Sample records for time chlorofluorocarbon cfc

  1. Issues and recommendations related to replacement of CFC-114 at the uranium enrichment gaseous diffusion plant. Task title: Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) Program Review, Final report, August 1, 1991--October 1, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, B.L.; Banaghan, E.

    1993-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The operating uranium enrichment gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) in Portsmouth, Ohio and Paducah, Kentucky, which are operated for the United States Department for Energy by Martin Marietta Energy Systems (MMES), currently use a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-114) as the primary process stream coolant. Due to recent legislation embodied in the Clean Air Act, the production of this and other related chlorofluorocarbons (CFCS) are to be phased out with no production occurring after 1995. Since the plants lose approximately 500,000 pounds per year of this process stream coolant through various leaks, the GDPs are faced with the challenge of identifying a replacement coolant that will allow continued operation of the plants. MMES formed the CFC Task Team to identify and solve the various problems associated with identifying and implementing a replacement coolant. This report includes a review of the work performed by the CFC Task Team, and recommendations that were formulated based on this review and upon original work. The topics covered include; identifying a replacement coolant, coolant leak detection and repair efforts, coolant safety concerns, coolant level sensors, regulatory issues, and an analytical decision analysis.

  2. Inter-laboratory comparison of the analyses of sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and three chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, -12 and -113)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , 2006) and global warming (Sihra et al., 2001). CFC compounds attained their highest atmospheric mixing) is intensively used in electronic industries as an electric insulator in high-voltage switches and transformers and is also utilized as a blanket gas in smelting oper- ations associated with magnesium metal production

  3. Time to Give: Energy Department Celebrates Kickoff of CFC 2013...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    -- support more than 4,000 eligible non-profit organizations. CFC recipients provide health care, medical research, disaster relief, housing, youth development, animal rescue,...

  4. Global warming from chlorofluorocarbons and their alternatives: Time scales of chemistry and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ko, Malcolm K.W.; Sze, Nien Dak; Molnar, Gyula; Prather, Michael J

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and their replacements on global warming. Nature Hansen J. ,gas emissions to global warming. Nature London Amendment toNature 315, 649-652, Global warming time scales WMO (World

  5. Method of reducing chlorofluorocarbon refrigerant emissons to the atmosphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Fairchild, Phillip D. (Clinton, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for reducing chloroflurocarbon (CFC) refrigerant emissions during removal or transfer or refrigerants from a vapor compression cooling system or heat pump which comprises contacting the refrigerant with a suitable sorbent material. The sorbent material allows for the storage and retention or the chlorofluorocarbon in non-gaseous form so that it does not tend to escape to the atmosphere where it would cause harm by contributing to ozone depletion. In other aspects of the invention, contacting of CFC refrigerants with sorbent material allows for purification and recycling of used refrigerant, and a device containing stored sorbent material can be employed in the detection of refrigerant leakage in a cooling system or heat pump.

  6. CFC | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    at NNSA Blog Home content Social Media CFC CFC Be a Superhero Join the NNSA and DOE team as we strive to raise 1.1 million for Combined Federal Campaign 2014 @CFC myCFC...

  7. Reactions of {sup 1}:CX{sub 2} during chlorofluorocarbon pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiFelice, J.J.; Ritter, E.R. [Villanova Univ., Villanova, PA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Singlet carbenes are reactive intermediates which behave in a fashion quite different from radicals. In hydrocarbon and hydrochlorocarbon systems, radicals and radical chemistry typically dominate. However, in chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) systems, formation of perhalogenated singlet carbenes ({sup 1}:CX{sub 2}) has been observed. While radicals undergo abstraction reactions and addition to double bonds, singlet carbenes can insert into single bonds. Singlet carbenes are species which have two paired nonbonded electrons; since paired electrons have opposite spin, singlet carbenes can insert into single bonds. Triplet carbenes, in contrast, contain unpaired electrons and behave essentially like radicals. Formation of perhalogenated triplet carbenes ({sup 3}:CX{sub 2}) is less favorable in CFC and HCFC systems since the :CX{sub 2} singlet state is as much as 56 kcal/mol lower in energy than the triplet state. This paper discusses the results of chlorofluorocarbon pyrolysis in helium at different temperatures and with carbene insertion.

  8. Laboratory test results on the thermal resistance of polyisocyanurate foamboard insulation blown with CFC-11 substitutes: A cooperative industry/government project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McElroy, D.L.; Graves, R.S.; Yarbrough, D.W.; Weaver, F.J.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbon gases (CFC-11 and CFC-12) are used as blowing agents for foam insulations for building and appliance applications. The thermal resistance per unit thickness of these insulations is greater than that of other commercially available insulations. Mandated reductions in the production of these chemicals may lead to less efficient substitutes and increase US energy consumption by one quad or more. This report describes laboratory thermal and aging tests on a set of industry-produced, experimental polyisocyanurate (PIR) laminate boardstock to evaluate the viability of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFSs) as alternative blowing agents to chlorofluorcarbon-11 (CFC-11). The PIR boards were blown with five gases: CFC-11, HCFC- 123, HCFC-141b, and 50/50 and 65/35 blends of HCFC-123/HCFC-141b. These HCFC gases have a lower ozone depletion potential than CFC-11 or CFC-12. Apparent thermal conductivity (k) was determined from 0 to 50{degrees}C. Results on the laminate boards provide an independent laboratory check on the increase in k observed for field exposure in the Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA). The measured laboratory increase in k was between 8 and 11% after a 240-d field exposure in the RTRA. Results are reported on a thin-specimen, aging procedure to establish the long-term thermal resistance of gas-filled foams. These thin specimens were planed from the industry-produced boardstock foams and aged at 75 and 150{degrees}F for up to 300 d. The resulting k-values were correlated with an exponential dependency on (diffusion coefficient {times} time){sup {1/2}}/thickness and provided diffusion coefficients for air components into, and blowing agent out of, the foam. This aging procedure was used to predict the five-year thermal resistivity of the foams. The thin-specimen aging procedure is supported with calculations by a computer model for aging of foams. 43 refs., 33 figs., 25 tabs.

  9. Alternative non-CFC mobile air conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Kyle, D.M.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in the search for alternative, non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential, which could result in their eventual phaseout. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This report, therefore, is aimed mainly at the study of alternative automotive cooling methodologies, although it briefly discusses the current status of alternative refrigerants. The alternative MACs can be divided into work-actuated and heat-actuated systems. Work-actuated systems include conventional MAC, reversed Brayton air cycle, rotary vane compressor air cycle, Stirling cycle, thermoelectric (TE) cooling, etc. Heat-actuated MACs include metal hydride cooling, adsorption cooling, ejector cooling, absorption cycle, etc. While we are better experienced with some work-actuated cycle systems, heat-actuated cycle systems have a high potential for energy savings with possible waste heat applications. In this study, each altemative cooling method is discussed for its advantages and its limits.

  10. Interlaboratory comparison of four heat flow meter apparatuses on planed polyisocyanurate boards foamed with CFC-11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, R.S.; McElroy, D.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Miller, R.G. (Walter (Jim) Research Corp., St. Petersburg, FL (USA)); Yarbrough, D.W. (Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (USA)); Zarr, R.R. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA))

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes an interlaboratory comparison of apparent thermal conductivity (k) results on planed polyisocyanurate (PIR) boards foamed with chlorofluorocarbon-11 (CFC-11). Sequential tests were conducted at 75{degrees}F (24{degrees}C) at four facilities on two rigid (PIR) boards, individually and as a pair, using four comparative heat flow meter apparatuses. The specimens were shipped from lab to lab, and testing yielded 15 k-values that have two standard deviation (2 {alpha}) value of 2.2% when described by: k(Btu{center dot}in./h{center dot}ft{sup 2}{center dot}F) = 0/1365 + 1.15 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} t k(W/m{center dot}K) = 0.0197 + 1.66 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} t, where t is the elapsed time in days after planing of the boards. An increased 2 {sigma} value for board 2 may be associated with a larger variation in thickness. The 15 thermal conductance (C) values have a 2 {sigma} value of 3.2% when described by: C(Btu/H{center dot}h{center dot}{sup 2}{center dot}{degrees}F) = 0.1069 + 1.20 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} t. Thus, the 2 {sigma} (k-values) of the interlaboratory comparison is not reduced by comparing C values. 5 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  11. Overview of CFC replacement issues for household refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vineyard, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Roke, L. [Fisher and Paykel, Auckland (New Zealand); Hallett, F. [Frigidaire, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1974, the famous ozone depletion theory of Rowland and Molina claimed that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) diffuse into the stratosphere where they are broken down by photolysis to release chlorine atoms that catalytically destroy ozone. Although the understanding of the science is still imperfect, there is little doubt that CFCs play a major role in the Antarctic ozone hole phenomenon and the decline in ozone observed in the rest of the world. Another issue that has become increasingly important is the potential of CFCs to change the earth`s temperature and to modify the climate. While the main impact in global warming is made by increased concentrations of carbon dioxide, CFCs and other trace gases also contribute to this effect. In an effort to respond to the global environmental threat, a CFC protocol was adopted during a diplomatic conference in Montreal. This document, known as the Montreal Protocol, was ratified in 1988 and put into effect on January 1, 1989. In accordance with Article 6 of the Montreal Protocol, the countries that signed the agreement shall periodically assess the control measures provided for in the Protocol. As part of that assessment process, household refrigeration was investigated to determine the status of CFC-12 replacements. The conclusion was that much progress has been made towards finding a suitable replacement. Compressors designed for HFC-134a have efficiencies comparable to those for CFC-12 and acceptable reliability tests have been obtained with ester lubricants. In addition, other replacements such as R-152a and refrigerant mixtures exist, but will require more study. Cycle options, such as the Stirling cycle, may be viable, but are further out in the future. The impact of new refrigerants is expected to result in elimination of CFC-12 consumption in developed countries by 1997 and in developing countries by 2005.

  12. Removing CFC`s from the atmosphere with lasers -- a second look

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stix, T.H.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An option to both mitigate greenhouse warming and to help preserve the ozone layer could be to remove chlorofluorocarbons (CFC`s) from their principal reservoir, the troposphere. But due to the extremely low atmospheric concentration of the CFC`s (less than one part per billion by volume), such a process must be enormously selective to be cost-effective. It was suggested in 1989 that vast arrays of extremely powerful infrared lasers might be used to break up tropospheric CFC`s via multiphoton dissociation (MPD). Computer calculations making use of an extensive atmospheric-gas infrared cross-section database suggest that -- at carefully chosen wavelengths -- 90% transmission over 50-kilometer paths would be possible through dry atmospheres. Still, a factor of 10 or 20 greater efficiency for the laser-CFC dissociation process is needed to bring the projected costs down to where the plan would merit serious consideration. The likeliest possibility for improvement appears to be to ``chirp`` the infrared laser frequency, that is, lowering its frequency during each pulse so as to remain in resonance -- as long as possible -- with the anharmonic vibrations of the CFC molecules. What is needed is a factor of 10 or more decrease below the laser-beam fluence now thought to be required for CFC infrared multiphoton dissociation. Specifically, one would look to achieve CFC NTD with an infrared fluence of 0.1 to 0.2 joules per cm{sup 2}. This goal may not be reachable, but laboratory experiments using presently available apparatus and techniques could explore this intriguing question. Following a summary of present knowledge concerning ozone depletion, this paper discusses the process of multiphoton dissociation and ways, including laser chirping, by which the MPD efficiency might be enhanced.

  13. Degradation rates of CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113 in anoxic shallow aquifers of Araihazar, Bangladesh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, David

    Degradation rates of CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113 in anoxic shallow aquifers of Araihazar, Bangladesh that these compounds are not stable under anaerobic conditions. To determine the degradation rates of CFCs observed in 3 H/3 He dated groundwater were used to estimate degradation rates in the saturated zone

  14. Abatement of perfluorocompounds and chlorofluorocarbons using surface wave plasma technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frantzen, Michelle E. Gunn

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    and have been favored for wafer etch and chamber clean applications in the semiconductor industry. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are ozone depleting gases that were used as refrigerants for commercial and domestic condensers and air conditioners, but current...

  15. Energy Efficient Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An assessment of the state of the art in refrigeration and insulation technologies is carried out to evaluate the potential for efficient substitutes for CFCs and HCFCs to facilitate the transition to a CFC-free environment. Opportunities for improved efficiency in domestic refrigeration, building chillers, commercial refrigeration and industrial refrigeration are evaluated. Needs for alternate refrigerants, improved components, and/or alternate cycles are identified. A summary of on-going research is presented in each area, and the potential roles of industry and government are considered. The most promising approaches for refrigeration technology fall into these categories: (1) improved vapor compressor cycles with alternate fluids, (2) Stirling cycle development and (3) advances in absorption technology. A summary of on-going research into advanced insulation, focused on vacuum-based insulation technology refrigeration is developed. Insulation applications considered include appliances, transport refrigeration, and buildings. Specific recommendations for a long-term R&D agenda are presented. The potential benefits, research, general approach, and probability of success are addressed.

  16. Impact of CFC Regulations on Environmental System Design and Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lechtanski, J. B.

    CORPORATION. SYRACUSE. NY since not all refrigerants are classified as CFC's. There is another group of refrigerants that we'll be discussing later on that are referred to as HCFC's that are only partially halogenated and still contain one or more... hydrogen atoms in their molecular structure. Where are CFC's most commonly found? Everyone who owns a refrigerator is using CFC's to keep their food fresh. Supermarkets and restaurants use CFC refrigeration systems to keep meat cold and ice cream...

  17. Countdown to CFC phaseout: 11 months to go

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ;Contents: Ozone Depletion-Myth vs. Measurement; Cracking Down on Illegal CFC Imports; Refrigeration and the CFC Phaseout-Who has the Information; Industry Guide for Handling and Reuse of Refrigerants; Maryland Develops CFC Phaseout Strategy; California Department of General Services Plans Transition; and the Industry Looks at Recycling Compliance.

  18. Microsoft Word - CFC Reporting Unit Codes for the Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CFC Reporting Unit Codes for the Department of Energy.docx OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY 4190100 GENERAL COUNSEL 4191300 OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL 4191500 ASSISTANT SECRETARY...

  19. CFC Book Sale and M&M/Jelly Bean Jar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Support the CFC! Buy books, priced between $1 and $5, and buy a guess at the number of M&Ms and jelly beans in the jar for $1. The closest guess wins the jar.

  20. Use of chlorofluorocarbons in refrigeration, insulation and mobile air conditioning in the USA*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    FILE COPY DO NOT REMOVE Use of chlorofluorocarbons in refrigeration, insulation and mobile air in refrigeration equipment and mobile air conditioners, or as the blowing agent in foam insulations. When again accounted for _ 40 %of the potential risk to the environment. Refrigeration, mobile air

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - actively cooled cfc Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A.V. Poberovskii, Yu.M. Timofeev, 2011, published in Izvestiya AN. Fizika Summary: artificial freons (CCl3F or CFC 11 and CCl2F2 or CFC 12) started in the early 1930s. From...

  2. Making energy conservation and CFC reduction win-win!

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunham, E.A.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, resulted in regulations which proposed to phase out ozone depleting refrigerants to meet US international agreements. In addition to the Clean Air Act, Federal Property Managers are impacted by other Laws, such as the Energy Policy Act, which requires improved energy efficiency in Federal buildings. By combining the requirements of both energy conservation and CFC management, property managers can provide a synergy which can result in long-term energy savings and environmentally friendly buildings.

  3. Chlorofluorocarbons, Sulfur Hexafluoride, and Dissolved Permanent Gases in Ground Water from Selected Sites In and Near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1994 - 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busenberg, E.; Plummer, L.N.; Bartholomay, R.C.; Wayland, J.E.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From July 1994 through May 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperations with the Department of Energy, sampled 86 wells completed in the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The wells were sampled for a variety of constituents including one- and two-carbon halocarbons. Concentrations of dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), and trichlorotrifluororoethane (CFC-113) were determined. The data will be used to evaluate the ages of ground waters at INEEL. The ages of the ground water will be used to determine recharge rates, residence time, and travel time of water in the Snake River Plain aquifer in and near INEEL. The chromatograms of 139 ground waters are presented showing a large number of halomethanes, haloethanes, and haloethenes present in the ground waters underlying the INEEL. The chromatograms can be used to qualitatively evaluate a large number of contaminants at parts per trillion to parts per billion concentrations. The data can be used to study temporal and spatial distribution of contaminants in the Snake River Plain aquifer. Representative compressed chromatograms for all ground waters sampled in this study are available on two 3.5-inch high density computer disks. The data and the program required to decompress the data can be obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey office at Idaho Falls, Idaho. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) concentrations were measured in selected wells to determine the feasibility of using this environmental tracer as an age dating tool of ground water. Concentrations of dissolved nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and methane were measured in 79 ground waters. Concentrations of dissolved permanent gases are tabulated and will be used to evaluate the temperature of recharge of ground water in and near the INEEL.

  4. Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.K.; Hughes, P.J.; Fairchild, P.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Kusik, C.L.; Dieckmann, J.T.; McMahon, E.M.; Hobday, N. (Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this study is to develop representative indications of the relative energy use, associated CO{sub 2} emissions, and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of viable options to replace CFCs in their major energy-related application areas. It was motivated, in part, by a concern that most attention to date has focused on the DIRECT global warming effect of CFC's and their alternatives, with adequate attention being paid to the INDIRECT effect of the CO{sub 2} emissions arising from the differences in energy consumption by systems using different alternatives. The DIRECT and INDIRECT contributions are combined in this analysis to determine the TEWI of the various technical options. The study is international in scope and takes into account significant differences in present CFC end-use practices, sources of energy, and other societal factors between Europe, Japan, and North America. This study should be considered an overview of key issues. The analysis addressed CFCs as well as alternative chemicals and technology alternatives in uses such as refrigeration, foam insulation, and metal and electronic cleaning and drying processes.

  5. Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.K.; Hughes, P.J.; Fairchild, P.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kusik, C.L.; Dieckmann, J.T.; McMahon, E.M.; Hobday, N. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this study is to develop representative indications of the relative energy use, associated CO{sub 2} emissions, and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of viable options to replace CFCs in their major energy-related application areas. It was motivated, in part, by a concern that most attention to date has focused on the DIRECT global warming effect of CFC`s and their alternatives, with adequate attention being paid to the INDIRECT effect of the CO{sub 2} emissions arising from the differences in energy consumption by systems using different alternatives. The DIRECT and INDIRECT contributions are combined in this analysis to determine the TEWI of the various technical options. The study is international in scope and takes into account significant differences in present CFC end-use practices, sources of energy, and other societal factors between Europe, Japan, and North America. This study should be considered an overview of key issues. The analysis addressed CFCs as well as alternative chemicals and technology alternatives in uses such as refrigeration, foam insulation, and metal and electronic cleaning and drying processes.

  6. Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.K.; Hughes, P.J.; Fairchild, P.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Kusik, C.L.; Dieckmann, J.T.; McMahon, E.M.; Hobday, N. (Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this study is to develop representative indications of the relative energy use, associated CO{sub 2} emissions, and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of viable option to replace CFCs in their major energy-related application areas. It was motivated, in part, by a concern that most attention to data has focused on the DIRECT global warming effect of CFCs and their alternatives, with inadequate attention being paid to the INDIRECT effect of the CO{sub 2} emissions arising from the differences in energy consumption by systems using different alternatives. The DIRECT and INDIRECT contributions are combined in this analysis to determine the TEWI of the various technical options. The study is international in scope and takes into account significant differences in present CFC end-use practices, sources of energy, and other societal factors between Europe, Japan, and North America.

  7. Collection of submicron particles with cloud droplets using the new MIT-CFC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ardon-Dryer, K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Collection efficiency of submicron mineral dust particles by cloud droplets will be examined using the new Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Contact Freezing Chamber (MIT-CFC). Comparison of the collection efficiency ...

  8. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 94, NO. D13, PAGES 16,417-16,421,NOVEMBER 20, 1989 Greenhouse Effect of Chlorofluorocarbons and Other Trace Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridlind, Ann

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 94, NO. D13, PAGES 16,417-16,421,NOVEMBER 20, 1989 Greenhouse Effect of Chlorofluorocarbons and Other Trace Gases JAMESHANSEN,ANDREW LACIS,AND MICHAEL PRATHER NASA

  9. A research needs assessment: Energy efficient alternatives to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Final reprot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An assessment of the state of the art in refrigeration and insulation technologies is carried out to evaluate the potential for efficient substitutes for CFCs and HCFCs to facilitate the transition to a CFC-free environment. Opportunities for improved efficiency in domestic refrigeration, building chillers, commercial refrigeration and industrial refrigeration are evaluated. Needs for alternate refrigerants, improved components, and/or alternate cycles are identified. A summary of on-going research is presented in each area, and the potential roles of industry and government are considered. The most promising approaches for refrigeration technology fall into these categories: (1) improved vapor compressor cycles with alternate fluids, (2) Stirling cycle development and (3) advances in absorption technology. A summary of on-going research into advanced insulation, focused on vacuum -- based insulation technology refrigeration is developed. Insulation applications considered include appliances, transport refrigeration, and buildings. Specific recommendations for a long-term R&D agenda are present. The potential benefits, research, general approach, and probability of success are addressed.

  10. Correction to ``Stratospheric CO2 isotopic anomalies and SF6 and CFC tracer concentrations in the Arctic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Becky

    Correction to ``Stratospheric CO2 isotopic anomalies and SF6 and CFC tracer concentrations anomalies and SF6 and CFC tracer concentrations in the Arctic polar vortex'' [Alexander et al., 2001 of the approx- imate mean SF6 ages versus Á17 O (diamonds) and d18 O (circles). References Alexander, B., M. K

  11. The Impact of Thermal Fatigue and Carbidisation on the W Coatings Deposited on CFC tiles for the ITER-like Wall Project at JET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Impact of Thermal Fatigue and Carbidisation on the W Coatings Deposited on CFC tiles for the ITER-like Wall Project at JET

  12. New flow boiling heat transfer correlation for CFC-114 and C{sub 4}F{sub 10}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szady, A.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Engineering Technology Div.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The flow boiling tests being conducted at Cudo Technologies, Ltd. in Lexington, Kentucky are a part of The GDP Coolant Replacement Project. The tests are to be done with two alternates, C{sub 4}F{sub 10} and C{sub 4}F{sub 8}, as well as CFC-114. So far, tests were conducted with CFC-114 and C{sub 4}F{sub 10}. The CFC-114 data by Cudo shows better heat transfer performance than that predicted by the codes used in the numerical model which were based on a superposition model. The data was applied to an asymptotic model developed by Steiner and Taborek. The new correlation developed seems to fit better with the Cudo data as well as the Paducah cell test data. The model will be further investigated when C{sub 4}F{sub 8} data is available.

  13. Estimating changes in ocean ventilation from early 1990s CFC-12 and late 2000s SF6 measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waugh, Darryn W.

    Estimating changes in ocean ventilation from early 1990s CFC-12 and late 2000s SF6 measurements constrain the rates and pathways of ocean ventilation and act as proxies for biogeochemically relevant gases such as CO2 and oxygen. Various techniques have deduced changes in ocean ventilation over decadal timescales

  14. Dating groundwater with trifluoromethyl sulfurpentafluoride (SF5CF3), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), CF3Cl (CFC-13),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dating groundwater with trifluoromethyl sulfurpentafluoride (SF5CF3), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), CF; revised 3 October 2007; accepted 30 October 2007; published 22 February 2008. [1] A new groundwater dating and water samples. SF5CF3 and CFC-13 can be used to date groundwaters in some environments where the CFCs

  15. Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.K.; Hughes, P.J.; Fairchild, P.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kusik, C.L.; Dieckmann, J.T.; McMahon, E.M.; Hobday, N. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this study is to develop representative indications of the relative energy use, associated CO{sub 2} emissions, and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of viable option to replace CFCs in their major energy-related application areas. It was motivated, in part, by a concern that most attention to data has focused on the DIRECT global warming effect of CFCs and their alternatives, with inadequate attention being paid to the INDIRECT effect of the CO{sub 2} emissions arising from the differences in energy consumption by systems using different alternatives. The DIRECT and INDIRECT contributions are combined in this analysis to determine the TEWI of the various technical options. The study is international in scope and takes into account significant differences in present CFC end-use practices, sources of energy, and other societal factors between Europe, Japan, and North America.

  16. The use of coated micropowders to reduce radiation heat transfer in foam insulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marge, Arlene Lanciani

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polyurethane foam is the most effective insulation currently available for buildings. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) blowing agents, which have low thermal conductivities, contribute highly to the effectiveness of this insulation. ...

  17. Converting Centrifugal Chillers to HCFC-123

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siebert, B.

    This paper describes the effect that the issue of ozone depletion has on the owners and operators of large commercial water chillers that currently use chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) for refrigeration. The production ban of CFC's mandated...

  18. Exploring energy and environmental opportunities: How the CFC issue can work to your advantage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunham, E.A.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this chapter was neither to bring a light emerging technologies which will conserve significantly more energy nor to present new ideas, methods, or procedures which will help us to meet environmental goals. Everything discussed here is a standard industry practice included in many thousands of chiller plants. Rarely, however, do we consider all, or even most of these ideas, technologies, or features in any one chiller plant. Energy managers must form a partnership with the designers, the buildings managers, the installers, and safety and environmental managers to ensure that, to the maximum extent practicable, these new chiller plants provide efficient and effective operations over the long-term and provide reliable productive space for tenants. Within GSA, the planning process has started. A year from now we hope to be using our combined chiller replacement and energy conservation funding to make significant strides in improving overall building energy efficiency. As energy managers, this is your greatest long-term conciency, but your influence over projects related to CFC reduction will affect conservation in your buildings for the next 30 years. The efficiency of these systems, or lack thereof, will drive your future conservation efforts and, in large part, determine the magnitude of the savings you can achieve. Work with your design people. Know what their plans are for chiller replacements and retrofits. A replacement-in-kind approach will be devastating to your conservation efforts. Your commitment can change this liability into your greatest conservation asset.

  19. An industry perspective of the CFC phaseout: Cost impacts and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogelsberg, F.A. [DuPont Fluoroproducts, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More than 20 years since stratospheric ozone was first suggested as a hypothesis, the world is on the verge of a global environmental success story now that it is a scientific fact that CFCs are in decline. However, it could be premature to claim victory as there are still several critical details that must be pursued to ensure elimination of the ozone hole over the Antarctic and recovery to the ozone layer by the middle of the next century. The economic costs are high, with many yet to accrue (tens of billions of dollars), and there are significant loopholes and illegal activities to content with before the provisions and intent of the Montreal Protocol and its amendments are achieved. Nonetheless, it is fitting to consider the lessons men have learned thus far, both positive and negative, along with the overall phaseout costs, both past and future, for the purpose of ensuring successful closure on the CFC/ozone issue. Attention is focused on the refrigeration and air conditioning sector.

  20. ELSEVIER Journal of NuclearMaterials241-243 (1997) 848-852 Exposure of CFC-materials to high transient heat loads in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    tokamak. A carbon fiber composite material (CFC) was exposed to the edge plasma of TEXTOR using the Fast. The material tested was CF 260 from Schunk, a woven plain fabric PAN-fibre carbon-carbon composite with lay than expected. Keywords." TEXTOR;Disruptions;Materialprobe; Carbon fibre composites 1. Introduction

  1. Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 2, 115, 2010 www.earth-syst-sci-data.net/2/1/2010/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , including the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113 as well as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ­ Accepted: 17 November 2009 ­ Published: 11 January 2010 Abstract. Water column data of carbon and carbon-relevant parameters have been collected and merged into a new database called CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic

  2. Real-time Information, Uncertainty and Quantum Feedback Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bo Qi; Daoyi Dong; Chunlin Chen; Lijun Liu; Zairong Xi

    2014-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Feedback is the core concept in cybernetics and its effective use has made great success in but not limited to the fields of engineering, biology, and computer science. When feedback is used to quantum systems, two major types of feedback control protocols including coherent feedback control (CFC) and measurement-based feedback control (MFC) have been developed. In this paper, we compare the two types of quantum feedback control protocols by focusing on the real-time information used in the feedback loop and the capability in dealing with parameter uncertainty. An equivalent relationship is established between quantum CFC and non-selective quantum MFC in the form of operator-sum representation. Using several examples of quantum feedback control, we show that quantum MFC can theoretically achieve better performance than quantum CFC in stabilizing a quantum state and dealing with Hamiltonian parameter uncertainty. The results enrich understanding of the relative advantages between quantum MFC and quantum CFC, and can provide useful information in choosing suitable feedback protocols for quantum systems.

  3. Non-CFC vacuum alternatives for the energy-efficient insulation of household refrigerators: Design and use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, T.F.; Benson, D.K.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy efficiency, environmental issues, and market incentives all encourage government and industry to continue work on thin-profile vacuum insulations for domestic refrigerators and freezers (R/Fs). Vacuum insulations promise significant improvement in thermal savings over current insulations; the technical objective of one design is an R-value of better than 10 (hr-ft{sup 2}-F/Btu) in 0.1 in. thickness. If performance is improved by a factor of 10 over that of CFC-blown insulating foams, the new insulations (made without CFCs or other potentially troublesome fill gases) will change the design and improve the efficiency of refrigerators. Such changes will meet the conservation, regulatory, and market drivers now strong in developed countries and likely to increase in developing countries. Prototypes of various designs have been tested in the laboratory and in factories, and results to date confirm the good thermal performance of these thin-profile alternatives. The next step is to resolve issues of reliability and cost effectiveness. 34 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Vapor pressures of mixtures of CFC-114 with the potential replacement coolants C{sub 4}F{sub 10} and c-C{sub 4}F{sub 8}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trowbridge, L.D. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Otey, M.G. [Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, KY (United States)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Enrichment Corporation`s production of isotopically enriched uranium depends solely on two plants which utilize the gaseous diffusion process. This process uses large quantities of CFC-114 as an evaporative coolant. CFC-114, however, will be phased out of production at the end of 1995 due to its potential to deplete stratospheric ozone. A search has been underway for substitutes for a number of years. The initial search (1988-89) for an ozone-friendly, commercially available, chemically compatible substitute yielded two candidates, FC-c318 (c-C{sub 4}F{sub 8}) and FC-3110 (C{sub 4}F{sub 10}). The intended mode of replacing coolant was to stage the new coolant into independent subsystems of the plants, so that some systems would continue to operate on CFC-114, and an increasing number would operate on the new coolant. During that changeover process, the possibility of coolant mixing arises in variety of scenarios. This work was intended to generate sufficient experimental information to be able to predict the vapor pressure of coolant mixtures over the range of operating conditions likely to be found in the diffusion plants. Specifically, vapor pressures were measured over the temperature range 322 to 355 K (120{degrees}F to 180{degrees}F) and over the full range of mole fractions for binary mixtures of CFC-114 with FC-3110, and of CFC-114 with FC-c318.

  5. Toxicology evaluation and hazard review for non-CFC containing rigid foams BKC 44317 and last-a-foam MSL-02A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greulich, K.A.; Archuleta, M.M.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New pour-in-place, low density, rigid polyurethane foam kits have been developed to mechanically stabilize damaged explosive ordnance. Although earlier foam systems used chlorofluorocarbons as blowing agents, the current versions rely on carbon dioxide generated by the reaction of isocynates with water. In addition, these kits were developed to manually generate small quantifies of rigid foam in the field with minimal or no protective equipment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and summarize available hazard information for the components of these rigid foam kits and to provide recommendations for personal protective equipment to be used while performing the manual combination of the components. As with most rigid foam systems, these kits consist of two parts, one a mixture of isocyanates; the other, a combination of polyols, surfactants, and amine catalysts. Once completely deployed, the rigid foam is non-toxic. The components, however, have some important health effects which must be considered when establishing handling procedures.

  6. Limnol. Oceanogr., 47(4), 2002, 12101216 2002, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner

    and Oceanography, Inc. Rapid deep-water renewal in Lake Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan) indicated by transient tracers, and the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11 and CFC-12 were measured in Lake Issyk-Kul, a large, deep lake in Kyrgyzstan. Apparent in the Tien Shan mountains of northeast Kyrgyzstan. With a water volume of 1,740 km3 and a maximum depth

  7. ARM - ChloroFluoroCarbons (CFCs)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492air Comments? We would love to heargovInstrumentstdma Comments?History Organization Participants

  8. Mario Molina, Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and Ozone Depletion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilAElectronicCurves | SciTech ConnectLow-Cycle-FatigueofDeptOffice ofDept ofMario

  9. Gas-phase chemical reactivity of CFC-114 and potential replacements. [Reactions of cyclo-C sub 4 F sub 8 with UF sub 6 and F sub 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trowbridge, L.D.; Angel, E.C.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE gaseous diffusion plant complex makes extensive use of CFC-114 as a primary coolant. As this material is on the Montreal Protocol list of materials scheduled for production curtailment, a substitute must be found. In addition to physical cooling properties, the gaseous diffusion application imposes the unique requirement of chemical inertness to fluorinating agents. A series of studies has therefore been undertaken to evaluate the gas-phase chemical reactivity of potential alternate coolants. This report examines the reactivity of perfluorocyclobutane (C-C{sub 4}F{sub 8}) with UF{sub 6} and F{sub 2} at selected reference conditions (approximately 10 Torr partial pressure of each reactant at 150{degrees}C). At the reference conditions, a very slight degree of reactivity was observed with F{sub 2}, but much less than the observed reactivity of the reference coolant, CFC-114. No reaction was observed with UF{sub 6}. A limited number of experiments was conducted at higher temperature, providing a first estimate of the rate of increase of reaction rate with increased temperature.

