Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tight sand formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Non-Darcy flow analysis through tight sand formations  

SciTech Connect

An experimental setup was designed and constructed to measure the flow parameters through tight sand porous media. The two kinds of coreholders being used are Hassler-type and one in which the core sample is encapsulated in layers of epoxy resin and metal alloy. A gas flow measuring system was also developed for accurately measuring very low gas flow rates. Using Darcy's Law as a tool for analysis of the experimental data, we obtained that the gas permeability of the SFE No. 3 (Staged Field Experiment No. 3) core samples is a linear function of reciprocal mean pressure, and decreases with overburden pressure. The water permeability is also decreased with overburden pressure and is about 6 times smaller than gas permeability for the samples that we have tested. No significant hysteresis effect was obtained for dry gas permeability after several two phase flow runs. We successfully tested our encapsulated coreholder and measured gas flow rate through a tight sand core sample at different pressure drops. The results showed that the experimental runs using Hassler-type coreholder at overburden pressures higher than 2000 psig will probably give us the reliable experimental data. The experimental data obtained from the two different types of tight sandstones were analyzed using the Non-Darcy flow equation. The results showed the importance and reliability of the Non-Darcy formulation for describing the flow behavior under different overburden and system pressures. Non-Darcy's velocity for both gas and liquid phase were incorporated into an existing FORTRAN code for simulation of the tight gas reservoirs. The modified program was tested to compare the initial production data of SFE No. 2 well. Our simulation showed in the case of local turbulence and non-uniformities in the tight sand formation, the value of [beta] increases and Non-Darcy effect becomes important.

Wang, Ching-Huei.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Wilcox formation evaluation; Improved procedures for tight-gas-sand evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses risks in tight-gas-sand evaluation, reduced by defining relationships between pore geometry and critical water saturations. These results are integrated with log interpretation to derive an estimated kh that compares favorably with a true kh from production tests. These procedures are potentially applicable for evaluating other complex reservoirs.

Lewis, D.J.; Perrin, J.D. (BP Exploration Inc., Houston, TX (US))

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Tight gas sands study breaks down drilling and completion costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Given the high cost to drill and complete tight gas sand wells, advances in drilling and completion technology that result in even modest cost savings to the producer have the potential to generate tremendous savings for the natural gas industry. The Gas Research Institute sponsored a study to evaluate drilling and completion costs in selected tight gas sands. The objective of the study was to identify major expenditures associated with tight gas sand development and determine their relative significance. A substantial sample of well cost data was collected for the study. Individual well cost data were collected from nearly 300 wells in three major tight gas sand formations: the Cotton Valley sand in East Texas, the Frontier sand in Wyoming, and the Wilcox sand in South Texas. The data were collected and organized by cost category for each formation. After the information was input into a data base, a simple statistical analysis was performed. The statistical analysis identified data discrepancies that were then resolved, and it helped allow conclusions to be drawn regarding drilling and completion costs in these tight sand formations. Results are presented.

Brunsman, B. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)); Saunders, B. (S.A. Holditch Associates Inc., College Station, TX (United States))

1994-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

4

Pore-scale mechanisms of gas flow in tight sand reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pore space. Although the grains in tight sand samples do notfluid displacement. For tight sands, the simulations predictflow properties of tight sand imply that a small amount of

Silin, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Evaluation of water production in tight gas sands in the Cotton Valley formation in the Caspiana, Elm Grove and Frierson fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Normally in tight gas sands, water production is not a problem but in such low permeability reservoirs it is difficult to produce gas at commercial flow rates. Since water is more viscous than gas, very little water is normally produced in low permeability reservoirs. The production of large volumes of water from tight gas sands, say 50-100 bbls of water per MMcf of gas constitutes a cause for concern. High water production (>200 bbls of water per MMcf of gas) has been observed in the low permeability Cotton Valley sands in the Caspiana, Elm Grove and Frierson fields of North Louisiana. This research evaluates water production in the above tight gas sands using field data provided by Matador Resource, a member of the Crisman Institute in Texas A&M university. The research is aimed at providing realistic reservoir scenarios of excess water production in tight gas sands. Log analysis, property trends and well production profiles have been used in establishing the different scenarios. The reservoir simulation results and the production trends show a possible water source from faults and fractures connecting the Travis Peak/Smackover sands to the Cotton Valley sands. An improved understanding of the reservoir would help in further field development.

Ozobeme, Charles Chinedu

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Completion methods in thick, multilayered tight gas sands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tight gas sands, coal-bed methane, and gas shales are commonly called unconventional reservoirs. Tight gas sands (TGS) are often described as formations with an expected average permeability of 0.1mD or less. Gas production rates from TGS reservoirs are usually low due to poor permeability. As such, state-of-the-art technology must be used to economically develop the resource. TGS formations need to be hydraulically fractured in order to enhance the gas production rates. A majority of these reservoirs can be described as thick, multilayered gas systems. Many reservoirs are hundreds of feet thick and some are thousands of feet thick. The technology used to complete and stimulate thick, tight gas reservoirs is quite complex. It is often difficult to determine the optimum completion and stimulating techniques in thick reservoirs. The optimum methods are functions of many parameters, such as depth, pressure, temperature, in-situ stress and the number of layers. In multilayered reservoirs, it is important to include several sand layers in a single completion. The petroleum literature contains information on the various diversion techniques involved in the completion of these multilayered reservoirs. In this research, we have deduced and evaluated eight possible techniques that have been used in the oil and gas industry to divert multilayered fracture treatments in layered reservoirs. We have developed decision charts, economic analyses and computer programs that will assist completion engineers in determining which of the diversion methods are feasible for a given well stimulation. Our computer programs have been tested using case histories from the petroleum literature with results expressed in this thesis. A limited entry design program has also being developed from this research to calculate the fluid distribution into different layers when fracture treating multilayered tight gas reservoirs using the limited entry technique. The research is aimed at providing decision tools which will eventually be input into an expert advisor for well completions in tight gas reservoirs worldwide.

Ogueri, Obinna Stavely

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Economics of tight sands gas extraction as affected by r and d. Occasional pub  

SciTech Connect

The paper examines the economics and resource potential of tight sand formations as a major near-term source of unconventional gas. The main vehicles for analyzing the issues to date are the 1980 study by the National Petroleum Council (NPC) on tight sand resources and two studies based on the NPC's work at different stages of completion for the GRI Center for Energy Systems Analysis (CESA).

Rosenberg, J.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Western tight gas sands advanced logging workshop proceedings  

SciTech Connect

An advanced logging research program is one major aspect of the Western Tight Sands Program. Purpose of this workshop is to help BETC define critical logging needs for tight gas sands and to allow free interchange of ideas on all aspects of the current logging research program. Sixteen papers and abstracts are included together with discussions. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 12 papers. (DLC)

Jennings, J B; Carroll, Jr, H B [eds.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Appraisal of the tight sands potential of the Sand Wash and Great Divide Basins. Final report, June 1989--June 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The volume of future tight gas reserve additions is difficult to estimate because of uncertainties in the characterization and extent of the resource and the performance and cost-effectiveness of stimulation and production technologies. Ongoing R&D by industry and government aims to reduce the risks and costs of producing these tight resources, increase the certainty of knowledge of their geologic characteristics and extent, and increase the efficiency of production technologies. Some basins expected to contain large volumes of tight gas are being evaluated as to their potential contribution to domestic gas supplies. This report describes the results of one such appraisal. This analysis addresses the tight portions of the Eastern Greater Green River Basin (Sand Wash and Great Divide Subbasins in Northwestern Colorado and Southwestern Wyoming, respectively), with respect to estimated gas-in-place, technical recovery, and potential reserves. Geological data were compiled from public and proprietary sources. The study estimated gas-in-place in significant (greater than 10 feet net sand thickness) tight sand intervals for six distinct vertical and 21 areal units of analysis. These units of analysis represent tight gas potential outside current areas of development. For each unit of analysis, a ``typical`` well was modeled to represent the costs, recovery and economics of near-term drilling prospects in that unit. Technically recoverable gas was calculated using reservoir properties and assumptions about current formation evaluation and extraction technology performance. Basin-specific capital and operating costs were incorporated along with taxes, royalties and current regulations to estimate the minimum required wellhead gas price required to make the typical well in each of unit of analysis economic.

Not Available

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Developing a tight gas sand advisor for completion and stimulation in tight gas reservoirs worldwide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As the demand for energy worldwide increases, the oil and gas industry will need to increase recovery from unconventional gas reservoirs (UGR). UGRs include Tight Gas Sand (TGS), coalbed methane and gas shales. To economically produce UGRs, one must have adequate product price and one must use the most current technology. TGS reservoirs require stimulation as a part of the completion, so improvement of completion practices is very important. We did a thorough literature review to extract knowledge and experience about completion and stimulation technologies used in TGS reservoirs. We developed the principal design and two modules of a computer program called Tight Gas Sand Advisor (TGS Advisor), which can be used to assist engineers in making decisions while completing and stimulating TGS reservoirs. The modules include Perforation Selection and Proppant Selection. Based on input well/reservoir parameters these subroutines provide unambiguous recommendations concerning which perforation strategy(s) and what proppant(s) are applicable for a given well. The most crucial parameters from completion best-practices analyses and consultations with experts are built into TGS Advisor's logic, which mimics human expert's decision-making process. TGS Advisor's recommended procedures for successful completions will facilitate TGS development and improve economical performance of TGS reservoirs.

Bogatchev, Kirill Y

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Developing a tight gas sand advisor for completion and stimulation in tight gas reservoirs worldwide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As the demand for energy worldwide increases, the oil and gas industry will need to increase recovery from unconventional gas reservoirs (UGR). UGRs include Tight Gas Sand (TGS), coalbed methane and gas shales. To economically produce UGRs, one must have adequate product price and one must use the most current technology. TGS reservoirs require stimulation as a part of the completion, so improvement of completion practices is very important. We did a thorough literature review to extract knowledge and experience about completion and stimulation technologies used in TGS reservoirs. We developed the principal design and two modules of a computer program called Tight Gas Sand Advisor (TGS Advisor), which can be used to assist engineers in making decisions while completing and stimulating TGS reservoirs. The modules include Perforation Selection and Proppant Selection. Based on input well/reservoir parameters these subroutines provide unambiguous recommendations concerning which perforation strategy(s) and what proppant(s) are applicable for a given well. The most crucial parameters from completion best-practices analyses and consultations with experts are built into TGS Advisor’s logic, which mimics human expert’s decision-making process. TGS Advisor’s recommended procedures for successful completions will facilitate TGS development and improve economical performance of TGS reservoirs.

Bogatchev, Kirill Y.

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Pore-scale mechanisms of gas flow in tight sand reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

include tight gas sands, gas shales, and coal-bed methane.Figure 3. Although the gas-shale production grows at a

Silin, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Collection of technical data for tight gas sands in support of the massive hydraulic fracturing system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented of work performed to study case histories of logging problems/requirements in tight gas sand areas, provide production histories/completion information on selected Uinta Basin tight gas sand wells, provide geologic guidance and additional technical input for computer simulation of tight gas sand well behavior, and develop information about production histories, completion techniques and reservoir rock characteristics from selected tight gas sand key wells in the Piceance and Green River Basins. A list of gas sand wells in the Uinta Basin is included along with gas production statistics, completion and reservoir data, and well production data. (JRD)

Knutson, C.F.; Boardman, C.R.

1978-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

14

Feasibility of calculating petrophysical properties in tight-sand reservoirs using neural networks. Final report, October 1989-July 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the research was to determine the feasibility of using neural networks to estimate petrophysical properties in tight sand reservoirs. A second objective was to gain some experience concerning how to approach the development of a future prototype, including what should be done and what should be avoided. Gas Research Institute (GRI) focused the project on tight sands because they contain enormous gas reserves and their complicated lithology represents a challenge to log analysts. The data were supplied by GRI from two of its geographically proximate experimental wells in tight sand formations. The nets were tested in sections of those wells that were not used for training, and in two other wells, one in a geographically close but geologically unrelated formation and one in Wyoming. The feasibility testing demonstrated that the relatively simple neural networks developed have comparable accuracy with standard logging analysis estimates in wells that contributed data to the training set. Transportability of the network was tested by using core measurements in two wells in which the nets were not trained, with inconclusive results. Recommendations were made to increase the accuracy of the neural networks.

Urquidi-Macdonald, M.; Javitz, H.S.; Park, W.; Lee, J.D.; Bergman, A.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Production of Natural Gas and Fluid Flow in Tight Sand Reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document reports progress of this research effort in identifying relationships and defining dependencies between macroscopic reservoir parameters strongly affected by microscopic flow dynamics and production well performance in tight gas sand reservoirs. These dependencies are investigated by identifying the main transport mechanisms at the pore scale that should affect fluids flow at the reservoir scale. A critical review of commercial reservoir simulators, used to predict tight sand gas reservoir, revealed that many are poor when used to model fluid flow through tight reservoirs. Conventional simulators ignore altogether or model incorrectly certain phenomena such as, Knudsen diffusion, electro-kinetic effects, ordinary diffusion mechanisms and water vaporization. We studied the effect of Knudsen's number in Klinkenberg's equation and evaluated the effect of different flow regimes on Klinkenberg's parameter b. We developed a model capable of explaining the pressure dependence of this parameter that has been experimentally observed, but not explained in the conventional formalisms. We demonstrated the relevance of this, so far ignored effect, in tight sands reservoir modeling. A 2-D numerical simulator based on equations that capture the above mentioned phenomena was developed. Dynamic implications of new equations are comprehensively discussed in our work and their relative contribution to the flow rate is evaluated. We performed several simulation sensitivity studies that evidenced that, in general terms, our formalism should be implemented in order to get more reliable tight sands gas reservoirs' predictions.

Maria Cecilia Bravo

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

16

Production of Natural Gas and Fluid Flow in Tight Sand Reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document reports progress of this research effort in identifying possible relationships and defining dependencies between macroscopic reservoir parameters strongly affected by microscopic flow dynamics and production well performance in tight gas sand reservoirs. Based on a critical review of the available literature, a better understanding of the main weaknesses of the current state of the art of modeling and simulation for tight sand reservoirs has been reached. Progress has been made in the development and implementation of a simple reservoir simulator that is still able to overcome some of the deficiencies detected. The simulator will be used to quantify the impact of microscopic phenomena in the macroscopic behavior of tight sand gas reservoirs. Phenomena such as, Knudsen diffusion, electro-kinetic effects, ordinary diffusion mechanisms and water vaporization are being considered as part of this study. To date, the adequate modeling of gas slippage in porous media has been determined to be of great relevance in order to explain unexpected fluid flow behavior in tight sand reservoirs.

Maria Cecilia Bravo; Mariano Gurfinkel

2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

17

Market model finds tight gas sands R and D offers most promise  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Unconventional natural gas (UNG) - primarily tight gas sands - offers by far the largest opportunity for reducing gas costs between now and 2000, a team of researchers reported at the Sept. 1984 International Gas Research conference in Washington, DC. The promises of UNG R and D far outweigh those of synthetic natural gas (SNG), the researchers concluded, but stressed that SNG R and D should nonetheless continue - but with a different focus and changed performance goals.

Not Available

1984-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

18

Assessment of environmental health and safety issues associated with the commercialization of unconventional gas recovery: Tight Western Sands  

SciTech Connect

Results of a study to identify and evaluate potential public health and safety problems and the potential environmental impacts from recovery of natural gas from Tight Western Sands are reported. A brief discussion of economic and technical constraints to development of this resource is also presented to place the environmental and safety issues in perspective. A description of the resource base, recovery techniques, and possible environmental effects associated with tight gas sands is presented.

Riedel, E.F.; Cowan, C.E.; McLaughlin, T.J.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Design and Implementation of Energized Fracture Treatment in Tight Gas Sands  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic fracturing is essential for producing gas and oil at an economic rate from low permeability sands. Most fracturing treatments use water and polymers with a gelling agent as a fracturing fluid. The water is held in the small pore spaces by capillary pressure and is not recovered when drawdown pressures are low. The un-recovered water leaves a water saturated zone around the fracture face that stops the flow of gas into the fracture. This is a particularly acute problem in low permeability formations where capillary pressures are high. Depletion (lower reservoir pressures) causes a limitation on the drawdown pressure that can be applied. A hydraulic fracturing process can be energized by the addition of a compressible, sometimes soluble, gas phase into the treatment fluid. When the well is produced, the energized fluid expands and gas comes out of solution. Energizing the fluid creates high gas saturation in the invaded zone, thereby facilitating gas flowback. A new compositional hydraulic fracturing model has been created (EFRAC). This is the first model to include changes in composition, temperature, and phase behavior of the fluid inside the fracture. An equation of state is used to evaluate the phase behavior of the fluid. These compositional effects are coupled with the fluid rheology, proppant transport, and mechanics of fracture growth to create a general model for fracture creation when energized fluids are used. In addition to the fracture propagation model, we have also introduced another new model for hydraulically fractured well productivity. This is the first and only model that takes into account both finite fracture conductivity and damage in the invaded zone in a simple analytical way. EFRAC was successfully used to simulate several fracture treatments in a gas field in South Texas. Based on production estimates, energized fluids may be required when drawdown pressures are smaller than the capillary forces in the formation. For this field, the minimum CO{sub 2} gas quality (volume % of gas) recommended is 30% for moderate differences between fracture and reservoir pressures (2900 psi reservoir, 5300 psi fracture). The minimum quality is reduced to 20% when the difference between pressures is larger, resulting in additional gas expansion in the invaded zone. Inlet fluid temperature, flow rate, and base viscosity did not have a large impact on fracture production. Finally, every stage of the fracturing treatment should be energized with a gas component to ensure high gas saturation in the invaded zone. A second, more general, sensitivity study was conducted. Simulations show that CO{sub 2} outperforms N{sub 2} as a fluid component because it has higher solubility in water at fracturing temperatures and pressures. In fact, all gas components with higher solubility in water will increase the fluid's ability to reduce damage in the invaded zone. Adding methanol to the fracturing solution can increase the solubility of CO{sub 2}. N{sub 2} should only be used if the gas leaks-off either during the creation of the fracture or during closure, resulting in gas going into the invaded zone. Experimental data is needed to determine if the gas phase leaks-off during the creation of the fracture. Simulations show that the bubbles in a fluid traveling across the face of a porous medium are not likely to attach to the surface of the rock, the filter cake, or penetrate far into the porous medium. In summary, this research has created the first compositional fracturing simulator, a useful tool to aid in energized fracture design. We have made several important and original conclusions about the best practices when using energized fluids in tight gas sands. The models and tools presented here may be used in the future to predict behavior of any multi-phase or multi-component fracturing fluid system.

