National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for tilt solar radiation

  1. Tilt assembly for tracking solar collector assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Almy, Charles; Peurach, John; Sandler, Reuben

    2012-01-24

    A tilt assembly is used with a solar collector assembly of the type comprising a frame, supporting a solar collector, for movement about a tilt axis by pivoting a drive element between first and second orientations. The tilt assembly comprises a drive element coupler connected to the drive element and a driver, the driver comprising a drive frame, a drive arm and a drive arm driver. The drive arm is mounted to the drive frame for pivotal movement about a drive arm axis. Movement on the drive arm mimics movement of the drive element. Drive element couplers can extend in opposite directions from the outer portion of the drive arm, whereby the assembly can be used between adjacent solar collector assemblies in a row of solar collector assemblies.

  2. Measurement and modeling of solar irradiance components on horizontal and tilted planes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padovan, Andrea; Col, Davide del

    2010-12-15

    In this work new measurements of global and diffuse solar irradiance on the horizontal plane and global irradiance on planes tilted at 20 and 30 oriented due South and at 45 and 65 oriented due East are used to discuss the modeling of solar radiation. Irradiance data are collected in Padova (45.4 N, 11.9 E, 12 m above sea level), Italy. Some diffuse fraction correlations have been selected to model the hourly diffuse radiation on the horizontal plane. The comparison with the present experimental data shows that their prediction accuracy strongly depends on the sky characteristics. The hourly irradiance measurements taken on the tilted planes are compared with the estimations given by one isotropic and three anisotropic transposition models. The use of an anisotropic model, based on a physical description of the diffuse radiation, provides a much better accuracy, especially when measurements of the diffuse irradiance on the horizontal plane are not available and thus transposition models have to be applied in combination with a diffuse fraction correlation. This is particularly significant for the planes oriented away from South. (author)

  3. Solar and Photovoltaic Data from the University of Oregon Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory (UO SRML)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The UO SRML is a regional solar radiation data center whose goal is to provide sound solar resource data for planning, design, deployment, and operation of solar electric facilities in the Pacific Northwest. The laboratory has been in operation since 1975. Solar data includes solar resource maps, cumulative summary data, daily totals, monthly averages, single element profile data, parsed TMY2 data, and select multifilter radiometer data. A data plotting program and other software tools are also provided. Shade analysis information and contour plots showing the effect of tilt and orientation on annual solar electric system perfomance make up a large part of the photovoltaics data.(Specialized Interface)

  4. Effects of the scatter in sunspot group tilt angles on the large-scale magnetic field at the solar surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, J.; Cameron, R. H.; Schssler, M.

    2014-08-10

    The tilt angles of sunspot groups represent the poloidal field source in Babcock-Leighton-type models of the solar dynamo and are crucial for the build-up and reversals of the polar fields in surface flux transport (SFT) simulations. The evolution of the polar field is a consequence of Hale's polarity rules, together with the tilt angle distribution which has a systematic component (Joy's law) and a random component (tilt-angle scatter). We determine the scatter using the observed tilt angle data and study the effects of this scatter on the evolution of the solar surface field using SFT simulations with flux input based upon the recorded sunspot groups. The tilt angle scatter is described in our simulations by a random component according to the observed distributions for different ranges of sunspot group size (total umbral area). By performing simulations with a number of different realizations of the scatter we study the effect of the tilt angle scatter on the global magnetic field, especially on the evolution of the axial dipole moment. The average axial dipole moment at the end of cycle 17 (a medium-amplitude cycle) from our simulations was 2.73 G. The tilt angle scatter leads to an uncertainty of 0.78 G (standard deviation). We also considered cycle 14 (a weak cycle) and cycle 19 (a strong cycle) and show that the standard deviation of the axial dipole moment is similar for all three cycles. The uncertainty mainly results from the big sunspot groups which emerge near the equator. In the framework of Babcock-Leighton dynamo models, the tilt angle scatter therefore constitutes a significant random factor in the cycle-to-cycle amplitude variability, which strongly limits the predictability of solar activity.

  5. NREL: Solar Radiation Research - Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photographs Solar Radiation Research Laboratory Photographs The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) houses more than 70 instruments to analyze and record solar radiation and surface meteorology data. Learn more about this equipment by exploring the photographs below. Click on a thumbnail to view the full image. Photo of researcher working on an instrument platform in front of the SRRL building. The SRRL is located on South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado, at 39.74° N, 105.18° W,

  6. Solar radiation absorbing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, John M.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Schreyer, James M.; Whitehead, Harlan D.

    1977-01-01

    Solar energy absorbing means in solar collectors are provided by a solar selective carbon surface. A solar selective carbon surface is a microporous carbon surface having pores within the range of 0.2 to 2 micrometers. Such a surface is provided in a microporous carbon article by controlling the pore size. A thermally conductive substrate is provided with a solar selective surface by adhering an array of carbon particles in a suitable binder to the substrate, a majority of said particles having diameters within the range of about 0.2-10 microns.

  7. 20 Years of Solar Measurements: The Solar Radiation Research...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Years of Solar Measurements: The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at NREL Tom ...midcsrrlbms). Of course, in the early years before the internet, we could only ...

  8. Solar Radiation Empirical Quality Assessment

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-03-01

    The SERIQC1 subroutine performs quality assessment of one, two, or three-component solar radiation data (global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal) obtained from one-minute to one-hour integrations. Included in the package is the QCFIT tool to derive expected values from historical data, and the SERIQC1 subroutine to assess the quality of measurement data.

  9. Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T

    2005-07-01

    The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) Upwelling shortwave (reflected) Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

  10. File:NREL-bhutan-10kmsolar-tilt.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    File File history File usage Bhutan - Annual - Flat PlateTilted at Latitude Solar Radiation Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution (1,650 1,275 pixels,...

  11. Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.; Reda, I.; Dooraghi, M.; Habte, A.; Kutchenreiter, M.; Wilcox, S.

    2012-07-01

    SunShot Initiative awardee posters describing the different technologies within the four subprograms of the DOE Solar Program (Photovoltaics, Concentrating Solar Power, Soft Costs, and Systems Integration).

  12. Turning collectors for solar radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barak, Amitzur Z.

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for turning a solar collector about the polar axis so that the collector is directed toward the sun as the sun tracks the sky each day. It includes two heat-expansive elements and a shadow plate. In the morning a first expansive element is heated, expands to turn the collector to face the sun, while the second expansive element is shaded by the plate. In the afternoon the second element is heated, expands to turn the collector to face the sun, while the first is shaded by the plate.

  13. NREL Updates Solar Radiation Database - News Releases | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Radiation Database, a web-based technical report that provides critical information about solar and meteorological data for 1,454 locations in the U.S. and its territories. ...

  14. High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ager III, J.W.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2004-10-22

    The direct gap of the In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N alloy system extends continuously from InN (0.7 eV, in the near IR) to GaN (3.4 eV, in the mid-ultraviolet). This opens the intriguing possibility of using this single ternary alloy system in single or multi-junction (MJ) solar cells of the type used for space-based surveillance satellites. To evaluate the suitability of In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N as a material for space applications, high quality thin films were grown with molecular beam epitaxy and extensive damage testing with electron, proton, and alpha particle radiation was performed. Using the room temperature photoluminescence intensity as a indirect measure of minority carrier lifetime, it is shown that In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N retains its optoelectronic properties at radiation damage doses at least 2 orders of magnitude higher than the damage thresholds of the materials (GaAs and GaInP) currently used in high efficiency MJ cells. This indicates that the In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N is well-suited for the future development of ultra radiation-hard optoelectronics. Critical issues affecting development of solar cells using this material system were addressed. The presence of an electron-rich surface layer in InN and In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N (0 < x < 0.63) was investigated; it was shown that this is a less significant effect at large x. Evidence of p-type activity below the surface in Mg-doped InN was obtained; this is a significant step toward achieving photovoltaic action and, ultimately, a solar cell using this material.

  15. Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on September 7, 2016 Title: Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis In this study by determining preferential solar wind conditions leading to efficient

  16. Spectral Solar Radiation Data Base at NREL

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    *In September 1991 the Solar Energy Research Institute became the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. [Description taken from http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/spectral/

  17. Solar Position Algorithm for Solar Radiation Applications (Revised...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 99 FEDERAL AND MISCELLANEOUSMATHEMATICS, COMPUTING, AND INFORMATION ...

  18. Denoising solar radiation data using coiflet wavelets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul Janier, Josefina B. Muthuvalu, Mohana Sundaram; Hasan, Mohammad Khatim; Sulaiman, Jumat; Ismail, Mohd Tahir

    2014-10-24

    Signal denoising and smoothing plays an important role in processing the given signal either from experiment or data collection through observations. Data collection usually was mixed between true data and some error or noise. This noise might be coming from the apparatus to measure or collect the data or human error in handling the data. Normally before the data is use for further processing purposes, the unwanted noise need to be filtered out. One of the efficient methods that can be used to filter the data is wavelet transform. Due to the fact that the received solar radiation data fluctuates according to time, there exist few unwanted oscillation namely noise and it must be filtered out before the data is used for developing mathematical model. In order to apply denoising using wavelet transform (WT), the thresholding values need to be calculated. In this paper the new thresholding approach is proposed. The coiflet2 wavelet with variation diminishing 4 is utilized for our purpose. From numerical results it can be seen clearly that, the new thresholding approach give better results as compare with existing approach namely global thresholding value.

  19. NREL Updates National Solar Radiation Database - News Releases...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    It provides hourly solar radiation and meteorological data for 1991-2005 for 1,454 stations and features a new hourly 10-kilometer gridded data set for 1998-2005. This expands the ...

  20. National Solar Radiation Database 1991-2010 Update: User's Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, S. M.

    2012-08-01

    This user's manual provides information on the updated 1991-2010 National Solar Radiation Database. Included are data format descriptions, data sources, production processes, and information about data uncertainty.

  1. National Solar Radiation Database 1991-2005 Update: User's Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, S.

    2007-04-01

    This manual describes how to obtain and interpret the data products from the updated 1991-2005 National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB). This is an update of the original 1961-1990 NSRDB released in 1992.

  2. Fast All-sky Radiation Models for Solar applications (FARMS) - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Fast All-sky Radiation Models for Solar applications (FARMS) National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Radiative transfer (RT) models simulating broadband solar radiation have been widely used by atmospheric scientists to model solar resources for various energy applications such as

  3. Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network operated from November 1985 through December 1996. The six-station network provided 5-minute averaged measurements of global and diffuse horizontal solar irradiance. The data were processed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to improve the assessment of the solar radiation resources in the southeastern United States. Three of the stations also measured the direct-normal solar irradiance with a pyrheliometer mounted in an automatic sun tracker. All data are archived in the Standard Broadband Format (SBF) with quality-assessment indicators. Monthly data summaries and plots are also available for each month. In January 1997 the HBCU sites became part of the CONFRRM solar monitoring network.

  4. Tilted fuel cell apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine; Krueger, Roger L.

    2005-04-12

    Bipolar, tilted embodiments of high temperature, molten electrolyte electrochemical cells capable of directly converting carbon fuel to electrical energy are disclosed herein. The bipolar, tilted configurations minimize the electrical resistance between one cell and others connected in electrical series. The tilted configuration also allows continuous refueling of carbon fuel.

  5. Curve fitting methods for solar radiation data modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my; Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my

    2014-10-24

    This paper studies the use of several type of curve fitting method to smooth the global solar radiation data. After the data have been fitted by using curve fitting method, the mathematical model of global solar radiation will be developed. The error measurement was calculated by using goodness-fit statistics such as root mean square error (RMSE) and the value of R{sup 2}. The best fitting methods will be used as a starting point for the construction of mathematical modeling of solar radiation received in Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) Malaysia. Numerical results indicated that Gaussian fitting and sine fitting (both with two terms) gives better results as compare with the other fitting methods.

  6. Modeling and Analysis of Solar Radiation Potentials on Building Rooftops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Kodysh, Jeffrey B; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2012-01-01

    The active application of photovoltaic for electricity generation could effectively transform neighborhoods and commercial districts into small, localized power plants. This application, however, relies heavily on an accurate estimation of the amount of solar radiation that is available on individual building rooftops. While many solar energy maps exist at higher spatial resolution for concentrated solar energy applications, the data from these maps are not suitable for roof-mounted photovoltaic for several reasons, including lack of data at the appropriate spatial resolution and lack of integration of building-specific characteristics into the models used to generate the maps. To address this problem, we have developed a modeling framework for estimating solar radiation potentials on individual building rooftops that is suitable for utility-scale applications as well as building-specific applications. The framework uses light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data at approximately 1-meter horizontal resolution and 0.3-meter vertical resolution as input for modeling a large number of buildings quickly. One of the strengths of this framework is the ability to parallelize its implementation. Furthermore, the framework accounts for building specific characteristics, such as roof slope, roof aspect, and shadowing effects, that are critical to roof-mounted photovoltaic systems. The resulting data has helped us to identify the so-called solar panel sweet spots on individual building rooftops and obtain accurate statistics of the variation in solar radiation as a function of time of year and geographical location.

  7. Solar Radiation Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ready to Build? BUILD A PIZZA BOX SOLAR OVEN Background The sun is hot enough to bake food. Here's how to make a simple solar oven that gets hot enough to warm up cookies and other treats, like s'mores. It won't get really hot, though, so you can't bake things in it and you won't burn yourself when playing with it. Be sure to have an adult help you with this! Materials - One pizza box from a local pizza delivery store. Here's a good excuse to ask your parents to order pizza tonight! - Newspapers

  8. Progress on an Updated National Solar Radiation Data Base: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, S.; Anderberg, M.; George, R.; Marion, W.; Myers, D.; Renne, D.; Beckman, W.; DeGaetano, A.; Gueymard, C.; Perez, R.; Plantico, M.; Stackhouse, P.; Vignola, F.

    2004-03-01

    In 1992, The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) released the 1961-1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB), a 30-year set of hourly solar radiation data. In April 2003, NREL convened a meeting of experts to investigate issues concerning a proposed update of the NSRDB. The panel determined that an important difficulty posed by the update was the shift from manual to automated cloud observations at National Weather Service stations in the United States. The solar model used in the original NSRDB relied heavily on the methodology and resolution of the manual cloud observations. The meeting participants recommended that NREL produce a plan for creating an update using currently available meteorological observations and satellite imagery. This paper describes current progress toward a plan for an updated NSRDB.

  9. NREL: MIDC/University of Texas Panamerican Solar Radiation Lab (26.49 N,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    98.17 W, 45 m, GMT-6) University of Texas Panamerican (UTPA) Solar Radiation Lab (SRL)

  10. Visual-SOLAR: Modeling and Visualization of Solar Radiation Potential on Individual Building Rooftops

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a modeling framework for estimating solar radiation potentials on individual building rooftops that is suitable for utility-scale applications as well as building-specific applications. The framework uses light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data at approximately 1-meter horizontal resolution and 0.3-meter vertical resolution as input for modeling a large number of buildings quickly. One of the strengths of this framework is the ability to parallelize its implementation. Furthermore, the framework accounts for building specificmore » characteristics, such as roof slope, roof aspect, and shadowing effects, that are critical to roof-mounted photovoltaic system. The resulting data has helped us to identify the so-called "solar panel sweet spots" on individual building rooftops and obtain accurate statistics of the variation in solar radiation as a function of time of year and geographical location.« less

  11. Visual-SOLAR: Modeling and Visualization of Solar Radiation Potential on Individual Building Rooftops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a modeling framework for estimating solar radiation potentials on individual building rooftops that is suitable for utility-scale applications as well as building-specific applications. The framework uses light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data at approximately 1-meter horizontal resolution and 0.3-meter vertical resolution as input for modeling a large number of buildings quickly. One of the strengths of this framework is the ability to parallelize its implementation. Furthermore, the framework accounts for building specific characteristics, such as roof slope, roof aspect, and shadowing effects, that are critical to roof-mounted photovoltaic system. The resulting data has helped us to identify the so-called "solar panel sweet spots" on individual building rooftops and obtain accurate statistics of the variation in solar radiation as a function of time of year and geographical location.

  12. Prediction of Solar Radiation on Building Rooftops: A Data-Mining Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Kodysh, Jeffrey B

    2012-01-01

    Solar energy technologies offer a clean, renewable, and domestic energy source, and are essential components of a sustainable energy future. The accurate measurement of solar radiation data is essential for optimum site selection of future distributed solar power plants as well as sizing photovoltaic systems. However, solar radiation data are not readily available because measured sequences of radiation values are obtained for a few locations in a country. When the data are available, they are usually at different time periods and spatial scale. The availability of solar radiation data at hourly or daily time scale will enhance the integration of solar energy into electricity generation and promote a sustainable energy future. The ability to generate approximate solar radiation values is often the only practical way to obtain radiation data at hourly or daily time scale. As a result, several models have been developed for estimating solar radiation values based on analytical, numerical simulation, and statistical approaches. However, these models have inherent challenges. We will discuss some of those challenges in this paper. To enhance the prediction of solar radiation values, a novel approach is presented for estimating solar radiation values using support vector machine technique. The approach accounts for unique characteristics that influence solar radiation values. The preliminary results obtained offer useful insights for model enhancements.

  13. National Solar Radiation Data Bases (NSRDB): 1961 to 1990 and 1991 to 2005

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The National Solar Radiation Data Base 1961-1990 (NSRDB) contains 30 years of solar radiation and supplementary meteorological data from 237 NWS sites in the U.S., plus sites in Guam and Puerto Rico. The updated 1991-2005 National Solar Radiation Database holds solar and meteorological data for 1,454 locations in the United States and its territories. See also the interactive data maps for the 1961 to 1990 data at http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/1961-1990/redbook/atlas/.

  14. Chapter 1.12: Solar Radiation Resource Assessment for Renewable Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter addresses measurements, modeling, and databases of solar energy potential that may serve as fuel for solar energy conversion systems. Developing innovative designs for capturing and converting solar radiation is only one part of the equation for solar system deployment. Identifying, locating, and prospecting for the appropriate quantity and quality of solar resources to fuel these systems is critical to system designers, investors, financial backers, utilities, governments, and owner/operators. This chapter addresses the fundamentals and state of the art for measuring, modeling, and applying solar radiation resource data to meet decision-making needs.

  15. ARM - Lesson Plans: Effects of Solar Radiation on Land and Sea

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effects of Solar Radiation on Land and Sea Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students...

  16. Laplace plane modifications arising from solar radiation pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosengren, Aaron J.; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2014-05-01

    The dynamical effects of solar radiation pressure (SRP) in the solar system have been rigorously studied since the early 1900s. This non-gravitational perturbation plays a significant role in the evolution of dust particles in circumplanetary orbits, as well as in the orbital motion about asteroids and comets. For gravitationally dominated orbits, SRP is negligible and the resulting motion is largely governed by the oblateness of the primary and the attraction of the Sun. The interplay between these gravitational perturbations gives rise to three mutually perpendicular planes of equilibrium for circular satellite orbits. The classical Laplace plane lies between the equatorial and orbital planes of the primary, and is the mean reference plane about whose axis the pole of a satellite's orbit precesses. From a previously derived solution for the secular motion of an orbiter about a small body in a SRP dominated environment, we find that SRP acting alone will cause an initially circular orbit to precess around the pole of the primary's heliocentric orbital plane. When the gravitational and non-gravitational perturbations act in concert, the resulting equilibrium planes turn out to be qualitatively different, in some cases, from those obtained without considering the radiation pressure. The warping of the surfaces swept out by the modified equilibria as the semi-major axis varies depends critically on the cross-sectional area of the body exposed. These results, together with an adiabatic invariance argument on Poynting-Robertson drag, provide a natural qualitative explanation for the initial albedo dichotomy of Saturn's moon, Iapetus.

  17. Evaluation of linear interpolation method for missing value on solar radiation dataset in Perlis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saaban, Azizan; Zainudin, Lutfi; Bakar, Mohd Nazari Abu

    2015-05-15

    This paper intends to reveal the ability of the linear interpolation method to predict missing values in solar radiation time series. Reliable dataset is equally tends to complete time series observed dataset. The absence or presence of radiation data alters long-term variation of solar radiation measurement values. Based on that change, the opportunities to provide bias output result for modelling and the validation process is higher. The completeness of the observed variable dataset has significantly important for data analysis. Occurrence the lack of continual and unreliable time series solar radiation data widely spread and become the main problematic issue. However, the limited number of research quantity that has carried out to emphasize and gives full attention to estimate missing values in the solar radiation dataset.

  18. Coastal-inland solar radiation difference study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bach, W.D. Jr.; Vukovich, F.M.

    1980-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the characteristics of solar insolation in the coastal zone and to determine the effect of the sea breeze circulation on the global insolation. In order to satisfy these objectives, a six station sampling network was established in the coastal plain of southeastern North Carolina, where previous evidence has indicated that the sea breeze circulation is almost a daily occurrence from late May through October. Three sites (Sloop Point, Onslow Beach, and Cape Fear Technical Institute (CFTI)) were located near the coast (coastal sites) to assess the insolation at the coast. A site (Clinton) was located in an area seldom affected by the sea breeze (about 100 km from the coast). Two additional sites, Wallace and Ellis Airport, located between the coastal sites and the control site, were to be used to assess the transient impact of the sea breeze upon the insolation. Pyranometers were located at each site to measure the global insolation. Direct normal insolation measured by a pyrheliometer and ultraviolet radiation measured by uv radiometers were observed at the Sloop Point and Clinton sites only. Data were collected during the calendar year 1978. The results of the study indicated that the global insolation had greater variability over the network during the summer season (June, July, and August). During the summer, there was a systematicdiurnal variation of the difference in global insolation between the inland and the coastal sites.

  19. Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

  20. Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.; Schertz, W.W.

    1985-06-27

    A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

  1. A path to practical Solar Pumped Lasers via Radiative Energy Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reusswig, Philip D.; Nechayev, Sergey; Scherer, Jennifer M.; Hwang, Gyu Weon; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Baldo, Marc. A.; Rotschild, Carmel

    2015-10-05

    The optical conversion of incoherent solar radiation into a bright, coherent laser beam enables the application of nonlinear optics to solar energy conversion and storage. Here, we present an architecture for solar pumped lasers that uses a luminescent solar concentrator to decouple the conventional trade-off between solar absorption efficiency and the mode volume of the optical gain material. We report a 750-μm-thick Nd 3+ -doped YAG planar waveguide sensitized by a luminescent CdSe/CdZnS (core/shell) colloidal nanocrystal, yielding a peak cascade energy transfer of 14%, a broad spectral response in the visible portion of the solar spectrum, and an equivalent quasi-CW solar lasing threshold of 23 W-cm-2, or approximately 230 suns. The efficient coupling of incoherent, spectrally broad sunlight in small gain volumes should allow the generation of coherent laser light from intensities of less than 100 suns.

  2. A path to practical Solar Pumped Lasers via Radiative Energy Transfer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reusswig, Philip D.; Nechayev, Sergey; Scherer, Jennifer M.; Hwang, Gyu Weon; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Baldo, Marc. A.; Rotschild, Carmel

    2015-10-05

    The optical conversion of incoherent solar radiation into a bright, coherent laser beam enables the application of nonlinear optics to solar energy conversion and storage. Here, we present an architecture for solar pumped lasers that uses a luminescent solar concentrator to decouple the conventional trade-off between solar absorption efficiency and the mode volume of the optical gain material. We report a 750-μm-thick Nd 3+ -doped YAG planar waveguide sensitized by a luminescent CdSe/CdZnS (core/shell) colloidal nanocrystal, yielding a peak cascade energy transfer of 14%, a broad spectral response in the visible portion of the solar spectrum, and an equivalent quasi-CWmore » solar lasing threshold of 23 W-cm-2, or approximately 230 suns. The efficient coupling of incoherent, spectrally broad sunlight in small gain volumes should allow the generation of coherent laser light from intensities of less than 100 suns.« less

  3. Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    By directly comparing efficient and inefficient acceleration events, we clearly show that prolonged southward Bz, high solar wind speed, and low dynamic pressure are critical for ...

  4. NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL): Baseline Measurement System (BMS); Golden, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    The SRRL was established at the Solar Energy Research Institute (now NREL) in 1981 to provide continuous measurements of the solar resources, outdoor calibrations of pyranometers and pyrheliometers, and to characterize commercially available instrumentation. The SRRL is an outdoor laboratory located on South Table Mountain, a mesa providing excellent solar access throughout the year, overlooking Denver. Beginning with the basic measurements of global horizontal irradiance, direct normal irradiance and diffuse horizontal irradiance at 5-minute intervals, the SRRL Baseline Measurement System now produces more than 130 data elements at 1-min intervals that are available from the Measurement & Instrumentation Data Center Web site. Data sources include global horizontal, direct normal, diffuse horizontal (from shadowband and tracking disk), global on tilted surfaces, reflected solar irradiance, ultraviolet, infrared (upwelling and downwelling), photometric and spectral radiometers, sky imagery, and surface meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, precipitation, snow cover, wind speed and direction at multiple levels). Data quality control and assessment include daily instrument maintenance (M-F) with automated data quality control based on real-time examinations of redundant instrumentation and internal consistency checks using NREL's SERI-QC methodology. Operators are notified of equipment problems by automatic e-mail messages generated by the data acquisition and processing system. Radiometers are recalibrated at least annually with reference instruments traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR).

  5. NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL): Baseline Measurement System (BMS); Golden, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    1981-07-15

    The SRRL was established at the Solar Energy Research Institute (now NREL) in 1981 to provide continuous measurements of the solar resources, outdoor calibrations of pyranometers and pyrheliometers, and to characterize commercially available instrumentation. The SRRL is an outdoor laboratory located on South Table Mountain, a mesa providing excellent solar access throughout the year, overlooking Denver. Beginning with the basic measurements of global horizontal irradiance, direct normal irradiance and diffuse horizontal irradiance at 5-minute intervals, the SRRL Baseline Measurement System now produces more than 130 data elements at 1-min intervals that are available from the Measurement & Instrumentation Data Center Web site. Data sources include global horizontal, direct normal, diffuse horizontal (from shadowband and tracking disk), global on tilted surfaces, reflected solar irradiance, ultraviolet, infrared (upwelling and downwelling), photometric and spectral radiometers, sky imagery, and surface meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, precipitation, snow cover, wind speed and direction at multiple levels). Data quality control and assessment include daily instrument maintenance (M-F) with automated data quality control based on real-time examinations of redundant instrumentation and internal consistency checks using NREL's SERI-QC methodology. Operators are notified of equipment problems by automatic e-mail messages generated by the data acquisition and processing system. Radiometers are recalibrated at least annually with reference instruments traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR).