  10. Gas-phase chemical reactivity of CFC-114 and potential replacements. Part 4, Reactivity of c-C{sub 4}F{sub 8} with F{sub 2} and UF{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trowbridge, L.D.; Angel, E.C.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE gaseous diffusion plant complex makes extensive use of CFC-114 as a primary coolant. As this material is on the Montreal Protocol list of materials scheduled for production curtailment, a substitute must be found. In addition to physical cooling properties, the gaseous diffusion application imposes the unique requirement of chemical inertness to fluorinating agents. A series of studies has therefore been undertaken to evaluate the gas-phase chemical reactivity of potential alternate coolants. This report examines the reactivity of perfluorocyclobutane (C-C{sub 4}F{sub 8}) with UF{sub 6} and F{sub 2} at selected reference conditions (approximately 10 Torr partial pressure of each reactant at 150{degrees}C). At the reference conditions, a very slight degree of reactivity was observed with F{sub 2}, but much less than the observed reactivity of the reference coolant, CFC-114. No reaction was observed with UF{sub 6}. A limited number of experiments was conducted at higher temperature, providing a first estimate of the rate of increase of reaction rate with increased temperature.

  11. Data:90cfc6d1-d58b-4442-a07c-1bacd85c0661 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Arkansas) Effective date: 20100630 End date if known: Rate name: 2 Large power service time of use (PST) Sector: Industrial Description: To all electric service required by any...

  12. Substitutes for ozone depleting aerosol electrical contact cleaners and cleaner/lubricants. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bevilacqua, P.; Clark, K.G.

    1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    With the production of Class I Ozone Depleting Substances discontinued as of January 1996, it became necessary to identify suitable replacements for chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-113) and trichloroethane (TCA) based electrical contact cleaners and cleaner/lubricant products. Two hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC-141b) blends were identified as substitutes and recommended for interim use.

  13. Fabrication, evaluation, and application of evacuated panel insulation (EPI) to portable coolers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barito, R.W.; Barito, M.O. (Barito (R.W.) and Associates, Inc., Louisville, KY (USA)); Kollie, T.G.; McElroy, D.L.; Weaver, F.J.; Werst, S.H.; Chu, W.; Childs, K.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Fine, H.A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (USA)); Landrum, H.L. Jr. (Igloo Products Corp., Houston, TX (USA))

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal insulation is a key parameter in the national energy equation. A reduction in energy usage was realized when chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) blown foams were utilized in thermal insulation applications; however, the discovery that CFC's are reducing the stratospheric ozone resulted in an international agreement to restrict the future production of CFC's. If viable alternatives are not developed, these restrictions will result in increased energy demands. One alternative to foams containing CFC is carbon dioxide blown foams used in a composite insulation system with evacuated panel insulation (EPI). Carbon dioxide blown foams are about 33% higher in thermal conductivity than CFC blown foams; however, EPI's are about 66% lower in conductivity than CFC blown foams. By combining these two insulations into one composite insulation system, CFC's can be eliminated and replaced by a system with lower thermal conductivity. This report covers the fabrication and evaluation of EPI's and their application in a composite panel/CFC foam insulation system in portable ice coolers. Ice coolers were used as a demonstration device because they provided a simple tool for determining the resistances of the composite insulation as compared with the foam alone. CFC foams were used as this project involved a drop-in'' replacement in a production environment where substitution of CO{sub 2} foam was not practical. 16 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. F. Sherwood Rowland, Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and the Thinning of the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA) /EmailMolecularGE,Ozone Layer F. Sherwood

  15. CFC Photo Gallery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platformBuilding Removal OngoingCERCLA Sites QualityEnergy

  16. In-situ and thin-specimen aging of experimental polyisocyanurate roof insulation foamed with alternative blowing agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, J.E.; Courville, G.E.; Graves, R.S.; Linkous, R.L.; McElroy, D.L.; Weaver, F.J.; Yarbrough, D.W.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports apparent thermal conductivity (k) values from field and laboratory aging tests on a set of industry-produced, experimental polyisocyanurate (PIR) laminated boardstock foamed with hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) as alternatives to chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). The PIR boards were blown with five gases: CFC-11, HCFC-123, HCFC-14lb, and 50/50 and 65/35 blends of HCFC-123/HCFC-14lb. The k-values were determined from 0 to 50{degree}C (30 to 120{degree}F) using techniques that meet ASTM C 114 (Thin Heater Apparatus) and ASTM C 518 (Heat Flow Meter Apparatus). Results on laminate boards with facers provide an independent laboratory check on the increase in k observed for field exposure in the ORNL Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA). The observed laboratory increase in k was between 8% and 11% for a 240 day field exposure in the RTRA. A thin-specimen aging procedure established the long-term thermal resistance of gas-filled foams. Thin specimens were planed from the industry-produced boardstock foams and aged at 24 and 65{degree}C (75{degree}F and 150{degree}F) for up to 300 days. An exponential dependency of k with the quantity (diffusion coefficient X time){sup {1/2}}/ thickness, provide effective diffusion coefficients for air components into the foams and blowing agent out of the foams. The foams blown with alternative blowing agents exhibited k-values 3 to 16% (average 9.4%) above CFC-11 foams under similar conditions. Field exposures were conducted on specimens under single ply EPDM membranes in the RTRA for over 400 days. Hourly averages of panel temperature and heat flux were analyzed to obtain K as a function of mean temperature on a week by week basis. The relative performance of test specimens of HCFC-14B under a black and under a white membrane is reported. 29 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Entropic Time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caticha, Ariel [Department of Physics, University at Albany-SUNY, Albany, NY 12222 (United States)

    2011-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The formulation of quantum mechanics within the framework of entropic dynamics includes several new elements. In this paper we concentrate on one of them: the implications for the theory of time. Entropic time is introduced as a book-keeping device to keep track of the accumulation of changes. One new feature is that, unlike other concepts of time appearing in the so-called fundamental laws of physics, entropic time incorporates a natural distinction between past and future.

  18. A review of vacuum insulation research and development in the Building Materials Group of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kollie, T.G.; McElroy, D.L.; Fine, H.A.; Childs, K.W.; Graves, R.S.; Weaver, F.J.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a summary of the development work on flat-vacuum insulation performed by the Building Materials Group (BMG) in the Metals and Ceramics Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the last two years. A historical review of the technology of vacuum insulation is presented, and the role that ORNL played in this development is documented. The ORNL work in vacuum insulation has been concentrated in Powder-filled Evacuated Panels (PEPs) that have a thermal resistivity over 2.5 times that of insulating foams and seven times that of many batt-type insulations, such as fiberglass. Experimental results of substituting PEPs for chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) foal insulation in Igloo Corporation ice coolers are summarized. This work demonstrated that one-dimensional (1D) heat flow models overestimated the increase in thermal insulation of a foam/PEP-composite insulation, but three-dimensional (3D) models provided by a finite-difference, heat-transfer code (HEATING-7) accurately predicted the resistance of the composites. Edges and corners of the ice coolers were shown to cause the errors in the 1D models as well as shunting of the heat through the foam and around the PEPs. The area of coverage of a PEP in a foam/PEP composite is established as an important parameter in maximizing the resistance of such composites. 50 refs., 27 figs,. 22 tabs.

  19. Technology alternatives to CFC/HCFC vapor compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Phaseouts of CFCs and HCFCs to protect the stratospheric ozone layer have caused many developments in replacement or alternative technologies for heat pumping. Some of this effort has been of an ``evolutionary`` nature where the designs of conventional vapor compression systems were adapted to use chlorine-free refrigerants. Other alternatives are more radical departures from conventional practice such as operating above the critical point of an alternative refrigerant. Revolutionary changes in technology based on cycles sor principles not commonly associated with refrigeration have also attracted interest. Many of these technologies are being touted because they are ``ozone-safe`` or because they do not use greenhouse gases as refrigerants. Basic principles and some advantages and disadvantages of each technology are discussed in this paper.

  20. Impact of CFC Regulations on Environmental System Design and Operation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lechtanski, J. B.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    will not be compatible with R-123 and you would either have to convert to an open drive type compressor-motor assembly or, if available, replace the hermetic motor stator with one that has a compatible motor insulation. Finally, R-123 is more toxic than R.... They are created by substituting fluorine. chlorine and/or bromine atoms for the hydrogen atom in hydrocarbons. The term "fully halogenated" means that all of the hydrogen atoms in the molecule have been replaced. This is an important distinction CARRIER...

  1. Nuclear criticality safety assessment of the proposed CFC replacement coolants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, W.C.; Dyer, H.R.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The neutron multiplication characteristics of refrigerant-114 (R-114) and proposed replacement coolants perfluorobutane (C{sub 4}F{sub 10}) and cycloperfluorobutane C{sub 4}F{sub 8}) have been compared by evaluating the infinite media multiplication factors of UF{sub 6}/H/coolant systems and by replacement calculations considering a 10-MW freezer/sublimer. The results of these comparisons demonstrate that R-114 is a neutron absorber, due to its chlorine content, and that the alternative fluorocarbon coolants are neutron moderators. Estimates of critical spherical geometries considering mixtures of UF{sub 6}/HF/C{sub 4}F{sub 10} indicate that the flourocarbon-moderated systems are large compared with water-moderated systems. The freezer/sublimer calculations indicate that the alternative coolants are more reactive than R-114, but that the reactivity remains significantly below the condition of water in the tubes, which was a limiting condition. Based on these results, the alternative coolants appear to be acceptable; however, several follow-up tasks have been recommended, and additional evaluation will be required on an individual equipment basis.

  2. Energy and Global Warming Impacts of CFC Alternative Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Arthur D. Little, Inc. Sponsored by the Alternative Fluorocarbons Environmental Acceptability Study ...................... ......................... 1.7 1.5 Major Findings ................................................ 1.8 1.6 Application Specific2 Effect of Fluorocarbon Emissions ................ 3.4 3.4 CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuels

  3. NNSA employees recognized at DOE CFC ceremony | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA Approved: 5-13-14 FEDERAL EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETYAdministration

  4. Silent Auction for the 2014 CFC | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

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  5. Time Off

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesis ofwas publishedThree scientistsDepartmentTime Off

  6. Vessel thermal map real-time system for the JET tokamak R. Felton,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    temperature than the formerly installed carbon fiber composite tiles, imposes strict thermal restrictions of the tritium retention levels when compared with the previous carbon fiber composite (CFC)-based wall [1]. JET of international thermonuclear experimental reactor-relevant materials for the plasma facing components (PFCs

  7. Evaluation of commercially available aqueous batch immersion cleaning products. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bevilacqua, P.; Clark, K.G.

    1996-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    With the production of Class I Ozone Depleting Substances scheduled to cease in January 1996, it has become necessary to identify suitable replacements for chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-113, Freon 113) vapor degreasing operations currently used to clean avionics components in Navy aircraft maintenance facilities. In this study, one potential option, the use of aqueous cleaning agents, was explored. Commercially available industrial aqueous cleaning agents were evaluated for cleaning capability on simulated operational soils and effects on aircraft materials. Two cleaning agents, Armakleen 2001 and Crest ABS 901, were recommended as a result of this work, and a Military Specification was drafted outlining performance requirements.

  8. An evaluation of alternative cleaning methods for removing an organic contaminant from a stainless steel part

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, J.L.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As of December 1995, the manufacture of Freon, along with many other chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), was prohibited by the Clean Air Act of 1990 (CAA). The ban of CFC solvents has forced manufacturers across the country to search for alternative metal cleaning techniques. The objective of this study was to develop a thorough, scientific based approach for resolving one specific manufacturer`s problem of removing organic contamination from a stainless steel part. This objective was accomplished with an approach that involved: (1) defining the problem, (2) identifying the process constraints, (3) researching alternate cleaning methods, (4) researching applicable government regulations, (5) performing a scientific evaluation and (6) drawing conclusions.

  9. The technical viability of alternative blowing agents in polyisocyanurate roof insulation: A cooperative industry/government project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, J.E.; Courville, G.E.; Desjarlais, A.O.; Graves, R.S.; Linkous, R.L.; McElroy, D.L.; Weaver, F.J.; Wendt, R.L.; Yarbrough, D.W.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a summary of the cooperative industry/government program to establish the viability of alternative blowing agents to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The project was initiated in 1989 following two workshops that focused on needed research on thermal insulation blown with substitutes for CFC-11 and CFC-12. The project is directed by a steering committee of representatives of the sponsors and of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of the project is to determine if the performance of polyisocyanurate (PIR) roof insulation foam boards blown with alternate agents differs from the performance of boards blown with CFC-1. This report describes apparent thermal conductivity (k) results obtained from field and laboratory tests from 1989 to 1992 on a set of experimental PIR laminate boardstock produced to evaluate the viability of alternative hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) as blowing agents. All boardstock was manufactured from similar formulations that were not optimized for thermal performance. Commercial broadstock made in the future may differ in performance from this set. The PIR boards were prepared with CFC-11, HCFC-123, HCFC-141b, and 50/50 and 65/35 blends of HCFC-123/HCFC-141b.

  10. TRENDS 1991: A compendium of data on global change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boden, T.A.; Sepanski, R.J.; Stoss, F.W. (eds.)

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a source of frequently used global-change data. This second issue of the Trends series expands the coverage of sites recording atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}), and it updates records reported in the first issue. New data for other trace atmospheric gases have been included in this issue; historical data on nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}) from ice cores, modern records of atmospheric concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11 and CFC-12) and N{sub 2}O, and estimates of global estimates of CFC-11 and CFC-12. The estimates for global and national CO{sub 2} emissions from the burning of fossil fuels, the production of cement, and gas flaring have been revised and updated. Regional CO{sub 2} emission estimates have been added, and long-term temperature records have been updated and expanded. Data records are presented in four- to six-page formats, each dealing with a specific site, region, or emissions species. The data records include tables and graphs; discussion of methods for collecting, measuring, and reporting the data; trends in the data; and references to literature that provides further information. All data appearing in the document are available on digital media from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center.

  11. Using Acid Number as a Leading Indicator of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning System Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Cartlidge; Hans Schellhase

    2003-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes a literature review to assess the acidity characteristics of the older mineral oil and newer polyolester (POE) refrigeration systems as well as to evaluate acid measuring techniques used in other non-aqueous systems which may be applicable for refrigeration systems. Failure in the older chlorofluorocarbon/hydrochlorofluorocarbon (CFC/HCFC) / mineral oil systems was primarily due to thermal degradation of the refrigerant which resulted in the formation of hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. These are strong mineral acids, which can, over time, severely corrode the system metals and lead to the formation of copper plating on iron surfaces. The oil lubricants used in the older systems were relatively stable and were not prone to hydrolytic degradation due to the low solubility of water in oil. The refrigerants in the newer hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)/POE systems are much more thermally stable than the older CFC/HCFC refrigerants and mineral acid formation is negligible. However, acidity is produced in the new systems by hydrolytic decomposition of the POE lubricants with water to produce the parent organic acids and alcohols used to prepare the POE. The individual acids can therefore vary but they are generally C5 to C9 carboxylic acids. Organic acids are much weaker and far less corrosive to metals than the mineral acids from the older systems but they can, over long time periods, react with metals to form carboxylic metal salts. The salts tend to accumulate in narrow areas such as capillary tubes, particularly if residual hydrocarbon processing chemicals are present in the system, which can lead to plugging. The rate of acid production from POEs varies on a number of factors including chemical structure, moisture levels, temperature, acid concentration and metals. The hydrolysis rate of reaction can be reduced by using driers to reduce the free water concentration and by using scavenging chemicals which react with the system acids. Total acid number (TAN), which includes both mineral acids and organic acids, is therefore a useful indicator which can be used to monitor the condition of the system in order to perform remedial maintenance, when required, to prevent system failure. The critical TAN value is the acid level at which remedial action should be taken to prevent the onset of rapid acid formation which can result in system failure. The level of 0.05 mg KOH/g of oil was established for CFC/mineral oil systems based on analysis of 700 used lubricants from operating systems and failed units. There is no consensus within the refrigeration industry as to the critical TAN value for HFC/POE systems, however, the value will be higher than the CFC/mineral oil systems critical TAN value because of the much weaker organic acids produced from POE. A similar study of used POE lubricants should be performed to establish a critical TAN limit for POE systems. Titrimetric analysis per ASTM procedures is the most commonly used method to determine TAN values in lubricants in the refrigeration industry and other industries dealing with lubricating oils. For field measurements, acid test kits are often used since they provide rapid, semi-quantitative TAN results.

  12. Lightweight Time Modeling in Timed Creol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bjørk, Joakim; Owe, Olaf; Schlatte, Rudolf; 10.4204/EPTCS.36.4

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Creol is an object-oriented modeling language in which inherently concurrent objects exchange asynchronous method calls. The operational semantics of Creol is written in an actor-based style, formulated in rewriting logic. The operational semantics yields a language interpreter in the Maude system, which can be used to analyze models. Recently, Creol has been applied to the modeling of systems with radio communication, such as sensor systems. With radio communication, messages expire and, if sent simultaneously, they may collide in the air. In order to capture these and other properties of distributed systems, we extended Creol's operational semantics with a notion of time. We exploit the framework of a language interpreter to use a lightweight notion of time, in contrast to that needed for a general purpose specification language. This paper presents a timed extension of Creol, including the semantics and the implementation strategy, and discusses its properties using an extended example. The approach can be...

  13. Noncommutative Two Time Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Chagas-Filho

    2006-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a classical formalism describing two-time physics with Abelian canonical gauge field backgrounds. The formalism can be used as a starting point for the construction of an interacting quantized two-time physics theory in a noncommutative soace-time.

  14. Quantum Operation Time Reversal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crooks, Gavin E.

    2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of an open quantum system can be described by a quantum operation: A linear, complete positive map of operators. Here, I exhibit a compact expression for the time reversal of a quantum operation, which is closely analogous to the time reversal of a classical Markov transition matrix. Since open quantum dynamics are stochastic, and not, in general, deterministic, the time reversal is not, in general, an inversion of the dynamics. Rather, the system relaxes toward equilibrium in both the forward and reverse time directions. The probability of a quantum trajectory and the conjugate, time reversed trajectory are related by the heat exchanged with the environment.

  15. Matter: Space without Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yousef Ghazi-Tabatabai

    2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    While Quantum Gravity remains elusive and Quantum Field Theory retains the interpretational difficulties of Quantum Mechanics, we have introduced an alternate approach to the unification of particles, fields, space and time, suggesting that the concept of matter as space without time provides a framework which unifies matter with spacetime and in which we anticipate the development of complete theories (ideally a single unified theory) describing observed 'particles, charges, fields and forces' solely with the geometry of our matter-space-time universe.

  16. Manage Your Time 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Lynn

    2000-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    , you expect unused time to come around again, so that when the same opportunities appear you will be wiser about how to use it. Consider how your cultural background af_fects the w ay you plan and manage time. W *Both cited in Bauer, J. It?s Time.... Effective time management means decid- ing which activity should be done from all the possibilities available, and then doing it. It is a matter of setting priorities. Deciding which jobs are most important and working on those may be better than doing less...

  17. Intrinsic Time Quantum Geometrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eyo Eyo Ita III; Chopin Soo; Hoi-Lai Yu

    2015-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum Geometrodynamics with intrinsic time development and momentric variables is presented. An underlying SU(3) group structure at each spatial point regulates the theory. The intrinsic time behavior of the theory is analyzed, together with its ground state and primordial quantum fluctuations. Cotton-York potential dominates at early times when the universe was small; the ground state naturally resolves Penrose's Weyl Curvature Hypothesis, and thermodynamic and gravitational `arrows of time' point in the same direction. Ricci scalar potential corresponding to Einstein's General Relativity emerges as a zero-point energy contribution. A new set of fundamental commutation relations without Planck's constant emerges from the unification of Gravitation and Quantum Mechanics.

  18. Intrinsic Time Quantum Geometrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ita, Eyo Eyo; Yu, Hoi-Lai

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum Geometrodynamics with intrinsic time development and momentric variables is presented. An underlying SU(3) group structure at each spatial point regulates the theory. The intrinsic time behavior of the theory is analyzed, together with its ground state and primordial quantum fluctuations. Cotton-York potential dominates at early times when the universe was small; the ground state naturally resolves Penrose's Weyl Curvature Hypothesis, and thermodynamic and gravitational `arrows of time' point in the same direction. Ricci scalar potential corresponding to Einstein's General Relativity emerges as a zero-point energy contribution. A new set of fundamental canonical commutation relations without Planck's constant emerges from the unification of Gravitation and Quantum Mechanics.

  19. Developing Improved Travel Time Reliability Measures For Real-time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    reliability Use for prioritizing improvements Outline #12; 95th Percentile Travel Time Travel Time Index: mean travel time divided by free flow travel time Buffer Index: difference between 95th percentile travel time and mean travel time, divided by mean travel time Planning Time Index: 95th percentile

  20. Probabilistic time-series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roweis, Sam

    SCIA 2003 Tutorial: Hidden Markov Models Sam Roweis, University of Toronto June 29, 2003 Probabilistic Generative Models for Time Series #15; Stochastic models for time-series: y 1 ; y 2 ; : : : ; y #15; Add noise to make the system stochastic: p(y t jy t 1 ;y t 2 ; : : : ;y t k ) #15; Markov models

  1. Is Time Inhomogeneous ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Davood Sadatian

    2014-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, we discuss probability of inhomogeneous time in high or low energy scale of physics. Consequently, the possibility was investigated of using theories such as varying speed of light (VSL) and fractal mathematics to build a framework within which answers can be found to some of standard cosmological problems and physics theories on the basis of time non-homogeneity.

  2. The Measurement of Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Boyarsky; P Gora

    2007-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a definition of time measurement based on high energy photons and the fundamental length scale, and show that, for macroscopic time, it is in accord with the Lorentz transformation of special relativity. To do this we define observer in a different way than in special relativity.

  3. Emergence of Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Heller; W. Sasin

    1997-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In the groupoid approach to noncommutative quantization of gravity, gravitational field is quantized in terms of a C*-algebra A of complex valued funcions on a groupoid G (with convolution as multiplication). In the noncommutative quantum gravitational regime the concepts of space and time are meaningless. We study the "emergence of time" in the transition process from the noncommutative regime to the standard space-time geometry. Precise conditions are specified under which modular groups of the von Neumann algebra generated by A can be defined. These groups are interpreted as a state depending time flow. If the above conditions are further refined one obtains a state independent time flow. We show that quantum gravitational dynamics can be expressed in terms of modular groups.

  4. Environment Induced Time Arrow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janos Polonyi

    2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The spread of the time arrows from the environment to an observed subsystem is followed within a harmonic model. A similarity is pointed out between irreversibility and a phase with spontaneously broken symmetry. The causal structure of interaction might be lost in the irreversible case, as well. The Closed Time Path formalism is developed for classical systems and shown to handle the time arrow problem in a clear and flexible manner. The quantum case is considered, as well, and the common origin of irreversibility and decoherence is pointed out.

  5. Time, energy & form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McInnis, Martha Jane

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Physical manifestations of time occur in natural forms of all sizes. Architectural form serves as shelter while providing a built envelope of human life, simultaneously influencing and influenced by energetic activities ...

  6. Drug Retention Times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user

  7. Drug Retention Times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  8. Time-Encoded Imagers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a short overview of the DNN R&D funded project, Time-Encoded Imagers. The project began in FY11 and concluded in FY14. The Project Description below provides the overall motivation and objectives for the project as well as a summary of programmatic direction. It is followed by a short description of each task and the resulting deliverables.

  9. Bootstrapping Time Dilation Decoherence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cisco Gooding; William G. Unruh

    2015-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a general relativistic model of a spherical shell of matter with a perfect fluid on its surface coupled to an internal oscillator, which generalizes a model recently introduced by the authors to construct a self-gravitating interferometer [1]. The internal oscillator evolution is defined with respect to the local proper time of the shell, allowing the oscillator to serve as a local clock that ticks differently depending on the shell's position and momentum. A Hamiltonian reduction is performed on the system, and an approximate quantum description is given to the reduced phase space. If we focus only on the external dynamics, we must trace out the clock degree of freedom, and this results in a form of intrinsic decoherence that shares some features with a proposed "universal" decoherence mechanism attributed to gravitational time dilation [2]. We show that the proposed decoherence remains present in the (gravity-free) limit of flat spacetime, indicating that the effect can be attributed entirely to proper time differences, and thus is not necessarily related to gravity. Finally, we point out a way to bootstrap the gravitational contribution to the time dilation decoherence by including self-interaction, and comment on how this can be considered a fundamentally gravitational intrinsic decoherence effect.

  10. Time and Attendance Reporting

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE O 535.1 establishes the Department's requirements and responsibilities governing time and attendance reporting. The purpose of this revision is to reflect the transition of payroll processing from the Capital Accounting Center to the Defense Finance and Accounting System. Cancels DOE O 3600.1B. Canceled by DOE O 322.1C.

  11. Time reversal communication system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Candy, James V. (Danville, CA); Meyer, Alan W. (Danville, CA)

    2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

  12. Microsoft Word - Rockwood _CFC_ Silver Peak Area Final EA V4...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 41 APPENDICES Appendix A: Reclamation Plan Appendix B: Federal Geothermal Lease Stipulations Appendix C: Comments Received and Responses to Comments Appendix...

  13. Moving Advanced Desiccant Materials into Mainstream Non-CFC Cooling Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sand, J R [ORNL; Grossman, T [ORNL; Rice, C K [ORNL; Fairchild, P D [ORNL; Gross, I L [Engelhard/ICC

    2004-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    desiccant dehumidification technology is emerging as a technically viable alternative for comfort conditioning in many commercial and institutional buildings. Attempts to improve the indoor air quality of buildings has resulted in increasingly stringent guidelines for occupant outdoor air ventilation rates. Additionally, revised building heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) design criteria based on regional peak dew point data highlight the important of the latent (moisture removal) building load relative to the sensible (temperature) building load.

  14. 1. INTRODUCTION As a result of the phas e-out of CFC and HCFC refrigerants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    sources are compared with the Kandlikar [1,2] correlation. 2. HEAT TRANSFER MODEL 2.1. Pool boiling model

  15. Microsoft Word - Rockwood _CFC_ Silver Peak Area Final EA V4 _dec date_.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA / USACE LMI-EFRCAddendumNo. 1REPRHUBC,1670-012407 1the

  16. NNSA hits 21 percent of CFC goal | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA Approved: 5-13-14 FEDERAL EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONALSecurity Administrationhits 21

  17. Intermountain CFC Raises $2,502,457 for Charity in 2007

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn Other NewsSpinInteragency

  18. Tevatron injection timing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saritepe, S.; Annala, G.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bunched beam transfer from one accelerator to another requires coordination and synchronization of many ramped devices. During collider operation timing issues are more complicated since one has to switch from proton injection devices to antiproton injection devices. Proton and antiproton transfers are clearly distinct sequences since protons and antiprotons circulate in opposite directions in the Main Ring (MR) and in the Tevatron. The time bumps are different, the kicker firing delays are different, the kickers and lambertson magnets are different, etc. Antiprotons are too precious to be used for tuning purposes, therefore protons are transferred from the Tevatron back into the Main Ring, tracing the path of antiprotons backwards. This tuning operation is called ``reverse injection.`` Previously, the reverse injection was handled in one supercycle. One batch of uncoalesced bunches was injected into the Tevatron and ejected after 40 seconds. Then the orbit closure was performed in the MR. In the new scheme the lambertson magnets have to be moved and separator polarities have to be switched, activities that cannot be completed in one supercycle. Therefore, the reverse injection sequence was changed. This involved the redefinition of TVBS clock event $D8 as MRBS $D8 thus making it possible to inject 6 proton batches (or coalesced bunches) and eject them one at a time on command, performing orbit closure each time in the MR. Injection devices are clock event driven. The TCLK is used as the reference clock. Certain TCLK events are triggered by the MR beam synchronized clock (MRBS) events. Some delays are measured in terms of MRBS ticks and MR revolutions. See Appendix A for a brief description of the beam synchronized clocks.

  19. Genepool Time Heatmaps

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.Newof EnergyFundingGene Controls FloweringJavaGenepool Time

  20. Bootstrapping Time Dilation Decoherence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gooding, Cisco

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a general relativistic model of a spherical shell of matter with a perfect fluid on its surface coupled to an internal oscillator, which generalizes a model recently introduced by the authors to construct a self-gravitating interferometer [1]. The internal oscillator evolution is defined with respect to the local proper time of the shell, allowing the oscillator to serve as a local clock that ticks differently depending on the shell's position and momentum. A Hamiltonian reduction is performed on the system, and an approximate quantum description is given to the reduced phase space. If we focus only on the external dynamics, we must trace out the clock degree of freedom, and this results in a form of intrinsic decoherence that shares some features with a proposed "universal" decoherence mechanism attributed to gravitational time dilation [2]. We show that the proposed decoherence remains present in the (gravity-free) limit of flat spacetime, indicating that the effect can be attributed entirely to ...

  1. HAWC Timing Calibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huentemeyer, Petra; Dingus, Brenda

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Experiment is a second-generation highsensitivity gamma-ray and cosmic-ray detector that builds on the experience and technology of the Milagro observatory. Like Milagro, HAWC utilizes the water Cherenkov technique to measure extensive air showers. Instead of a pond filled with water (as in Milagro) an array of closely packed water tanks is used. The event direction will be reconstructed using the times when the PMTs in each tank are triggered. Therefore, the timing calibration will be crucial for reaching an angular resolution as low as 0.25 degrees.We propose to use a laser calibration system, patterned after the calibration system in Milagro. Like Milagro, the HAWC optical calibration system will use ~1 ns laser light pulses. Unlike Milagro, the PMTs are optically isolated and require their own optical fiber calibration. For HAWC the laser light pulses will be directed through a series of optical fan-outs and fibers to illuminate the PMTs in approximately one half o...

  2. Final Exam Location and Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Final Exam Location and Time. Math 162 Fall 2001. Date: Wednesday December 12, 2001. Time: 7:00 pm -9:00 pm. Location: Lambert Fieldhouse ...

  3. Final Exam Location and Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Final Exam Location and Time. Math 161 Fall 2001. Date: Friday December 14, 2001. Time: 8:00 am -10:00 am. Location: Lambert Fieldhouse ...

  4. Deciding Timed Bisimulation for Timed Automata Using Zone Valuation Graph

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prasad, Sanjiva

    Deciding Timed Bisimulation for Timed Automata Using Zone Valuation Graph Shibashis Guha, Chinmay was first proved to be decidable for timed automata by Cerans using a product construction method on region graph. Several other methods have been proposed in the literature since then for decid- ing timed

  5. Time encoded radiation imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik; Kiff, Scott

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The various technologies presented herein relate to detecting nuclear material at a large stand-off distance. An imaging system is presented which can detect nuclear material by utilizing time encoded imaging relating to maximum and minimum radiation particle counts rates. The imaging system is integrated with a data acquisition system that can utilize variations in photon pulse shape to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray interactions. Modulation in the detected neutron count rates as a function of the angular orientation of the detector due to attenuation of neighboring detectors is utilized to reconstruct the neutron source distribution over 360 degrees around the imaging system. Neutrons (e.g., fast neutrons) and/or gamma-rays are incident upon scintillation material in the imager, the photons generated by the scintillation material are converted to electrical energy from which the respective neutrons/gamma rays can be determined and, accordingly, a direction to, and the location of, a radiation source identified.

  6. Real time automated inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fant, K.M.; Fundakowski, R.A.; Levitt, T.S.; Overland, J.E.; Suresh, B.R.; Ulrich, F.W.

    1985-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are described relating to the real time automatic detection and classification of characteristic type surface imperfections occurring on the surfaces of material of interest such as moving hot metal slabs produced by a continuous steel caster. A data camera transversely scans continuous lines of such a surface to sense light intensities of scanned pixels and generates corresponding voltage values. The voltage values are converted to corresponding digital values to form a digital image of the surface which is subsequently processed to form an edge-enhanced image having scan lines characterized by intervals corresponding to the edges of the image. The edge-enhanced image is thresholded to segment out the edges and objects formed by the edges by interval matching and bin tracking. Features of the objects are derived and such features are utilized to classify the objects into characteristic type surface imperfections. 43 figs.

  7. Real time automated inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fant, Karl M. (Minneapolis, MN); Fundakowski, Richard A. (Saint Paul, MN); Levitt, Tod S. (Minneapolis, MN); Overland, John E. (Plymouth, MN); Suresh, Bindinganavle R. (New Brighton, MN); Ulrich, Franz W. (Minneapolis, MN)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus relating to the real time automatic detection and classification of characteristic type surface imperfections occurring on the surfaces of material of interest such as moving hot metal slabs produced by a continuous steel caster. A data camera transversely scans continuous lines of such a surface to sense light intensities of scanned pixels and generates corresponding voltage values. The voltage values are converted to corresponding digital values to form a digital image of the surface which is subsequently processed to form an edge-enhanced image having scan lines characterized by intervals corresponding to the edges of the image. The edge-enhanced image is thresholded to segment out the edges and objects formed by the edges are segmented out by interval matching and bin tracking. Features of the objects are derived and such features are utilized to classify the objects into characteristic type surface imperfections.