Mukul Sharma; Kyle Friehauf

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

20

Pore-scale mechanisms of gas flow in tight sand reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tight gas sands are unconventional hydrocarbon energy resource storing large volume of natural gas. Microscopy and 3D imaging of reservoir samples at different scales and resolutions provide insights into the coaredo not significantly smaller in size than conventional sandstones, the extremely dense grain packing makes the pore space tortuous, and the porosity is small. In some cases the inter-granular void space is presented by micron-scale slits, whose geometry requires imaging at submicron resolutions. Maximal Inscribed Spheres computations simulate different scenarios of capillary-equilibrium two-phase fluid displacement. For tight sands, the simulations predict an unusually low wetting fluid saturation threshold, at which the non-wetting phase becomes disconnected. Flow simulations in combination with Maximal Inscribed Spheres computations evaluate relative permeability curves. The computations show that at the threshold saturation, when the nonwetting fluid becomes disconnected, the flow of both fluids is practically blocked. The nonwetting phase is immobile due to the disconnectedness, while the permeability to the wetting phase remains essentially equal to zero due to the pore space geometry. This observation explains the Permeability Jail, which was defined earlier by others. The gas is trapped by capillarity, and the brine is immobile due to the dynamic effects. At the same time, in drainage, simulations predict that the mobility of at least one of the fluids is greater than zero at all saturations. A pore-scale model of gas condensate dropout predicts the rate to be proportional to the scalar product of the fluid velocity and pressure gradient. The narrowest constriction in the flow path is subject to the highest rate of condensation. The pore-scale model naturally upscales to the Panfilov's Darcy-scale model, which implies that the condensate dropout rate is proportional to the pressure gradient squared. Pressure gradient is the greatest near the matrix-fracture interface. The distinctive two-phase flow properties of tight sand imply that a small amount of gas condensate can seriously affect the recovery rate by blocking gas flow. Dry gas injection, pressure maintenance, or heating can help to preserve the mobility of gas phase. A small amount of water can increase the mobility of gas condensate.

Silin, D.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Ajo-Franklin, J.B.; Nico, P.

2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tight sand formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Well completion process for formations with unconsolidated sands  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for consolidating sand around a well, involving injecting hot water or steam through well casing perforations in to create a cement-like area around the perforation of sufficient rigidity to prevent sand from flowing into and obstructing the well. The cement area has several wormholes that provide fluid passageways between the well and the formation, while still inhibiting sand inflow.

Davies, David K. (Kingwood, TX); Mondragon, III, Julius J. (Redondo Beach, CA); Hara, Philip Scott (Monterey Park, CA)

2003-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

22

Hydraulic fracture productivity performance in tight gas sands, a numerical simulation approach.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Hydraulically fractured tight gas reservoirs are one of the most common unconventional sources being produced today, and look to be a regular source of gas… (more)

Ostojic, Jakov

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK FOR HYDRAULICALLY FRACTURED HORIZONTAL WELLS IN TIGHT GAS SANDS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Increasing demand on fossil fuels and the decline in their production promote producing hydrocarbon from unconventional sources. Natural gas existing in tight reservoirs has a… (more)

Kulga, Ihsan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Continuity and permeability development in the tight gas sands of the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The relationships between reservoir characteristics and flow regimes exhibited by twenty-one Uinta Basin gas wells represent fluvial, lake margin, and lacustrine deposits. Production data were analyzed to determine the type of flow for each well. This analysis indicated that one well exhibits radial flow, thirteen wells linear flow, and seven wells indeterminate flow regimes. Values of SSP, ..delta..t, R/sub w/ and SP curve patterns were determined from well logs. These data were compared for the three types of flow observed. It appears that SSP, R/sub w/ and SP pattern may be useful in qualitatively distinguishing between sands of low continuity and those with moderate continuity. The permeabilities are considerably higher than those normally attributed to ''tight sands.'' Also permeability correlates inversely with the number of sands completed in each well. Consideration of the orientations of linear features in the area and those of reservoir lenses in outcrops indicates that the relationship between frac orientation and lens geometry cannot be effectively predicted without a good technique to predict lens orientation. Completion strategies to optimize frac efficiency are suggested, based upon the findings of this study.

Knutson, C.F.; Boardman, C.R.

1978-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation through at least one production well that is located in at least two zones in the formation. The first zone has an initial permeability of at least 1 darcy. The second zone has an initial of at most 0.1 darcy. The two zones are separated by a substantially impermeable barrier.

Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

26

Rock matrix and fracture analysis of flow in western tight gas sands: 1986 annual report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents progress for the second year of a five-year project concerned with the pore structure and flow properties of low permeability gas sands. The main objective of work during the first year was to carry out advanced core analysis on cores recovered from the Multi-Well Field Experiment. In Phase 2, the properties of both fractured and non-fractured samples (hereafter referred to as matrix) have been studied. Special attention was given to the combined effect of overburden pressure and water saturation on gas flow. 11 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

Morrow, N.R.; Buckley, J.S.; Cather, S.M.; Brower, K.R.; Dandge, V.; Graham, M.; Gonzales, B.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Figure 97. Total U.S. tight oil production by geologic formation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 97. Total U.S. tight oil production by geologic formation, 2011-2040 (million barrels per day) Permian Basin Bakken Eagle Ford

28

Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

Li, Ruijian (Katy, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

29

Hydraulic fracture model and diagnostics verification at GRI/DOE multi-site projects and tight gas sand program support. Final report, July 28, 1993--February 28, 1997  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Mesaverde Group of the Piceance Basin in western Colorado has been a pilot study area for government-sponsored tight gas sand research for over twenty years. Early production experiments included nuclear stimulations and massive hydraulic fracture treatments. This work culminated in the US Department of Energy (DOE)`s Multiwell Experiment (MWX), a field laboratory designed to study the reservoir and production characteristics of low permeability sands. A key feature of MWX was an infrastructure which included several closely spaced wells that allowed detailed characterization of the reservoir through log and core analysis, and well testing. Interference and tracer tests, as well as the use of fracture diagnostics gave further information on stimulation and production characteristics. Thus, the Multiwell Experiment provided a unique opportunity for identifying the factors affecting production from tight gas sand reservoirs. The purpose of this operation was to support the gathering of field data that may be used to resolve the number of unknowns associated with measuring and modeling the dimensions of hydraulic fractures. Using the close-well infrastructure at the Multiwell Site near Rifle, Colorado, this operation focused primarily on the field design and execution of experiments. The data derived from the experiments were gathered and analyzed by DOE team contractors.

Schroeder, J.E.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

30

The Formation of Systems with Tightly-packed Inner Planets (STIPs) via Aerodynamic Drift  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The NASA Kepler mission has revealed an abundant class of Systems with Tightly-packed Inner Planets (STIPs). The current paradigm for planet formation suggests that small planetesimals will quickly spiral into the host star due to aerodynamic drag, preventing rocky planet formation. In contrast, we find that aerodynamic drift, when acting on an ensemble of solids, can concentrate mass at short orbital periods in gaseous disks. Sublimation fronts may further aid this process. Kepler data suggest that the innermost known planets are found near the silicate sublimation zone. STIP planets should have a wide range of volatile fractions due to aerodynamic drift and H2 dissociation-driven gas accretion. We further propose that the low mass of Mars is evidence that the Solar System was once a proto-STIP.

Boley, Aaron C

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Recovery of heavy crude oil or tar sand oil or bitumen from underground formations  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of producing heavy crude oil or tar sand oil or bitumen from an underground formation. The method consists of utilizing or establishing an aqueous fluid communication path within and through the formation between an injection well or conduit and a production well or conduit by introducing into the formation from the injection well or conduit hot water and/or low quality steam at a temperature in the range about 60{sup 0}-130{sup 0}C and at a substantially neutral or alkaline pH to establish or enlarge the aqueous fluid communication path within the formation from the injection well or conduit to the production well or conduit by movement of the introduced hot water or low quality steam through the formation, increasing the temperature of the injected hot water of low quality steam to a temperature in the range about 110{sup 0}-180{sup 0}C while increasing the pH of the injected hot water or low quality steam to a pH of about 10-13 so as to bring about the movement or migration or stripping of the heavy crude oil or tar sand oil or bitumen from the formation substantially into the hot aqueous fluid communication path with the formation and recovering the resulting produced heavy crude oil or tar sand oil or bitumen from the formation as an emulsion containing less than about 30% oil or bitumen from the production well or conduit.

McKay, A.S.

1989-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

32

In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. The method includes providing a drive fluid to a first hydrocarbon containing layer of the formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the first layer. At least some of the mobilized hydrocarbons are allowed to flow into a second hydrocarbon containing layer of the formation. Heat is provided to the second layer from one or more heaters located in the second layer. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the second layer of the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

33

ELASTIC ROCK PROPERTIES OF TIGHT GAS SANDSTONES FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and to locate the best locations to drill for them. The tight gas sands of the Piceance Basin have long been understanding of the way that fractures have controlled the production of gas in these tight gas sands an east to west trend of tight gas sand fields that produce a substantial amount of the total gas produced

34

Factors of paleosol formation in a Late Cretaceous eolian sand sheet paleoenvironment, Marlia Formation, Southeastern Brazil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Formation, Southeastern Brazil Patrick Francisco Führ Dal' Bó a, , Giorgio Basilici a , Rômulo Simões), Brazil b IG ­ Universidade Federal do Pará, 66075-110, Belém (PA), Brazil a b s t r a c ta r t i c l e i Late Cretaceous The Marília Formation, which crops out in southeastern Brazil, is interpreted as a Late

Ahmad, Sajjad

35

Reservoir characterization of the upper Merecure and lower Oficina Formations sands in the Leona Este Field, Eastern Venezuela Basin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The "S5", "T" and "U1" sands, traditionally described as part of the lower section of the "Oficina" Formation, and the "U2" sand, as part of the upper interval of the "Merecure" Formation, contain the largest oil remaining reserves of the Leona Este Field, which is located in the southern portion of the Eastern Venezuela Basin. Two or more of these reservoir sands, which are interbedded with shales, have been simultaneously produced pursuing an increase in the oil production rate, but an unexpected production performance was obtained: the accelerated and early increase of the water volume associated to the produced oil has caused the shut down of some wells in the Leona Este Field. In order to understand this productive performance and to re-evaluate the hydrocarbon potential of the study interval, it is important to describe these reservoirs in terms of their depositional origin and trap formation. An integrated reservoir model was constructed using all the available geological, geophysical and production data. The hydrocarbon trapping mechanism of each studied stratigraphic interval, traditionally known as the "S5", "TU", "TL", "U1U", "U1L", "U2U", "U2MA", "U2MB" and "U2L" sands, includes two components: ? Stratigraphic component: each stratigraphic interval presents one or more reservoir zones composed by sandy deposits that fill belts of stacked tidal-fluvial channels in a SSE-NNW trending tide-dominated estuarine system. In most intervals, these contemporaneous-in-deposition reservoir zones are not connected due to the lateral variation of facies present in the tide-dominated estuary. ? Structural component: northward dipping strata have been offset by a W-E trending major normal fault and secondary normal faults striking parallel to the major one. The major fault is the southern seal of the hydrocarbon traps. The most important prospects of the study interval are the reservoir zones 1 and 2 of the "U1L" sand, the reservoir zone 3 of the "U2MB" sand, and the "U1U" sand, which show more than 15 feet of average net sand thickness, and contain the largest volume of recoverable oil per reservoir zone in the Leona Este Field.

Flores Millan, Maria Carolina

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

A-84: Tight Binding Understanding of Carbon Defects in Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thus, a coherent transferable tight-binding (TB) parameterization was developed for Fe-C by ... A-54: Used Foundry Sand Reclamation in New Vibratory Unit.

37

Fraced horizontal well shows potential of deep tight gas  

SciTech Connect

Successful completion of a multiple fraced, deep horizontal well demonstrated new techniques for producing tight gas sands. In Northwest Germany, Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GmbH drilled, cased, and fraced the world`s deepest horizontal well in the ultra-tight Rotliegendes ``Main`` sand at 15,687 ft (4,783 m) true vertical depth. The multiple frac concept provides a cost-efficient method to economically produce significant gas resources in the ultra-tight Rotliegendes ``Main`` sand. Besides the satisfactory initial gas production rate, the well established several world records, including deepest horizontal well with multiple fracs, and proved this new technique to develop ultra-tight sands.

Schueler, S. [Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GmbH, Celle (Germany); Santos, R. [Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

1996-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

38

Selection of fracture fluid for stimulating tight gas reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Essentially all producing wells drilled in tight gas sands and shales are stimulated using hydraulic fracture treatments. The development of optimal fracturing procedures, therefore, has a large impact on the long-term economic viability of the wells. The industry has been working on stimulation technology for more than 50 years, yet practices that are currently used may not always be optimum. Using information from the petroleum engineering literature, numerical and analytical simulators, surveys from fracturing experts, and statistical analysis of production data, this research provides guidelines for selection of the appropriate stimulation treatment fluid in most gas shale and tight gas reservoirs. This study takes into account various parameters such as the type of formation, the presence of natural fractures, reservoir properties, economics, and the experience of experts we have surveyed. This work provides a guide to operators concerning the selection of an appropriate type of fracture fluid for a specific set of conditions for a tight gas reservoir.

Malpani, Rajgopal Vijaykumar

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Capacity Investigation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Frio Formation for Geologic Sequestration of CO2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capacity Investigation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Frio Capacity Investigation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Frio Formation for Geologic Sequestration of CO 2 Christine Doughty (cadoughty@lbl.gov; 510-486-6453) Karsten Pruess (k_pruess@lbl.gov; 510-486-6732) Sally M. Benson (smbenson@lbl.gov; 510-486-5875) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1 Cyclotron Rd, MS 90-1116 Berkeley, CA 94720 Susan D. Hovorka (susan.hovorka@beg.utexas.edu; 512-471-4863) Paul R. Knox (paul.knox@beg.utexas.edu; 512-471-7313) Bureau of Economic Geology P.O. Box X, The University of Texas Austin, TX 78713 Christopher T. Green (ctgreen@ucdavis.edu; 530-752-1372) University of California, Hydrologic Sciences 1 Shields Ave. Davis, CA 95616 Abstract The capacity of fluvial brine-bearing formations to sequester CO 2 is investigated using numerical simulations of CO

40

Acoustic wave propagation in cracked porous rocks and application to interpreting acoustic log data in tight formations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rocks in earth's crust usually contain both pores and cracks. Typical examples include tight sandstone and shale rocks that have low porosity but contain abundant microcracks. By extending the classic Biot's poroelastic wavetheory to include the effects of cracks

Xiaoming Tang; Xuelian Chen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tight sand formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Evaluation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Frio Formation, Upper Texas Gulf Coast for Geological Sequestration of CO2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Evaluation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Frio Formation, Upper Texas Gulf Coast for Geological Sequestration of CO 2 S. D. Hovorka (susan.hovorka@beg.utexas.edu; 512-471-4863) Bureau of Economic Geology, P.O. Box X, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78713 C. Doughty (CADoughty@lbl.gov; 510-486-6453 ) Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road Mailstop 90-1116, Berkeley, CA 94720 P. R. Knox (paul.knox@beg.utexas.edu; 512-471-7313), Bureau of Economic Geology, P.O. Box X, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78713 C. T. Green (ctgreen@ucdavis.edu; 510-495-2461) University of California, Hydrologic Sciences, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616 K. Pruess(K_Pruess@lbl.gov; 510-486-6732) Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road Mailstop 90-1116,

42

Methane hydrate distribution from prolonged and repeated formation in natural and compacted sand samples: X-ray CT observations  

SciTech Connect

To study physical properties of methane gas hydrate-bearing sediments, it is necessary to synthesize laboratory samples due to the limited availability of cores from natural deposits. X-ray computed tomography (CT) and other observations have shown gas hydrate to occur in a number of morphologies over a variety of sediment types. To aid in understanding formation and growth patterns of hydrate in sediments, methane hydrate was repeatedly formed in laboratory-packed sand samples and in a natural sediment core from the Mount Elbert Stratigraphic Test Well. CT scanning was performed during hydrate formation and decomposition steps, and periodically while the hydrate samples remained under stable conditions for up to 60 days. The investigation revealed the impact of water saturation on location and morphology of hydrate in both laboratory and natural sediments during repeated hydrate formations. Significant redistribution of hydrate and water in the samples was observed over both the short and long term.

Rees, E.V.L.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Seol, Y.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Constitutive models for the Etchegoin Sands, Belridge Diatomite, and overburden formations at the Lost Hills oil field, California  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the development of constitutive material models for the overburden formations, reservoir formations, and underlying strata at the Lost Hills oil field located about 45 miles northwest of Bakersfield in Kern County, California. Triaxial rock mechanics tests were performed on specimens prepared from cores recovered from the Lost Hills field, and included measurements of axial and radial stresses and strains under different load paths. The tested intervals comprise diatomaceous sands of the Etchegoin Formation and several diatomite types of the Belridge Diatomite Member of the Monterey Formation, including cycles both above and below the diagenetic phase boundary between opal-A and opal-CT. The laboratory data are used to drive constitutive parameters for the Extended Sandler-Rubin (ESR) cap model that is implemented in Sandia's structural mechanics finite element code JAS3D. Available data in the literature are also used to derive ESR shear failure parameters for overburden formations. The material models are being used in large-scale three-dimensional geomechanical simulations of the reservoir behavior during primary and secondary recovery.