  6. TILT, WARP, AND SIMULTANEOUS PRECESSIONS IN DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2012-07-10

    Warps are suspected in disks around massive compact objects. However, the proposed warping source-non-axisymmetric radiation pressure-does not apply to white dwarfs. In this Letter, we report the first smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of accretion disks in SU UMa-type systems that naturally tilt, warp, and simultaneously precess in the prograde and retrograde directions using white dwarf V344 Lyrae in the Kepler field as our model. After {approx}79 days in V344 Lyrae, the disk angular momentum L{sub d} becomes misaligned to the orbital angular momentum L{sub o} . As the gas stream remains normal to L{sub o} , hydrodynamics (e.g., the lift force) is a likely source to disk tilt. In addition to tilt, the outer disk annuli cyclically change shape from circular to highly eccentric due to tidal torques by the secondary star. The effect of simultaneous prograde and retrograde precession is a warp of the colder, denser midplane as seen along the disk rim. The simulated rate of apsidal advance to nodal regression per orbit nearly matches the observed ratio in V344 Lyrae.

  7. Belle Mead Solar Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name Belle Mead Solar Project Facility Belle Mead Solar Project Sector Solar Facility Type Ground-mount fixed tilt solar array Owner EnXco Developer...

  8. Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Baker, D. N.; Reeves, G. D.; Kanekal, S. G.; Spence, H. E.; Green, J. C.

    2015-09-07

    In this study by determining preferential solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration is crucial for predicting radiation belt electron dynamics. Using Van Allen Probes electron observations (>1 MeV) from 2012 to 2015, we identify a number of efficient and inefficient acceleration events separately to perform a superposed epoch analysis of the corresponding solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices. By directly comparing efficient and inefficient acceleration events, we clearly show that prolonged southward Bz, high solar wind speed, and low dynamic pressure are critical for electron acceleration to >1 MeV energies in the heart of the outer radiation belt. We also evaluate chorus wave evolution using the superposed epoch analysis for the identified efficient and inefficient acceleration events and find that chorus wave intensity is much stronger and lasts longer during efficient electron acceleration events, supporting the scenario that chorus waves play a key role in MeV electron acceleration.

  9. Validation of the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) (2005-2012): Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Validation of the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) Preprint Manajit Sengupta, Andrew Weekley, Aron Habte, and Anthony Lopez National Renewable Energy Laboratory Christine Molling University of Wisconsin To be presented at the European PV Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition Hamburg, Germany Conference Paper NREL/CP-5D00-64981 September 2015 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (Alliance), a contractor of the US

  10. Radiation Dry Bias in the TWP-ICE Radiosonde Soundings Solar Zenith Angle Correction Factor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Dry Bias in the TWP-ICE Radiosonde Soundings Solar Zenith Angle Correction Factor Figure 3: Ratio of MWR TCWV to radiosonde derived TCWV, and the solar zenith angle at the radiosonde launch time (black dots). The dry bias observed in sonde TCWV values is mainly attributable to a dry RH bias near the surface The red dots show the 1000 hPa RH correction factors suggested by Voemel et al for sondes launched near noon (10-30 degree solar zenith angle), and at night time (90 degree zenith

  11. Extraterrestrial Materials: The Role of Synchrotron Radiation Analyses in the Study of Our Solar System

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Sutton, Stephen R. [University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States

    2010-01-08

    Sample-return missions and natural collection processes have provided us with a surprisingly extensive collection of matter from Solar System bodies other than the Earth. These collections include samples from the Moon, Mars, asteroids, interplanetary dust, and, recently, from the Sun (solar wind) and a comet. This presentation will describe some of these materials, how they were collected, and what we have learned from them. Synchrotron radiation analyses of these materials are playing an increasingly valuable role in unraveling the histories and properities of the parent Solar System bodies.

  12. Validation of the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) (2005-2012): Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, Manajit; Weekley, Andrew; Habte, Aron; Lopez, Anthony; Molling, Christine

    2015-09-15

    Publicly accessible, high-quality, long-term, satellite-based solar resource data is foundational and critical to solar technologies to quantify system output predictions and deploy solar energy technologies in grid-tied systems. Solar radiation models have been in development for more than three decades. For many years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed and/or updated such models through the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). There are two widely used approaches to derive solar resource data from models: (a) an empirical approach that relates ground-based observations to satellite measurements and (b) a physics-based approach that considers the radiation received at the satellite and creates retrievals to estimate clouds and surface radiation. Although empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation, the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) that computes global horizontal irradiance (GHI) using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) system. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and then uses those properties in the Satellite Algorithm for Surface Radiation Budget (SASRAB) model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, the University of Wisconsin, and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a high temporal and spatial resolution data set. The product initially generates the cloud properties using the AVHRR Pathfinder Atmospheres-Extended (PATMOS-x) algorithms [3], whereas the GHI is calculated using SASRAB. Then NREL implements accurate and high-resolution input parameters such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) to compute direct normal irradiance (DNI) using the DISC model. The AOD and PWV, temperature, and pressure data are also combined with the MMAC model to simulate solar radiation under clear-sky conditions. The current NSRDB update is based on a 4-km x 4-km resolution at a 30-minute time interval, which has a higher temporal and spatial resolution. This paper demonstrates the evaluation of the data set using ground-measured data and detailed evaluation statistics. The result of the comparison shows a good correlation to the NSRDB data set. Further, an outline of the new version of the NSRDB and future plans for enhancement and improvement are provided.

  13. Increasing the solar photovoltaic energy capture on sunny and cloudy days

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Nelson A.; Gibson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-15

    This report analyzes an extensive set of measurements of the solar irradiance made using four identical solar arrays and associated solar sensors (collectively referred to as solar collectors) with different tilt angles relative to the earth's surface, and thus the position of the sun, in order to determine an optimal tracking algorithm for capturing solar radiation. The study included a variety of ambient conditions including different seasons and both cloudy and cloud-free conditions. One set of solar collectors was always approximately pointed directly toward the sun (DTS) for a period around solar noon. These solar collectors thus captured the direct beam component of the solar radiation that predominates on sunny days. We found that on sunny days, solar collectors with a DTS configuration captured more solar energy in accordance with the well-known cosine dependence for the response of a flat-surfaced solar collector to the angle of incidence with direct beam radiation. In particular, a DTS orientation was found to capture up to twice as much solar energy as a horizontal (H) orientation in which the array is tilted toward the zenith. Another set of solar collectors always had an H orientation, and this best captured the diffuse component of the solar radiation that predominates on cloudy days. The dependence of the H/DTS ratio on the solar-collector tilt angle was in approximate agreement with the Isotropic Diffuse Model derived for heavily overcast conditions. During cloudy periods, we found that an H configuration increased the solar energy capture by nearly 40% compared to a DTS configuration during the same period, and we estimate the solar energy increase of an H configuration over a system that tracks the obscured solar disk could reach 50% over a whole heavily-overcast day. On an annual basis the increase is predicted to be much less, typically only about 1%, because the contribution of cloudy days to the total annual solar energy captured by a photovoltaic system is small. These results are consistent with the solar tracking algorithm optimized for cloudy conditions that we proposed in an earlier report and that was based on a much smaller data set. Improving the harvesting of solar energy on cloudy days deserves wider attention due to increasing efforts to utilize renewable solar energy. In particular, increasing the output of distributed solar power systems on cloudy days is important to developing solar-powered home fueling and charging systems for hydrogen-powered fuel-cell electric and battery-powered vehicles, respectively, because it reduces the system size and cost for solar power systems that are designed to have sufficient energy output on the worst (cloudy) days. (author)

  14. A comparison of the radiation tolerance characteristics of multijunction solar cells with series and voltage-matched configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, J.M; Curtis, H.B.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of series and voltage-matched configurations on the performance of multijunction solar cells in a radiation environment was investigated. It was found that the configuration of the multijunction solar cell can have a significant impact on its radiation tolerence characteristics.

  15. Physics-Based GOES Satellite Product for Use in NREL's National Solar Radiation Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, M.; Habte, A.; Gotseff, P.; Weekley, A.; Lopez, A.; Molling, C.; Heidinger, A.

    2014-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), University of Wisconsin, and National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration are collaborating to investigate the integration of the Satellite Algorithm for Shortwave Radiation Budget (SASRAB) products into future versions of NREL's 4-km by 4-km gridded National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB). This paper describes a method to select an improved clear-sky model that could replace the current SASRAB global horizontal irradiance and direct normal irradiances reported during clear-sky conditions.

  16. An analysis of interplanetary space radiation exposure for various solar cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badhwar, G.D.; O`Neill, P.M.; Cucinotta, F.A.

    1994-05-01

    The radiation dose received by crew members in interplanetary space is influenced by the stage of the solar cycle. Using the recently developed models of the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) environment and the energy-dependent radiation transport code, we have calculated the dose at 0 and 5 cm water depth; using a computerized anatomical man (CAM) model, we have calculated the skin, eye and blood-forming organ (BFO) doses as a function of aluminum shielding for various solar minima and maxima between 1954 and 1989. These results show that the equivalent dose is within about 15% of the mean for the various solar minima (maxima). The maximum variation between solar minimum and maximum equivalent dose is about a factor of three. We have extended these calculations for the 1967-1977 solar minimum to five practical shielding geometries: Apollo Command Module, the least and most heavily shielded locations in the U.S. space shuttle mid-deck, center of the proposed Space Station Freedom cluster and sleeping compartment of the Skylab. These calculations, using the quality factor of ICRP 60, show that the average CAM BFO equivalent dose is 0.46 Sv/year. Based on an approach that takes fragmentation into account, we estimate a calculation uncertainty of 15% if the uncertainty in the quality factor is neglected. 25 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Radiation damage of GaAs thin-film solar cells on Si substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Itoh, Y.; Yamaguchi, M.; Nishioka, T.; Yamamoto, A.

    1987-01-15

    1-MeV electron irradiation damages in GaAs thin-film solar cells on Si substrates are examined for the first time. Damage constant for minority-carrier diffusion length in GaAs heteroepitaxial films on Si substrates is found to be the same as that in GaAs homoepitaxial films on GaAs substrates. This agreement suggests that GaAs/Si has the same defect introduction rate with radiation as GaAs/GaAs. The degradation of GaAs solar cells on Si with electron irradiation is less than that of GaAs solar cells on GaAs, because in the present, GaAs films on Si substrates have lower minority-carrier diffusion length compared to GaAs films on GaAs and these films are insensitive to radiation. The p/sup +/-p/sup +/-n AlGaAs-GaAs heteroface solar cell with junction depth of about 0.3 ..mu..m is concluded to be useful for a high-efficiency and radiation-resistant solar cell fabricated on a Si substrate.

  18. Control of solar radiation in buildings: a selected bibliography. [Over 70 references on fenestration design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Fenestration design synthesizes many factors, including solar radiation control, daylight illumination, direct and reflected glare, the view out of the building, services, and the structure and fabric of the building in terms of energy conservation and costs. This bibliography includes books and articles related to these aspects of fenestration design in various types of structures.

  19. Equivalent circuit analysis of radiative coupling in monolithic tandem solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lan, Dongchen E-mail: d.lan@unswalumni.com; Green, Martin A.

    2015-06-29

    As solar cell efficiency improves towards the Shockley-Queisser limit, so does the radiative efficiency of the cell. For tandem stacks of cells where energy conversion efficiency now exceeds 46%, radiative coupling between the cells is becoming increasingly important to consider in cell design, measurement, and performance prediction. We show how an equivalent circuit model can capture the complex radiative interactions between cells in such tandem stacks, allowing more insight into the impact on cell performance. The circuit's use is demonstrated by deriving results relevant to the critical step of eliminating coupling effects from measured cell spectral responses.

  20. Tilted dipole model for bias-dependent photoluminescence pattern

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujieda, Ichiro Suzuki, Daisuke; Masuda, Taishi

    2014-12-14

    In a guest-host system containing elongated dyes and a nematic liquid crystal, both molecules are aligned to each other. An external bias tilts these molecules and the radiation pattern of the system is altered. A model is proposed to describe this bias-dependent photoluminescence patterns. It divides the liquid crystal/dye layer into sub-layers that contain electric dipoles with specific tilt angles. Each sub-layer emits linearly polarized light. Its radiation pattern is toroidal and is determined by the tilt angle. Its intensity is assumed to be proportional to the power of excitation light absorbed by the sub-layer. This is calculated by the Lambert-Beer's Law. The absorption coefficient is assumed to be proportional to the cross-section of the tilted dipole moment, in analogy to the ellipsoid of refractive index, to evaluate the cross-section for each polarized component of the excitation light. Contributions from all the sub-layers are added to give a final expression for the radiation pattern. Self-absorption is neglected. The model is simplified by reducing the number of sub-layers. Analytical expressions are derived for a simple case that consists of a single layer with tilted dipoles sandwiched by two layers with horizontally-aligned dipoles. All the parameters except for the tilt angle can be determined by measuring transmittance of the excitation light. The model roughly reproduces the bias-dependent photoluminescence patterns of a cell containing 0.5?wt.?% coumarin 6. It breaks down at large emission angles. Measured spectral changes suggest that the discrepancy is due to self-absorption and re-emission.

  1. Method and apparatus for measuring solar radiation in a vegetative canopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gutschick, Vincent P.; Barron, Michael H.; Waechter, David A.; Wolf, Michael A.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring solar radiation received in a vegetative canopy. A multiplicity of sensors selectively generates electrical signals in response to impinging photosynthetically active radiation in sunlight. Each sensor is attached to a plant within the canopy and is electrically connected to a separate port in a junction box having a multiplicity of ports. Each port is connected to an operational amplifier. Each amplifier amplifies the signals generated by the sensors. Each amplifier is connected to an analog-to-digital convertor which digitizes each signal. A computer is connected to the convertors and accumulates and stores solar radiation data. A data output device such as a printer is connected to the computer and displays the data.

  2. Method and apparatus for measuring solar radiation in a vegetative canopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gutschick, V.P.; Barron, M.H.; Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.

    1985-04-30

    An apparatus and method for measuring solar radiation received in a vegetative canopy. A multiplicity of sensors selectively generates electrical signals in response to impinging photosynthetically active radiation in sunlight. Each sensor is attached to a plant within the canopy and is electrically connected to a separate port in a junction box having a multiplicity of ports. Each port is connected to an operational amplifier. Each amplifier amplifies the signals generated by the sensors. Each amplifier is connected to an analog-to-digital convertor which digitizes each signal. A computer is connected to the convertors and accumulates and stores solar radiation data. A data output device such as a printer is connected to the computer and displays the data.

  3. Sacramento Municipal Utility District Solar Array | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Municipal Utility District Solar Array Sector Solar Facility Type Ground-mounted fixed tilt Owner EnXco Developer EnXco Energy Purchaser Sacramento Municipal Utility District...

  4. Estimation of total cloud cover from solar radiation observations at Lake Rotorua, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Liancong; Hamilton, David; Han, Boping

    2010-03-15

    The DYRESM-CAEDYM model is a valuable tool for simulating water temperature for biochemical studies in aquatic ecosystem. The model requires inputs of surface short-wave radiation and long-wave radiation or total cloud cover fraction (TC). Long-wave radiation is often not measured directly so a method to determine TC from commonly measured short-wave solar irradiance (E{sub 0}) and theoretical short-wave solar irradiance under a clear sky (E{sub c}) has broad application. A more than 17-year (15 November 1991 to 20 February 2009) hourly solar irradiance data set was used to estimate the peak solar irradiance for each ordinal date over one year, which was assumed to be representative of solar irradiance in the absence of cloud. Comparison between these daily observed values and the modelled clear-sky solar radiation over one year was in close agreement (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.995 and root mean squared error, RMSE = 12.54 W m{sup -2}). The downloaded hourly cloudiness measurements from 15 November 1991 to 20 February 2009 was used to calculate the daily values for this period and then the calculated daily values over the 17 years were used to calculate the average values for each ordinal date over one year. A regression equation between (1 - E{sub 0}/E{sub c}) and TC produced a correlation coefficient value of 0.99 (p > 0.01, n = 71). The validation of this cloud cover estimation model was conducted with observed short-wave solar radiation and TC at two sites. Values of TC derived from the model at the Lake Rotorua site gave a reasonable prediction of the observed values (RMSE = 0.10, r = 0.86, p > 0.01, n = 61). The model was also tested at Queenstown (South Island of New Zealand) and it provided satisfactory results compared to the measurements (RMSE = 0.16, r = 0.67, p > 0.01, n = 61). Therefore the model's good performance and broad applicability will contribute to the DYRESM-CAEDYM accuracy of water temperature simulation when long-wave radiation is not available. (author)

  5. A comparison of data from SOLMET/ERSATZ and the National Solar Radiation Data Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marion, W.; Myers, D.

    1992-11-01

    This report compares data from the new National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) with data from the earlier SOLMET/ERSATZ data base. It compares the two data bases, station-by-station, with respect to their long-term average daily values of global horizontal and direct normal solar radiation. We conclude that on an annual basis, NSRDB values for global horizontal radiation are within {plus_minus}5% of SOLMET/ERSATZ values for 60% of the stations, more than 5% greater than the SOLMET/ERSATZ values for 30% of the stations, and more than 5% less than the SOLMET/ERSATZ values for 10% of the stations. On an annual basis for direct nominal radiation, the NSRDB values are with {plus_minus}5% of the SOLMET/ERSATZ data for only 40% of the stations, more than 5% greater than the SOLMET/ERSATZ values for 45% of the stations, and more than 5% less than the SOLMET/ERSATZ values for 15% of the stations. In general, the NSRDB shows higher values of solar radiation for the eastern United States, particularly the Northeast, and lower values for some of the western states (Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming). However, because some of the stations within a state show higher values of solar radiation while others show lower values, this generalization may be misleading when concerned with a particular station. Consequently, the appendices provide tables showing a station-by-station comparison of the NSRDB and SOLMET/ERSATZ data. In addition to comparing annual values, the tables compare the two data bases for the months of August and December. This comparison shows larger differences between the two data bases for December.

  6. Improved photovoltaic energy output for cloudy conditions with a solar tracking system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Nelson A.; Gibson, Thomas L.

    2009-11-15

    This work describes measurements of the solar irradiance made during cloudy periods in order to improve the amount of solar energy captured during such periods. It is well-known that 2-axis tracking, in which solar modules are pointed at the sun, improves the overall capture of solar energy by a given area of modules by 30-50% versus modules with a fixed tilt. On sunny days the direct sunshine accounts for up to 90% of the total solar energy, with the other 10% from diffuse (scattered) solar energy. However, during overcast conditions nearly all of the solar irradiance is diffuse radiation that is isotropically-distributed over the whole sky. An analysis of our data shows that during overcast conditions, tilting a solar module or sensor away from the zenith reduces the irradiance relative to a horizontal configuration, in which the sensor or module is pointed toward the zenith (horizontal module tilt), and thus receives the highest amount of this isotropically-distributed sky radiation. This observation led to an improved tracking algorithm in which a solar array would track the sun during cloud-free periods using 2-axis tracking, when the solar disk is visible, but go to a horizontal configuration when the sky becomes overcast. During cloudy periods we show that a horizontal module orientation increases the solar energy capture by nearly 50% compared to 2-axis solar tracking during the same period. Improving the harvesting of solar energy on cloudy days is important to using solar energy on a daily basis for fueling fuel-cell electric vehicles or charging extended-range electric vehicles because it improves the energy capture on the days with the lowest hydrogen generation, which in turn reduces the system size and cost. (author)

  7. Sun Harvest Solar Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Project Facility Sun Harvest Solar Project Sector Solar Facility Type Fixed Tilt Ground-Mount Owner EnXco Developer EnXco Energy Purchaser Fresno Adventist Academy...

  8. Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Baker, D. N.; Reeves, G. D.; Kanekal, S. G.; Spence, H. E.; Green, J. C.

    2015-09-07

    In this study by determining preferential solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration is crucial for predicting radiation belt electron dynamics. Using Van Allen Probes electron observations (>1 MeV) from 2012 to 2015, we identify a number of efficient and inefficient acceleration events separately to perform a superposed epoch analysis of the corresponding solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices. By directly comparing efficient and inefficient acceleration events, we clearly show that prolonged southward Bz, high solar wind speed, and low dynamic pressure are critical for electron acceleration to >1 MeV energies in the heart of the outermore » radiation belt. We also evaluate chorus wave evolution using the superposed epoch analysis for the identified efficient and inefficient acceleration events and find that chorus wave intensity is much stronger and lasts longer during efficient electron acceleration events, supporting the scenario that chorus waves play a key role in MeV electron acceleration.« less

  9. Comparison of Historical Satellite-Based Estimates of Solar Radiation Resources with Recent Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Measurements: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2009-03-01

    The availability of rotating shadow band radiometer measurement data at several new stations provides an opportunity to compare historical satellite-based estimates of solar resources with measurements. We compare mean monthly daily total (MMDT) solar radiation data from eight years of NSRDB and 22 years of NASA hourly global horizontal and direct beam solar estimates with measured data from three stations, collected after the end of the available resource estimates.

  10. The Effect of Gas Absorption on the Scattered Radiation in the Solar Almucantar: Results of Numerical Simulation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gas Absorption on the Scattered Radiation in the Solar Almucantar: Results of Numerical Simulation T. Yu. Chesnokova, K. M. Firsov, I. M. Nasrtdinov, S. M. Sakerin, V. V. Veretennikov, and T. B. Zhuravleva Institute of Atmospheric Optics Tomsk, Russia Introduction The methods for reconstruction of the aerosol optical characteristics (e.g., aerosol size distribution, and single-scattering albedo) from diffuse and direct radiation measured in the solar almucantar has been widely used during the

  11. Modeling tropical Pacific sea surface temperature with satellite-derived solar radiative forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seager, R.; Blumenthal, M.B.

    1994-12-01

    Two independent datasets for the solar radiation at the surface derived from satellites are compared. The data derived from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) is for the net solar radiation at the surface whereas the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data is for the downward flux only and was corrected with a space- and time-varying albedo. The ISCCP net flux is at all times higher than the ERBE flux. The difference can be divided into an offset that decreases with latitude and another component that correlates with high tropical cloud cover. With this latter exception the two datasets provide spatial patterns of solar flux that are very similar. A tropical Pacific Ocean model is forced with these two datasets and observed climatological winds. The upward heat flux is parameterized taking into account separately the longwave radiative, latent, and sensible heat fluxes. Best fit values for the uncertain parameters are found using an optimization procedure that seeks to minimize the difference between model and observed SST by varying the parameters within a reasonable range of uncertainty. The SST field the model produces with the best fit parameters is the best the model can do. If the differences between the model and data are larger than can be accounted for by remaining uncertainties in the heat flux parameterization and forcing data then the ocean model must be held to be at fault. Using this method of analysis, a fundamental model fault is identified. Inadequate treatment of mixed layer/entrainment processes in upwelling regions of the eastern tropical Pacific leads to a large and seasonally varying error in the model SST. Elsewhere the model SST is insufficiently different from observed to be able to identify model errors.

  12. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Concentrating Solar...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power Resource Maps These direct-normal solar radiation maps-filtered by solar resource and land availability-identify the most economically suitable lands ...

  13. Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... comprehensively recording solar irradiance data to accompany its outdoor PV testing. ...

  14. Evaluation of Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances. These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and a pyranometer with fixed internal shading and are all deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. Data from 32 global horizontal irradiance and 19 direct normal irradiance radiometers are presented. The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances.

  15. VISUAL-SOLAR

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003661IBMPC00 Visual-SOLAR: Modeling and Visualization of Solar Radiation Potential on Individual Building Rooftops

  16. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayers, Marion Jay; Ayers, Shannon Lee

    2012-10-09

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  17. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayers, Marion Jay; Ayers, Shannon Lee

    2010-08-24

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  18. Black River Farm Solar Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Project Facility Black River Farm Solar Project Sector Solar Facility Type Fixed Tilt Ground-Mount & Roof-Mount Owner EnXco Developer EnXco Energy Purchaser Black River Farm...

  19. Measurement of the solar ultraviolet radiation at ground level in Bangi, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aljawi, Ohoud; Gopir, Geri; Duay, Abdul Basit

    2015-04-24

    Understanding the amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation received by human, plant, and animal organisms near the earth’s surface is important to a wide range of fields such as cancer research, agriculture and forestry. The solar ultraviolet spectral irradiance at ground level was measured using the Avantes spectrometer for the period of January to March 2014 at Bangi (2°55´N, 101°46´E, 50 m above sea level) in Malaysia. These data were used to estimate the diurnal variation of UV irradiance (300 – 400 nm). The maximum irradiance of UV radiation was 45 W m{sup −2} on horizontal surface. The maximum irradiance of UV received in the local noon time, and the minimum values of UV irradiance was received in the local morning time. It is found a bigger value of UV radiation was observed on clear sky in January. The estimation of daily flux average of UV irradiance was (921± 91) kJ m{sup −2}.

  20. An Acoustic Wave Equation for Tilted Transversely Isotropic Media...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An Acoustic Wave Equation for Tilted Transversely Isotropic Media Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Acoustic Wave Equation for Tilted Transversely Isotropic Media ...

  1. Evaluation of two Vaisala RS92 radiosonde solar radiative dry bias correction algorithms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dzambo, A. M.; Turner, D. D.; Mlawer, E. J.