  8. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Abe

    2014-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine?, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon-#12;fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning a timing-belt based hydroEngine ?powertrain: 1. Can a belt handle the high torques and power loads demanded by the SLH? (Yes.) 2. Can the SLH blades be mounted to belt with a connection that can withstand the loads encountered in operation? (Yes.) 3. Can the belt, with blade attachments, live through the required cyclic loading? (Yes.) The research adds to the general understanding of sustainable small hydropower systems by using innovative system testing to develop and demonstrate performance of a novel powertrain solution, enabling a new type of hydroelectric turbine to be commercially developed. The technical effectiveness of the methods investigated has been shown to be positive through an extensive design and testing process accommodating many constraints and goals, with a major emphasis on high cycle fatigue life. Economic feasibility of the innovations has been demonstrated through many iterations of design for manufacturability and cost reduction. The project is of benefit to the public because it has helped to develop a solution to a major problem -- despite the large available potential for new low-head hydropower, high capital costs and high levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) continue to be major barriers to project development. The hydroEngine? represents a significant innovation, leveraging novel fluid mechanics and mechanical configuration to allow lower-cost turbine manufacture and development of low head hydropower resources.

  9. COLLEGEDESETUDESDOCTORALES 74rueLouisPasteur

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, Université de

    'origine anthropique (CFC-11, CFC-12 et CFC-113 et SF6), particulièrement lorsque le radiocarbone est couplé au SF6 ou

  10. Turbo Space-Time Codes with Time Varying Linear Transformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haimovich, Alexander

    1 Turbo Space-Time Codes with Time Varying Linear Transformations Hangjun Chen and Alexander 07102 Email: {hangjun.chen; alexander.m.haimovich}@njit.edu Abstract Turbo space-time codes with symbols in this paper. It is shown that turbo codes with TVLT achieve full diversity gain and do not require exhaustive

  11. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C, R/V Knorr, October 1992--April 1993)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubin, S.; Goddard, J.G.; Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro; Sutherland, S.C. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; Reid, J.L.; Swift, J.H.; Talley, L.D. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Scripps Institution of Oceanography

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide concentration (TCO{sub 2}) and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) in discrete water samples collected during three expeditions of the Research Vessel (R/V) Knorr in the South Pacific Ocean. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the first cruise (WOCE Section P16A/P17A) began in Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia, on October 6, 1992, and returned to Papeete on November 25, 1992. The second cruise (WOCE Section P17E/P19S) began in Papeete on December 4, 1992, and finished in Punta Arenas, Chile, on January 22, 1993. The third expedition (WOCE Section P19C) started in Punta Arenas, on February 22 and finished in Panama City, Panama, on April 13, 1993. During the three expeditions, 422 hydrographic stations were occupied. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen [measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) sensor], as well as discrete measurements of salinity, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12), TCO{sub 2}, and pCO{sub 2} measured at 4 and 20 C. In addition, potential temperatures were calculated from the measured variables.

  12. The LCLS Timing Event System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dusatko, John; Allison, S.; Browne, M.; Krejcik, P.; /SLAC

    2012-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Linac Coherent Light Source requires precision timing trigger signals for various accelerator diagnostics and controls at SLAC-NAL. A new timing system has been developed that meets these requirements. This system is based on COTS hardware with a mixture of custom-designed units. An added challenge has been the requirement that the LCLS Timing System must co-exist and 'know' about the existing SLC Timing System. This paper describes the architecture, construction and performance of the LCLS timing event system.

  13. Timing Calibration in PET Using a Time Alignment Probe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moses, William W.; Thompson, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    when the two sets of calibration factors are loaded into theare equivalent. Inde, .er/#—calibration, positron emissionB. Conventional Time-Delay Calibration Method 4> >,? '- -'#$

  14. Reactor control rod timing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Peter T. K. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

  15. Reactor control rod timing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, P.T.

    1982-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (Above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

  16. ExperTime: Tracking Expertise over Time Norwegian University of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nørvåg, Kjetil

    ExperTime: Tracking Expertise over Time Jan Rybak Norwegian University of Science and Technology Norwegian University of Science and Technology kjetil.norvag@idi.ntnu.no ABSTRACT This paper presents Exper 6­11, 2014, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. ACM 978-1-4503-2257-7/14/07. http://dx.doi.org/10

  17. IT'S ABOUT TIME Characteristic times in biogeochemistry and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    , and then It falls to earth: Can you tell me when? Decision making on energy and climate change #12;Impulse responseIT'S ABOUT TIME Characteristic times in biogeochemistry and climate Stephen E. Schwartz Symposium on biogeochemical cycling and climate In honor of Henning Rodhe on the occasion of his retirement from the chair

  18. Real-Time Control with Parametric Timed Reachability Games

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    for which the existence of a parameter valuation, such that there is a strategy for the controller to reach set of parameter valuations. Keywords: Timed automata, game theory, parameters, control, verification, model-checking 1. INTRODUCTION Formal methods are widely used in the analysis of time critical systems

  19. Copyright 2005 The Financial Times Limited Financial Times (London, England)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Copyright 2005 The Financial Times Limited Financial Times (London, England) July 11, 2005 Monday London Edition 1 SECTION: COMMENT; Pg. 19 LENGTH: 922 words HEADLINE: Hope and generosity can triumph, nudged the world closer to this prospect. With the backdrop of the bombs in London, the Gleneagles

  20. Time Structure of Muonic Showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Cazon; R. A. Vazquez; A. A. Watson; E. Zas

    2003-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An analytical description of the time structure of the pulses induced by muons in air showers at ground level is deduced assuming the production distance distribution for the muons can be obtained elsewhere. The results of this description are compared against those obtained from simulated showers using AIRES. Major contributions to muon time delays are identified and a relation between the time structure and the depth distribution is unveiled.

  1. Quantum Gravity, the Origin of Time and Time's Arrow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. W. Moffat

    1992-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The local Lorentz and diffeomorphism symmetries of Einstein's gravitational theory are spontaneously broken by a Higgs mechanism by invoking a phase transition in the early Universe, at a critical temperature $T_c$ below which the symmetry is restored. The spontaneous breakdown of the vacuum state generates an external time and the wave function of the Universe satisfies a time dependent Schrodinger equation, which reduces to the Wheeler-deWitt equation in the classical regime for $T T_c$ and matter is created fractions of seconds after the big bang, generating the matter in the Universe. The time direction of the vacuum expectation value of the scalar Higgs field generates a time asymmetry, which defines the cosmological arrow of time and the direction of increasing entropy as the Lorentz symmetry is restored at low temperatures.

  2. Subsystem real-time Time Dependent Density Functional Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishtal, Alisa; Pavanello, Michele

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the extension of Frozen Density Embedding (FDE) theory to real-time Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (rt-TDDFT). FDE a is DFT-in-DFT embedding method that allows to partition a larger Kohn-Sham system into a set of smaller, coupled Kohn-Sham systems. Additional to the computational advantage, FDE provides physical insight into the properties of embedded systems and the coupling interactions between them. The extension to rt-TDDFT is done straightforwardly by evolving the Kohn-Sham subsystems in time simultaneously, while updating the embedding potential between the systems at every time step. Two main applications are presented: the explicit excitation energy transfer in real time between subsystems is demonstrated for the case of the Na$_4$ cluster and the effect of the embedding on optical spectra of coupled chromophores. In particular, the importance of including the full dynamic response in the embedding potential is demonstrated.

  3. Resource Allocation with Time Intervals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Keywords: resource allocation, proper intervals, unsplittable flow ... be positioned within a larger time interval) and call admission control, see [4] and [8] for ...

  4. Electric Time in Quantum Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephon Alexander; Martin Bojowald; Antonino Marciano; David Simpson

    2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Effective quantum cosmology is formulated with a realistic global internal time given by the electric vector potential. New possibilities for the quantum behavior of space-time are found, and the high-density regime is shown to be very sensitive to the specific form of state realized.

  5. Time Management Top 50 Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , weekly and term goals in order of priority and work on top priorities. 2. Prioritize each task based-schedule yourself. 14. Get sleep, exercise and relaxation to keep your energy up. 15. Figure out your peak times of day for energy and do difficult tasks (e.g., studying) during that time. 16. Do the most difficult

  6. STARBASE: MANAGING CONTENTION AND TIMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Son, Sang H.

    systems (RT­DBMS) has primarily based on simulation. This chapter discusses how current real­time technology has been applied to architect an actual RT­DBMS on a real­time microkernel operating system. A real RT­DBMS must confront many practical issues which simulations typically ignore: race conditions

  7. Time Valid One-Time Signature for Time-Critical Multicast Data Authentication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nahrstedt, Klara

    malicious attacks. In this paper, we propose a novel signature model ­ Time Valid One-Time Signature (TV perfect tolerance to packet loss and strong robustness against malicious attacks. The communication is found in current substation communication systems where critical messages related to transient faults (e

  8. Contacts of space--times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maia, M.D.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of contact between manifolds is applied to space--times of general relativity. For a given background space--time a contact approximation of second order is defined and interpreted both from the point of view of a metric pertubation and of a higher order tangent manifold. In the first case, an application to the high frequency gravitational wave hypothesis is suggested. In the second case, a constant curvature tangent bundle is constructed and suggested as a means to define a ten parameter local space--time symmetry.

  9. Time Gravity and Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. G. Unruh

    1993-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Time plays different roles in quantum mechanics and gravity. These roles are examined and the problems that the conflict in the roles presents for quantum gravity are briefly summarised.

  10. TIME-DEPENDENT MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716. (monklath.udel. ... The plan of the paperis as follows. In 2 we .... which states that the energy in the discrete system is independent of time. This energy ...

  11. Jaguar/Kraken time lapse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Time lapse video of the upgrade to ORNL's Jaguar and the University of Tennessee's Kraken, the world's fastest and third-fastest supercomputers. For more information, please visit www.nccs.gov.

  12. TIME SCHEDULE WINTER QUARTER 1970

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaminsky, Werner

    MASTER CON TIME SCHEDULE WINTER QUARTER 1970 ADVANCE REGISTRATION NOVEMBER 3-21 IN, please leave it or pass it along so that other students may use it. #12;Winter Quarter 1970. Examination

  13. UNDERGRAD FULL-TIME PART-TIME UNDERGRAD FULL-TIME PART-TIME Arts & Social Sciences 4706 1118 15 -19 3910 0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -TIME UNDERGRAD FULL-TIME PART-TIME Year 1 3431 432 Tri-County area 7533 1474 Year 2 3012 406 Rest of Ontario 2929 GRADUATE FULL-TIME PART-TIME GRADUATE FULL-TIME PART-TIME Tri-County area 586 80 Spec & Cert 3 2 Rest

  14. Reduction in maximum time uncertainty of paired time signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Theodosiou, George E. (West Chicago, IL); Dawson, John W. (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reduction in the maximum time uncertainty (t.sub.max -t.sub.min) of a series of paired time signals t.sub.1 and t.sub.2 varying between two input terminals and representative of a series of single events where t.sub.1 .ltoreq.t.sub.2 and t.sub.1 +t.sub.2 equals a constant, is carried out with a circuit utilizing a combination of OR and AND gates as signal selecting means and one or more time delays to increase the minimum value (t.sub.min) of the first signal t.sub.1 closer to t.sub.max and thereby reduce the difference. The circuit may utilize a plurality of stages to reduce the uncertainty by factors of 20-800.

  15. Reduction in maximum time uncertainty of paired time signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Theodosiou, G.E.; Dawson, J.W.

    1983-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Reduction in the maximum time uncertainty (t[sub max]--t[sub min]) of a series of paired time signals t[sub 1] and t[sub 2] varying between two input terminals and representative of a series of single events where t[sub 1][<=]t[sub 2] and t[sub 1]+t[sub 2] equals a constant, is carried out with a circuit utilizing a combination of OR and AND gates as signal selecting means and one or more time delays to increase the minimum value (t[sub min]) of the first signal t[sub 1] closer to t[sub max] and thereby reduce the difference. The circuit may utilize a plurality of stages to reduce the uncertainty by factors of 20--800. 6 figs.

  16. Reduction in maximum time uncertainty of paired time signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Theodosiou, G.E.; Dawson, J.W.

    1981-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Reduction in the maximum time uncertainty (t/sub max/ - t/sub min/) of a series of paired time signals t/sub 1/ and t/sub 2/ varying between two input terminals and representative of a series of single events where t/sub 1/ less than or equal to t/sub 2/ and t/sub 1/ + t/sub 2/ equals a constant, is carried out with a circuit utilizing a combination of OR and AND gates as signal selecting means and one or more time delays to increase the minimum value (t/sub min/) of the first signal t/sub 1/ closer to t/sub max/ and thereby reduce the difference. The circuit may utilize a plurality of stages to reduce the uncertainty by factors of 20 to 800.

  17. An assessment of alternatives for replacing Freon 113 in bench type electrical circuit board cleaning at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isakson, K.; Vessell, A.L.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fermilab is presently phasing out all solvents containing Freon-113 (CFC-113) as part of the continuing Waste Minimization Program. These solvents are used primarily in cleaning the flux off of electronic circuit boards after soldering, specifically in bench type work. Title VI of the Clean Air Act mandates a production phase-out for ozone depleting substances, like CFC-113, by the year 2000. Our study addresses this issue by evaluating and choosing alternative non-CFC solvents to replace the CFC-1 13 solvents at Fermilab. Several potential non-CFC cleaning solvents were tested. The evaluation took place in three parts: controlled experimental evaluation, chemical composition evaluation, and employee performed evaluation. First, we performed a controlled nine-step procedure with the potential solvents where each was evaluated in categories such as cleaning effectiveness, odor, residue, type of output and drying time. Next, we listed the chemical composition of each solvent. We noted which solvents contained hydrochlorofluorocarbons because they are targeted for phase-out in the future and will be recognized as interim solutions only. Finally, after preliminary testing, five solvents were chosen as the best options. These solvents were sent to be tested by Fermilab employees who use such materials. Their opinions are valuable not only because they are knowledgeable in this field, but also because they will be using the solvents chosen to replace the CFC-113 solvents. The results favored two ``best alternatives``: Safezone Solvent Flux Remover by Miller-Stephenson and E-Series CFC Free Flux-Off 2000 by Chemtech. Another possible solution also pursued is the no-clean solder option. In our study, we were not able to thoroughly investigate the many types of no-clean solders because of time and financial constraints. The testing that was done, however, showed that no-clean solder was a viable alternative in many cases.

  18. Time evolution of cascade decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Boyanovsky; Louis Lello

    2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We study non-perturbatively the time evolution of cascade decay for generic fields $\\pi \\rightarrow \\phi_1\\phi_2\\rightarrow \\phi_2\\chi_1\\chi_2$ and obtain the time dependence of amplitudes and populations for the resonant and final states. We analyze in detail the different time scales and the manifestation of unitary time evolution in the dynamics of production and decay of resonant intermediate and final states. The probability of occupation (population) "flows" as a function of time from the initial to the final states. When the decay width of the parent particle $\\Gamma_\\pi$ is much larger than that of the intermediate resonant state $\\Gamma_{\\phi_1}$ there is a "bottleneck" in the flow, the population of resonant states builds up to a maximum at $t^* = \\ln[\\Gamma_\\pi/\\Gamma_{\\phi_1}]/(\\Gamma_\\pi-\\Gamma_{\\phi_1})$ nearly saturating unitarity and decays to the final state on the longer time scale $1/\\Gamma_{\\phi_1}$. As a consequence of the wide separation of time scales in this case the cascade decay can be interpreted as evolving sequentially $\\pi \\rightarrow \\phi_1\\phi_2; ~ \\phi_1\\phi_2\\rightarrow \\phi_2\\chi_1\\chi_2$. In the opposite limit the population of resonances ($\\phi_1$) does not build up substantially and the cascade decay proceeds almost directly from the initial parent to the final state without resulting in a large amplitude of the resonant state. An alternative but equivalent non-perturbative method useful in cosmology is presented. Possible phenomenological implications for heavy sterile neutrinos as resonant states and consequences of quantum entanglement and correlations in the final state are discussed.

  19. Time Consistent Risk Measure Under Stopping Time Framework ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    or down-side risk measures have been proposed, from the Roy's safety-first criterion .... the probability P(xt ? Ct) to be no less than ? at time t, i.e.,. P(xt ? Ct) ...... 1, into the objective function E[xt], we have. E[xt] = t?1. ? k=0 ekx0 + t?1. ? s

  20. Snyder noncommutative space-time from two-time physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero, Juan M.; Zamora, Adolfo [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Apartado Postal 70-543, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the two-time physics model leads to a mechanical system with Dirac brackets consistent with the Snyder noncommutative space. A Euclidean version of this space is also obtained and it is shown that both spaces have a dual system describing a particle in a curved space.

  1. Ideally embedded space-times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haesen, S; Haesen, Stefan; Verstraelen, Leopold

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the growing interest in embeddings of space-time in higher-dimensional spaces we consider a specific type of embedding. After proving an inequality between intrinsically defined curvature invariants and the squared mean curvature, we extend the notion of ideal embeddings from Riemannian geometry to the indefinite case. Ideal embeddings are such that the embedded manifold receives the least amount of tension from the surrounding space. Then it is shown that the de Sitter spaces, a Robertson-Walker space-time and some anisotropic perfect fluid metrics can be ideally embedded in a five-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space.

  2. Ideally embedded space-times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan Haesen; Leopold Verstraelen

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the growing interest in embeddings of space-time in higher-dimensional spaces we consider a specific type of embedding. After proving an inequality between intrinsically defined curvature invariants and the squared mean curvature, we extend the notion of ideal embeddings from Riemannian geometry to the indefinite case. Ideal embeddings are such that the embedded manifold receives the least amount of tension from the surrounding space. Then it is shown that the de Sitter spaces, a Robertson-Walker space-time and some anisotropic perfect fluid metrics can be ideally embedded in a five-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space.

  3. Noncommutative space-time models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. A. Gromov; V. V. Kuratov

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The FRT quantum Euclidean spaces $O_q^N$ are formulated in terms of Cartesian generators. The quantum analogs of N-dimensional Cayley-Klein spaces are obtained by contractions and analytical continuations. Noncommutative constant curvature spaces are introduced as a spheres in the quantum Cayley-Klein spaces. For N=5 part of them are interpreted as the noncommutative analogs of (1+3) space-time models. As a result the quantum (anti) de Sitter, Newton, Galilei kinematics with the fundamental length and the fundamental time are suggested.

  4. The TESLA Time Projection Chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nabil Ghodbane

    2002-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A large Time Projection Chamber is proposed as part of the tracking system for a detector at the TESLA electron positron linear collider. Different ongoing R&D studies are reviewed, stressing progress made on a new type readout technique based on Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors.

  5. Time of flight mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ulbricht, Jr., William H. (Arvada, CO)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A time-of-flight mass spectrometer is described in which ions are desorbed from a sample by nuclear fission fragments, such that desorption occurs at the surface of the sample impinged upon by the fission fragments. This configuration allows for the sample to be of any thickness, and eliminates the need for complicated sample preparation.

  6. Curricular internship Timing and Duration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krause, Rolf

    1 Art.1 Curricular internship Art.2 Objectives Art.3 Timing and Duration Art.4 Choice of Employer Art.5 Pertinence of the internship Art.6 Internship Search GRADUATE INTERNSHIP GUIDELINES Faculties training or work experience, herein referred to as `internship', is one of the graduation requirements. 2

  7. Waste to Energy Time Activities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SEMINAR Waste to Energy Time Activities 9:30-9:40 Brief introduction of participants 9:40-10:10 Presentation of Dr. Kalogirou, "Waste to Energy: An Integral Part of Worldwide Sustainable Waste Management" 10. Sofia Bethanis, "Production of synthetic aggregates for use in structural concrete from waste to energy

  8. TIME-RESOLVED VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrei Tokmakoff, MIT (Conference Chair) [Conference Chair; Paul Champion, Northeastern University; Edwin J. Heilweil, NIST; Keith A. Nelson, MIT; Larry Ziegler, Boston University

    2009-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains the Proceedings from the 14th International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy, which was held in Meredith, NH from May 9-14, 2009. The study of molecular dynamics in chemical reaction and biological processes using time-resolved spectroscopy plays an important role in our understanding of energy conversion, storage, and utilization problems. Fundamental studies of chemical reactivity, molecular rearrangements, and charge transport are broadly supported by the DOE�s Office of Science because of their role in the development of alternative energy sources, the understanding of biological energy conversion processes, the efficient utilization of existing energy resources, and the mitigation of reactive intermediates in radiation chemistry. In addition, time-resolved spectroscopy is central to all five of DOE�s grand challenges for fundamental energy science. The Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy conference is organized biennially to bring the leaders in this field from around the globe together with young scientists to discuss the most recent scientific and technological advances. The latest technology in ultrafast infrared, Raman, and terahertz spectroscopy and the scientific advances that these methods enable were covered. Particular emphasis was placed on new experimental methods used to probe molecular dynamics in liquids, solids, interfaces, nanostructured materials, and biomolecules.

  9. Time Management Top 50 Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    daily, weekly and term goals in order of priority and work on top priorities. 2. Prioritize each task limitations and do not overschedule yourself. 14. Get sleep, exercise and relaxation to keep your energy up. 15. Figure out your peak times of day for energy and do difficult tasks (e.g.: studying) during

  10. High resolution time interval meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  11. DEVELOPING IMPROVED TRAVEL TIME RELIABILITY MEASURES FOR REAL-TIME AND ARCHIVED ITS DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    including travel time, 95th percentile travel time, travel time index, buffer index planning time index-based detector data, collected in periodic special studies, or estimated using simulation [1,3]: 95th Percentile between 95th percentile travel time and mean travel time, divided by mean travel time. Planning Time Index

  12. Introduction Space Time Codes Space Time Coding with Feedback New Thoughts Summary Space-Time Coding for Multi-Antenna

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veeravalli, Venugopal

    Introduction Space Time Codes Space Time Coding with Feedback New Thoughts Summary Space 2007 #12;Introduction Space Time Codes Space Time Coding with Feedback New Thoughts Summary MIMO: Diversity vs Multiplexing Multiplexing Diversity Pictures taken from lectures notes on Space Time Coding

  13. Treating Time Travel Quantum Mechanically

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John-Mark A. Allen

    2014-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The fact that closed timelike curves (CTCs) are permitted by general relativity raises the question as to how quantum systems behave when time travel to the past occurs. Research into answering this question by utilising the quantum circuit formalism has given rise to two theories: Deutschian-CTCs (D-CTCs) and "postselected" CTCs (P-CTCs). In this paper the quantum circuit approach is thoroughly reviewed, and the strengths and shortcomings of D-CTCs and P-CTCs are presented in view of their non-linearity and time travel paradoxes. In particular, the "equivalent circuit model"---which aims to make equivalent predictions to D-CTCs, while avoiding some of the difficulties of the original theory---is shown to contain errors. The discussion of D-CTCs and P-CTCs is used to motivate an analysis of the features one might require of a theory of quantum time travel, following which two overlapping classes of new theories are identified. One such theory, the theory of "transition probability" CTCs (T-CTCs), is fully developed. The theory of T-CTCs is shown not to have certain undesirable features---such as time travel paradoxes, the ability to distinguish non-orthogonal states with certainty, and the ability to clone or delete arbitrary pure states---that are present with D-CTCs and P-CTCs. The problems with non-linear extensions to quantum mechanics are discussed in relation to the interpretation of these theories, and the physical motivations of all three theories are discussed and compared.

  14. Payroll & Human Resources (PHR) System Time Entry Tip Sheet PHR EXEMPT TIME ENTRY PHR EXEMPT TIME ENTRY PHR EXEMPT TIME ENTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Benjamin

    , select Quit to exit. Completing Your Timesheet 1. From the Time Entry page, select the appropriate pay - Menu screen, select Quit to exit. Completing Your Timesheet 1. From the Time Entry page, selectPayroll & Human Resources (PHR) System Time Entry Tip Sheet PHR EXEMPT TIME ENTRY PHR EXEMPT TIME

  15. Real time infrared aerosol analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL); Reedy, Gerald T. (Bourbonnais, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for analyzing aerosols in essentially real time includes a virtual impactor which separates coarse particles from fine and ultrafine particles in an aerosol sample. The coarse and ultrafine particles are captured in PTFE filters, and the fine particles impact onto an internal light reflection element. The composition and quantity of the particles on the PTFE filter and on the internal reflection element are measured by alternately passing infrared light through the filter and the internal light reflection element, and analyzing the light through infrared spectrophotometry to identify the particles in the sample.

  16. Regression quantiles for time series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Zongwu

    2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~see, e+g+, Ibragimov and Linnik, 1971, p+ 316!+ Namely, partition REGRESSION QUANTILES FOR TIME SERIES 187 $1, + + + , n% into 2qn 1 1 subsets with large block of size r 5 rn and small block of size s 5 sn+ Set q 5 qn 5 ? n rn 1 sn? , (A.7) where {x...! are the standard Lindeberg–Feller conditions for asymptotic normality of Qn,1 for the independent setup+ Let us first establish ~A+8!+ To this effect, we define the large-block size rn by rn 5 {~nhn!102} and the small-block size sn 5 {~nhn!1020log n}+ Then, as n r...

  17. Time Contortions in Modern Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. F. Kracklauer

    2002-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    As a basis for epistemological study of ``time,'' we analyze three suspect phenomena introduced by modern physics: non-locality, asymmetric aging and advanced interaction. It is shown that all three arise in connection with what has to be taken as arbitrary ideosyncrasies in formulation. It is shown that minor changes result in internally consistent variations of both Quantum Mechanics and Special Relativity devoid of these phenomena. The reinterpretation of some experiments though to confirm the existence of non-locality and asymmetric aging is briefly considered and a possible test is proposed.

  18. Tests of time-invariance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Busetti, Fabio; Harvey, Andrew C

    as an alternative - or complement - to quan- tiles; see, for example, Newey and Powell (1987), Efron (1991) and, in a time series context, De Rossi and Harvey (2006b). We then de?ne residuals based on expectiles and show that they can be used to construct... based on absolute values, (5), are very close to those of the #17;#28; (DQ) tests in (3). The earlier theoretical analysis indicated that the statistics are identical for known quan- tiles and it appears that enforcing the symmetry restriction when...

  19. Fermi Timing and Synchronization System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, R.; Staples, J.; Doolittle, L.; Byrd, J.; Ratti, A.; Kaertner, F.X.; Kim, J.; Chen, J.; Ilday, F.O.; Ludwig, F.; Winter, A.; Ferianis, M.; Danailov, M.; D'Auria, G.

    2006-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fermi FEL will depend critically on precise timing of its RF, laser and diagnostic subsystems. The timing subsystem to coordinate these functions will need to reliably maintain sub-100fs synchronicity between distant points up to 300m apart in the Fermi facility. The technology to do this is not commercially available, and has not been experimentally demonstrated in a working facility. Therefore, new technology must be developed to meet these needs. Two approaches have been researched by different groups working with the Fermi staff. At MIT, a pulse transmission scheme has been developed for synchronization of RF and laser devices. And at LBL, a CW transmission scheme has been developed for RF and laser synchronization. These respective schemes have advantages and disadvantages that will become better understood in coming years. This document presents the work done by both teams, and suggests a possible system design which integrates them both. The integrated system design provides an example of how choices can be made between the different approaches without significantly changing the basic infrastructure of the system. Overall system issues common to any synchronization scheme are also discussed.

  20. A subquantum arrow of time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theo M. Nieuwenhuizen

    2014-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The outcome of a single quantum experiment is unpredictable, except in a pure-state limit. The definite process that takes place in the apparatus may either be intrinsically random or be explainable from a deeper theory. While the first scenario is the standard lore, the latter implies that quantum mechanics is emergent. In that case, it is likely that one has to reconsider radiation by accelerated charges as a physical effect, which thus must be compensated by an energy input. Stochastic electrodynamics, for example, asserts that the vacuum energy arises from classical fluctuations with energy $\\frac{1}{2}\\hbar\\omega$ per mode. In such theories the stability of the hydrogen ground state will arise from energy input from fluctuations and output by radiation, hence due to an energy throughput. That flux of energy constitutes an arrow of time, which we call the "subquantum arrow of time". It is related to the stability of matter and it is more fundamental than, e.g., the thermodynamic and cosmological arrows.

  1. Global Warming in Geologic Time

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    David Archer

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The notion is pervasive in the climate science community and in the public at large that the climate impacts of fossil fuel CO2 release will only persist for a few centuries. This conclusion has no basis in theory or models of the atmosphere / ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO2 recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO2 invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO2, ranging in published models in the literature from 20-60%, remains airborne for a thousand years or longer. Ultimate recovery takes place on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years, a geologic longevity typically associated in public perceptions with nuclear waste. The glacial / interglacial climate cycles demonstrate that ice sheets and sea level respond dramatically to millennial-timescale changes in climate forcing. There are also potential positive feedbacks in the carbon cycle, including methane hydrates in the ocean, and peat frozen in permafrost, that are most sensitive to the long tail of the fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere.

  2. Global Warming in Geologic Time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Archer

    2008-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The notion is pervasive in the climate science community and in the public at large that the climate impacts of fossil fuel CO2 release will only persist for a few centuries. This conclusion has no basis in theory or models of the atmosphere / ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO2 recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO2 invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO2, ranging in published models in the literature from 20-60%, remains airborne for a thousand years or longer. Ultimate recovery takes place on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years, a geologic longevity typically associated in public perceptions with nuclear waste. The glacial / interglacial climate cycles demonstrate that ice sheets and sea level respond dramatically to millennial-timescale changes in climate forcing. There are also potential positive feedbacks in the carbon cycle, including methane hydrates in the ocean, and peat frozen in permafrost, that are most sensitive to the long tail of the fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere.

  3. Stationary distributions of continuous time Markov chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 13, 2012 ... stationary distribution as the limiting fraction of time spent in states. 1 Stationary measures in continuous time. The following theorem is an ...

  4. The Delivery Man Problem with Time Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    depot, while open time windows are considered at all other locations. ... nodes of G: earliest and latest times are described by parameters ei and li for nodes i ...

  5. Variable residence time vortex combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melconian, Jerry O. (76 Beaver Rd., Reading, MA 01867)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variable residence time vortex combustor including a primary combustion chamber for containing a combustion vortex, and a plurality of louvres peripherally disposed about the primary combustion chamber and longitudinally distributed along its primary axis. The louvres are inclined to impel air about the primary combustion chamber to cool its interior surfaces and to impel air inwardly to assist in driving the combustion vortex in a first rotational direction and to feed combustion in the primary combustion chamber. The vortex combustor also includes a second combustion chamber having a secondary zone and a narrowed waist region in the primary combustion chamber interconnecting the output of the primary combustion chamber with the secondary zone for passing only lower density particles and trapping higher density particles in the combustion vortex in the primary combustion chamber for substantial combustion.

  6. Solar Real-Time Pricing: Is Real-Time Electricity Pricing Beneficial...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Information Resources Solar Real-Time Pricing: Is Real-Time Electricity Pricing Beneficial to Solar PV in New York City? Solar Real-Time Pricing: Is Real-Time Electricity...

  7. Payroll & Human Resources (PHR) System Time Entry Tip Sheet PHR NON-EXEMPT TIME ENTRY PHR NON-EXEMPT TIME ENTRY PHR NON-EXEMPT TIME ENTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Benjamin

    , select Quit to exit. Completing Your Timesheet 1. From the Time Entry page, select the appropriate pay the Time Entry - Menu screen, select Quit to exit. Completing Your Timesheet 1. From the Time Entry page. 5. From the Time Entry - Menu screen, select Quit to exit. HELP/SUPPORT HELP/SUPPORT HELP

  8. Concurrency Theory Lecture 22: Timed Modelling & Conclusions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ábrahám, Erika

    Systems Example 22.1 (Real-time reactive systems) brake systems and airbags in cars plant controls mobile.1 (Real-time reactive systems) brake systems and airbags in cars plant controls mobile phones ... Real-Time Reactive Systems Example 22.1 (Real-time reactive systems) brake systems and airbags in cars plant controls

  9. Time Zone Information Compiled by John Case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Case, John

    Deviations From Standard Time 1 The U.S. is on daylight saving time from the first Sunday in April @ 2am til the last Sunday in October @ 2am. Western Europe is on daylight saving time generally from the last Sunday designation. Additionally, it proclaims daylight saving time as does Europe. India's standard is at +05

  10. Introduction Discrete-time autoregressive process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Girolami, Cristina

    Introduction Discrete-time autoregressive process Continuous-time Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process Sharp large deviations for the non-stationary Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process Bernard Bercu Bordeaux University-Uhlenbeck process 1 / 46 #12;Introduction Discrete-time autoregressive process Continuous-time Ornstein

  11. Using Run-Time Predictions to Estimate Queue Wait Times and Improve Scheduler Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feitelson, Dror

    that using our run-time predictor results in lower mean wait times for the workloads with higher o ered loads of the systems we are simulating.We also nd that using our run-time predictors result in mean wait timesUsing Run-Time Predictions to Estimate Queue Wait Times and Improve Scheduler Performance Warren

  12. Time-of-flight radio location system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A bi-static radar configuration measures the direct time-of-flight of a transmitted RF pulse and is capable of measuring this time-of-flight with a jitter on the order of about one pico-second, or about 0.01 inch of free space distance for an electromagnetic pulse over a range of about one to ten feet. A transmitter transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal, and a receiver samples the sequence of electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing in response to a receive timing signal, and generates a sample signal in response to the samples. A timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the sequence of electromagnetic pulses such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence and sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The receive timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that pulses in the sequence are sampled at the pulse repetition rate, and with different delays in the range of delays to produce a sample signal representing magnitude of a received pulse in equivalent time. Automatic gain control circuitry in the receiver controls the magnitude of the equivalent time sample signal. A signal processor analyzes the sample signal to indicate the time-of-flight of the electromagnetic pulses in the sequence. 7 figs.

