 Use Smart Power Strips to Save Energy. Many electronics go into standby mode when you turn them off. Reduce wasted (vampire) power by plugging electronics into a smart power strip, which

  20. Atmosphere to Electrons | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research & Development » Atmosphere to Electrons Atmosphere to Electrons Atmosphere to Electrons Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) is a multi-year U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research initiative targeting significant reductions in the cost of wind energy through an improved understanding of the complex physics governing wind flow into and through wind farms. Better insight into the flow physics has the potential to reduce wind farm energy losses by up to 20%, to reduce annual operational

  1. Analysis of electron dynamics in non-ideal Penning traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coppa, G.; Mulas, R.; D'Angola, A.

    2012-06-15

    Penning traps that are used for particular applications, such as in ion pump technology, Larmor, bouncing, and diocotron frequencies, can be of the same order of magnitude. The paper deals with the dynamics of electrons confined in such devices starting from the study of the properties of the trajectories. In cases of interest, in which electron-neutral collision frequency is much smaller with respect to the characteristic frequencies of the motion, suitable time averages of the trajectories are introduced in order to simplify the analysis of the problem. In the work, time averages have been calculated in a simple way by using an approximate r-z decoupling of the effective potential. Results obtained with the method are presented and discussed in both linear and nonlinear regimes.

  2. Collisional effects on the generation of fast electrons in fast ignition scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Weiwu; Cai Hongbo; Jia Qing; Zhu Shaoping

    2013-01-15

    The effects of collision on the generation and transportation of fast electrons produced by ultra-intense laser pulse in overdense plasma for densities ranging from below to 400 times critical density are investigated by collisional particle-in-cell code. It is found that a relatively stable state of fast electron energy flux exists in the simulations, where collision contributes to increasing the production of fast electrons. The unexpected increase of production is attributed to the efficient local heating of the thermal electrons, which results in higher thermal pressure and less steepened interface. Therefore, fast electrons can be effectively accelerated through 2{omega} oscillation from J Multiplication-Sign B force in the collisional case, while it is suppressed in the collisionless case because of the highly steepened plasma density. The collisional effects on the transportation of fast electrons in the solid target are also discussed.

  3. Formation of electron kappa distributions due to interactions with parallel propagating whistler waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, X. Lu, Q.; Mengcheng National Geophysical Observatory, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026

    2014-02-15

    In space plasmas, charged particles are frequently observed to possess a high-energy tail, which is often modeled by a kappa-type distribution function. In this work, the formation of the electron kappa distribution in generation of parallel propagating whistler waves is investigated using fully nonlinear particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. A previous research concluded that the bi-Maxwellian character of electron distributions is preserved in PIC simulations. We now demonstrate that for interactions between electrons and parallel propagating whistler waves, a non-Maxwellian high-energy tail can be formed, and a kappa distribution can be used to fit the electron distribution in time-asymptotic limit. The ?-parameter is found to decrease with increasing initial temperature anisotropy or decreasing ratio of electron plasma frequency to cyclotron frequency. The results might be helpful to understanding the origin of electron kappa distributions observed in space plasmas.

  4. Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transformations in rare earth dialuminides (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural transformations in rare earth dialuminides Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural transformations in rare earth dialuminides We report electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural transformations of selected rare

  5. Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transformations in rare earth dialuminides (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural transformations in rare earth dialuminides Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural transformations in rare earth dialuminides We report electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural transformations of selected rare

  6. ECR ion source with electron gun

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xie, Zu Q. (El Cerrito, CA); Lyneis, Claude M. (Berkeley, CA)

    1993-01-01

    An Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (10) having an electron gun (52) for introducing electrons into the plasma chamber (18) of the ion source (10). The ion source (10) has a injection enclosure (12) and a plasma chamber tank (14). The plasma chamber (18) is defined by a plurality of longitudinal magnets (16). The electron gun (52) injects electrons axially into the plasma chamber (18) such that ionization within the plasma chamber (18) occurs in the presence of the additional electrons produced by the electron gun (52). The electron gun (52) has a cathode (116) for emitting electrons therefrom which is heated by current supplied from an AC power supply (96) while bias potential is provided by a bias power supply (118). A concentric inner conductor (60) and Outer conductor (62) carry heating current to a carbon chuck (104) and carbon pusher (114) Which hold the cathode (116) in place and also heat the cathode (16). In the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (10), the electron gun (52) replaces the conventional first stage used in prior art electron cyclotron resonance ion generators.

  7. NREL: Transportation Research - Power Electronics Packaging Reliability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Packaging Reliability A photo of a piece of power electronics testing equipment. NREL power electronics packaging reliability research investigates the performance and reliability of emerging interconnection, interface, and packaging materials. Findings help improve reliability and durability of emerging technologies. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL Power electronics packaging around a semiconductor switching device determines the electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of a power

  8. Energy Efficient Electronics Cooling Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve O'Shaughnessey; Tim Louvar; Mike Trumbower; Jessica Hunnicutt; Neil Myers

    2012-02-17

    Parker Precision Cooling Business Unit was awarded a Department of Energy grant (DE-EE0000412) to support the DOE-ITP goal of reducing industrial energy intensity and GHG emissions. The project proposed by Precision Cooling was to accelerate the development of a cooling technology for high heat generating electronics components. These components are specifically related to power electronics found in power drives focused on the inverter, converter and transformer modules. The proposed cooling system was expected to simultaneously remove heat from all three of the major modules listed above, while remaining dielectric under all operating conditions. Development of the cooling system to meet specific customer's requirements and constraints not only required a robust system design, but also new components to support long system functionality. Components requiring further development and testing during this project included pumps, fluid couplings, cold plates and condensers. All four of these major categories of components are required in every Precision Cooling system. Not only was design a key area of focus, but the process for manufacturing these components had to be determined and proven through the system development.

  9. Liquid-film electron stripper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gavin, Basil F. (Albion, CA)

    1986-01-01

    An improved liquid-film electron stripper particularly for high intensity heavy ion beams which produces constant regenerated, stable, free-standing liquid films having an adjustable thickness between 0.3 to 0.05 microns. The improved electron stripper is basically composed of at least one high speed, rotating disc with a very sharp, precision-like, ground edge on one said of the disc's periphery and with a highly polished, flat, radial surface adjacent the sharp edge. A fine stream of liquid, such as oil, impinges at a 90.degree. angle adjacent the disc's sharp outer edge. Film terminators, located at a selected distance from the disc perimeter are positioned approximately perpendicular to the film. The terminators support, shape, and stretch the film and are arranged to assist in the prevention of liquid droplet formation by directing the collected film to a reservoir below without breaking or interfering with the film. One embodiment utilizes two rotating discs and associated terminators, with the discs rotating so as to form films in opposite directions, and with the second disc being located down beam-line relative to the first disc.

  10. Electronic Submittal of Environmental Impact Statements to EPA (EPA, 2012)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    e-NEPA is EPA’s tool for submitting EIS documents electronically. The system meets EPA's requirements for EIS filing, and eliminates the need to mail hard copies of EISs to EPA. As before, to have your agency’s EIS appear in EPA’s Federal Register Notice of Availability, submit by 5:00 pm Eastern Standard Time on the prior Friday.

  11. Development of a high average current polarized electron source with long cathode operational lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. K. Sinclair; P. A. Adderley; B. M. Dunham; J. C. Hansknecht; P. Hartmann; M. Poelker; J. S. Price; P. M. Rutt; W. J. Schneider; M. Steigerwald

    2007-02-01

    Substantially more than half of the electromagnetic nuclear physics experiments conducted at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory) require highly polarized electron beams, often at high average current. Spin-polarized electrons are produced by photoemission from various GaAs-based semiconductor photocathodes, using circularly polarized laser light with photon energy slightly larger than the semiconductor band gap. The photocathodes are prepared by activation of the clean semiconductor surface to negative electron affinity using cesium and oxidation. Historically, in many laboratories worldwide, these photocathodes have had short operational lifetimes at high average current, and have often deteriorated fairly quickly in ultrahigh vacuum even without electron beam delivery. At Jefferson Lab, we have developed a polarized electron source in which the photocathodes degrade exceptionally slowly without electron emission, and in which ion back bombardment is the predominant mechanism limiting the operational lifetime of the cathodes during electron emission. We have reproducibly obtained cathode 1/e dark lifetimes over two years, and 1/e charge density and charge lifetimes during electron beam delivery of over 2?105???C/cm2 and 200 C, respectively. This source is able to support uninterrupted high average current polarized beam delivery to three experimental halls simultaneously for many months at a time. Many of the techniques we report here are directly applicable to the development of GaAs photoemission electron guns to deliver high average current, high brightness unpolarized beams.