    2015-10-20

    Solar heating of the relative humidity (RH) probe on Vaisala RS92 radiosondes results in a large dry bias in the upper troposphere. Two different algorithms (Miloshevich et al., 2009, MILO hereafter; and Wang et al., 2013, WANG hereafter) have been designed to account for this solar radiative dry bias (SRDB). These corrections are markedly different with MILO adding up to 40 % more moisture to the original radiosonde profile than WANG; however, the impact of the two algorithms varies with height. The accuracy of these two algorithms is evaluated using three different approaches: a comparison of precipitable water vapor (PWV),moredownwelling radiative closure with a surface-based microwave radiometer at a high-altitude site (5.3 km MSL), and upwelling radiative closure with the space-based Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). The PWV computed from the uncorrected and corrected RH data is compared against PWV retrieved from ground-based microwave radiometers at tropical, mid-latitude, and arctic sites. Although MILO generally adds more moisture to the original radiosonde profile in the upper troposphere compared to WANG, both corrections yield similar changes to the PWV, and the corrected data agree well with the ground-based retrievals. The two closure activities done for clear-sky scenes use the radiative transfer models MonoRTM and LBLRTM to compute radiance from the radiosonde profiles to compare against spectral observations. Both WANG- and MILO-corrected RH are statistically better than original RH in all cases except for the driest 30 % of cases in the downwelling experiment, where both algorithms add too much water vapor to the original profile. In the upwelling experiment, the RH correction applied by the WANG vs. MILO algorithm is statistically different above 10 km for the driest 30 % of cases and above 8 km for the moistest 30 % of cases, suggesting that the MILO correction performs better than the WANG in clear-sky scenes. The cause of this statistical significance is likely explained by the fact the WANG correction also accounts for cloud cover a condition not accounted for in the radiance closure experiments.less

  2. User`s manual for TMY2s: Derived from the 1961--1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marion, W.; Urban, K.

    1995-06-01

    This report is a user`s manual that describes typical meteorological year (TMY) data sets derived from the 1961-1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base. The TMY is a data set of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological elements for a 1-year period. The intended use if for computer simulations of solar energy conversion systems and building systems. Section 1 of the manual provides general information about the TMYs; Section 2 lists the stations and provides station identifying information and classification; Section 3 details the contents of the TMY2 files and provides the hourly records of data values; Section 4 compares TMY2 with 30-year data sets; Appendices provide procedures used to develop TMYs and a table to convert SI data to other units.

  3. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2016-03-15

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  4. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2012-12-11

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  5. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-09-08

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  6. solar

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    2%2A en Solar power purchase for DOE laboratories http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasessolarpower

  7. SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE AND LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM FLOW PARAMETERS FROM INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER LOW ENERGY HYDROGEN MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Moebius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; French, J.; Saul, L.; Wurz, P.; Bzowski, M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Frisch, P.; Gruntman, M.; Mueller, H. R.

    2013-10-01

    Neutral hydrogen atoms that travel into the heliosphere from the local interstellar medium (LISM) experience strong effects due to charge exchange and radiation pressure from resonant absorption and re-emission of Ly?. The radiation pressure roughly compensates for the solar gravity. As a result, interstellar hydrogen atoms move along trajectories that are quite different than those of heavier interstellar species such as helium and oxygen, which experience relatively weak radiation pressure. Charge exchange leads to the loss of primary neutrals from the LISM and the addition of new secondary neutrals from the heliosheath. IBEX observations show clear effects of radiation pressure in a large longitudinal shift in the peak of interstellar hydrogen compared with that of interstellar helium. Here, we compare results from the Lee et al. interstellar neutral model with IBEX-Lo hydrogen observations to describe the distribution of hydrogen near 1 AU and provide new estimates of the solar radiation pressure. We find over the period analyzed from 2009 to 2011 that radiation pressure divided by the gravitational force (?) has increased slightly from ? = 0.94 0.04 in 2009 to ? = 1.01 0.05 in 2011. We have also derived the speed, temperature, source longitude, and latitude of the neutral H atoms and find that these parameters are roughly consistent with those of interstellar He, particularly when considering the filtration effects that act on H in the outer heliosheath. Thus, our analysis shows that over the period from 2009 to 2011, we observe signatures of neutral H consistent with the primary distribution of atoms from the LISM and a radiation pressure that increases in the early rise of solar activity.

  8. More Frequent Cloud-Free Sky and Less Surface Solar Radiation in China from 1955 to 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Kaiser, Dale P.; Leung, Lai R.; Xu, Ming

    2006-01-11

    Newly available data from extended weather stations and time period reveal that much of China has experienced statistically significant decreases in total cloud cover and low cloud cover over roughly the last half of the Twentieth century. This conclusion is supported by our recent analysis of the more reliably observed frequency of cloud-free sky and overcast sky. The total cloud cover and low cloud cover have decreased 0.88% and 0.33% per decade, respectively, and cloud-free days have increased 0.60% and overcast days decreased 0.78% per decade in China from 1954-2001. Meanwhile, both solar radiation and pan evaporation have decreased in most parts of China, with solar radiation decreasing 3.1 W/m2 and pan evaporation decreasing 39 mm per decade. Combined with other evidences documented in previous studies, we conjectured that increased air pollution may have produced a fog-like haze that reflected/absorbed radiation from the sun and resulted in less solar radiation reaching the surface, despite concurrent upward trends in cloud-free skies over China.

  9. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cities and counties in North Carolina generally may not adopt ordinances prohibiting the installation of "a solar collector that gathers solar radiation as a substitute for traditional energy for...

  10. Evaluation of Various Methods for Estimating Global Solar Radiation in the Southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woli, Prem; Paz, Joel O.

    2011-12-23

    Global solar radiation Rg is an important input for crop models to simulate crop responses. Because the scarcity of long and continuous records of Rg is a serious limitation in many countries, Rg is estimated using models. For crop-model application, empirical Rg models that use commonly measured meteorological variables, such as temperature and precipitation, are generally preferred. Although a large number of models of this kind exist, few have been evaluated for conditions in the United States. This study evaluated the performances of 16 empirical, temperature- and/or precipitation-based Rg models for the southeastern United States. By taking into account spatial distribution and data availability, 30 locations in the region were selected and their daily weather data spanning eight years obtained. One-half of the data was used for calibrating the models, and the other half was used for evaluation. For each model, location-specific parameter values were estimated through regressions. Models were evaluated for each location using the root-mean-square error and the modeling efficiency as goodness-of-fit measures. Among the models that use temperature or precipitation as the input variable, the Mavromatis model showed the best performance. The piecewise linear regression–based Wu et al. model (WP) performed best not only among the models that use both temperature and precipitation but also among the 16 models evaluated, mainly because it has separate relationships for low and high radiation levels. The modeling efficiency of WP was from ~5% to more than 100% greater than those of the other models, depending on models and locations.

  11. Solar Radiation Monitoring Station (SoRMS): Humboldt State University, Arcata, California (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    A partnership with HSU and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  12. Solar Radiation Monitoring Station (SoRMS): Humboldt State University, Arcata, California (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    2007-05-02

    A partnership with HSU and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  13. Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  14. Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  15. Solar Radiation Map of the U.S. - Annual (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Maps that provide monthly average daily total solar resource information on grid cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size.

  16. University of Texas Panamerican (UTPA): Solar Radiation Lab (SRL); Edinburg, Texas (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Ramos, J.; Andreas, A.

    This measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  17. University of Texas Panamerican (UTPA): Solar Radiation Lab (SRL); Edinburg, Texas (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Ramos, J.; Andreas, A.

    2011-09-01

    This measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  18. File:NREL-africa-tilt.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    tilt.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Africa - Annual Flat Plate Tilted at Latitude (PDF) Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution...

  19. Solar UV radiation exposure of seamen - Measurements, calibration and model calculations of erythemal irradiance along ship routes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feister, Uwe; Meyer, Gabriele; Kirst, Ulrich

    2013-05-10

    Seamen working on vessels that go along tropical and subtropical routes are at risk to receive high doses of solar erythemal radiation. Due to small solar zenith angles and low ozone values, UV index and erythemal dose are much higher than at mid-and high latitudes. UV index values at tropical and subtropical Oceans can exceed UVI = 20, which is more than double of typical mid-latitude UV index values. Daily erythemal dose can exceed the 30-fold of typical midlatitude winter values. Measurements of erythemal exposure of different body parts on seamen have been performed along 4 routes of merchant vessels. The data base has been extended by two years of continuous solar irradiance measurements taken on the mast top of RV METEOR. Radiative transfer model calculations for clear sky along the ship routes have been performed that use satellite-based input for ozone and aerosols to provide maximum erythemal irradiance and dose. The whole data base is intended to be used to derive individual erythemal exposure of seamen during work-time.

  20. Study of the processes of degradation of the optical properties of mesoporous and macroporous silicon upon exposure to simulated solar radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levitskii, V. S.; Lenshin, A. S. Seredin, P. V.; Terukov, E. I.

    2015-11-15

    The effect of solar radiation on the surface composition of mesoporous and macroporous silicon is studied by infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence measurements in order to analyze the possibility of using these materials as a material for solar-power engineering. The studies are conducted in the laboratory environment, with the use of a solar-radiation simulator operating under conditions close to the working conditions of standard silicon solar cells. The studies show that, in general, the materials meet the requirements of solar-power engineering, if it is possible to preclude harmful effects associated with the presence of heat-sensitive and photosensitive bonds at the nanomaterial surface by standard processing methods.

  1. A Method of Correcting for Tilt From Horizontal in Downwelling Shortwave Irradiance Measurements on Moving Platforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Charles N.; Bucholtz, Anthony; Jonsson, Haf; Schmid, Beat; Vogelmann, A. M.; Wood, John

    2010-04-14

    Significant errors occur in downwelling shortwave irradiance measurements made on moving platforms due to tilt from horizontal because, when the sun is not completely blocked by overhead cloud, the downwelling shortwave irradiance has a prominent directional component from the direct sun. A-priori knowledge of the partitioning between the direct and diffuse components of the total shortwave irradiance is needed to properly apply a correction for tilt. This partitioning information can be adequately provided using a newly available commercial radiometer that produces reasonable measurements of the total and diffuse shortwave irradiance, and by subtraction the direct shortwave irradiance, with no moving parts and regardless of azimuthal orientation. We have developed methodologies for determining the constant pitch and roll offsets of the radiometers for aircraft applications, and for applying a tilt correction to the total shortwave irradiance data. Results suggest that the methodology is for tilt up to +/-10, with 90% of the data corrected to within 10 Wm-2 at least for clear-sky data. Without a proper tilt correction, even data limited to 5 of tilt as is typical current practice still exhibits large errors, greater than 100 Wm-2 in some cases. Given the low cost, low weight, and low power consumption of the SPN1 total and diffuse radiometer, opportunities previously excluded for moving platform measurements such as small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and solar powered buoys now become feasible using our methodology. The increase in measurement accuracy is important, given current concerns over long-term climate variability and change especially over the 70% of the Earths surface covered by ocean where long-term records of these measurements are sorely needed and must be made on ships and buoys.

  2. Prediction of tilted capillary barrier performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, S.W.; McCord, J.T.; Dwyer, S.F.

    1997-04-01

    Capillary barriers, consisting of tilted fine-over-coarse layers under unsaturated conditions, have been suggested as landfill covers to divert water infiltration away from sensitive underground regions, especially for arid and semi-arid regions. The Hydrological Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) computer code is an evaluation tool for landfill covers used by designers and regulators. HELP is a quasi-two-dimensional model that predicts moisture movement into and through the underground soil and waste layers. Processes modeled within HELP include precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration, unsaturated vertical drainage, saturated lateral drainage, and leakage through liners. Unfortunately, multidimensional unsaturated flow phenomena that are necessary for evaluating tilted capillary barriers are not included in HELP. Differences between the predictions of the HELP and those from a multidimensional unsaturated flow code are presented to assess the two different approaches. Comparisons are presented for the landfill covers including capillary barrier configurations at the Alternative Landfill Cover Demonstration (ALCD) being conducted at Sandia.

  3. Stabilizing windings for tilting and shifting modes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardin, Stephen C.; Christensen, Uffe R.

    1984-01-01

    This invention relates to passive conducting loops for stabilizing a plasma ring against unstable tilting and/or shifting modes. To this end, for example, plasma ring in a spheromak is stabilized by a set of four figure-8 shaped loops having one pair on one side of the plasma and one pair on the other side with each pair comprising two loops whose axes are transverse to each other.

  4. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer. One minute averages of 3-second data for 12 months from the test instrument measurements were compared with the computed reference data set. Combined uncertainty in the computed reference irradiance is 1.8% {+-} 0.5%. Total uncertainty in the pyranometer comparisons is {+-}2.5%. We show mean percent difference between reference global irradiance and test pyranometer 1 minute data as a function of zenith angle, and percent differences between daily totals for the reference and test irradiances as a function of day number. We offer no explicit conclusion about the performance of instrument models, as a general array of applications with a wide range of instrumentation and accuracy requirements could be addressed with any of the radiometers.

  5. Solar Energy Science Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Projects Curriculum: Solar Power -(thermodynamics, lightelectromagnetic, radiation, energy transformation, ... to record the following data: Water temperature before: ...

  6. Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozzola, A. Kowalczewski, P.; Andreani, L. C.

    2014-03-07

    Thin-film solar cells based on silicon have emerged as an alternative to standard thick wafers technology, but they are less efficient, because of incomplete absorption of sunlight, and non-radiative recombinations. In this paper, we focus on the case of crystalline silicon (c-Si) devices, and we present a full analytic electro-optical model for p-n junction solar cells with Lambertian light trapping. This model is validated against numerical solutions of the drift-diffusion equations. We use this model to investigate the interplay between light trapping, and bulk and surface recombination. Special attention is paid to surface recombination processes, which become more important in thinner devices. These effects are further amplified due to the textures required for light trapping, which lead to increased surface area. We show that c-Si solar cells with thickness of a few microns can overcome 20% efficiency and outperform bulk ones when light trapping is implemented. The optimal device thickness in presence of light trapping, bulk and surface recombination, is quantified to be in the range of 1080??m, depending on the bulk quality. These results hold, provided the effective surface recombination is kept below a critical level of the order of 100?cm/s. We discuss the possibility of meeting this requirement, in the context of state-of-the-art techniques for light trapping and surface passivation. We show that our predictions are within the capability of present day silicon technologies.

  7. On the Results of Measurements of the Direct Sun Radiation Flux by Actinometer and of Maximal Polarization of Sky Brightness in the Solar Almucantar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    On the Results of Measurements of the Direct Sun Radiation Flux by Actinometer and of Maximal Polarization of Sky Brightness in the Solar Almucantar A. Kh. Shukurov, K. A. Shukurov, and G. S. Golitsyn A. M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow, Russia Introduction It is well known that analysis of variations of sky brightness, B, in the visible points to a close correlation between the degree of maximal polarization, P M , in the solar almucantar (with

  8. An Acoustic Wave Equation for Tilted Transversely Isotropic Media...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Acoustic Wave Equation for Tilted Transversely Isotropic Media A finite-difference method for computing the first arrival traveltimes ...

  9. An evaluation of the effect of volcanic eruption on the solar radiation at Australian and Canadian stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yatko, B.R.; Garrison, J.D.

    1996-11-01

    Peak (most probable) and average values of {angstrom}`s turbidity coefficient {beta} and peak (most probable) and average values of the diffuse index k{sub d} are obtained from the solar radiation data from 21 stations in Australia and 5 stations in Canada. These data exhibit clear increases in their values when the volcanic aerosols in the stratosphere increase following volcanic eruptions of sufficient magnitude. The effect of the eruptions of Fuego (1974), El Chichon (1982) and Pinatubo (1991) are seen most clearly in the data. The effect of lesser eruptions is also seen. The store of volcanic aerosols in the stratosphere shifts with the season so that scattering by volcanic aerosols in the spring half of the year is stronger than in the fall.

  10. On the relationship factor between the PV module temperature and the solar radiation on it for various BIPV configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplanis, S. Kaplani, E.

    2014-10-06

    Temperatures of c-Si, pc-Si and a-Si PV modules making part of a roof in a building or hanging outside windows with various inclinations were measured with respect to the Intensity of the solar radiation on them under various environmental conditions. A relationship coefficient f was provided whose values are compared to those from a PV array operating in a free standing mode on a terrace. A theoretical model to predict f was elaborated. According to the analysis, the coefficient f takes higher values for PV modules embedded on a roof compared to the free standing PV array. The wind effect is much stronger for the free standing PV than for any BIPV configuration, either the PV is part of the roof, or placed upon the roof, or is placed outside a window like a shadow hanger. The f coefficient depends on various parameters such as angle of inclination, wind speed and direction, as well as solar radiation. For very low wind speeds the effect of the angle of inclination, ?, of the PV module with respect to the horizontal on PV temperature is clear. As the wind speed increases, the heat transfer from the PV module shifts from natural flow to forced flow and this effect vanishes. The coefficient f values range from almost 0.01 m{sup 2}C/W for free standing PV arrays at strong wind speeds, v{sub W}>7m/s, up to around 0.05 m{sup 2}C/W for the case of flexible PV modules which make part of the roof in a BIPV system.

  11. Impacts, Effectiveness and Regional Inequalities of the GeoMIP G1 to G4 Solar Radiation Management Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiaoyong; Moore, John; Cui, Xuefeng; Rinke, Annette; Ji, Duoying; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2015-06-01

    We evaluate the regional effectiveness of solar radiation management (SRM) to compensate for simultaneous changes in temperature and precipitation induced by increased greenhouse gas concentrations. We analyze results from multiple earth system models under four Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project(GeoMIP) experiments with a modified form of the Residual Climate Response approach. Under the solar dimming geoengineering experiments G1(4xCO2) and G2(increasing CO2 by 1% per year), global average temperature is successfully restored to pre-industrial level over 50 years simulations. However, these two SRM experiments also produce a robust global precipitation decrease. The stratospheric aerosol GeoMIP geoengineering experiment, G4 has significantly greater regional inequality and lower effectiveness for compensating temperature change than G1 and G2. G4 also has significantly larger regional inequality for compensating precipitation change than G1and G2. However, there is no significant difference between precipitation change compensation effectiveness of G4 and G2, though there is much larger across model variability in G4 results. G3 has significant greater regional inequality for compensating temperature change than G1 and G2, and has significant lower effectiveness than G1. The effectiveness of four SRMs to compensate for temperature change is much higher than for precipitation. The large cross-model variation in adjustment percentage of compensated SAT and precipitation change by SRM to achieve optimal compensation effectiveness shed a light on the uncertainty accumulation effect in optimizing compensation effectiveness of SRM.

  12. The effect of initial conditions on the electromagnetic radiation generation in type III solar radio bursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitz, H.; Tsiklauri, D.

    2013-06-15

    Extensive particle-in-cell simulations of fast electron beams injected in a background magnetised plasma with a decreasing density profile were carried out. These simulations were intended to further shed light on a newly proposed mechanism for the generation of electromagnetic waves in type III solar radio bursts [D. Tsiklauri, Phys. Plasmas, 18, 052903 (2011)]. The numerical simulations were carried out using different density profiles and fast electron distribution functions. It is shown that electromagnetic L and R modes are excited by the transverse current, initially imposed on the system. In the course of the simulations, no further interaction of the electron beam with the background plasma could be observed.

  13. Observation of tilting activities in translated field reversed configuration plasma using computer tomography at two different cross sections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, Satoru; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Okada, Shigefumi

    2007-11-15

    Tilting activities of field reversed configuration (FRC) plasma were observed in translation experiments using computer tomography (CT) at two different cross sections in the FRC injection experiment (FIX) machine [S. Okada et al., Nucl. Fusion 47, 677 (2007)]. In these experiments, two sets of CT devices were installed at the upstream and downstream sides of the confinement chamber of the FIX. Each CT device was composed of three arrays of detectors sensitive to the near-infrared radiation. The peak of the reconstructed emission profile at one side was displaced from the center of the cross section of the chamber. On the other hand, the reconstructed profile at the other side was located around the center. This result suggests that the FRC plasma was tilting in the axial direction. The occurrence of the observed tilting activities had almost no effect on the lifetime of the FRC plasma.

  14. SOLAR 97 CONFERENCE: MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PV output datasets generated for 2007 in southern Nevada are being used for a Solar PV ... a a A A T Z T Z AOI , (1) where Z is the solar zenith angle, T a is the tilt angle of the ...

  15. File:NREL-afg-10km-tilt.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    tilt.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Afghanistan - Annual Flat Plate Tilted at Latitude Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution...

  16. Norathyriol Suppresses Skin Cancers Induced by Solar Ultraviolet Radiation by Targeting ERK Kinases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jixia; Malakhova, Margarita; Mottamal, Madhusoodanan; Reddy, Kanamata; Kurinov, Igor; Carper, Andria; Langfald, Alyssa; Oi, Naomi; Kim, Myoung Ok; Zhu, Feng; Sosa, Carlos P.; Zhou, Keyuan; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang

    2012-06-27

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is the leading factor in the development of skin cancer, prompting great interest in chemopreventive agents for this disease. In this study, we report the discovery of norathyriol, a plant-derived chemopreventive compound identified through an in silico virtual screening of the Chinese Medicine Library. Norathyriol is a metabolite of mangiferin found in mango, Hypericum elegans, and Tripterospermum lanceolatum and is known to have anticancer activity. Mechanistic investigations determined that norathyriol acted as an inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 activity to attenuate UVB-induced phosphorylation in mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling cascades. We confirmed the direct and specific binding of norathyriol with ERK2 through a cocrystal structural analysis. The xanthone moiety in norathyriol acted as an adenine mimetic to anchor the compound by hydrogen bonds to the hinge region of the protein ATP-binding site on ERK2. Norathyriol inhibited in vitro cell growth in mouse skin epidermal JB6 P+ cells at the level of G{sub 2}-M phase arrest. In mouse skin tumorigenesis assays, norathyriol significantly suppressed solar UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. Further analysis indicated that norathyriol mediates its chemopreventive activity by inhibiting the ERK-dependent activity of transcriptional factors AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B during UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. Taken together, our results identify norathyriol as a safe new chemopreventive agent that is highly effective against development of UV-induced skin cancer.

  17. Solar Sales Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For both residential and non-residential systems, the exemption applies to solar-energy systems that utilize solar radiation to produce energy designed to provide heating, cooling, hot water and/or...

  18. Reconciliation of local and long range tilt correlations in underdoped...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    powder diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) approaches. Long-range and static CuO tilt order with orthogonally inequivalent Cu-O bonds in the CuO planes in...

  19. Dual-frequency terahertz emission from splitting filaments induced by lens tilting in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhelin; Chen, Yanping Yang, Liu; Yuan, Xiaohui; Liu, Feng; Chen, Min; Xu, Jianqiu; Zhang, Jie; Sheng, Zhengming

    2014-09-08

    Dual-frequency terahertz radiation from air-plasma filaments produced with two-color lasers in air has been demonstrated experimentally. When a focusing lens is tilted for a few degrees, it is shown that the laser filament evolves from a single one to two sub-filaments. Two independent terahertz sources emitted from the sub-filaments with different frequencies and polarizations are identified, where the frequency of terahertz waves from the trailing sub-filament is higher than that from the leading sub-filament.

  20. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Data and Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data and Resources For concentrating solar power technologies, NREL features the following online solar radiation resource data and solar resource maps, as well as data for ...

  1. Energy balance studies over varying ground cover of the Colorado River riparian zone below Glen Canyon Dam, Part II. Modeling of solar and net radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brazel, A.J.; Brazel, S.W.; Marcus, M.G.

    1995-06-01

    A numerical radiation model was utilized to investigate the diurnal and seasonal variability of solar input at four sites along the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam: river miles -14.5, 43, 55, and 194. These simulations were compared to observations made during the spring growing season (April, 1994), the pre-monsoon dry season (June-July, 1994), the monsoon season (August, 1994), and winter (January 1995). At each river mile above, a main station was established for a 24-36 hour period observing radiation components. This station serves as a reference point to compare with simulations. The model requires specifications of sky horizon effects, albedo, atmospheric attentuation, and nearby terrain emissivity and reflectivity. A combination of field data, surveying information, and radiation theory provides an adequate methodology to yield close agreement between observations and simulations in the canyon environment. Solar shading by canyon topography can be responsible for as much 40% loss of potential photosynthetic radiation in summer months, even more at the equinoxes, and a near total reduction at some sites in winter.

  2. Reconstruction and Prediction of Variations of Total Ozone and Associated Variations of UV-B Solar Radiation for Subarctic Regions Based of Dendrochronologic Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuev, V.V.; Bondarenko, S.L.

    2005-03-18

    Variations of dendrochronologic parameters, especially annual ring density, significantly reflect the physiological tree response to systematic variations of solar UV-B radiation, taking place on monthly and longer timescales during growing season. Such variations of UV-B radiation are totally governed by variations of total ozone (TO). Thus, in any dendrochronologic signal, especially for coniferous trees, there is also a recorded response to TO variations, characterizing variations of UV-B radiation. Because a monitoring of global TO distribution is regularly performed since 1979 using TOMS satellite instrumentation, there appears a possibility to reconstruct TO behavior in the past practically at any point of dendrochronologic monitoring network. The reconstruction is performed by the method of linear regression, based on significant correlation of annual ring density of coniferous trees and TO for coordinates of denrochronologic signal. The present report considers the Subarctic latitudes, which are characterized by considerable TO variations in the second half of twentieth century.

  3. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Laboratory Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    To research, develop, and test a variety of concentrating solar power technologies, NREL features the following laboratory capabilities: Concentrated Solar Radiation Facility Large ...

  4. A New Solar Irradiance Reference Spectrum

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Solar Irradiance Reference Spectrum Pilewskie, Peter University of Colorado ... We describe the development of a new solar reference spectrum for radiation and climate ...

  5. Method to fabricate a tilted logpile photonic crystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, John D.; Sweatt, William C.