  13. Time-of-flight radio location system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A bi-static radar configuration measures the direct time-of-flight of a transmitted RF pulse and is capable of measuring this time-of-flight with a jitter on the order of about one pico-second, or about 0.01 inch of free space distance for an electromagnetic pulse over a range of about one to ten feet. A transmitter transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal, and a receiver samples the sequence of electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing in response to a receive timing signal, and generates a sample signal in response to the samples. A timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the sequence of electromagnetic pulses such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence and sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The receive timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that pulses in the sequence are sampled at the pulse repetition rate, and with different delays in the range of delays to produce a sample signal representing magnitude of a received pulse in equivalent time. Automatic gain control circuitry in the receiver controls the magnitude of the equivalent time sample signal. A signal processor analyzes the sample signal to indicate the time-of-flight of the electromagnetic pulses in the sequence.

  14. [PROCESSING WEB TIME ENTRY FOR EMPLOYEES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012 [PROCESSING WEB TIME ENTRY FOR EMPLOYEES] #12;Page 1 of 35 Contents Beginning the Process ....................................................................................... 33 #12;Page 2 of 35 Beginning the Process... Web Time Entry is processed through Banweb, using your

  15. Timing Verification of Adaptive Integrated Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Rohit

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.3 Hierarchical Timing Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.4 Timing Yield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3. PROPOSED TECHNIQUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.2 Grid model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.3 Quadtree model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.4 Probabilisic event approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3...

  16. Can hedge funds time market liquidity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Charles

    We explore a new dimension of fund managers' timing ability by examining whether they can time market liquidity through adjusting their portfolios' market exposure as aggregate liquidity conditions change. Using a large ...

  17. Robert Heinecken's TV/Time Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfahler, Zachary Austin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environment, for example, exploits the televisual medium inMedium is the Message:” The Aesthetics of TV/Time Environmentwith TV/Time Environment. 11 “The Medium is the Message:”

  18. Fall Back Daylight Savings time is November

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linsley, Braddock K.

    Fall Back ­ Daylight Savings time is November 2nd.The Energy Policy Act of 2005 changed both the starting and ending dates. Beginning in 2007, daylight time starts on the second Sunday in March and ends

  19. Constant time algorithms in sparse graph model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Huy Ngoc, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We focus on constant-time algorithms for graph problems in bounded degree model. We introduce several techniques to design constant-time approximation algorithms for problems such as Vertex Cover, Maximum Matching, Maximum ...

  20. Modeling Timed Concurrent Systems using Generalized Ultrametrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling Timed Concurrent Systems using Generalized Ultrametrics Xiaojun Liu Eleftherios Matsikoudis Edward A. Lee Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at Berkeley to lists, requires prior specific permission. #12;Modeling Timed Concurrent Systems using Generalized

  1. Arnold Schwarzenegger REAL-TIME GRID RELIABILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Research (PIER) California Energy Commission Beth Chambers Contract Manager Jamie Patterson (VSA) prototype to monitor system voltage conditions and provide real time dispatchers with reliabilityArnold Schwarzenegger Governor REAL-TIME GRID RELIABILITY MANAGEMENT California ISO Real

  2. http://tas.sagepub.com Time & Society

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angela Baker, Gregory Roach, Sally Ferguson and Drew Dawson Time Preferences The Impact of Different and Non-work Time Preferences Angela Baker, Gregory Roach, Sally Ferguson and Drew Dawson ABSTRACT

  3. Real-Time PCR Dean Fraga,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Michelle

    , Wooster, Ohio 2 Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, Ohio 3 Ashland University, Ashland, Ohio OVERVIEW AND PRINCIPLES The real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) is a recent

  4. Parental Time, Behaviors and Childhood Obesity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuteesa, Annette

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    is to test and correct for the problem of endogeneity stemming from unobserved health factors that can distort any meaningful causal impact of maternal time on child weight status. Using the household production theory, parental time allocation decisions...

  5. Dynamic Vehicle Routing with Stochastic Time Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavone, Marco

    In this paper we study a dynamic vehicle routing problem where demands have stochastic deadlines on their waiting times. Specifically, a network of robotic vehicles must service demands whose time of arrival, location and ...

  6. A Latent Time-Budget Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan de Leeuw; Peter G.M. van der Heijden; Peter Verboon

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DE L E E U W (1989), Latent budget analysis, in: A. DECARLI,DER H E U D E N (1988), The analysis of time- budgets with alatent-time-budget model, in E. Diday et al. (eds. ), Data

  7. Quantum mechanical time contradicts the uncertainty principle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitoshi Kitada

    1999-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The a priori time in conventional quantum mechanics is shown to contradict the uncertainty principle. A possible solution is given.

  8. Time symmetry in wave function collapse models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Bedingham

    2015-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A framework for wave function collapse models that is symmetric under time reversal is presented. Within this framework there are equivalent pictures of collapsing wave functions evolving in both time directions. The backwards-in-time Born rule can be broken by an initial condition on the Universe resulting in asymmetric behaviour. Similarly the forwards-in-time Born rule can in principle be broken by a final condition on the Universe.

  9. A Linear-Time Approach for Static Timing Analysis Covering All Process Corners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    A Linear-Time Approach for Static Timing Analysis Covering All Process Corners Sari Onaissi into the timing analysis of a circuit. With the increase in the number of interesting process vari- ables process variations lead to circuit timing variability and a corresponding timing yield loss. Traditional

  10. Timed CSP: A Retrospective Joel Ouaknine 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouaknine, Joël

    powerful: by syntactically transforming a Timed CSP process into a CSP one (essentially dropping all WAITAPC 2005 Timed CSP: A Retrospective Jo¨el Ouaknine 1 Oxford University Computing Laboratory, UK Timed CSP, from its inception nearly twenty years ago to very recent semantical and algorithmic

  11. A Time Model for Distributed Multimedia Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kühnhauser, Winfried

    properties, using time to specify synchroneity, periodicity, ordering and timeliness. Last but not least objects arriving too late may become useless. Here, time is used to synchronize stream processing, encompassing for example HDTV video streams with a bit rate of up to 2.8 GBit/sec. Media streams have real-time

  12. Business Time in the Foreign Exchange Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    Business Time in the Foreign Exchange Markets Mark J L Orr Centre for Cognitive Science Edinburgh University June 1997 #12; Business Time in the Foreign Exchange Markets Mark J L Orr y Centre for Cognitive; Contents 1 Introduction 4 2 The Price Change Scaling Law 5 3 Business Time 7 4 The BZW Data 11 5 Volatility

  13. Institutional Shareholders and SEO Market Timing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xiaodong

    Institutional Shareholders and SEO Market Timing Armen Hovakimian, Baruch College Huajing Hu, Baruch College #12;2 What do we do? Examine institutional ownership and trading around SEOs and relate these to SEO market timing 2 #12;3 The Goal Shed light on the nature of SEO market timing 3 #12;4 What is SEO

  14. Convex Optimization: from Real-Time Embedded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    Convex Optimization: from Real-Time Embedded to Large-Scale Distributed Stephen Boyd Neal Parikh of Edinburgh, June 25 2014 1 #12;Outline Convex Optimization Real-Time Embedded Optimization Large-Scale Distributed Optimization Summary 2 #12;Outline Convex Optimization Real-Time Embedded Optimization Large

  15. Real-time network simulation support for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xiaowen "Jason"

    Real-time network simulation support for scalable routing experiments Yue Li*, Jason Liu, and Raju-time network simulation with the realism of open- source routing protocol implementations. The infrastructure experiments on light-weight virtual machines. Keywords: network simulation; real-time simulation; network

  16. Time-of-flight radio location system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A bi-static radar configuration measures the direct time-of-flight of a transmitted RF pulse and is capable of measuring this time-of-flight with a jitter on the order of about one pico-second, or about 0.01 inch of free space distance for an electromagnetic pulse over a range of about one to ten feet. A transmitter transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal, and a receiver samples the sequence of electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing in response to a receive timing signal, and generates a sample signal in response to the samples. A timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the sequence of electromagnetic pulses such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence and sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The receive timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that pulses in the sequence are sampled at the pulse repetition rate, and with different delays in the range of delays to produce a sample signal representing magnitude of a received pulse in equivalent time. Automatic gain control circuitry in the receiver controls the magnitude of the equivalent time sample signal. A signal processor analyzes the sample signal to indicate the time-of-flight of the electromagnetic pulses in the sequence. The sample signal in equivalent time is passed through an envelope detection circuit, formed of an absolute value circuit followed by a low pass filter, to convert the sample signal to a unipolar signal to eliminate effects of antenna misorientation. 8 figs.

  17. Time-of-flight radio location system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A bi-static radar configuration measures the direct time-of-flight of a transmitted RF pulse and is capable of measuring this time-of-flight with a jitter on the order of about one pico-second, or about 0.01 inch of free space distance for an electromagnetic pulse over a range of about one to ten feet. A transmitter transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal, and a receiver samples the sequence of electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing in response to a receive timing signal, and generates a sample signal in response to the samples. A timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the sequence of electromagnetic pulses such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence and sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The receive timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that pulses in the sequence are sampled at the pulse repetition rate, and with different delays in the range of delays to produce a sample signal representing magnitude of a received pulse in equivalent time. Automatic gain control circuitry in the receiver controls the magnitude of the equivalent time sample signal. A signal processor analyzes the sample signal to indicate the time-of-flight of the electromagnetic pulses in the sequence. The sample signal in equivalent time is passed through an envelope detection circuit, formed of an absolute value circuit followed by a low pass filter, to convert the sample signal to a unipolar signal to eliminate effects of antenna misorientation.

  18. Relativity theory in time-space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ákos G. Horváth

    2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of time-space defined in an earlier paper of the author is certain generalization of the so-called space-time. In this paper we introduce the concept of time-space manifold. In the homogeneous case, the time-space manifold is a differentiable manifold with such tangent spaces which have certain fixed time-space structure. We redefine the fundamental concepts of global relativity theory with respect to this general situation. We study the concepts of affine connection, parallel transport, curvature tensor and Einstein equation, respectively.

  19. Characterization of polymers in the glass transition range: Time-temperature and time-aging time superposition in polycarbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesce, J.J.; Niemiec, J.M.; Chiang, M.Y. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we present time-temperature and time-aging time superposition data for a commercial grade polycarbonate. The data reduction is performed for dynamic-mechanical data obtained in torsion over a range of temperatures from 103.6 to 144.5{degrees}C and aging times to 16 h. For time-temperature superposition the results show the deviation of the sub-T{sub g} response from the WTF equation. Two response regimes are observed: at temperatures far below T{sub g} the log(a{sub T}) is linear in T, followed by a transition towards the WLF behavior as T{sub g} is approached. The temperature at which the behavior changes from a linear dependence of log(aT) on T to the transition-type behavior is found to depend on the aging time. This temperature decreases as aging time increases. The time-aging time response is found to behave in a normal way. At temperatures far below T{sub g} the log(a{sub te}) vs log(t{sub e}) is constant and has a slope somewhat less than unity. However, nearer to T{sub g} the slope decreases and there is a second regime in which the aging virtually ceases. In this polycarbonate, above 136.9{degrees}C, no aging is observed.

  20. Use of SF6 to estimate anthropogenic CO2 in the upper ocean Toste Tanhua,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waugh, Darryn W.

    Use of SF6 to estimate anthropogenic CO2 in the upper ocean Toste Tanhua,1 Darryn W. Waugh,2s. Here we apply SF6, a tracer that continues to increase in the atmosphere, as a basis for the Cant water mass transit time distributions (TTDs) calculated with SF6 are compared to those based on CFC-12

  1. Journal of Nuclear Materials 191-194 (1992) 499-502 North-Holland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    is done linearly in time and starts from the origin [2). Carbon-fiber-composite (CFC) is still seriouslyJournal of Nuclear Materials 191-194 (1992) 499-502 North-Holland journal of nuclear materials Analysis of sweeping heat loads on divertor plate materials * Ahmed Hassanein Argonne Nation.al Laboratory

  2. Reactor control rod timing system. [LMFBR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, P.T.K.

    1980-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system is described for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

  3. Time-Energy Costs of Quantum Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chi-Hang Fred Fung; H. F. Chau

    2014-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Time and energy of quantum processes are a tradeoff against each other. We propose to ascribe to any given quantum process a time-energy cost to quantify how much computation it performs. Here, we analyze the time-energy costs for general quantum measurements, along a similar line as our previous work for quantum channels, and prove exact and lower bound formulae for the costs. We use these formulae to evaluate the efficiencies of actual measurement implementations. We find that one implementation for a Bell measurement is optimal in time-energy. We also analyze the time-energy cost for unambiguous state discrimination and find evidence that only a finite time-energy cost is needed to distinguish any number of states.

  4. Statistical criteria for characterizing irradiance time series.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose and examine several statistical criteria for characterizing time series of solar irradiance. Time series of irradiance are used in analyses that seek to quantify the performance of photovoltaic (PV) power systems over time. Time series of irradiance are either measured or are simulated using models. Simulations of irradiance are often calibrated to or generated from statistics for observed irradiance and simulations are validated by comparing the simulation output to the observed irradiance. Criteria used in this comparison should derive from the context of the analyses in which the simulated irradiance is to be used. We examine three statistics that characterize time series and their use as criteria for comparing time series. We demonstrate these statistics using observed irradiance data recorded in August 2007 in Las Vegas, Nevada, and in June 2009 in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  5. Halanay type inequalities on time scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ad\\ivar, Murat

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper aims to introduce Halanay type inequalities on time scales. By means of these inequalities we derive new global stability conditions for nonlinear dynamic equations on time scales. Giving several examples we show that beside generalization and extension to q-difference case, our results also provide improvements for the existing theory regarding differential and difference inequalites, which are the most important particular cases of dynamic inequalities on time scales.

  6. DNA Bubble Life Time in Denaturation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zh. S. Gevorkian; Chin-Kun Hu

    2010-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the denaturation bubble life time for a homogeneous as well as for a heterogeneous DNA within a Poland-Scheraga model. It is shown that at criticality the bubble life time for a homogeneous DNA is finite provided that the loop entropic exponent c>2 and has a scaling dependence on DNA length for c<2. Heterogeneity in the thermodynamical limit makes the bubble life time infinite for any entropic exponent.

  7. Bell's Jump Process in Discrete Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonathan Barrett; Matthew Leifer; Roderich Tumulka

    2005-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The jump process introduced by J. S. Bell in 1986, for defining a quantum field theory without observers, presupposes that space is discrete whereas time is continuous. In this letter, our interest is to find an analogous process in discrete time. We argue that a genuine analog does not exist, but provide examples of processes in discrete time that could be used as a replacement.

  8. Time for a Change? It's not just Daylight Savings Time that should be abolished!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Time for a Change? It's not just Daylight Savings Time that should be abolished! Sunday, March 11. It is just that the clocks are set differently! By government edict! I advocate not just abolishing Daylight of time zone and/or daylight savings time confusion. Every clock and wristwatch in the world would show

  9. Real Time Grid Reliability Management 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eto, Joe

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Management System (SCADA/EMS). In the long term, theadvanced real time control. SCADA is a category of softwareequipment and conditions. SCADA systems include hardware and

  10. Time reversal symmetry and collapse models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Bedingham; Owen Maroney

    2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Collapse models are modifications of quantum theory where the wave function is treated as physically real and the collapse of the wave function is a physical process. This appears to introduce a time reversal asymmetry into the dynamics of the wave function since the collapses affect only the future state. This paper challenges this conclusion, showing that in three different examples of time asymmetries associated with collapse models, if the physically real part of the model can be reduced to the locations in space and time about which collapses occur, then such a model works both forward and backward in time, in each case satisfying the Born rule. Despite the apparent asymmetry of the collapse process, these models in fact have time reversal symmetry. Any physically observed time asymmetries that arise in such models are due to the asymmetric imposition of initial or final time boundary conditions, rather than from an inherent asymmetry in the dynamical law. This is the standard explanation of time asymmetric behaviour resulting from time symmetric laws.

  11. Exact Primitives for Time Series Data Mining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueen, Abdullah Al

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    142 Sony AIBO Robot: Surfacetrajectories and ac- celerometer signals from SONY AIBOclasses of time series from the SONY AIBO accelerometer. (b)

  12. Gauge Gravity and Space-Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ning Wu

    2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    When we discuss problems on gravity, we can not avoid some fundamental physical problems, such as space-time, inertia, and inertial reference frame. The goal of this paper is to discuss the logic system of gravity theory and the problems of space-time, inertia, and inertial reference frame. The goal of this paper is to set up the theory on space-time in gauge theory of gravity. Based on this theory, it is possible for human kind to manipulate physical space-time on earth, and produce a machine which can physically prolong human's lifetime.

  13. Near Real-Time Push Middleware

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mal, Siddhartha Byron

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integration of “Near Real-Time Push Middleware” o Performance characterization and comparison with TuVista • DOE/LADWP Smart Grid

  14. A general perspective on time observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan W. Roberts

    2014-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    I propose a general geometric framework in which to discuss the existence of time observables. This frameworks allows one to describe a local sense in which time observables always exist, and a global sense in which they can sometimes exist subject to a restriction on the vector fields that they generate. Pauli's prohibition on quantum time observables is derived as a corollary to this result. I will then discuss how time observables can be regained in modest extensions of quantum theory beyond its standard formulation.

  15. EnergyPlus Run Time Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    integrated heat balance calculations for loads, systems, andintegrated heat balance calculations for loads, systems, andloads calculation time steps per hour, the model solution algorithms (envelope heat

  16. Optimal timing problems in environmental economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of the uncertainties and irreversibilities that are often inherent in environmental degradation, its prevention, and its economic consequences, environmental policy design can involve important problems of timing. ...

  17. Fully Polynomial Time Approximation Schemes for Stochastic ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Jun 13, 2013 ... In each time period, she can consume some of her capital, and the ... utility is derived from her consumption based on an underlying utility ...

  18. Count-doubling time safety circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rusch, Gordon K. (Downers Grove, IL); Keefe, Donald J. (Lemont, IL); McDowell, William P. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary.

  19. Laser Telecommunication timeLaser beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La Rosa, Andres H.

    Laser Telecommunication Experiment Laser time Laser beam intensity timeLaser beam Laser battery Laser connected to a circuit without a modulator. Bottom graph illustrates what happen when a modulating signal is superimposed to the DC voltage driving the laser Laser beam intensity DC Input voltage DC

  20. REDUCING SOFTWARE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT TIME John Callahan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callahan, John

    . Shortened product life cycles have meant that short development time is even more critical 3 . Short involvement early in the development cycle were found to lead to shorter development time. Also supported found that, during product concept development early in the development cycle, an overemphasis

  1. Stanford Center for Position, Navigation & Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Straight, Aaron

    contributing exciting, novel new technologies, and together can play a leading role in this technology to rejuvenate the GLONASS system · Japan is also active with QZSS. #12;6 Outline A. Navigation & time technology;2 Stanford Center for Position Navigation and Time · The implementation of GPS in 1973 began this technology

  2. Integrated method for chaotic time series analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hively, L.M.; Ng, E.G.

    1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for automatically detecting differences between similar but different states in a nonlinear process monitor nonlinear data are disclosed. Steps include: acquiring the data; digitizing the data; obtaining nonlinear measures of the data via chaotic time series analysis; obtaining time serial trends in the nonlinear measures; and determining by comparison whether differences between similar but different states are indicated. 8 figs.

  3. Asymmetric Time Evolution and Indistinguishable Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryant, P. W. [Center for Complex Quantum Systems, Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2010-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    With a time asymmetric theory, in which quantum mechanical time evolution is given by a semigroup of operators rather than by a group, the states of open systems are represented by density operators exhibiting a branching behavior. To treat the indistinguishably of the members of experimental ensembles, we hypothesize that environmental interference occurs during events that are themselves fundamentally indistinguishable.

  4. Fortuna: Model Checking Priced Probabilistic Timed Automata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaandrager, Frits

    Fortuna: Model Checking Priced Probabilistic Timed Automata Jasper Berendsen, David N. Jansen.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen, the Netherlands Abstract. We introduce Fortuna, the first tool for model checking priced probabilistic timed automata (PPTAs). Fortuna can handle the combination of real

  5. Fortuna: Model Checking Priced Probabilistic Timed Automata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaandrager, Frits

    Fortuna: Model Checking Priced Probabilistic Timed Automata Jasper Berendsen, David N. Jansen, the Netherlands Email: jasperb,dnjansen,fvaan @cs.ru.nl Abstract--We introduce FORTUNA, the first tool for model of probabilistic timed automata (PTAs) with cost-rates and discrete cost increments on states. FORTUNA is able

  6. A Probabilistic Time Reversal Theorem Kenneth Baclawski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baclawski, Kenneth B.

    example combines observations that are exponentially distributed. One application of this technique-lives. The time of the singular event decays backwards in time with an exponential distribution. We find if observations are normally distributed, it is not optimal for all distributions. To illustrate this phenomenon

  7. System Identification: Time Varying and Nonlinear Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Majji, Manoranjan

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    . In the process, we generalize the classical time invariant input output AutoRegressive model with an eXogenous input (ARX) models to the time varying case and realize an asymptotically stable observer as a byproduct of the calculations. It is further found...

  8. Light gas gun with reduced timing jitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laabs, Gary W. (Los Alamos, NM); Funk, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Asay, Blaine W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas gun with reduced timing jitter. A gas gun having a prepressurized projectile held in place with a glass rod in compression is described. The glass rod is destroyed with an explosive at a precise time which allows a restraining pin to be moved and free the projectile.

  9. Light gas gun with reduced timing jitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laabs, G.W.; Funk, D.J.; Asay, B.W.

    1998-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas gun with reduced timing jitter is disclosed. A gas gun having a prepressurized projectile held in place with a glass rod in compression is described. The glass rod is destroyed with an explosive at a precise time which allows a restraining pin to be moved and free the projectile. 4 figs.

  10. Integrated method for chaotic time series analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hively, Lee M. (Philadelphia, TN); Ng, Esmond G. (Concord, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for automatically detecting differences between similar but different states in a nonlinear process monitor nonlinear data. Steps include: acquiring the data; digitizing the data; obtaining nonlinear measures of the data via chaotic time series analysis; obtaining time serial trends in the nonlinear measures; and determining by comparison whether differences between similar but different states are indicated.

  11. Fractal analysis of time varying data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan (Knoxville, TN); Sadana, Ajit (Oxford, MS)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Characteristics of time varying data, such as an electrical signal, are analyzed by converting the data from a temporal domain into a spatial domain pattern. Fractal analysis is performed on the spatial domain pattern, thereby producing a fractal dimension D.sub.F. The fractal dimension indicates the regularity of the time varying data.

  12. Time Centrality in Dynamic Complex Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costa, Eduardo Chinelate; Wehmuth, Klaus; Ziviani, Artur; da Silva, Ana Paula Couto

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is an ever-increasing interest in investigating dynamics in time-varying graphs (TVGs). So far, however, the notion of centrality in TVG scenarios usually refers to metrics that assess the relative importance of nodes along the temporal evolution of the network. Nevertheless, for some TVG scenarios, more important than identifying the central nodes under a given definition is identifying the \\emph{key time instants} for taking certain actions. In this paper, we introduce the notion of \\emph{time centrality} in TVGs. Analogously to node centrality, time centrality evaluates the relative importance of time instants in dynamic complex networks. We present two time centrality metrics related to diffusion processes. We evaluate the two defined metrics using a real-world dataset representing a in-person contact dynamic network. We validate the concept of time centrality showing that diffusion starting at the best classified time instants (i.e. the most central ones), according to our metrics, can perform a fa...

  13. Approaching Real-time Network Traffic Classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haddadi, Hamed

    and studies. It serves as the input for Intrusion Detection Systems, provides Class-of-Service (CoS) mapping22 Approaching Real-time Network Traffic Classification ISSN 1470-5559 RR-06-12 October 2006-time Network Traffic Classification Wei Li, Kaysar Abdin, Robert Dann and Andrew Moore Department of Computer

  14. On the nature of cosmological time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magain, Pierre

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Time is a parameter playing a central role in our most fundamental modeling of natural laws. Relativity theory shows that the comparison of times measured by different clocks depends on their relative motions and on the strength of the gravitational field in which they are embedded. In standard cosmology, the time parameter is the one measured by fundamental clocks, i.e. clocks at rest with respect to the expanding space. This proper time is assumed to flow at a constant rate throughout the whole history of the Universe. We make the alternative hypothesis that the rate at which cosmological time flows depends on the dynamical state of the Universe. In thermodynamics, the arrow of time is strongly related to the second law, which states that the entropy of an isolated system will always increase with time or, at best, stay constant. Hence, we assume that time measured by fundamental clocks is proportional to the entropy of the region of the Universe that is causally connected to them. Under that simple assumpt...

  15. Bayesian inference for pulsar timing models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vigeland, Sarah J

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The extremely regular, periodic radio emission from millisecond pulsars make them useful tools for studying neutron star astrophysics, general relativity, and low-frequency gravitational waves. These studies require that the observed pulse time of arrivals are fit to complicated timing models that describe numerous effects such as the astrometry of the source, the evolution of the pulsar's spin, the presence of a binary companion, and the propagation of the pulses through the interstellar medium. In this paper, we discuss the benefits of using Bayesian inference to obtain these timing solutions. These include the validation of linearized least-squares model fits when they are correct, and the proper characterization of parameter uncertainties when they are not; the incorporation of prior parameter information and of models of correlated noise; and the Bayesian comparison of alternative timing models. We describe our computational setup, which combines the timing models of tempo2 with the nested-sampling integ...

  16. Pseudo-Z symmetric space-times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mantica, Carlo Alberto, E-mail: carloalberto.mantica@libero.it [Physics Department, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Suh, Young Jin, E-mail: yjsuh@knu.ac.kr [Department of Mathematics, Kyungpook National University, Taegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we investigate Pseudo-Z symmetric space-time manifolds. First, we deal with elementary properties showing that the associated form A{sub k} is closed: in the case the Ricci tensor results to be Weyl compatible. This notion was recently introduced by one of the present authors. The consequences of the Weyl compatibility on the magnetic part of the Weyl tensor are pointed out. This determines the Petrov types of such space times. Finally, we investigate some interesting properties of (PZS){sub 4} space-time; in particular, we take into consideration perfect fluid and scalar field space-time, and interesting properties are pointed out, including the Petrov classification. In the case of scalar field space-time, it is shown that the scalar field satisfies a generalized eikonal equation. Further, it is shown that the integral curves of the gradient field are geodesics. A classical method to find a general integral is presented.

  17. Relaxation times calculated from angular deflections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Athanassoula; Ch. L. Vozikis; J. C. Lambert

    2001-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we measure the two-body relaxation time from the angular deflection of test particles launched in a rigid configuration of field particles. We find that centrally concentrated configurations have relaxation times that can be shorter than those of the corresponding homogeneous distributions by an order of magnitude or more. For homogeneous distributions we confirm that the relaxation time is proportional to the number of particles. On the other hand centrally concentrated configurations have a much shallower dependence, particularly for small values of the softening. The relaxation time increases with the inter-particle velocities and with softening. The latter dependence is not very strong, of the order of a factor of two when the softening is increased by an order of magnitude. Finally we show that relaxation times are the same on GRAPE-3 and GRAPE-4, dedicated computer boards with limited and high precision respectively.

  18. Space-time defects and teleparallelism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. W. Maluf; A. Goya

    2001-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the class of space-time defects investigated by Puntigam and Soleng. These defects describe space-time dislocations and disclinations (cosmic strings), and are in close correspondence to the actual defects that arise in crystals and metals. It is known that in such materials dislocations and disclinations require a small and large amount of energy, respectively, to be created. The present analysis is carried out in the context of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR). We evaluate the gravitational energy of these space-time defects in the framework of the TEGR and find that there is an analogy between defects in space-time and in continuum material systems: the total gravitational energy of space-time dislocations and disclinations (considered as idealized defects) is zero and infinit, respectively.

  19. Italian WEEE management system and treatment of end-of-life cooling and freezing equipments for CFCs removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sansotera, M., E-mail: maurizio.sansotera@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica, Politecnico di Milano, via Mancinelli 7, I-20131 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali (INSTM), via Giusti 9, I-50121 Firenze (Italy); Navarrini, W. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica, Politecnico di Milano, via Mancinelli 7, I-20131 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali (INSTM), via Giusti 9, I-50121 Firenze (Italy); Talaeemashhadi, S.; Venturini, F. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica, Politecnico di Milano, via Mancinelli 7, I-20131 Milano (Italy)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Italian data about WEEE management in the period 2005–2010 have been reported. • In 2001–2004 CFC release was monitored and Po Valley resulted as main source region. • The Italian directive on WEEE management was enacted in 2005 but took effect in 2008. • The CFC analytic procedures of the audit assessments have been discussed. - Abstract: This study presents and analyzes the data of the Italian system for take-back and recovery of waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEEs) in the start-up period 2008–2010. The analysis was focused particularly on the data about the treatment of end-of-life cooling and freezing equipments. In fact, the wastes of cooling and freezing equipments have a high environmental impact. Indeed, in their compressor oil and insulation polyurethane (PU) foams chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) ozone-depleting gases are still present. In the period 2001–2004 Northern Italy resulted the main source in Europe of CFCs. The European Directive on WEEE management was enacted in 2002, but in Italy it was implemented by the legislative Decree in 2005 and it became operational in 2008. Actually, in 2008 the national WEEE Coordination Centre was founded in order to organize the WEEE pick-up process and to control collection, recovery and recycling targets. As a result, in 2010 the average WEEE collection per capita exceeded the threshold of more than 4 kg per inhabitant, as well as cooling and freezing appliances represented more than one fourth of the Italian WEEE collection stream. During the treatment of end-of-life cooling and freezing equipments, CFCs were recovered and disposed principally by burner methods. The analyses of defined specimens collected in the treatment facilities were standardized to reliably determine the amount of recovered CFCs. Samples of alkaline solid salt, alkaline saline solution, polyurethane matrix and compressor oil collected during the audit assessment procedure were analyzed and the results were discussed. In particular, the analysis of PU samples after the shredding and the warm pressing procedures measured a residual CFCs content around 500–1300 mg/kg of CFCs within the foam matrix.

  20. Energy-time and frequency-time uncertainty relations: exact inequalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Dodonov; A. V. Dodonov

    2015-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a short review of known exact inequalities that can be interpreted as "energy-time" and "frequency-time" uncertainty relations. In particular we discuss a precise form of signals minimizing the physical frequency-time uncertainty product. Also, we calculate the "stationarity time" for mixed Gaussian states of a quantum harmonic oscillator, showing explicitly that pure quantum states are "more fragile" than mixed ones with the same value of the energy dispersion. The problems of quantum evolution speed limits, time operators and measurements of energy and time are briefly discussed, too.

  1. Testing of a Stirling cycle cooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, F.C.; Keshock, E.G.; Murphy, R.W.

    1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stirling cycle coolers have long been used as low temperature refrigeration devices. They are relatively compact, reliable, commercially available, and use helium as the working fluid. The Stirling cycle, in principle, can be used for household refrigeration and heat pumping applications as well. Currently, these applications are almost entirely provided by the vapor compression technology using chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as working fluids. It has been known that CFCs cause depletion of the ozone layer that protects the earth against harmful levels of ultraviolet radiation from the sun. A recent report of a ''hole'' in the ozone layer above Antarctica and of possible environmental and health consequences from ozone depletion aroused public attention. The urgent need to reduce the future used of CFCs should instigate investigation of non-CFC alternative technologies. The Stirling cooler technology, which does not use CFCs, could be a viable alternative. A laboratory test of the performance of a Stirling cooler is reported and its implications for household refrigeration are explored. 11 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. The development and evaluation of water-mist fire extinguishing systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beason, D.G.; Staggs, K.J.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fire protection for underfloor space is primarily provided by Halon 1301 which has proven to be very effective. However, due to the link between halons and the possible depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, plans have been implemented to eventually phase out Halon 1301 and 1211. In September 1987 the Montreal Protocol concerning chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and halons was signed by the United States, the European Economic Community, and 23 other nations. The Montreal Protocol calls for freezing halon production at 1986 levels. Because the majority of underfloor fire protection at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), as well as other Department of Energy (DOE) sites, is either Halon 1301 or sprinklers, some other means of suppression will have to be developed and verified. The potential loss to facilities housing computer or control rooms damaged by underfloor fires can be extreme. These losses would not only include hardware and software replacement costs, but also lost computing and control capability. Here at LLNL technical research in a facility could be severely affected. Recent studies conducted by the Fire Research Discipline of the Special Projects Division have shown that severe fires fueled by cable insulation can develop within as little as a 6-in-high underfloor space (even with mechanical ventilation shut off). Studies also show that conventional sprinklers may not be effective in preventing this destruction. Therefore, we are investigating the water-mist fire extinguishing system as an alternative to Halon 1301 and sprinklers.

  3. Comparison of Subantarctic Mode Water and Antarctic Intermediate Water formation rates in the South Pacific between NCAR-CCSM4 and observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartin, Corinne A.; Fine, Rana A.; Kamenkovich, Igor; Sloyan, Bernadette M.

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Average formation rates for Subantarctic Mode (SAMW) and Antarctic Intermediate Waters (AAIW) in the South Pacific are calculated from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model version 4 (NCAR-CCSM4), using chlorofluorocarbon inventories. CFC-12 inventories and formation rates are compared to ocean observations. CCSM4 accurately simulates the southeast Pacific as the main formation region for SAMW and AAIW. CCSM4 formation rates for SAMW are 3.4 Sv, about half of the observational rate. Shallow mixed layers and a thinner SAMW in CCSM4 are responsible for lower formation rates. A formation rate of 8.1 Sv for AAIW in CCSM4 is higher than observations. Higher inventories in CCSM4 in the southwest and central Pacific, and higher surface concentrations are the main reasons for higher formation rates of AAIW. This comparison of model and observations is useful for understanding the uptake and transport of other gases, e.g., CO2 by the model.