  12. Electron acceleration by Z-mode and whistler-mode waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K. H.; Omura, Y.; Lee, L. C.; Institute of Earth Science, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taiwan

    2013-11-15

    We carried out a series of particle simulations to study electron acceleration by Z-mode and whistler-mode waves generated by an electron ring distribution. The electron ring distribution leads to excitations of X-mode waves mainly in the perpendicular direction, Z-mode waves in the perpendicular and parallel directions, and whistler-mode waves mainly in the parallel direction. The parallel Z- and whistler-mode waves can lead to an effective acceleration of ring electrons. The electron acceleration is mainly determined by the wave amplitude and phase velocity, which in turn is affected by the ratio of electron plasma to cyclotron frequencies. For the initial kinetic energy ranging from 100 to 500 keV, the peak energy of the accelerated electrons is found to reach 28 times the initial kinetic energy. We further study the acceleration process by test-particle calculations in which electrons interact with one, two, or four waves. The electron trajectories in the one-wave case are simple diffusion curves. In the multi-wave cases, electrons are accelerated simultaneously by counter-propagating waves and can have a higher final energy.

  13. Trigger probe for determining the orientation of the power distribution of an electron beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elmer, John W. (Danville, CA); Palmer, Todd A. (Livermore, CA); Teruya, Alan T. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-07-17

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining the orientation of electron beams being profiled. To accurately time the location of an electron beam, the probe is designed to accept electrons from only a narrowly defined area. The signal produced from the probe is then used as a timing or triggering fiducial for an operably coupled data acquisition system. Such an arrangement eliminates changes in slit geometry, an additional signal feedthrough in the wall of a welding chamber and a second timing or triggering channel on a data acquisition system. As a result, the present invention improves the accuracy of the resulting data by minimizing the adverse effects of current slit triggering methods so as to accurately reconstruct electron or ion beams.

  14. Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schulz, S.; Grguraš, I.; Behrens, C.; Bromberger, H.; Costello, J. T.; Czwalinna, M. K.; Felber, M.; Hoffmann, M. C.; Ilchen, M.; Liu, H. Y.; et al

    2015-01-20

    Many advanced applications of X-ray free-electron lasers require pulse durations and time resolutions of only a few femtoseconds. To generate these pulses and to apply them in time-resolved experiments, synchronization techniques that can simultaneously lock all independent components, including all accelerator modules and all external optical lasers, to better than the delivered free-electron laser pulse duration, are needed. Here we achieve all-optical synchronization at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH and demonstrate facility-wide timing to better than 30 fs r.m.s. for 90 fs X-ray photon pulses. Crucially, our analysis indicates that the performance of this optical synchronization is limited primarilymore » by the free-electron laser pulse duration, and should naturally scale to the sub-10 femtosecond level with shorter X-ray pulses.« less

  15. Femtosecond all-optical synchronization of an X-ray free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulz, S.; Grguraš, I.; Behrens, C.; Bromberger, H.; Costello, J. T.; Czwalinna, M. K.; Felber, M.; Hoffmann, M. C.; Ilchen, M.; Liu, H. Y.; Mazza, T.; Meyer, M.; Pfeiffer, S.; Prędki, P.; Schefer, S.; Schmidt, C.; Wegner, U.; Schlarb, H.; Cavalieri, A. L.

    2015-01-20

    Many advanced applications of X-ray free-electron lasers require pulse durations and time resolutions of only a few femtoseconds. To generate these pulses and to apply them in time-resolved experiments, synchronization techniques that can simultaneously lock all independent components, including all accelerator modules and all external optical lasers, to better than the delivered free-electron laser pulse duration, are needed. Here we achieve all-optical synchronization at the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH and demonstrate facility-wide timing to better than 30 fs r.m.s. for 90 fs X-ray photon pulses. Crucially, our analysis indicates that the performance of this optical synchronization is limited primarily by the free-electron laser pulse duration, and should naturally scale to the sub-10 femtosecond level with shorter X-ray pulses.

  16. Experimental Search for a Heavy Electron

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Boley, C. D.; Elias, J. E.; Friedman, J. I.; Hartmann, G. C.; Kendall, H. W.; Kirk, P.N.; Sogard, M. R.; Van Speybroeck, L. P.; de Pagter, J. K.

    1967-09-01

    A search for a heavy electron of the type considered by Low and Blackmon has been made by studying the inelastic scattering of 5 BeV electrons from hydrogen. The search was made over a range of values of the mass of the heavy electron from 100 t0 1300 MeV. No evidence for such a particle was observed. Upper limits on the production cross sections were determined and employed to deducelimits on the values of the electron-photon-heavy electron coupling constant in Low and Blackmon=s theory.

  17. Continuous time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funsten, Herbert O.; Feldman, William C.

    2004-10-19

    A continuous time-of-flight mass spectrometer having an evacuated enclosure with means for generating an electric field located in the evacuated enclosure and means for injecting a sample material into the electric field. A source of continuous ionizing radiation injects ionizing radiation into the electric field to ionize atoms or molecules of the sample material, and timing means determine the time elapsed between arrival of a secondary electron out of said ionized atoms or molecules at a first predetermined location and arrival of a sample ion out of said ionized atoms or molecules at a second predetermined location.

  18. Nagios Down-Time scripts

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-11-11

    The Nagios Down-Time scripts are a set of Python scripts that create a commandline interface to Nagios' scheduled down-times. This allows for large-scale management of down-times, beyond what is feasible with the default web interface. Additionally, one of the scripts can be setup to periodically send emails of down-times that are scheduled to end within a specified amount of time after the script has been run; for example, it could run once a day andmore » send an email including down-times ending within the next 24 hours.« less

  19. Photo-induced electron transfer method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wohlgemuth, Roland (2823 Hillegass Ave., Berkeley, CA 94705); Calvin, Melvin (2683 Buena Vista Way, Berkeley, CA 94708)

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of photo-induced electron transfer reactions is increased and the back transfer of electrons in such reactions is greatly reduced when a photo-sensitizer zinc porphyrin-surfactant and an electron donor manganese porphyrin-surfactant are admixed into phospho-lipid membranes. The phospholipids comprising said membranes are selected from phospholipids whose head portions are negatively charged. Said membranes are contacted with an aqueous medium in which an essentially neutral viologen electron acceptor is admixed. Catalysts capable of transfering electrons from reduced viologen electron acceptor to hydrogen to produce elemental hydrogen are also included in the aqueous medium. An oxidizable olefin is also admixed in the phospholipid for the purpose of combining with oxygen that coordinates with oxidized electron donor manganese porphyrin-surfactant.

  20. Rippled beam free electron laser amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlsten, Bruce E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A free electron laser amplifier provides a scalloping annular electron beam that interacts with the axial electric field of a TM.sub.0n mode. A waveguide defines an axial centerline and, a solenoid arranged about the waveguide produces an axial constant magnetic field within the waveguide. An electron beam source outputs a annular electron beam that interacts with the axial magnetic field to have an equilibrium radius and a ripple radius component having a variable radius with a ripple period along the axial centerline. An rf source outputs an axial electric field that propagates within the waveguide coaxial with the electron beam and has a radial mode that interacts at the electron beam at the equilibrium radius component of the electron beam.

  1. Photo-induced electron transfer method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wohlgemuth, R.; Calvin, M.

    1984-01-24

    The efficiency of photo-induced electron transfer reactions is increased and the back transfer of electrons in such reactions is greatly reduced when a photo-sensitizer zinc porphyrin-surfactant and an electron donor manganese porphyrin-surfactant are admixed into phospholipid membranes. The phospholipids comprising said membranes are selected from phospholipids whose head portions are negatively charged. Said membranes are contacted with an aqueous medium in which an essentially neutral viologen electron acceptor is admixed. Catalysts capable of transferring electrons from reduced viologen electron acceptor to hydrogen to produce elemental hydrogen are also included in the aqueous medium. An oxidizable olefin is also admixed in the phospholipid for the purpose of combining with oxygen that coordinates with oxidized electron donor manganese porphyrin-surfactant.

  2. Short pulse free electron laser amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlitt, Leland G.; Szoke, Abraham

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for amplification of a laser pulse in a free electron laser amplifier where the laser pulse duration may be a small fraction of the electron beam pulse duration used for amplification. An electron beam pulse is passed through a first wiggler magnet and a short laser pulse to be amplified is passed through the same wiggler so that only the energy of the last fraction, f, (f<1) of the electron beam pulse is consumed in amplifying the laser pulse. After suitable delay of the electron beam, the process is repeated in a second wiggler magnet, a third, . . . , where substantially the same fraction f of the remainder of the electron beam pulse is consumed in amplification of the given short laser pulse in each wiggler magnet region until the useful electron beam energy is substantially completely consumed by amplification of the laser pulse.