FOSSUM,ARLO F.; FREDRICH,JOANNE T.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Extensional wave attenuation and velocity in partially-saturated sand in the sonic frequency range  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sands can be viewed as an end-member of the spectrum of naturally-occurring granular materials, with tight

Liu, Z.; Rector, J.W.; Nihei, K.T.; Tomutsa, L.; Myer, L.R.; Nakagawa, S.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Extensional wave attenuation and velocity in partially saturated sand in the sonic frequency range  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sands can be viewed as an end-member of the spectrum of naturally-occurring granular materials, with tight

Liu, Z.; Rector, J.W.; Nihei, K.T.; Tomutsa, L.; Myer, L.R.; Nakagawa, S.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Production optimization of a tight sandstone gas reservoir with well completions: A numerical simulation study.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Tight gas sands have significant gas reserves, which requires cost-effective well completion technology and reservoir development plans for viable commercial exploitation. In this study, a… (more)

Defeu, Cyrille W.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Pore-scale characterization and modeling of two-phase flow in tight gas sandstones.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Unconventional natural gas resources, particularly tight gas sands, constitute a significant percentage of the natural gas resource base and offer abundant potential for future reserves… (more)

Mousavi, Maryam Alsadat

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Sand consolidation methods  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for consolidating unconsolidated mineral particles including sand in a subterranean petroleum formation penetrated by a well in fluid communication with at least a portion of the formation. It comprises: providing a sand consolidating fluid comprising a polymerizable monomer, diluent for the monomer, and a nonvolatile strong acid catalyst capable of causing polymerization of the monomer at fluid injection temperatures; mixing the sand consolidating fluid with steam to form a multiphase treating fluid; injecting the treating fluid into the formation to occupy the void space of at least a portion of the formation adjacent to the well; and allowing the injected fluids to remain in the formations for a period of time sufficient to accomplish at least partial polymerization of the monomer, forming a permeable consolidated mass around the wellbore. Also described is a method for forming a fluid impermeable zone in a permeable, subterranean oil-containing formation adjacent to a wellbore penetrating the formation.

Friedman, R.H.; Surles, B.W.; Fader, P.D.

1990-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

49

SEISMIC ANISOTROPY IN TIGHT GAS SANDSTONES, RULISON FIELD, PICEANCE BASIN, COLORADO  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the Piceance basin area have created the Mesaverde Group tight gas sand reservoirs. As shown in Figure 2 of siltstones, shales and tight sandstones with a coaly interval at the base. The main producing interval was predominantly from the fluvial point bar sand bodies, with extremely low matrix permeabilities (

50

Silica Sand  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the molds and cores in foundries that make steel castings, and for casting gray iron, brass, aluminum and magnesium metals. Since silica sand has a very high melting point, it is...

51

CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing in low permeability reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objectives of this study are: to demonstrate the effectiveness of a non-damaging liquid, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in creating sand-propped hydraulic fractures in ``tight`` gas bearing formations within the Appalachian Basin; and to compare and rank the gas production responses from wells treated with liquid CO{sub 2} with other types of treatments (shooting, water based, nitrogen, etc.). The preliminary results are encouraging, and although only a few months of production is available, the rate of gas production from the CO{sub 2} treated candidate wells is greater than that from the control wells. The CO{sub 2}/sand fracs appear to be 56 percent better than the nitrogen fracs in Pike County. In addition, the CO{sub 2}/sand fracs are 4.8 times better than conventional shot wells in the Pike County study area. It should be recognized that these results are from a very limited data set and overall conclusions may change as more control wells are added to the analysis. From a stimulation process achievement viewpoint, the maximum amount of sand pumped is 46,000 pounds at an average concentration of 3.1 pound per gallon. It should be pointed out that additional foam and nitrogen stimulations have recently been performed by the operator in the Pike County area, and subsequent discussions in the future will include additional control wells to the baseline data sets.

Mazza, R.L.; Gehr, J.B.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

52

Sand consolidation method  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of treating a subterranean, unconsolidated sand and petroleum-containing formation whose temperature is less than 200{degrees}F penetrated by at least one well, which is in fluid communication with at least a portion of the unconsolidated sand-containing subterranean formation, in order to form a permeable barrier in the treatment zone around the well which restrains the movement of sand particles into the well while permitting the passage of formation fluids including petroleum therethrough. It comprises introducing a non aqueous gas into the treatment zone of the formation to reduce the water content of the portion of the formation where the permeable barrier is to be formed to less than 5 percent by volume based on the volume of pore space to be treated; introducing an effective volume of treating fluid into the treatment zone, comprising a compound which is capable of being acid catalyzed to undergo condensation polymerization at formation temperatures, an anhydride of a strong acid, and a diluent for the polymerizable compound and the anhydride; and allowing the treating fluid to remain in the treatment zone for a period of time sufficient to ensure substantially complete polymerization.

Friedman, R.H.; Surles, B.W.

1991-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

53

Guide to Preparing SAND Reports  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Guide to Preparing SAND Reports contains guidelines for producing SAND Reports and other information releases. Its guidelines reflect DOE regulations and Sandia policy. The Guide includes in Section 1, policies for protecting and reproducing official information at Sandia, SAND number information, and Review & Approval procedures; in Section 2, basic writing instructions, which are illustrated in an annotated sample report; in Section 3, an explanation of the format, layout, and graphics of SAND Reports and a table that details the markings and legends needed for report covers and title pages; in Section 4, the procedures for reproducing and distributing SAND Reports; and in Section 5, information on presentations and conference papers, journal articles, book chapters, and brochures. The appendixes contain sections on Sandia's preferred style, usage, and grammar; equations; report references; and trademarks and copyrights. 4 May 1998 Intentionally Left Blank May 1998 5 Conten...

Tamara Locke Editor; Tamara K. Locke

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

High Hopes, Tight Quarters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hopes, Hopes, Tight Quarters Unique Recycler, world's largest array of permanent magnets, taking shape in crowded Main Injector tunnel. by Mike Perricone, Office of Public Affairs The magnets are numbered in the hundreds; their weight is measured in tons. The available space in the tunnel is usually about four and a half feet, but it can be as little as two or three inches, and the forklifts doing the moving have been custom- designed for these tight quarters. The obstacles include water systems, cable trays, workers performing other installations, and the precisely aligned components of the signature Main Injector accelerator. The consequences of a possible slip-up: Don't even ask. Installation crews can put eight to 10 magnets in place in a day, if the magnets are located close together. Installing a magnet

55

Geochemical Evidence for an Eolian Sand Dam across the North and South Platte Rivers in Nebraska  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

microcracks saturating the ECC (Fig. 1(b)) before localization. This tight crack width is essential designation M45) along with green ECC mixture proportions (ECC with green foundry sand, ECC with bag house calcinator sand) Mixture proportions, *high-range water reducer M45 M45G M45 Calcin Cement 1 1 1 F-110 sand 0

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

56

Western gas sands: Technology status report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research on western gas sands is conducted by the US Department of Energy's Morgantown Technology Center to encourage the development of very low permeability gas sands in the western United States. The current search is an outgrowth of earlier Government research on tight sands in which nuclear and massive hydraulics fracturing stimulations were tested without definitive results. Based on input from the gas industry, universities, and geologic and engineering consulting firms, activites were broadened to include fundamental research and development. Consequently, the focus of the research for the last several years has been on improving diagnostic instruments for evaluating reservoir and stimulation performances, interpreting geophysical and engineering data, and stimulation techniques. Intergrated geologic studies of three depositional basins that contain tight lenticular sandstone units have also been pursued as part of this new effort. To date, the following tentative conclusions have been formulated: The permeability of the tight gas sands can be as much as three to four orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional gas deposits. Nineteen western geologic basins and trends have been identified that contain significant volumes of tight gas. Gas resources in the priority geologic basins have been estimated as follows: Piceance Basin, 420 Tcf.; Greater Green River Basin, 4971 Tcf.; and Uinta Basin, 21 Tcf. The critical parameters for successfully developing tight sandstone resources are the presence of natural fractures within a reservoir and the effective propped length of hydraulically induced fractures. Stimulation technology is presently insufficient to efficiently recover gas from lenticular, tight reservoirs. 15 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

Not Available

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

DOE Showcases Websites for Tight Gas Resource Development | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Showcases Websites for Tight Gas Resource Development Showcases Websites for Tight Gas Resource Development DOE Showcases Websites for Tight Gas Resource Development July 30, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, D.C. -- Two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) projects funded by the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory provide quick and easy web-based access to sought after information on tight-gas sandstone plays. Operators can use the data on the websites to expand natural gas recovery in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and the central Appalachian Basin of West Virginia and Pennsylvania. As production from conventional natural gas resources declines, natural gas from tight-gas sandstone formations is expected to contribute a growing percentage to the nation's energy supply. "Tight gas" is natural gas

58

Mobil completes deep, tight, horizontal gas well in Germany  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A completion and fracturing program for stimulating a horizontal well in the ultra-tight Rotliegendes sand onshore Germany included casing design, completion fluid selection, overbalanced perforation, analysis of the stimulation treatment, design modification, zone and fracture isolation, well testing and acid stimulation. This paper reviews the field geology, the well design, casing design, describes the completion fluids, perforation techniques, fracture treatment, and methods for zone isolation.

Abou-Sayed, I.S.; Chambers, M.R. [Mobil E and P Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Mueller, M.W. [Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GmbH, Celle (Germany)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Simulation of fracture fluid cleanup and its effect on long-term recovery in tight gas reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the coming decades, the world will require additional supplies of natural gas to meet the demand for energy. Tight gas reservoirs can be defined as reservoirs where the formation permeability is so low (flowback procedures, production strategy, and reservoir conditions. Residual polymer in the fracture can reduce the effective fracture permeability and porosity, reduce the effective fracture half-length, and limit the well productivity. Our ability to mathematically model the fundamental physical processes governing fluid recovery in hydraulic fractures in the past has been limited. In this research, fracture fluid damage mechanisms have been investigated, and mathematical models and computer codes have been developed to better characterize the cleanup process. The codes have been linked to a 3D, 3-phase simulator to model and quantify the fracture fluid cleanup process and its effect on long-term gas production performances. Then, a comprehensive systematic simulation study has been carried out by varying formation permeability, reservoir pressure, fracture length, fracture conductivity, yield stress, and pressure drawdown. On the basis of simulation results and analyses, new ways to improve fracture fluid cleanup have been provided. This new progress help engineers better understand fracture fluid cleanup, improve fracture treatment design, and increase gas recovery from tight sand reservoirs, which can be extremely important as more tight gas reservoirs are developed around the world.

Wang, Yilin

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Sand consolidation method employing latex  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of treating a subterranean, unconsolidated sand and petroleum containing formation penetrated by at least one well, which is in fluid communication with at least a portion of the unconsolidated sand containing subterranean formation. This forms a flexible, permeable barrier around the well which restrains the movement of sand particles into the well while permitting the passage of formation fluids including petroleum there through. The method comprises: a. forming a predetermined quantity of a treating fluid comprising a water external phase emulsion having as its dispersed or discontinuous phase, a predetermined amount of an oil-insoluble rubber. The emulsion also contains a predetermined quantity of a material which hydrolyzes at reservoir temperature to form an acid; b. injecting the treating fluid into the formation to be consolidated; and c. leaving the fluid undisturbed in the formation for a predetermined period of time sufficient to allow the emulsion to break so the oil insoluble rubber coats the sand grains, forming a competent permeable barrier around the wellbore.

Friedman, R.H.

1987-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tight sand formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Western gas sands project status report  

SciTech Connect

The Western Gas Sands Project Plan, Project Implementation Plans and Project Plan Document FY 78 are in various stages of preparation. Information gathering by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the initial data base for many of the project activities is nearing completion. Some base maps are complete and field investigations in the principal areas of interest are being conducted. Research and development by Energy Research Centers and National Laboratories were directed toward new tools and instrumentation systems, rock mechanics experiments, mathematical modeling, and data analysis. The Uinta Basin in Utah and Piceance Basin in Colorado have ongoing massive hydraulic fracture (MHF) experiments in the Upper Cretaceous tight gas formations. These are: CER Corporation, MHF 3; Gas Producing Enterprises, Natural Buttes No. 14, 18, 19, 20; Mobil Oil, F-31-13G; and Rio Blanco Natural Gas, 498-4-1. Colorado Interstate Gas Company has been awarded a contract to determine if productivity in low permeability reservoirs can be improved by reducing the interstitialwater saturation. They will be using two wells, the Sprague No. 1 and Miller No. 1, completed in the Dakota J formation in the Wattenberg Field in north central Colorado. All of the massive hydraulic fracture wells, with the exception of the Pacific Transmission well, have been fractured as planned. The Mobil and GPE No. 14, 18, and 20 wells show significant improvement as compared to original flow rates. The Mobil well is being tested for additional MHF treatments. Sandia Laboratories is continuing their research program in hydraulic fracturing at DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS).

1977-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

New method for sand control and well stimulation in unconsolidated dirty sands  

SciTech Connect

A new technique, the Solder Glass sand consolidation well completion method, has been developed which allows unlimited drawdown and improves productivity in wells completed in unconsolidated formations containing shales and clays. This technique eliminates the problems of sand production and fines migration by artificially consolidating a volume of reservoir sand near the wellbore. The consolidation is resistant to high temperature, chemical attack, and degradation resulting from high velocity fluid flow. Additionally, porosity and permeability in the consolidated volume of reservoir sand are improved as a result of irreversible dehydration of clays. 12 refs.

Aslesen, K.S.; Short, C.J.; Terwilliger, P.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

A geologic assessment of natural gas from tight gas sandstones in the San Juan Basin. Final report, June 1989--June 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors conducted a detailed geologic appraisal, estimated gas in place and recoverable volumes, and evaluated the impact of technology improvements on potential Cretaceous (Pictured Cliffs, Chacra, Cliff House, Point Lookout and Dakota intervals) tight gas reserves of the San Juan Basin. This report summarizes the results of a disaggregated appraisal of the undeveloped San Juan tight gas resource in the context of current and near-term technology, project economics and market potential. A geologic data base was constructed based on location reservoir properties, and typical well recoveries were modeled on a township-specific basis. Project costing and cash flow economics were analyzed to derive potential reserves for various technology specifications and wellhead prices. These data provide a foundation for operators and pipelines to more closely examine these tight formations for development in the near future. Gas in place for the undeveloped tight portion of the five intervals studied was estimated at 17.2 Tcf, with the Dakota Formation accounting for two thirds of this volume. Using current technology, potential ultimate recovery for all intervals is 7.2 Tcf. Potential reserve additions are 1.1 Tcf at $1.50/Mcf, 2.3 Tcf at $2.00/Mcf, and 5.9 Tcf at $5.00/Mcf. The availability of the Nonconventional Fuels Tax Credit for eligible wells drilled in 1991 and 1992 could improve project economics by an after tax equivalent of $0.66/Mcf at the wellhead. Over 300 geophysical logs were evaluated to construct depth, overburden and isopach maps and a location-specific resource database. The database was analyzed using TGAS-PC{reg_sign}, an integrated engineering and economics model for tight sands that has the capability to do rapid sensitivity analysis of geological, technology and economic assumptions.

Haas, M.R.; Lombardi, T.E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Evaluation and Effect of Fracturing Fluids on Fracture Conductivity in Tight Gas Reservoirs Using Dynamic Fracture Conductivity Test  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Unconventional gas has become an important resource to help meet our future energy demands. Although plentiful, it is difficult to produce this resource, when locked in a massive sedimentary formation. Among all unconventional gas resources, tight gas sands represent a big fraction and are often characterized by very low porosity and permeability associated with their producing formations, resulting in extremely low production rate. The low flow properties and the recovery factors of these sands make necessary continuous efforts to reduce costs and improve efficiency in all aspects of drilling, completion and production techniques. Many of the recent improvements have been in well completions and hydraulic fracturing. Thus, the main goal of a hydraulic fracture is to create a long, highly conductive fracture to facilitate the gas flow from the reservoir to the wellbore to obtain commercial production rates. Fracture conductivity depends on several factors, such as like the damage created by the gel during the treatment and the gel clean-up after the treatment. This research is focused on predicting more accurately the fracture conductivity, the gel damage created in fractures, and the fracture cleanup after a hydraulic fracture treatment under certain pressure and temperature conditions. Parameters that alter fracture conductivity, such as polymer concentration, breaker concentration and gas flow rate, are also examined in this study. A series of experiments, using a procedure of “dynamical fracture conductivity test”, were carried out. This procedure simulates the proppant/frac fluid slurries flow into the fractures in a low-permeability rock, as it occurs in the field, using different combinations of polymer and breaker concentrations under reservoirs conditions. The result of this study provides the basis to optimize the fracturing fluids and the polymer loading at different reservoir conditions, which may result in a clean and conductive fracture. Success in improving this process will help to decrease capital expenditures and increase the production in unconventional tight gas reservoirs.

Correa Castro, Juan

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Sand-control alternatives for horizontal wells  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that it has been well documented that horizontal completions increase production rates, as much as two to five times those of conventional techniques, because more of the producing formation is exposed to the wellbore. Although productivity improvements are highly sensitive to reservoir parameters, it is becoming generally accepted that optimum horizontal lengths will be 2,000 to 4,000 ft. The length of these completions generally causes the velocity of the fluid at the sandface to be an order of magnitude less than that observed in conventional completions. Because drag forces contributed to sand production, horizontal wells can produce at higher sand-free flow rates than conventional completions in the same reservoir. While it is frequently argued that horizontal wells do not need sand control, the potential for sand production increases significantly as reserves deplete and rock stresses increase. This is becoming more evident today in several major North Sea oil fields with conventional completions. Also, many unconsolidated formations produce sand for the first time with the onset of water production, a typical problem in such areas as the Gulf of Mexico. Operators must decide whether to implement sand control in the original horizontal-completion program because of an immediate concern or because the potential exists for a problem to arise as the well matures.

Zaleski, T.E. Jr. (Baker Sand Control (US))

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

The evaluation of waterfrac technology in low-permeability gas sands in the East Texas basin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The petroleum engineering literature clearly shows that large proppant volumes and concentrations are required to effectively stimulate low-permeability gas sands. To pump large proppant concentrations, one must use a viscous fluid. However, many operators believe that low-viscosity, low-proppant concentration fracture stimulation treatments known as ??waterfracs?? produce comparable stimulation results in low-permeability gas sands and are preferred because they are less expensive than gelled fracture treatments. This study evaluates fracture stimulation technology in tight gas sands by using case histories found in the petroleum engineering literature and by using a comparison of the performance of wells stimulated with different treatment sizes in the Cotton Valley sands of the East Texas basin. This study shows that large proppant volumes and viscous fluids are necessary to optimally stimulate tight gas sand reservoirs. When large proppant volumes and viscous fluids are not successful in stimulating tight sands, it is typically because the fracture fluids have not been optimal for the reservoir conditions. This study shows that waterfracs do produce comparable results to conventional large treatments in the Cotton Valley sands of the East Texas basin, but we believe it is because the conventional treatments have not been optimized. This is most likely because the fluids used in conventional treatments are not appropriate or have not been used appropriately for Cotton Valley conditions.