  4. Time-dependent potential barriers and superarrivals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Karami; S. V. Mousavi

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Scattering of a Gaussian wavepacket from rectangular potential barriers with increasing widths or heights is studied numerically. It is seen that during a certain time interval the time-evolving transmission probability increases compared to the corresponding unperturbed cases. In the literature this effect is known as superarrival in transmission probability. We present a trajectory-based explanation for this effect by using the concept of quantum potential energy and computing a selection of Bohmian trajectories. Relevant parameters in superarrivals are determined for the case that the barrier width increases linearly during the dispersion of the wavepacket. Nonlinear in time perturbation is also considered.

  5. The determination of time lags using SOLA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank P. Pijpers

    1996-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A common problem in astronomy is the determination of the time shift between two otherwise identical time series of measured flux from a variable source, in short the determination of a time lag. Two examples of where this problem occurs are in the determination of the Hubble constant from multiple images of gravitationally lensed variable quasars and also in the determination of distances to OH/IR stars. It is shown here that this problem can be seen as a restricted inversion problem. It therefore can be solved using the subtractive optimally localized averages (SOLA) method for inversion which has been described elsewhere (Pijpers & Thompson 1992, 1994 ; Pijpers & Wanders 1994).

  6. Does Daylight Savings Time Affect Traffic Accidents? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deen, Sophia 1988-

    2012-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    in real time for a variety of reasons such as an unpredictably hot day or an outage at a power plant. The balancing market operates in real time to balance actual load and generation. Depending upon whether more or less power is needed than the day-ahead... map this model into a market with a day-ahead schedule followed by a balancing auction. We index the costs of generation (at time t) of the N firms in this market by {Cit (q), i = 1, . . . , N}. We take total demand ?Dt (p) = Dt (p)+ ?t to be the sum...

  7. Long-time limit of correlation functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Franosch

    2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Auto-correlation functions in an equilibrium stochastic process are well-characterized by Bochner's theorem as Fourier transforms of a finite symmetric Borel measure. The existence of a long-time limit of these correlation functions depends on the spectral properties of the measure. Here we provide conditions applicable to a wide-class of dynamical theories guaranteeing the existence of the long-time limit. We discuss the implications in the context of the mode-coupling theory of the glass transition where a non-trivial long-time limit signals an idealized glass state.

  8. Travelling times in scattering by obstacles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyle Noakes; Luchezar Stoyanov

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper deals with some problems related to recovering information about an obstacle in an Euclidean space from certain measurements of lengths of generalized geodesics in the exterior of the obstacle. The main result is that if two obstacles satisfy some generic regularity conditions and have (almost) the same traveling times, then the generalized geodesic flows in their exteriors are conjugate on the non-trapping part of their phase spaces with a time preserving conjugacy. In the case of a union of two strictly convex domains in the plane, a constructive algorithm is described to recover the obstacle from traveling times.

  9. Relativity of Space-Time Geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. V. Verozub

    1996-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We argue that space-time geometry is not absolute with respect to the frame of reference being used. The space-time metric differential form $ds$ in noninertial frames of reference (NIFR) is caused by the properties of the used frames in accordance with the Berkley - Leibnitz - Mach - Poincar\\'{e} ideas about relativity of space and time . It is shown that the Sagnac effect and the existence of inertial forces in NIFR can be considered from this point of view. An experimental test is proposed.

  10. Real time sensor for therapeutic radiation delivery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bliss, Mary (West Richland, WA); Craig, Richard A. (West Richland, WA); Reeder, Paul L. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a real time sensor for therapeutic radiation. A probe is placed in or near the patient that senses in real time the dose at the location of the probe. The strength of the dose is determined by either an insertion or an exit probe. The location is determined by a series of vertical and horizontal sensing elements that gives the operator a real time read out dose location relative to placement of the patient. The increased accuracy prevents serious tissue damage to the patient by preventing overdose or delivery of a dose to a wrong location within the body.

  11. Noncommutative Time in Quantum Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tapio Salminen; Anca Tureanu

    2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze, starting from first principles, the quantization of field theories, in order to find out to which problems a noncommutative time would possibly lead. We examine the problem in the interaction picture (Tomonaga-Schwinger equation), the Heisenberg picture (Yang-Feldman-K\\"all\\'{e}n equation) and the path integral approach. They all indicate inconsistency when time is taken as a noncommutative coordinate. The causality issue appears as the key aspect, while the unitarity problem is subsidiary. These results are consistent with string theory, which does not admit a time-space noncommutative quantum field theory as its low-energy limit, with the exception of light-like noncommutativity.

  12. Space-time and G_2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boris Doubrov; Jonathan Holland; George Sparling

    2009-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A Weyl structure is a bundle over space-time, whose fiber at each space-time point is a space of maximally isotropic complex tangent planes. We develop the theory of Weyl connections for Weyl structures and show that the requirement that the connection be torsion-free fixes the Weyl connection uniquely. Further we show that to each such Weyl connection, there is naturally associated a (2, 3, 5)-Pfaffian system, as first analyzed by Cartan. We determine the associated G_2-conformal structure and calculate it explicitly in the cases of the Kapadia family of space-times and of the Schwarzschild solution

  13. Real time sensor for therapeutic radiation delivery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.; Reeder, P.L.

    1998-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a real time sensor for therapeutic radiation. A probe is placed in or near the patient that senses in real time the dose at the location of the probe. The strength of the dose is determined by either an insertion or an exit probe. The location is determined by a series of vertical and horizontal sensing elements that gives the operator a real time read out dose location relative to placement of the patient. The increased accuracy prevents serious tissue damage to the patient by preventing overdose or delivery of a dose to a wrong location within the body. 14 figs.

  14. Time changes in gradient and observed winds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Ronald Dale

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TIME CHANGES IN GRADIENT AND OBSERVED WINDS A Thesis by RONALD DALE CARLSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillm=n of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE MAY 1972 Major Subject...: Meteorology TIME CHANGES IN GRADIENT AND OBSERVED WINDS A Thesis by RONALD D. CARLSON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Co , ee) (Member) (Member) May 1972 ABSTRACT Time Changes in Gradient and Observed Winds. (May 1972) Ronald Dale...

  15. Reliable Downlink Scheduling for Wireless Networks with Real-Time and Non-Real Time Clients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Abhishek

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    reliability to the real time clients, while Round Robin policy provides reliability to the clients but fails to achieve high system throughput in a time-varying wireless network. Apart from these policies, there are scheduling policies which prioritize clients...

  16. Blind calibration of timing skew in time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Divi, Vijay

    The performance of time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters is often significantly degraded by timing mismatch errors. We develop methods for performing blind calibration of such converters, i.e., for estimating the ...

  17. 1. The Classical Wavelet Transform for Continuous-time and Discrete-time Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jansen, Maarten

    Contents 1. The Classical Wavelet Transform for Continuous-time and Discrete- time Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 The Continuous Wavelet Transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1.1 The Haar wavelet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1

  18. Copyright 2003 The Financial Times Limited Financial Times (London,England)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Copyright 2003 The Financial Times Limited Financial Times (London,England) October 15, 2003, Wednesday London Edition 1 SECTION: COMMENT; Pg. 21 LENGTH: 1116 words HEADLINE: The world must not let

  19. Tuesday Sep 13 2005 . All times are London time. Home UK Print article | Email article

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tuesday Sep 13 2005 . All times are London time. Sign up Userna Passw Home UK Print article | Email & analysis Technology Business life Your money Arts & Weekend In depth Hurricane London terror German

  20. Copyright 1999 The Financial Times Limited Financial Times (London,England)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Copyright 1999 The Financial Times Limited Financial Times (London,England) May 5, 1999, Wednesday LONDON EDITION 1 SECTION: COMMENT & ANALYSIS; Pg. 24 HEADLINE: A cure for indifference PERSONAL VIEW

  1. Time Domain Continuous Imaging TIME DOMAIN CONTINUOUS IMAGING doesn't sound like

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietz, Henry G. "Hank"

    the scene with skewed timing and exposure settings. Our 3D-printed array camera at SC14 coordinates four

  2. Time-Resolved Photoluminescence and Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, W. K.; Ahrenkiel, R. K.; Dippo, P.; Geisz, J.; Wanlass, M. W.; Kurtz, S.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) technique and its ability to characterize recombination in bulk photovoltaic semiconductor materials are reviewed. Results from a variety of materials and a few recent studies are summarized and compared.

  3. Virtual stationary timed automata for mobile networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nolte, Tina Ann, 1979-

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, we formally define a programming abstraction for mobile networks called the Virtual Stationary Automata programming layer, consisting of real mobile clients, virtual timed I/O automata called virtual ...

  4. Scheduling Kalman filters in continuous time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ny, Jerome Le

    A set of N independent Gaussian linear time invariant systems is observed by M sensors whose task is to provide the best possible steady-state causal minimum mean square estimate of the state of the systems, in addition ...

  5. Wind and time in Homeric epic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purves, AC

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    73–83. Scott, W. C. 1966. “Wind Imagery in the Oresteia. ”30–35; West 1961: 133–36. Wind and Time in Homeric Epic ———56. Stern, L. 2004. “‘Paths That Wind through the Thicket of

  6. Preventive overhaul time for power transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarmadi, M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.; Rouhi, J. [Univ. of Mazandaran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fayyaz, A. [Mazandaran Power Co. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power transformers are the major piece of equipment in high-voltage substations. A considerable number of these transformers exist in Iran`s integrated network. Due to the climate diversity and improper usage, many of these transformers age rapidly, suffer failure and are taken out of service before half their useful life. At the present time the utility companies have no specific time-frame and plan for preventive overhaul. Detection of preventive overhaul time will increase the remaining life of transformers and improve the reliability of substations. An exact check of the remaining lifetime of transformers is not yet possible by available diagnostic techniques. In this paper, the authors present a method of identifying the right time for preventive overhaul in 63 kV power transformers. This method is developed based on 25 year transformer performance records in Northern Iran (subtropical climate) and with the utilization of studies done by electrical engineering communities world-wide.

  7. Am I spikes over time? Leslie Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Leslie S.

    Am I spikes over time? Leslie Smith Computing Science and Mathematics University of Stirling Stirling FK9 4LA, UK Email: l.s.smith@cs.stir.ac.uk URL: http://www.cs.stir.ac.uk/~lss Acknowledgements: EU

  8. Real time PCR measurement by fluorescence anisotropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crane, Bryan Lee, 1976-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the gold-standard for quantitation in both mutation and gene expression analyses. Already this technique has found valuable clinical application in disease diagnosis and progression ...

  9. Electron Waiting Times in Mesoscopic Conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathias Albert; Géraldine Haack; Christian Flindt; Markus Büttiker

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron transport in mesoscopic conductors has traditionally involved investigations of the mean current and the fluctuations of the current. A complementary view on charge transport is provided by the distribution of waiting times between charge carriers, but a proper theoretical framework for coherent electronic systems has so far been lacking. Here we develop a quantum theory of electron waiting times in mesoscopic conductors expressed by a compact determinant formula. We illustrate our methodology by calculating the waiting time distribution for a quantum point contact and find a cross-over from Wigner-Dyson statistics at full transmission to Poisson statistics close to pinch-off. Even when the low-frequency transport is noiseless, the electrons are not equally spaced in time due to their inherent wave nature. We discuss the implications for renewal theory in mesoscopic systems and point out several analogies with energy level statistics and random matrix theory.

  10. Timing control by redundant inhibitory neuronal circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tristan, I., E-mail: itristan@ucsd.edu; Rulkov, N. F.; Huerta, R.; Rabinovich, M. [BioCircuits Institute, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0402 (United States)] [BioCircuits Institute, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0402 (United States)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Rhythms and timing control of sequential activity in the brain is fundamental to cognition and behavior. Although experimental and theoretical studies support the understanding that neuronal circuits are intrinsically capable of generating different time intervals, the dynamical origin of the phenomenon of functionally dependent timing control is still unclear. Here, we consider a new mechanism that is related to the multi-neuronal cooperative dynamics in inhibitory brain motifs consisting of a few clusters. It is shown that redundancy and diversity of neurons within each cluster enhances the sensitivity of the timing control with the level of neuronal excitation of the whole network. The generality of the mechanism is shown to work on two different neuronal models: a conductance-based model and a map-based model.

  11. Diffraction in Time of Polymer Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Martín-Ruiz

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the quantum dynamics of a suddenly released beam of particles using a background independent (polymer) quantization scheme. We show that, in the first order of approximation, the low-energy polymer distribution converges to the standard quantum-mechanical result in a clear fashion, but also arises an additional small polymer correction term. We find that the high-energy polymer behaviour becomes predominant at short distances and short times. Numerical results are also presented. We find that particles whose wave functions satisfy the polymer wave equation do not exhibit the diffraction in time phenomena. The implementation of a lower bound to the possible resolution of times into the time-energy Heisenberg uncertainty relation is briefly discussed.

  12. Intelligent Time-Successive Production Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    ;Background · Production Data Analysis Decline Curve Analysis (Arps, 1945) Type Curve Matching (Fetkovich Analysis Pressure Data + Production Rate Data ·Material Balance methods ·Pseudo time and pseudo pressure

  13. It's About Time: Investing in Transportation to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MARCH 2011 It's About Time: Investing in Transportation to Keep Texas Economically Competitive #12 of Contents Preface 1 The Challenge Facing Texans 3 Texas Transportation Action Principles 6 Texas' Deteriorating Transportation System: Background and Measurement 8 Baseline Scenario: Unacceptable Conditions

  14. Timing system control software in the SLC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, K.; Phinney, N.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new timing system that allows precision (approx.1 to 2 ns) control of the trigger times of klystrons, beam position monitors, and other devices on a pulse-to-pulse basis at up to 360 Hz is in operation in the first third of the SLAC linear accelerator. The control software is divided between a central host VAX and local Intel 8086-based microprocessor clusters. Facilities exist to set up and adjust the timing of devices or groups of devices independently for beam pulses having different destinations and purposes, which are run in an interlaced fashion during normal machine operation. Upgrading of the system is currently underway, using a new version of the Programmable Delay Unit CAMAC module to allow pipelining of timing information for three machine pulses. An overview of the current state of the system is presented in this paper, with an emphasis on software control.

  15. Audio classification from time-frequency texture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slotine, Jean-Jacques E.

    Time-frequency representations of audio signals often resemble texture images. This paper derives a simple audio classification algorithm based on treating sound spectrograms as texture images. The algorithm is inspired ...

  16. Real-time control over networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ji, Kun

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    researchers to develop NCSs to implement distributed control schemes. This dissertation presents a framework for the modeling, design, stability analysis, control, and bandwidth allocation of real-time control over networks. This framework covers key research...

  17. Automatic tuning of continuous-time filters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sumesaglam, Taner

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrated high-Q continuous-time filters require adaptive tuning circuits that will correct the filter parameters such as center frequency and quality factor (Q). Three different automatic tuning techniques are introduced. In all of the proposed...

  18. Automatic tuning of continuous-time filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sumesaglam, Taner

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrated high-Q continuous-time filters require adaptive tuning circuits that will correct the filter parameters such as center frequency and quality factor (Q). Three different automatic tuning techniques are introduced. In all of the proposed...

  19. Casimir forces in the time domain: Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Steven G.

    Our previous article [Phys. Rev. A 80, 012115 (2009)] introduced a method to compute Casimir forces in arbitrary geometries and for arbitrary materials that was based on a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) scheme. In ...

  20. The Time's Arrow within the Uncertainty Quantum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhen Wang

    1998-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A generalized framework is developed which uses a set description instead of wavefunction to emphasize the role of the observer. Such a framework is found to be very effective in the study of the measurement problem and time's arrow. Measurement in classical and quantum theory is given a unified treatment. With the introduction of the concept of uncertainty quantum which is the basic unit of measurement, we show that the time's arrow within the uncertainty quantum is just opposite to the time's arrow in the observable reality. A special constant is discussed which explains our sensation of time and provides a permanent substrate for all change. It is shown that the whole spacetime connects together in a delicate structure.

  1. Real Time Grid Reliability Management 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eto, Joe

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SCE, W APA, PG&E Data • PDC – PI Interface frequency dataIntegration of CA ISO PDC with Arbiters California Real-TimePhasor Data Concentrator (PDC) receives data from PMUs in

  2. Optimization Online - Time Consistent Risk Measure Under ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhiping Chen

    2015-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    May 12, 2015 ... ... we introduce a new risk measure which reflects the extra time cost between ... Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710049 Xi'an, Shaanxi, P. R. China.

  3. Falling into time in Homer's 'Iliad'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purves, A

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of mankind. 1 By contrast, Apollo makes the point clearly in25 / No. 1 / April 2006 Apollo now struck away from his [divine experience of time, as Apollo explains to Ares in his

  4. Significantly reduce maintenance time Documents&Mediabecomesthekey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mullins, Dyche

    Significantly reduce maintenance time · Documents&Mediabecomesthekey contactforallmaintenanceneeds. · MajorpartsarestoredbyDocuments& MediaattheMissionCenter.Thisreduces thetimeneededtoorderpartsandresultsin&Mediaoffersthecampus communityaconvenientandeconomicsolution foritscopiers,multifunctiondevicesandprinter needs. Print Management Program advantages Reduce

  5. Wormholes and Time Travel? Not Likely

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonard Susskind

    2005-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Wormholes have been advanced as both a method for circumventing the limitations of the speed of light as well as a means for building a time machine (to travel to the past). Thus it is argued that General Relativity may allow both of these possibilities. In this note I argue that traversable wormholes connecting otherwise causally disconnected regions, violate two of the most fundamental principles physics, namely local energy conservation and the energy-time uncertainty principle.

  6. A new pseudo time for geopressured aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villegas, Mauricio Eduardo

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Time variable linearizes the pressure behavior of a single fluid flowing through a porous medium. Four cases were simulated: (1) three different aquifers at different states of flow and at a constant rate of water influx and, (2) a variable rate... to the diffusivity equati. on when nonlinear behavior exist and when rate changes are not very important. Traditional methods to calculate water influx in geopressured aquifers are improved by using the new Pseudo Time. DEDICATION To my family for what I am...

  7. Entanglement arrow of time in the multiverse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvador Robles-Perez

    2012-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper it is presented the model of a multiverse made up of entangled pairs of universes. The arrow of time obtained from the principles of thermodynamics and the arrow of time given by the thermodynamics of entanglement for single universes are analyzed. The latter requires that the single universes expand once they have crossed the quantum barrier at the Euclidean regime. The possible relationship with respect to the grow of local structures in a single universe is also discussed.

  8. A new pseudo time for geopressured aquifers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villegas, Mauricio Eduardo

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A NEW PSEUDO TIME FOR GEOPRESSURED AQUIFERS A Thesis by MAURICIO EDUARDO VILLEGAS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1992... Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering A NEW PSEUDO TIME METHOD FOR GEOPRESSURED AQUIFERS A Thesis by MAURICIO EDUARDO VILLEGAS Approved as to style and content by: Dr. Robert A. Watte ger (Chair of Comm ee) Dr. James E. Russell (Member) Dr...

  9. REAL TIME SYSTEM OPERATIONS 2006-2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Parashar, Manu; Lewis, Nancy Jo

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Real Time System Operations (RTSO) 2006-2007 project focused on two parallel technical tasks: (1) Real-Time Applications of Phasors for Monitoring, Alarming and Control; and (2) Real-Time Voltage Security Assessment (RTVSA) Prototype Tool. The overall goal of the phasor applications project was to accelerate adoption and foster greater use of new, more accurate, time-synchronized phasor measurements by conducting research and prototyping applications on California ISO's phasor platform - Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS) -- that provide previously unavailable information on the dynamic stability of the grid. Feasibility assessment studies were conducted on potential application of this technology for small-signal stability monitoring, validating/improving existing stability nomograms, conducting frequency response analysis, and obtaining real-time sensitivity information on key metrics to assess grid stress. Based on study findings, prototype applications for real-time visualization and alarming, small-signal stability monitoring, measurement based sensitivity analysis and frequency response assessment were developed, factory- and field-tested at the California ISO and at BPA. The goal of the RTVSA project was to provide California ISO with a prototype voltage security assessment tool that runs in real time within California ISO?s new reliability and congestion management system. CERTS conducted a technical assessment of appropriate algorithms, developed a prototype incorporating state-of-art algorithms (such as the continuation power flow, direct method, boundary orbiting method, and hyperplanes) into a framework most suitable for an operations environment. Based on study findings, a functional specification was prepared, which the California ISO has since used to procure a production-quality tool that is now a part of a suite of advanced computational tools that is used by California ISO for reliability and congestion management.

  10. Modeling Decentralized Real-Time Control by State Space Partition of Timed Thanikesavan Sivanthi, Srivas Chennu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kent, University of

    are driving modern real-time control systems from centralized to decentralized architec- tures for the validation and verification of real- time control systems. This paper introduces an algorith- mic methodology to translate the state space visualization of a centralized real-time control system to a decentralized one

  11. Real Time Search User Behavior Real time search is an increasingly important area of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jansen, James

    . The most frequently used terms accounted for only 0.03% of the total terms. Concerning search topics Web search. Searchers of real time content often repeat queries overtime, perhaps indicating long term content increasingly enters the main stream. Keywords Real time search, real time content, Collecta

  12. A ROUTE IMPROVEMENT ALGORITHM FOR THE VEHICLE ROUTING PROBLEM WITH TIME DEPENDENT TRAVEL TIMES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    . This research presents a new solution approach, an iterative route construction and improvement algorithm (IRCI such as greenhouse gases, noise, and air pollution. Routing models with time-varying travel times are gaining greater attention in vehicle routing literature and industry. However, research on the time dependent vehicle

  13. Approximate Response Time for Fixed Priority Real-Time Systems with Energy-Harvesting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Approximate Response Time for Fixed Priority Real-Time Systems with Energy-Harvesting Yasmina sufficient schedulability tests for fixed-priority pre-emptive scheduling of a real-time system under energy constraints. In this problem, energy is harvested from the ambient environment and used to replenish a storage

  14. Unfolding of time Petri nets for quantitative time analysis Medesu Sogbohossou and David Delfieu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    are interesting formalism with expressing power of true parallelism or concurrency in discrete events systems. Time Petri nets (TPN) [1] are timed extension often used to modelize realtime systems. Thanks://www.irccyn.ec-nantes.fr Abstract. The verification of properties on a Time Petri net is often based on the state class graph

  15. Time-dependent generalized polynomial chaos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerritsma, Marc, E-mail: M.I.Gerritsma@TUDelft.n [Department of Aerospace Engineering, TU Delft (Netherlands); Steen, Jan-Bart van der, E-mail: jan-bart-vander.steen@siemens.co [Siemens Nederland N.V., Prinses Beatrixlaan 800 , P.O. Box 16068, 2500 BB The Hague (Netherlands); Vos, Peter, E-mail: Belgium.peter.vos@vito.b [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Unit Environmental Modelling, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Karniadakis, George, E-mail: gk@dam.brown.ed [Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) has non-uniform convergence and tends to break down for long-time integration. The reason is that the probability density distribution (PDF) of the solution evolves as a function of time. The set of orthogonal polynomials associated with the initial distribution will therefore not be optimal at later times, thus causing the reduced efficiency of the method for long-time integration. Adaptation of the set of orthogonal polynomials with respect to the changing PDF removes the error with respect to long-time integration. In this method new stochastic variables and orthogonal polynomials are constructed as time progresses. In the new stochastic variable the solution can be represented exactly by linear functions. This allows the method to use only low order polynomial approximations with high accuracy. The method is illustrated with a simple decay model for which an analytic solution is available and subsequently applied to the three mode Kraichnan-Orszag problem with favorable results.

  16. Problem of Time: Facets and Machian Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward Anderson

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Problem of Time is that `time' in each of ordinary quantum theory and general relativity are mutually incompatible notions. This causes difficulties in trying to put these two theories together to form a theory of Quantum Gravity. The Problem of Time has 8 facets in canonical approaches. I clarify that all but one of these facets already occur at the classical level, and reconceptualize and re-name some of these facets as follows.The Frozen Formalism Problem becomes Temporal Relationalism, the Thin Sandwich Problem becomes Configurational Relationalism, via the notion of Best Matching. The Problem of Observables becomes the Problem of Beables, and the Functional Evolution Problem becomes the Constraint Closure Problem. I also outline how each of the Global and Multiple-Choice Problems of Time have their own plurality of facets. This article additionally contains a local resolution to the Problem of Time at the conceptual level and which is actually realizable for the relational triangle and minisuperspace models. This resolution is, moreover, Machian, and has three levels: classical, semiclassical and a combined semiclassical-histories-timeless records scheme. I end by delineating the current frontiers of this program toward resolution of the Problem of Time in the cases of full GR and of slightly inhomogeneous cosmology.

  17. Metastring Theory and Modular Space-time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laurent Freidel; Robert G. Leigh; Djordje Minic

    2015-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    String theory is canonically accompanied with a space-time interpretation which determines S-matrix-like observables, and connects to the standard physics at low energies in the guise of local effective field theory. Recently, we have introduced a reformulation of string theory which does not rely on an {\\it a priori} space-time interpretation or a pre-assumption of locality. This \\hlt{metastring theory} is formulated in such a way that stringy symmetries (such as T-duality) are realized linearly. In this paper, we study metastring theory on a flat background and develop a variety of technical and interpretational ideas. These include a formulation of the moduli space of Lorentzian worldsheets, a careful study of the symplectic structure and consequently consistent closed and open boundary conditions, and the string spectrum and operator algebra. What emerges from these studies is a new quantum notion of space-time that we refer to as a quantum Lagrangian or equivalently a \\hlt{modular space-time}. This concept embodies the standard tenets of quantum theory and implements in a precise way a notion of {relative locality}. The usual string backgrounds (non-compact space-time along with some toroidally compactified spatial directions) are obtained from modular space-time by a limiting procedure that can be thought of as a correspondence limit.

  18. First passage time statistics of Brownian motion with purely time dependent drift and diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molini, Annalisa; Katul, Gabriel G; Porporato, Amilcare

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems where resource availability approaches a critical threshold are common to many engineering and scientific applications and often necessitate the estimation of first passage time statistics of a Brownian motion (Bm) driven by time-dependent drift and diffusion coefficients. Modeling such systems requires solving the associated Fokker-Planck equation subject to an absorbing barrier. Conditional probabilities are classically derived via the method of images, whose applicability to time-dependent problems, including stochastic resonance, is discussed. First passage time statistics, such as the survival probabilities and first passage time densities are obtained analytically. The analysis includes the study of different functional forms of the time dependent drift and diffusion, such as power-law time dependence and different periodic drivers. As a case study of these theoretical results, a stochastic model for snow melt in mountain regions is presented where both temperature effects and snow-precipitation...

  19. Comparing Computer Run Time of Building Simulation Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    an approach to comparing computer run time of buildingthe purpose of comparing computer run time. Modelers shouldATIONAL L ABORATORY Comparing Computer Run Time of Building

  20. A Survey of Utility Experience with Real Time Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Neenan, Bernie

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Day Ahead Hourly Time of Use Tariff Description This is aTariff Name Real Time Pricing: Non-Residential Service Day Ahead Hourly Time of Use

  1. Reserving and Scheduling Transmission over the Time Change -...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Time Change Posted Date: 10172014 Effective November 2, 2014 at 0200 Pacific Daylight Savings Time (Advanced Standard Time), BPA Transmission Services will set all clocks...

  2. Reserving and Scheduling Transmission over the Time Change -...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pacific Prevailing Time, BPA Transmission Services will set all clocks to Pacific Daylight Saving Time (Advanced Standard Time). For more information concerning how to submit...

  3. Reminder Reserving and Scheduling Transmission over the Time...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Time Change Posted Date: 10292014 Effective November 2, 2014 at 0200 Pacific Daylight Savings Time (Advanced Standard Time), BPA Transmission Services will set all clocks...

  4. Nonlinear Time Domain Modeling and Simulation of Surface and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Nonlinear Time Domain Modeling and Simulation of Surface and Embedded NPPS Nonlinear Time Domain Modeling and Simulation of Surface and Embedded NPPS Nonlinear Time Domain Modeling...

  5. Plasma Redshift, Time Dilation, and Supernovas Ia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ari Brynjolfsson

    2004-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The measurements of the absolute magnitudes and redshifts of supernovas Ia show that conventional physics, which includes plasma redshift, fully explains the observed magnitude-redshift relation of the supernovas. The only parameter that is required is the Hubble constant, which in principle can be measured independently. The contemporary theory of the expansion of the universe (Big Bang) requires in addition to the Hubble constant several adjustable parameters, such as an initial explosion, the dark matter parameter, and a time adjustable dark energy parameter for explaining the supernova Ia data. The contemporary Big Bang theory also requires time dilation of distant events as an inherent premise. The contention is usually that the light curves of distant supernovas show or even prove the time dilation. In the present article, we challenge this assertion. We document and show that the previously reported data in fact indicate that there is no time dilation. The data reported by Riess et al. in the Astrophysical Journal in June 2004 confirm the plasma redshift, the absence of time dilation, dark matter, and dark energy.

  6. Continuous, real time microwave plasma element sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P. (4 Ledgewood Dr., Bedford, MA 01730); Smatlak, Donna L. (10 Village Hill Rd., Belmont, MA 02178); Cohn, Daniel R. (26 Walnut Hill Rd., Chestnut Hill, MA 02167); Wittle, J. Kenneth (1740 Conestoga Rd., Chester Springs, PA 19425); Titus, Charles H. (323 Echo Valley La., Newton Square, PA 19072); Surma, Jeffrey E. (806 Brian La., Kennewick, WA 99337)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microwave-induced plasma for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury.

  7. Relaxation time of non-conformal plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alex Buchel

    2009-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We study effective relaxation time of viscous hydrodynamics of strongly coupled non-conformal gauge theory plasma using gauge theory/string theory correspondence. We compute leading corrections to the conformal plasma relaxation time from the relevant deformations due to dim-2 and dim-3 operators. We discuss in details the relaxation time tau_eff of N=2^* plasma. For a certain choice of masses this theory undergoes a phase transition with divergent specific heat c_V ~ |1-T_c/T|^(-1/2). Although the bulk viscosity remains finite all the way to the critical temperature, we find that tau_eff diverges near the critical point as tau_eff ~ |1-T_c/T|^(-1/2).

  8. Determinating Timing Channels in Statistically Multiplexed Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aviram, Amittai; Ford, Bryan; Gummadi, Ramakrishna

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Timing side-channels represent an insidious security challenge for cloud computing, because: (a) they enable one customer to steal information from another without leaving a trail or raising alarms; (b) only the cloud provider can feasibly detect and report such attacks, but the provider's incentives are not to; and (c) known general-purpose timing channel control methods undermine statistical resource sharing efficiency, and, with it, the cloud computing business model. We propose a new cloud architecture that uses provider-enforced deterministic execution to eliminate all timing channels internal to a shared cloud domain, without limiting internal resource sharing. A prototype determinism-enforcing hypervisor demonstrates that utilizing such a cloud might be both convenient and efficient. The hypervisor enables parallel guest processes and threads to interact via familiar shared memory and file system abstractions, and runs moderately coarse-grained parallel tasks as efficiently and scalably as current nond...

  9. Short Time Cycles of Purely Quantum Refrigerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tova Feldmann; Ronnie Kosloff

    2012-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Four stroke Otto refrigerator cycles with no classical analogue are studied. Extremely short cycle times with respect to the internal time scale of the working medium characterize these refrigerators. Therefore these cycles are termed sudden. The sudden cycles are characterized by the stable limit cycle which is the invariant of the global cycle propagator. During their operation the state of the working medium possesses significant coherence which is not erased in the equilibration segments due to the very short time allocated. This characteristic is reflected in a difference between the energy entropy and the Von Neumann entropy of the working medium. A classification scheme for sudden refrigerators is developed allowing simple approximations for the cooling power and coefficient of performance.

  10. Time-delayed quantum feedback control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arne L. Grimsmo

    2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A theory of time-delayed coherent quantum feedback is developed. More specifically, we consider a quantum system coupled to a bosonic reservoir creating a unidirectional feedback loop. It is shown that the dynamics can be mapped onto a fictitious quantum cascade, where the system is driven by past versions of itself. The derivation of this model relies on a tensor network representation of the system-reservoir time-propagator. For concreteness, this general theory is applied to a driven two-level atom scattering into a coherent feedback loop. We demonstrate how delay effects can qualitatively change the dynamics of the atom, and how quantum control can be implemented in the presence of time-delays. A realization with a superconducting qubit serving as an artificial atom is discussed.

  11. Time-temperature equivalence in Martensite tempering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackenberg, Robert E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thomas, Grant A. [CSM; Speer, John G. [CSM; Matlock, David K. [CSM; Krauss, George [CSM

    2008-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The relationship between time and temperature is of great consequence in many materials-related processes including the tempering of martensite. In 1945, Hollomon and Jaffe quantified the 'degree of tempering' as a function of both tempering time, t, and tempering temperature, T, using the expression, T(log t + c). Here, c is thought to be a material constant and appears to decrease linearly with increasing carbon content. The Hollomon-Jaffe tempering parameter is frequently cited in the literature. This work reviews the original derivation of the tempering parameter concept, and presents the use of the characteristics diffusion distance as an alternative time-temperature relationship during martensite tempering. During the tempering of martensite, interstitial carbon atoms diffuse to form carbides. In addition, austenite decomposes, dislocations and grain boundaries rearrange, associated with iron self diffusion. Since these are all diffusional processes, it is reasonable to expect the degree of tempering to relate to the extent of diffusion.