    2010-10-26

    A method to fabricate a tilted logpile photonic crystal requires only two lithographic exposures and does not require mask repositioning between exposures. The mask and photoresist-coated substrate are spaced a fixed and constant distance apart using a spacer and the stack is clamped together. The stack is then tilted at a crystallographic symmetry angle (e.g., 45 degrees) relative to the X-ray beam and rotated about the surface normal until the mask is aligned with the X-ray beam. The stack is then rotated in plane by a small stitching angle and exposed to the X-ray beam to pattern the first half of the structure. The stack is then rotated by 180.degree. about the normal and a second exposure patterns the remaining half of the structure. The method can use commercially available DXRL scanner technology and LIGA processes to fabricate large-area, high-quality tilted logpile photonic crystals.

  6. Final row of solar panels installed at Livermore | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration Blog Final row of solar panels installed at Livermore Monday, January 11, 2016 - 1:14pm NNSA Blog The last row of panels at the Whitethorn Solar Facility project site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California was installed last week. When complete, the 3.3 MW fixed-tilt solar photovoltaic facility will represent the largest DOE/NNSA purchase of solar energy from an onsite facility. Electrical installation will continue for several more weeks, then

  7. First Solar Corporate Template 2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 © Copyright 2013, First Solar, Inc. Why Are We Backtracking? 3 © Copyright 2013, First Solar, Inc. Shading Response * First Solar modules are laid-out in landscape configuration * Shadow always perpendicular to the short edge of cells * Ignoring edge effects, shading has a similar diurnal profile on a fixed-tilt and a north-south axis horizontal tracker arrays I(V) Characteristic, Partially Shaded FS Series 2 PV Module, with Entire Cells Shaded 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0 20 40 60 80 100

  8. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-03-01

    This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

  9. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

    1980-10-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  10. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahoney, Alan R.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Martinez, F. Edward

    2004-08-31

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  11. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahoney, Alan R.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Martinez, F. Edward

    2003-10-14

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  12. Effect of number of stack on the thermal escape and non-radiative and radiative recombinations of photoexcited carriers in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAsP multiple quantum-well-inserted solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aihara, Taketo; Fukuyama, Atsuhiko; Ikari, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Fujii, Hiromasa; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Sugiyama, Masakazu

    2015-02-28

    Three non-destructive methodologies, namely, surface photovoltage (SPV), photoluminescence, and piezoelectric photothermal (PPT) spectroscopies, were adopted to detect the thermal carrier escape from quantum well (QW) and radiative and non-radiative carrier recombinations, respectively, in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAsP multiple-quantum-well (MQW)-inserted GaAs p-i-n solar cell structure samples. Although the optical absorbance signal intensity was proportional to the number of QW stack, the signal intensities of the SPV and PPT methods decreased at high number of stack. To explain the temperature dependency of these signal intensities, we proposed a model that considers the three carrier dynamics: the thermal escape from the QW, and the non-radiative and radiative carrier recombinations within the QW. From the fitting procedures, it was estimated that the activation energies of the thermal escape ΔE{sub barr} and non-radiative recombination ΔE{sub NR} were 68 and 29 meV, respectively, for a 30-stacked MQW sample. The estimated ΔE{sub barr} value agreed well with the difference between the first electron subband and the top of the potential barrier in the conduction band. We found that ΔE{sub barr} remained constant at approximately 70 meV even with increasing QW stack number. However, the ΔE{sub NR} value monotonically increased with the increase in the number of stack. Since this implies that non-radiative recombination becomes improbable as the number of stack increases, we found that the radiative recombination probability for electrons photoexcited within the QW increased at a large number of QW stack. Additional processes of escaping and recapturing of carriers at neighboring QW were discussed. As a result, the combination of the three non-destructive methodologies provided us new insights for optimizing the MQW components to further improve the cell performance.

  13. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Clement J.

    1992-01-01

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

  14. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, C.J.

    1992-12-01

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor. 5 figs.

  15. EIS-0039: Motor Gasoline Deregulation and the Gasoline Tilt

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Economic Regulatory Administration developed this EIS to evaluate the environmental impacts, including social and economic impacts, that may result from either of two proposed regulatory changes: (1) the exemption of motor gasoline from the Department of Energy's Mandatory Petroleum Price and Allocation Regulations, and (2) the adoption of the gasoline tilt, a proposed regulation that would allow refiners to recover an additional amount of their total increased costs on gasoline.

  16. Solar retorting of oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

  17. Solar collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, S.L.

    1984-08-01

    This report contains summaries and pictures of projects funded by the Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program which include the following solar technologies: solar dish; photovoltaics; passive solar building and solar hot water system; Trombe wall; hot air panel; hybrid solar heating system; solar grain dryer; solar greenhouse; solar hot water workshops; and solar workshops.

  18. Solar resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulstrom, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Following the 1973 oil embargo, the US government initiated a program to develop and use solar energy. This led to individual programs devoted to developing various solar radiation energy conversion technologies: photovoltaic and solar-thermal conversion devices. Nearly concurrently, it was recognized that understanding the available insolation resources was required to develop and deploy solar energy devices and systems. It was also recognized that the insolation information available at that time (1973) was not adequate to meet the specific needs of the solar energy community. Federal efforts were initiated and conducted to produce new and more extensive information and data. The primary federal agencies that undertook such efforts were the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). NOAA's efforts included activities performed by the National Weather Service (NWS) and the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This book has two man objectives: to report some of the insolation energy data, information, and products produced by the federal efforts and to describe how they were produced. Products include data bases, models and algorithms, monitoring networks, instrumentation, and scientific techniques. The scope of products and results does not include all those produced by past federal efforts. The book's scope and subject matter are oriented to support the intent and purpose of the other volumes in this series. In some cases, other pertinent material is presented to provide a more complete coverage of a given subject. 385 refs., 149 figs., 50 tabs.

  19. Community Shared Solar with Solarize | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Community Shared Solar with Solarize Community Shared Solar with Solarize

  20. A DECADE OF SOLAR TYPE III RADIO BURSTS OBSERVED BY THE NANCAY RADIOHELIOGRAPH 1998-2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saint-Hilaire, P. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)] [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Vilmer, N.; Kerdraon, A., E-mail: shilaire@ssl.berkeley.edu [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, Universite Paris-Diderot 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)

    2013-01-01

    We present a statistical survey of almost 10,000 radio type III bursts observed by the Nancay Radioheliograph from 1998 to 2008, covering nearly a full solar cycle. In particular, sources sizes, positions, and fluxes were examined. We find an east-west asymmetry in source positions that could be attributed to a 6 Degree-Sign {+-} 1 Degree-Sign eastward tilt of the magnetic field, that source FWHM sizes s roughly follow a solar-cycle-averaged distribution (dN/ds) Almost-Equal-To 14 {nu}{sup -3.3} s {sup -4} arcmin{sup -1} day{sup -1}, and that source fluxes closely follow a solar-cycle-averaged (dN/ds {sub {nu}}) Almost-Equal-To 0.34 {nu}{sup -2.9} S {sup -1.7} {sub {nu}} sfu{sup -1} day{sup -1} distribution (when {nu} is in GHz, s in arcminutes, and S {sub {nu}} in sfu). Fitting a barometric density profile yields a temperature of 0.6 MK, while a solar wind-like ({proportional_to}h {sup -2}) density profile yields a density of 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} cm{sup -3} at an altitude of 1 R{sub S} , assuming harmonic emission. Finally, we found that the solar-cycle-averaged radiated type III energy could be similar in magnitude to that radiated by nanoflares via non-thermal bremsstrahlung processes, and we hint at the possibility that escaping electron beams might carry as much energy away from the corona as is introduced into it by accelerated nanoflare electrons.

  1. Automatic recovery of missing amplitudes and phases in tilt-limited...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Automatic recovery of missing amplitudes and phases in tilt-limited electron crystallography of two-dimensional crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Automatic...

  2. Solar collector with altitude tracking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barak, Amitzur Z.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for turning a solar collector about an east-west horizontal axis so that the collector is tilted toward the sun as the EWV altitude of the sun varies each day. It includes one or more heat responsive elements and a shading means aligned so that within a range of EWV altitudes of the sun during daylight hours the shading means shades the element or elements while during the rest of the daylight hours the elements or elements are heated by the sun to assume heated, stable states. Mechanical linkage between the collector and the element is responsive to the states of the element or elements to tilt the collector in accordance with variations in the EWV altitude of the sun.

  3. The effects of gantry tilt on breast dose and image noise in cardiac CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Michael E.; Gandhi, Diksha; Schmidt, Taly Gilat; Stevens, Grant M.; Foley, W. Dennis

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: This study investigated the effects of tilted-gantry acquisition on image noise and glandular breast dose in females during cardiac computed tomography (CT) scans. Reducing the dose to glandular breast tissue is important due to its high radiosensitivity and limited diagnostic significance in cardiac CT scans.Methods: Tilted-gantry acquisition was investigated through computer simulations and experimental measurements. Upon IRB approval, eight voxelized phantoms were constructed from previously acquired cardiac CT datasets. Monte Carlo simulations quantified the dose deposited in glandular breast tissue over a range of tilt angles. The effects of tilted-gantry acquisition on breast dose were measured on a clinical CT scanner (CT750HD, GE Healthcare) using an anthropomorphic phantom with MOSFET dosimeters in the breast regions. In both simulations and experiments, scans were performed at gantry tilt angles of 0°–30°, in 5° increments. The percent change in breast dose was calculated relative to the nontilted scan for all tilt angles. The percent change in noise standard deviation due to gantry tilt was calculated in all reconstructed simulated and experimental images.Results: Tilting the gantry reduced the breast dose in all simulated and experimental phantoms, with generally greater dose reduction at increased gantry tilts. For example, at 30° gantry tilt, the dosimeters located in the superior, middle, and inferior breast regions measured dose reductions of 74%, 61%, and 9%, respectively. The simulations estimated 0%–30% total breast dose reduction across the eight phantoms and range of tilt angles. However, tilted-gantry acquisition also increased the noise standard deviation in the simulated phantoms by 2%–50% due to increased pathlength through the iodine-filled heart. The experimental phantom, which did not contain iodine in the blood, demonstrated decreased breast dose and decreased noise at all gantry tilt angles.Conclusions: Tilting the gantry reduced the dose to the breast, while also increasing noise standard deviation. Overall, the noise increase outweighed the dose reduction for the eight voxelized phantoms, suggesting that tilted gantry acquisition may not be beneficial for reducing breast dose while maintaining image quality.

  4. Microelectromechanical apparatus for elevating and tilting a platform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Samuel Lee; McWhorter, Paul Jackson; Rodgers, Murray Steven; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Barnes, Stephen M.

    2003-04-08

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus is disclosed which has a platform that can be elevated above a substrate and tilted at an arbitrary angle using a plurality of flexible members which support the platform and control its movement. Each flexible member is further controlled by one or more MEM actuators which act to bend the flexible member. The MEM actuators can be electrostatic comb actuators or vertical zip actuators, or a combination thereof. The MEM apparatus can include a mirror coating to form a programmable mirror for redirecting or switching one or more light beams for use in a projection display. The MEM apparatus with the mirror coating also has applications for switching light beams between optical fibers for use in a local area fiber optic network, or for use in fiber optic telecommunications or data communications systems.

  5. Microelectromechanical apparatus for elevating and tilting a platform

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Samuel Lee; McWhorter, Paul Jackson; Rodgers, Murray Steven; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Barnes, Stephen M.

    2004-07-06

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus is disclosed which has a platform that can be elevated above a substrate and tilted at an arbitrary angle using a plurality of flexible members which support the platform and control its movement. Each flexible member is further controlled by one or more MEM actuators which act to bend the flexible member. The MEM actuators can be electrostatic comb actuators or vertical zip actuators, or a combination thereof. The MEM apparatus can include a mirror coating to form a programmable mirror for redirecting or switching one or more light beams for use in a projection display. The MEM apparatus with-the mirror coating also has applications for switching light beams between optical fibers for use in a local area fiber optic network, or for use in fiber optic telecommunications or data communications systems.

  6. Apparatus for raising or tilting a micromechanical structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, James J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-09-09

    An active hinge apparatus is disclosed which can be used to raise a micromechanical structure (e.g. a plate or micromirror) on a substrate. The active hinge apparatus utilizes one or more of teeth protruding outward from an axle which also supports the micromechanical structure on one end thereof. A rack is used to engage the teeth and rotate the axle to raise the micromechanical structure and tilt the structure at an angle to the substrate. Motion of the rack is provided by an actuator which can be a mechanically-powered actuator, or alternately an electrostatic comb actuator or a thermal actuator. A latch can be optionally provided in the active hinge apparatus to lock the micromechanical structure in an "erected" position.

  7. Solar Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... Sciences Applications National Solar Thermal Test Facility Nuclear Energy ...

  8. Generation of short gamma-ray pulses on electron bunches formed in intense interfering laser beams with tilted fronts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korobkin, V V; Romanovskiy, M Yu; Trofimov, V A; Shiryaev, O B

    2014-05-30

    It is shown that in the interference of multiple laser pulses with a relativistic intensity, phase and amplitude fronts of which are tilted at an angle with respect to their wave vector, effective traps of charged particles, which are moving at the velocity of light, are formed. Such traps are capable of capturing and accelerating the electrons produced in the ionisation of low-density gas by means of laser radiation. The accelerated electrons in the traps form a bunch, whose dimensions in all directions are much smaller than the laser radiation wavelength. Calculations show that the energy of accelerated electrons may amount to several hundred GeV at experimentally accessible relativistic laser intensities. As a result of the inverse Compton scattering, gamma-quanta with a high energy and narrow radiation pattern are emitted when these electrons interact with a laser pulse propagating from the opposite direction. The duration of emitted gamma-ray pulses constitutes a few attoseconds. The simulation is performed by solving the relativistic equation of motion for an electron with a relevant Lorentz force. (interaction of radiation with matter)

  9. Solar thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toberer, Eric S.; Baranowski, Lauryn L.; Warren, Emily L.

    2016-05-03

    Solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) are solid state heat engines that generate electricity from concentrated sunlight. A novel detailed balance model for STEGs is provided and applied to both state-of-the-art and idealized materials. STEGs can produce electricity by using sunlight to heat one side of a thermoelectric generator. While concentrated sunlight can be used to achieve extremely high temperatures (and thus improved generator efficiency), the solar absorber also emits a significant amount of black body radiation. This emitted light is the dominant loss mechanism in these generators. In this invention, we propose a solution to this problem that eliminates virtually all of the emitted black body radiation. This enables solar thermoelectric generators to operate at higher efficiency and achieve said efficient with lower levels of optical concentration. The solution is suitable for both single and dual axis solar thermoelectric generators.

  10. Feasibility Study of Solar Photovoltaics on Landfills in Puerto Rico (Second Study)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2011-08-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a solar photovoltaics (PV) system on landfill sites in Puerto Rico. The purpose of this report is to assess the landfills with the highest potential for possible solar PV installation and estimate cost, performance, and site impacts of three different PV options: crystalline silicon (fixed tilt), crystalline silicon (single-axis tracking), and thin film (fixed tilt). The report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system. According to the site production calculations, the most cost-effective system in terms of return on investment is the thin-film fixed-tilt technology. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system. The landfills and sites considered in this report were all determined feasible areas in which to implement solar PV systems.

  11. Method for removing tilt control in adaptive optics systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salmon, J.T.

    1998-04-28

    A new adaptive optics system and method of operation are disclosed, whereby the method removes tilt control, and includes the steps of using a steering mirror to steer a wavefront in the desired direction, for aiming an impinging aberrated light beam in the direction of a deformable mirror. The deformable mirror has its surface deformed selectively by means of a plurality of actuators, and compensates, at least partially, for existing aberrations in the light beam. The light beam is split into an output beam and a sample beam, and the sample beam is sampled using a wavefront sensor. The sampled signals are converted into corresponding electrical signals for driving a controller, which, in turn, drives the deformable mirror in a feedback loop in response to the sampled signals, for compensating for aberrations in the wavefront. To this purpose, a displacement error (gradient) of the wavefront is measured, and adjusted by a modified gain matrix, which satisfies the following equation: G{prime} = (I{minus}X(X{sup T} X){sup {minus}1}X{sup T})G(I{minus}A). 3 figs.

  12. Method for removing tilt control in adaptive optics systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salmon, Joseph Thaddeus

    1998-01-01

    A new adaptive optics system and method of operation, whereby the method removes tilt control, and includes the steps of using a steering mirror to steer a wavefront in the desired direction, for aiming an impinging aberrated light beam in the direction of a deformable mirror. The deformable mirror has its surface deformed selectively by means of a plurality of actuators, and compensates, at least partially, for existing aberrations in the light beam. The light beam is split into an output beam and a sample beam, and the sample beam is sampled using a wavefront sensor. The sampled signals are converted into corresponding electrical signals for driving a controller, which, in turn, drives the deformable mirror in a feedback loop in response to the sampled signals, for compensating for aberrations in the wavefront. To this purpose, a displacement error (gradient) of the wavefront is measured, and adjusted by a modified gain matrix, which satisfies the following equation: G'=(I-X(X.sup.T X).sup.-1 X.sup.T)G(I-A)

  13. Precision tip-tilt-piston actuator that provides exact constraint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hale, Layton C.

    1999-01-01

    A precision device which can precisely actuate three degrees of freedom of an optic mount, commonly referred to as tip, tilt, and piston. The device consists of three identical flexure mechanisms, an optic mount to be supported and positioned, a structure that supports the flexure mechanisms, and three commercially available linear actuators. The advantages of the precision device is in the arrangement of the constraints offered by the flexure mechanism and not in the particular design of the flexure mechanisms, as other types of mechanisms could be substituted. Each flexure mechanism constrains two degrees of freedom in the plane of the mechanisms and one direction is actuated. All other degrees of freedom are free to move within the range of flexure mechanisms. Typically, three flexure mechanisms are equally spaced in angle about to optic mount and arranged so that each actuated degree of freedom is perpendicular to the plane formed by the optic mount. This arrangement exactly constrains the optic mount and allows arbitrary actuated movement of the plane within the range of the flexure mechanisms. Each flexure mechanism provides a mechanical advantage, typically on the order of 5:1, between the commercially available actuator and the functional point on the optic mount. This improves resolution by the same ratio and stiffness by the square of the ratio.

  14. PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOLAR 99 CONFERENCE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SOLAR 99 CONFERENCE Including Proceedings of ASES Annual Conference Proceedings of 24 th National Passive Solar Conference Portland, Maine June 12 -16, 1999 Editors: R. Campbell-Howe B. Wilkins-Crowder American Solar Energy Society American Institute of Architects Committee on the Environment Printed on recycled paper HIGH-RESOLUTION MAPS OF SOLAR COLLECTOR PERFORMANCE USING A CLIMATOLOGICAL SOLAR RADIATION MODEL Raymond L. George National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Blvd. Golden, CO

  15. PROBING THE UNIVERSE'S TILT WITH THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND DIPOLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Kashlinsky, A. E-mail: alexander.kashlinsky@nasa.gov

    2011-06-10

    Conventional interpretation of the observed cosmic microwave background (CMB) dipole is that all of it is produced by local peculiar motions. Alternative explanations requiring part of the dipole to be primordial have received support from measurements of large-scale bulk flows. A test of the two hypotheses is whether other cosmic dipoles produced by collapsed structures later than the last scattering coincide with the CMB dipole. One background is the cosmic infrared background (CIB) whose absolute spectrum was measured to {approx}30% by the COBE satellite. Over the 100-500 {mu}m wavelength range its spectral energy distribution can provide a probe of its alignment with the CMB. This is tested with the COBE FIRAS data set which is available for such a measurement because of its low noise and frequency resolution which are important for Galaxy subtraction. Although the FIRAS instrument noise is in principle low enough to determine the CIB dipole, the Galactic foreground is sufficiently close spectrally to keep the CIB dipole hidden. A similar analysis is performed with DIRBE, which-because of the limited frequency coverage-provides a poorer data set. We discuss strategies for measuring the CIB dipole with future instruments to probe the tilt and apply it to the Planck, Herschel, and the proposed Pixie missions. We demonstrate that a future FIRAS-like instrument with instrument noise a factor of {approx}10 lower than FIRAS would make a statistically significant measurement of the CIB dipole. We find that the Planck and Herschel data sets will not allow a robust CIB dipole measurement. The Pixie instrument promises a determination of the CIB dipole and its alignment with either the CMB dipole or the dipole galaxy acceleration vector.

  16. Microsoft Word - Tilted-Rig-TP-Definition-Version1-Aug-14-2012A...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Test Problem: Tilted Rayleigh-Taylor for 2-D Mixing Studies Authors: Malcolm J. Andrews (XCP-4, LANL), 505-606-1430, mandrews@lanl.gov David L. Youngs (AWE) , david.youngs@awe.co.u...

  17. Effects of a tilted magnetic field in a Dirac double layer (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Effects of a tilted magnetic field in a Dirac double layer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects of a tilted magnetic field in a Dirac double layer Authors: Pershoguba, Sergey S. ; Abergel, D. S. L. ; Yakovenko, Victor M. ; Balatsky, A. V. Publication Date: 2015-02-20 OSTI Identifier: 1180576 Grant/Contract Number: E304 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review B Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 91; Journal

  18. Solar Easements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Hampshire's "solar skyspace easement" provisions allow property owners to create solar easements in order to create and preserve a right to unobstructed access to solar energy. Easements remain...

  19. Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Power Solar Power Project Opportunities Abound in the Region The WIPP site is receives abundant solar energy with 6-7 kWhsq meter power production potential As the ...

  20. Solar Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Goes Big: Launching the California Valley Solar Ranch Solar Goes Big: Launching the California Valley Solar Ranch October 31, 2013 - 4:14pm Addthis The California Valley Solar Ranch produces clean, renewable electricity at the scale of traditional power plants. | Photo courtesy of SunPower. The California Valley Solar Ranch produces clean, renewable electricity at the scale of traditional power plants. | Photo courtesy of SunPower. Aerial shot of the California Valley Solar Ranch in

  1. Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2009-06-01

    Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earths surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activity data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.

  2. Electricity production using solar energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, M.F.

    2007-07-01

    In this study, a solar-powered development project is used to identify whether it is possible to utilize solar technologies in the electricity production sector. Electricity production from solar energy has been found to be a promising method in the future. Concentrated solar energy can be converted to chemical energy via high-temperature endothermic reactions. Coal and biomass can be pyrolyzed or gasified by using concentrated solar radiation for generating power. Conventional energy will not be enough to meet the continuously increasing need for energy in the future. In this case, renewable energy sources will become important. Solar energy is an increasing need for energy in the future. Solar energy is a very important energy source because of its advantages. Instead of a compressor system, which uses electricity, an absorption cooling system, using renewable energy and kinds of waste heat energy, may be used for cooling.

  3. Solar Decathlon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department's Solar Decathlon challenges collegiate teams to design, build and operate solar-powered houses that are cost effective, energy efficient and attractive.

  4. Solar Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Events, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Research & Capabilities, Solar, Solar Newsletter, SunShot, ... The system will be monitored and tested to collect a range of data ...

  5. Solar Decathlon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... and workforce development opportunity for ... around the world: Solar Decathlon China 2013, Solar Decathlon ... and two-way power flow for operation of ...

  6. Method for processing silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Landry, M.D.; Pitts, J.R.

    1997-05-06

    The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystalline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation. 2 figs.

  7. Method for processing silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y. Simon; Landry, Marc D.; Pitts, John R.

    1997-01-01

    The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystallline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation.

  8. Portable solar water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borodulin, G.; Baron, R.; Shkolnik, A.

    1985-11-12

    A combined table and portable solar water heater comprises a suitcase-like rigid casing molded from a rigid plastic material which contains a pair of solar collector panels and connected in series. The panels can be exposed to solar radiation when the casing is opened. Each collector panel or is formed by a copper plate with the solar radiation absorbing surface and copper pipe coil or in heat-transferring relationship with said copper plate. The casing is provided with compartments for accessories, such as adjustable legs for supporting the casing, adjusting its angle to incident sunlight, and for converting the casing into a table; containers for feeding cold water to the solar collector and for receiving hot water from the collector; and a tripod stand for supporting the feeding container at the level above the collector and for arranging a shower set. Temperature-insulating layers of the collectors are formed by separate pieces of rigid material which can be removed from the casing and assembled into a box-shaped container which can be utilized for maintaining water heated by means of the solar water heater at an elevated temperature.

  9. Solar Energy Educational Material, Activities and Science Projects

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Solar Energy Educational Materials Solar with glasses "The sun has produced energy for billions of years. Solar energy is the solar radiation that reaches the earth. Solar energy can be converted directly or indirectly into other forms of energy, such as heat and electricity. ... [It can be] used for heating water for domestic use, space heating of buildings, drying agricultural products, and generating electrical energy." - Edited excerpt from Solar Energy - Energy from the Sun DOE

  10. Thermophotovoltaics | Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermophotovoltaics Solar Thermophotovoltaics (STPVs) are solar driven heat engines which extract electrical power from thermal radiation. The overall goal is to absorb and convert the broadband solar radiation spectrum into a narrowband thermal emission spectrum tuned to the spectral response of a photovoltaic cell (PV) [1]. STPVs are of significant interest as they have the potential to overcome the well-known Shockley-Queisser limit for single junction PV given sufficient spectral control.

  11. Region Solar Inc Solar Inc California Renewable Energy Solar...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Point Drive Fort Collins Colorado Solar Solar cell passive solar architectural glass solar grid tie inverter semiconductor flat panel display data storage http www advanced...

  12. Design and initial characterization of a compact, ultra high vacuum compatible, low frequency, tilt accelerometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OToole, A. E-mail: riccardo.desalvo@gmail.com; Pea Arellano, F. E.; Rodionov, A. V.; Kim, C.; Shaner, M.; Asadoor, M.; Sobacchi, E.; Dergachev, V.; DeSalvo, R. E-mail: riccardo.desalvo@gmail.com; Bhawal, A.; Gong, P.; Lottarini, A.; Minenkov, Y.; Murphy, C.