Tschirhart, Nicholas Ray

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Advanced Hydraulic Fracturing Technology for Unconventional Tight Gas Reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objectives of this project are to develop and test new techniques for creating extensive, conductive hydraulic fractures in unconventional tight gas reservoirs by statistically assessing the productivity achieved in hundreds of field treatments with a variety of current fracturing practices ranging from 'water fracs' to conventional gel fracture treatments; by laboratory measurements of the conductivity created with high rate proppant fracturing using an entirely new conductivity test - the 'dynamic fracture conductivity test'; and by developing design models to implement the optimal fracture treatments determined from the field assessment and the laboratory measurements. One of the tasks of this project is to create an 'advisor' or expert system for completion, production and stimulation of tight gas reservoirs. A central part of this study is an extensive survey of the productivity of hundreds of tight gas wells that have been hydraulically fractured. We have been doing an extensive literature search of the SPE eLibrary, DOE, Gas Technology Institute (GTI), Bureau of Economic Geology and IHS Energy, for publicly available technical reports about procedures of drilling, completion and production of the tight gas wells. We have downloaded numerous papers and read and summarized the information to build a database that will contain field treatment data, organized by geographic location, and hydraulic fracture treatment design data, organized by the treatment type. We have conducted experimental study on 'dynamic fracture conductivity' created when proppant slurries are pumped into hydraulic fractures in tight gas sands. Unlike conventional fracture conductivity tests in which proppant is loaded into the fracture artificially; we pump proppant/frac fluid slurries into a fracture cell, dynamically placing the proppant just as it occurs in the field. From such tests, we expect to gain new insights into some of the critical issues in tight gas fracturing, in particular the roles of gel damage, polymer loading (water-frac versus gel frac), and proppant concentration on the created fracture conductivity. To achieve this objective, we have designed the experimental apparatus to conduct the dynamic fracture conductivity tests. The experimental apparatus has been built and some preliminary tests have been conducted to test the apparatus.

Stephen Holditch; A. Daniel Hill; D. Zhu

2007-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

68

Team Sand Point (SP)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this flight report is to summarize the field activities of the ShoreZone aerial video imaging (AVI) survey conducted out of Sand Point and Cold Bay in

Team Cold Bay (cb

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Tar Sands | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tar Sands Tar Sands Jump to: navigation, search More info on OpenEI Oil and Gas Gateway Federal Environmental Statues Federal Oil and Gas Statutes Oil and Gas Companies United States Oil and Gas Boards International Oil and Gas Boards Related Reports Keystone Pipeline System Canada's Oil Sands Royal Society of Canada: Environmental and Health Impacts of Canada's Oil Sands Industry Dictionary.png Tar Sands: A resource, found in particular abundance in Canada, where viscous petroleum is mixed in with a layer of sand, clay, and water. The form of petroleum is often referred to as "bitumen". The resource has only recently been considered part of the world's oil reserves Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Tarsands1.png About Tar Sands The Tar Sands, also referred to as Oil Sands, or Bitumen Sands, are a

70

Short-Term Energy Outlook - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

tight oil formations and Canadian oil sands. EIA slightly increased its forecast for Canada’s oil sands output ...

71

Granular size segregation in underwater sand ripples  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report an experimental study of a binary sand bed under an oscillating water flow. The formation and evolution of ripples is observed. The appearance of a granular segregation is shown to strongly depend on the sand bed preparation. The initial wavelength of the mixture is measured. In the final steady state, a segregation in volume is observed instead of a segregation at the surface as reported before. The correlation between this phenomenon and the fluid flow is emphasised. Finally, different ``exotic'' patterns and their geophysical implications are presented.

G. Rousseaux; H. Caps; J. -E. Wesfreid

2004-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

72

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization  

SciTech Connect

Research continued on methods to detect naturally fractured tight gas reservoirs. This report discusses 3D-3C seismic acquisition and 3D P-wave alternate processing.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

73

Guide to preparing SAND reports. Revised  

SciTech Connect

This guide contains basic information needed to produce a SAND report. Its guidelines reflect DOE regulation and Sandia policy. The guide includes basic writing instructions in an annotated sample report; guidance for organization, format, and layout of reports produced by line organizations; and information about conference papers, journal articles, and brochures. The appendixes contain sections on Sandia`s preferred usage, equations, references, copyrights and permissions, and publishing terms.

Locke, T.K. [ed.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

PROCESSING OF MONAZITE SAND  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the recovery of thorium, uranium, and rare earths from monazite sands is presented. The sands are first digested and dissolved in concentrated NaOH, and the solution is then diluted causing precipitation of uranium, thorium and rare earth hydroxides. The precipitate is collected and dissolved in HCl, and the pH of this solution is adjusted to about 6, precipitating the hydroxides of thorium and uranium but leaving the rare earths in solution. The rare earths are then separated from the solution by precipitation at a still higher pH. The thorium and uranium containing precipitate is redissolved in HNO/sub 3/ and the two elements are separated by extraction into tributyl phosphate and back extraction with a weakly acidic solution to remove the thorium.

Calkins, G.D.; Bohlmann, E.G.

1957-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Pore-scale mechanisms of gas flow in tight sand reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

adjacent fractures. Natural gas composition consists mostlyNatural gas is called wet or dry depending on how large is the lique?able portion of gas composition.

Silin, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Rock matrix and fracture analysis of flow in western tight gas sands  

SciTech Connect

Advanced core analysis includes measurements on the matrix properties of the rock. Matrix properties are important even in fractured wells since it is these properties which determine the rate of gas flow into the fractures. Cores are being tested from the fluvial, coastal, and paludal zones of the Mesaverde. At least two cores from each of these zones from all three wells will be analyzed. Properties measured include permeability as a function of confining pressure over the range of 500 to 5000 psi. A minimum of two Klinkenberg permeabilities are being determined from at least five data points. Interpretation includes estimates of pore size from gas slippage. Water adsorption and desorption isotherms will be determined for selected samples with data points being obtained at the following relative humidities: 0, 20, 40, 60, 75, 90, 92, 95 and 98. Porosity measurements from both thin section examination and volumetric measurements are being made. These results will be compared with the porosities of the cored internals determined from logs.

Morrow, N.R.; Brower, K.R.; Ward, J.S.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Sand Hills EA  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

- - Office Name and State goes here Environmental Assessment Sand Hills Wind Energy Facility Albany County, Wyoming May 2011 High Desert District Rawlins Field Office The BLM's multiple-use mission is to sustain the health and productivity of the public lands for the use and enjoyment of present and future generations. The Bureau accomplishes this by managing such activities as outdoor recreation, livestock grazing, mineral development, and energy production, and by conserving natural, historical, cultural, and other resources on public lands. BLM/WY/PL-11/035+1430 WY-030-EA09-314 Contents Chapter Page Acronyms and Abbreviations .................................................................................................. ix

78

NETL: News Release - DOE Selects Projects Targeting America's "Tight" Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7, 2006 7, 2006 DOE Selects Projects Targeting America's "Tight" Gas Resources Research to Help Unlock Nation's Largest Growing Source of Natural Gas WASHINGTON, DC - The Department of Energy today announced the selection of two cost-shared research and development projects targeting America's major source of natural gas: low-permeability or "tight" gas formations. Tight gas is the largest of three so-called unconventional gas resources?the other two being coalbed methane (natural gas) and gas shales. Production of unconventional gas in the United States represents about 40 percent of the Nation's total gas output in 2004, but could grow to 50 percent by 2030 if advanced technologies are developed and implemented. The constraints on producing tight gas are due to the impermeable nature of the reservoir rocks, small reservoir compartments, abnormal (high or low) pressures, difficulty in predicting natural fractures that aid gas flow rates, and need to predict and avoid reservoirs that produce large volumes of water.

79

Method for manufacturing a well production and sand screen assembly  

SciTech Connect

A method for forming and assembling a well production and sand screen assembly in a well having a screen therein forming an outer annulus and a wash pipe internally of the screen forming an inner annulus comprising further (A) mounting a high pressure fluid pump means and a valve means on each wash pipe, inner annulus, and outer annulus, and (B) connecting the valve means in fluid communication with the high pressure fluid pump means for controlling the ingress and egress of the high pressure fluids and removed formation material for forming a sand pack in the well and simultaneously for applying and maintaining a positive fluid pressure against the overburden during work in the well for preventing cave-ins and sloughing of the unconsolidated formation well walls until the sand pack is formed.

Widmyer, R.H.

1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

80

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the work this quarter has been to partition and high-grade the Greater Green River basin for exploration efforts in the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play and to initiate resource assessment of the basin. The work plan for the quarter of July 1-September 30, 1998 comprised three tasks: (1) Refining the exploration process for deep, naturally fractured gas reservoirs; (2) Partitioning of the basin based on structure and areas of overpressure; (3) Examination of the Kinney and Canyon Creek fields with respect to the Cretaceous tight gas play and initiation of the resource assessment of the Vermilion sub-basin partition (which contains these two fields); and (4) Initiation analysis of the Deep Green River Partition with respect to the Stratos well and assessment of the resource in the partition.

NONE

1998-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tight sand formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Improved Upscaling & Well Placement Strategies for Tight Gas Reservoir Simulation and Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tight gas reservoirs provide almost one quarter of the current U.S. domestic gas production, with significant projected increases in the next several decades in both the U.S. and abroad. These reservoirs constitute an important play type, with opportunities for improved reservoir simulation & management, such as simulation model design, well placement. Our work develops robust and efficient strategies for improved tight gas reservoir simulation and management. Reservoir simulation models are usually acquired by upscaling the detailed 3D geologic models. Earlier studies of flow simulation have developed layer-based coarse reservoir simulation models, from the more detailed 3D geologic models. However, the layer-based approach cannot capture the essential sand and flow. We introduce and utilize the diffusive time of flight to understand the pressure continuity within the fluvial sands, and develop novel adaptive reservoir simulation grids to preserve the continuity of the reservoir sands. Combined with the high resolution transmissibility based upscaling of flow properties, and well index based upscaling of the well connections, we can build accurate simulation models with at least one order magnitude simulation speed up, but the predicted recoveries are almost indistinguishable from those of the geologic models. General practice of well placement usually requires reservoir simulation to predict the dynamic reservoir response. Numerous well placement scenarios require many reservoir simulation runs, which may have significant CPU demands. We propose a novel simulation-free screening approach to generate a quality map, based on a combination of static and dynamic reservoir properties. The geologic uncertainty is taken into consideration through an uncertainty map form the spatial connectivity analysis and variograms. Combining the quality map and uncertainty map, good infill well locations and drilling sequence can be determined for improved reservoir management. We apply this workflow to design the infill well drilling sequence and explore the impact of subsurface also, for a large-scale tight gas reservoir. Also, we evaluated an improved pressure approximation method, through the comparison with the leading order high frequency term of the asymptotic solution. The proposed pressure solution can better predict the heterogeneous reservoir depletion behavior, thus provide good opportunities for tight gas reservoir management.

Zhou, Yijie

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

METHOD OF PROCESSING MONAZITE SAND  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for the pretreatment of monazite sand with sodium hydroxide. When momazite sand is reacted with sodium hydroxide, the thorium, uranium, and rare earths are converted to water-insoluble hydrous oxides; but in the case of uranium, the precipitate compound may at least partly consist of a slightly soluble uranate. According to the patent, monazite sand is treated with an excess of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, and the insoluble compounds of thorium, uranium, and the rare earths are separated from the aqueous solution. This solution is then concentrated causing sodium phosphate to crystallize out. The crystals are removed from the remaining solution, and the solution is recycled for reaction with a mew supply of momazite sand.

Calkins, G.D.

1957-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

83

Table 2. Principal tight oil plays: oil production and proved...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

"Other tight oil plays (e.g. Monterey, Woodford)",,,24,253 "All U.S. tight oil plays",,,228,3628 "Note: Includes lease condensate." "Source: U.S. Energy...

84

An Investigation for Disposal of Drill Cuttings into Unconsolidated Sandstones and Clayey Sands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project include experimental data and a set of models for relating elastic moduli/porosity/texture and static-to-dynamic moduli to strength and failure relationships for unconsolidated sands and clayey sands. The results of the project should provide the industry with a basis for wider use of oil base drilling fluids in water sensitive formations by implementing drill cutting injection into existing wells at abandoned formations and controlling fracture geometry to prevent ground water contamination.

Mese, Ali; Dvorkin, Jack; Shillinglaw, John

2000-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

85

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

Progress made in five areas of research is described briefly. The subtask in oil shale research is on oil shale process studies. For tar sand the subtask reported is on process development. Coal research includes the following subtasks: Coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes the following: Advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: Organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sup 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residua; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process;NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of Mowry formation shale from different sedimentary basins; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Definition: Tar Sands | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Tar Sands Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Tar Sands A resource, found in particular abundance in Canada, where viscous petroleum is mixed in with a layer of sand, clay, and water. The form of petroleum is often referred to as "bitumen". The resource has only recently been considered part of the world's oil reserves View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Oil sands, tar sands or, more technically, bituminous sands, are a type of unconventional petroleum deposit. The oil sands are loose sand or partially consolidated sandstone containing naturally occurring mixtures of sand, clay, and water, saturated with a dense and extremely viscous form of petroleum technically referred to as bitumen (or colloquially tar due to

87

Microstructural characterization of a Canadian oil sand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The microstructure of oil sand samples extracted at a depth of 75 m from the estuarine Middle McMurray formation (Alberta, Canada) has been investigated by using high resolution 3D X-Ray microtomography ($\\mu$CT) and Cryo Scanning Electron Microscopy (CryoSEM). $\\mu$CT images evidenced some dense areas composed of highly angular grains surrounded by fluids that are separated by larger pores full of gas. 3D Image analysis provided in dense areas porosity values compatible with in-situ log data and macroscopic laboratory determinations, showing that they are representative of intact states. $\\mu$CT hence provided some information on the morphology of the cracks and disturbance created by gas expansion. The CryoSEM technique, in which the sample is freeze fractured within the SEM chamber prior to observation, provided pictures in which the (frozen) bitumen clearly appears between the sand grains. No evidence of the existence of a thin connate water layer between grains and the bitumen, frequently mentioned in th...

Dinh, Hong Doan; Nauroy, Jean-François; Tang, Anh-Minh; Souhail, Youssef; 10.1139/T2012-072

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization  

SciTech Connect

Building upon the partitioning of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) that was conducted last quarter, the goal of the work this quarter has been to conclude evaluation of the Stratos well and the prototypical Green River Deep partition, and perform the fill resource evaluation of the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play, with the goal of defining target areas of enhanced natural fracturing. The work plan for the quarter of November 1-December 31, 1998 comprised four tasks: (1) Evaluation of the Green River Deep partition and the Stratos well and examination of potential opportunity for expanding the use of E and P technology to low permeability, naturally fractured gas reservoirs, (2) Gas field studies, and (3) Resource analysis of the balance of the partitions.

NONE

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Characteristics and Applications of Copper Stamp Sand  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The chemical, physical properties and antimicrobial activity of stamp sand were investigated, ... Characterization of Fluorescent Lamp Glass Waste Powders for ...

90

Direct Production of Silicones From Sand  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Silicon, in the form of silica and silicates, is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. However the synthesis of silicones (scheme 1) and almost all organosilicon chemistry is only accessible through elemental silicon. Silicon dioxide (sand or quartz) is converted to chemical-grade elemental silicon in an energy intensive reduction process, a result of the exceptional thermodynamic stability of silica. Then, the silicon is reacted with methyl chloride to give a mixture of methylchlorosilanes catalyzed by cooper containing a variety of tract metals such as tin, zinc etc. The so-called direct process was first discovered at GE in 1940. The methylchlorosilanes are distilled to purify and separate the major reaction components, the most important of which is dimethyldichlorosilane. Polymerization of dimethyldichlorosilane by controlled hydrolysis results in the formation of silicone polymers. Worldwide, the silicones industry produces about 1.3 billion pounds of the basic silicon polymer, polydimethylsiloxane.

Larry N. Lewis; F.J. Schattenmann: J.P. Lemmon

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

91

Acoustic sand detector for fluid flowstreams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The particle volume and particle mass production rate of particulate solids entrained in fluid flowstreams such as formation sand or fracture proppant entrained in oil and gas production flowstreams is determined by a system having a metal probe interposed in a flow conduit for transmitting acoustic emissions created by particles impacting the probe to a sensor and signal processing circuit which produces discrete signals related to the impact of each of the particles striking the probe. The volume or mass flow rate of particulates is determined from making an initial particle size distribution and particle energy distribution and comparing the initial energy distribution and/or the initial size distribution with values related to the impact energies of a predetermined number of recorded impacts. The comparison is also used to recalibrate the system to compensate for changes in flow velocity.

Beattie, Alan G. (Corrales, NM); Bohon, W. Mark (Frisco, TX)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Dynamics and control of electromagnetic satellite formations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Satellite formation flying is an enabling technology for many space missions, especially for space-based telescopes. Usually there is a tight formation-keeping requirement that may need constant expenditure of fuel or at ...

Ahsun, Umair, 1972-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

continued production growth from U.S. tight oil formations and Canadian oil sands. U.S ... Drilling in tight oil plays in the onshore ...

94

US production of natural gas from tight reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the purposes of this report, tight gas reservoirs are defined as those that meet the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC) definition of tight. They are generally characterized by an average reservoir rock permeability to gas of 0.1 millidarcy or less and, absent artificial stimulation of production, by production rates that do not exceed 5 barrels of oil per day and certain specified daily volumes of gas which increase with the depth of the reservoir. All of the statistics presented in this report pertain to wells that have been classified, from 1978 through 1991, as tight according to the FERC; i.e., they are ``legally tight`` reservoirs. Additional production from ``geologically tight`` reservoirs that have not been classified tight according to the FERC rules has been excluded. This category includes all producing wells drilled into legally designated tight gas reservoirs prior to 1978 and all producing wells drilled into physically tight gas reservoirs that have not been designated legally tight. Therefore, all gas production referenced herein is eligible for the Section 29 tax credit. Although the qualification period for the credit expired at the end of 1992, wells that were spudded (began to be drilled) between 1978 and May 1988, and from November 5, 1990, through year end 1992, are eligible for the tax credit for a subsequent period of 10 years. This report updates the EIA`s tight gas production information through 1991 and considers further the history and effect on tight gas production of the Federal Government`s regulatory and tax policy actions. It also provides some high points of the geologic background needed to understand the nature and location of low-permeability reservoirs.