  12. Real time gamma-ray signature identifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rowland, Mark (Alamo, CA); Gosnell, Tom B. (Moraga, CA); Ham, Cheryl (Livermore, CA); Perkins, Dwight (Livermore, CA); Wong, James (Dublin, CA)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A real time gamma-ray signature/source identification method and system using principal components analysis (PCA) for transforming and substantially reducing one or more comprehensive spectral libraries of nuclear materials types and configurations into a corresponding concise representation/signature(s) representing and indexing each individual predetermined spectrum in principal component (PC) space, wherein an unknown gamma-ray signature may be compared against the representative signature to find a match or at least characterize the unknown signature from among all the entries in the library with a single regression or simple projection into the PC space, so as to substantially reduce processing time and computing resources and enable real-time characterization and/or identification.

  13. Measurable Maximal Energy and Minimal Time Interval

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eiman Abou El Dahab; Abdel Nasser Tawfik

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility of finding the measurable maximal energy and the minimal time interval is discussed in different quantum aspects. It is found that the linear generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) approach gives a non-physical result. Based on large scale Schwarzshild solution, the quadratic GUP approach is utilized. The calculations are performed at the shortest distance, at which the general relativity is assumed to be a good approximation for the quantum gravity and at larger distances, as well. It is found that both maximal energy and minimal time have the order of the Planck time. Then, the uncertainties in both quantities are accordingly bounded. Some physical insights are addressed. Also, the implications on the physics of early Universe and on quantized mass are outlined. The results are related to the existence of finite cosmological constant and minimum mass (mass quanta).

  14. Risk-adjusted monitoring of survival times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sego, Landon H.; Reynolds, Marion R.; Woodall, William H.

    2009-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the monitoring of clinical outcomes, where each patient has a di®erent risk of death prior to undergoing a health care procedure.We propose a risk-adjusted survival time CUSUM chart (RAST CUSUM) for monitoring clinical outcomes where the primary endpoint is a continuous, time-to-event variable that may be right censored. Risk adjustment is accomplished using accelerated failure time regression models. We compare the average run length performance of the RAST CUSUM chart to the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart, using data from cardiac surgeries to motivate the details of the comparison. The comparisons show that the RAST CUSUM chart is more efficient at detecting a sudden decrease in the odds of death than the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart, especially when the fraction of censored observations is not too high. We also discuss the implementation of a prospective monitoring scheme using the RAST CUSUM chart.

  15. Continuous, real time microwave plasma element sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, P.P.; Smatlak, D.L.; Cohn, D.R.; Wittle, J.K.; Titus, C.H.; Surma, J.E.

    1995-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Microwave-induced plasma is described for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury. 3 figs.

  16. Operational quantum theory without predefined time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ognyan Oreshkov; Nicolas J. Cerf

    2014-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The current operational formulation of quantum theory is based on the concept of operation with an input and an output system, which assumes a prior notion of time and is asymmetric under time reversal. But in certain contexts, such as those involving gravity, time is expected to be dynamical and not predefined. Here, we propose an operational formulation of quantum theory without any predefined notion of time. It is based on a generalization of the concept of operation motivated by an epistemic approach: an operation is a description of knowledge about the events in a given region, which can be updated conditionally on information obtained from that region. Each such region has a set of boundary systems, which by definition provide the sole means of information exchange between the events in the region and the events in other regions. Separate operations can be connected in networks through their boundary systems with no directionality assumed for the connections, which generalizes the standard circuit picture. The events associated with an operation are described by positive semidefinite operators on the Hilbert spaces of the boundary systems, while the connections between regions are described by entangled states that encode a nontrivial physical symmetry. A simple rule provides the joint probabilities for the events in a network of operations. We discuss how it may be possible to understand the emergence of a causal structure from properties of the operators on the boundaries of compact space-time regions. The framework allows for indefinite causal order, timelike loops, and other acausal structures. As part of this work, we obtain a generalization of Wigner's theorem, which is based on the preservation of probabilities of actual events and thus puts the concept of time reversal symmetry on operational grounds. It contains the possibility for a new class of symmetry transformations.

  17. Deriving time from the geometry of space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James M. Chappell; John G. Hartnett; Nicolangelo Iannella; Derek Abbott

    2015-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Minkowski formulation of special relativity reveals the essential four-dimensional nature of spacetime, consisting of three space and one time dimension. Recognizing its fundamental importance, a variety of arguments have been proposed over the years attempting to derive the Minkowski spacetime structure from fundamental physical principles. In this paper we illustrate how Minkowski spacetime follows naturally from the geometric properties of three dimensional Clifford space modeled with multivectors. This approach also generalizes spacetime to an eight dimensional space as well as doubling the size of the Lorentz group. This description of spacetime also provides a new geometrical interpretation of the nature of time.

  18. Short rise time intense electron beam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Craig L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A generator for producing an intense relativistic electron beam having a subnanosecond current rise time includes a conventional generator of intense relativistic electrons feeding into a short electrically conductive drift tube including a cavity containing a working gas at a low enough pressure to prevent the input beam from significantly ionizing the working gas. Ionizing means such as a laser simultaneously ionize the entire volume of working gas in the cavity to generate an output beam having a rise time less than one nanosecond.

  19. Short rise time intense electron beam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, C.L.

    1984-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A generator for producing an intense relativisitc electron beam having a subnanosecond current rise time includes a conventional generator of intense relativistic electrons feeding into a short electrically conductive drift tube including a cavity containing a working gas at a low enough pressure to prevent the input beam from significantly ionizing the working gas. Ionizing means such as a laser simultaneously ionize the entire volume of working gas in the cavity to generate an output beam having a rise time less than one nanosecond.

  20. Hyperpolarized Nanodiamond with Long Spin Relaxation Times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewa Rej; Torsten Gaebel; Thomas Boele; David E. J. Waddington; David J. Reilly

    2015-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of hyperpolarized agents in magnetic resonance (MR), such as 13C-labeled compounds, enables powerful new imaging and detection modalities that stem from a 10,000-fold boost in signal. A major challenge for the future of the hyperpolarizaton technique is the inherently short spin relaxation times, typically solid-state environment, exhibit relaxation times exceeding 1 hour. Combined with the already established applications of NDs in the life-sciences as inexpensive fluorescent markers and non-cytotoxic substrates for gene and drug delivery, these results extend the theranostic capabilities of nanoscale diamonds into the domain of hyperpolarized MR.

  1. Emergent Time and the M5-Brane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. M. Hull; N. Lambert

    2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the maximal super-Yang-Mills theory in 5 Euclidean dimensions with SO(5) R-symmetry and 16 supersymmetries. We argue that the strong coupling limit of this theory (with a possible UV completion) has an emergent time dimension and gives a description of the 5+1 dimensional Lorentz invariant (2,0) theory of the M5-brane, compactified on a timelike circle with radius R=g^2/4\\pi^2 . Our discussion involves issues of quantization of Euclidean theories without time.

  2. Doppler effect of time and space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giovanni Zanella

    2012-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper shows as the relativistic Doppler effect can be extended also to time and space associated to moving bodies. This extension derives from the analysis of the wave-fronts of the light emitted by a moving source in inertial motion in the empty space, as viewed from the stationary reference. Indeed, time and space can be represented by the same vector quantities, which appear asymmetrical in forward and back direction along the path of the moving body. Consequently, the whole size of the moving bodies dilates along the direction of their motion, as their path. Thought experiments and real facts demonstrate this issue.

  3. Decoherence in time evolution of bound entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhe Sun; Xiaoguang Wang; Y. B. Gao; C. P. Sun

    2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a dynamic process of disentanglement by considering the time evolution of bound entanglement for a quantum open system, two qutrits coupling to a common environment. Here, the initial quantum correlations of the two qutrits are characterized by the bound entanglement. In order to show the universality of the role of environment on bound entanglement, both bosonic and spin environments are considered. We found that the bound entanglement displays collapses and revivals, and it can be stable against small temperature and time change. The thermal fluctuation effects on bound entanglement are also considered.

  4. Dead-time Corrected Disdrometer Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Bartholomew, Mary Jane

    Original and dead-time corrected disdrometer results for observations made at SGP and TWP. The correction is based on the technique discussed in Sheppard and Joe, 1994. In addition, these files contain calculated radar reflectivity factor, mean Doppler velocity and attenuation for every measurement for both the original and dead-time corrected data at the following wavelengths: 0.316, 0.856, 3.2, 5, and 10cm (W,K,X,C,S bands). Pavlos Kollias provided the code to do these calculations.

  5. Simulations of greenhouse trace gases using the Los Alamos chemical tracer model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kao, C.Y.J.; Morz, E. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Tie, X. (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA (United States))

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through three-dimensional global model studies on atmospheric composition and transport, we are improving our quantitative understanding of the origins and behavior of trace gases that affect Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. We will focus, in this paper, on the simulations of three individual trace gases including CFC-11, methyl chloroform, and methane. We first used our chemical tracer model to study the global distribution and trend of chemically inert CFC-11 observed by the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment. The results show that the model has the ability to reproduce the time-series of the observations. The purpose of this CFC-11 simulation was to test the transport of the model. We then used to model introduce methyl chloroform into the atmosphere according to the known emission patterns and iteratively varied OH fields so that the observed concentrations of methyl chloroform from the observations could be simulated well. The rationale behind this approach is that the reaction with OH is the dominant sink for metyl chloroform and the transport of the model has been tested in the previous CFC-11 study. Finally, using the inferred OH distributions, we conducted a steady-state simulation to reproduce the current methane distribution. The general agreement between the modeled an observed methane surface concentrations has laid a foundation for the simulation of the transient increase of methane.

  6. Simulations of greenhouse trace gases using the Los Alamos chemical tracer model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kao, C.Y.J.; Morz, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tie, X. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through three-dimensional global model studies on atmospheric composition and transport, we are improving our quantitative understanding of the origins and behavior of trace gases that affect Earth`s radiative energy balance and climate. We will focus, in this paper, on the simulations of three individual trace gases including CFC-11, methyl chloroform, and methane. We first used our chemical tracer model to study the global distribution and trend of chemically inert CFC-11 observed by the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment. The results show that the model has the ability to reproduce the time-series of the observations. The purpose of this CFC-11 simulation was to test the transport of the model. We then used to model introduce methyl chloroform into the atmosphere according to the known emission patterns and iteratively varied OH fields so that the observed concentrations of methyl chloroform from the observations could be simulated well. The rationale behind this approach is that the reaction with OH is the dominant sink for metyl chloroform and the transport of the model has been tested in the previous CFC-11 study. Finally, using the inferred OH distributions, we conducted a steady-state simulation to reproduce the current methane distribution. The general agreement between the modeled an observed methane surface concentrations has laid a foundation for the simulation of the transient increase of methane.

  7. Response time satisfaction in real-time knowledge-based systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank, Deborah Lee

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    vehicles or plant operations. Planning systems have already been used extensively in robots and autonomous vehicles. However, integrating knowledge-based systems into real-time environments is difficult because they cannot always respond to external... [11]. There is a natural niche for expert systems and planning systems in real-time computing environments. A common application of expert systems, system diagnosis, can be integrated into many different real-time systems, such as autonomous...

  8. Time-stretch microscopy based on time-wavelength sequence reconstruction from wideband incoherent source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Chi, E-mail: chizheung@gmail.com; Xu, Yiqing; Wei, Xiaoming; Tsia, Kevin K.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y., E-mail: kywong@eee.hku.hk [Photonic Systems Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Time-stretch microscopy has emerged as an ultrafast optical imaging concept offering the unprecedented combination of the imaging speed and sensitivity. However, dedicated wideband and coherence optical pulse source with high shot-to-shot stability has been mandated for time-wavelength mapping—the enabling process for ultrahigh speed wavelength-encoded image retrieval. From the practical point of view, exploiting methods to relax the stringent requirements (e.g., temporal stability and coherence) for the source of time-stretch microscopy is thus of great value. In this paper, we demonstrated time-stretch microscopy by reconstructing the time-wavelength mapping sequence from a wideband incoherent source. Utilizing the time-lens focusing mechanism mediated by a narrow-band pulse source, this approach allows generation of a wideband incoherent source, with the spectral efficiency enhanced by a factor of 18. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, time-stretch imaging with the scan rate as high as MHz and diffraction-limited resolution is achieved based on the wideband incoherent source. We note that the concept of time-wavelength sequence reconstruction from wideband incoherent source can also be generalized to any high-speed optical real-time measurements, where wavelength is acted as the information carrier.

  9. Space-time attributes of physical objects and the laws of space-time physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. H. Field

    2008-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Physical time intervals are attributes of single physical object whereas physical space intervals are a relational attribute of two physical objects. Some consequences of the breaking of the space-time exchange symmetry inherent in the Lorentz transformation following from the above distinction are investigated. In particular, it is shown that the relativity of simultaneity and length contraction effects which naively follow from space-time symmetry of the Lorentz transformation do not occur. Seven laws describing the relation between observations of space intervals, time intervals and velocities in different reference frames are given. Only two of these laws are respected by conventional special relativity theory.

  10. Network With Costs: Timing and Flow Decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)

    Network With Costs: Timing and Flow Decomposition Shreeshankar Bodas, Jared Grubb, Sriram Sridharan-- This paper analyzes a capacitated network with costs from an information theoretic point of view. Determines a flow decomposition for a network with costs starting from an information theoretic point of view

  11. METHODOLOGY. TIME DISTRIBUTION OF MOSSBAUER SCATTERED RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    METHODOLOGY. TIME DISTRIBUTION OF MOSSBAUER SCATTERED RADIATION H. DROST, K. PALOW and G. WEYER distribution en temps du rayonnement reemis par un absorbant Mossbauer. Des effets d'interference dus a l la reponse de 1'absorbant. Les mesures ont et6 realisees avec le rayonnement Mossbauer a 14.4 keV du

  12. Protist Web Alert Memories of Times Past

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simpson, Larry

    Protist Web Alert Memories of Times Past The Euglenoid Project (http that the Euglenoids have always fascinated me and so did this site. Micro*scope Astrobiology Institute Web Site from reviewed this site in a previous Web Alert, but it has been revised and updated and so is worth another

  13. Time Series Models: Hidden Markov Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roweis, Sam

    Time Series Models: Hidden Markov Models & Linear Dynamical Systems Sam Roweis Gatsby Computational before. Discrete state: { Moore and Mealy machines (engineering) { stochastic #12;nite state automata (CS chain with stochastic measurements. Gauss-Markov process in a pancake. PSfrag replacements x 1 y 1 x 2 y

  14. Time Series Models: Hidden Markov Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roweis, Sam

    Time Series Models: Hidden Markov Models & Linear Dynamical Systems Sam Roweis Gatsby Computational. Discrete state: { Moore and Mealy machines (engineering) { stochastic #12;nite state automata (CS with stochastic measurements. Gauss-Markov process in a pancake. PSfrag replacements x 1 y 1 x 2 y 2 x 3 y 3 x T y

  15. Computing Needs Time Edward A. Lee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (CSR-CPS)), the U. S. Army Research Office (ARO #W911NF-07-2-0019), the U. S. Air Force Office essential prop- erties of the physical systems, most particularly the passage of time. It makes a case (CSR-CPS)), the U. S. Army Research Office (ARO #W911NF-07-2-0019), the U. S. Air Force Office

  16. Timely PTS Applications Critical to Staying Navy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timely PTS Applications Critical to Staying Navy Navy Personnel Command (NPC) is reminding commands and Sailors that submitting Perform to Serve (PTS) applications is the key to being able to stay Navy/10 explains how PTS is used to shape the Navy, and includes all business rules concerning. Commands must

  17. Materials Engineering Research Colloquium Time Presenter Title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    British Columbia, University of

    , University of British Columbia Research Summary: As the phase scale of a material changes, so does its. #12;Materials Engineering Research Colloquium April 2007 Schedule: Time Presenter Title 10:30 D. Azizi-Alizamini Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Ultrafine Grained Low Carbon

  18. Business Day Authoritative, informative and timely,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Richard

    Overview #12;Business Day Overview Authoritative, informative and timely, Business Day is a must read for business decision-makers. Business Day has Australia's most influential business writers and commentators who provide up-to-the- minute business news, including context, background and specialist analysis

  19. Multilinear Dynamical Systems for Tensor Time Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Stuart

    of the stock prices of n multiple companies comprise a time series of 6 × n tensors. A grayscale video sequence ocean temperatures will increase. Prediction of stock prices may not only inform investors but also help to stabilize the economy and prevent market collapse. The relationships between particular subsets of tensor

  20. Real Time Grid Reliability Management 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joe; Eto, Joe; Lesieutre, Bernard; Lewis, Nancy Jo; Parashar, Manu

    2008-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The increased need to manage California?s electricity grid in real time is a result of the ongoing transition from a system operated by vertically-integrated utilities serving native loads to one operated by an independent system operator supporting competitive energy markets. During this transition period, the traditional approach to reliability management -- construction of new transmission lines -- has not been pursued due to unresolved issues related to the financing and recovery of transmission project costs. In the absence of investments in new transmission infrastructure, the best strategy for managing reliability is to equip system operators with better real-time information about actual operating margins so that they can better understand and manage the risk of operating closer to the edge. A companion strategy is to address known deficiencies in offline modeling tools that are needed to ground the use of improved real-time tools. This project: (1) developed and conducted first-ever demonstrations of two prototype real-time software tools for voltage security assessment and phasor monitoring; and (2) prepared a scoping study on improving load and generator response models. Additional funding through two separate subsequent work authorizations has already been provided to build upon the work initiated in this project.

  1. Does Daylight Savings Time Affect Traffic Accidents?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deen, Sophia 1988-

    2012-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper studies the effect of changes in accident pattern due to Daylight Savings Time (DST). The extension of the DST in 2007 provides a natural experiment to determine whether the number of traffic accidents is affected by shifts in hours...

  2. Quantum mechanics and the direction of time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasegawa, H.; Petrosky, T. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States)); Prigogine, I. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States) International Solvay Inst. for Physics and Chemistry, Brussels (Belgium)); Tasaki, S. (International Solvay Inst. for Physics and Chemistry, Brussels (Belgium))

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent papers the authors have discussed the dynamical properties of large Poincare systems (LPS), that is, nonintegrable systems with a continuous spectrum (both classical and quantum). An interesting example of LPS is given by the Friedrichs model of field theory. As is well known, perturbation methods analytic in the coupling constant diverge because of resonant denominators. They show that this Poincare catastrophe can be eliminated by a natural time ordering of the dynamical states. They obtain then a dynamical theory which incorporates a privileged direction of time (and therefore the second law of thermodynamics). However, it is only in very simple situations that his time ordering can be performed in an extended Hilbert space. In general, they need to go to the Liouville space (superspace) and introduce a time ordering of dynamical states according to the number of particles involved in correlations. This leads then to a generalization of quantum mechanics in which the usual Heisenberg's eigenvalue problem is replaced by a complex eigenvalue problem in the Liouville space.

  3. Segmenting Time Series for Weather Forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sripada, Yaji

    for generating textual summaries. Our algorithm has been implemented in a weather forecast generation system. 1 presentation, aid human understanding of the underlying data sets. SUMTIME is a research project aiming turbines. In the domain of meteorology, time series data produced by numerical weather prediction (NWP

  4. Research Article Human Brain Activity Time-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    Research Article Human Brain Activity Time- Locked to Narrative Event Boundaries Nicole K. Speer to or reading descriptions of everyday activities (e.g., reading about a person making cookies; Speer & Zacks, 2005; Speer, Zacks, & Reynolds, 2006). These findings are not altogether surprising given theories

  5. OF HEALTH CARE IN TURBULENT TIMES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feschotte, Cedric

    FIXING THE FLOW OF HEALTH CARE IN TURBULENT TIMES INNOVATION REPORT 2014 #12;Since 2012, Algorithms facing health care today. We believe there's an unprecedented opportunity to invent a new vision for health care, and academic medicine is poised to lead the way. Algorithms for Innovations is designed

  6. Metastring Theory and Modular Space-time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freidel, Laurent; Minic, Djordje

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    String theory is canonically accompanied with a space-time interpretation which determines S-matrix-like observables, and connects to the standard physics at low energies in the guise of local effective field theory. Recently, we have introduced a reformulation of string theory which does not rely on an {\\it a priori} space-time interpretation or a pre-assumption of locality. This \\hlt{metastring theory} is formulated in such a way that stringy symmetries (such as T-duality) are realized linearly. In this paper, we study metastring theory on a flat background and develop a variety of technical and interpretational ideas. These include a formulation of the moduli space of Lorentzian worldsheets, a careful study of the symplectic structure and consequently consistent closed and open boundary conditions, and the string spectrum and operator algebra. What emerges from these studies is a new quantum notion of space-time that we refer to as a quantum Lagrangian or equivalently a \\hlt{modular space-time}. This conce...

  7. Time-Symmetric Rolling Tachyon Profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matheson Longton

    2015-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the tachyon profile of a time-symmetric rolling tachyon solution to open string field theory. We algebraically construct the solution of [arXiv:0707.4472] at 6th order in the marginal parameter, and numerically evaluate the corresponding tachyon profile as well as the action and several correlation functions containing the equation of motion. We find that the marginal operator's singular self-OPE is properly regularized and all quantities we examine are finite. In contrast to the widely studied time-asymmetric case, the solution depends nontrivially on the strength of the deformation parameter. For example, we find that the number and period of oscillations of the tachyon field changes as the strength of the marginal deformation is increased. We use the recent renormalization scheme of [arXiv:1412.3466], which contains two free parameters. At finite deformation parameter the tachyon profile depends on these parameters, while when the deformation parameter is small, the solution becomes insensitive to them and behaves like previously studied time-asymmetric rolling tachyon solutions. We also show that convergence of perturbation series is not as straightforward as in the time-asymmetric case with regular OPE, and find evidence that it may depend on the renormalization constants.

  8. Run-Time Library Routines Reference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    MDS Run-Time Library Routines Reference Manual February 1993 Software Version: MDS 5.2 VAX.S.A. The following are trademarks of Digitial Equipment Corporation: CDD DECnet VAX DATATRIEVE DECUS VAXcluster DEC MicroVAX VAX Information Architecture DEC/CMS MicroVMS VMS DEC/MMS Rdb/VMS VT IDL (Interactive Data

  9. SAMPLE: software for VAX FORTRAN execution timing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, L.H.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SAMPLE is a set of subroutines in use at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for collecting CPU timings of various FORTRAN program sections - usually individual subroutines. These measurements have been useful in making programs run faster. The presentation includes a description of the software and examples of its use. The software is available on the directory (SAMPLE) of the VAX SIG tape.

  10. Introducing Real-time Interactions Neil Henderson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

    This report forms the deliverable for Activity I.35 which was to create a formal model to show University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK. Abstract This report introduces a new rigorous notation called Real-time Interactions that can be used to model the interactions between a system and its

  11. PROTECTING INFRASTRUCTURE ASSETS FROM REAL-TIME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burmester, Mike

    to critical infrastructure assets. The paper defines a threat model, an- alyzes vulnerabilities, proposes in an electricity grid. Also, it discusses the impact of run-time attacks on TC-compliant critical infrastructure. The crucial nature of the services provided by critical infrastructure systems and the vulnerabilities found

  12. ccsd00001476, NEGATIVE ENERGIES AND TIME REVERSAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    kinetic energy, so-called phantom #12;elds, have recently been proposed [1] [2] [3] as new sources leadingccsd­00001476, version 6 ­ 31 Mar 2005 NEGATIVE ENERGIES AND TIME REVERSAL IN QUANTUM FIELD THEORY The theoretical and phenomenological status of negative energies is reviewed in Quantum Field Theory leading

  13. Time-saving Cutting-edge practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    Pedigree Pioneering Longevity Time-saving Cutting-edge practice Superb teaching resources-based Dentistry Providing your institution with the perfect combination of pedigree, longevity, cutting-edge to 1999 Immediate impact: top 5 in immediacy index (June 2013)* Impact factor: 0.811** *Immediacy index

  14. Chapter 19 Subjunctive Conditionals And Time's Arrow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitelson, Branden

    the Arrow of Time Bennett's account of subjunctive conditionals is based on Lewis's. However explain temporal asymmetry, the difference between past and future. Although Bennett uses the blanket term if there is a chain of counter-factual dependencies of this sort which connects A and C. Bennett adds that for Lewis

  15. APPLICATION FOR ADMISSION Part-time Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Jeff

    ) related to this program area: Professional designation(s): 275 Portage Avenue | Winnipeg | Manitoba | R3B research into program enrolment and related statistical profiling activities. If you have any questionsAPPLICATION FOR ADMISSION Part-time Program ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS: To qualify for admission

  16. Time Running Out: A Portrait of California Families Reaching the CalWORKs Time Limit in 2004, Detailed Research Findings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    London, Rebecca A.; Mauldon, Jane G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WPRP Time Running Out: A Portrait of California FamiliesG. Mauldon November 2006 Time Running Out: A Portrait of

  17. Can biomass time series be reliably assessed from CPUE time series data Francis Lalo1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    1 Can biomass time series be reliably assessed from CPUE time series data only? Francis Laloë1 to abundance. This means (i) that catchability is constant and (ii) that all the biomass is catchable. If so, relative variations in CPUE indicate the same relative variations in biomass. Myers and Worm consider

  18. Nordic Journal of Computing 10(2003), 135. TIMED CSP = CLOSED TIMED -AUTOMATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouaknine, Joël

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) which may then be verified using the model checker FDR. We characterize the expressive power to ver- ify specifications on certain dense-time systems using the model checker FDR2 [23, 24-based approach for Timed CSP is that verification can be carried out on the model checker FDR, as dis- cussed

  19. Nordic Journal of Computing 10(2003), 1--35. TIMED CSP = CLOSED TIMED #AUTOMATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouaknine, Joël

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) which may then be verified using the model checker FDR. We characterize the expressive power to ver­ ify specifications on certain dense­time systems using the model checker FDR 2 [23, 24­based approach for Timed CSP is that verification can be carried out on the model checker FDR, as dis­ cussed

  20. On hitting times and fastest strong stationary times for skip-free and more general chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fill, James Allen

    integers as state space is a chain for which upward jumps may be only of unit size; there is no restriction-free chain and any d, the passage time distribution from state 0 to state d. When the nonzero eigenvalues j of the generator on {0, . . . , d}, with d made absorbing, are all real, their result states that the passage time

  1. Managing Contention and Timing Constraints in a RealTime Database System \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Son, Sang H.

    22903, USA Abstract Previous work in real­time database management systems (RT­DBMS) has primarily based an actual RT­ DBMS on a real­time microkernel operating system. A real RT­DBMS must confront many practical of con­ structing a RT­DBMS is divided into three basic prob­ lems: dealing with resource contention

  2. All Regular Part-Time and Temporary Full-Time Employees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    contains important information and should be kept in a safe place known to you and your family. The Plan is underwritten by #12;Protecting Your Personal Information At Great-West Life, we recognize and respectAll Regular Part-Time and Temporary Full-Time Employees #12;Great-West Life is a leading Canadian

  3. Seismic Response Analysis of Different Buildings using Time-Invariant and Time-Variant Damping Coefficients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Seismic Response Analysis of Different Buildings using Time- Invariant and Time- Variant Damping@obs.ujf-grenoble.fr Abstract Seismic signals are characterized by strong excitations, short durations, non-linearity and non has been introduced to help in adapting to the seismic signals where the amplitude is damped

  4. REAL-TIME DISPATCHING OF GUIDED AND UNGUIDED AUTOMOBILE SERVICE UNITS WITH SOFT TIME WINDOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krumke, Sven O.

    REAL-TIME DISPATCHING OF GUIDED AND UNGUIDED AUTOMOBILE SERVICE UNITS WITH SOFT TIME WINDOWS SVEN O that are no worse than 1% from optimum on state-of-the-art personal computers. 1. INTRODUCTION The German Automobile Association ADAC (Allgemeiner Deutscher Automobil- Club), the second largest automobile club worldwide

  5. 'AdS_5' Geometry Beyond Space-time and 4D Noncommutative Space-time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otto C. W. Kong

    2009-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss a 4D noncommutative space-time as suggested by the version of quantum (deformed) relativity which provides a classical geometry picture as an `AdS_5'. The 4D noncommutative space-time is more like a part of a phase space description, in accordance with the quantum notion -- quantum mechanics talks about only states but not configurations. The `AdS_5' picture also illustrates the classical 4D space-time is to be described as part of a bigger geometry beyond space-time at the quantum level. The radically new picture of quantum 'space-time' is expected to provide the basis for a (still to be formulated) new approach to quantum gravity with fundamental constants (quantum) hbar and Newton's constant G put at a similar level as c, the speed of light.

  6. LHC RF System Time-Domain Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastorides, T.; Rivetta, C.; /SLAC

    2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-linear time-domain simulations have been developed for the Positron-Electron Project (PEP-II) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These simulations capture the dynamic behavior of the RF station-beam interaction and are structured to reproduce the technical characteristics of the system (noise contributions, non-linear elements, and more). As such, they provide useful results and insight for the development and design of future LLRF feedback systems. They are also a valuable tool for the study of diverse longitudinal beam dynamics effects such as coupled-bunch impedance driven instabilities and single bunch longitudinal emittance growth. Results from these studies and related measurements from PEP-II and LHC have been presented in multiple places. This report presents an example of the time-domain simulation implementation for the LHC.

  7. Time-scale for accretion of matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Combes

    1998-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Mass accretion is the key factor for evolution of galaxies. It can occur through secular evolution, when gas in the outer parts is driven inwards by dynamical instabilities, such as spirals or bars. This secular evolution proceeds very slowly when spontaneous, and can be accelerated when triggered by companions. Accretion can also occur directly through merging of small companions, or more violent interaction and coalescence. We discuss the relative importance of both processes, their time-scale and frequency along a Hubble time. Signatures of both processes can be found in the Milky Way. It is however likely that our Galaxy had already gathered the bulk of its mass about 8-10 Gyr ago, as is expected in hierarchical galaxy formation scenarios.

  8. Visualizations for Real-time Pricing Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinovici, Maria C.; Hammerstrom, Janelle L.; Widergren, Steven E.; Dayley, Greg K.

    2014-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the visualization tools created for monitoring the operations of a real-time pricing demonstration system that runs at a distribution feeder level are presented. The information these tools provide gives insights into demand behavior from automated price responsive devices, distribution feeder characteristics, impact of weather on system’s development, and other significant dynamics. Given the large number of devices that bid into a feeder-level real-time electricity market, new techniques are explored to summarize the present state of the system and contrast that with previous trends as well as future projections. To better understand the system behavior and correctly inform decision-making procedures, effective visualization of the data is imperative.

  9. Boltzmann babies in the proper time measure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Yang, I-Sheng

    2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    After commenting briefly on the role of the typicality assumption in science, we advocate a phenomenological approach to the cosmological measure problem. Like any other theory, a measure should be simple, general, well defined, and consistent with observation. This allows us to proceed by elimination. As an example, we consider the proper time cutoff on a geodesic congruence. It predicts that typical observers are quantum fluctuations in the early universe, or Boltzmann babies. We sharpen this well-known youngness problem by taking into account the expansion and open spatial geometry of pocket universes. Moreover, we relate the youngness problem directly to the probability distribution for observables, such as the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We consider a number of modifications of the proper time measure, but find none that would make it compatible with observation.

  10. Method and apparatus for measuring response time

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johanson, Edward W. (New Lenox, IL); August, Charles (Darien, IL)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of measuring the response time of an electrical instrument which generates an output signal in response to the application of a specified input, wherein the output signal varies as a function of time and when subjected to a step input approaches a steady-state value, comprises the steps of: (a) applying a step input of predetermined value to the electrical instrument to generate an output signal; (b) simultaneously starting a timer; (c) comparing the output signal to a reference signal to generate a stop signal when the output signal is substantially equal to the reference signal, the reference signal being a specified percentage of the steady-state value of the output signal corresponding to the predetermined value of the step input; and (d) applying the stop signal when generated to stop the timer.

  11. Method and apparatus for measuring response time

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johanson, E.W.; August, C.

    1983-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of measuring the response time of an electrical instrument which generates an output signal in response to the application of a specified input, wherein the output signal varies as a function of time and when subjected to a step input approaches a steady-state value, comprises the steps of: (a) applying a step input of predetermined value to the electrical instrument to generate an output signal; (b) simultaneously starting a timer; (c) comparing the output signal to a reference signal to generate a stop signal when the output signal is substantially equal to the reference signal, the reference signal being a specified percentage of the steady-state value of the output signal corresponding to the predetermined value of the step input; and (d) applying the stop signal when generated to stop the timer.

  12. Topology of Vacuum Space-Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. M. Cho

    2007-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a topological classification of vacuum space-time. Assuming the 3-dimensional space allows a global chart, we show that the static vacuum space-time of Einstein's theory can be classified by the knot topology $\\pi_3(S^3)=\\pi_3(S^2)$. Viewing Einstein's theory as a gauge theory of Lorentz group and identifying the gravitational connection as the gauge potential of Lorentz group, we construct all possible vacuum gravitational connections which give a vanishing curvature tensor. With this we show that the vacuum connection has the knot topology, the same topology which describes the multiple vacua of SU(2) gauge theory. We discuss the physical implications of our result in quantum gravity.