    2014-07-15

    A compact tilt accelerometer with high sensitivity at low frequency was designed to provide low frequency corrections for the feedback signal of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory active seismic attenuation system. It has been developed using a Tungsten Carbide ceramic knife-edge hinge designed to avoid the mechanical 1/f noise believed to be intrinsic in polycrystalline metallic flexures. Design and construction details are presented; prototype data acquisition and control limitations are discussed. The instrument's characterization reported here shows that the hinge is compatible with being metal-hysteresis-free, and therefore also free of the 1/f noise generated by the dislocation Self-Organized Criticality in the metal. A tiltmeter of this kind will be effective to separate the ground tilt component from the signal of horizontal low frequency seismometers, and to correct the ill effects of microseismic tilt in advanced seismic attenuation systems.

  13. Blue-tilted tensor spectrum and thermal history of the Universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Takahashi, Tomo; Yokoyama, Shuichiro E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp

    2015-02-01

    We investigate constraints on the spectral index of primordial gravitational waves (GWs), paying particular attention to a blue-tilted spectrum. Such constraints can be used to test a certain class of models of the early Universe. We investigate observational bounds from LIGO+Virgo, pulsar timing and big bang nucleosynthesis, taking into account the suppression of the amplitude at high frequencies due to reheating after inflation and also late-time entropy production. Constraints on the spectral index are presented by changing values of parameters such as reheating temperatures and the amount of entropy produced at late time. We also consider constraints under the general modeling approach which can approximately describe various scenarios of the early Universe. We show that the constraints on the blue spectral tilt strongly depend on the underlying assumption and, in some cases, a highly blue-tilted spectrum can still be allowed.

  14. Mojave Solar Park Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Park Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Mojave Solar Park Solar Power Plant Facility Mojave Solar Park Sector Solar Facility Type Concentrating Solar Power...

  15. Nevada Solar One Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar One Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Nevada Solar One Solar Power Plant Facility Nevada Solar One Sector Solar Facility Type Concentrating Solar Power...

  16. Starwood Solar I Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Starwood Solar I Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Starwood Solar I Solar Power Plant Facility Starwood Solar I Sector Solar Facility Type Concentrating Solar...

  17. Interplay of octahedral tilts and polar order in BiFeO3 films (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Interplay of octahedral tilts and polar order in BiFeO3 films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Interplay of octahedral tilts and polar order in BiFeO3 films Authors: Kim, Young Min [1] ; Kumar, Amit [1] ; Hatt, Alison J [2] ; Morozovska, A. N. [3] ; Tselev, Alexander [1] ; Biegalski, Michael D [1] ; Ivanov, Ilia N [1] ; Eliseev, E. A. [3] ; Pennycook, Stephen J [1] ; Rondinelli, James [4] ; Kalinin, Sergei V [1] ; Borisevich, Albina Y [1] + Show Author

  18. Suppression of n=1 Tilt Instability by Magnetic Shaping Coils in Rotamak Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, X.; Petrov, Y.; Huang, T. S.

    2009-06-26

    Measurements from the array of Mirnov magnetic coils provide the first evidence for n=1 tilt and radial shift instabilities in a 40 ms field-reversed configuration (FRC) driven by rotating magnetic field. External plasma-shaping magnetic coils are utilized to suppress the n=1 instability modes. It is demonstrated that by energizing the middle shaping coil with 250-500 A current, the tilt mode is completely suppressed when a doublet FRC with an internal figure-of-eight separatrix is formed.

  19. Inverted amorphous silicon solar cell utilizing cermet layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanak, Joseph J.

    1979-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell incorporating a transparent high work function metal cermet incident to solar radiation and a thick film cermet contacting the amorphous silicon opposite to said incident surface.

  20. ImagineSolar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Workforce training, Corporate consulting - Solar projects, Solar sales, Solar marketing, Solar business development, Solar policy, Solar advocacy, Solar government...

  1. Solar Manufacturing Projects | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Solar Manufacturing Projects Solar Manufacturing Projects Solar Manufacturing Projects Solar Manufacturing Projects Solar Manufacturing Projects Solar Manufacturing Projects SOLAR ...

  2. Weakest solar wind of the space age and the current 'MINI' solar maximum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McComas, D. J.; Angold, N.; Elliott, H. A.; Livadiotis, G.; Schwadron, N. A.; Smith, C. W.; Skoug, R. M.

    2013-12-10

    The last solar minimum, which extended into 2009, was especially deep and prolonged. Since then, sunspot activity has gone through a very small peak while the heliospheric current sheet achieved large tilt angles similar to prior solar maxima. The solar wind fluid properties and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) have declined through the prolonged solar minimum and continued to be low through the current mini solar maximum. Compared to values typically observed from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s, the following proton parameters are lower on average from 2009 through day 79 of 2013: solar wind speed and beta (?11%), temperature (?40%), thermal pressure (?55%), mass flux (?34%), momentum flux or dynamic pressure (?41%), energy flux (?48%), IMF magnitude (?31%), and radial component of the IMF (?38%). These results have important implications for the solar wind's interaction with planetary magnetospheres and the heliosphere's interaction with the local interstellar medium, with the proton dynamic pressure remaining near the lowest values observed in the space age: ?1.4 nPa, compared to ?2.4 nPa typically observed from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s. The combination of lower magnetic flux emergence from the Sun (carried out in the solar wind as the IMF) and associated low power in the solar wind points to the causal relationship between them. Our results indicate that the low solar wind output is driven by an internal trend in the Sun that is longer than the ?11 yr solar cycle, and they suggest that this current weak solar maximum is driven by the same trend.

  3. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the context of this law, a solar energy device is a system "manufactured and sold for the sole purpose of facilitating the collection and beneficial use of solar energy, including passive...

  4. Solar Blog

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    96426 Solar Blog en Solar Energy Jobs Outpace U.S. Economy http:energy.govarticlessolar-energy-jobs-outpace-us-economy

  5. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A solar energy system is defined as "a system affixed to a building or buildings that uses solar devices, which are thermally isolated from living space or any other area where the energy is used...

  6. Solar Forecasting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On December 7, 2012, DOE announced $8 million to fund two solar projects that are helping utilities and grid operators better forecast when, where, and how much solar power will be produced at U.S....

  7. First results of a polychromatic artificial sodium star for the correction of tilt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, H.; Foy, R..; Tallon, M.; Migus, A.

    1996-03-06

    This paper presents the first results of a joint experiment carried out at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during January, 1996. Laser and optical systems were tested to provide a polychromatic artificial sodium star for the correction of tilt. This paper presents the results of that experiment.

  8. Solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassidy, V.M.

    1981-11-01

    Practical applications of solar energy in commercial, industrial and institutional buildings are considered. Two main types of solar collectors are described: flat plate collectors and concentrating collectors. Efficiency of air and hydronic collectors among the flat plate types are compared. Also several concentrators are described, including their sun tracking mechanisms. Descriptions of some recent solar installations are presented and a list representing the cross section of solar collector manufacturers is furnished.

  9. Solar Easements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In addition, the state’s local zoning ordinances must address access to air and light, views, and solar access.

  10. Solar Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facilities Battery Abuse Testing Laboratory Cylindrical Boiling Facility Distributed Energy Technology Lab Microsystems and Engineering Sciences Applications National Solar ...

  11. Solar Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Solar Thermal Test Facility Nuclear ... Climate & Earth Systems Climate Measurement & Modeling ... Tribal Energy Program Intellectual Property Current EC ...

  12. Solar Storm Closely Watched Worldwide | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (NOAA) Space Weather Prediction Center provides important resources to describe the space environment, including geomagnetic storms, solar radiation storms and radio blackouts. ...

  13. Selection of a numerical unsaturated flow code for tilted capillary barrier performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, S.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geohydrology Dept.

    1996-09-01

    Capillary barriers consisting of tilted fine-over-coarse layers have been suggested as landfill covers as a means to divert water infiltration away from sensitive underground regions under unsaturated flow conditions, especially for arid and semi-arid regions. Typically, the HELP code is used to evaluate landfill cover performance and design. Unfortunately, due to its simplified treatment of unsaturated flow and its essentially one-dimensional nature, HELP is not adequate to treat the complex multidimensional unsaturated flow processes occurring in a tilted capillary barrier. In order to develop the necessary mechanistic code for the performance evaluation of tilted capillary barriers, an efficient and comprehensive unsaturated flow code needs to be selected for further use and modification. The present study evaluates a number of candidate mechanistic unsaturated flow codes for application to tilted capillary barriers. Factors considered included unsaturated flow modeling, inclusion of evapotranspiration, nodalization flexibility, ease of modification, and numerical efficiency. A number of unsaturated flow codes are available for use with different features and assumptions. The codes chosen for this evaluation are TOUGH2, FEHM, and SWMS{_}2D. All three codes chosen for this evaluation successfully simulated the capillary barrier problem chosen for the code comparison, although FEHM used a reduced grid. The numerical results are a strong function of the numerical weighting scheme. For the same weighting scheme, similar results were obtained from the various codes. Based on the CPU time of the various codes and the code capabilities, the TOUGH2 code has been selected as the appropriate code for tilted capillary barrier performance evaluation, possibly in conjunction with the infiltration, runoff, and evapotranspiration models of HELP. 44 refs.

  14. Central solar energy receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drost, M. Kevin

    1983-01-01

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  15. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, D.W.

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  16. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA); Hansen, Leif J. (Berkeley, CA); Evans, David B. (Orinda, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A receiver for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700.degree.-900.degree. C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  17. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.

    1982-09-29

    A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  18. Radiation-driven warping of circumbinary disks around eccentric young star binaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayasaki, Kimitake; Sohn, Bong Won; Jung, Taehyun; Zhao, Guangyao; Okazaki, Atsuo T.; Naito, Tsuguya

    2014-12-10

    We study a warping instability of a geometrically thin, non-self-gravitating, circumbinary disk around young binary stars on an eccentric orbit. Such a disk is subject to both the tidal torques due to a time-dependent binary potential and the radiative torques due to radiation emitted from each star. The tilt angle between the circumbinary disk plane and the binary orbital plane is assumed to be very small. We find that there is a radius within/beyond which the circumbinary disk is unstable to radiation-driven warping, depending on the disk density and temperature gradient indices. This marginally stable warping radius is very sensitive to viscosity parameters, a fiducial disk radius and the temperature measured there, the stellar luminosity, and the disk surface density at a radius where the disk changes from optically thick to thin for the irradiation from the central stars. On the other hand, it is insensitive to the orbital eccentricity and binary irradiation parameter, which is a function of the binary mass ratio and luminosity of each star. Since the tidal torques can suppress the warping in the inner part of the circumbinary disk, the disk starts to be warped in the outer part. While the circumbinary disks are most likely to be subject to the radiation-driven warping on an AU to kilo-AU scale for binaries with young massive stars more luminous than 10{sup 4} L {sub ?}, the radiation-driven warping does not work for those around young binaries with the luminosity comparable to the solar luminosity.

  19. High-Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a high-flux, microchannel solar receiver project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by Oregon State University, is working to demonstrate a microchannel-based solar receiver capable of absorbing high solar flux, while using a variety of liquid and gaseous working fluids. High-flux microchannel receivers have the potential to dramatically reduce the size and cost of a solar receiver by minimizing re-radiation and convective losses.

  20. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    1983-09-13

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

  1. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

    1983-01-01

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  2. Best Practices Handbook for the Collection and Use of Solar Energy Applications (Fact Sheet), Energy Systems Integration (ESI), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Best Practices Handbook for the Collection and Use of Solar Resource Data for Solar Energy Applications Comprehensive handbook helps the solar industry collect and interpret solar resource data for each stage of a solar energy project. About the Handbook The Best Practices Handbook for the Collection and Use of Solar Radiation Data for Solar Energy Applications provides the solar energy industry with a single document addressing key aspects of solar resource characterization needed for planning

  3. El Dorado Solar Project Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Project Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name El Dorado Solar Project Solar Power Plant Facility El Dorado Solar Project Sector Solar Facility Type Photovoltaic...

  4. Beacon Solar Energy Project Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Energy Project Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Beacon Solar Energy Project Solar Power Plant Facility Beacon Solar Energy Project Sector Solar Facility...

  5. Deming Solar Plant Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Deming Solar Plant Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Deming Solar Plant Solar Power Plant Facility Deming Solar Plant Sector Solar Facility Type Photovoltaic...

  6. SES Calico Solar One Project Solar Power Plant | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Calico Solar One Project Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name SES Calico Solar One Project Solar Power Plant Facility SES Calico Solar One Project Sector Solar...

  7. Nvision.Solar - Ravnishte Solar PV Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar - Ravnishte Solar PV Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Nvision.Solar - Ravnishte Solar PV Plant Facility Ravishte roof and facade mounted solar power plant Sector Solar...

  8. Solar Millenium Palen Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Palen Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Solar Millenium Palen Solar Power Plant Facility Solar Millenium Palen Sector Solar Facility Type Concentrating Solar Power...

  9. SES Solar Two Project Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Two Project Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name SES Solar Two Project Solar Power Plant Facility SES Solar Two Project Sector Solar Facility Type Concentrating Solar...

  10. Prescott Airport Solar Plant Solar Power Plant | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Prescott Airport Solar Plant Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Prescott Airport Solar Plant Solar Power Plant Facility Prescott Airport Solar Plant Sector Solar...

  11. Carrizo Energy Solar Farm Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carrizo Energy Solar Farm Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Carrizo Energy Solar Farm Solar Power Plant Facility Carrizo Energy Solar Farm Sector Solar Facility...

  12. Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe Print Tuesday, 26 March 2013 00:00 To study the origins of different isotope ratios among the elements that make up today's smorgasbord of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and interplanetary ice and dust, a team of scientists from the University of California, San Diego is using ALS Chemical Dynamics Beamline 9.0.2 to mimic radiation from the protosun when the solar system was forming. For more than three

  13. Amorphous silicon solar cell allowing infrared transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E.

    1979-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell with a layer of high index of refraction material or a series of layers having high and low indices of refraction material deposited upon a transparent substrate to reflect light of energies greater than the bandgap energy of the amorphous silicon back into the solar cell and transmit solar radiation having an energy less than the bandgap energy of the amorphous silicon.

  14. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giebink, Noel C.

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the concentrator optical efficiency was found to decrease significantly with increasing aperture width beyond 0.5 m due to parasitic waveguide out-coupling loss and low-level absorption that become dominant at larger scale. A heat transfer model was subsequently implemented to predict collector fluid heat gain and outlet temperature as a function of flow rate using the optical model as a flux input. It was found that the aperture width size limitation imposed by the optical efficiency characteristics of the waveguide limits the absolute optical power delivered to the heat transfer element per unit length. As compared to state-of-the-art parabolic trough CPV system aperture widths approaching 5 m, this limitation leads to an approximate factor of order of magnitude increase in heat transfer tube length to achieve the same heat transfer fluid outlet temperature. The conclusion of this work is that scattering solar thermal concentration cannot be implemented at the scale and efficiency required to compete with the performance of current parabolic trough CSP systems. Applied within the alternate context of CPV, however, the results of this work have likely opened up a transformative new path that enables quasi-static, high efficiency CPV to be implemented on rooftops in the form factor of traditional fixed-panel photovoltaics.

  15. Solar cell with a gallium nitride electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pankove, Jacques I.

    1979-01-01

    A solar cell which comprises a body of silicon having a P-N junction therein with a transparent conducting N-type gallium nitride layer as an ohmic contact on the N-type side of the semiconductor exposed to solar radiation.

  16. Solar Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas ...

  17. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ordinances, bylaws, or regulations may reasonably restrict the installation and use of solar energy devices to protect public health and safety, buildings from damage, historic/aesthetic values (...

  18. Solar Mapper

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Interactive, online mapping tool providing access to spatial data related to siting utility-scale solar facilities in the southwestern United States.

  19. Cosmological signatures of tilted isocurvature perturbations: reionization and 21cm fluctuations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Silk, Joseph E-mail: hiroyuki.tashiro@asu.edu E-mail: naoshi@nagoya-u.jp

    2014-03-01

    We investigate cosmological signatures of uncorrelated isocurvature perturbations whose power spectrum is blue-tilted with spectral index 2?tilted isocurvature primordial power spectrum. We also study the consequences for 21cm line fluctuations due to neutral hydrogens in minihalos. Combination of measurements of the reionization optical depth and 21cm line fluctuations will provide complementary probes of a highly blue-tilted isocurvature power spectrum.

  20. Integrated solar thermal energy collector system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.D.

    1987-08-18

    A solar thermal collector system is described one of a class of devices which converts solar radiation into heat and transmits this heat to storage from whence it is utilized, comprising: an evacuated glass solar collector, the evacuated glass solar collector having a glass vacuum envelope, the upper portion of the glass vacuum envelope also serving as window to pass solar radiation, the evacuated glass solar collector having a multiplicity of substantially parallel linear adjacent concentrating troughs, each trough shaped and mirror surfaced so as concentrate solar radiation in the vacuum, the mirror surface inside the vacuum and the concentration approximately ideal, the multiplicity of substantially parallel linear adjacent troughs extending substantially over the entire length and width of the evacuated glass solar collector; a heat storage system, the heat storage system adjacent to the evacuated glass solar collector, the heat storage system having a heat storage tank which is thermally insulated, the heat storage tank containing a heat storage medium, and the heat storage system including means of removal of heat from the heat storage tank for utilization.

  1. Photovoltaic Solar Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photovoltaic Solar Projects Photovoltaic Solar Projects Photovoltaic Solar Projects Photovoltaic Solar Projects Photovoltaic Solar Projects Photovoltaic Solar Projects Photovoltaic ...

  2. Solar Array Tracking Control

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-06-22

    SolarTrak used in conjunction with various versions of 68HC11-based SolarTrack hardware boards provides control system for one or two axis solar tracking arrays. Sun position is computed from stored position data and time from an on-board clock/calendar chip. Position feedback can be by one or two offset motor turn counter square wave signals per axis, or by a position potentiometer. A limit of 256 counts resolution is imposed by the on-board analog to digital (A/D)more » convertor. Control is provided for one or two motors. Numerous options are provided to customize the controller for specific applications. Some options are imposed at compile time, some are setable during operation. Software and hardware board designs are provided for Control Board and separate User Interface Board that accesses and displays variables from Control Board. Controller can be used with range of sensor options ranging from a single turn count sensor per motor to systems using dual turn-count sensors, limit sensors, and a zero reference sensor. Dual axis trackers oriented azimuth elevation, east west, north south, or polar declination can be controlled. Misalignments from these orientations can also be accommodated. The software performs a coordinate transformation using six parameters to compute sun position in misaligned coordinates of the tracker. Parameters account for tilt of tracker in two directions, rotation about each axis, and gear ration errors in each axis. The software can even measure and compute these prameters during an initial setup period if current from a sun position sensor or output from photovoltaic array is available as an anlog voltage to the control board''s A/D port. Wind or emergency stow to aj present position is available triggered by digital or analog signals. Night stow is also available. Tracking dead band is adjustable from narrow to wide. Numerous features of the hardware and software conserve energy for use with battery powered systems.« less

  3. Unified Solar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Unified Solar is an MIT startup that is commercializing an integrated circuit solution that eliminates most of the adverse effects caused by partial shading in photovoltaic power systems. With its patent-pending design, Unified Solar's solution is smaller, cheaper and more powerful than any competing power optimizer in the market.

  4. Sandia Energy - Solar Resource Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Resource Assessment Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Resource Assessment Solar Resource AssessmentTara...

  5. Sandia Energy - Solar Market Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Market Transformation Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Market Transformation Solar Market TransformationTara...

  6. Solar Fuels from Rust: Atomic Layer Control of α-Fe2O3 | ANSER Center |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Educational Materials Solar with glasses "The sun has produced energy for billions of years. Solar energy is the solar radiation that reaches the earth. Solar energy can be converted directly or indirectly into other forms of energy, such as heat and electricity. ... [It can be] used for heating water for domestic use, space heating of buildings, drying agricultural products, and generating electrical energy." - Edited excerpt from Solar Energy - Energy from the Sun DOE

  7. Thermal efficiency of single-pass solar air collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibrahim, Zamry; Ibarahim, Zahari; Yatim, Baharudin; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz

    2013-11-27

    Efficiency of a finned single-pass solar air collector was studied. This paper presents the experimental study to investigate the effect of solar radiation and mass flow rate on efficiency. The fins attached at the back of absorbing plate to improve the thermal efficiency of the system. The results show that the efficiency is increased proportional to solar radiation and mass flow rate. Efficiency of the collector archived steady state when reach to certain value or can be said the maximum performance.

  8. Deep-level defects introduced by 1 MeV electron radiation in AlInGaP for multijunction space solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, H.S.; Yamaguchi, M.; Ekins-Daukes, N. J.; Khan, A.; Takamoto, T.; Agui, T.; Kamimura, K.; Kaneiwa, M.; Imaizumi, M.; Ohshima, T.; Itoh, H.

    2005-11-01

    Presented in this paper are 1 MeV electron irradiation effects on wide-band-gap (1.97 eV) (Al{sub 0.08}Ga{sub 0.92}){sub 0.52}In{sub 0.48}P diodes and solar cells. The carrier removal rate estimated in p-AlInGaP with electron fluence is about 1 cm{sup -1}, which is lower than that in InP and GaAs. From high-temperature deep-level transient spectroscopy measurements, a deep-level defect center such as majority-carrier (hole) trap H2 (E{sub {nu}}+0.90{+-}0.05 eV) was observed. The changes in carrier concentrations ({delta}p) and trap densities as a function of electron fluence were compared, and as a result the total introduction rate, 0.39 cm{sup -1}, of majority-carrier trap centers (H1 and H2) is different from the carrier removal rate, 1 cm{sup -1}, in p-AlInGaP. From the minority-carrier injection annealing (100 mA/cm{sup 2}), the annealing activation energy of H2 defect is {delta}E=0.60 eV, which is likely to be associated with a vacancy-phosphorus Frenkel pair (V{sub p}-P{sub i}). The recovery of defect concentration and carrier concentration in the irradiated p-AlInGaP by injection relates that a deep-level defect H2 acts as a recombination center as well as compensator center.

  9. Solar Two

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1998-04-01

    Solar Two is a concentrating solar power plant that can supply electric power on demand to the local utility, Southern California Edison Company. It can do so because it operates not only during sunny parts of the day, but it can store enough thermal energy from the sun to operate during cloudy periods and after dark, for up to three hours, at its rated output of 10 megawatts (MW). For the first time ever, a utility scale solar power plant can supply electricity when the utility needs it most, to satisfy the energy requirements of its customers.

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Niamey, Niger...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Meteosat operational geostationary satellite in order to provide the first well-sampled, direct estimates of the divergence of solar and thermal radiation across the atmosphere. ...

  11. PROJECT PROFILE: Solar Electric Power Association (Solar Market...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Electric Power Association (Solar Market Pathways) PROJECT PROFILE: Solar Electric Power Association (Solar Market Pathways) Title: Community Solar Design Models for ...

  12. Solar Millenium Ridgecrest Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ridgecrest Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Solar Millenium Ridgecrest Solar Power Plant Facility Solar Millenium Ridgecrest Sector Solar Facility Type...

  13. SES Solar Three Project Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Three Project Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name SES Solar Three Project Solar Power Plant Facility SES Solar Three Project Sector Solar Facility Type Photovoltaics...

  14. Renewable Energy Concepts Solar Inc REC Solar | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Concepts Solar Inc REC Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Renewable Energy Concepts Solar Inc (REC Solar) Place: San Luis Obispo, California Zip: 93401 Sector: Solar Product:...

  15. Solar Radiometric Data Quality Assessment of SIRS, SKYRAD and GNDRAD

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Measurements (Poster) (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Solar Radiometric Data Quality Assessment of SIRS, SKYRAD and GNDRAD Measurements (Poster) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solar Radiometric Data Quality Assessment of SIRS, SKYRAD and GNDRAD Measurements (Poster) Solar radiation is the driving force for the earth's weather and climate. Understanding the elements of this dynamic energy balance requires accurate measurements of broadband solar irradiance. Since the

  16. NREL: International Activities - India Solar Resource Maps & Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    International Activities Printable Version A button that leads to NREL's National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) India Solar Resoource - Annual Average DNI Map Annual Average DNI Map JPG 12.5 MB India Annual Average GHI Map - Annual Average GHI Map Annual Average GHI Map JPG 13.3 MB The cover page of the India Solar Resource Data Fact Sheet India Solar Resource Data Fact Sheet PDF 395 KB India Solar Resource Maps & Data (updated March 2016) This page provides solar resource maps and data

  17. Solar Circuitry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time: 4 to 5 class periods Summary: Students will learn how the solar cell changes light energy to electrical energy. Students will work in small groups and construct different ...

  18. solar energy

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    8%2A en Solar power purchase for DOE laboratories http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasessolarpower

  19. solar power

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    9%2A en Solar power purchase for DOE laboratories http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasessolarpower

  20. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In June of 2015, SB 1626 was signed into law. It provides that during the development period, the developer may only prohibit  a property owner from installing solar in developments with 50 or...

  1. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Gang; Ren, Zhifeng

    2015-07-09

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate in the lab that solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) can exceed 10% solar-to-electricity efficiency, and STEGs can be integrated with phase-change materials (PCM) for thermal storage, providing operation beyond daylight hours. This project achieved significant progress in many tasks necessary to achieving the overall project goals. An accurate Themoelectric Generator (TEG) model was developed, which included realistic treatment of contact materials, contact resistances and radiative losses. In terms of fabricating physical TEGs, high performance contact materials for skutterudite TE segments were developed, along with brazing and soldering methods to assemble segmented TEGs. Accurate measurement systems for determining device performance (in addition to just TE material performance) were built for this project and used to characterize our TEGs. From the optical components’ side, a spectrally selective cermet surface was developed with high solar absorptance and low thermal emittance, with thermal stability at high temperature. A measurement technique was also developed to determine absorptance and total hemispherical emittance at high temperature, and was used to characterize the fabricated spectrally selective surfaces. In addition, a novel reflective cavity was designed to reduce radiative absorber losses and achieve high receiver efficiency at low concentration ratios. A prototype cavity demonstrated that large reductions in radiative losses were possible through this technique. For the overall concentrating STEG system, a number of devices were fabricated and tested in a custom built test platform to characterize their efficiency performance. Additionally, testing was performed with integration of PCM thermal storage, and the storage time of the lab scale system was evaluated. Our latest testing results showed a STEG efficiency of 9.6%, indicating promising potential for high performance concentrated STEGs.