Not Available

1993-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

95

METHOD OF PROCESSING MONAZITE SAND  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for recovering thorium, uranium, and rare earth values from monazite sand. The monazite sand is first digested with sulfuric acid and the resulting "monazite sulfate" solution is adjusted to a pH of between 0.4 and 3.0, and oxalate anions are added causing precipitation of the thorium and the rare earths as the oxalates. The oxalate precipitate is separated from the uranium containing supernatant solution, and is dried and calcined to the oxides. The thorium and rare earth oxides are then dissolved in nitric acid and the solution is contacted with tribntyl phosphate whereby an organic extract phase containing the cerium and thorium values is obtained, together with an aqueous raffinate containing the other rare earth values. The organic phase is then separated from the aqueous raffinate and the cerium and thorium are back extracted with an aqueous medium.

Welt, M.A.; Smutz, M.

1958-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

96

Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... respectively, resulting from continued production growth in U.S. onshore tight oil formations and from Canadian oil sands.

97

Annual Logging Symposium, June 19-23, 2010 Formation Evaluation in the Bakken Complex Using Laboratory Core Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

complex include the Middle Bakken dolomitic sand/siltstone and the Three Forks dolomite. The Upper basin (Energy Information Administration, 2006). The tight Mississippian age Lodgepole Limestone fine sand). Some of the samples were found to contain fractures. Fig. 8 Ternary diagram of sandstone

98

Studies of the terrestrial O{sub 2} and carbon cycles in sand dune gases and in biosphere 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Molecular oxygen in the atmosphere is coupled tightly to the terrestrial carbon cycle by the processes of photosynthesis, respiration, and burning. This dissertation examines different aspects of this coupling in four chapters. Chapter 1 explores the feasibility of using air from sand dunes to reconstruct atmospheric O{sub 2} composition centuries ago. Such a record would reveal changes in the mass of the terrestrial biosphere, after correction for known fossil fuel combustion, and constrain the fate of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}.

Severinghaus, J.P.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

99

Recent government efforts regarding tar sands  

SciTech Connect

Conclusions from a workshop on tar sands are discussed. The workshop participants came to 3 conclusions: any oil-impregnated rock that is mined or quarried and then processed on the surface should be considered tar sands; some physical parameter should be used to differentiate tar sands from heavy oils, e.g., viscosity; and the dividing line between tar sands and heavy oil should be a point above which there is not currently significant commercial production. The resulting definition states that tar sand is any consolidated or unconsolidated rock other than coal, oil shale, or gilsonite, that contains a hydrocarbonaceous material with a gas-free viscosity, measured at reservoir temperature, greater than 10,000 cp, or contains a hydrocarbonaceous material that is extracted from the mined or quarried rock. Some consideration of resuming tar sands leasing also is discussed.

Pumphrey, D.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Geothermal resources: Frio Formation, Middle Texas Gulf Coast. Geological circular 75-8  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Regional sand distribution of the Frio Formation is determined; depositional environments are identified; and the geopressured zone and its relationship to sand/shale distribution, growth faults, and fluid temperatures in the Middle Texas Gulf Coast are delineated. (MHR)

Bebout, D.G.; Agagu, O.K.; Dorfman, M.H.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tight sand formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Existence and flow behavior of gas at low saturation in geopressured formations. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The first geopressured brine well tested for the Department of Energy produced gas and brine at a ratio far above the solution ratio for the gas in that brine. One explanation advanced was that the geopressured formation contained gas at a low saturation, and that this gas flowed into the well during the test. This hypothesis is examined and found to be untenable based on evidence from well logs, flow tests and thermodynamics, and on currently accepted concepts for migration and accumulation of petroleum. The probable explanation for the observed high gas/water ratios is shown to be a thin, tight gas-bearing layer in the case of one sand and an updip gas cap in the case of the second and tested.

Matthews, C.S.

1979-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Vp/Vs ESTIMATION FROM MULTICOMPONENT SEISMIC DATA FOR IMPROVED CHARACTERIZATION OF A TIGHT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the fluid flowing though the sand matrix a13 tortuosity for the sand flowing though the clay matrix a31 tortuosity for the clay flowing though the sand matrix B friction matrix b11 friction coefficient between the sand matrix and the fluid b13 friction coefficient between the sand and the clay matrices b33 friction

103

technology offer SandTES -High Temperature Sand Thermal Energy Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technology offer SandTES - High Temperature Sand Thermal Energy Storage key words: High Temperature together with Dr. Eisl of ENRAG GmbH. Background Thermal energy storage (TES) systems are essential Energy Storage | Fluidized Bed | Sand | The invention consists of a fluidized bed with internal heat

Szmolyan, Peter

104

Evaluation of the Sparton Tight-Tolerance AXBT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Forty-six near-simultaneous pairs of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) and Sparton “tight tolerance” air expendable bathythermograph (AXBT) temperature profiles were obtained in summer 1991 from a location in the Sargasso Sea. The data were ...

Janice D. Boyd; Robert S. Linzell

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

File:EIA-tight-gas.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

tight-gas.pdf tight-gas.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Major Tight Gas Plays, Lower 48 States Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixels. Full resolution ‎(1,650 × 1,275 pixels, file size: 2.04 MB, MIME type: application/pdf) Description Major Tight Gas Plays, Lower 48 States Sources U.S. Energy Information Administration Related Technologies Natural Gas Creation Date 2010-06-06 Extent National Countries United States UN Region Northern America File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 18:44, 20 December 2010 Thumbnail for version as of 18:44, 20 December 2010 1,650 × 1,275 (2.04 MB) MapBot (Talk | contribs) Automated bot upload You cannot overwrite this file.

106

Tight Product Balance Pushes Up Product Spread (Spot Product...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 Notes: To reinforce the impact that inventory levels (I.e., tight markets) have on price, note the variation in spot gasoline prices relative to crude oil prices, as shown by the...

107

The performance of the small-angle diffractometer, SAND at IPNS.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The time-of-flight small-angle diffractometer SAND has been serving the scientific user community since 1996. One notable feature of SAND is its capability to measure the scattered intensity in a wide Q (4{pi}sin{theta}/{lambda}, where 2{theta} is the scattering angle and {lambda} is the wavelength of the neutrons) range of 0.0035 to 0.5 {angstrom}{sup {minus}1} in a single measurement. The optical alignment system makes it easy to set up the instrument and the sample. The cryogenically cooled MgO filter reduces the fast neutrons over two orders of magnitude, while still transmitting over 70% of the cold neutrons. A drum chopper running at 15 Hz suppresses the delayed neutron background. SAND has a variety of ancillary equipment to control the sample environment. In this paper we describe the features of the SAND instrument, compare its data on a few standard samples with those measured at well established centers in the world, and display two scientific examples which take advantage of measuring data in a wide Q-range in a single measurement. With a new set of tight collimators the Q{sub min} can be lowered to 0.002 {angstrom}{sup {minus}1} and the presently installed high-angle bank of detectors will extend the Q{sub max} to 2 {angstrom}{sup {minus}1}.

Thiyagarajan, P.

1998-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

108

Copyright 2000, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc. This paper was prepared for presentation at the 2000 SPE Annual Technical Conference and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was substantial (particularly in tight sand formations), but improved methods were required to cost- effectively Selection Techniques in Layered, Tight Gas Sand Formations Using Reservoir Simulation S.R. Reeves, SPE in the character of the data exists above that value. This simulates the true nature of tight sand reservoirs

Mohaghegh, Shahab

109

X-ray computed-tomography observations of water flow through anisotropic methane hydrate-bearing sand  

SciTech Connect

We used X-ray computed tomography (CT) to image and quantify the effect of a heterogeneous sand grain-size distribution on the formation and dissociation of methane hydrate, as well as the effect on water flow through the heterogeneous hydrate-bearing sand. A 28 cm long sand column was packed with several segments having vertical and horizontal layers with sands of different grain-size distributions. During the hydrate formation, water redistribution occurred. Observations of water flow through the hydrate-bearing sands showed that water was imbibed more readily into the fine sand, and that higher hydrate saturation increased water imbibition in the coarse sand due to increased capillary strength. Hydrate dissociation induced by depressurization resulted in different flow patterns with the different grain sizes and hydrate saturations, but the relationships between dissociation rates and the grain sizes could not be identified using the CT images. The formation, presence, and dissociation of hydrate in the pore space dramatically impact water saturation and flow in the system.

Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

OPTIMIZATION OF INFILL DRILLING IN NATURALLY-FRACTURED TIGHT-GAS RESERVOIRS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A major goal of industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) fossil energy program is to increase gas reserves in tight-gas reservoirs. Infill drilling and hydraulic fracture stimulation in these reservoirs are important reservoir management strategies to increase production and reserves. Phase II of this DOE/cooperative industry project focused on optimization of infill drilling and evaluation of hydraulic fracturing in naturally-fractured tight-gas reservoirs. The cooperative project involved multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and simulation studies to determine infill well potential in the Mesaverde and Dakota sandstone formations at selected areas in the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico. This work used the methodology and approach developed in Phase I. Integrated reservoir description and hydraulic fracture treatment analyses were also conducted in the Pecos Slope Abo tight-gas reservoir in southeastern New Mexico and the Lewis Shale in the San Juan Basin. This study has demonstrated a methodology to (1) describe reservoir heterogeneities and natural fracture systems, (2) determine reservoir permeability and permeability anisotropy, (3) define the elliptical drainage area and recoverable gas for existing wells, (4) determine the optimal location and number of new in-fill wells to maximize economic recovery, (5) forecast the increase in total cumulative gas production from infill drilling, and (6) evaluate hydraulic fracture simulation treatments and their impact on well drainage area and infill well potential. Industry partners during the course of this five-year project included BP, Burlington Resources, ConocoPhillips, and Williams.

Lawrence W. Teufel; Her-Yuan Chen; Thomas W. Engler; Bruce Hart

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Improved core recovery in laminated sand and shale sequences  

SciTech Connect

Coring and core analysis are essential to the exploration, development, and production phases of the oil and gas industry. Large-diameter (4-in. (10-cm)) core provides engineers and geologists with direct means to measure physical properties of reservoir rocks at both the microscopic and macroscopic levels. This information provides engineers with clues to improve their understanding of the reservoir and prediction of its performance. If stored properly, core may assist in development of the reservoir many years after the well is drilled. In microlaminated reservoirs, laboratory core analysis is very important because of inherent limitations in wireline log resolution. In these cases, petrophysical information, such as saturation, porosity, and net feet of pay, cannot be calculated from wireline data. Instead, these data must be measured directly from core plugs in the laboratory. Historically, core recovery in these types of reservoirs has not been good (Fig. 1A) using methods designed for firmly consolidated formations. These methods did not achieve satisfactory recovery in unconsolidated sand interbedded with hard shale stringers for two reasons: unconsolidated sand was eroded by mechanical or hydraulic means and shale ''jammed'' in the core barrel, thereby preventing more core from entering. Changes in coring strategies and equipment have nearly eliminated recovery problems in unconsolidated sand while reducing jams in shale (Fig. 1B). This paper discusses several of these changes and presents ideas for further improvements.

Bradburn, F.R.; Cheatham, C.A. (Shell Offshore Inc. (US))

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Materials Science and Engineering in the Canadian Oil Sands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While people have heard about these "tar sands" in the news, relatively few know what oil sands are, and how they are extracted/processed. This presentation ...

113

Regional Vermont Agency Provides Work in Tight-Knit Communities |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vermont Agency Provides Work in Tight-Knit Communities Vermont Agency Provides Work in Tight-Knit Communities Regional Vermont Agency Provides Work in Tight-Knit Communities June 11, 2010 - 4:33pm Addthis Weatherization auditors and crews assist in making a Vermont home more energy-efficient in New England winters. | Photo Courtesy of Southeastern Vermont Community Action (SEVCA) Agency | Weatherization auditors and crews assist in making a Vermont home more energy-efficient in New England winters. | Photo Courtesy of Southeastern Vermont Community Action (SEVCA) Agency | Joshua DeLung "I think everyone has their heart in it. I think we see weatherization as a really worthy process." Morgan McKane, weatherization auditor at SEVCA Morgan McKane spent most of his career in southeast Vermont working in the

114

Tight Product Balance Pushes Up Product Spread (Spot Product - Crude  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: Gasoline inventories indicate how tight the gasoline product market is in any one region. When the gasoline market is tight, it affects the portion of gasoline price is the spread between spot product price and crude oil price. Note that in late 1998-and early 1999 spreads were very small when inventories were quite high. Contrast summers of 1998 or 1999 with summer 2000. Last summer's tight markets, resulting low stocks and transition to Phase 2 RFG added price pressure over and above the already high crude price pressure on gasoline -- particularly in the Midwest. As we ended last winter, gasoline inventories were low, and the spread between spot prices and crude oil were higher than typical as a result. Inventories stayed well below average and the spread during the

115

Qubits from tight knots and bent nano-bars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a novel mechanism for creating a qubit based on a tight knot, that is a nano-quantum wire system so small and so cold as to be quantum coherent with respect to curvature-induced effects. To establish tight knots as legitimate candidates for qubits, we propose an effective curvature-induced potential that produces the two-level system and identify the tunnel coupling between the two local states. We propose also a different design of nano-mechanical qubit based on twisted nano-rods. We describe how both devices can be manipulated. Also we outline possible decoherence channels, detection schemes and experimental setups.

Victor Atanasov; Rossen Dandoloff

2008-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

116

Qubits from tight knots and bent nano-bars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a novel mechanism for creating a qubit based on a tight knot, that is a nano-quantum wire system so small and so cold as to be quantum coherent with respect to curvature-induced effects. To establish tight knots as legitimate candidates for qubits, we propose an effective curvature-induced potential that produces the two-level system and identify the tunnel coupling between the two local states. We propose also a different design of nano-mechanical qubit based on twisted nano-rods. We describe how both devices can be manipulated. Also we outline possible decoherence channels, detection schemes and experimental setups.

Atanasov, Victor

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Generation of sand bars under surface waves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) Experiments were performed in a large wave flume to validate the theory and to study additional aspects of sand bar evolution. The wave envelope and bar profile were recorded for low and high beach reflection, ...

Hancock, Matthew James, 1975-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing in Devonian shales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A total of five carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2})/sand well stimulations were successfully executed with two Devonian shale operators in Perry and Pike Counties, Kentucky. This new stimulation method offers a minimum formation damage proppant stimulation approach for natural gas producers in the United States. Some operators have been concerned about the frac fluid formation damage associated with the water and chemicals used in conventional foam stimulations, whereas other operators have been concerned about the lack of proppant in straight nitrogen fracs used by service companies today. Two carefully screened geological areas of established Devonian shale production were selected based on active ongoing drilling and completion operations. One selected control area contained an existing set of wells with established production histories. More specifically, one operator furnished three offset wells which were stimulated with the carbon dioxide/sand frac method. The quantity of proppant and fluids pumped during each well stimulation ranged from 23,000 to 43,000 pounds of proppant and from 120 to 160 tons of liquid carbon dioxide. Another operator furnished two offset wells which were each stimulated with approximately 47,000 pounds of proppant and 120 tons of carbon dioxide. The logistics and field layout of a typical carbon dioxide/sand frac treatment has been described and highlighted. The importance and unique aspects of the closed system blender that is required for job execution is discussed. Five stimulation treatments have been reviewed, and stimulation and preliminary production data compared to offset wells stimulated with nitrogen, and explosives. Initial production results indicate more than a 50 percent increase in production rate compared to nitrogen fraced wells in the Pike County area.

Yost, A.B. II [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Mazza, R.L. [Petroleum Consulting Services, Canton, OH (United States); Gehr, J.B. [Natural Gas Resources Corporation (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

119

Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources- Oil Shale and Tar Sands  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Profiles of Companies Engaged in Domestic Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource and Technology Development

120

SPE Tight Gas Conference, 2009 "Program for the Beneficial Use  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SPE Tight Gas Conference, 2009 "Program for the Beneficial Use of Oil Field Produced Water" David B Additional cost of demineralization of water. The (probable) salinity of the produced brine. Environmental. Servicing Schedule weekly #12;Comparison of Desalinated Produced Water with Municipal

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tight sand formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

PHYS 551 Lecture #27 Title: TightBinding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PHYS 551 Lecture #27 Title: Tight­Binding Now that we have shown that /( ~ k; ~r) = \\Gamma P ~ R e i ~ k \\Delta ~ R OE A (~r \\Gamma ~ R) satisfies the Bloch condition, all that remains is to grind the calculation explicitly. First, the wave­function /( ~ k; ~r) must be normalized. Thus Z / \\Lambda / dV = 1 = j

Winokur, Michael

122

Foundry Sand Reclamation: CMP Report No. 90-6  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current environmental regulations have created a situation where the disposal of waste foundry sand has become difficult and expensive. One solution to this problem is the use of a sand reclamation system which "cleans" the sand to a sufficient degree to allow re-use of the sand in the foundry sand system. A large number of sand binder systems are in use for various reasons of cost and performance characteristics. There are also three main methods of sand reclamation and combinations of these. A basic un...

1991-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

123

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

Speight, J.G.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands  

SciTech Connect

Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity was needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation.

Castle, J.W.; Molz, F.J.; Brame, S.E.; Falta, R.W.

2003-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

126

Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity is needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation.

Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred J.