  13. Time varying arctic climate change amplification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dubey, Manvendra K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lesins, Glen [DALLHOUSIE U; Wang, Muyin [NOAA/JISAO

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

  14. Real Time Monitoring: Achieving Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rouse, S.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT: IECBO?s International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations November 17-18, 2009 Austin, Texas. Energy @ Work www.Energy-Efficiency.com File: Rouse_ Abstract Contact: scott.rouse@energy-efficiency....com, (416) 402-0525 Proposal Type: o Electronic proposal for presentation Title of Paper: o Real Time Monitoring: Achieving Energy Efficiency! Conference: o ICEBO?s International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations Submitted by: o...

  15. Real Time Monitoring: Achieving Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rouse, S.

    ABSTRACT: IECBO?s International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations November 17-18, 2009 Austin, Texas. Energy @ Work www.Energy-Efficiency.com File: Rouse_ Abstract Contact: scott.rouse@energy-efficiency....com, (416) 402-0525 Proposal Type: o Electronic proposal for presentation Title of Paper: o Real Time Monitoring: Achieving Energy Efficiency! Conference: o ICEBO?s International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations Submitted by: o...

  16. Part-Time Farming in Northeast Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, James R.; Southern, John H.

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    JANUARY THE AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION R. D. LEWIS, DIRECTOR, COLLEGE STATION. TEXAS IN COOPERATION WITH THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 632320 - This analysis of part-the farming... is part of a broad the income levels, income sources and farm and human patterns of the.88,W rural o area of Northeast Texas (Tearas Agricultural Bulletin 940, Incomes of Rural Families in No A major farm adjustmen part-time farming, or a greater...

  17. Generalised hyperbolicity in singular space-times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C J S Clarke

    1997-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A new concept analogous to global hyperbolicity is introduced, based on test fields. It is shown that the space-times termed here ``curve integrable'' are globally hyperbolic in this new sense, and a plausibility argument is given suggesting that the result applies to shell crossing singularities. If the assumptions behind this last argument are valid, this provides an alternative route to the assertion that such singularities do not violate cosmic censorship.

  18. Turbulencelike Behavior of Seismic Time Series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manshour, P.; Saberi, S. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sahimi, Muhammad [Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-1211 (United States); Peinke, J. [Institute of Physics, Carl von Ossietzky University, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Pacheco, Amalio F. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Rahimi Tabar, M. Reza [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Physics, Carl von Ossietzky University, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); CNRS UMR 6202, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)

    2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on a stochastic analysis of Earth's vertical velocity time series by using methods originally developed for complex hierarchical systems and, in particular, for turbulent flows. Analysis of the fluctuations of the detrended increments of the series reveals a pronounced transition in their probability density function from Gaussian to non-Gaussian. The transition occurs 5-10 hours prior to a moderate or large earthquake, hence representing a new and reliable precursor for detecting such earthquakes.

  19. Time-Frequency Analysis as Probabilistic Inference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Richard E.

    2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    (see supplementary material). The computational complexity is determined by the cost of the Kalman smoother to be . In practice, optimization of the likelihood by the conjugate gradient algorithm converged far more quickly than alternatives like... -varying) signal-de- pendent adaptation of the representation. Similarly, corruption of a signal by noise or missing samples should introduce uncer- tainty into the values of the time-frequency representation; but again, no unified robust method exists...

  20. Real-Time Demand Side Energy Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victor, A.; Brodkorb, M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Real-Time Demand Side Energy Management Annelize Victor Michael Brodkorb Sr. Business Consultant Business Development Manager Aspen Technology, Inc. Aspen Technology España, S.A. Houston, TX Barcelona, Spain ABSTRACT To remain... competitive, manufacturers must capture opportunities to increase bottom-line profitability. The goal of this paper is to present a new methodology for reducing energy costs – “Demand-Side Energy Management.” Learn how process manufacturers assess energy...

  1. The Tides Of Time Issue 33 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Worldwide Ltd. Or any other copyright holders. All images obtained from the public domain without permission. Second printing, now with better grammar and fewer commas. The Passage of Time It has been far too long since an edition of Tides has been... to obscure his ignorance, most of all of himself. Unseen characters like Lily Watts, who ‘is the letting committee’ of the village hall, express the contrast between UNIT’s international and indeed intergalactic outlook...

  2. Fractal-Flows and Time's Arrow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonard Susskind

    2012-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the written version of a lecture at the KITP workshop on Bits, Branes, and Black Holes. In it I describe work with D. Harlow, S. Shenker, D. Stanford which explains how the tree-like structure of eternal inflation, together with the existence of terminal vacua, leads to an arrow-of-time. Conformal symmetry of the dS/CFT type is inconsistent with an arrow-of-time and must be broken. The presence in the landscape of terminal vacua leads to a new kind of attractor called a fractal-flow, which both breaks conformal symmetry, and creates a directional time-asymmetry. This can be seen from both the local or causal-patch viewpoint, and also from the global or multiversal viewpoint. The resulting picture is consistent with the view recently expressed by Bousso. In the last part of the lecture I illustrate how the tree-model can be useful in explaining the value of the cosmological constant and the cosmic coincidence problem. The mechanisms are not new but the description is.

  3. Real Time Simulation of Power Grid Disruptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chinthavali, Supriya [ORNL; Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D [ORNL; Fernandez, Steven J [ORNL; Groer, Christopher S [ORNL; Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun [ORNL; Spafford, Kyle L [ORNL; Vacaliuc, Bogdan [ORNL

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE-OE and DOE-SC workshops (Reference 1-3) identified the key power grid problem that requires insight addressable by the next generation of exascale computing is coupling of real-time data streams (1-2 TB per hour) as the streams are ingested to dynamic models. These models would then identify predicted disruptions in time (2-4 seconds) to trigger the smart grid s self healing functions. This project attempted to establish the feasibility of this approach and defined the scientific issues, and demonstrated example solutions to important smart grid simulation problems. These objectives were accomplished by 1) using the existing frequency recorders on the national grid to establish a representative and scalable real-time data stream; 2) invoking ORNL signature identification algorithms; 3) modeling dynamically a representative region of the Eastern interconnect using an institutional cluster, measuring the scalability and computational benchmarks for a national capability; and 4) constructing a prototype simulation for the system s concept of smart grid deployment. The delivered ORNL enduring capability included: 1) data processing and simulation metrics to design a national capability justifying exascale applications; 2) Software and intellectual property built around the example solutions; 3) demonstrated dynamic models to design few second self-healing.

  4. PEP-II injection timing and controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharadwaj, V.; Browne, M.; Crane, M.; Gromme, T.; Himel, T.; Ross, M.; Stanek, M. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ronan, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hardware has been built and software written and incorporated in the existing SLC accelerator control system to control injection of beam pulses from the accelerator into the PEP-II storage rings currently under construction. Hardware includes a CAMAC module to delay the machine timing fiducial in order that a beam pulse extracted from a damping ring will be injected into a selected group of four 476 MHz buckets in a PEP-II ring. Further timing control is accomplished by shifting the phase of the bunches stored in the damping rings before extraction while leaving the phase of the PEP-II stored beam unchanged. The software which drives timing devices on a pulse-to-pulse basis relies on a dedicated communication link on which one scheduling microprocessor broadcasts a 128-bit message to all distributed control microprocessors at 360 Hz. PEP-II injection will be driven by the scheduling microprocessor according to lists specifying bucket numbers in arbitrary order, and according to scheduling constraints maximizing the useful beam delivered to the SLC collider currently in operation. These lists will be generated by a microprocessor monitoring the current stored per bucket in each of the PEP-II rings.

  5. Identification of a gravitational arrow of time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julian Barbour; Tim Koslowski; Flavio Mercati

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    It is widely believed that special initial conditions must be imposed on any time-symmetric law if its solutions are to exhibit behavior of any kind that defines an `arrow of time'. We show that this is not so. The simplest non-trivial time-symmetric law that can be used to model a dynamically closed universe is the Newtonian $N$-body problem with vanishing total energy and angular momentum. Because of special properties of this system (likely to be shared by any law of the Universe), its typical solutions all divide at a uniquely defined point into two halves. In each a well-defined measure of shape complexity fluctuates but grows irreversibly between rising bounds from that point. Structures that store dynamical information are created as the complexity grows and act as `records'. Each solution can be viewed as having a single past and two distinct futures emerging from it. Any internal observer must be in one half of the solution and will only be aware of the records of one branch and deduce a unique past and future direction from inspection of the available records.

  6. Short- and Long- Time Transport Structures in a Three Dimensional Time Dependent Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodolphe Chabreyrie; Stefan G. Llewellyn Smith

    2014-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Lagrangian transport structures for three-dimensional and time-dependent fluid flows are of great interest in numerous applications, particularly for geophysical or oceanic flows. In such flows, chaotic transport and mixing can play important environmental and ecological roles, for examples in pollution spills or plankton migration. In such flows, where simulations or observations are typically available only over a short time, understanding the difference between short-time and long-time transport structures is critical. In this paper, we use a set of classical (i.e. Poincar\\'e section, Lyapunov exponent) and alternative (i.e. finite time Lyapunov exponent, Lagrangian coherent structures) tools from dynamical systems theory that analyze chaotic transport both qualitatively and quantitatively. With this set of tools we are able to reveal, identify and highlight differences between short- and long-time transport structures inside a flow composed of a primary horizontal contra-rotating vortex chain, small lateral oscillations and a weak Ekman pumping. The difference is mainly the existence of regular or extremely slowly developing chaotic regions that are only present at short time.

  7. On hitting times and fastest strong stationary times for skip-free chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fill, James Allen

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An (upward) skip-free Markov chain with the set of nonnegative integers as state space is a chain for which upward jumps may be only of unit size; there is no restriction on downward jumps. In a 1987 paper, Brown and Shao determined, for an irreducible continuous-time skip-free chain and any d, the passage time distribution from state 0 to state d. When the nonzero eigenvalues nu_j of the generator are all real, their result states that the passage time is distributed as the sum of d independent exponential random variables with rates nu_j. We give another proof of their theorem. In the case of birth-and-death chains, our proof leads to an explicit representation of the passage time as a sum of independent exponential random variables. Diaconis and Miclo recently obtained the first such representation, but our construction is much simpler. We obtain similar (and new) results for a fastest strong stationary time T of an ergodic continuous-time skip-free chain with stochastically monotone time-reversal started ...

  8. Reachability Analysis of Time Basic Petri Nets: a Time Coverage Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellettini, Carlo

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a technique for reachability analysis of Time-Basic (TB) Petri nets, a powerful formalism for real- time systems where time constraints are expressed as intervals, representing possible transition firing times, whose bounds are functions of marking's time description. The technique consists of building a symbolic reachability graph relying on a sort of time coverage, and overcomes the limitations of the only available analyzer for TB nets, based in turn on a time-bounded inspection of a (possibly infinite) reachability-tree. The graph construction algorithm has been automated by a tool-set, briefly described in the paper together with its main functionality and analysis capability. A running example is used throughout the paper to sketch the symbolic graph construction. A use case describing a small real system - that the running example is an excerpt from - has been employed to benchmark the technique and the tool-set. The main outcome of this test are also presented in the paper. Ongoing work, ...

  9. Time step rescaling recovers continuous-time dynamical properties for discrete-time Langevin integration of nonequilibrium systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David A. Sivak; John D. Chodera; Gavin E. Crooks

    2014-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    When simulating molecular systems using deterministic equations of motion (e.g., Newtonian dynamics), such equations are generally numerically integrated according to a well-developed set of algorithms that share commonly agreed-upon desirable properties. However, for stochastic equations of motion (e.g., Langevin dynamics), there is still broad disagreement over which integration algorithms are most appropriate. While multiple desiderata have been proposed throughout the literature, consensus on which criteria are important is absent, and no published integration scheme satisfies all desiderata simultaneously. Additional nontrivial complications stem from simulating systems driven out of equilibrium using existing stochastic integration schemes in conjunction with recently-developed nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. Here, we examine a family of discrete time integration schemes for Langevin dynamics, assessing how each member satisfies a variety of desiderata that have been enumerated in prior efforts to construct suitable Langevin integrators. We show that the incorporation of a novel time step rescaling in the deterministic updates of position and velocity can correct a number of dynamical defects in these integrators. Finally, we identify a particular splitting that has essentially universally appropriate properties for the simulation of Langevin dynamics for molecular systems in equilibrium, nonequilibrium, and path sampling contexts.

  10. On the modeling of time-varying delays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Chirag Laxmikant

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is an effort to develop generalized dynamic models for systems with time-varying time delays. Unlike the simple time-delay model characterized by a transportation lag in the case of a fixed time delay, time-varying delays exhibit quite...

  11. Controlled short residence time coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Raymond P. (Overland Park, KS); Schmalzer, David K. (Englewood, CO); Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

    1982-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Normally solid dissolved coal product and a distillate liquid product are produced by continuously passing a feed slurry comprising raw feed coal and a recycle solvent oil and/or slurry together with hydrogen to a preheating-reaction zone (26, alone, or 26 together with 42), the hydrogen pressure in the preheating-reaction zone being at least 1500 psig (105 kg/cm.sup.2), reacting the slurry in the preheating-reaction zone (26, or 26 with 42) at a temperature in the range of between about 455.degree. and about 500.degree. C. to dissolve the coal to form normally liquid coal and normally solid dissolved coal. A total slurry residence time is maintained in the reaction zone ranging from a finite value from about 0 to about 0.2 hour, and reaction effluent is continuously and directly contacted with a quenching fluid (40, 68) to substantially immediately reduce the temperature of the reaction effluent to below 425.degree. C. to substantially inhibit polymerization so that the yield of insoluble organic matter comprises less than 9 weight percent of said feed coal on a moisture-free basis. The reaction is performed under conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure and residence time such that the quantity of distillate liquid boiling within the range C.sub.5 -455.degree. C. is an amount at least equal to that obtainable by performing the process under the same conditions except for a longer total slurry residence time, e.g., 0.3 hour. Solvent boiling range liquid is separated from the reaction effluent and recycled as process solvent.

  12. Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fout, Nathaniel [UC DAVIS; Ma, Kwan - Liu [UC DAVIS

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the advantage of offering smooth animations, while spatial compression can handle volumes of larger dimensions.

  13. Time dependence of Hawking radiation entropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, Don N., E-mail: profdonpage@gmail.com [Department of Physics, 4-181 CCIS, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada)

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If a black hole starts in a pure quantum state and evaporates completely by a unitary process, the von Neumann entropy of the Hawking radiation initially increases and then decreases back to zero when the black hole has disappeared. Here numerical results are given for an approximation to the time dependence of the radiation entropy under an assumption of fast scrambling, for large nonrotating black holes that emit essentially only photons and gravitons. The maximum of the von Neumann entropy then occurs after about 53.81% of the evaporation time, when the black hole has lost about 40.25% of its original Bekenstein-Hawking (BH) entropy (an upper bound for its von Neumann entropy) and then has a BH entropy that equals the entropy in the radiation, which is about 59.75% of the original BH entropy 4?M{sub 0}{sup 2}, or about 7.509M{sub 0}{sup 2} ? 6.268 × 10{sup 76}(M{sub 0}/M{sub s}un){sup 2}, using my 1976 calculations that the photon and graviton emission process into empty space gives about 1.4847 times the BH entropy loss of the black hole. Results are also given for black holes in initially impure states. If the black hole starts in a maximally mixed state, the von Neumann entropy of the Hawking radiation increases from zero up to a maximum of about 119.51% of the original BH entropy, or about 15.018M{sub 0}{sup 2} ? 1.254 × 10{sup 77}(M{sub 0}/M{sub s}un){sup 2}, and then decreases back down to 4?M{sub 0}{sup 2} = 1.049 × 10{sup 77}(M{sub 0}/M{sub s}un){sup 2}.

  14. Transportation Time In A Rural State Following Splenic Injury: Does Time Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Jeanette G.

    2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: Failure rates remain high following attempted non-operative treatment of spleen injuries despite progress made in identifying risk factors. Over the past thirty years, transportation times were excluded from ...

  15. The maximum time interval of time-lapse photography for monitoring construction operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Ji Won

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and productivity. In order to accomplish the research goal, brickwork of five different construction sites was videotaped. Various interval time-lapse photographs were generated from each video. Worker?s activity in these photographs was examined and graded...

  16. The relationship of time perspective to time allocation, recreation experience preferences, and wellness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shores, Kindal Alayne

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    and recreation. Next, the relationship between an individual�s time perspective and the benefits they seek from recreation are identified. Using results from a selfadministered mail questionnaire, hypotheses about the benefits sought by adults with different...

  17. Space-Time Block Coding for Frequency-Selective and Time-Varying Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    such as channel capacity and reliability [2]. Space-time block coding (STBC) [3], [4] has been introduced for a multiple-input single-output (MISO) system with 2 transmit antennas and 1 receive antenna

  18. Long-time protein folding dynamics from short-time molecular dynamics simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chodera, J D; Swope, W C; Pitera, J W; Dill, Ken A

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On the simulation of protein folding by short time scaleand W. A. Eaton, The protein folding “speed limit,” Curr.and T. Head-Gordon, Protein folding by distributed computing

  19. Time resolved spin Seebeck effect experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roschewsky, Niklas, E-mail: niklas.roschewsky@wmi.badw.de; Schreier, Michael; Schade, Felix; Ganzhorn, Kathrin; Meyer, Sibylle; Geprägs, Stephan [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Kamra, Akashdeep [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Huebl, Hans; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B. [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Munich (Germany); Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Munich (Germany)

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Letter, we present the results of transient thermopower experiments, performed at room temperature on yttrium iron garnet/platinum bilayers. Upon application of a time-varying thermal gradient, we observe a characteristic low-pass frequency response of the ensuing thermopower voltage with cutoff frequencies of up to 37 MHz. We interpret our results in terms of the spin Seebeck effect, and argue that small wavevector magnons are of minor importance for the spin Seebeck effect in our thin film hybrid structures.

  20. DETECTING MASSIVE GRAVITONS USING PULSAR TIMING ARRAYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Kejia; Kramer, Michael [University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy, Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Jenet, Fredrick A.; Price, Richard H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States); Wex, Norbert, E-mail: kjlee@mpifr-bonn.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Bonn 53121 (Germany)

    2010-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    At the limit of weak static fields, general relativity becomes Newtonian gravity with a potential field that falls off as inverse distance rather than a theory of Yukawa-type fields with a finite range. General relativity also predicts that the speed of disturbances of its waves is c, the vacuum light speed, and is non-dispersive. For these reasons, the graviton, the boson for general relativity, can be considered to be massless. Massive gravitons, however, are features of some alternatives to general relativity. This has motivated experiments and observations that, so far, have been consistent with the zero-mass graviton of general relativity, but further tests will be valuable. A basis for new tests may be the high sensitivity gravitational wave (GW) experiments that are now being performed and the higher sensitivity experiments that are being planned. In these experiments, it should be feasible to detect low levels of dispersion due to non-zero graviton mass. One of the most promising techniques for such a detection may be the pulsar timing program that is sensitive to nano-Hertz GWs. Here, we present some details of such a detection scheme. The pulsar timing response to a GW background with the massive graviton is calculated, and the algorithm to detect the massive graviton is presented. We conclude that, with 90% probability, massless gravitons can be distinguished from gravitons heavier than 3 x 10{sup -22} eV (Compton wavelength {lambda}{sub g} = 4.1 x 10{sup 12} km), if bi-weekly observation of 60 pulsars is performed for 5 years with a pulsar rms timing accuracy of 100 ns. If 60 pulsars are observed for 10 years with the same accuracy, the detectable graviton mass is reduced to 5 x 10{sup -23} eV ({lambda}{sub g} = 2.5 x 10{sup 13} km); for 5 year observations of 100 or 300 pulsars, the sensitivity is respectively 2.5 x 10{sup -22} ({lambda}{sub g} = 5.0 x 10{sup 12} km) and 10{sup -22} eV ({lambda}{sub g} = 1.2 x 10{sup 13} km). Finally, a 10 year observation of 300 pulsars with 100 ns timing accuracy would probe graviton masses down to 3 x 10{sup -23} eV ({lambda}{sub g} = 4.1 x 10{sup 13} km).

  1. Baton Rouge Complex Steam Real Time Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iyun, T.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Baton Rouge Complex Steam Real Time Optimization IETC 2014 New Orleans, Louisiana Tope Iyun ExxonMobil Chemical Company May 22, 2014 ESL-IE-14-05-32 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20... were generated by or on behalf of ExxonMobil Chemical Company. Legal Disclosures ©2014 ExxonMobil. To the extent the user is entitled to disclose and distribute this document, the user may forward, distribute, and/or photocopy this copyrighted...

  2. New Siemens Research Turbine - time lapse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Siemens Energy Inc. recently commissioned a new 2.3 megawatt Siemens wind turbine at NREL's National Wind Technology Center. This video shows a time lapse of the installation. The turbine is the centerpiece of a multi-year project to study the performance and aerodynamics of a new class of large, land-based machines — in what will be the biggest government-industry research partnership for wind power generation ever undertaken in the U.S.

  3. Continuous Time Group Discovery in Dynamic Graphs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, K; Eliassi-Rad, T

    2010-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    With the rise in availability and importance of graphs and networks, it has become increasingly important to have good models to describe their behavior. While much work has focused on modeling static graphs, we focus on group discovery in dynamic graphs. We adapt a dynamic extension of Latent Dirichlet Allocation to this task and demonstrate good performance on two datasets. Modeling relational data has become increasingly important in recent years. Much work has focused on static graphs - that is fixed graphs at a single point in time. Here we focus on the problem of modeling dynamic (i.e. time-evolving) graphs. We propose a scalable Bayesian approach for community discovery in dynamic graphs. Our approach is based on extensions of Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). LDA is a latent variable model for topic modeling in text corpora. It was extended to deal with topic changes in discrete time and later in continuous time. These models were referred to as the discrete Dynamic Topic Model (dDTM) and the continuous Dynamic Topic Model (cDTM), respectively. When adapting these models to graphs, we take our inspiration from LDA-G and SSN-LDA, applications of LDA to static graphs that have been shown to effectively factor out community structure to explain link patterns in graphs. In this paper, we demonstrate how to adapt and apply the cDTM to the task of finding communities in dynamic networks. We use link prediction to measure the quality of the discovered community structure and apply it to two different relational datasets - DBLP author-keyword and CAIDA autonomous systems relationships. We also discuss a parallel implementation of this approach using Hadoop. In Section 2, we review LDA and LDA-G. In Section 3, we review the cDTM and introduce cDTMG, its adaptation to modeling dynamic graphs. We discuss inference for the cDTM-G and details of our parallel implementation in Section 4 and present its performance on two datasets in Section 5 before concluding in Section 6.

  4. Probing the time dependence of dark energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barboza Edésio Jr, M. [Departamento de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Rua Professor Antônio Campos s/n, Mossoró (Brazil); Alcaniz, J.S., E-mail: edesiobarboza@uern.br, E-mail: alcaniz@on.br [Departamento de Astronomia, Observatório Nacional, Rua General José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method to investigate a possible time-dependence of the dark energy equation of state w is proposed. We apply this methodology to a combination of data involving one of the most recent type Ia supernova sample (SNLS3) along with the current baryon acoustic oscillation and H(z) measurements. We show that current observations cannot rule out a non-evolving dark energy component (dw/dz = 0). The approach developed here reduces considerably the so-called smearing effect on w determinations and may be useful to probe a possible evolving dark energy component when applied to upcoming observational data.

  5. Time changes in gradient and observed winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Ronald Dale

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - cal purposes, represents the changes in the components of the gradient wind speed, as calculated from Eqs. (9) and (10). Equations (9) and (10) were solved by the use of finite dif- ference methods. Due to the long incremental time steps, 3 to 12... hours, the changes in the components of the gradient wind speed obtained numerically from Eqs. (9) and (10) may differ slightly from the changes observed due to the numerical techniques employed. How- ever, the patterns obtained by the two methods...

  6. The Tides Of Time Issue 34

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    being, the Source itself being near-immortal; the Time Lords in Arc of Infinity are clearly a higher caste, mediating between the material universe we experience, and the invisible forces which govern the material universe, where the distinction between... when you’re about to die. These stealth elements are the best implemented feature in the games and works particularly well in City of the Daleks. In contrast to more recent episodes of Doctor Who, rather than throwing a gazillion of the lethal buggers...

  7. Time reversal duality of magnetohydrodynamic shocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goedbloed, J. P. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics 'Rijnhuizen', Nieuwegein and Astronomical Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht 3439 MN (Netherlands)

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The shock conditions in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are reduced to their most concise, three-parameter, distilled form by consistent use of the scale independence of the MHD equations and of the de Hoffmann-Teller transformation. They then exhibit a distinct time reversal duality between entropy-allowed shocks and entropy-forbidden jumps. This yields a new classification of MHD shocks by means of the monotonicity properties with respect to upstream and downstream Alfven Mach numbers, it exhibits the central role of intermediate discontinuities, and permits straightforward construction of all relevant dimensionless quantities of the shocks. An exhaustive overview is presented of solutions in the different parameter regimes.

  8. Holographic Space-time and Newton's Law

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Banks; Willy Fischler

    2013-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive Newton's Law from the formalism of Holographic Space-Time (HST). More precisely, we show that for a large class of Hamiltonians of the type proposed previously for the HST description of a geodesic in Minkowski space, the eikonal for scattering of two massless particles at large impact parameter scales as expected with the impact parameter and the energies of the particles in the center of mass (CM) frame. We also discuss the criteria for black hole production in this collision, and find an estimate, purely within the HST framework, for the impact parameter at which it sets in, which coincides with the estimate based on general relativity.

  9. Estimating transition times for a model of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchener, W. Garrett

    = mean usage rate of G2 dm dt = birth q(m) - death m 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Mean at a rate k K Simplify K = 1: Each agent uses G1 (state 0) or G2 (state 1) @ Ck = number youth in state kD = death rate: each time step each adult dies with prob- ability pD = rD N , replaced by sampling from

  10. Time-optimal Control of Spin Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Swoboda

    2006-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper discusses various aspects of time-optimal control of quantum spin systems, modelled as right-invariant systems on a compact Lie group G. The main results are the reduction of such a system to an equivalent system on a homogeneous space G/H, and the explicit determination of optimal trajectories on G/H in the case where G/H is a Riemannian symmetric space. These results are mainly obtained by using methods from Lie theory and geometric control.

  11. It's Time to ACT | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov.Energy02.pdf7 OPAMEnergyInvestigative Report:World DesignAbout UsIt's Time to

  12. Property:Event/Time | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,PillarPublicationTypeEstimatedCostMedianUSD Jump to:EstimatedTimeMedianTagged

  13. Property:Real-Time | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag Jump to:ID8/Organization RAPID/Contact/ID8/Position RAPID/Contact/ID8/NameReal-Time

  14. Property:TimePeriod | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag Jump to:ID8/OrganizationTechProbSolutions Jump to: navigation,TimePeriod Jump to:

  15. Time to Start Getting Ready for Cori

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003 (Next ReleaseThomasTheoriesClean1,6,Time to

  16. Time-resolved ion energy distribution meas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003 (NextTime-Resolved Study of Bondingresolved

  17. Times Energy Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlin Baxin Hydropower Station Jump to: navigation,TillamookTimes Energy

  18. Timing Carbon Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlin Baxin Hydropower Station Jump to: navigation,TillamookTimes

  19. September 2009 The Y-12 Times

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9 September 2009 www.y12.doe.gov/news/times.php P.O.

  20. Time Structure of the LANSCE Beam

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesis ofwas publishedThree scientistsDepartmentTime

  1. Time Reversal in Solids (Linear and Nonlinear Elasticity): Multimedia Resources in Time Reversal

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dynamic nonlinear elastic behavior, nonequilibrium dynamics, first observed as a curiosity in earth materials has now been observed in a great variety of solids. The primary manifestations of the behavior are characteristic wave distortion, and slow dynamics, a recovery process to equilibrium that takes place linearly with the logarithm of time, over hours to days after a wave disturbance. The link between the diverse materials that exhibit nonequilibrium dynamics appears to be the presence of soft regions, thought to be 'damage' at many scales, ranging from order 10-9 m to 10-1 m at least. The regions of soft matter may be distributed as in a rock sample, or isolated, as in a sample with a single crack [LANLhttp://www.lanl.gov/orgs/ees/ees11/geophysics/nonlinear/nonlinear.shtml]. The Geophysics Group (EES-11) at Los Alamos National Laboratory has posted two or more multimedia items under each of the titles below to demonstrate aspects of their work: 1) Source Reconstruction Using Time Reversal; 2) Robustness and Efficiency of Time Reversal Acoustics in Solid Media; 3) Audio Example of Time Reversal - Speech Privacy; 4) Crack Imagining with Time Reversal - Experimental Results; 5) Time Reversal of the 2004 (M9.0) Sumatra Earthquake.

  2. Empirical Measurements of Travelers' Value of Travel Time Reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danda, Santosh Rao

    2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Travel time and travel time reliability are two fundamental factors influencing travel behavior and demand. The concept of the value of time (VOT) has been extensively studied, and estimates of VOT have been obtained from surveys and empirical data...

  3. Time, dynamics and chaos. Integrating Poincare's "non-integrable systems"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prigogine, I.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the nature of time. The author attempts to resolve the conflict between the concept of time reversibility in classical and quantum mechanics with the macroscopic world's irreversibility of time. (LSP)

  4. Mitigating timing noise in ADCs through digital post-processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weller, Daniel (Daniel Stuart)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The accuracy of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) is greatly affected by the uniformity of the times at which samples of the analog input signal are taken. The error in the sample times, known as jitter, or timing noise, ...

  5. Estimation of run times in a freight rail transportation network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonsra, Kunal (Kunal Baldev)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this thesis is to improve the accuracy of individual freight train run time predictions defined as the time between departure from an origin node to arrival at a destination node not including yard time. ...

  6. On the Probabilistic Modeling of Runway Inter-departure Times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balakrishnan, Hamsa

    This paperr examines the validity of the Erlang distribution for runway service times. It uses high-fidelity surface surveillance data, for the first time, to model the probability distributions of runway service times and ...

  7. Mitigating the impact of a time-dependent production process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dudnik, Sara A

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Value-added processes that bear associated wait times occur frequently during production manufacturing and increase cycle time. Since the wait time is integral to the value created by the process, it can be difficult to ...

  8. Real time density functional simulations of quantum scale conductance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jeremy Scott

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study electronic conductance through single molecules by subjecting a molecular junction to a time dependent potential and propagating the electronic state in real time using time-dependent density functional theory ...

  9. Testing Time Reversal Symmetry in Artificial Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frederico Brito; Francisco Rouxinol; M. D. LaHaye; Amir O. Caldeira

    2014-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past several decades, a rich series of experiments has repeatedly verified the quantum nature of superconducting devices, leading some of these systems to be regarded as artificial atoms. In addition to their application in quantum information processing, these `atoms' provide a test bed for studying quantum mechanics in macroscopic limits. Regarding the last point, we present here a feasible protocol for directly testing time reversal symmetry in a superconducting artificial atom. Time reversal symmetry is a fundamental property of quantum mechanics and is expected to hold if the dynamics of the artificial atom strictly follow the Schroedinger equation. However, this property has yet to be tested in any macroscopic quantum system. The test we propose is based on the verification of the microreversibility principle, providing a viable approach to verify quantum work fluctuation theorems - an outstanding challenge in quantum statistical mechanics. For this, we outline a procedure that utilizes the microreversibility test in conjunction with numerical emulations of Gibbs ensembles to verify these theorems over a large temperature range.

  10. Lookback time bounds from energy conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santos, J. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Departamento de Fisica C.P. 1641, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Departamento de Astronomia, Observatorio Nacional, 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Alcaniz, J. S. [Departamento de Astronomia, Observatorio Nacional, 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Reboucas, M. J. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pires, N. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Departamento de Fisica C.P. 1641, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In general relativity, the energy conditions are invoked to restrict general energy-momentum tensors on physical grounds. We show that in the standard Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) approach to cosmological modeling, where the energy and matter components of the cosmic fluid are unknown, the energy conditions provide model-independent bounds on the behavior of the lookback time of cosmic sources as a function of the redshift for any value of the spatial curvature. We derive and confront such bounds with a lookback time sample which is built from the age estimates of 32 galaxies lying in the interval 0.11 < or approx. z < or approx. 1.84 and by assuming the total expanding age of the Universe to be 13.7{+-}0.2 Gyr, as obtained from current cosmic microwave background experiments. In agreement with previous results, we show that all energy conditions seem to have been violated at some point of the recent past of cosmic evolution.

  11. Data challenges of time domain astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, Matthew J; Mahabal, Ashish; Donalek, Ciro; Drake, Andrew; Longo, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Astronomy has been at the forefront of the development of the techniques and methodologies of data intensive science for over a decade with large sky surveys and distributed efforts such as the Virtual Observatory. However, it faces a new data deluge with the next generation of synoptic sky surveys which are opening up the time domain for discovery and exploration. This brings both new scientific opportunities and fresh challenges, in terms of data rates from robotic telescopes and exponential complexity in linked data, but also for data mining algorithms used in classification and decision making. In this paper, we describe how an informatics-based approach-part of the so-called "fourth paradigm" of scientific discovery-is emerging to deal with these. We review our experiences with the Palomar-Quest and Catalina Real-Time Transient Sky Surveys; in particular, addressing the issue of the heterogeneity of data associated with transient astronomical events (and other sensor networks) and how to manage and analy...