  3. Low inductance power electronics assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herron, Nicholas Hayden; Mann, Brooks S.; Korich, Mark D.; Chou, Cindy; Tang, David; Carlson, Douglas S.; Barry, Alan L.

    2012-10-02

    A power electronics assembly is provided. A first support member includes a first plurality of conductors. A first plurality of power switching devices are coupled to the first support member. A first capacitor is coupled to the first support member. A second support member includes a second plurality of conductors. A second plurality of power switching devices are coupled to the second support member. A second capacitor is coupled to the second support member. The first and second pluralities of conductors, the first and second pluralities of power switching devices, and the first and second capacitors are electrically connected such that the first plurality of power switching devices is connected in parallel with the first capacitor and the second capacitor and the second plurality of power switching devices is connected in parallel with the second capacitor and the first capacitor.

  4. Electron cyclotron resonance plasma photos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Racz, R.; Palinkas, J.; Biri, S.

    2010-02-15

    In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open ECR plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from Ne, Ar, and Kr gases and from their mixtures. We studied and recorded the effect of ion source setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, and microwave power) to the shape, color, and structure of the plasma. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas.

  5. Sept 16 (all times EDT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sept 16 (all times EDT): 10 am: Welcome, Kick off, and overview of NEET: Sue Lesica 10:30 ... topics 4:30-5:00: Break Sept 17 (all times EDT): 10 am: Welcome, Open QA on CINR FOA and ...

  6. Inverse time-of-flight spectrometer for beam plasma research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yushkov, Yu. G., E-mail: yuyushkov@gmail.com; Zolotukhin, D. B.; Tyunkov, A. V. [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 40 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Oks, E. M. [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 40 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, 2/3, Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Savkin, K. P. [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, 2/3, Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-15

    The paper describes the design and principle of operation of an inverse time-of-flight spectrometer for research in the plasma produced by an electron beam in the forevacuum pressure range (520 Pa). In the spectrometer, the deflecting plates as well as the drift tube and the primary ion beam measuring system are at high potential with respect to ground. This provides the possibility to measure the mass-charge constitution of the plasma created by a continuous electron beam with a current of up to 300 mA and electron energy of up to 20 keV at forevacuum pressures in the chamber placed at ground potential. Research results on the mass-charge state of the beam plasma are presented and analyzed.

  7. LG Electronics v. DOE - Defendants' Brief in Opposition to Plaintiff...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electronics v. DOE - Defendants' Brief in Opposition to Plaintiff LG Electronics' Motion for a Preliminary Injunction LG Electronics v. DOE - Defendants' Brief in Opposition to ...

  8. Compel Electronics GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electronics GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Compel Electronics GmbH Place: Germany Product: Germany-based manufacturer of electronic cables and interconnections. The...

  9. DOE F 243.5 Electronic Recordkeeping System Questionnaire | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Electronic Recordkeeping System Questionnaire DOE F 243.5 Electronic Recordkeeping System Questionnaire PDF icon DOE F 243.5 Electronic Recordkeeping System Questionnaire.pdf ...

  10. A stochastic mechanism of electron heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galinsky, V. L.; Shevchenko, V. I.

    2012-08-15

    Due to Landau resonant interaction with lower hybrid waves in the lower hybrid current drive scheme part of electrons are accelerated and, as a result of this, a tail of energetic electrons is formed on the electron distribution function. The same situation takes place in the problem of type III radio bursts when the suprathermal burst electrons acquire a plateau distribution due to excitation of plasma waves in the solar wind plasma. These distributions are unstable with respect to the cyclotron excitation of waves at anomalous Doppler resonance ('fan' instability). In this case, the tail electrons interact simultaneously with both (i) waves that accelerate or decelerate them (Cerenkov resonance) and (ii) waves excited in the process of the fan instability that led to their pitch angle diffusion. Because velocity diffusion lines of electrons formed due to heir interaction with each type of waves intersect, this interaction can lead not only to pitch angle diffusion but also to heating of electrons mainly in perpendicular direction. We investigated this mechanism of electron heating and studied the temporal evolution of the electron temperature and the energy of excited waves. Our results show significant enhancement of the electron perpendicular temperature T{sub Up-Tack} due to this stochastic heating mechanism.

  11. Time dependence of Bragg forward scattering and self-seeding of hard x-ray

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    free-electron lasers (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Time dependence of Bragg forward scattering and self-seeding of hard x-ray free-electron lasers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Time dependence of Bragg forward scattering and self-seeding of hard x-ray free-electron lasers Authors: Lindberg, R. R. ; Shvyd'ko, Yu. V. Publication Date: 2012-05-09 OSTI Identifier: 1074719 Type: Published Article Journal Name: Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and

  12. Modeling electron emission and surface effects from diamond cathodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dimitrov, D. A.; Smithe, D.; Cary, J. R.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Smedley, J.; Wang, E.

    2015-02-05

    We developed modeling capabilities, within the Vorpal particle-in-cell code, for three-dimensional (3D) simulations of surface effects and electron emission from semiconductor photocathodes. They include calculation of emission probabilities using general, piece-wise continuous, space-time dependent surface potentials, effective mass and band bending field effects. We applied these models, in combination with previously implemented capabilities for modeling charge generation and transport in diamond, to investigate the emission dependence on applied electric field in the range from approximately 2 MV/m to 17 MV/m along the [100] direction. The simulation results were compared to experimental data. For the considered parameter regime, conservation of transversemore » electron momentum (in the plane of the emission surface) allows direct emission from only two (parallel to [100]) of the six equivalent lowest conduction band valleys. When the electron affinity χ is the only parameter varied in the simulations, the value χ = 0.31 eV leads to overall qualitative agreement with the probability of emission deduced from experiments. Including band bending in the simulations improves the agreement with the experimental data, particularly at low applied fields, but not significantly. In this study, using surface potentials with different profiles further allows us to investigate the emission as a function of potential barrier height, width, and vacuum level position. However, adding surface patches with different levels of hydrogenation, modeled with position-dependent electron affinity, leads to the closest agreement with the experimental data.« less

  13. A national facility for biological cryo-electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saibil, Helen R.; Grnewald, Kay; Stuart, David I.

    2015-01-01

    This review provides a brief update on the use of cryo-electron microscopy for integrated structural biology, along with an overview of the plans for the UK national facility for electron microscopy being built at the Diamond synchrotron. Three-dimensional electron microscopy is an enormously powerful tool for structural biologists. It is now able to provide an understanding of the molecular machinery of cells, disease processes and the actions of pathogenic organisms from atomic detail through to the cellular context. However, cutting-edge research in this field requires very substantial resources for equipment, infrastructure and expertise. Here, a brief overview is provided of the plans for a UK national three-dimensional electron-microscopy facility for integrated structural biology to enable internationally leading research on the machinery of life. State-of-the-art equipment operated with expert support will be provided, optimized for both atomic-level single-particle analysis of purified macromolecules and complexes and for tomography of cell sections. The access to and organization of the facility will be modelled on the highly successful macromolecular crystallography (MX) synchrotron beamlines, and will be embedded at the Diamond Light Source, facilitating the development of user-friendly workflows providing near-real-time experimental feedback.

  14. Boltzmann-Electron Model in Aleph.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Thomas Patrick; Hooper, Russell

    2014-11-01

    We apply the Boltzmann-electron model in the electrostatic, particle-in-cell, finite- element code Aleph to a plasma sheath. By assuming a Boltzmann energy distribution for the electrons, the model eliminates the need to resolve the electron plasma fre- quency, and avoids the numerical %22grid instability%22 that can cause unphysical heating of electrons. This allows much larger timesteps to be used than with kinetic electrons. Ions are treated with the standard PIC algorithm. The Boltzmann-electron model re- quires solution of a nonlinear Poisson equation, for which we use an iterative Newton solver (NOX) from the Trilinos Project. Results for the spatial variation of density and voltage in the plasma sheath agree well with an analytic model

  15. Versatile spin-polarized electron source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jozwiak, Chris; Park, Cheol -Hwan; Gotlieb, Kenneth; Louie, Steven G.; Hussain, Zahid; Lanzara, Alessandra

    2015-09-22

    One or more embodiments relate generally to the field of photoelectron spin and, more specifically, to a method and system for creating a controllable spin-polarized electron source. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for creating a controllable spin-polarized electron source comprising the following steps: providing one or more materials, the one or more materials having at least one surface and a material layer adjacent to said surface, wherein said surface comprises highly spin-polarized surface electrons, wherein the direction and spin of the surface electrons are locked together; providing at least one incident light capable of stimulating photoemission of said surface electrons; wherein the photon polarization of said incident light is tunable; and inducing photoemission of the surface electron states.