  2. Entanglement, avoided crossings, and quantum chaos in an Ising model with a tilted magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karthik, J.; Sharma, Auditya; Lakshminarayan, Arul [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2007-02-15

    We study a one-dimensional Ising model with a magnetic field and show that tilting the field induces a transition to quantum chaos. We explore the stationary states of this Hamiltonian to show the intimate connection between entanglement and avoided crossings. In general, entanglement gets exchanged between the states undergoing an avoided crossing with an overall enhancement of multipartite entanglement at the closest point of approach, simultaneously accompanied by diminishing two-body entanglement as measured by concurrence. We find that both for stationary as well as nonstationary states, nonintegrability leads to a destruction of two-body correlations and distributes entanglement more globally.

  3. Oxford Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxford Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Oxford Solar Place: Randolph, New Jersey Zip: 7869 Sector: Solar Product: Oxford Solar provides solar energy consulting and...

  4. Akeena Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Akeena Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Akeena Solar Name: Akeena Solar Address: 16005 Los Gatos Blvd. Place: Los Gatos, California Zip: 95032 Sector: Solar Product: Solar...

  5. Adobe Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adobe Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Adobe Solar Name: Adobe Solar Place: Denver, Colorado Region: Rockies Area Sector: Solar Product: solar electric systems Phone Number:...

  6. Climatic Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climatic Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Climatic Solar Name: Climatic Solar Address: 650 2nd Lane Place: Vero Beach, Florida Zip: 32962 Sector: Solar Product: solar energy...

  7. Tejas Solares | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tejas Solares Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tejas Solares Place: Spain Sector: Solar Product: Tejas Solares is a Spain-based company focused on providing solar solutions for...

  8. SBM Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: SBM Solar Place: North Carolina Sector: Solar Product: SBM Solar is a solar panel manufacturer based in North Carolina. References: SBM Solar1 This article is...

  9. Alpha Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Basics of Radiation Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Basics of Radiation Characteristics of Alpha Radiation 1. Alpha radiation is not able to penetrate skin. 2. Alpha-emitting materials can be harmful to humans if the materials are inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through open wounds. 3. A variety of instruments

  10. Detection of solar events

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischbach, Ephraim; Jenkins, Jere

    2013-08-27

    A flux detection apparatus can include a radioactive sample having a decay rate capable of changing in response to interaction with a first particle or a field, and a detector associated with the radioactive sample. The detector is responsive to a second particle or radiation formed by decay of the radioactive sample. The rate of decay of the radioactive sample can be correlated to flux of the first particle or the field. Detection of the first particle or the field can provide an early warning for an impending solar event.

  11. NREL: Solar STAT Blog -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Outreach Policy Basics Publications Request Assistance Technical Assistance Project Map Solar STAT Blog The Solar STAT blog discusses state and local efforts to develop solar...

  12. Solar Resource Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE solar resource research focuses on understanding historical solar resource patterns and making future predictions, both of which are needed to support reliable power system operation. As solar...

  13. Front contact solar cell with formed emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cousins, Peter John

    2014-11-04

    A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by an N-type silicon substrate and a P-type polysilicon emitter formed on the backside of the solar cell. An antireflection layer may be formed on a textured front surface of the silicon substrate. A negative polarity metal contact on the front side of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the substrate, while a positive polarity metal contact on the backside of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the polysilicon emitter. An external electrical circuit may be connected to the negative and positive metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell. The positive polarity metal contact may form an infrared reflecting layer with an underlying dielectric layer for increased solar radiation collection.

  14. Front contact solar cell with formed emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cousins, Peter John

    2012-07-17

    A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by an N-type silicon substrate and a P-type polysilicon emitter formed on the backside of the solar cell. An antireflection layer may be formed on a textured front surface of the silicon substrate. A negative polarity metal contact on the front side of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the substrate, while a positive polarity metal contact on the backside of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the polysilicon emitter. An external electrical circuit may be connected to the negative and positive metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell. The positive polarity metal contact may form an infrared reflecting layer with an underlying dielectric layer for increased solar radiation collection.

  15. Kenya Hourly DNI, GHI and Diffuse Solar Data - Datasets - OpenEI...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kenya Hourly DNI, GHI and Diffuse Solar Data Abstract Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation (DNI, GHI and diffuse) and meteorological elements for a 1-year...

  16. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Solar Hot Water-Ready Checklist

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1. Location, based on zip code has at least 5 kWhm 2 day average daily solar radiation based on annual solar insolation using PVWatts online tool: http:...

  17. Thermal conductivity of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} tilted nanowires, a molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Shen Lacroix, David; Termentzidis, Konstantinos; Chaput, Laurent; Stein, Nicolas; Frantz, Cedric

    2015-06-08

    Evidence for an excellent compromise between structural stability and low thermal conductivity has been achieved with tilted Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanowires. The latter ones were recently fabricated and there is a need in modeling and characterization. The structural stability and the thermal conductivity of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanowires along the tilted [015]* direction and along the [010] direction have been explored. For the two configurations of nanowires, the effect of the length and the cross section on the thermal conductivity is discussed. The thermal conductivity of infinite size tilted nanowire is 0.34?W/m K, significantly reduced compared to nanowire along the [010] direction (0.59?W/m K). This reveals that in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanowires the structural anisotropy can be as important as size effects to reduce the thermal conductivity. The main reason is the reduction of the phonon mean free path which is found to be 1.7?nm in the tilted nanowires, compared to 5.3?nm for the nanowires along the [010] direction. The fact that tilted Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanowire is mechanically stable and it has extremely low thermal conductivity suggests these nanowires as a promising material for future thermoelectric generation application.

  18. THE TRANSIT INGRESS AND THE TILTED ORBIT OF THE EXTRAORDINARILY ECCENTRIC EXOPLANET HD 80606b

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winn, Joshua N.; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Johnson, John Asher; Gazak, J. Zachary; Starkey, Donn; Ford, Eric B.; Colon, Knicole D.; Reyes, Francisco; Nortmann, Lisa; Dreizler, Stefan; Odewahn, Stephen; Welsh, William F.; Kadakia, Shimonee; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Adams, Elisabeth R.; Lockhart, Matthew; Crossfield, Ian J.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Dantowitz, Ronald

    2009-10-01

    We present the results of a transcontinental campaign to observe the 2009 June 5 transit of the exoplanet HD 80606b. We report the first detection of the transit ingress, revealing the transit duration to be 11.64 +- 0.25 hr and allowing more robust determinations of the system parameters. Keck spectra obtained at midtransit exhibit an anomalous blueshift, giving definitive evidence that the stellar spin axis and planetary orbital axis are misaligned. The Keck data show that the projected spin-orbit angle lambda is between 32 deg. and 87 deg. with 68.3% confidence and between 14 deg. and 142 deg. with 99.73% confidence. Thus, the orbit of this planet is not only highly eccentric (e = 0.93) but is also tilted away from the equatorial plane of its parent star. A large tilt had been predicted, based on the idea that the planet's eccentric orbit was caused by the Kozai mechanism. Independently of the theory, it is worth noting that all three exoplanetary systems with known spin-orbit misalignments have massive planets on eccentric orbits, suggesting that those systems migrate through a different channel than lower mass planets on circular orbits.

  19. Solar heating and hot water system installed at St. Louis, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    Information is provided on the solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao and Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri. The information consists of description, photos, maintenance and construction problems, final drawing, system requirements and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50% of the hot water requirements and 45% of the space heating needs for a 900 square foot office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 square foot of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  20. Solar spectral measurements and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, R.E.; Hulstrom, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    A newly developed spectroradiometer for routine measurement of the solar spectra is described. This instrument measures the solar spectrum between 300 and 2500 nm in less than 2.5 min, with 0.7-nm resolution in the visible and 10-nm resolution in the infrared. Many examples of global, direct, and diffuse spectra are illustrated for Bedford, Mass. and Golden, Colo. The effects of air mass, turbidity, and sun tracking on the spectrum are presented, and radiative transfer modeling capabilities and comparisons between models and between models and experiment are discussed.

  1. MULTIFUNCTIONAL SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byard Wood, Lance Seefeldt, Ronald Sims, Bradley Wahlen, and Dan Dye

    2012-06-29

    The solar energy available within the visible portion of the solar spectrum is about 300 W/m2 (43%) and that available in the UV and IR portion is about 400 W/m2 (57%). This provides opportunities for developing integrated energy systems that capture and use specific wavelengths of the solar spectrum for different purposes. For example: biofuels from photosynthetic microbes use only the visible light; solar cells use a narrow band of the solar spectrum that could be either mostly in the visible or in the IR regions of the solar spectrum, depending on the photovoltaic materials, e.g., gallium antimonide (GaSb) cells utilize predominately IR radiation; and finally, solar panels that heat water utilize a broad range of wavelengths (visible plus IR). The basic idea of this research is that sunlight has many possible end-use applications including both direct use and energy conversion schemes; it is technically feasible to develop multifunctional solar energy systems capable of addressing several end-use needs while increasing the overall solar energy utilization efficiency when compared to single-purpose solar technologies. Such a combination of technologies could lead to more cost-competitive ?multifunctional? systems that add value and broaden opportunities for integrated energy systems. The goal of this research is to increase the overall energy efficacy and cost competitiveness of solar systems. The specific objectives of this research were: 1) Evaluate the efficacy of a combined photobioreactor and electric power system; 2) Improve the reliability and cost effectiveness of hybrid solar lighting systems ? a technology in which sunlight is collected and distributed via optical fibers into the interior of a building; 3) Evaluate the efficacy of using filtered light to increase the production of biomass in photobioreactors and provide more solar energy for other uses; 4) Evaluates several concepts for wavelength shifting such that a greater percentage of the solar spectrum energy can be used for photosynthesis.

  2. Residential Solar Valuation Rates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Valuation Rates Karl R. Rbago Rbago Energy LLC 1 The Ideal Residential Solar Tariff Fair to the utility and non-solar customers Fair compensation to the solar ...

  3. Solar Equipment Certification

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under the Solar Energy Standards Act of 1976, the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) is responsible for certifying all solar equipment sold in Florida. A manufacturer who wishes to have their solar...

  4. MODULATION OF GALACTIC COSMIC RAYS OBSERVED AT L1 IN SOLAR CYCLE 23

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fludra, A.

    2015-01-20

    We analyze a unique 15yr record of galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) measurements made by the SOHO Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer NIS detectors, recording integrated GCR numbers with energies above 1.0GeV between 1996 July and 2011 June. We are able to closely reproduce the main features of the SOHO/CDS GCR record using the modulation potential calculated from neutron monitor data by Usoskin etal. The GCR numbers show a clear solar cycle modulation: they decrease by 50% from the 1997 minimum to the 2000 maximum of the solar cycle, then return to the 1997 level in 2007 and continue to rise, in 2009 December reaching a level 25% higher than in 1997. This 25% increase is in contrast with the behavior of Ulysses/KET GCR protons extrapolated to 1 AU in the ecliptic plane, showing the same level in 2008-2009 as in 1997. The GCR numbers are inversely correlated with the tilt angle of the heliospheric current sheet. In particular, the continued increase of SOHO/CDS GCRs from 2007 until 2009 is correlated with the decrease of the minimum tilt angle from 30 in mid-2008 to 5 in late 2009. The GCR level then drops sharply from 2010 January, again consistent with a rapid increase of the tilt angle to over 35. This shows that the extended 2008 solar minimum was different from the 1997 minimum in terms of the structure of the heliospheric current sheet.

  5. Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

  6. Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... Sciences Applications National Solar Thermal Test Facility Nuclear Energy ...

  7. Concentrating Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  8. Passive solar design handbook. Volume two of two volumes: passive solar design analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Barley, D.; McFarland, R.; Perry, J. Jr.; Wray, W.; Noll, S.

    1980-01-01

    A manual for the design and performance evaluation and analysis of passive solar heating systems is presented. Two passive solar building types are analyzed: direct gain and thermal storage walls. Rules of thumb for the schematic design phase and simplified procedures for the design development phase are described. Analysis methods for the construction documents phase are given. The design procedure for fan-forced rock beds for hybrid systems is presented. Economic analysis methods for passive solar buildings are described. Tables of monthly average solar radiation, temperature, and degree-days for various locations in the US and southern Canada are included. (WHK)

  9. Solar Easements & Local Option Solar Rights Laws

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Utah's solar easement provision is similar to easement provisions in many other states. Parties may voluntarily enter into written solar easement contracts that are enforceable by law. An...

  10. Solar Energy Technologies Program: Concentrating Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-26

    Fact sheet summarizing the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  11. Solar Position Algorithm for Solar Radiation Applications (Revised...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    agency thereof. Available electronically at http:www.osti.govbridge Available for a processing fee to U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors, in paper, from: U.S....

  12. Toward the Development of Multi-Year Total and Special Solar...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Radiation Budgets at the Three ARM Locales Z. Li and M. C. Cribb Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center University of Maryland College Park, Maryland A. P....

  13. AV Solar Ranch I Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AV Solar Ranch I Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name AV Solar Ranch I Solar Power Plant Facility AV Solar Ranch I Sector Solar Facility Type Photovoltaic Developer...

  14. Solar thermophotovoltaic system using nanostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ungaro, Craig; Gray, Stephen K.; Gupta, Mool C.

    2015-08-20

    This paper presents results on a highly efficient experimental solar thermophotovoltaic (STPV) system using simulated solar energy. An overall power conversion efficiency of 6.2% was recorded under solar simulation. This was matched with a thermodynamic model, and the losses within the system, as well as a path forward to mitigate these losses, have been investigated. The system consists of a planar, tungsten absorbing/emitting structure with an anti-reflection layer coated laser-microtextured absorbing surface and single-layer dielectric coated emitting surface. A GaSb PV cell was used to capture the emitted radiation and convert it into electrical energy. This simple structure is bothmoreeasy to fabricate and temperature stable, and contains no moving parts or heat exchange fluids.less

  15. Bose-Einstein condensates on tilted lattices: Coherent, chaotic, and subdiffusive dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolovsky, Andrey R.; Gomez, Edgar A.; Korsch, Hans Juergen

    2010-02-15

    The dynamics of a (quasi-) one-dimensional interacting atomic Bose-Einstein condensate in a tilted optical lattice is studied in a discrete mean-field approximation, i.e., in terms of the discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation. If the static field is varied, the system shows a plethora of dynamical phenomena. In the strong field limit, we demonstrate the existence of (almost) nonspreading states which remain localized on the lattice region populated initially and show coherent Bloch oscillations with fractional revivals in the momentum space (so-called quantum carpets). With decreasing field, the dynamics becomes irregular, however, still confined in configuration space. For even weaker fields, we find subdiffusive dynamics with a wave-packet width growing as t{sup 1/4}.

  16. Three-dimensional microelectromechanical tilting platform operated by gear-driven racks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klody, Kelly A.; Habbit, Jr., Robert D.

    2005-11-01

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) tiltable-platform apparatus is disclosed which utilizes a light-reflective platform (i.e. a micromirror) which is supported above a substrate by flexures which can be bent upwards to tilt the platform in any direction over an angle of generally .+-.10 degrees using a gear-driven rack attached to each flexure. Each rack is driven by a rotary microengine (i.e. a micromotor); and an optional thermal actuator can be used in combination with each microengine for initially an initial uplifting of the platform away from the substrate. The MEM apparatus has applications for optical switching (e.g. between a pair of optical fibers) or for optical beam scanning.

  17. Central solar-energy receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-10-27

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan is described. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  18. Apparatus and method for solar coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called "synthesis gas", which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  19. Current and lattice matched tandem solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO)

    1987-01-01

    A multijunction (cascade) tandem photovoltaic solar cell device is fabricated of a Ga.sub.x In.sub.1-x P (0.505.ltoreq.X.ltoreq.0.515) top cell semiconductor lattice matched to a GaAs bottom cell semiconductor at a low-resistance heterojunction, preferably a p+/n+ heterojunction between the cells. The top and bottom cells are both lattice matched and current matched for high efficiency solar radiation conversion to electrical energy.

  20. Energy savings obtainable through passive solar techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A passive solar energy system is one in which the thermal energy flow is by natural means, that is by radiation, conduction, or natural convection. The purpose of the paper is to provide a survey of passive solar heating experience, especially in the US. Design approaches are reviewed and examples shown. Misconceptions are discussed. Advantages are listed. The Los Alamos program of performance simulation and evaluation is described and a simplified method of performance estimation is outlined.

  1. Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe Print To study the origins of different isotope ratios among the elements that make up today's smorgasbord of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and interplanetary ice and dust, a team of scientists from the University of California, San Diego is using ALS Chemical Dynamics Beamline 9.0.2 to mimic radiation from the protosun when the solar system was forming. For more than three decades, Mark Thiemens, Dean of the Division of Physical Sciences at UCSD,

  2. Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe Print To study the origins of different isotope ratios among the elements that make up today's smorgasbord of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and interplanetary ice and dust, a team of scientists from the University of California, San Diego is using ALS Chemical Dynamics Beamline 9.0.2 to mimic radiation from the protosun when the solar system was forming. For more than three decades, Mark Thiemens, Dean of the Division of Physical Sciences at UCSD,

  3. Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe Print To study the origins of different isotope ratios among the elements that make up today's smorgasbord of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and interplanetary ice and dust, a team of scientists from the University of California, San Diego is using ALS Chemical Dynamics Beamline 9.0.2 to mimic radiation from the protosun when the solar system was forming. For more than three decades, Mark Thiemens, Dean of the Division of Physical Sciences at UCSD,

  4. Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe Print To study the origins of different isotope ratios among the elements that make up today's smorgasbord of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and interplanetary ice and dust, a team of scientists from the University of California, San Diego is using ALS Chemical Dynamics Beamline 9.0.2 to mimic radiation from the protosun when the solar system was forming. For more than three decades, Mark Thiemens, Dean of the Division of Physical Sciences at UCSD,

  5. Foaming of aluminium-silicon alloy using concentrated solar energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cambronero, L.E.G.; Ruiz-Roman, J.M.; Canadas, I.; Martinez, D.

    2010-06-15

    Solar energy is used for the work reported here as a nonconventional heating system to produce aluminium foam from Al-Si alloy precursors produced by powder metallurgy. A commercial precursor in cylindrical bars enclosed in a stainless-steel mould was heated under concentrated solar radiation in a solar furnace with varied heating conditions (heating rate, time, and temperature). Concentrated solar energy close to 300 W/cm{sup 2} on the mould is high enough to achieve complete foaming after heating for only 200 s. Under these conditions, the density and pore distribution in the foam change depending on the solar heating parameters and mould design. (author)

  6. Solar Impulse's Solar-Powered Plane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moniz, Ernest; Piccard, Bertrand; Reicher, Dan

    2013-07-08

    Solar Impulse lands in Washington, DC at Washington Dulles International Airport as part of its journey across the United States. Secretary Ernest Moniz speaks about how advancements like those at the Department of Energy are leading the way for innovations like the solar-powered plane. Footage of the solar-powered plane courtesy of Solar Impulse.

  7. Solar Impulse's Solar-Powered Plane

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Moniz, Ernest; Piccard, Bertrand; Reicher, Dan

    2014-01-07

    Solar Impulse lands in Washington, DC at Washington Dulles International Airport as part of its journey across the United States. Secretary Ernest Moniz speaks about how advancements like those at the Department of Energy are leading the way for innovations like the solar-powered plane. Footage of the solar-powered plane courtesy of Solar Impulse.

  8. San Francisco, California: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Francisco, California: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) San Francisco, California: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar ...

  9. Space Coast Next Generation Solar Energy Center Solar Power Plant...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coast Next Generation Solar Energy Center Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Space Coast Next Generation Solar Energy Center Solar Power Plant Facility Space Coast...

  10. Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center Solar Power Plant...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Next Generation Solar Energy Center Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center Solar Power Plant Facility Martin Next Generation...

  11. Seattle, Washington: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Seattle, Washington: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Seattle, Washington: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America ...

  12. Houston, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Houston, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Houston, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, ...

  13. San Antonio, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Antonio, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) San Antonio, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, ...

  14. EE Solar Energy Efficiency Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EE Solar Energy Efficiency Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: EE Solar (Energy Efficiency Solar) Place: Ponoma, California Zip: 91768 Product: PV systems installer based in...

  15. Willard Kelsey Solar Group WK Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Willard Kelsey Solar Group WK Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Willard & Kelsey Solar Group (WK Solar) Place: Perrysburg, Ohio Zip: 43551 Product: Manufacturer of CdTe...

  16. Innotech Solar AS formerly known as Solar Cell Repower | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Innotech Solar AS formerly known as Solar Cell Repower Jump to: navigation, search Name: Innotech Solar AS (formerly known as Solar Cell Repower) Place: Narvik, Norway Zip: 8512...

  17. Wuxi Jiacheng Solar Energy Technology Co JC Solar | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    JC Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wuxi Jiacheng Solar Energy Technology Co (JC Solar) Place: Yixing, Jiangsu Province, China Zip: 214200 Sector: Solar Product: A Chinese...

  18. Innovative Systems Engineering Solar LLC ISE Solar LLC | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Engineering Solar LLC ISE Solar LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Innovative Systems Engineering Solar LLC (ISE Solar LLC) Place: Warminster, Pennsylvania Zip:...

  19. First Solar Electric LLC formerly DT Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electric LLC formerly DT Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: First Solar Electric LLC (formerly DT Solar) Place: Branchburg, New Jersey Zip: 8876 Sector: Solar Product: PV...

  20. Aide Solar Jiangsu Aide Solar Energy Technology Co Ltd | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aide Solar Jiangsu Aide Solar Energy Technology Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Aide Solar (Jiangsu Aide Solar Energy Technology Co Ltd) Place: Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province,...

  1. AET Solar formerly solar division of GGAM Electrical Services...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar formerly solar division of GGAM Electrical Services Jump to: navigation, search Name: AET Solar (formerly solar division of GGAM Electrical Services) Place: Limassol, Cyprus...

  2. Creative Energy Solar Investments SA formerly Hellenic Solar...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Investments SA formerly Hellenic Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Creative Energy Solar Investments SA (formerly Hellenic Solar) Place: 18538 Piraeus, Greece Product:...

  3. China Glass Solar aka CG Solar formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Glass Solar aka CG Solar formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra Photovoltaic Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Glass Solar (aka CG Solar, formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra...

  4. Siemens Solar formerly ARCO Solar Corporation | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar formerly ARCO Solar Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Siemens Solar (formerly ARCO Solar Corporation) Place: Arizona Product: Built a 6MW CPV project in 1984,...

  5. Siemens Concentrated Solar Power Ltd previously Solel Solar Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Siemens Concentrated Solar Power Ltd previously Solel Solar Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Siemens Concentrated Solar Power Ltd (previously Solel Solar Systems) Place:...

  6. Guodian Jintech Solar Energy formerly Yixing Jintech Solar Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jintech Solar Energy formerly Yixing Jintech Solar Energy Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Guodian Jintech Solar Energy (formerly Yixing Jintech Solar Energy Co Ltd) Place:...

  7. Shanghai Comtec Solar Technology Ltd aka Comtec Solar System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Comtec Solar Technology Ltd aka Comtec Solar System Group Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shanghai Comtec Solar Technology Ltd (aka Comtec Solar System Group Ltd) Place:...

  8. Ecosystem Solar Electric Corp aka Solar MW Energy Inc | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Electric Corp aka Solar MW Energy Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ecosystem Solar Electric Corp, aka Solar MW Energy Inc Place: Ontario, California Zip: 91761 Product:...

  9. ET Solar Group Formerly CNS Solar Industry | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Group Formerly CNS Solar Industry Jump to: navigation, search Name: ET Solar Group (Formerly CNS Solar Industry) Place: Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China Zip: 210009 Sector:...

  10. Entech Solar Inc formerly WorldWater Solar Technologies | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Inc formerly WorldWater Solar Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name: Entech Solar Inc. (formerly WorldWater & Solar Technologies) Place: Fort Worth, Texas Zip: 76177...

  11. EIS-0449: Solar Millennium Blythe Solar Power Project in Riverside...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: Solar Millennium Blythe Solar Power Project in Riverside County, CA EIS-0449: Solar Millennium Blythe Solar Power Project in Riverside County, CA December 10, 2010 EIS-0449: ...

  12. EA-1683: Abengoa Solar's Solana Concentrating Solar Power Facility...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    83: Abengoa Solar's Solana Concentrating Solar Power Facility, Gila Bend, AZ EA-1683: Abengoa Solar's Solana Concentrating Solar Power Facility, Gila Bend, AZ May 3, 2010 EA-1683: ...

  13. Orlando, Florida: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Orlando, Florida: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Orlando, Florida: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities,...

  14. Denver, Colorado: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Denver, Colorado: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Denver, Colorado: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities,...

  15. EA-1798: Abengoa Solar's Mojave Solar Project near Barstow, CA...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8: Abengoa Solar's Mojave Solar Project near Barstow, CA EA-1798: Abengoa Solar's Mojave Solar Project near Barstow, CA July 1, 2011 EA-1798: Final Environmental Assessment Loan ...

  16. Kings River Conservation District (KRCD) Solar Farm Solar Power...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    River Conservation District (KRCD) Solar Farm Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Kings River Conservation District (KRCD) Solar Farm Solar Power Plant Facility...

  17. edition Not Available 14 SOLAR ENERGY; SOLAR ENERGY; EDUCATIONAL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Home economics: student activities. Field test edition Not Available 14 SOLAR ENERGY; SOLAR ENERGY; EDUCATIONAL TOOLS; CURRICULUM GUIDES; GLAZING; HOUSES; SOLAR COOKERS; SOLAR...