2003-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

127

Geothermal resources: Frio Formation, Upper Texas Gulf Coast. Geological circular 76-3  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Major sand trends were identified in the Frio Formation, Upper Texas Gulf Coast as part of the evaluation of its potential for producing geothermal energy. Electrical logs from 465 wells spaced 5 to 10 miles apart were used in the study. Maps illustrating total net sand and total sand percentage of the Frio Formation are included. It was found that subsurface fluid temperatures of greater than 250/sup 0/F occur in the Frio sand bodies up to 100 ft thick downdip of the high-sand trends. LA broad band in Brazoria and Galveston Counties was delineated as having geothermal potential. (JGB)

Bebout, D.G.; Loucks, R.G.; Bosch, S.C.; Dorfman, M.H.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Frame moduli of unconsolidated sands and sandstones  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the authors investigate the elastic moduli of the empty grain framework (the frame moduli) in unconsolidated sands and consolidated sandstones. The work was done to improve the interpretation of seismic amplitude anomalies and amplitude variations with offset (AVO) associated with hydrocarbon reservoirs. They developed a laboratory apparatus to measure the frame Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus of unconsolidated sands at seismic frequencies (0.2 to 155 Hz) in samples approximately 11 cm long. They used ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements to measure the frame moduli of consolidated sandstones. They found that the correlation coefficient between the frame Poisson's ratio [sigma][sub A] and the mineral Poisson's ratio [sigma][sub M] is 0.84 in consolidated sandstones and only 0.28 in unconsolidated sands. The range of [sigma][sub A] values in unconsolidated sands is 0.115 to 0.237 (mean = 0.187, standard deviation = 0.030), and [sigma][sub A] cannot be estimated without core or log analyses. Frame moduli analyses of core samples can be used to calibrate the interpretation of seismic amplitude anomalies and AVO effects. For use in areas without core or log analyses, the authors developed an empirical relation that can be used to estimate [sigma][sub A] in unconsolidated sands and sandstones from [sigma][sub M] and the frame P-wave modulus.

Spencer, J.W. Jr.; Cates, M.E.; Thompson, D.D. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States))

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Air quality in tightly sealed and passive homes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Indoor air quality has attracted increasing attention during the past few yars. Pollutants generated from combustion, building materials, and human activities may reach significant levels in the indoor environment to produce adverse health effects. This report deals with the classes of pollutants and their sources, and the significance of reported levels, possible health effects, and control strategies in relation to tightly sealed and passive solar construction techniques. In tightly sealed homes, residential air-to-air heat exchangers, whose design and performance are discussed, offer one method of improving air quality at reasonable cost. It is recommended that further research be implemented to identify hazardous concentrations of pollutants and set standards to minimize health impacts in the search for new energy innovations.

Scott, L.A.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Laboratory Analysis of a New Sand Consolidation Material for Oilfield Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The production of sand can be a major issue in many young, unconsolidated sandstone formations where there is little to no cement holding the individual sand grains together. When such reservoirs are produced, quite often operators face problems with reduced well productivity and equipment failure. Because of these issues, the industry has developed numerous techniques in its effort to control formation sand production. Sand consolidation is one technology that has been studied and used since the 1940s. The theory behind sand consolidation technology is to place a liquid material which will create a grain to grain contact that will bind individual sand grains together. Most consolidation treatments contain a preflush to clean and wet the surface, the consolidating system to bind the sand grains and give residual strength, and, finally, an overflush to ensure the formation is still able to produce fluids. With the successful placement of this fluid, the sand grains will be locked in placed so that they will not be produced. The technology has gone through many phases of conception since the 1940s; however, most consolidation material that is pumped in the past has been based upon an epoxy or furan backbone. While there are many technologies available, for the purpose of my research, the epoxy technology was experimentally investigated. The testing of the fluid involved investigating numerous additives to obtain the correct residual strength of the sample, as well as the necessary retained permeability. For the epoxy fluid, the optimal preflush, epoxy system and overflush formulations were determined after 250 checkout tests. Based upon these tests, the fluid was optimized to its working time and UCS results. The optimal system included the addition of PA2 to the preflush, along with PA1 and an aromatic amine curing agent to the epoxy system. PA1 and PA2 are adhesion promoter additives which were deemed necessary as a result of the testing. This system was then tested further in a HP/HT cell. While there is still room for improvement with respect to retained permeability, the system still performs very well in terms of UCS.

Filbrandt, Joseph Daniel

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing in Devonian shale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A total of five carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) /sand well stimulations were successfully executed with two Devonian shale operators in Perry and Pike Counties, Kentucky. This new stimulation method offers a minimum formation damage proppant stimulation approach for natural gas producers in the United States. Some operators have been concerned about the frac fluid formation damage associated with the water and chemicals used in conventional foam stimulations, whereas other operators have been concerned about the lack of proppant in straight nitrogen fracs used by service companies today. Two carefully screened geological areas of established Devonian shale production were selected based on active ongoing drilling and completion operations. One selected control area contained an existing set of wells with established production histories. The logistics and field layout of a typical carbon dioxide/sand frac treatment has been described and highlighted. The importance and unique aspects of the closed system blender that is required for job execution is discussed. Five stimulation treatments have been reviewed, and stimulation and preliminary production data compared to offset wells stimulated with nitrogen, and explosives. Initial production results indicate more than a 50 percent increase in production rate compared to nitrogen fraced wells in the Pike County area. In addition, production is also 4.8 times better than conventional shot wells in the same area. These results are encouraging enough to formally combine existing pumping equipment, a closed system blender, and liquid carbon dioxide supplies to develop a new fracturing service in the eastern US A total of 22 additional jobs are planned in the eastern US in low permeability gas formations over the next year.

Yost, A.B. II [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Mazza, R.L. [Petroleum Consulting Services, Canton, OH (United States); Gehr, J.B. [Natural Gas Resources Corporation (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Sand control method employing special hydraulic fracturing technique  

SciTech Connect

A novel sand control method is disclosed wherein high viscosity, high sand concentration, fracturing fluids are pumped through sets of vertically oriented perforations in borehole casings located in unconsolidated or loosely consolidated pay zones. Various techniques are utilized to insure that sand fills disposed on either side of the borehole casing cover and substantially overlap each borehole casing perforation set. Procedures are then followed to bring the well into production without washing out the sand fills in these areas, whereby the resulting perforation-sand fill configurations effectively control sand production from the treated zone.

Medlin, W.L.; Mullins, L.D.; Zumwalt, G.L.

1983-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

133

Hydraulic fracturing with a refractory proppant for sand control  

SciTech Connect

A sand control and heat transfer method is described for use in a borehole having an unconsolidated or loosely consolidated oil or gas reservoir which is otherwise likely to introduce substantial amounts of sand into the borehole, comprising: (a) providing a borehole casing through the reservoir; (b) perforating the casing at preselected intervals therealong to form at least one of longitudinal, in-line perforations; (c) hydraulically fracturing the reservoir by injecting a fracturing fluid containing a fine grain fused refractory material which comprises substantially silicon carbide or silicon nitride, and a clay stabilizing agent; (d) injecting a proppant comprising a gravel packing fused refractory material comprised substantially of silicon carbide or silicon nitride into the fracture, whereby a first layer of fine grain fused refractory material is held in place along the entire face of the fracture by a second layer of gravel packing fused refractory material also extending along the entire length of the fracture thereby excluding fines; and (e) producing oil or gas from the reservoir through the fracture into the borehole casing via a thermal oil recovery method which proppant and layers provide for increased heat transfer into the formation.

Jennings, A.R. Jr.; Stowe, L.R.

1989-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

134

Transferable tight-binding parameters: An application to Ni and Ni-Al alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two approaches for obtaining tight-binding parameters for metallic alloys are compared and contrasted with special regard for the application to large scale simulations such as may occur in tight-binding molecular dynamics studies.

Sluiter, M.H.F.; Singh, P.P.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Sand Bluff Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sand Bluff Wind Farm Sand Bluff Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Sand Bluff Wind Farm Facility Sand Bluff Wind Farm Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner E.On Climate & Renewables Developer E.On Climate & Renewables Energy Purchaser Direct Energy Location Near Big Spring TX Coordinates 32.201622°, -101.404799° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.201622,"lon":-101.404799,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

136

The Time of Sands: Quartz-rich Sand Deposits as a Renewable Resource  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rich Sand Deposits as a Renewable Resource Nelson R. Shaffercan even be considered a renewable resource. The reader willbuild our society, and its renewable nature. We are not the

Shaffer, Nelson R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation. The investigation was performed in collaboration with Chevron Production Company U.S.A. as an industrial partner, and incorporates data from the Temblor Formation in Chevron's West Coalinga Field, California. Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity was needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contained approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley.

Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred W.; Bridges, Robert A.; Dinwiddie, Cynthia L.; Lorinovich, Caitlin J.; Lu, Silong

2003-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

138

Imaging of Acoustic Waves in Sand  

SciTech Connect

There is considerable interest in detecting objects such as landmines shallowly buried in loose earth or sand. Various techniques involving microwave, acoustic, thermal and magnetic sensors have been used to detect such objects. Acoustic and microwave sensors have shown promise, especially if used together. In most cases, the sensor package is scanned over an area to eventually build up an image or map of anomalies. We are proposing an alternate, acoustic method that directly provides an image of acoustic waves in sand or soil, and their interaction with buried objects. The INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera utilizes dynamic holography within photorefractive recording materials. This permits one to image and demodulate acoustic waves on surfaces in real time, without scanning. A video image is produced where intensity is directly and linearly proportional to surface motion. Both specular and diffusely reflecting surfaces can be accomodated and surface motion as small as 0.1 nm can be quantitatively detected. This system was used to directly image acoustic surface waves in sand as well as in solid objects. Waves as frequencies of 16 kHz were generated using modified acoustic speakers. These waves were directed through sand toward partially buried objects. The sand container was not on a vibration isolation table, but sat on the lab floor. Interaction of wavefronts with buried objects showed reflection, diffraction and interference effects that could provide clues to location and characteristics of buried objects. Although results are preliminary, success in this effort suggests that this method could be applied to detection of buried landmines or other near-surface items such as pipes and tanks.

Deason, Vance Albert; Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Watson, Scott Marshall

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Assessment of API Thread Connections Under Tight Gas Well Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The modern oil and gas industry of America has seen most of the high quality, easily obtainable resources, already produced, thus causing wells to be drilled deeper in search for unconventional resources. This means Oil Country Tubular Goods (OCTG) must improve in order to withstand harsher conditions; especially the ability of connections to effectively create leak tight seals. This study investigates the use of thread connections in tight gas fields; therefore, an insight into their potential to contribute to fulfilling the energy demands is necessary. Also, a survey of completed projects done in tight gas fields can provide vital information that will establish the minimum requirements thread connection must meet to perform its functions. To make suitable adjustments to ensure safe and efficient operations we must thoroughly understand the many aspects of thread connections. To have this understanding, a review of previous works was carried out that highlights the capabilities and imitations of thread connections. In addition to reviewing previous work done on thread connections; this study measured the viscosity of thread compounds under variable conditions. It was found that viscosity of thread compound falls in the range of 285,667 cP and 47,758 cP when measured between 32.9 degrees F and 121.5 degrees F. This can be very important because thread compound is essential to the function of thread connections. The knowledge of its viscosity can help choose the most suitable compound. By knowing the value of the viscosity of a thread compound it can also be used to form an analytical assessment of the grooved plate method by providing a means to calculate a pressure gradient which impacts the leakage.

Bourne, Dwayne

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

ADVANCED FRACTURING TECHNOLOGY FOR TIGHT GAS: AN EAST TEXAS FIELD DEMONSTRATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of this research was to improve completion and fracturing practices in gas reservoirs in marginal plays in the continental United States. The Bossier Play in East Texas, a very active tight gas play, was chosen as the site to develop and test the new strategies for completion and fracturing. Figure 1 provides a general location map for the Dowdy Ranch Field, where the wells involved in this study are located. The Bossier and other tight gas formations in the continental Unites States are marginal plays in that they become uneconomical at gas prices below $2.00 MCF. It was, therefore, imperative that completion and fracturing practices be optimized so that these gas wells remain economically attractive. The economic viability of this play is strongly dependent on the cost and effectiveness of the hydraulic fracturing used in its well completions. Water-fracs consisting of proppant pumped with un-gelled fluid is the type of stimulation used in many low permeability reservoirs in East Texas and throughout the United States. The use of low viscosity Newtonian fluids allows the creation of long narrow fractures in the reservoir, without the excessive height growth that is often seen with cross-linked fluids. These low viscosity fluids have poor proppant transport properties. Pressure transient tests run on several wells that have been water-fractured indicate a long effective fracture length with very low fracture conductivity even when large amounts of proppant are placed in the formation. A modification to the water-frac stimulation design was needed to transport proppant farther out into the fracture. This requires suspending the proppant until the fracture closes without generating excessive fracture height. A review of fracture diagnostic data collected from various wells in different areas (for conventional gel and water-fracs) suggests that effective propped lengths for the fracture treatments are sometimes significantly shorter than those predicted by fracture models. There was no accepted optimal method for conducting hydraulic fracturing in the Bossier. Each operator used a different approach. Anadarko, the most active operator in the play, had tested at least four different kinds of fracture treatments. The ability to arrive at an optimal fracturing program was constrained by the lack of adequate fracture models to simulate the fracturing treatment, and an inability to completely understand the results obtained in previous fracturing programs. This research aimed at a combined theoretical, experimental and field-testing program to improve fracturing practices in the Bossier and other tight gas plays.

Mukul M. Sharma

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tight sand formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Tight-binding model for hydrogen-silicon interactions  

SciTech Connect

We have developed an empirical tight-binding model for use in molecular-dynamics simulations to study hydrogen-silicon systems. The hydrogen-silicon interaction is constructed to reproduce the electronic energy levels and vibration frequencies of silane (SiH{sub 4}). Further use of the model in the studies of disilane (Si{sub 2}H{sub 6}) and of hydrogen on the Si(111) surface also yields results in good agreement with first-principles calculations and experiments.

Min, B.J.; Lee, Y.H.; Wang, C.Z.; Chan, C.T.; Ho, K.M. (Microelectronics Research Center, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States) Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States))

1992-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

PHYS 551 Lecture #27 Title: Tight-Binding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PHYS 551 Lecture #27 Title: Tight-Binding Now that we have shown that (~k;~r) = P ~R ei~k~RA(~r ~R-function (~k;~r) must be normalized. Thus Z dV = 1 = j j2 X R X R0 ei~k~R ~R0 Z A(~r ~R0)A(~r ~R)dV Now for each ~R0, the sum over ~R must be the same since the crystal has the same distribution of neighbors

Winokur, Michael

143

Oil shale and tar sands technology: recent developments  

SciTech Connect

The detailed, descriptive information in this book is based on US patents, issued since March 1975, that deal with the technology of oil shale and tar sands. The book contains an introductory overview of the subject. Topics included are oil shale retorting, in situ processing of oil shale, shale oil refining and purification processes, in situ processing of tar sands, tar sands separation processes.

Ranney, M.W.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Numerical simulation of transient gas flow during underbalanced drilling into a gas sand  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Shallow gas drilling has long been recognized as a serious problem in offshore operations. Low fracture gradients and shallow casing do not permit shutting- in the well. Computer simulations of gas kicks during drilling require accurate description of the gas flow rate from the formation into the wellbore. The problem is complicated by the fact that during drilling into a gas sand the effective wellbore area exposed to flow is continually changing until the formation has been completely drilled. This paper describes a numerical model developed to calculate gas flow into the wellbore while drilling underbalanced into a gas sand. A two-dimensional finite difference model of transient flow from the reservoir has been coupled with a one-dimensional finite element model of two-phase flow in the wellbore.

Berg, K.A.; Skalle, P. (Dept. of Petroleum Engineering, Univ. of Trondheim (NO)); Podio, A.L. (Dept. of Petroleum Engineering, Univ. of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (US))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

MANAGING TIGHT BINDING RECEPTORS FOR NEW SPEARATIONS TECHNOLOGIES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Much of the earth's pollution involves compounds of the metallic elements, including actinides, strontium, cesium, technetium, and RCRA metals. Metal ions bind to molecules called ligands, which are the molecular tools that can manipulate the metal ions under most conditions. This DOE-EMSP sponsored program strives (1) to provide the foundations for using the most powerful ligands in transformational separations technologies and (2) to produce seminal examples of their applications to separations appropriate to the DOE EM mission. These ultra tight-binding ligands can capture metal ions in the most competitive of circumstances (from mineralized sites, lesser ligands, and even extremely dilute solutions), but they react so slowly that they are useless in traditional separations methodologies. Two attacks on this problem are underway. The first accommodates to the challenging molecular lethargy by developing a seminal slow separations methodology termed the soil poultice. The second designs ligands that are only tight-binding while wrapped around the targeted metal ion, but can be put in place by switch-binding and removed by switch-release. We envision a kind of molecular switching process to accelerate the union between metal ion and tight-binding ligand. Molecular switching processes are suggested for overcoming the slow natural equilibration rate with which ultra tight-binding ligands combine with metal ions. Ligands that bind relatively weakly combine with metal ions rapidly, so the trick is to convert a ligand from a weak, rapidly binding species to a powerful, slow releasing ligand--during the binding of the ligand to the metal ion. Such switch-binding ligands must react with themselves, and the reaction must take place under the influence of the metal ion. For example, our generation 1 ligands showed that a well-designed linear ligand with ends that readily combine, forms a cyclic molecule when it wraps around a metal ion. Our generation 2 ligands are even more interesting. They convert from rings to structures that wrap around a metal ion to form a cage. These ligands are called cryptands. Switch release is accomplished by photolytic cleavage of a bond to convert a cyclic ligand into a linear ligand or to break similar bonds in a cryptate. Our studies have demonstrated switch binding and switch release with cryptates of calcium. These remarkable cyclic ligands and cage-like ligands are indeed tight-binding and may, in principle, be incorporated in various separations methodologies, including the soil poultice. The soil poultice mimics the way in which microbes secrete extremely powerful ligands into the soil in order to harvest iron. The cellular membrane of the microbe recognizes the iron/ligand complex and admits it into the cell. The soil poultice uses molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) to play the role of the cellular membrane. Imprinting involves creation of the polymer in the presence of the metal/ligand complex. In principle, a well design ligand/MIP combination can be highly selective toward almost any targeted metal ion. The principles for that design are the focus of these investigations. An imprinting molecule can interact with the polymer through any, some, or all of the so-called supramolecular modes; e.g., hydrogen bonding, electrostatic charge, minor ligand bonding, Pi-Pi stacking, and hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions. Historically these modes of binding have given MIPs only small re-binding capacities and very limited selectivities. This program has shown that each mode of interaction can be made more powerful than previously suspected and that combinations of different supramolecular interaction modes can produce remarkable synergisms. The results of this systematic study provide a firm foundation for tailoring molecular imprinted polymers for reclamation of specific metal ion, including those important to the DOE EM mission.