  16. Relativistic electron acceleration by oblique whistler waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Peter H.; School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 ; Pandey, Vinay S.; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2013-11-15

    Test-particle simulations of electrons interacting with finite-amplitude, obliquely propagating whistler waves are carried out in order to investigate the acceleration of relativistic electrons by these waves. According to the present findings, an efficient acceleration of relativistic electrons requires a narrow range of oblique propagation angles, close to the whistler resonance cone angle, when the wave amplitude is held constant at relatively low value. For a constant wave propagation angle, it is found that a range of oblique whistler wave amplitudes permits the acceleration of relativistic electrons to O(MeV) energies. An initial distribution of test electrons is shown to form a power-law distribution when plotted in energy space. It is also found that the acceleration is largely uniform in electron pitch-angle space.

  17. Collimation Studies with Hollow Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stancari, G.; Annala, G.; Johnson, T.R.; Saewert, G.W.; Shiltsev, V.; Still, D.A.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-08-01

    Recent experimental studies at the Fermilab Tevatron collider have shown that magnetically confined hollow electron beams can act as a new kind of collimator for high-intensity beams in storage rings. In a hollow electron beam collimator, electrons enclose the circulating beam. Their electric charge kicks halo particles transversely. If their distribution is axially symmetric, the beam core is unaffected. This device is complementary to conventional two-stage collimation systems: the electron beam can be placed arbitrarily close to the circulating beam; and particle removal is smooth, so that the device is a diffusion enhancer rather than a hard aperture limitation. The concept was tested in the Tevatron collider using a hollow electron gun installed in one of the existing electron lenses. We describe some of the technical aspects of hollow-beam scraping and the results of recent measurements.

  18. MEIC Electron Cooling Simulation Using Betacool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, He; Zhang, Yuhong

    2013-12-01

    Electron cooling of ion beams is the most critical R&D issue in Jefferson Lab's MEIC design. In the ion collider ring, a bunched electron beam driven by an energy-recovery SRF linac assisted by a circulate ring will be employed to cool protons or ions with energies up to 100 GeV/u, a parameter regime that electron cooling has never been applied. It is essential to understand how efficient the electron cooling is, particularly in the high energy range, to confirm the feasibility of the design. Electron cooling is also important in LEIC design although the ion energy is 25 GeV/u, lower than MEIC. In this paper, we will present first results of the simulation studies of electron cooling processes in the collider ring of both MEIC and LEIC using BETACOOL code.

  19. Real-time multiplicity counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA); Alvarez, Raymond A. (Berkeley, CA)

    2010-07-13

    A neutron multi-detector array feeds pulses in parallel to individual inputs that are tied to individual bits in a digital word. Data is collected by loading a word at the individual bit level in parallel. The word is read at regular intervals, all bits simultaneously, to minimize latency. The electronics then pass the word to a number of storage locations for subsequent processing, thereby removing the front-end problem of pulse pileup.

  20. Flat panel ferroelectric electron emission display system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayan, S.E.; Orvis, W.J.; Caporaso, G.J.; Wieskamp, T.F.

    1996-04-16

    A device is disclosed which can produce a bright, raster scanned or non-raster scanned image from a flat panel. Unlike many flat panel technologies, this device does not require ambient light or auxiliary illumination for viewing the image. Rather, this device relies on electrons emitted from a ferroelectric emitter impinging on a phosphor. This device takes advantage of a new electron emitter technology which emits electrons with significant kinetic energy and beam current density. 6 figs.

  1. Flat panel ferroelectric electron emission display system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayan, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA); Orvis, William J. (Livermore, CA); Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Wieskamp, Ted F. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A device which can produce a bright, raster scanned or non-raster scanned image from a flat panel. Unlike many flat panel technologies, this device does not require ambient light or auxiliary illumination for viewing the image. Rather, this device relies on electrons emitted from a ferroelectric emitter impinging on a phosphor. This device takes advantage of a new electron emitter technology which emits electrons with significant kinetic energy and beam current density.

  2. NREL: Transportation Research - Power Electronics Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power Electronics Thermal Management A photo of water boiling in liquid cooling lab equipment. Power electronics thermal management research aims to help lower the cost and improve the performance of electric-drive vehicles. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL NREL investigates and develops thermal management strategies for power electronics systems that use wide-bandgap technology, which enables the development of devices that are smaller than those based on other materials, demonstrating

  3. FACTSHEET: Next Generation Power Electronics Manufacturing Innovation

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Institute | Department of Energy Next Generation Power Electronics Manufacturing Innovation Institute FACTSHEET: Next Generation Power Electronics Manufacturing Innovation Institute January 15, 2014 - 9:20am Addthis The Obama Administration today announces the selection of North Carolina State University to lead a public-private manufacturing innovation institute for next generation power electronics. Supported by a $70 million Energy Department investment over five years as well as a

  4. Electronic Document Online Correspondence and Concurrence System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (eDOCS),Office of the Executive Secretariat | Department of Energy Online Correspondence and Concurrence System (eDOCS),Office of the Executive Secretariat Electronic Document Online Correspondence and Concurrence System (eDOCS),Office of the Executive Secretariat Electronic Document Online Correspondence and Concurrence System (eDOCS),Office of the Executive Secretariat PDF icon Electronic Document Online Correspondence and Concurrence System (eDOCS),Office of the Executive Secretariat More

  5. Cybersecurity Awareness Electronic Messaging | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Electronic Messaging Cybersecurity Awareness Electronic Messaging The OCIO CSAT team regularly develops electronic messages, known as "blue box messages," that appear during the user login process on DOE-networked machines to remind users of the importance of cybersecurity practices. The material is available to other DOE organizations or public and private institutions to enhance site-specific awareness programs. PDF icon Cybersecurity Blue Box Messages PDF icon SCRM Blue Box Messages

  6. Appliances and Electronics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Saver » Appliances and Electronics Appliances and Electronics Choose efficient appliances and use them wisely to save money and energy. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder/NREL. Choose efficient appliances and use them wisely to save money and energy. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder/NREL. You can save money and energy at home by choosing energy efficient appliances and electronics and reducing the amount you use them. Explore the following topics to reduce your electricity use and

  7. Electronic Records Management Software Applications Design Criteria

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Standard | Department of Energy Electronic Records Management Software Applications Design Criteria Standard Electronic Records Management Software Applications Design Criteria Standard This Standard is reissued under the authority of DoD Directive 5015.2, "Department of DefenseRecords Management Program," March 6, 2000, (Reference (a)) which provides implementing and procedural guidance on the management of records in the Department of Defense. PDF icon Electronic Records

  8. Xyce parallel electronic simulator design.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornquist, Heidi K.; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Mei, Ting; Schiek, Richard Louis; Keiter, Eric Richard; Russo, Thomas V.

    2010-09-01

    This document is the Xyce Circuit Simulator developer guide. Xyce has been designed from the 'ground up' to be a SPICE-compatible, distributed memory parallel circuit simulator. While it is in many respects a research code, Xyce is intended to be a production simulator. As such, having software quality engineering (SQE) procedures in place to insure a high level of code quality and robustness are essential. Version control, issue tracking customer support, C++ style guildlines and the Xyce release process are all described. The Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator has been under development at Sandia since 1999. Historically, Xyce has mostly been funded by ASC, the original focus of Xyce development has primarily been related to circuits for nuclear weapons. However, this has not been the only focus and it is expected that the project will diversify. Like many ASC projects, Xyce is a group development effort, which involves a number of researchers, engineers, scientists, mathmaticians and computer scientists. In addition to diversity of background, it is to be expected on long term projects for there to be a certain amount of staff turnover, as people move on to different projects. As a result, it is very important that the project maintain high software quality standards. The point of this document is to formally document a number of the software quality practices followed by the Xyce team in one place. Also, it is hoped that this document will be a good source of information for new developers.

  9. High Efficiency Driving Electronics for General Illumination...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Driving Electronics for General Illumination LED Luminaires Upadhyay, Anand 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION New generation of standalone LED driver platforms...

  10. Laser, Supercomputer Measure Speedy Electrons in Silicon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    These mobile electrons are routed and switched through transistors, carrying the digital information that characterizes our age. An international team of physicists and...

  11. Spectroscopic Evidence for Negative Electronic Compressibility...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectroscopic Evidence for Negative Electronic Compressibility in a Quasi-three-dimensional Spin-orbit Correlated Metal Tuesday, June 30, 2015 Negative compressibility is a sign of...

  12. Combination free electron and gaseous laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, Charles A. (Los Alamos, NM); Rockwood, Stephen D. (Los Alamos, NM); Stein, William E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1980-01-01

    A multiple laser having one or more gaseous laser stages and one or more free electron stages. Each of the free electron laser stages is sequentially pumped by a microwave linear accelerator. Subsequently, the electron beam is directed through a gaseous laser, in the preferred embodiment, and in an alternative embodiment, through a microwave accelerator to lower the energy level of the electron beam to pump one or more gaseous lasers. The combination laser provides high pulse repetition frequencies, on the order of 1 kHz or greater, high power capability, high efficiency, and tunability in the synchronous production of multiple beams of coherent optical radiation.