  18. Uranium vacancy mobility at the Σ5 symmetric tilt and Σ5 twist grain boundaries in UO₂

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Andersson, David A.

    2015-10-01

    Ionic transport at grain boundaries in oxides dictates a number of important phenomena, from ionic conductivity to sintering to creep. For nuclear fuels, it also influences fission gas bubble nucleation and growth. Here, using a combination of atomistic calculations and object kinetic Monte Carlo (okMC) simulations, we examine the kinetic pathways associated with uranium vacancies at two model grain boundaries in UO2. The barriers for vacancy motion were calculated using the nudged elastic band method at all uranium sites at each grain boundary and were used as the basis of the okMC simulations. For both boundaries considered – a simplemore » tilt and a simple twist boundary – the mobility of uranium vacancies is significantly higher than in the bulk. For the tilt boundary, there is clearly preferred migration along the tilt axis as opposed to in the perpendicular direction while, for the twist boundary, migration is essentially isotropic within the boundary plane. These results show that cation defect mobility in fluorite-structured materials is enhanced at certain types of grain boundaries and is dependent on the boundary structure with the tilt boundary exhibiting higher rates of migration than the twist boundary.« less

  19. Uranium vacancy mobility at the Σ5 symmetric tilt and Σ5 twist grain boundaries in UO₂

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Andersson, David A.

    2015-10-01

    Ionic transport at grain boundaries in oxides dictates a number of important phenomena, from ionic conductivity to sintering to creep. For nuclear fuels, it also influences fission gas bubble nucleation and growth. Here, using a combination of atomistic calculations and object kinetic Monte Carlo (okMC) simulations, we examine the kinetic pathways associated with uranium vacancies at two model grain boundaries in UO2. The barriers for vacancy motion were calculated using the nudged elastic band method at all uranium sites at each grain boundary and were used as the basis of the okMC simulations. For both boundaries considered – a simple tilt and a simple twist boundary – the mobility of uranium vacancies is significantly higher than in the bulk. For the tilt boundary, there is clearly preferred migration along the tilt axis as opposed to in the perpendicular direction while, for the twist boundary, migration is essentially isotropic within the boundary plane. These results show that cation defect mobility in fluorite-structured materials is enhanced at certain types of grain boundaries and is dependent on the boundary structure with the tilt boundary exhibiting higher rates of migration than the twist boundary.

  20. Concentrating Solar Power Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects

  1. SERI QC Solar Data Quality Assessment Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    SERI QC is a mathematical software package that assesses the quality of solar radiation data. The SERI QC software is a function written in the C programming language. IT IS NOT A STANDALONE SOFTWARE APPLICATION. The user must write the calling application that requires quality assessment of solar data. The C function returns data quality flags to the calling program. A companion program, QCFIT, is a standalone Windows application that provides support files for themore » SERI QC function (data quality boundaries). The QCFIT software can also be used as an analytical tool for visualizing solar data quality independent of the SERI QC function.« less

  2. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, J.F.

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent is described. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  3. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F.

    1981-09-01

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  4. National Solar Radiation Database | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Program Website4 Program Website5 References http:www.nrel.govnewspress2007516.html http:rredc.nrel.govsolarpubsNSRDBbackground.html http:...

  5. Solar Eclipse Monitoring for Solar Energy Applications Using the Solar and Moon Position Algorithms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.

    2010-03-01

    This report includes a procedure for implementing an algorithm (described by Jean Meeus) to calculate the moon's zenith angle with uncertainty of +/-0.001 degrees and azimuth angle with uncertainty of +/-0.003 degrees. The step-by-step format presented here simplifies the complicated steps Meeus describes to calculate the Moon's position, and focuses on the Moon instead of the planets and stars. It also introduces some changes to accommodate for solar radiation applications.

  6. Solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1982-05-04

    The field of this invention is solar collectors, and more particularly, the invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame. A thin film window is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  7. Solar PST | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Solar PST Place: Bergondo, Spain Zip: 15 165 Sector: Solar Product: Spanish company producing thermodynamic solar panels. References: Solar PST1 This article...

  8. Immodo Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Immodo Solar Place: Spain Sector: Solar Product: Spanish company which installs and maintains solar panels. References: Immodo Solar1 This...

  9. Shell Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shell Solar Place: The Hague, Netherlands Zip: 2501 AN Sector: Solar Product: Shell Solar is developing non-crystalline PV technology,...

  10. Preussen Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Preussen Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Preussen Solar Place: Berlin, Germany Zip: 10711 Sector: Solar Product: Involved in solar projects. Coordinates: 52.516074,...

  11. Genesis Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Genesis Solar Facility Genesis Solar Sector Solar Facility Type Concentrating solar power Facility Status Under Construction Owner NextEra Developer NextEra Location Blythe,...

  12. Solar Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Resource Library Solar Energy Solar Energy Below are resources for Tribes on solar energy technologies. A Guide to Community Solar: Utility, Private, and Nonprofit ...

  13. Declination Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    San Francisco, California Sector: Solar Product: San Francisco solar installation firm acquired by SolarCity in September 2006. References: Declination Solar1 This article...

  14. AS Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: AS Solar Address: Am Tnniesberg 4A Place: Hannover, Germany Sector: Solar Product: PV, solar thermal Phone Number: +49 511 475578 - 0...

  15. Abengoa Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Abengoa Solar Name: Abengoa Solar Address: 11500 W 13th Ave Place: Lakewood, Colorado Zip: 80215 Region: Rockies Area Sector: Solar Product:...

  16. First Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    First Solar Name: First Solar Address: 350 West Washington Street, Suite 600 Place: Tempe, Arizona Zip: 85281 Sector: Solar Product: Solar energy systems Year Founded: 1999 Phone...

  17. Solar Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Logo: Solar Systems Name: Solar Systems Address: 45 Grosvenor Street Place: Abbotsford, Australia Sector: Solar Product: Solar concentrators Phone Number: +61 3 9413 8000 Website:...

  18. Ascent Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Ascent Solar Name: Ascent Solar Address: 12300 Grant Street Place: Thornton, Colorado Zip: 80241 Region: Rockies Area Sector: Solar Product:...

  19. Borrego Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Borrego Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Borrego Solar Name: Borrego Solar Address: 2560 9th Street Place: Berkeley, California Zip: 94710 Region: Bay Area Sector: Solar...

  20. DPW Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DPW Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: DPW Solar Name: DPW Solar Address: 4000 B Vassar Dr. NE Place: Albuquerque, New Mexico Zip: 87107 Sector: Solar Product: Renewable...

  1. Inovateus Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inovateus Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Inovateus Solar Name: Inovateus Solar Address: 19890 State Line Rd. Place: South Bend, Indiana Zip: 46637 Sector: Solar Product:...

  2. Standard Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Standard Solar Name: Standard Solar Address: 202 Perry Parkway Place: Gaithersburg, Maryland Zip: 20877 Region: Northeast - NY NJ CT PA Area Sector: Solar Product: Solar...

  3. Wasatch Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wasatch Solar Address: 4417 S 2950 E Place: Salt Lake City, Utah Zip: 84124 Sector: Solar Product: Solar Year Founded: 2009 Phone...

  4. Scaled Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Product: Scaled Solar manufacturers and markets utility-grade, concentrated photovoltaic solar energy systems to commercial customers References: Scaled Solar1 This...

  5. Corona Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Corona Solar Place: Tholey-Theley, Germany Zip: D 66636 Sector: Solar Product: Engaged in solar passive large-size collectors. References:...

  6. Sylcom Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sylcom Solar provides the design, research, distribution, construction, operation, maintenance of products and of Photovoltaic Solar, Thermal Solar and Solar Thermoelectric...

  7. Apex Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Apex Solar Place: Sofia, Bulgaria Zip: 1616 Sector: Solar Product: Bulgarian PV and solar thermal project developer and installer. References: Apex Solar1 This article is a...

  8. Atlantic Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Logo: Atlantic Solar Name: Atlantic Solar Place: Cape Town, South Africa Sector: Solar Product: Solar Thermal Technology Year Founded: 1985 Phone Number:...

  9. Solar Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  10. Zero Carryover Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Solar Applications...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... less expensive, but they supply thermal energy at a lower temperature: ... they will deliver between 50% and 60% of the incident solar radiation as hot water at 180F (82C). ...

  11. Solar Contractor Licensing | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    < Back Eligibility InstallersContractors Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Photovoltaics...

  12. The Australian Geographic Team Marsupial solar-powered car

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, G.R.; Storey, J.W.V.

    1988-01-01

    As in all vehicles of this type, low weight and aerodynamic drag must be achieved without compromising safety, and in an extremely rugged structure. This has been done by using a chrome-molybdenum steel space-frame, surrounded by a Kevlar/foam sandwich body shell. The solar panel wing, which uses a laminar flow section to obtain low drag, does not tilt except when the vehicle is stationary. A high degree of redundancy is built into the vehicle; for example there are two motors and transmissions, the solar array is divided into seven parallel sub-arrays, and the power electronics is multiply redundant. Built entirely in the garage of a suburban house, the Australian Geographic Team Marsupial car cost less than US$50,000 to construct.

  13. Solar energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brin, Raymond L.; Pace, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar energy collector comprising solar energy absorbing material within chamber having a transparent wall, solar energy being transmitted through the transparent wall, and efficiently absorbed by the absorbing material, for transfer to a heat transfer fluid. The solar energy absorbing material, of generally foraminous nature, absorbs and transmits the solar energy with improved efficiency.

  14. Solar Innovator | Alta Devices

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Mattos, Laila; Le, Minh

    2013-05-29

    Selected to participate in the Energy Department's SunShot Initiative, Alta Devices produces solar cells that convert sunlight into electricity at world record-breaking levels of efficiency. Through its innovative solar technology Alta is helping bring down the cost of solar. Learn more about the Energy Department's efforts to advance solar technology at energy.gov/solar .

  15. Two-dimensional model of the air flow and temperature distribution in a cavity-type heat receiver of a solar stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhkamov, K.K.; Ingham, D.B.

    1999-11-01

    A theoretical study on the air flow and temperature in the heat receiver, affected by free convection, of a Stirling Engine for a Dish/Stirling Engine Power System is presented. The standard {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model for the fluid flow has been used and the boundary conditions employed were obtained using a second level mathematical model of the Stirling Engine working cycle. Physical models for the distribution of the solar insolation from the Concentrator on the bottom and side walls of the cavity-type heat receiver have been taken into account. The numerical results show that most of the heat losses in the receiver are due to re-radiation from the cavity and conduction through the walls of the cavity. It is in the region of the boundary of the input window of the heat receiver where there is a sensible reduction in the temperature in the shell of the heat exchangers and this is due to the free convection of the air. Further, the numerical results show that convective heat losses increase with decreasing tilt angle.

  16. Solar heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schreyer, James M.; Dorsey, George F.

    1982-01-01

    An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

  17. Improved solar heating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

    1980-05-16

    An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

  18. Beta Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beta Radiation 1. Beta radiation may travel meters in air and is moderately penetrating. 2. Beta radiation can penetrate human skin to the "germinal layer," where new skin cells...

  19. Internal absorber solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sletten, Carlyle J.; Herskovitz, Sheldon B.; Holt, F. S.; Sletten, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

  20. SOLAR NANTENNA ELECTROMAGNETIC COLLECTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven D. Novack; Dale K. Kotter; Dennis Slafer; Patrick Pinhero

    2008-08-01

    This research explores a new efficient approach for producing electricity from the abundant energy of the sun. A nanoantenna electromagnetic collector (NEC) has been designed, prototyped, and tested. Proof of concept has been validated. The device targets mid-infrared wavelengths where conventional photovoltaic (PV) solar cells do not respond but is abundant in solar energy. The initial concept of designing NEC antennas was based on scaling of radio frequency antenna theory. This approach has proven unsuccessful by many due to not fully understanding and accounting for the optical behavior of materials in the THz region. Also until recent years the nanofabrication methods were not available to fabricate the optical antenna elements. We have addressed and overcome both technology barriers. Several factors were critical in successful implementation of NEC including: 1) frequency-dependent modeling of antenna elements, 2) selection of materials with proper THz properties and 3) novel manufacturing methods that enable economical large-scale manufacturing. The work represents an important step toward the ultimate realization of a low-cost device that will collect as well as convert this radiation into electricity, which will lead to a wide spectrum, high conversion efficiency, and low cost solution to complement conventional PVs.

  1. Solar Energy Glossary

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The solar glossary contains definitions for technical terms related to solar power and photovoltaic (PV) technologies, including terms having to do with electricity, power generation, and concentrating solar power (CSP).

  2. Solar | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    How much do you know about solar power? Take our quiz and test your solar energy IQ. | Photo courtesy of NREL. How much do you know about solar power? Take our quiz and test your...

  3. Solar Easements & Rights Laws

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solar Recordation Act describes the procedures for filing a solar right through the County Clerk's Office. The property owner seeking the solar right must give advanced notice to the adjacent...

  4. Comprehensive kinetic analysis of the plasma-wall transition layer in a strongly tilted magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tskhakaya, D. D.; Kos, L.

    2014-10-15

    The magnetized plasma-wall transition (MPWT) layer at the presence of the obliquity of the magnetic field to the wall consists of three sub-layers: the Debye sheath (DS), the magnetic pre-sheath (MPS), and the collisional pre-sheath (CPS) with characteristic lengths ?{sub D} (electron Debye length), ?{sub i} (ion gyro-radius), and ? (the smallest relevant collision length), respectively. Tokamak plasmas are usually assumed to have the ordering ?{sub D}??{sub i}??, when the above-mentioned sub-layers can be distinctly distinguished. In the limits of ?{sub Dm}(?{sub D}/?{sub i})?0 and ?{sub mc}(?{sub i}/?)?0 (asymptotic three-scale (A3S) limits), these sub-layers are precisely defined. Using the smallness of the tilting angle of the magnetic field to the wall, the ion distribution functions are found for three sub-regions in the analytic form. The equations and characteristic length-scales governing the transition (intermediate) regions between the neighboring sub-layers (CPS MPS and MPS DS) are derived, allowing to avoid the singularities arising from the ?{sub Dm}?0 and ?{sub mc}?0 approximations. The MPS entrance and the related kinetic form of the BohmChodura condition are successfully defined for the first time. At the DS entrance, the Bohm condition maintains its usual form. The results encourage further study and understanding of physics of the MPWT layers in the modern plasma facilities.

  5. Test Problem: Tilted Rayleigh-Taylor for 2-D Mixing Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, Malcolm J.; Livescu, Daniel; Youngs, David L.

    2012-08-14

    The 'tilted-rig' test problem originates from a series of experiments (Smeeton & Youngs, 1987, Youngs, 1989) performed at AWE in the late 1980's, that followed from the 'rocket-rig' experiments (Burrows et al., 1984; Read & Youngs, 1983), and exploratory experiments performed at Imperial College (Andrews, 1986; Andrews and Spalding, 1990). A schematic of the experiment is shown in Figure 1, and comprises a tank filled with light fluid above heavy, and then 'tilted' on one side of the apparatus, thus causing an 'angled interface' to the acceleration history due to rockets. Details of the configuration given in the next chapter include: fluids, dimensions, and other necessary details to simulate the experiment. Figure 2 shows results from two experiments, Case 110 (which is the source for this test problem) that has an Atwood number of 0.5, and Case 115 (a secondary source described in Appendix B), with Atwood of 0.9 Inspection of the photograph in Figure 2 (the main experimental diagnostic) for Case 110. reveals two main areas for mix development; 1) a large-scale overturning motion that produces a rising plume (spike) on the left, and falling plume (bubble) on the right, that are almost symmetric; and 2) a Rayleigh-Taylor driven mixing central mixing region that has a large-scale rotation associated with the rising and falling plumes, and also experiences lateral strain due to stretching of the interface by the plumes, and shear across the interface due to upper fluid moving downward and to the right, and lower fluid moving upward and to the left. Case 115 is similar but differs by a much larger Atwood of 0.9 that drives a strong asymmetry between a left side heavy spike penetration and a right side light bubble penetration. Case 110 is chosen as the source for the present test problem as the fluids have low surface tension (unlike Case 115) due the addition of a surfactant, the asymmetry small (no need to have fine grids for the spike), and there is extensive reasonable quality photographic data. The photographs in Figure 2 also reveal the appearance of a boundary layer at the left and right walls; this boundary layer has not been included in the test problem as preliminary calculations suggested it had a negligible effect on plume penetration and RT mixing. The significance of this test problem is that, unlike planar RT experiments such as the Rocket-Rig (Youngs, 1984), Linear Electric Motor - LEM (Dimonte, 1990), or the Water Tunnel (Andrews, 1992), the Tilted-Rig is a unique two-dimensional RT mixing experiment that has experimental data and now (in this TP) Direct Numerical Simulation data from Livescu and Wei. The availability of DNS data for the tilted-rig has made this TP viable as it provides detailed results for comparison purposes. The purpose of the test problem is to provide 3D simulation results, validated by comparison with experiment, which can be used for the development and validation of 2D RANS models. When such models are applied to 2D flows, various physics issues are raised such as double counting, combined buoyancy and shear, and 2-D strain, which have not yet been adequately addressed. The current objective of the test problem is to compare key results, which are needed for RANS model validation, obtained from high-Reynolds number DNS, high-resolution ILES or LES with explicit sub-grid-scale models. The experiment is incompressible and so is directly suitable for algorithms that are designed for incompressible flows (e.g. pressure correction algorithms with multi-grid); however, we have extended the TP so that compressible algorithms, run at low Mach number, may also be used if careful consideration is given to initial pressure fields. Thus, this TP serves as a useful tool for incompressible and compressible simulation codes, and mathematical models. In the remainder of this TP we provide a detailed specification; the next section provides the underlying assumptions for the TP, fluids, geometry details, boundary conditions (and alternative set-ups), initial conditions, and acceleration history (an

  6. Compound Solar Technology CompSolar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Technology CompSolar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Compound Solar Technology (CompSolar) Place: Jhunan, Taiwan Zip: 350 Sector: Solar Product: Producer of glass-based...

  7. Silicon Valley Solar Inc SV Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Inc SV Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Silicon Valley Solar Inc (SV Solar) Place: Santa Clara, California Zip: 95051 Sector: Solar Product: A US-based manufacturer of...

  8. Progress in passive solar energy systems. Volume 8. Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, J.; Andrejko, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference sponsored by the US DOE, the Solar Energy Research Institute, SolarVision, Inc., and the Southern California Solar Energy Society. The topics considered at the conference included sizing solar energy systems for agricultural applications, a farm scale ethanol production plant, the EEC wind energy RandD program, the passive solar performance assessment of an earth-sheltered house, the ARCO 1 MW photovoltaic power plant, the performance of a dendritic web photovoltaic module, second generation point focused concentrators, linear fresnel lens concentrating photovoltaic collectors, photovoltaic conversion efficiency, amorphous silicon thin film solar cells, a photovoltaic system for a shopping center, photovoltaic power generation for the utility industry, spectral solar radiation, and the analysis of insolation data.

  9. Solar skylight

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adamson, James C.

    1984-01-01

    A reflective shutter rotates within a skylight housing in such a fashion as to control solar energy thereby providing a combination of heating, lighting, and ventilation. The skylight housing has three faces: a glazed southern face, a glazed northern face, and an open downwardly oriented face to the interior of the structure. Counter-weighted pivot arms support the shutter at either end causing the center of rotation to pass through the center of gravity. The shutter has three basic positions: In the first position, during the winter day, the shutter closes off the northern face, allowing solar energy to enter directly into the supporting structure providing heat gain and daylighting. In the second position, during the winter night, the shutter closes off the open face to the interior, providing insulation between the structure and the skylight housing. In the third position, during the non-heating season, the shutter closes off the southern face blocking unwanted heat gain but allowing diffuse northern light to penetrate for daylighting. In this last position, a means is provided for ventilating by natural convection. The apparatus can be operated either manually or by motor.

  10. Solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1982-01-01

    The field of this invention is solar collectors, and more particularly, the invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame (14). A thin film window (42) is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber (24) of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers (24a, 24b) that are sealed perimetrically. The layers (24a, 24b) define a fluid-tight planar envelope (24c) of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber (24) is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  11. Your Solar Home

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solar Schoolhouse Education supplement for the Sacramento Bee to introduce solar to elementary school children and introduce the design and AD contest for local students.

  12. Solar | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Solar How much do you know about solar power? Take our quiz and test your solar energy IQ. | Photo courtesy of NREL. How much do you know about solar power? Take our quiz and test your solar energy IQ. | Photo courtesy of NREL. The tremendous growth in the U.S. solar industry is helping to pave the way to a cleaner, more sustainable energy future. Over the past few years, the cost of a solar energy system has dropped significantly -- helping to give more American families and business

  13. Solar Contractor Licensing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hawaii offers several specialty licenses for solar contractors through Hawaii’s Department of Commerce and Consumer Affairs. The following specialty licenses are available: Solar Power Systems...

  14. Solar Photovoltaic SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ready Home SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE i Table of Contents About the Renewable Energy Ready Home Specifications Assumptions of the RERH Solar ...

  15. Concentrating Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2010-09-28

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  16. CPS Energy Solar Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Scale Solar * Combine large-scale solar energy PPA with local economic development - ... transformer 1 Includes CAISO connection, data measuring, weather, etc. 1 Distribution ...

  17. Solar Power International

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solar Power International in Anaheim, CA, received Vice President Joe Biden on Sept. 16. He announced more than $102 million in new solar funding.

  18. TVA- Solar Solutions Initiative

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solar Solutions Initiative (SSI) is a pilot program that offers additional financial incentives for Solar PV systems participating in the Renewable Standard Offer program. Applications for new...

  19. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    sunshot DOEGO-102012-3669 * September 2012 MOTIVATION All thermal concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar tracking, which involves moving large mirror surfaces...

  20. Solar Thermoelectric Energy Conversion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficiencies of different types of solar thermoelectric generators were predicted using theoretical modeling and validated with measurements using constructed prototypes under different solar intensities

  1. Making a Solar Oven

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students make solar ovens. Student background information is provided. The expected outcome is that students will learn about solar energy transfer.

  2. Solar Energy Technologies Office

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2011, the Energy Department's Solar Energy Technologies Office (SETO) became the SunShot Initiative, a collaborative national effort that aggressively drives innovation to make solar energy...

  3. Solarity | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solarity Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solarity Address: 200 Innovation Blvd Suite 260A Place: State College, Pennsylvania Zip: 16801 Region: Northeast - NY NJ CT PA Area...

  4. Solar in Cold, Cloudy Climates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation delivered by Chuck Marken during the 2009 Northeastern Solar Cities Conference Solar Survey session.

  5. SunShot Solar PV | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar PV SunShot Solar PV

  6. Solar Easements & Local Option Solar Rights Laws

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New York General City, Town, and Village codes also allow local zoning districts to make regulations regarding solar access that provide for "the accommodation of solar energy systems and...

  7. Micromagnetic study of spin transfer switching with a spin polarization tilted out of the free layer plane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaves-O'Flynn, Gabriel D. Wolf, Georg; Pinna, Daniele; Kent, Andrew D.

    2015-05-07

    We present the results of zero temperature macrospin and micromagnetic simulations of spin transfer switching of thin film nanomagnets in the shape of an ellipse with a spin-polarization tilted out of the layer plane. The perpendicular component of the spin-polarization is shown to increase the reversal speed, leading to a lower current for switching in a given time. However, for tilt angles larger than a critical angle, the layer magnetization starts to precess about an out-of-plane axis, which leads to a final magnetization state that is very sensitive to simulation conditions. As the ellipse lateral size increases, this out-of-plane precession is suppressed, due to the excitation of spatially non-uniform magnetization modes.

  8. Flix Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Flix Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Flix Solar Place: Spain Sector: Solar Product: Flix solar is developing a 12MW solar park in Flix, Tarragona, Spain. References: Flix...

  9. Measurements and modeling of total solar irradiance in X-class solar flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Christopher Samuel; Chamberlin, Phillip Clyde; Hock, Rachel

    2014-05-20

    The Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) from NASA's SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment can detect changes in the total solar irradiance (TSI) to a precision of 2 ppm, allowing observations of variations due to the largest X-class solar flares for the first time. Presented here is a robust algorithm for determining the radiative output in the TIM TSI measurements, in both the impulsive and gradual phases, for the four solar flares presented in Woods et al., as well as an additional flare measured on 2006 December 6. The radiative outputs for both phases of these five flares are then compared to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiance output from the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) in order to derive an empirical relationship between the FISM VUV model and the TIM TSI data output to estimate the TSI radiative output for eight other X-class flares. This model provides the basis for the bolometric energy estimates for the solar flares analyzed in the Emslie et al. study.

  10. Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, Craig B.; Kutscher, Charles F.; Gawlik, Keith M.

    1997-01-01

    An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprising an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution.

  11. Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, C.B.; Kutscher, C.F.; Gawlik, K.M.

    1997-12-02

    An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprises an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution. 3 figs.

  12. Sunshot Rooftop Solar Challenge | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Sunshot Rooftop Solar Challenge Sunshot Rooftop Solar Challenge Sunshot Rooftop Solar Challenge

  13. Solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    The invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame. A thin film window is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  14. Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McConnell, Robert D.; Vansant, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  15. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.8 Active Solar Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    Solar Collector Shipments, by Type and Market (Thousand SF, unless noted) (1) Type 1980 1990 2000 2009 Solar Thermal Collectors (2) Residential N.A. Commercial N.A. Industrial N.A. Utility N.A. Other N.A. (4) Photovoltaics (kW) (5) Note(s): Source(s): (6) 6,897 13,837 88,221 1,282,560 1) Shipments for 1980-2000 include imports and exports; 2008 shipments are domestic only. 2) Solar thermal collectors: receive solar radiation, convert it to thermal energy, and are typically used forspace

  16. Solar Policy Environment: Sacramento

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Sacramento and the greater Sacramento region is the home of a long standing history of commitment to solar. Sacramento Solar Access seeks to further widespread adoption of solar energy by addressing current market barriers and preparing, through design guidelines and education, the infrastructure that will optimize solar production in the future.