DARYLE H BUSCH RICHARD S GIVENS

2004-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

146

I SAND95-2448C  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

SAND95-2448C SAND95-2448C eddfigt6qI7-*+ To be presented at the 32"d AIANASMEISAEIASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Lake Buena Vista, FL, July 1-3, 1996 A SURVEY OF COMBUSTIBLE METALS, THERMITES, AND INTERMETALLICS FOR PYROTECHNIC APPLICATIONS* S. H. Fischer and M. C. Grubelich Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM 87185-1453 ABSTRACT Thermite mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels have long been used in pyrotechnic applications. Advantage of these systems typically include high energy density, impact insensitivity, high combustion temperature, and a wide range of gas production. They generally exhibit high temperature stability, and possess insensitive ignition properties. In this paper, we review the applications, benefits, and characteristics

147

SAND76-0260 Unlimited Release  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SAND76-0260 SAND76-0260 Unlimited Release Printed July 1976 . POWER SUPPLIES FOR SPACE SYSTEMS QUALITY ASSURANCE BY SANDIA LABORATORIES Robert L. Hannigan Robert R. Harnar Electronic and Electrical Devices Division 951 2 Sandia Laboratories Albuquerque, NM 87115 AB STRAC T This report summarizes the Sandia Laboratories participation in Quality Assurance programs for Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators which have been used i n space systems over the past 10 years. Basic elements of this QA program a r e briefly de- scribed and recognition of assistance from other Sandia organizations is included. Descriptions of the various systems f o r which Sandia has had the QA responsibility a r e presented, including SNAP 1 9 (Nimbus, Pioneer, Viking), SNAP 27 (Apollo),

148

Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Penney, W.R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

EA-1581: Sand Hills Wind Project, Wyoming  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Bureau of Land Management, with DOE’s Western Area Power Administration as a cooperating agency, is preparing this EA to evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to construct, operate, and maintain the Sand Hills Wind Energy Facility on private and federal lands in Albany County, Wyoming. If the proposed action is implemented, Western would interconnect the proposed facility to an existing transmission line.

150

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research  

SciTech Connect

Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Field Validation of ICF Residential Building Air-Tightness  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in home construction methods have made considerable progress in addressing energy savings issues. Certain methods are potentially capable of tightening the building envelope, consequently reducing air leakage and minimizing heating and air conditioning related energy losses. Insulated concrete form (ICF) is an economically viable alternative to traditional woodframe construction. Two homes, one of wood-frame, the other of ICF construction, were studied. Standard air leakage testing procedures were used to compare air tightness characteristics achieved by the two construction types. The ICF home showed consistently lower values for air leakage in these tests. The buildings otherwise provided similar data during testing, suggesting that the difference in values is due to greater airtight integrity of the ICF construction method. Testing on more homes is necessary to be conclusive. However, ICF construction shows promise as a tighter building envelope construction method.

Sacs, I.; Ternes, M.P.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Methods and apparatus for measuring the tightness of enclosures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are methods and apparatus for measuring tightness of an enclosure such as a building by utilizing alternating pressurization techniques. One method comprises providing apparatus capable of causing an internal volume change for the enclosure, the apparatus including a means for determining the instantaneous volume change, and a means for determining the instantaneous pressure within the enclosure. The apparatus is operated within the enclosure to change the volume thereof, and at least one of the frequency and the displacement is adjusted to achieve a root mean square pressure in the enclosure approximately equal to a reference pressure. At that pressure, the leakage of the enclosure is determined from the instantaneous displacement and instantaneous pressure values. 3 figs.

Modera, M.P.; Sherman, M.H.

1987-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

153

Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience  

SciTech Connect

For those who support U.S. oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands industry is often identified as a model the U.S. might emulate, yielding financial and energy security benefits. For opponents of domestic oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands experience illustrates the risks that opponents of development believe should deter domestic policymakers from incenting U.S. oil sands development. This report does not seek to evaluate the particular underpinnings of either side of this policy argument, but rather attempts to delve into the question of whether the Canadian experience has relevance as a foundational model for U.S. oil sands development. More specifically, this report seeks to assess whether and how the Canadian oil sands experience might be predictive or instructive in the context of fashioning a framework for a U.S. oil sands industry. In evaluating the implications of these underpinnings for a prospective U.S. oil sands industry, this report concentrates on prospective development of the oil sands deposits found in Utah.

None, None

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Report on variation of electrical conductivity during steam injection in unconsolidated sand saturated with a salt solution  

SciTech Connect

Geophysical electrical methods are useful in evaluating the performance of certain classes of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations and also remediation operations for contaminant spills. Electrical resistivity is sensitive to the concentration of ionic species in solution in fluids present in the subsurface zone. Such fluids are displaced during oil recovery operations and contaminant remediation. If the resistivity of the displacing fluid differs from the in situ fluid, then a geophysical method for detecting resistivity variations may be capable of tracking the advance of the displacing fluid. This report presents the results of experiments designed to determine the variations in resistivity that occur when steam is injected into a homogeneous, fully-saturated sand. These experiments were simple, one-dimensional laboratory steam injection experiments. They were performed using a glass tube filled with a tightly-packed sand and fitted with an injection port at one end and an exit port at the other In each experiment, the sand pack was initially saturated with a brine and then steam was introduced at one end of the tube. Analytic solutions for the steam front velocity, steam temperature, steam distribution, salt concentration profile, and liquid saturation are presented and are used with appropriate correlations of electrical conductivity to describe the observed behavior. The results of these experiments should provide experimental justification for the electrical conductivity variations that are calculated from the analytic solutions. In addition, the experiments may yield new information regarding features of the data that may not result from the analytical modelling.

Vaughan, P. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering; Udell, K.S. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Wilt, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials  

SciTech Connect

This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

Stauffer, H.C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Thickness Measurement of Fracture Fluid Gel Filter Cake after Static Build Up and Shear Erosion.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The hydraulic fracturing treatment is an essential tight sand gas reservoir stimulation that employs viscous fluid to break the formation rock to create a fracture… (more)

Xu, Ben

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

HMNewsFall05.indd  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

including, for example, natural gas from tight gas and methane hydrate formations, oil shale and oiltar sands, and geological sequestration of carbon dioxide and other...

158

EA-1581: Sand Hills Wind Project, Wyoming | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

81: Sand Hills Wind Project, Wyoming 81: Sand Hills Wind Project, Wyoming EA-1581: Sand Hills Wind Project, Wyoming Location of the proposed Sand Hills Wind Project, near Laramie, Wyoming Location of the proposed Sand Hills Wind Project, near Laramie, Wyoming Summary The Bureau of Land Management, with DOE's Western Area Power Administration as a cooperating agency, is preparing this EA to evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to construct, operate, and maintain the Sand Hills Wind Energy Facility on private and federal lands in Albany County, Wyoming. If the proposed action is implemented, Western would interconnect the proposed facility to an existing transmission line. Public Comment Opportunities No public comment opportunities available at this time. List of Available Documents

159

Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative - Residential Heat Pump Loan Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative - Residential Heat Pump Loan Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative - Residential Heat Pump Loan Program Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative - Residential Heat Pump Loan Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Program Info State Alabama Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount 7% interest rate 5 or 10 year pay schedule maximum of $12,000 Provider Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative The Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative offers a heat pump loan program to eligible residential members. To qualify, members must have had power with Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative for at least one year, have the home electric bill and deeds in the same name, and pass a credit check. Heat pumps must be installed by a [http://www.smec.coop/heatpumpcontractors.htm

160

Unconsolidated sand grain shape, size impact frac-pack design  

SciTech Connect

The shape and size of sand grains, as well as the saturating fluid, influence the mechanical properties of unconsolidated sands and need to be considered in frac-pack design. These mechanical properties of unconsolidated properties of unconsolidated sands play an important role in determining the geometry of frac-pack treatments. Stress-strain curves obtained for unconsolidated sands at elevated stresses show highly nonlinear hysteretic behavior. The impact of these findings on frac-pack design can be significant. The nonlinear elastic properties of unconsolidated sand can give rise to some unique features in the pressure response and in the fracture geometry that may not be observed in hard rocks. This article focuses on the impact of mechanical properties of poorly consolidated and unconsolidated sands on the geometry of frac packs. The paper discusses frac packs, mechanical properties (Young`s modulus, shear failure) and effective treatments.

Wang, E.; Sharma, M.M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1997-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tight sand formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Oil shales and tar sands: a bibliography  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Five thousand one hundred forty-two citations of reports, journal articles, patents, conference papers, and monographs resulting from research on oil shales and tar sands are presented. These citations and approximately 5100 additional citations are a part of the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base. The citations, with abstracts, are arranged by subject category. Within the categories references to reports are listed in alphanumeric order by report number. Other citations follow in inverse chronological order. Five indexes are provided: Corporate, Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number.

Grissom, M.C. (ed.)

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Flotation behavior of digested asphalt ridge tar sands  

SciTech Connect

The hot water process for Utah tar sands differs from that used for Canadian tar sands due to inherent differences in respective bitumen viscosities and the nature of bitumen-sand association. Although contact angle measurements of solvent extracted Asphalt Ridge bitumen indicated moderate hydrophobicity, air bubble attachment to the bitumen concentrate is not possible. This suggests that flotation separation is dependent on air bubble entrapment. Improved separation at higher flotation temperatures was due to the decrease in bitumen viscosity. 16 refs.

Smith, R.J.; Miller, J.D.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Prediction of Gas Leak Tightness of Superplastically Formed Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In some applications, in this case an aluminium box in a subatomic particle detector containing highly sensitive detecting devices, it is important that a formed sheet should show no gas leak from one side to the other. In order to prevent a trial-and-error procedure to make this leak tight box, a method is set up to predict if a formed sheet conforms to the maximum leak constraint. The technique of superplastic forming (SPF) is used in order to attain very high plastic strains before failure. Since only a few of these boxes are needed, this makes, this generally slow, process an attractive production method. To predict the gas leak of a superplastically formed aluminium sheet in an accurate way, finite element simulations are used in combination with a user-defined material model. This constitutive model couples the leak rate with the void volume fraction. This void volume fraction is then dependent on both the equivalent plastic strain and the applied hydrostatic pressure during the bulge process (backpressure).

Snippe, Corijn H. C. [National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef) PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meinders, T. [University of Twente, Faculty of Engineering Technology PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

164

Stability of spinor Fermi gases in tight waveguides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The two- and three-body correlation functions of the ground state of an optically trapped ultracold spin-(1/2) Fermi gas (SFG) in a tight waveguide [one-dimensional (1D) regime] are calculated in the plane of even- and odd-wave coupling constants, assuming a 1D attractive zero-range odd-wave interaction induced by a 3D p-wave Feshbach resonance, as well as the usual repulsive zero-range even-wave interaction stemming from 3D s-wave scattering. The calculations are based on the exact mapping from the SFG to a 'Lieb-Liniger-Heisenberg' model with delta-function repulsions depending on isotropic Heisenberg spin-spin interactions, and indicate that the SFG should be stable against three-body recombination in a large region of the coupling constant plane encompassing parts of both the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases. However, the limiting case of the fermionic Tonks-Girardeau gas, a spin-aligned 1D Fermi gas with infinitely attractive p-wave interactions, is unstable in this sense. Effects due to the dipolar interaction and a Zeeman term due to a resonance-generating magnetic field do not lead to shrinkage of the region of stability of the SFG.

Campo, A. del; Muga, J. G. [Departamento de Quimica-Fisica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Girardeau, M. D. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

165

SANDIA REPORT SAND93-1076  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

SANDIA SANDIA REPORT SAND93-1076 * u_qo UnlimitedRelease 1 Pdnted November 1993 :ii l Standard Testing Procedures for Optical Fiber and Unshielded Twisted Pair at Sandia National Laboratories R. L. Adams Pe,_e,d by Sand!a Nm#ocml L.abomlodN Albuquerque, NewMexlooI71U and Uvermore,California$M860 for the UnitedStatesDepartment ofEnergy underContract DE.ACOI-MALIIf_D SF2900Q(8-81 } _IITRIEIUTION OF THiS DGCU,VltZNT 18 UNLIMITED k Issued by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of their c_ntractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability

166

TESTING OF TMR SAND MANTIS FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

Screening tests of Sand Mantis candidate materials selected for erosion resistance have been completed. The results of this testing identified that over a relatively short period of operation (<1 hour), measurable erosion will occur in each of the candidate zoom tube materials given equal operating exposure. Additionally, this testing has shown that erosion of the rubber discharge hose directly downstream of the vehicle could be expected to limit the service life of the discharge hose. On the basis of these test results, SRNL recommends the following; {lg_bullet} redesign of critical system components (e.g., zoom tube, discharge hose) should be conducted to improve system characteristics relative to erosion and capitalize on the results of this testing, {lg_bullet} continued efforts to deploy the Sand Mantis should include testing to better define and optimize operating parameters, and gain an understanding of system dynamics, {lg_bullet} discontinue wear testing with the selected materials pending redesign of critical system components (1st recommendation) and inclusion of other candidate materials. The final selection of additional candidate materials should be made following design changes, but might include a Stellite alloy or zirconia.

Krementz, D; William Daugherty, W

2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

167

Eastern Regional Conference 2005 Fractured Rock Characterization Workshop  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1992 1998 2002 GW #12;16 North Bedrock Upper Sand Marine Clay Lower Sand ca. 40m Sheet Pile.75 40.00 BBC4pressure[m] Open borehole MW Isolated Interval MW #12;52 LDSTs conducted on tight,tight are valuable for predicting well interconnectivities and to assess tight formations. · Sequences of interfering

New Hampshire, University of

168

Parabolic Kazhdan-Lusztig R-polynomials for tight quotients of the symmetric groups 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Parabolic Kazhdan-Lusztig R-polynomials for tight quotients of the symmetric groups formulas for the parabolic Kazhda* *n- Lusztig R-polynomials of the tight quotients* * to that of the Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomials. In 1987 Deodhar ([5]) introduced parabolic analogues of all

Brenti, Francesco

169

TOWARD TIGHT GAMMA-RAY BURST LUMINOSITY RELATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The large scatters of luminosity relations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been one of the most important reasons preventing the extensive application of GRBs in cosmology. Many efforts have been made to seek tight luminosity relations. With the latest sample of 116 GRBs with measured redshift and spectral parameters, we investigate 6 two-dimensional (2D) correlations and 14 derived three-dimensional (3D) correlations of GRBs to explore the possibility of decreasing the intrinsic scatters of the luminosity relations of GRBs. We find the 3D correlation of E{sub peak}-{tau}{sub RT}-L to be evidently tighter (at the 2{sigma} confidence level) than its corresponding 2D correlations, i.e., the E{sub peak}-L and {tau}{sub RT}-L correlations. In addition, the coefficients before the logarithms of E{sub peak} and {tau}{sub RT} in the E{sub peak}-{tau}{sub RT}-L correlation are almost exact opposites of each other. Inputting this situation as a prior reduces the relation to L{proportional_to}(E'{sub peak}/{tau}{sub RT}'){sup 0.842{+-}0.064}, where E'{sub peak} and {tau}'{sub RT} denote the peak energy and minimum rise time in the GRB rest frame. We discuss how our findings can be interpreted/understood in the framework of the definition of the luminosity (energy released in units of time). Our argument about the connection between the luminosity relations of GRBs and the definition of the luminosity provides a clear direction for exploring tighter luminosity relations of GRBs in the future.

Qi Shi; Lu Tan, E-mail: qishi11@gmail.com, E-mail: t.lu@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

2012-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

170

Thermal reclaimer apparatus for a thermal sand reclamation system  

SciTech Connect

A thermal reclaimer apparatus is disclosed for thermally removing from the used foundry sand the organic matter that is present therein. The subject thermal reclaimer apparatus includes chamber means in which the used foundry sand is heated to a predetermined temperature for a preestablished period in order to accomplish the burning away of the organic matter that the used foundry sand contains. The chamber means includes inlet means provided at one end thereof and outlet means provided at the other end thereof. Feed means are cooperatively associated with the pipe means and thereby with the inlet means for feeding the used foundry sand through the inlet means into the chamber means. The subject thermal reclaimer apparatus further includes rotating means operative for effecting the rotation of the chamber means as the used foundry sand is being heated therein. The chamber means has cooperatively associated therewith burner means located at the same end thereof as the outlet means. The burner means is operative to effect the heating of the used foundry sand to the desired temperature within the chamber means. Tumbling means are provided inside the chamber means to ensure that the used foundry sand is constantly turned over, i.e., tumbled, and that the lumps therein are broken up as the chamber means rotates. Lastly, the used foundry sand from which the organic matter has been removed leaves the chamber means through the outlet means.

Deve, V.

1984-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

171

Triaxial behavior of sand-mica mixtures using genetic programming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates an application of genetic programming (GP) for modeling of coarse rotund sand-mica mixtures. An empirical model equation is developed by means of GP technique. The experimental database used for GP modeling is based on a laboratory ... Keywords: Genetic programming, Leighton Buzzard Sand, Mica, Modeling, Triaxial testing

Ali Firat Cabalar; Abdulkadir Cevik

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Effective fracture geometry obtained with large water sand ratio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shale gas formation exhibits some unusual reservoir characteristics: nano-darcy matrix permeability, presence of natural fractures and gas storage on the matrix surface that makes it unique in many ways. It’s difficult to design an optimum fracture treatment for such formation and even more difficult is to describe production behavior using a reservoir model. So far homogeneous, two wing fracture, and natural fracture models have been used for this purpose without much success. Micro seismic mapping technique is used to measure the fracture propagation in real time. This measurement in naturally fractured shale formation suggests a growth of fracture network instead of a traditional two wing fractures. There is an industry wise consensus that fracture network plays an important role in determining the well productivity of such formations. A well with high density of fracture networks supposed to have better productivity. Shale formations have also exhibited production pattern which is very different from conventional or tight gas reservoir. Initial flow period is marked by steep decline in production while the late time production exhibits a slow decline. One of the arguments put for this behavior is linear flow from a bi-wing fractured well at early time and contribution of adsorbed gas in production at late time. However, bi-wing fracture geometry is not supported by the micro-seismic observation. A realistic model should include both the fracture network and adsorbed gas property. In this research we have proposed a new Power Law Permability model to simulate fluid flow from hydraulically fractured Shale formation. This model was first described by Valko & Fnu (2002) and used for analyzing acid treatment jobs. The key idea of this model is to use a power law permeability function that varies with the radial distance from well bore. Scaling exponent of this power law function has been named power law index. The permeability function has also been termed as secondary permeability. This work introduces the method of Laplace solution to solve the problem of transient and pseudo steady-state flow in a fracture network. Development and validation of this method and its extension to predict the pressure (and production) behaviour of fracture network were made using a novel technic. Pressure solution was then combined with material balance through productivity index to make production forecast. Reservoir rock volume affected by the fracture stimulation treatment that contributes in the production is called effective stimulated volume. This represents the extent of fracture network in this case. Barnett shale formation is a naturally fractured shale reservoir in Fort Worth basin. Several production wells from this formation was analysed using Power Law Model and it was found that wells productivity are highly dependent on stimulated volume. Apparently the wells flow under pseudo steady state for most part of their producing life and the effect of boundary on production is evident in as soon as one months of production. Due to short period of transient flow production from Barnett formations is expected to be largely independent of the relative distribution of permeability and highly dependent on the stimulated area and induced secondary permeability. However, an indirect relationship between permeability distribution and production rate is observed. A well with low power law index shows a better (more even) secondary permeability distribution in spatial direction, larger stimulated volume and better production. A comparative analysis between the new model and traditional fracture model was made. It was found that both models can be used successfully for history matching and production forecasting from hydraulically fractured shale gas formation.