  13. Mini-review of Electron Density Visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adler, Joan; Adler, Omri; Kreif, Meytal; Cohen, Or; Grosso, Bastien; Hashibon, Adham; Cooper, Valentino R

    2015-01-01

    We describe both educational and research oriented examples of electronic density visualization with AViz. Several detailed cases are presented and the procedures for their preparation are described.

  14. LG Electronics Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    manufacturer of electronics and telecommunication products; PV thin-film cell manufacturing is under consideration. Coordinates: 37.557121, 126.977379 Show Map Loading...

  15. Electronic Structure Changes in Supercapacitor Electrodes Observed...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The evolution in electronic structure reflects changes in the surface chemistry and morphology induced by polarization of the electrode-electrolyte interface and points to...

  16. Hot electron measurements from the DIME campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, Paul Andrew

    2015-11-17

    This report describes the findings of electron-based experimentation performed by LANL at the Laser Energetics Web Conference of 11/18/2015.

  17. Correlation between microstructure and thermionic electron emission...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tailored microstructures were achieved by applying substrate biasing during deposition, and these were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and energy ...

  18. Lutron Electronics: Proposed Penalty (2012-SE-3796)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Lutron Electronics Co., Inc. manufactured and distributed noncompliant class A external power supplies in the U.S.

  19. Intense steady state electron beam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.; Kovarik, V.J.; Prelec, K.

    1990-07-17

    An intense, steady state, low emittance electron beam generator is formed by operating a hollow cathode discharge plasma source at critical levels in combination with an extraction electrode and a target electrode that are operable to extract a beam of fast primary electrons from the plasma source through a negatively biased grid that is critically operated to repel bulk electrons toward the plasma source while allowing the fast primary electrons to move toward the target in the desired beam that can be successfully transported for relatively large distances, such as one or more meters away from the plasma source. 2 figs.

  20. Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute ETRI |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Telecommunications Research Institute ETRI Jump to: navigation, search Name: Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) Place: Daejeon, Korea (Republic) Zip:...

  1. Micro Power Electronics Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Micro Power Electronics Inc Place: Hillsboro, Oregon Zip: 97124-7165 Product: Leading battery system integrator. Coordinates: 43.651735, -90.341144 Show Map Loading map......

  2. Kk electronic A S | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Wind energy Product: Provides electronic wind turbine controllers. Coordinates: 56.137415, 8.97689 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemap...

  3. Electronic & Magnetic Materials & Devices Capabilities | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic & Magnetic Materials & Devices Capabilities Synthesis Colloidal chemistry and self-assembly techniques Complex oxide film synthesis via molecular beam epitaxy (DCA R450...

  4. Atmosphere to Electrons Program Overview Presentation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation provides an introduction to the Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) initiative, including objectives, program areas, and a general timeline of activities.

  5. Delta Electronics Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: 114 Product: Provider of power management solutions, electronics components, visual displays, and networkwireless solutions. Coordinates: 25.080441, 121.564194 Show...

  6. Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Motor Thermal Control Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management

  7. ElectronVault | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Woodside, California Zip: 94062 Product: ElectronVault is developing battery-agnostic energy storage systems for transport applications. Coordinates: 40.747061, -73.902726...

  8. High Efficiency Driving Electronics for General Illumination...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    These are standalone LED drivers for rugged outdoor lighting applications. Based on these ... Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Philips Lighting Electronics Company ...

  9. Everlight Electronics Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Everlight Electronics Co Ltd Place: Taipei, Taiwan Product: LED and Infrared Light Manufacturer, also has activities in PV cell manufacture through the...

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2010 Advanced Power Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research is focused on developing revolutionary new power electronics (PE) and electric ... Temperature, High Voltage Fully Integrated Gate Driver Circuit High Temperature, High ...

  11. "Covalent functionalization and electron-transfer properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    "Covalent functionalization and electron-transfer properties of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers: The importance of edge-plane sites" Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  12. Electronic Structure Modeling of Electrochemical Reactions at...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Electronic Structure Modeling of Electrochemical Reactions at ElectrodeElectrolyte Interfaces in Lithium Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  13. Advanced Materials by Design: Programable Transient Electronics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials by Design: Programable Transient Electronics Transient materials is an emerging area of materials design with the key attribute being the ability to physically...

  14. Electronic Educational Devices EED | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Electronic Educational Devices (EED) Place: Colorado Product: Colorado-USA-based manufacturer of higher-end watt meters for plug-in devices. References:...

  15. Electron Microscopy Center | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Group (EMC) develops and maintains unique capabilities for electron beam characterization and applies those capabilities to solve materials challenges. EMC...

  16. Yamaichi Electronics Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Yamaichi Electronics Co Ltd Place: Tokyo, Japan Zip: 143-8515 Product: Tokyo-based company that manufactures electrical connectors,...

  17. LPKF Laser Electronics AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    German developer of systems and process solutions targeted to the electronics and automotive industries. Coordinates: 52.420475, 9.598595 Show Map Loading map......

  18. Tevatron Electron Lenses: Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir; Bishofberger, Kip; Kamerdzhiev, Vsevolod; Kozub, Sergei; Kufer, Matthew; Kuznetsov, Gennady; Martinez, Alexander; Olson, Marvin; Pfeffer, Howard; Saewert, Greg; Scarpine, Vic; /Fermilab /SLAC /Fermilab /Serpukhov, IHEP /Novosibirsk, IYF /Serpukhov, IHEP /Fermilab

    2008-08-01

    The beam-beam effects have been the dominating sources of beam loss and lifetime limitations in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider [1]. Electron lenses were originally proposed for compensation of electromagnetic long-range and head-on beam-beam interactions of proton and antiproton beams [2]. Results of successful employment of two electron lenses built and installed in the Tevatron are reported in [3,4,5]. In this paper we present design features of the Tevatron electron lenses (TELs), discuss the generation of electron beams, describe different modes of operation and outline the technical parameters of various subsystems.

  19. Electronic FOIA Reading Room - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Freedom of Information Act Regulations Privacy Act Regulations DOE Public Reading Room PNNL Technical Library Electronic FOIA Reading Room FOIA EDocuments Freedom of...

  20. Electron Microscopy Catalysis Projects: Success Stories from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalysis Projects: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Electron Microscopy Catalysis Projects: Success Stories from the High...

  1. Reactor control rod timing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Peter T. K. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1982-01-01

    A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

  2. Three-body dwell time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelkar, N. G.

    2010-06-15

    The lifetime of an unstable state or resonance formed as an intermediate state in two-body scattering is known to be related to the dwell time or the time spent within a given region of space by the two interacting particles. This concept is extended to the case of three-body systems and a relation connecting the three-body dwell time with the two-body dwell times of the substructures of the three-body system is derived for the case of separable wave functions. The Kapur-Peierls formalism is revisited to discover one of the first definitions of dwell time in the literature. An extension of the Kapur-Peierls formalism to the three-body case shows that the lifetime of a three-body resonance can indeed be given by the three-body dwell time.

  3. Reactor control rod timing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, P.T.

    1982-02-09

    A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (Above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

  4. Ion acoustic solitons and supersolitons in a magnetized plasma with nonthermal hot electrons and Boltzmann cool electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rufai, O. R. Bharuthram, R.; Singh, S. V. Lakhina, G. S.

    2014-08-15

    Arbitrary amplitude, ion acoustic solitons, and supersolitons are studied in a magnetized plasma with two distinct groups of electrons at different temperatures. The plasma consists of a cold ion fluid, cool Boltzmann electrons, and nonthermal energetic hot electrons. Using the Sagdeev pseudo-potential technique, the effect of nonthermal hot electrons on soliton structures with other plasma parameters is studied. Our numerical computation shows that negative potential ion-acoustic solitons and double layers can exist both in the subsonic and supersonic Mach number regimes, unlike the case of an unmagnetized plasma where they can only exist in the supersonic Mach number regime. For the first time, it is reported here that in addition to solitions and double layers, the ion-acoustic supersoliton solutions are also obtained for certain range of parameters in a magnetized three-component plasma model. The results show good agreement with Viking satellite observations of the solitary structures with density depletions in the auroral region of the Earth's magnetosphere.