  17. Solar Policy Environment: Houston

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Houston is committed to achieving a sustainable solar infrastructure through strategic partnerships that address market barriers for solar energy through the Houston Solar Initiative. The initiative is dedicated to this long-term goal while focusing on near- and mid-term results that go beyond demonstration solar projects.

  18. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Clews, Peggy J.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-08

    A process including forming a photovoltaic solar cell on a substrate, the photovoltaic solar cell comprising an anchor positioned between the photovoltaic solar cell and the substrate to suspend the photovoltaic solar cell from the substrate. A surface of the photovoltaic solar cell opposite the substrate is attached to a receiving substrate. The receiving substrate may be bonded to the photovoltaic solar cell using an adhesive force or a metal connecting member. The photovoltaic solar cell is then detached from the substrate by lifting the receiving substrate having the photovoltaic solar cell attached thereto and severing the anchor connecting the photovoltaic solar cell to the substrate. Depending upon the type of receiving substrate used, the photovoltaic solar cell may be removed from the receiving substrate or remain on the receiving substrate for use in the final product.

  19. NREL: Innovation Impact - Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Menu Home Home Solar Solar Wind Wind Analysis Analysis Bioenergy Bioenergy Buildings Buildings Transportation Transportation Manufacturing Manufacturing Energy Systems Integration Energy Systems Integration What is a quantum dot? Close Quantum dots are tiny spheres of semiconductor material measuring only about 2-10 billionths of a meter in diameter. Quantum dots are a leading candidate for a third generation of solar-cell technologies. Close Achieving significant gains in solar

  20. Solar Energy in Alaska

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Evolution and Diffusion Studies Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion Studies Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion Studies Through the Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion Studies, or SEEDS, program, seven projects are investigating strategies to accelerate the pace of change for solar energy technologies as they are developed and deployed. The projects integrate the use of cutting-edge analytical and computational tools with real-world market data and pilot tests to speed the pace of solar

  1. Solar collector array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  2. Solar Policy Environment: Pittsburgh

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In this project, Pittsburgh plans to build on its reputation as a national leader in green practices. Its Solar America Cities project will develop a distributed approach to adoption of solar energy technologies. Pittsburgh’s partnership includes universities, non-profit organizations, and business, labor and foundation communities. The city plans to transform the solar energy market and stimulate early adoption of solar technology, to show that solar technology works in a northern city.

  3. Topaz Solar Farm Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Topaz Solar Farm Sector Solar Facility Type Photovoltaic Developer OptiSolar Location San Luis Obispo County, California Coordinates 35.3102296, -120.4357631 Show Map...

  4. SolarIsland aka Yinghua Taian Dazheng Hengyuan Solar Technology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Zip: 271000 Sector: Solar Product: Manufacturer and exporter of solar passive water heating systems and PV-powered solar road lighting, torches and lamps. References:...

  5. Amargosa Farm Road Solar Energy Project Solar Power Plant | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector Solar Facility Type Concentrating Solar Power Developer Solar Millenium, LLC, MAN Ferrostaal Inc Location Nye County, Nevada Coordinates 38.5807111, -116.0413889...

  6. China Solar Clean Energy Solutions Inc formerly Deli Solar USA...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc formerly Deli Solar USA Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Solar & Clean Energy Solutions Inc ( formerly Deli Solar (USA) Inc) Place: Connecticut Zip: 6039 Sector:...

  7. EPOD Solar Wales Ltd formerly ICP Solar Technologies Ltd | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wales Ltd formerly ICP Solar Technologies Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: EPOD Solar (Wales) Ltd (formerly ICP Solar Technologies Ltd) Place: Mid Glamorgan, United Kingdom...

  8. United Solar Systems Corp USSC aka Bekaert ECD Solar Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Corp USSC aka Bekaert ECD Solar Systems LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: United Solar Systems Corp (USSC) (aka Bekaert ECD Solar Systems LLC) Place: Middletown...

  9. Solar Energy Sources SES Solar Inc formerly Electric Network...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SES Solar Inc formerly Electric Network com Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Energy Sources - SES Solar Inc (formerly Electric Network.com) Place: Vancouver, British...

  10. Solar Systems and Solutions Soluciones Sistemas Solares 3S |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems and Solutions Soluciones Sistemas Solares 3S Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Systems and Solutions Soluciones Sistemas Solares (3S) Place: Navarre, Spain Sector:...

  11. DE-EE0005690 Developing Solar Friendly Communities Colorado Solar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EE0005690 Developing Solar Friendly Communities Colorado Solar Energy Industries ... A. PROJECT OBJECTIVES The goal of the Solar Friendly Communities project is to achieve ...

  12. Vaillant Solar Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: 92075 Sector: Solar Product: California-based solar company specializing in solar water heating, solar pool heating and solar space heating systems for residential and...

  13. MSM Solar India | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar India Jump to: navigation, search Name: MSM Solar India Place: India Sector: Solar Product: JV company to develop solar projects. References: MSM Solar India1 This article...

  14. Ener Solar Technology srl | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ener Solar Technology srl Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ener Solar Technology srl Place: Italy Sector: Solar Product: Solar project developer. References: Ener Solar Technology...

  15. Solar Reflection Panels - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Solar Reflection Panels Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This ...

  16. Solar Selective Absorption Coatings - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Solar Selective Absorption Coatings Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL ...

  17. Mohave Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Mohave Solar Power Plant Facility Mojave Solar Sector Solar Facility Type Concentrating Solar Power Facility Status Under...

  18. Solar and Wind Rights | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Photovoltaics Wind (All) Wind (Small) Program Info Sector Name State State...

  19. Solar Easements & Rights Laws | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Federal Government Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process...

  20. Sun Shine Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Shine Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Sun Shine Solar Name: Sun Shine Solar Place: Norwich, United Kingdom Sector: Solar Product: Solar energy products Phone Number: 01508...

  1. Sandia Energy - Solar Glare Hazard Analysis Tool

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Glare Hazard Analysis Tool Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Market Transformation Solar Glare Hazard Analysis Tool Solar...

  2. Sun Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sun Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sun Solar Place: San Diego, California Zip: 92019 Sector: Services, Solar Product: String representation "Established in ... e...

  3. Paz Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Paz Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Paz Solar Place: Israel Product: Israel-based engineering and installation contractor. References: Paz Solar1 This article is a stub....

  4. Aztec Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rancho Cordova, California Zip: 95742 Sector: Solar Product: Installer of solar hot water and pool heating systems. References: Aztec Solar1 This article is a stub. You can...

  5. ESPEE Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Karnataka, India Zip: 560 091 Sector: Solar Product: Distributor of solar thermal water heating systems and PV lights. References: ESPEE Solar1 This article is a stub....

  6. Apros Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Apros Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Apros Solar Place: Prague 2, Czech Republic Zip: 120 00 Product: Czech developer of PV projects. References: Apros Solar1 This...

  7. Solar Mimizan | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mimizan Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Mimizan Place: PARIS, France Zip: 75002 Sector: Solar Product: Paris-based, building-integrated solar power plant developer....

  8. Tessera Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Logo: Tessera Solar Name: Tessera Solar Address: 2600 10th Street Place: Berkeley, California Zip: 94710 Region: Bay Area Sector: Solar Product: Developer of utility...

  9. Harvest Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Harvest Solar Energy Name: Harvest Solar Energy Address: 1571 East 22 Place Place: Tulsa, Oklahoma Zip: 74114 Sector: Solar Product: Renewable energy systems Phone Number:...

  10. Abound Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abound Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Abound Solar Name: Abound Solar Address: 2695 Rocky Mountain Avenue, Suite 100 Place: Loveland, Colorado Zip: 80538 Region: Rockies...

  11. Select Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Select Solar Name: Select Solar Address: Unit 5 Blakehill Business Park Chelworth Road Cricklade SN6 6JD Place: Cricklade, United Kingdom...

  12. Solar Community | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Community Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Community Address: 4704 E Cesar Chavez St Place: Austin, Texas Zip: 78702 Region: Texas Area Sector: Solar Product: Solar sales...

  13. Solar Monkey | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Monkey Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Monkey Place: Irvine, California Zip: 92618 Sector: Solar Product: Solar Monkey installs PV systems for commercial and industrial...

  14. Solar Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Gateway Edit History Solar Power (Redirected from Solar energy) Jump to: navigation, search Solar Energy...

  15. Solar Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Wind Place: Krasnodar, Romania Zip: 350000 Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Russia-based PV product manufacturer. Solar Wind...

  16. Solar Junction | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Junction Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Junction Place: San Jose, California Zip: CA 95131 Sector: Efficiency, Solar Product: Solar Junction is developing high efficiency...

  17. Solar Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Gateway Edit History Solar Power (Redirected from Solar) Jump to: navigation, search Solar Energy Companies...

  18. Activ Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activ Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Activ Solar Address: Vienna, Wipplingerstrasse 35 Place: Austria Zip: 1010 Sector: Solar Product: The company's main business areas...

  19. Agrupacion Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Agrupacion Solar Place: Spain Product: Spanish PV project developer, or finance arranger. References: Agrupacion Solar1 This article is a...

  20. EMPE Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EMPE Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: EMPE Solar Place: Spain Product: Developing projects using new module technology, in Spain. References: EMPE Solar1 This article is a...

  1. Trinity Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Trinity Solar Place: Freehold, New Jersey Zip: 7728 Sector: Solar Product: A provider of solar energy systems to home and business owners. Coordinates: 42.376865,...

  2. Solar Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Dubai, United Arab Emirates Sector: Solar Product: Dubai-based solar photovoltaic module manufacturing company. References: Solar Technologies1 This article is a...

  3. AEE Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Logo: AEE Solar Name: AEE Solar Address: 1155 Redway Drive PO Box 339 Place: Redway, California Zip: 95560 Region: Bay Area Sector: Solar Year Founded:...

  4. Sereno Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Sereno Solar Place: Monte Sereno, California Sector: Solar Product: Has developed a solar passive water heating panel to be installed under current roofing or siding...

  5. Phototaxis Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cambridge, Massachusetts Sector: Solar Product: Solar start-up planning to construct solar-panel covered roofs over parking lots. Coordinates: 43.003745, -89.017499 Show...

  6. Utah Solar Outlook March 2010

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation provides an overview of Utah's solar market, policy initiatives, and progress to date on the Solar America Cities Project: Solar Salt Lake.

  7. Himin Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Himin Solar Place: Alicante, Spain Zip: 3201 Sector: Solar Product: Manufacturing, planning, development and distribution of projects of solar energy products....

  8. Webasto Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Webasto Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Webasto Solar Place: Germany Product: German module manufacturer. References: Webasto Solar1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  9. Friends Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Friends Solar Name: Friends Solar Place: Kahuku, Hawaii Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Solar Energy Number of Employees: 11-50 Year Founded: 1988 Phone Number: 8086839550...

  10. Solar2 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Germany Zip: 27472 Sector: Solar Product: Sells and installs PV, solar thermal and wood pellet powered heating systems. References: Solar21 This article is a stub. You can...

  11. Uranium vacancy mobility at the sigma 5 symmetric tilt grain boundary in UO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uberuaga, Blas P.

    2012-05-02

    An important consequence of the fissioning process occurring during burnup is the formation of fission products. These fission products alter the thermo-mechanical properties of the fuel. They also lead to macroscopic changes in the fuel structure, including the formation of bubbles that are connected to swelling of the fuel. Subsequent release of fission gases increase the pressure in the plenum and can cause changes in the properties of the fuel pin itself. It is thus imperative to understand how fission products, and fission gases in particular, behave within the fuel in order to predict the performance of the fuel under operating conditions. Fission gas redistribution within the fuel is governed by mass transport and the presence of sinks such as impurities, dislocations, and grain boundaries. Thus, to understand how the distribution of fission gases evolves in the fuel, we must understand the underlying transport mechanisms, tied to the concentrations and mobilities of defects within the material, and how these gases interact with microstructural features that might act as sinks. Both of these issues have been addressed in previous work under NEAMS. However, once a fission product has reached a sink, such as a grain boundary, its mobility may be different there than in the grain interior and predicting how, for example, bubbles nucleate within grain boundaries necessitates an understanding of how fission gases diffuse within boundaries. That is the goal of the present work. In this report, we describe atomic level simulations of uranium vacancy diffusion in the pressence of a {Sigma}5 symmetric tilt boundary in urania (UO{sub 2}). This boundary was chosen as it is the simplest of the boundaries we considered in previous work on segregation and serves as a starting point for understanding defect mobility at boundaries. We use a combination of molecular statics calculations and kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) to determine how the mobility of uranium vacancies is altered at this particular grain boundary. Given that the diffusion of fission gases such as Xe are tied to the mobility of uranium vacancies, these results given insight into how fission gas mobility differs at grain boundaries compared to bulk urania.

  12. Danger radiations

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le conférencier Mons.Hofert parle des dangers et risques des radiations, le contrôle des zones et les précautions à prendre ( p.ex. film badge), comment mesurer les radiations etc.

  13. Solar Design Workbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franta, G.; Baylin, F.; Crowther, R.; Dubin, F.; Grace, A., Griffith, J.W.; Holtz, M.; Kutscher, C.; Nordham, D.; Selkowitz, S.; Villecco, M.

    1981-06-01

    This Solar Design Workbook presents solar building design applications for commercial buildir^s. The book is divided into four sections. The first section describes the variety of solar applications in buildings including conservation aspects, solar fundamentals, passive systems, active systems, daylighting, and other solar options. Solar system design evaluation techniques including considerations for building energy requirements, passive systems, active systems, and economics are presented in Section II. The third section attempts to assist the designer in the building design process for energy conservation and solar applications including options and considerations for pre-design, design, and post-design phases. The information required for the solar design proee^ has not been fully developed at this time. Therefore, Section III is incomplete, but an overview of the considerations with some of the design proces elements is presented. Section IV illustrates ease studies that utilize solar applications in the building design.

  14. Homebuyer Solar Option and Solar Offset Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Senate Bill 1 of 2006, which established the statewide California Solar Initiative, also required the California Energy Commission (CEC) to implement regulations that require sellers of production...

  15. EIS-0454: Tonopah Solar Energy Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EIS-0454: Tonopah Solar Energy Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project in Nye County, NV EIS-0454: Tonopah Solar Energy Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project in Nye County, NV Documents ...

  16. China Nuvo Solar Energy Inc formerly Nuvo Solar Energy Inc |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nuvo Solar Energy Inc formerly Nuvo Solar Energy Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Nuvo Solar Energy Inc (formerly Nuvo Solar Energy Inc) Place: West Palm Beach, Florida...

  17. Rooftop Solar Challenge to Cut Solar's Red Tape | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Rooftop Solar Challenge to Cut Solar's Red Tape Rooftop Solar Challenge to Cut Solar's Red Tape December 1, 2011 - 4:35pm Addthis Ginny Simmons Ginny Simmons Former Managing Editor ...

  18. EA-1784: Fotowatio Nevada Solar, LLC's Apex Solar Power Project...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    84: Fotowatio Nevada Solar, LLC's Apex Solar Power Project in Clark County, NV EA-1784: Fotowatio Nevada Solar, LLC's Apex Solar Power Project in Clark County, NV July 1, 2010 ...

  19. ThinkSolar SolarMarkt US | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: ThinkSolar (SolarMarkt US) Place: Oakland, California Sector: Solar Product: US subsidiary of German PV installer SolarMarkt which like its parent also...

  20. SolarBridge Technologies: Helping Solar Modules Speak the Language...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SolarBridge Technologies: Helping Solar Modules Speak the Language of the Energy Grid SolarBridge Technologies: Helping Solar Modules Speak the Language of the Energy Grid June 5, ...

  1. Solar Deployment and Policy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Solar Deployment and Policy Justin Baca Director of Research Solar Energy Industries Association About SEIA * Founded in 1974 * U.S. National Trade Association for Solar Energy * 1,000 member companies from around the world * Members from across 50 states * Largest companies in the world as well as small installers * Our Mission: Build a strong solar industry to power America * Our Goal: 10 gigawatts (GW) of annual installed solar capacity in the U.S. by 2015 July 18, 2014 © 2014 Solar Energy

  2. Effects of angular confinement and concentration to realistic solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Höhn, O. Kraus, T.; Bläsi, B.; Schwarz, U. T.

    2015-01-21

    In standard solar cells, light impinges under a very small angular range, whereas the solar cell emits light into the whole half space. Due to this expansion of etendué, entropy is generated, which limits the maximal efficiency of solar cells. This limit can be overcome by either increasing the angle of incidence by concentration or by decreasing the angle of emission by an angularly confining element or by a combination of both. In an ideal solar cell with radiative recombination as the only loss mechanism, angular confinement and concentration are thermodynamically equivalent. It is shown that concentration in a device, where non-radiative losses such as Shockley-Read-Hall and Auger recombination are considered, is not equivalent to angular confinement. As soon as non-radiative losses are considered, the gain in efficiency due to angular confinement drops significantly in contrast to the gain caused by concentration. With the help of detailed balance calculations, it is furthermore shown that angular confinement can help to increase the efficiency of solar cells under concentrated sunlight even if no measurable gain is expected for the solar cell under 1-sun-illumination. Our analysis predicts a relative gain of 3.14% relative in efficiency for a realistic solar cell with a concentration factor of 500.

  3. Aerosol Radiative Forcing Under Cloudless Conditions.in Winter...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARF in the shortwave range is determined by the difference between the net fluxes of the solar radiation, calculated with and without the aerosol component of the atmosphere. The...

  4. Solar Ready Vets: Preparing Veterans for the Solar Workforce | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Solar Ready Vets: Preparing Veterans for the Solar Workforce Solar Ready Vets: Preparing Veterans for the Solar Workforce Addthis Description Solar Ready Vets, created by the Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative, connects our nation's transitioning veterans to the growing solar energy industry. As these active duty service members prepare to enter the civilian world, the Solar Ready Vets program offers them the opportunity to learn about all aspects of the solar industry in a

  5. EA-1798: Abengoa Solar's Mojave Solar Project near Barstow, CA |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy 8: Abengoa Solar's Mojave Solar Project near Barstow, CA EA-1798: Abengoa Solar's Mojave Solar Project near Barstow, CA July 1, 2011 EA-1798: Final Environmental Assessment Loan Guarantee to Mojave Solar, LLC for the Abengoa Mojave Solar Project near Barstow, California July 8, 2011 EA-1798: Finding of No Significant Impact Loan Guarantee to Mojave Solar, LLC for the Abengoa Mojave Solar Project near Barstow, California March 17, 2011 Abengoa Mojave Final Biological

  6. SJ Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: SJ Solar Place: San Jose, California Zip: 95131 Sector: Solar Product: Cell design firm for concentrated solar References: SJ Solar1 This article is a stub. You...

  7. APOLO Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    APOLO Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: APOLO Solar Address: Paseo de la Castellana, 164-166 1 Place: Madrid, Spain Sector: Solar Product: PV, solar thermal Phone Number:...

  8. Hope Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hope Solar Address: No.6-8 Hope Road Taihu Town Tongzhou Dist Place: Beijing, China Sector: Solar Product: Solar cells and power systems...

  9. Solar Dynamics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dynamics Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Dynamics Place: Ottumwa, Iowa Zip: IA 52501 Sector: Solar Product: Solar Dynamics is a US-based solar powered attic roof vents...

  10. Capital Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Capital Solar Place: Lecce, Italy Sector: Solar Product: Lecce-based solar project developer. Coordinates: 40.357955, 18.16801 Show Map...

  11. ISI Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ISI Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: ISI Solar Place: New City, New York Zip: 10956 Sector: Solar Product: US-based company that designs and installs solar power systems for...

  12. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, D.W.

    1980-08-04

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats through a window onto the surface of a moving bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam in one embodiment at the rear surface of a secondary mirror used to redirect the focused sunlight. Another novel feature of the invention is the location and arrangement of the array of mirrors on an inclined surface (e.g., a hillside) to provide for direct optical communication of said mirrors and the carbonaceous feed without a secondary redirecting mirror.

  13. REAP Anchorage Solar Tour

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Alaska Center for Appropriate Technology has partnered with the American Solar Energy Society to share how solar energy is being used and developed in Alaska communities. Tours take place in...

  14. CT Solar Loan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority is offering a pilot loan program, CT Solar Loan, to provide homeowners with 15-year loans for solar PV equipment. The loans are administered...

  15. CT Solar Lease

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CT Solar Lease allows homeowners to lease a photovoltaic (PV) or solar thermal system, with fixed monthly payments, for a term of 20 years, at no upfront down payment.* This program, which takes...

  16. Solar Resource Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-02-01

    This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

  17. Solar Property Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In Missouri, solar energy systems not held for resale are exempt from state, local, and county property taxes. As enacted in July 2013, the law does not define solar energy systems.

  18. Solar Equipment Certification Requirement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    All active solar space-heating and water-heating systems that are sold, offered for sale, or installed on residential and commercial buildings in Minnesota must meet Solar Rating and Certification...

  19. Residential Solar Investment Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In March 2012, the CT Green Bank* unveiled its solar photovoltaic residential investment program with the ultimate goal to support 30 megawatts of residential solar photovoltaics (PV). HB 6838...

  20. Solar Contractor Licensing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Until 1994, Florida offered limited specialty licenses for residential solar hot water and pool heating, as well a general solar contractor's license. These specialty licenses have not been issued...

  1. Solar Construction Permitting Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Owners of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems and solar water heating systems in Colorado are required to obtain a building permit before their systems may be installed. Permits are handled at the l...

  2. Solar 2015 Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solar 2015 Conference is a three-day conference where attendees can share sustainable energy ideas and network with other clean energy professionals who are driving solar change and industry innovation.

  3. Alaska Solar Energy Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Alaska Solar Energy Workshop is a forum to exchange ideas and information about best practices, performance of systems in the arctic, project development and financing, and lessons learned about solar energy.

  4. Solar 2015 Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The American Solar Energy Society is hosting a three-day conference where attendees can share sustainable energy ideas and network with other clean energy professionals who are driving solar change...

  5. Solar Market Pathways

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solar Market Pathways website distributes key insights from 15 SunShot Initiative projects that are advancing solar deployment across the United States. These projects take a variety of...

  6. Anchorage Solar Tour

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Alaska Center for Appropriate Technology has partnered with the American Solar Energy Society to share how solar energy is being used and developed in Alaska communities. Tours take place in Fairbanks, Mat Su, Kenai, and Anchorage.

  7. Mass Solar Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Massachusetts offers fixed low-interest loans to residents purchasing solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. One purpose of this program is to provide more opportunity for residents to own solar PV...

  8. Solar & Wind Equipment Certification

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the exception of solar energy systems designed or installed by the final owner, systems sold or installed in Arizona must be installed by licensed solar contractors and must comply with any...

  9. LADWP- Solar Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power's (LADWP) Solar Incentive Program began in 2000, with a funding level of $150 million. The California Solar Initiative, created in 2007 upon the...

  10. Solar Advantage Plus Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DC District Department of Environment (DDOE) offers Solar Advantage Plus program, which fully subsidizes the cost of installation of solar PV system for eligible low-income residents in DC. The...

  11. Solar Permitting Law

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation also addressed permitting fees for solar systems.  Counties and cities may not charge permit fees for solar permit applications specifically, but they can charge building permit ...

  12. SOLAR MIXTURE OPACITY CALCULATIONS USING DETAILED CONFIGURATION AND LEVEL ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blancard, Christophe; Cosse, Philippe; Faussurier, Gerald

    2012-01-20

    An opacity model (OPAS) combining detailed configuration and level accounting treatments has been developed to calculate radiative opacity of plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The model is presented and used to compute spectral opacities of a solar mixture. Various density-temperature couples have been considered from the solar center up to the vicinity of the radiative/convective zone interface. For a given solar thermodynamic path, OPAS calculations are compared to Opacity Project (OP) and OPAL data. Rosseland mean opacity values are in very good agreement over all the considered solar thermodynamic path, while OPAS and OP spectral opacities of each element may vary considerably. Main sources of discrepancy are discussed.

  13. Solar | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Solar EERE plays a key role in advancing America's booming solar industry, leading a large network of researchers and other partners to deliver innovative technologies that will make renewable electricity generation cost-competitive with traditional sources of energy. EERE plays a key role in advancing America's booming solar industry, leading a large network of researchers and other partners to deliver innovative technologies that will make renewable electricity generation

  14. Wisdom Way Solar Village

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-03-10

    This article gives an overview of Wisdom Way Village, a community of affordable, sustainable solar homes in Greenfield, MA.

  15. Consumer Guide for Solar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    MARC’s Consumer Guide to Solar provides answers to frequently asked questions, as well as guidance on how to get started with solar energy. The objective in creating this resource was to provide clear information to consumers in the Kansas City region who are interested in installing solar on their home or business.

  16. Solar Policy Environment: Milwaukee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Milwaukee’s SAC Initiative, Milwaukee Shines, works to reduce informational, economic and procedural barriers to the widespread adoption of solar energy systems. While the City of Milwaukee and its partners have demonstrated commitment and experience in implementing solar technologies, Milwaukee Shines aims to enhance these efforts and make solar a viable alternative throughout the region.

  17. Conservation and solar guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Guidelines are given for selecting R-values and infiltration levels, and determining the size of the solar collection area for passive solar buildings. The guidelines are based on balancing the incremental cost/benefit of conservation and passive solar strategies. Tables are given for 90 cities in the US and the results are also displayed on maps. An example is included.

  18. Cool Earth Solar

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

    2014-02-26

    In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

  19. Solar Market Pathways

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solar Market Pathways website distributes key insights from 15 SunShot Initiative projects that are advancing solar deployment across the United States. These projects take a variety of approaches to develop actionable strategic plans to expand solar electricity use for residential, community, and commercial properties.

  20. Solar Market Pathways Website

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solar Market Pathways website distributes key insights from 15 SunShot Initiative projects that are advancing solar deployment across the United States. These projects take a variety of approaches to develop actionable strategic plans to expand solar electricity use for residential, community, and commercial properties.