  12. Residential Real-time Price Response Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chassin, David P.; Fuller, Jason C.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric industry is gaining experience with innovative price responsive demand pilots and limited roll-outs to customers. One of these pilots is investigating real-time pricing signals to engage end-use systems and local distributed generation and storage in a distributed optimization process. Attractive aspects about the approach include strong scalability characteristics, simplified interfaces between automation devices, and the adaptability to integrate a wide variety of devices and systems. Experience in this nascent field is revealing a rich array of for engineering decisions and the application of complexity theory. To test the decisions, computer simulations are used to reveal insights about design, demand elasticity, and the limits of response (including consumer fatigue). Agent-based approaches lend themselves well in the simulation to modeling the participation and interaction of each piece of equipment on a distribution feeder. This paper discusses rate design and simulation experiences at the distribution feeder level where consumers and their HVAC systems and water heaters on a feeder receive real-time pricing signals.

  13. Statistics of particle time-temperature histories.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewson, John C.; Lignell, David O.; Sun, Guangyuan

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particles in non - isothermal turbulent flow are subject to a stochastic environment tha t produces a distribution of particle time - temperature histories. This distribution is a function of the dispersion of the non - isothermal (continuous) gas phase and the distribution of particles relative to that gas phase. In this work we extend the one - dimensional turbulence (ODT) model to predict the joint dispersion of a dispersed particle phase and a continuous phase. The ODT model predicts the turbulent evolution of continuous scalar fields with a model for the cascade of fluctuations to smaller sc ales (the 'triplet map') at a rate that is a function of the fully resolved one - dimens ional velocity field . Stochastic triplet maps also drive Lagrangian particle dispersion with finite Stokes number s including inertial and eddy trajectory - crossing effect s included. Two distinct approaches to this coupling between triplet maps and particle dispersion are developed and implemented along with a hybrid approach. An 'instantaneous' particle displacement model matches the tracer particle limit and provide s an accurate description of particle dispersion. A 'continuous' particle displacement m odel translates triplet maps into a continuous velocity field to which particles respond. Particles can alter the turbulence, and modifications to the stochastic rate expr ession are developed for two - way coupling between particles and the continuous phase. Each aspect of model development is evaluated in canonical flows (homogeneous turbulence, free - shear flows and wall - bounded flows) for which quality measurements are ava ilable. ODT simulations of non - isothermal flows provide statistics for particle heating. These simulations show the significance of accurately predicting the joint statistics of particle and fluid dispersion . Inhomogeneous turbulence coupled with the in fluence of the mean flow fields on particles of varying properties alter s particle dispersion. The joint particle - temperature dispersion leads to a distribution of temperature histories predicted by the ODT . Predictions are shown for the lower moments an d the full distributions of the particle positions, particle - observed gas temperatures and particle temperatures. An analysis of the time scales affecting particle - temperature interactions covers Lagrangian integral time scales based on temperature autoco rrelations, rates of temperature change associated with particle motion relative to the temperature field and rates of diffusional change of temperatures. These latter two time scales have not been investigated previously; they are shown to be strongly in termittent having peaked distributions with long tails. The logarithm of the absolute value of these time scales exhibits a distribution closer to normal. A cknowledgements This work is supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) under their Counter - Weapons of Mass Destruction Basic Research Program in the area of Chemical and Biological Agent Defeat under award number HDTRA1 - 11 - 4503I to Sandia National Laboratories. The authors would like to express their appreciation for the guidance provi ded by Dr. Suhithi Peiris to this project and to the Science to Defeat Weapons of Mass Destruction program.

  14. Getting Useful Real-Time Feedback About Your Program | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Getting Useful Real-Time Feedback About Your Program Getting Useful Real-Time Feedback About Your Program Better Buildings Webinar - May 25, 2011 20110525realtimefeedback.pdf...

  15. Wireless technology collects real-time information from oil and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wireless technology collects real-time information from oil and gas wells Wireless technology collects real-time information from oil and gas wells The patented system delivers...

  16. Robust Inventory Routing with Flexible Time Window Allocation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chengliang Zhang

    2015-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Jan 15, 2015 ... Abstract: This paper studies a robust maritime inventory routing problem with time windows and stochastic travel times. One of the novelties of ...

  17. alternating timed simulation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    them. Quantum collapse is the irreversible event that gives time its direction. In this model, empty space is null processing, directions are node links, time is processing cycles,...

  18. ASCR Leadership Computing Challenge Requests for Time Due February...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Requests for Time Due February 14 ASCR Leadership Computing Challenge Requests for Time Due February 14 November 17, 2011 by Francesca Verdier (0 Comments) The ASCR Leadership...

  19. Machine learning based prediction for peptide drift times in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Machine learning based prediction for peptide drift times in ion mobility spectrometry . Machine learning based prediction for peptide drift times in ion mobility spectrometry ....

  20. Improved peptide elution time prediction for reversed-phase liquid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    peptide elution time prediction for reversed-phase liquid chromatography-MS by incorporating peptide sequence Improved peptide elution time prediction for reversed-phase liquid...

  1. A polynomial-time descent method for separable convex ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Mar 21, 2015 ... it is very unlikely that Meyer's algorithm runs in polynomial time, although no claims on the theoretical time complexity are made in that paper.

  2. Data:75bc0f8c-fc0b-45d2-a8b4-42696b87450b | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Lexington, North Carolina (Utility Company) Effective date: 20130701 End date if...

  3. Data:E3f896e5-bd51-4909-b01b-2c228cfc94af | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    customer shall be billed monthly on a net energy basis and shall pay the fixed charge and energy charge specified in the rate schedule under which he is served. If, in any month,...

  4. Data:4b0cfc60-ca8d-4c0c-9875-df3669e9f44c | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Industrial Description: *Riders:Power charge rider, Ohio Excise tax rider, Transition cost Rider. Secondary metering adjustment: energy and demand charges multiplied...

  5. Data:2ed1dd65-5ac0-4cfc-bc71-1d83e289685f | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1-1d83e289685f No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information...

  6. Data:202f82f9-8966-446d-9181-4b7cfc8becd9 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Indiana Michigan Power Co (Michigan) Effective date: 20130101 End date if known: Rate name: ECLS - 175...

  7. Data:548ac9cf-c56b-4c8f-84df-d7bae0764405 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Southern...

  8. Data:9b7c1ef3-263e-43a3-af18-a202350a5cfc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    date: 20110315 End date if known: Rate name: MU-1 - a1a - 1000 watt MV Sector: Lighting Description: Lamps in enclosed fixtures, suspended from mast arms on wood poles and...

  9. Data:7b24c1ae-5a0e-46c6-b97c-fc2634f6aaa8 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Transmission Cost Recovery Rider+ the Environmental Cost, Recovery Rider+ the Demand Side Management Cost Adjustment Factor +the Infrastructure Rider. 0.007562 0.002868 +...

  10. Data:3cfc70ed-3305-4e91-bd52-0ba0c1ca10ae | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    250.00 16' Fiberglass (Black) 300.00 16' Fiberglass (Acorn, Black) 800.00 30' Steel & Sub Base 1325.00 30' Fiberglass with 6' Arm 625.00 30' Fiberglass with 2 - 6' Arm...

  11. Data:467d841f-a561-4a6c-b194-d6b5cfc9d23d | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    250.00 16' Fiberglass (Black) 300.00 16' Fiberglass (Acorn, Black) 800.00 30' Steel & Sub Base 1325.00 30' Fiberglass with 6' Arm 625.00 30' Fiberglass with 2 - 6' Arm...

  12. Data:Ae67fc36-3373-483a-9558-3b43cfc3f4c7 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cost Recovery Rider, the Renewable Energy Standard Rider and the Mercury Cost Recovery Rider. Source or reference: http:www.xcelenergy.comstaticfilesxeRegulatory...

  13. Real time speech formant analyzer and display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holland, George E. (Ames, IA); Struve, Walter S. (Ames, IA); Homer, John F. (Ames, IA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user.

  14. Real-time airborne particle analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T.A.

    2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An aerosol particle analyzer includes a laser ablation chamber, a gas-filled conduit, and a mass spectrometer. The laser ablation chamber can be operated at a low pressure, which can be from 0.1 mTorr to 30 mTorr. The ablated ions are transferred into a gas-filled conduit. The gas-filled conduit reduces the electrical charge and the speed of ablated ions as they collide and mix with buffer gases in the gas-filled conduit. Preferably, the gas filled-conduit includes an electromagnetic multipole structure that collimates the nascent ions into a beam, which is guided into the mass spectrometer. Because the gas-filled conduit allows storage of vast quantities of the ions from the ablated particles, the ions from a single ablated particle can be analyzed multiple times and by a variety of techniques to supply statistically meaningful analysis of composition and isotope ratios.

  15. REAL TIME DATA FOR REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES [11505

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BROCK CT

    2011-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Health physicists from the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company collaborated with Berkeley Nucleonics Corporation to modify the SAM 940 isotope identifier instrument to be used for nuclear waste remediation. These modifications coupled with existing capabilities of the SAM 940 have proven to be invaluable during remediation activities, reducing disposal costs by allowing swift remediation of targeted areas that have been identified as having isotopes of concern (IOC), and eliminating multiple visits to sites by declaring an excavation site clear of IOCs before demobilizing from the site. These advantages are enabled by accumulating spectral data for specific isotopes that is nearly 100 percent free of false positives, which are filtered out in 'real time.'

  16. Time scales in nuclear giant resonances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiss, W. D. [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study, and Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Stellenbosch, 7602 Matieland (South Africa); Nazmitdinov, R. G. [Department de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Smit, F. D. [iThemba LABS, Post Office Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a general approach to characterise fluctuations of measured cross sections of nuclear giant resonances. Simulated cross sections are obtained from a particular, yet representative, self-energy that contains all information about fragmentations. Using a wavelet analysis, we demonstrate the extraction of time scales of cascading decays into configurations of different complexity of the resonance. We argue that the spreading widths of collective excitations in nuclei are determined by the number of fragmentations as seen in the power spectrum. An analytic treatment of the wavelet analysis using a Fourier expansion of the cross section confirms this principle. A simple rule for the relative lifetimes of states associated with hierarchies of different complexity is given.

  17. Real time speech formant analyzer and display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holland, G.E.; Struve, W.S.; Homer, J.F.

    1987-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user. 19 figs.

  18. In-line real time air monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wise, Marcus B. (Kingston, TN); Thompson, Cyril V. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds.

  19. In-line real time air monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wise, M.B.; Thompson, C.V.

    1998-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds. 3 figs.

  20. Time-optimal navigation through quantum wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorje C. Brody; Gary W. Gibbons; David M. Meier

    2015-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantum navigation problem of finding the time-optimal control Hamiltonian that transports a given initial state to a target state through quantum wind, that is, under the influence of external fields or potentials, is analysed. By lifting the problem from the state space to the space of unitary gates realising the required task, we are able to deduce the form of the solution to the problem by deriving a universal quantum speed limit. The expression thus obtained indicates that further simplifications of this apparently difficult problem are possible if we switch to the interaction picture of quantum mechanics. A complete solution to the navigation problem for an arbitrary quantum system is then obtained, and the behaviour of the solution is illustrated in the case of a two-level system.

  1. Finite-difference time-domain simulation of fusion plasmas at radiofrequency time scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smithe, David N. [Tech-X Corporation, 5621 Arapahoe Avenue, Suite A, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulation of dense plasmas in the radiofrequency range are typically performed in the frequency domain, i.e., by solving Laplace-transformed Maxwell's equations. This technique is well-suited for the study of linear heating and quasilinear evolution, but does not generalize well to the study of nonlinear phenomena. Conversely, time-domain simulation in this range is difficult because the time scale is long compared to the electron plasma wave period, and in addition, the various cutoff and resonance behaviors within the plasma insure that any explicit finite-difference scheme would be numerically unstable. To resolve this dilemma, explicit finite-difference Maxwell terms are maintained, but a carefully time-centered locally implicit method is introduced to treat the plasma current, such that all linear plasma dispersion behavior is faithfully reproduced at the available temporal and spatial resolution, despite the fact that the simulation time step may exceed the electron gyro and electron plasma time scales by orders of magnitude. Demonstrations are presented of the method for several classical benchmarks, including mode conversion to ion cyclotron wave, cyclotron resonance, propagation into a plasma-wave cutoff, and tunneling through low-density edge plasma.

  2. Quantization of Space and Time in 3 and in 4 Space-time Dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. 't Hooft

    1996-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The fact that in Minkowski space, space and time are both quantized does not have to be introduced as a new postulate in physics, but can actually be derived by combining certain features of General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. This is demonstrated first in a model where particles behave as point defects in 2 space dimensions and 1 time, and then in the real world having 3+1 dimensions. The mechanisms in these two cases are quite different, but the outcomes are similar: space and time form a (non-cummutative) lattice. These notes are short since most of the material discussed in these lectures is based on two earlier papers by the same author (gr-qc/9601014 and gr-qc/9607022), but the exposition given in the end is new.

  3. TRITIUMINPRECIPITATION,DECAYEDTO1997, INTRITIUMUNITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    200 0 CFCANDSF6CONCENTRATIONSINAIR,IN PARTSPERTRILLION Tritium CFC-113 CFC-11 CFC-12 SF6 (x100 hexafluoride (SF6) in air over North America, 1940­97. The tritium concentrations in precipita- tion were hydrogen atoms--that is, 1:1,000,000,000,000,000,000. CFC and SF6 concentrations in air are expressed

  4. Trading Bit, Message, and Time Complexity of Distributed Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trading Bit, Message, and Time Complexity of Distributed Algorithms Johannes Schneider, Roger present tradeoffs between time complexity t, bit complexity b, and message complexity m. Two communication changing its time and message complexity. We also give techniques for several problems that require a time

  5. Near Time-optimal Constrained Trajectory Planning on Outdoor Terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukhatme, Gaurav S.

    interactions are usually unaccounted for. Kinodynamic planning in real-time is also difficult and currently

  6. Verification of Probabilistic Real-time Systems Marta Kwiatkowska1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    widely taken up (downloaded more than 20,000 times) and used for quan- titative verification in a broad of (priced) probabilistic timed automata. These model systems exhibiting probabilistic, nondeterministic-time characteristics, through support for verification of (priced) probabilistic timed automata. PRISM already provides

  7. On a Control Algorithm for Time-varying Processor Availability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Vijay

    On a Control Algorithm for Time-varying Processor Availability Vijay Gupta Department of Electrical control algorithm for the situation when the processor resource availability is time-varying. The basic the processing resources available at every time step. Thus, the system evolves as a discrete time hybrid system

  8. Measuring Water Collection Times in Kenyan Informal Settlements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, James E.

    of water is thought to contribute to the over-work or time shortage of women. Thus, Blackden and Wodon [3114 Measuring Water Collection Times in Kenyan Informal Settlements James Davis University and interviews to measure the time taken to collect water in two Kenyan informal settlements. The time devoted

  9. Proposal for Cherenkov Time of Flight Technique with Picosecond Resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Majewski; A. Margaryan; L. Tang

    2005-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A new particle identification device for Jlab 12 GeV program is proposed. It is based on the measurement of time information obtained by means of a new photon detector and time measuring concept. The expected time measurement precision for the Cherenkov time-of-flight detector is about or less than 10 picosecond for Cherenkov radiators with lengths less than 50 cm.

  10. Time Synchronization in Hierarchical TESLA Wireless Sensor Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason L. Wright; Milos Manic

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Time synchronization and event time correlation are important in wireless sensor networks. In particular, time is used to create a sequence events or time line to answer questions of cause and effect. Time is also used as a basis for determining the freshness of received packets and the validity of cryptographic certificates. This paper presents secure method of time synchronization and event time correlation for TESLA-based hierarchical wireless sensor networks. The method demonstrates that events in a TESLA network can be accurately timestamped by adding only a few pieces of data to the existing protocol.

  11. Reliable Downlink Scheduling for Wireless Networks with Real-Time and Non-Real Time Clients 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Abhishek

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    is general enough to be implemented in IEEE 802.11e based wireless network [44]. 3.2 Wireless Channel Model We consider fading wireless channel and assume that the channel change over time on the scale of fast fading. The channel is considered to be constant...

  12. Identifying and Predicting Timing-Critical Instructions to Boost Timing Speculation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    to environmental tem- perature, supply voltage noise, and process variation, which also add a non-negligible energy are of equal importance ­ any one of them could produce a timing violation. Consequently, the impact flagged. The processor initiates a recovery mecha- nism to prevent the errors from affecting

  13. Time-of-flight optical ranging system based on time-correlated single-photon counting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buller, Gerald S.

    applications in areas as diverse as precision compo- nent inspection, automated assembly, process con- trol high-power laser systems or the placement of retroreflecting spheres on the target. To overcome measurements3,4 and optical time- domain reflectometry in optical fibers.5 In a recent publication6 we

  14. Real-Time Systems Design in Ptolemy II: A Time-Triggered N. Vinay Krishnan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    II. Approval for the Report and Comprehensive Examination: Committee: Prof. Edward A. Lee Research;- 3 - Abstract In this report is described a software infrastructure to enable users to design hard as a representation of their timing requirements. The second stage, called the Embedded Machine [5] reads

  15. Real-Time Scheduling of Energy Harvesting Embedded Systems with Timed Automata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , in addition to traditional embedded system components, by an energy collector unit (eg a solar panel implants which collect energy from the human body, mobile or fix devices with solar panel or windmill etc) and by an energy storage unit (a battery or a capacitor). One common hypothesis in real-time system theory

  16. Performance analysis of symbol timing estimators for time-varying MIMO channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panduru, Flaviu Gabriel

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    antennas and M denotes the number of receive antennas, the 2 X 2 system used by S.-A. Yangand J. Wu and the 4 X 4system used by Y.-C. Wu and E. Serpedin. The second model has been extended to take into account the symbol time-varying fading. The theoretical...

  17. Space-time Curvature of Classical Electromagnetism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. W. M. Woodside

    2004-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The space-time curvature carried by electromagnetic fields is discovered and a new unification of geometry and electromagnetism is found. Curvature is invariant under charge reversal symmetry. Electromagnetic field equations are examined with De Rham co homology theory. Radiative electromagnetic fields must be exact and co exact to preclude unobserved massless topological charges. Weyl's conformal tensor, here called ``the gravitational field'', is decomposed into a divergence-free non-local piece with support everywhere and a local piece with the same support as the matter. By tuning a local gravitational field to a Maxwell field the electromagnetic field's local gravitational field is discovered. This gravitational field carries the electromagnetic field's polarization or phase information, unlike Maxwell's stress-energy tensor. The unification assumes Einstein's equations and derives Maxwell's equations from curvature assumptions. Gravity forbids magnetic monopoles! This unification is stronger than the Einstein-Maxwell equations alone, as those equations must produce the electromagnetic field's local gravitational field and not just any conformal tensor. Charged black holes are examples. Curvature of radiative null electromagnetic fields is characterized.

  18. Optimizing near real time accountability for reprocessing.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cipiti, Benjamin B.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Near Real Time Accountability (NRTA) of actinides at high precision in reprocessing plants has been a long sought-after goal in the safeguards community. Achieving this goal is hampered by the difficulty of making precision measurements in the reprocessing environment, equipment cost, and impact to plant operations. Thus the design of future reprocessing plants requires an optimization of different approaches. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model, developed at Sandia National Laboratories, was used to evaluate a number of NRTA strategies in a UREX+ reprocessing plant. Strategies examined include the incorporation of additional actinide measurements of internal plant vessels, more use of process monitoring data, and the option of periodic draining of inventory to key tanks. Preliminary results show that the addition of measurement technologies can increase the overall measurement uncertainty due to additional error propagation, so care must be taken when designing an advanced system. Initial results also show that relying on a combination of different NRTA techniques will likely be the best option. The model provides a platform for integrating all the data. The modeling results for the different NRTA options under various material loss conditions will be presented.

  19. Time to pause before the next step

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siemon, R.E.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Many scientists, who have staunchly supported ITER for years, are coming to realize it is time to further rethink fusion energy`s development strategy. Specifically, as was suggested by Grant Logan and Dale Meade, and in keeping with the restructuring of 1996, a theme of better, cheaper, faster fusion would serve the program more effectively than ``demonstrating controlled ignition...and integrated testing of the high-heat-flux and nuclear components required to utilize fusion energy...`` which are the important ingredients of ITER`s objectives. The author has personally shifted his view for a mixture of technical and political reasons. On the technical side, he senses that through advanced tokamak research, spherical tokamak research, and advanced stellarator work, scientists are coming to a new understanding that might make a burning-plasma device significantly smaller and less expensive. Thus waiting for a few years, even ten years, seems prudent. Scientifically, there is fascinating physics to be learned through studies of burning plasma on a tokamak. And clearly if one wishes to study burning plasma physics in a sustained plasma, there is no other configuration with an adequate database on which to proceed. But what is the urgency of moving towards an ITER-like step focused on burning plasma? Some of the arguments put forward and the counter arguments are discussed here.

  20. Topological Effects of Synaptic Time Dependent Plasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James R. Kozloski; Guillermo A. Cecchi

    2010-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the local Spike Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP) rule has the effect of regulating the trans-synaptic weights of loops of any length within a simulated network of neurons. We show that depending on STDP's polarity, functional loops are formed or eliminated in networks driven to normal spiking conditions by random, partially correlated inputs, where functional loops comprise weights that exceed a non-zero threshold. We further prove that STDP is a form of loop-regulating plasticity for the case of a linear network comprising random weights drawn from certain distributions. Thus a notable local synaptic learning rule makes a specific prediction about synapses in the brain in which standard STDP is present: that under normal spiking conditions, they should participate in predominantly feed-forward connections at all scales. Our model implies that any deviations from this prediction would require a substantial modification to the hypothesized role for standard STDP. Given its widespread occurrence in the brain, we predict that STDP could also regulate long range synaptic loops among individual neurons across all brain scales, up to, and including, the scale of global brain network topology.

  1. R163B -Eye movements and time-based selection Running head: EYE MOVEMENTS AND TIME-BASED SELECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inglis, Matthew

    R163B - Eye movements and time-based selection Running head: EYE MOVEMENTS AND TIME-BASED SELECTION Eye movements and time-based selection: Where do the eyes go in preview search? Derrick G. Watson.g.watson@warwick.ac.uk 1 #12;R163B - Eye movements and time-based selection Abstract In visual search tasks, presenting one

  2. URL: http://www.elsevier.nl/locate/entcs/volume68.html 18 pages Timed CSP = Closed Timed Automata 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouaknine, Joël

    URL: http://www.elsevier.nl/locate/entcs/volume68.html 18 pages Timed CSP = Closed Timed Automata 1 70118, USA Abstract We study the expressive power of an augmented version of Timed CSP and show constraints. We also show that this new version of Timed CSP is expressive enough to capture the most widely

  3. SumTime-Turbine: A Knowledge-Based System to Communicate Gas Turbine Time-Series Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiter, Ehud

    SumTime-Turbine: A Knowledge-Based System to Communicate Gas Turbine Time-Series Data Jin Yu of Aberdeen Aberdeen, AB24 3UE, UK {jyu, ereiter, jhunter, ssripada}@csd.abdn.ac.uk Abstract: SumTime-Turbine produces textual summaries of archived time- series data from gas turbines. These summaries should help

  4. Chemical dynamics in time and energy space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, J.D.

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a versatile picosecond ultraviolet/vacuum ultraviolet temporal spectrometer and its potential use for measuring internal energy redistribution in isolated molecules are described in detail. A detailed description of the double-pass Nd:YAG amplifier and the dye amplifiers is given with the pulse energies achieved in the visible, ultraviolet, and vacuum ultraviolet. The amplified visible pulses are shown to be of sub-picosecond duration and near transform limited. The instrument`s temporal response ({le}10 ps) is derived from an instrument limited measurement of the dissociation lifetime of methyl iodide at 266 nm. The methyl iodide experiment is used to discuss the various sources of noise and background signals that are intrinsic to this type of experiment. Non-time-resolved experiments measuring the branching ratio and kinetic energy distributions of products from the 193 nm photodissociation of cyclopentadiene and thiophene are presented. These studies were done using the molecular beam Photofragment Translational Spectroscopy (PTS) technique. The results from the cyclopentadiene experiment confirm that H atom elimination to yield the cyclopentadienyl radical is the dominant dissociation channel. A barrier of {ge}5 kcal/mol can be understood in terms of the delocalization of the radical electron of the cyclopentadienyl fragment. A concerted elimination yielding cyclopropene and acetylene was also observed and is proposed to occur via a bicyclo-[2.1.0]pent-2-ene intermediate. Two other channels, yielding acetylene plus the CH{sub 2}CHCH triplet carbene, and CH{sub 2} plus 1-buten-3-yne, are postulated to occur via ring opening. The implications of the experimental results for bulk thermal oxidation and pyrolysis models are discussed. The thiophene experiment shows six competing dissociation channels. The postulated intermediates for the various thiophene dissociation channels include bicyclo, ring opened, and possibly ring contracted forms.

  5. The Sun in Time: Activity and Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Guedel

    2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    (abridged) The Sun's magnetic activity has steadily declined during its main-sequence life. While the solar photospheric luminosity was about 30% lower 4.6 Gyr ago when the Sun arrived on the main sequence compared to present-day levels, its faster rotation generated enhanced magnetic activity; magnetic heating processes in the chromosphere, the transition region, and the corona induced ultraviolet, extreme-ultraviolet, and X-ray emission about 10, 100, and 1000 times, respectively, the present-day levels, as inferred from young solar-analog stars. Also, the production rate of accelerated, high-energy particles was orders of magnitude higher than in present-day solar flares, and a much stronger wind escaped from the Sun, permeating the entire solar system. The consequences of the enhanced radiation and particle fluxes from the young Sun were potentially severe for the evolution of solar-system planets and moons. Interactions of high-energy radiation and the solar wind with upper planetary atmospheres may have led to the escape of important amounts of atmospheric constituents. The present dry atmosphere of Venus and the thin atmosphere of Mars may be a product of early irradiation and heating by solar high-energy radiation. High levels of magnetic activity are also inferred for the pre-main sequence Sun. At those stages, interactions of high-energy radiation and particles with the circumsolar disk in which planets eventually formed were important. Traces left in meteorites by energetic particles and anomalous isotopic abundance ratios in meteoritic inclusions may provide evidence for a highly active pre-main sequence Sun. The present article reviews these various issues related to the magnetic activity of the young Sun and the consequent interactions with its environment.

  6. Fractal Dimensions for Continuous Time Random Walk Limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark M. Meerschaert; Erkan Nane; Yimin Xiao

    2011-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In a continuous time random walk (CTRW), each random jump follows a random waiting time. CTRW scaling limits are time-changed processes that model anomalous diffusion. The outer process describes particle jumps, and the non-Markovian inner process (or time change) accounts for waiting times between jumps. This paper studies fractal properties of the sample functions of a time-changed process, and establishes some general results on the Hausdorff and packing dimensions of its range and graph. Then those results are applied to CTRW scaling limits.

  7. Mixing times via super-fast coupling Mixing times via super-fast coupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kovchegov, Yevgeniy

    (n)) with cut-off asymptotics at 1 2 n log(n). Method used: relatively rarified mathematical residential be improved to match O(n log n) Transpositions a , b called label-to-label. #12;logo Mixing times via super is group invariant if dist(Xm+1|Xm = ) = dist(Xm+1|Xm = -1 ) for all , Sn. In other words, label-to-label

  8. Instrumentation development for real time brainwave monitoring.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Lawrence Frederick; Clough, Benjamin W.

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The human brain functions through a chemically-induced biological process which operates in a manner similar to electrical systems. The signal resulting from this biochemical process can actually be monitored and read using tools and having patterns similar to those found in electrical and electronics engineering. The primary signature of this electrical activity is the ''brain wave'', which looks remarkably similar to the output of many electrical systems. Likewise, the device currently used in medical arenas to read brain electrical activity is the electroencephalogram (EEG) which is synonymous with a multi-channel oscilloscope reading. Brain wave readings and recordings for medical purposes are traditionally taken in clinical settings such as hospitals, laboratories or diagnostic clinics. The signal is captured via externally applied scalp electrodes using semi-viscous gel to reduce impedance. The signal will be in the 10 to 100 microvolt range. In other instances, where surgeons are attempting to isolate particular types of minute brain signals, the electrodes may actually be temporarily implanted in the brain during a preliminary procedure. The current configurations of equipment required for EEGs involve large recording instruments, many electrodes, wires, and large amounts of hard disk space devoted to storing large files of brain wave data which are then eventually analyzed for patterns of concern. Advances in sensors, signal processing, data storage and microelectronics over the last decade would seem to have paved the way for the realization of devices capable of ''real time'' external monitoring, and possible assessment, of brain activity. A myriad of applications for such a capability are likewise presenting themselves, including the ability to assess brain functioning, level of functioning and malfunctioning. Our plan is to develop the sensors, signal processing, and portable instrumentation package which could capture, analyze, and communicate information on brain activity which could be of use to the individual, medical personnel or in other potential arenas. To take this option one step further, one might foresee that the signal would be captured, analyzed, and communicated to a person or device and which would result an action or reaction by that person or device. It is envisioned that ultimately a system would include a sensor detection mechanism, transmitter, receiver, microprocessor and associated memory, and audio and/or visual alert system. If successful in prototyping, the device could be considered for eventual implementation in ASIC form or as a fully integrated CMOS microsystem.

  9. The High Time Resolution Universe Survey VI: An Artificial Neural Network and Timing of 75 Pulsars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bates, S D; Barsdell, B R; Bhat, N D R; Burgay, M; Burke-Spolaor, S; Champion, D J; Coster, P; D'Amico, N; Jameson, A; Johnston, S; Keith, M J; Kramer, M; Levin, L; Lyne, A; Milia, S; Ng, C; Nietner, C; Possenti, A; Stappers, B; Thornton, D; van Straten, W

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present 75 pulsars discovered in the mid-latitude portion of the High Time Resolution Universe survey, 54 of which have full timing solutions. All the pulsars have spin periods greater than 100 ms, and none of those with timing solutions are in binaries. Two display particularly interesting behaviour; PSR J1054-5944 is found to be an intermittent pulsar, and PSR J1809-0119 has glitched twice since its discovery. In the second half of the paper we discuss the development and application of an artificial neural network in the data-processing pipeline for the survey. We discuss the tests that were used to generate scores and find that our neural network was able to reject over 99% of the candidates produced in the data processing, and able to blindly detect 85% of pulsars. We suggest that improvements to the accuracy should be possible if further care is taken when training an artificial neural network; for example ensuring that a representative sample of the pulsar population is used during the training proc...

  10. Finite Future Cosmological Singularity Times and Maximum Predictability Times in a Nonlinear FRW-KG Scalar Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Max Wilson; Keith Andrew

    2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the relative time scales associated with finite future cosmological singularities, especially those classified as Big Rip cosmologies, and the maximum predictability time of a coupled FRW-KG scalar cosmology with chaotic regimes. Our approach is to show that by starting with a FRW-KG scalar cosmology with a potential that admits an analytical solution resulting in a finite time future singularity there exists a Lyapunov time scale that is earlier than the formation of the singularity. For this singularity both the cosmological scale parameter a(t) and the Hubble parameter H(t) become infinite at a finite future time, the Big Rip time. We compare this time scale to the predictability time scale for a chaotic FRW-KG scalar cosmology. We find that there are cases where the chaotic time scale is earlier than the Big Rip singularity calling for special care in interpreting and predicting the formation of the future cosmological singularity.

  11. Ames Lab 101: Real-Time 3D Imaging

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Zhang, Song

    2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Ames Laboratory scientist Song Zhang explains his real-time 3-D imaging technology. The technique can be used to create high-resolution, real-time, precise, 3-D images for use in healthcare, security, and entertainment applications.

  12. Removing nuclear waste, one shipment at a time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stories Removing nuclear waste, one shipment at a time Removing nuclear waste, one shipment at a time The Lab's 1,000th shipment of transuranic waste recently left Los Alamos,...

  13. Accelerating time-to-market in the global electronics industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Folgo, Elena Jean

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In today's electronics industry, fast time-to-market (TTM) and time-to-profit (TTP) is key to customer satisfaction and firm competitiveness. Optimizing the product development and new product introduction (NPI) process ...

  14. Universal space-time codes from demultiplexed trellis codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kose, Cenk; Wesel, R D

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and A. R. Calderbank, “Space-time codes for high data ratePerformance criteria and code construction,” IEEE Trans.of space–time trellis codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun. , vol. 51,

  15. Polynomial Time Algorithms for Stochastic Uncapacitated Lot-Sizing ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    we spend O(1) time to calculate and store each breakpoint, and therefore this step can be completed in O(|V(i)|2) time, since the number of breakpoints is.

  16. Characterizing time varying program behavior for efficient simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perelman, Erez

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reducing the Run-Time of k-Means . 2. Searching for a Smallinto three clusters with k-means. . . . . . . . . .a?ects the CPI errors, k-means variance, and the run-time of

  17. The impact of lead time on truckload transportation rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caldwell, Erik R. (Erik Russell)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this thesis was to analyze truckload shipment transactions in order to determine if rates are impacted by tender lead time, which is the amount of time between when a carrier is offered a load to when the ...

  18. A time and frequency domain analysis of contrarian trading strategies/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Shomesh E

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis applies time and frequency domain analyses to a high-frequency market making strategy to study the profitability of liquidity provision over multiple time horizons from 1964 to 2013. Using daily returns and ...

  19. Modelling signal interactions with application to financial time series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Bonny

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, we concern ourselves with the problem of reasoning over a set of objects evolving over time that are coupled through interaction structures that are themselves changing over time. We focus on inferring ...

  20. Intelligent Transportation Systems: Saving Lives, Time and Money Kristin Tufte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    Intelligent Transportation Systems: Saving Lives, Time and Money Kristin Tufte Portland State University Oregon Transportation Summit Sept 10, 2010 #12;Intelligent Transportation Systems: Saving Lives, Time and Money Official transportation data archive for the Portland-Vancouver metropolitan region