  5. Direct first-principles simulation of a high-performance electron emitter: Lithium-oxide-coated diamond surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: yoshi-miyamoto@aist.go.jp; Miyazaki, Takehide [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Takeuchi, Daisuke; Yamasaki, Satoshi [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); JST, ALCA, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2014-09-28

    We examined the field emission properties of lithium(Li)/oxygen(O)-co-terminated diamond (001) surface [C(001)-LiO] through real-time electron dynamics simulation under an applied field. The current emitted from this surface was found to be more than four-fold that emitted by an H-terminated (001) surface, the latter being a typical negative electron affinity system. This high performance is attributed to the Li layer, which bends the potential wall of O-induced electron pockets down in the direction of vacuum, thus facilitating electron emission. Detailed analysis of the emitted electrons and the profile of the self-consistent potential elucidated that the role of O atoms changes from an electron barrier on OH-terminated diamond surfaces to an outlet for electron emission on C(001)-LiO.

  6. Dynamics of electron solvation in methanol: Excited state relaxation and generation by charge-transfer-to-solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elkins, Madeline H.; Williams, Holly L.; Neumark, Daniel M.

    2015-06-21

    The charge-transfer-to-solvent dynamics (CTTS) and excited state relaxation mechanism of the solvated electron in methanol are studied by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy on a liquid methanol microjet by means of two-pulse and three-pulse experiments. In the two-pulse experiment, CTTS excitation is followed by a probe photoejection pulse. The resulting time-evolving photoelectron spectrum reveals multiple time scales characteristic of relaxation and geminate recombination of the initially generated electron which are consistent with prior results from transient absorption. In the three-pulse experiment, the relaxation dynamics of the solvated electron following electronic excitation are measured. The internal conversion lifetime of the excited electron is found to be 130 40 fs, in agreement with extrapolated results from clusters and the non-adiabatic relaxation mechanism.

  7. Total-scattering pair-distribution function of organic material from powder electron diffraction data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gorelik, Tatiana E.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.; Kolb, Ute

    2015-04-01

    This paper shows for the first time that pair-distribution function analyses can be carried out on organic and organo-metallic compounds from powder electron diffraction data. Different experimental setups are demonstrated, including selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nanodiffraction in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or nanodiffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) modes. The methods were demonstrated on organo-metallic complexes (chlorinated and unchlorinated copper-phthalocyanine) and on purely organic compounds (quinacridone). The PDF curves from powder electron diffraction data, called ePDF, are in good agreement with PDF curves determined from X-ray powder data demonstrating that the problems of obtaining kinematical scattering datamore » and avoiding beam-damage of the sample are possible to resolve.« less

  8. Total-scattering pair-distribution function of organic material from powder electron diffraction data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorelik, Tatiana E.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.; Kolb, Ute

    2015-04-01

    This paper shows for the first time that pair-distribution function analyses can be carried out on organic and organo-metallic compounds from powder electron diffraction data. Different experimental setups are demonstrated, including selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nanodiffraction in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or nanodiffraction in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) modes. The methods were demonstrated on organo-metallic complexes (chlorinated and unchlorinated copper-phthalocyanine) and on purely organic compounds (quinacridone). The PDF curves from powder electron diffraction data, called ePDF, are in good agreement with PDF curves determined from X-ray powder data demonstrating that the problems of obtaining kinematical scattering data and avoiding beam-damage of the sample are possible to resolve.

  9. Conceptual MEIC electron ring injection scheme using CEBAF as a full energy injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Jiquan; Lin, Fanglei; Rimmer, Robert A.; Wang, Haipeng; Wang, Shaoheng; Zhang, Yuhong

    2015-09-01

    The Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) proposed by Jefferson Lab is planning to use the newly upgraded 12 GeV CEBAF 1497 MHz SRF CW recirculating linac as a full-energy injector for the electron collider ring. The electron collider ring is proposed to reuse the 476MHz PEP-II RF system to achieve high installed voltage and high beam power. The MEIC electron injection requires 3-10 (or 12) GeV beam in 3-4s long bunch trains with low duty factor and high peak current, resulting in strong transient beam loading for the CEBAF. In this paper, we propose an injection scheme that can match the two systems' frequencies with acceptable injection time, and also address the transient beam loading issue in CEBAF. The scheme is compatible with future upgrade to 952.6 MHz SRF system in the electron ring.

  10. A split-electrode for clearing scattered electrons in the RHIC e-lens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu X.; Pikin, A.; Thieberger, P.; Fischer, W.; Hock, J.; Hamdi, K.; Gassner,D.; Luo, Y.; Montag, C.; Okamura, M.

    2012-05-20

    We are designing two electron lenses that will be installed at RHIC IR10 to compensate for the head-on beam-beam effect. To clear accumulated scattered electrons from 100 GeV proton-electron head-on collisions in the e-lens, a clearing split electrode may be constructed. The feasibility of this proposed electrode was demonstrated via the CST Particle Studio and Opera program simulations. By splitting one of the drift tubes in the e-lens and applying {approx} 380 V across the two parts, the scattered electrons can be cleared out within several hundred micro-seconds. At the same time we can restrict the unwanted shift of the primary electron-beam that already passed the 2-m interaction region in e-lens, to less than 15um.

  11. Erratum: "Reduced model prediction of electron temperature profiles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Erratum: "Reduced model prediction of electron temperature profiles in ... Title: Erratum: "Reduced model prediction of electron temperature profiles in ...

  12. Electron dynamics of the buffer layer and bilayer graphene on SiC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shearer, Alex J.; Caplins, Benjamin W.; Suich, David E.; Harris, Charles B., E-mail: cbharris@berkeley.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Johns, James E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Hersam, Mark C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2014-06-09

    Angle- and time-resolved two-photon photoemission (TPPE) was used to investigate electronic states in the buffer layer of 4H-SiC(0001). An image potential state (IPS) series was observed on this strongly surface-bound buffer layer, and dispersion measurements indicated free-electron-like behavior for all states in this series. These results were compared with TPPE taken on bilayer graphene, which also show the existence of a free-electron-like IPS series. Lifetimes for the n?=?2, and n?=?3 states were obtained from time-resolved TPPE; slightly increased lifetimes were observed in the bilayer graphene sample for the n?=?2 the n?=?3 states. Despite the large band gap of graphene at the center of the Brillouin zone, the lifetime results demonstrate that the graphene layers do not behave as a simple tunneling barrier, suggesting that the buffer layer and graphene overlayers play a direct role in the decay of IPS electrons.

  13. SF 6432-TM (02-01-12) Time Material

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2/01/12 Page 1 of 21 Printed copies of this document are uncontrolled. Retrieve latest version electronically. SANDIA CORPORATION SF 6432-TM (02/01/12) Section II STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR TIME AND MATERIALS LABOR- HOUR CONTRACTS: THE FOLLOWING CLAUSES APPLY TO THIS CONTRACT AS INDICATED UNLESS SPECIFICALLY DELETED, OR EXCEPT TO THE EXTENT THEY ARE SPECIFICALLY IDENTIFIED AS BEING CHANGED SUPPLEMENTED OR AMENDED IN WRITING ISSUED BY THE SANDIA CONTRACTING REPRESENTATIVE . (CTRL+CLICK ON

  14. SF 6432-TM (xx-xx-xx) Time Material

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department Release Date: 11/17/15 Page 1 of 25 Printed copies of this document are uncontrolled. Retrieve latest version electronically. SANDIA CORPORATION SF 6432-TM (11/2015) Section II STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR TIME AND MATERIALS LABOR- HOUR CONTRACTS THE FOLLOWING CLAUSES APPLY TO THIS CONTRACT AS INDICATED UNLESS SPECIFICALLY DELETED, OR EXCEPT TO THE EXTENT THEY ARE SPECIFICALLY IDENTIFIED AS BEING CHANGED SUPPLEMENTED OR AMENDED IN WRITING ISSUED BY THE SANDIA CONTRACTING

  15. SF 6432-TM (xx-xx-xx) Time Material

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7/31/13 Page 1 of 22 Printed copies of this document are uncontrolled. Retrieve latest version electronically. SANDIA CORPORATION SF 6432-TM (07/2013) Section II STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR TIME AND MATERIALS LABOR- HOUR CONTRACTS: THE FOLLOWING CLAUSES APPLY TO THIS CONTRACT AS INDICATED UNLESS SPECIFICALLY DELETED, OR EXCEPT TO THE EXTENT THEY ARE SPECIFICALLY IDENTIFIED AS BEING CHANGED SUPPLEMENTED OR AMENDED IN WRITING ISSUED BY THE SANDIA CONTRACTING REPRESENTATIVE. (CTRL+CLICK ON A

  16. Absolute charge calibration of scintillating screens for relativistic electron detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buck, A.; Popp, A.; Schmid, K.; Karsch, S.; Krausz, F.; Zeil, K.; Jochmann, A.; Kraft, S. D.; Sauerbrey, R.; Cowan, T.; Schramm, U.; Hidding, B.; Kudyakov, T.; Sears, C. M. S.; Veisz, L.; Pawelke, J.

    2010-03-15

    We report on new charge calibrations and linearity tests with high-dynamic range for eight different scintillating screens typically used for the detection of relativistic electrons from laser-plasma based acceleration schemes. The absolute charge calibration was done with picosecond electron bunches at the ELBE linear accelerator in Dresden. The lower detection limit in our setup for the most sensitive scintillating screen (KODAK Biomax MS) was 10 fC/mm{sup 2}. The screens showed a linear photon-to-charge dependency over several orders of magnitude. An onset of saturation effects starting around 10-100 pC/mm{sup 2} was found for some of the screens. Additionally, a constant light source was employed as a luminosity reference to simplify the transfer of a one-time absolute calibration to different experimental setups.

  17. CAST constraints on the axion-electron coupling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    None, None

    2013-05-09

    In non-hadronic axion models, which have a tree-level axion-electron interaction, the Sun produces a strong axion flux by bremsstrahlung, Compton scattering, and axio- recombination, the “BCA processes.” Based on a new calculation of this flux, including for the first time axio-recombination, we derive limits on the axion-electron Yukawa coupling gae and axion-photon interaction strength gaγ using the CAST phase-I data (vacuum phase). For ma ≲ 10 meV/c2 we find gaγ gae < 8.1 × 10–23 GeV–1 at 95% CL. We stress that a next-generation axion helioscope such as the proposed IAXO could push this sensitivity into a range beyond stellarmore » energy-loss limits and test the hypothesis that white-dwarf cooling is dominated by axion emission.« less

  18. Tomographic determination of the power distribution in electron beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teruya, Alan T. (Livermore, CA); Elmer, John W. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A tomographic technique for determining the power distribution of an electron beam using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams. A refractory metal disk with a number of radially extending slits is placed above a Faraday cup. The beam is swept in a circular pattern so that its path crosses each slit in a perpendicular manner, thus acquiring all the data needed for a reconstruction in one circular sweep. Also, a single computer is used to generate the signals actuating the sweep, to acquire that data, and to do the reconstruction, thus reducing the time and equipment necessary to complete the process.

  19. Tomographic determination of the power distribution in electron beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teruya, A.T.; Elmer, J.W.

    1996-12-10

    A tomographic technique for determining the power distribution of an electron beam using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams is disclosed. A refractory metal disk with a number of radially extending slits is placed above a Faraday cup. The beam is swept in a circular pattern so that its path crosses each slit in a perpendicular manner, thus acquiring all the data needed for a reconstruction in one circular sweep. Also, a single computer is used to generate the signals actuating the sweep, to acquire that data, and to do the reconstruction, thus reducing the time and equipment necessary to complete the process. 4 figs.

  20. 2012 ELECTRONIC SPECTROSCOPY & DYNAMICS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JULY 22-27, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohler, Bern

    2012-07-27

    Topics covered in this GRC include high-resolution spectroscopy, coherent electronic energy transport in biology, excited state theory and dynamics, excitonics, electronic spectroscopy of cold and ultracold molecules, and the spectroscopy of nanostructures. Several sessions will highlight innovative techniques such as time-resolved x-ray spectroscopy, frequency combs, and liquid microjet photoelectron spectroscopy that have forged stimulating new connections between gas-phase and condensed-phase work.

  1. Determination of the transient electron temperature in a femtosecond-laser-induced air plasma filament

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Zhanliang; Chen Jinhai; Rudolph, Wolfgang

    2011-04-15

    The transient electron temperature in a weakly ionized femtosecond-laser-produced air plasma filament was determined from optical absorption and diffraction experiments. The electron temperature and plasma density decay on similar time scales of a few hundred picoseconds. Comparison with plasma theory reveals the importance of inelastic collisions that lead to energy transfer to vibrational degrees of freedom of air molecules during the plasma cooling.

  2. Flexible pulse delay control up to picosecond for high-intensity twin electron bunches

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Zhen; Ding, Yuantao; Emma, Paul; Huang, Zhirong; Marinelli, Agostino; Tang, Chuanxiang

    2015-09-10

    Two closely spaced electron bunches have attracted strong interest due to their applications in two color X-ray free-electron lasers as well as witness bunch acceleration in plasmas and dielectric structures. In this paper, we propose a new scheme of delay system to vary the time delay up to several picoseconds while not affecting the bunch compression. Numerical simulations based on the Linac Coherent Light Source are performed to demonstrate the feasibility of this method.

  3. Including the Effects of Electronic Excitations and Electron-Phonon Coupling in Cascade Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, Dorothy |

    2008-07-01

    Radiation damage has traditionally been modeled using cascade simulations however such simulations generally neglect the effects of electron-ion interactions, which may be significant in high energy cascades. A model has been developed which includes the effects of electronic stopping and electron-phonon coupling in Molecular Dynamics simulations by means of an inhomogeneous Langevin thermostat. The energy lost by the atoms to electronic excitations is gained by the electronic system and the energy evolution of the electronic system is modeled by the heat diffusion equation. Energy is exchanged between the electronic system and the atoms in the Molecular Dynamics simulation by means of a Langevin thermostat, the temperature of which is the local electronic temperature. The model is applied to a 10 keV cascade simulation for Fe. (authors)

  4. Lutron Electronics: Order (2012-SE-3796)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Lutron Electronics Co., Inc. to pay a $13,000 civil penalty after finding Lutron Electronics had manufactured and distributed in commerce in the U.S. at least 79,000 units of various basic models, noncompliant Class A external power supplies.

  5. Power electronics substrate for direct substrate cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Le, Khiet (Mission Viejo, CA); Ward, Terence G. (Redondo Beach, CA); Mann, Brooks S. (Redondo Beach, CA); Yankoski, Edward P. (Corona, CA); Smith, Gregory S. (Woodland Hills, CA)

    2012-05-01

    Systems and apparatus are provided for power electronics substrates adapted for direct substrate cooling. A power electronics substrate comprises a first surface configured to have electrical circuitry disposed thereon, a second surface, and a plurality of physical features on the second surface. The physical features are configured to promote a turbulent boundary layer in a coolant impinged upon the second surface.

  6. Multifrequency, single pass free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szoke, Abraham (Fremont, CA); Prosnitz, Donald (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A method for simultaneous amplification of laser beams with a sequence of frequencies in a single pass, using a relativistic beam of electrons grouped in a sequence of energies corresponding to the sequence of laser beam frequencies. The method allows electrons to pass from one potential well or "bucket" to another adjacent bucket, thus increasing efficiency of trapping and energy conversion.

  7. Isotope separation by photoselective dissociative electron capture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevens, C.G.

    1978-08-29

    Disclosed is a method of separating isotopes based on photoselective electron capture dissociation of molecules having an electron capture cross section dependence on the vibrational state of the molecule. A molecular isotope source material is irradiated to selectively excite those molecules containing a desired isotope to a predetermined vibrational state having associated therewith an electron capture energy region substantially non-overlapping with the electron capture energy ranges associated with the lowest vibration states of the molecules. The isotope source is also subjected to electrons having an energy corresponding to the non-overlapping electron capture region whereby the selectively excited molecules preferentially capture electrons and dissociate into negative ions and neutrals. The desired isotope may be in the negative ion product or in the neutral product depending upon the mechanism of dissociation of the particular isotope source used. The dissociation product enriched in the desired isotope is then separated from the reaction system by conventional means. Specifically, [sup 235]UF[sub 6] is separated from a UF[sub 6] mixture by selective excitation followed by dissociative electron capture into [sup 235]UF[sub 5]- and F. 2 figs.

  8. Isotope separation by photoselective dissociative electron capture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevens, Charles G. [Pleasanton, CA

    1978-08-29

    A method of separating isotopes based on photoselective electron capture dissociation of molecules having an electron capture cross section dependence on the vibrational state of the molecule. A molecular isotope source material is irradiated to selectively excite those molecules containing a desired isotope to a predetermined vibrational state having associated therewith an electron capture energy region substantially non-overlapping with the electron capture energy ranges associated with the lowest vibration states of the molecules. The isotope source is also subjected to electrons having an energy corresponding to the non-overlapping electron capture region whereby the selectively excited molecules preferentially capture electrons and dissociate into negative ions and neutrals. The desired isotope may be in the negative ion product or in the neutral product depending upon the mechanism of dissociation of the particular isotope source used. The dissociation product enriched in the desired isotope is then separated from the reaction system by conventional means. Specifically, .sup.235 UF.sub.6 is separated from a UF.sub.6 mixture by selective excitation followed by dissociative electron capture into .sup.235 UF.sub.5 - and F.

  9. The role of electron equation of state in heating partition of protons in a collisionless plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parashar, Tulasi N.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Markovskii, Sergei A.

    2014-02-15

    One of the outstanding questions related to the solar wind is the heating of solar wind plasma. Addressing this question requires a self consistent treatment of the kinetic physics of a collisionless plasma. A hybrid code (with particle ions and fluid electrons) is one of the most convenient computational tools, which allows us to explore self consistent ion kinetics, while saving us computational time as compared to the full particle in cell codes. A common assumption used in hybrid codes is that of isothermal electrons. In this paper, we discuss the role that the equation of state for electrons could potentially play in determining the ion kinetics.

  10. Fullerene Cyanation Does Not Always Increase Electron Affinity: Experimental and Theoretical Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clikeman, Tyler T.; Deng, Shihu; Popov, Alexey A.; Wang, Xue B.; Strauss, Steven H.; Boltalina, Olga V.

    2015-01-01

    The electron affinities of C70 derivatives with trifluoromethyl, methyl and cyano groups were studied experimentally and theoretically using low-temperature photoelectron spectroscopy (LT PES) and density functional theory (DFT). The electronic effects of these functional groups were determined and found to be highly dependent on the addition patterns. Substitution of CF3 for CN for the same addition pattern increases the experimental electron affinity by 70 meV per substitution. The synthesis of a new fullerene derivative, C70(CF3)10(CN)2, is reported for the first time

  11. Jefferson Lab Accelerator Delivers Its First 12 GeV Electrons | Jefferson

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab Jefferson Lab Accelerator Delivers Its First 12 GeV Electrons On December 14, full-energy 12 GeV electron beam was provided for the first time, to the Experimental Hall D complex, located in the upper, left corner of this aerial photo of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility. Hall D is the new experimental research facility - added to CEBAF as part of the 12 GeV Upgrade project. Beam was also delivered to Hall A (dome in the lower left). NEWPORT NEWS, VA, December 21, 2015 -

  12. Relativistic attosecond electron pulses from a free-space laser-acceleration scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varin, Charles; Piche, Michel

    2006-10-15

    In this paper we describe how relativistic attosecond electron pulses could be produced in free space by ultrafast and ultraintense transverse magnetic (TM) laser beams. Numerical solutions of the time-dependent three-dimensional Maxwell-Lorentz equations reveal that electrons initially at rest at the waist of a multi-TW pulsed TM{sub 01} laser beam can be accelerated to multi-MeV energies. The use of a few-cycle laser beam and a compact initial electron cloud forces the particles to effectively interact with a single half-cycle of the laser field and form a pulse of attosecond duration.

  13. Thickness-dependent electronlattice equilibration in laser-excited thin bismuth films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sokolowski-Tinten, K.; Li, R. K.; Reid, A. H.; Weathersby, S. P.; Quirin, F.; Chase, T.; Coffee, R.; Corbett, J.; Fry, A.; Hartmann, N.; et al

    2015-11-19

    Electronphonon coupling processes determine electronic transport properties of materials and are responsible for the transfer of electronic excess energy to the lattice. With decreasing device dimensions an understanding of these processes in nanoscale materials is becoming increasingly important. We use time-resolved electron diffraction to directly study energy relaxation in thin bismuth films after optical excitation. Precise measurements of the transient DebyeWaller-effect for various film thicknesses and over an extended range of excitation fluences allow to separate different contributions to the incoherent lattice response. While phonon softening in the electronically excited state is responsible for an immediate increase of the r.m.s.moreatomic displacement within a few hundred fs, 'ordinary' electronphonon coupling leads to subsequent heating of the material on a few ps time-scale. Moreover, the data reveal distinct changes in the energy transfer dynamics which becomes faster for stronger excitation and smaller film thickness, respectively. The latter effect is attributed to a cross-interfacial coupling of excited electrons to phonons in the substrate.less

  14. How electronic dynamics with Pauli exclusion produces Fermi-Dirac statistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Triet S.; Nanguneri, Ravindra; Parkhill, John

    2015-04-07

    It is important that any dynamics method approaches the correct population distribution at long times. In this paper, we derive a one-body reduced density matrix dynamics for electrons in energetic contact with a bath. We obtain a remarkable equation of motion which shows that in order to reach equilibrium properly, rates of electron transitions depend on the density matrix. Even though the bath drives the electrons towards a Boltzmann distribution, hole blocking factors in our equation of motion cause the electronic populations to relax to a Fermi-Dirac distribution. These factors are an old concept, but we show how they can be derived with a combination of time-dependent perturbation theory and the extended normal ordering of Mukherjee and Kutzelnigg for a general electronic state. The resulting non-equilibrium kinetic equations generalize the usual Redfield theory to many-electron systems, while ensuring that the orbital occupations remain between zero and one. In numerical applications of our equations, we show that relaxation rates of molecules are not constant because of the blocking effect. Other applications to model atomic chains are also presented which highlight the importance of treating both dephasing and relaxation. Finally, we show how the bath localizes the electron density matrix.

  15. Towards Real Time Diagnostics of Hybrid Welding Laser/GMAW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy Mcjunkin; Dennis C. Kunerth; Corrie Nichol; Evgueni Todorov; Steve Levesque; Feng Yu; Robert Danna Couch

    2013-07-01

    Methods are currently being developed towards a more robust system real time feedback in the high throughput process combining laser welding with gas metal arc welding. A combination of ultrasonic, eddy current, electronic monitoring, and visual techniques are being applied to the welding process. Initial simulation and bench top evaluation of proposed real time techniques on weld samples are presented along with the concepts to apply the techniques concurrently to the weld process. Consideration for the eventual code acceptance of the methods and system are also being researched as a component of this project. The goal is to detect defects or precursors to defects and correct when possible during the weld process.

  16. Towards real time diagnostics of Hybrid Welding Laser/GMAW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McJunkin, T. R.; Kunerth, D. C.; Nichol, C. I. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3570 (United States); Todorov, E.; Levesque, S. [Edison Welding Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-02-18

    Methods are currently being developed towards a more robust system real time feedback in the high throughput process combining laser welding with gas metal arc welding. A combination of ultrasonic, eddy current, electronic monitoring, and visual techniques are being applied to the welding process. Initial simulation and bench top evaluation of proposed real time techniques on weld samples are presented along with the concepts to apply the techniques concurrently to the weld process. Consideration for the eventual code acceptance of the methods and system are also being researched as a component of this project. The goal is to detect defects or precursors to defects and correct when possible during the weld process.

  17. Integration of Real-Time Data Into Building Automation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark J. Stunder; Perry Sebastian; Brenda A. Chube; Michael D. Koontz

    2003-04-16

    The project goal was to investigate the possibility of using predictive real-time information from the Internet as an input to building management system algorithms. The objectives were to identify the types of information most valuable to commercial and residential building owners, managers, and system designers. To comprehensively investigate and document currently available electronic real-time information suitable for use in building management systems. Verify the reliability of the information and recommend accreditation methods for data and providers. Assess methodologies to automatically retrieve and utilize the information. Characterize equipment required to implement automated integration. Demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of using the information in building management systems. Identify evolutionary control strategies.

  18. Site-specific electronic configurations of Fe 3d states by energy loss by channeled electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatsumi, Kazuyoshi; Muto, Shunsuke; Nishida, Ikuo; Rusz, Jan

    2010-05-17

    Site-specific configurations of Fe 3d electrons in a spinel ferrite were investigated by electron energy loss spectroscopy under electron channeling conditions. Site-specific spectra were extracted by applying a multivariate curve resolution (MCR) technique to the data set. An electronic difference in the Fe sites caused by ligand field splitting of trivalent Fe was probed. This demonstrated the promise of site-specific valence and spin state analysis in spintronics applications of spinel ferrites.

  19. Ionization By Impact Electrons in Solids: Electron Mean Free Path Fitted Over A Wide Energy Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziaja, B; London, R A; Hajdu, J

    2005-06-09

    We propose a simple formula for fitting the electron mean free paths in solids both at high and at low electron energies. The free-electron-gas approximation used for predicting electron mean free paths is no longer valid at low energies (E < 50 eV), as the band structure effects become significant at those energies. Therefore we include the results of the band structure calculations in our fit. Finally, we apply the fit to 9 elements and 2 compounds.

  20. Focused electron and ion beam systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Persaud, Arun; Ji, Qing; Jiang, Ximan

    2004-07-27

    An electron beam system is based on a plasma generator in a plasma ion source with an accelerator column. The electrons are extracted from a plasma cathode in a plasma ion source, e.g. a multicusp plasma ion source. The beam can be scanned in both the x and y directions, and the system can be operated with multiple beamlets. A compact focused ion or electron beam system has a plasma ion source and an all-electrostatic beam acceleration and focusing column. The ion source is a small chamber with the plasma produced by radio-frequency (RF) induction discharge. The RF antenna is wound outside the chamber and connected to an RF supply. Ions or electrons can be extracted from the source. A multi-beam system has several sources of different species and an electron beam source.