Kumar, Amrendra

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Sand Mountain Electric Coop | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mountain Electric Coop Mountain Electric Coop Jump to: navigation, search Name Sand Mountain Electric Coop Place Alabama Utility Id 16629 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Drainage Pumping Station LS - Outdoor Lighting Service Lighting RS - Residential Service Residential Schedule GSA - General Power Service - Part 1 Commercial Schedule GSA - General Power Service - Part 2 Commercial Schedule GSA - General Power Service - Part 3 Commercial Schedule GSB Commercial Schedule GSD Commercial

174

Sand control in horizontal wells in heavy-oil reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in horizontal-well technology has greatly improved the potential for heavy oil recovery. Such recovery may be hampered, however, by sanding problems associated with most heavy-oil reservoirs. These reservoir sands are mostly unconsolidated and may lead to severe productivity-loss problems if produced freely. This paper offers recommendations for sand control in three Canadian heavy-oil reservoirs. Experimental evidence has shown that minimizing the annular space between the casing and the open hole is important, especially in the case of smaller wire space, lower oil viscosity, and thinner pay zone. Several types of wire-wrapped screens and flexible liners were tested for sand control. Only flexible liners reduced sand production to a negligible amount.

Islam, M.R. (Nova Husky Research Corp. (CA)); George, A.E. (Energy, Mines, and Resources (CA))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000.degree. F. in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs.

Westhoff, James D. (Laramie, WY); Harak, Arnold E. (Laramie, WY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

1988-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

177

Guide to preparing SAND reports and other communication products.  

SciTech Connect

This guide describes the R&A process, Common Look and Feel requirements, and preparation and publishing procedures for communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Samples of forms and examples of published communications products are provided. This guide takes advantage of the wealth of material now available on the Web as a resource. Therefore, it is best viewed as an electronic document. If some of the illustrations are too small to view comfortably, you can enlarge them on the screen as needed. The format of this document is considerably different than that usually expected of a SAND Report. It was selected to permit the large number of illustrations and examples to be placed closer to the text that references them. In the case of forms, covers, and other items that are included as examples, a link to the Web is provided so that you can access the items and download them for use. This guide details the processes for producing a variety of communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Figure I-1 shows the general publication development process. Because extensive supplemental material is available from Sandia on the internal web or from external sources (Table I-1), the guide has been shortened to make it easy to find information that you need.

Not Available

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Development of techniques for optimizing selection and completion of western tight gas sands. Phase II report, 1 January Feb 1979--28 February 1979  

SciTech Connect

The Phase II work included the measurement of sandstone bed structural elements at 16 sites on Cretaceous Marine Marginal sandstone beds and at 16 sites on beds in a Lower Tertiary lacustrine sequence in eastern Utah. This work was aimed at defining the internal geometrical characteristics of these two types of reservoir rocks.

Knutson, C.F.; Boardman, C.R.

1979-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Determination of critical cracking temperature of oil sands at low temperature conditions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research is intended to predict the viscoelastic behavior of oil sand mixesunder low temperature conditions. The oil sand used in this project is a… (more)

Chandika, Charan kumar

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Associated Offshore Tight Sands Production Rate (Mcf/day)Holditch, S. 2006. Tight Gas Sands. Society of Petroleumshale gas, tight oil, oil shale, and tar (bitumen) sands. In

Coughlin, Katie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tight sand formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Study of Flow Regimes in Multiply-Fractured Horizontal Wells in Tight Gas and Shale Gas Reservoir Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Various analytical, semi-analytical, and empirical models have been proposed to characterize rate and pressure behavior as a function of time in tight/shale gas systems featuring a horizontal well with multiple hydraulic fractures. Despite a small number of analytical models and published numerical studies there is currently little consensus regarding the large-scale flow behavior over time in such systems. The purpose of this work is to construct a fit-for-purpose numerical simulator which will account for a variety of production features pertinent to these systems, and to use this model to study the effects of various parameters on flow behavior. Specific features examined in this work include hydraulically fractured horizontal wells, multiple porosity and permeability fields, desorption, and micro-scale flow effects. The theoretical basis of the model is described in Chapter I, along with a validation of the model. We employ the numerical simulator to examine various tight gas and shale gas systems and to illustrate and define the various flow regimes which progressively occur over time. We visualize the flow regimes using both specialized plots of rate and pressure functions, as well as high-resolution maps of pressure distributions. The results of this study are described in Chapter II. We use pressure maps to illustrate the initial linear flow into the hydraulic fractures in a tight gas system, transitioning to compound formation linear flow, and then into elliptical flow. We show that flow behavior is dominated by the fracture configuration due to the extremely low permeability of shale. We also explore the possible effect of microscale flow effects on gas effective permeability and subsequent gas species fractionation. We examine the interaction of sorptive diffusion and Knudsen diffusion. We show that microscale porous media can result in a compositional shift in produced gas concentration without the presence of adsorbed gas. The development and implementation of the micro-flow model is documented in Chapter III. This work expands our understanding of flow behavior in tight gas and shale gas systems, where such an understanding may ultimately be used to estimate reservoir properties and reserves in these types of reservoirs.

Freeman, Craig M.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

The apparent surface roughness of moving sand transported by wind  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a comprehensive analytical model of aeolian sand transport in saltation. It quantifies the momentum transfer from the wind to the transported sand by providing expressions for the thickness of the saltation layer and the apparent surface roughness. These expressions are for the first time entirely derived from basic physical principles. The model further predicts the sand transport rate (mass flux) and the impact threshold shear velocity. We show that the model predictions are in very good agreement with experiments and numerical state of the art simulations of aeolian saltation.

Thomas Pähtz; Jasper F. Kok; Hans J. Herrmann

2011-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

183

GASIFICATION IN THE CANADIAN OIL SANDS:  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Long Lake integrated bitumen and upgrading project, now under construction by OPTI Canada Inc. and Nexen Inc., is the first application of large-scale gasification in Canada. It also represents the first implementation of a gasification project in conjunction with a heavy oil recovery and upgrading project. The Canadian oil sands are a vast petroleum resource that currently produces over one million barrels per day (bpd) using proven mining and in-situ recovery technologies. Production is projected to rise to over two million bpd by the end of the decade. However the large volumes of natural gas normally needed by the bitumen recovery and upgrading facilities are a significant barrier to economic development of the resource. The Long Lake Project uses a unique combination of technologies to provide a solution to the natural gas supply and cost issue. A key component is a gasification facility using the Shell Gasification Process (SGP) which is integrated with the bitumen upgrading to convert the liquid asphaltene by-product stream into hydrogen for the secondary upgrading step and syngas fuel. An Air Liquide air separation unit (ASU) will provide

unknown authors

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Getty mines oil sands in California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large deposit of oil-laden diatomaceous earth in the McKittrick oil field 40 miles west of Bakersfield, California, has resisted all efforts at production by standard means. Getty Oil Co. is in the pilot phase of a project to recover the Diatomite's oil by an open pit mining operation. It also could have significant implications for other California oil fields, possibly setting the stage for the mining of oil sands in shallow fields like Kern River, S. Belridge, and Lost Hills to maximize oil recovery. A report on the project is summarized. The Diatomite is estimated to have 500 million bbl of oil in reserves, of which 380 million bbl are recoverable. The estimated amount of recoverable oil exceeds the McKittrick field's cumulative production of 240 million bbl. A pilot plant was built to test solvent extraction method of recovering heavy oil. The multistep process involves a series of 6 extractors. The Lurgi retorting plant employs a 2-step heating process to separate hydrocarbons from crushed ore.

Rintoul, B.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Western Gas Sands Project. Status report  

SciTech Connect

The progress during December, 1977 of the major government sponsored endeavors undertaken to increase gas production from the low permeability gas sands of the western United States is summarized. The USGS is continuing geological and geophysical studies in the four major western basins to better characterize the resource base. Shipping arrangements for the core donated to the USGS by Inexco WASP (a well drilled for possible nuclear explosive stimulation in Wyoming) have been made, and cores for macrofossil and ostracode analysis from the Bowdoin Dome area have been collected. The National Laboratories, funded by DOE, are continuing their work in the area of research and development. The emphasis is on the development of new tools and instrumentation systems, rock mechanics, mathematical modeling and data analysis. Field tests and demonstrations active in the Uinta and Piceance Basins are Gas Producing Enterprises (GPE) Natural Buttes, Wells No. 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, and 22; Mobil Research and Development, Well No. F-31-13G; and Rio Blanco Natural Gas Company, Well No. 498-4-1. Colorado Interstate Gas Company has initiated activity on its project with the installation of equipment, and Mitchell Energy Company's proposal to conduct an MHF test in the Cotton Valley lime gas reservoir in Texas is nearing the contract negotiation stage.

1978-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Status and outlook for shale gas and tight oil development in...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

10 15 20 25 30 35 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 Associated with oil Coalbed methane Tight gas Shale gas Alaska Non-associated onshore Non-associated...

187

DensEl: An O(N) Tight Binding Code - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apr 3, 2008 ... DensEl is an O(N) (or linear scaling) tight binding code written in the first place by Chris Goringe with contributions by Paul Godwin and David ...

188

RFC Sand Creek Development LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RFC Sand Creek Development LLC RFC Sand Creek Development LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name RFC Sand Creek Development LLC Place Aurora, Colorado Zip 80014 Product Subsidiary of Republic Financial Corporation set up to invest in Sand Creek Energy LLC, a planned gas to liquid facility. Coordinates 39.325162°, -79.54975° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.325162,"lon":-79.54975,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

189

Sand Ridges and Dunes in the Calumet Region  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

when the U. S. Steel corporation purchased 8000 acres of sand dunes and swamps for its mills and a new city, Gary, you can still see ridge after ridge paralleling the lake shore...

190

Sand Dunes Hot Spring Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sand Dunes Hot Spring Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Sand Dunes Hot Spring Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Sand Dunes Hot Spring Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Sand Dunes Hot Spring Sector Geothermal energy Type Aquaculture Location Hooper, Colorado Coordinates 37.7427775°, -105.8752987° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

191

CONTRACTOR REPORT SAND96-2555 UC-1243 Unlimited Release  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CONTRACTOR REPORT SAND96-2555 UC-1243 Unlimited Release A Study of Productionlnjection Data from Slim Holes and Large-Diameter Wells at the Takigami Geothermal Field, Kyushu,...

192

The effects of psammophilous plants on sand dune dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Psammophilous plants are special plants that flourish in sand moving environments. There are two main mechanisms by which the wind affects these plants: (i) sand drift exposes roots and covers branches--the exposed roots turn into new plants and the covered branches turn into new roots; both mechanisms result in an enhanced growth rate of the psammophilous plant cover of the dunes; (ii) strong winds, often associated with sand movement, tear branches and seed them in nearby locations, resulting in new plants and an enhanced growth rate of the psammophilous plant cover of the dunes. Despite their important role in dune dynamics, to our knowledge, psammophilous plants have never been incorporated into mathematical models of sand dunes. Here, we attempt to model the effects of these plants on sand dune dynamics. We construct a set of three ordinary differential equations for the fractions of surface cover of regular vegetation, biogenic soil crust and psammophilous plants. The latter reach their optimal growth under (i) specific sand drift or (ii) specific wind power. We show that psammophilous plants enrich the sand dune dynamics. Depending on the climatological conditions, it is possible to obtain one, two, or three steady dune states. The activity of the dunes can be associated with the surface cover--bare dunes are active, and dunes with significant cover of vegetation, biogenic soil crust, or psammophilous plants are fixed. Our model shows that under suitable precipitation rates and wind power, the dynamics of the different cover types is in accordance with the common view that dunes are initially stabilized by psammophilous plants that reduce sand activity, thus enhancing the growth of regular vegetation that eventually dominates the cover of the dunes and determines their activity.

Golan Bel; Yosef Ashkenazy

2013-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

193

Naturally fractured tight gas: Gas reservoir detection optimization. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

Economically viable natural gas production from the low permeability Mesaverde Formation in the Piceance Basin, Colorado requires the presence of an intense set of open natural fractures. Establishing the regional presence and specific location of such natural fractures is the highest priority exploration goal in the Piceance and other western US tight, gas-centered basins. Recently, Advanced Resources International, Inc. (ARI) completed a field program at Rulison Field, Piceance Basin, to test and demonstrate the use of advanced seismic methods to locate and characterize natural fractures. This project began with a comprehensive review of the tectonic history, state of stress and fracture genesis of the basin. A high resolution aeromagnetic survey, interpreted satellite and SLAR imagery, and 400 line miles of 2-D seismic provided the foundation for the structural interpretation. The central feature of the program was the 4.5 square mile multi-azimuth 3-D seismic P-wave survey to locate natural fracture anomalies. The interpreted seismic attributes are being tested against a control data set of 27 wells. Additional wells are currently being drilled at Rulison, on close 40 acre spacings, to establish the productivity from the seismically observed fracture anomalies. A similar regional prospecting and seismic program is being considered for another part of the basin. The preliminary results indicate that detailed mapping of fault geometries and use of azimuthally defined seismic attributes exhibit close correlation with high productivity gas wells. The performance of the ten new wells, being drilled in the seismic grid in late 1996 and early 1997, will help demonstrate the reliability of this natural fracture detection and mapping technology.

NONE

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

194

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report, July 1990--July 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Contents of this report include the following: executive summary; characterization of the native bitumen from the Whiterocks oil sand deposit; influence of carboxylic acid content on bitumen viscosity; water based oil sand separation technology; extraction of bitumen from western oil sands by an energy-efficient thermal method; large- diameter fluidized bed reactor studies; rotary kiln pyrolysis of oil sand; catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; ebullieted bed hydrotreating and hydrocracking; super critical fluid extraction; bitumen upgrading; 232 references; Appendix A--Whiterocks tar sand deposit bibliography; Appendix B--Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit bibliography; and Appendix C--University of Utah tar sands bibliography.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

DOE/EA-1584: Final Environmental Assessment for Sand Point Wind Installation Project, Sand Point, Alaska (September 2009)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sand Point Wind Installation Project Sand Point, Alaska DOE/EA -1584 U.S. Department of Energy Golden Field Office 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401-3305 September 2009 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1.0 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 1 1.1 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES....................................................................................................... 1 1.2 BACKGROUND .................................................................................................... 1 1.3 PURPOSE AND NEED.......................................................................................... 2 1.4 PUBLIC SCOPING AND CONSULTATION.......................................................

196

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1993  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the past quarter are briefly described for the following areas of research: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale and tar sand researches cover processing studies. Coal research includes: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology covers: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of an effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1992  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

Speight, J.G.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

198

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Method of tagging sand with ruthenium-103 and the resultant product  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A procedure for tagging sand with a radioisotope for use in the study of sediment transport involves the precipitation of a metal radioisotope in the form of an iodide directly on the sand, followed by heating the sand to a temperature sufficient to effect a phase transformation of the sand and a decomposition of the metal iodide, leaving the metal firmly attached to the sand.

Case, Forrest N. (Oak Ridge, TN); McFarland, Clyde E. (Knoxville, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Air Tightness of New U.S. Houses: A Preliminary Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tightness of New U.S. Houses: A Preliminary Report Tightness of New U.S. Houses: A Preliminary Report Title Air Tightness of New U.S. Houses: A Preliminary Report Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-48671 Year of Publication 2002 Authors Sherman, Max H., and Nance Matson Abstract Most dwellings in the United States are ventilated primarily through leaks in the building shell (i.e., infiltration) rather than by whole-house mechanical ventilation systems. Consequently, quantification of envelope air-tightness is critical to determining how much energy is being lost through infiltration and how much infiltration is contributing toward ventilation requirements. Envelope air tightness and air leakage can be determined from fan pressurization measurements with a blower door. Tens of thousands of unique fan pressurization measurements have been made of U.S. dwellings over the past decades. LBNL has collected the available data on residential infiltration into its Residential Diagnostics Database, with support from the U.S. Department of Energy. This report documents the envelope air leakage section of the LBNL database, with particular emphasis on new construction. The work reported here is an update of similar efforts carried out a decade ago, which used available data largely focused on the housing stock, rather than on new construction. The current effort emphasizes shell tightness measurements made on houses soon after they are built. These newer data come from over two dozen datasets, including over 73,000 measurements spread throughout a majority of the U.S. Roughly one-third of the measurements are for houses identified as energy-efficient through participation in a government or utility program. As a result, the characteristics reported here provide a quantitative estimate of the impact that energy-efficiency programs have on envelope tightness in the US, as well as on trends in construction.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tight sand formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Petrophysical Analysis and Geographic Information System for San Juan Basin Tight Gas Reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary goal of this project is to increase the availability and ease of access to critical data on the Mesaverde and Dakota tight gas reservoirs of the San Juan Basin. Secondary goals include tuning well log interpretations through integration of core, water chemistry and production analysis data to help identify bypassed pay zones; increased knowledge of permeability ratios and how they affect well drainage and thus infill drilling plans; improved time-depth correlations through regional mapping of sonic logs; and improved understanding of the variability of formation waters within the basin through spatial analysis of water chemistry data. The project will collect, integrate, and analyze a variety of petrophysical and well data concerning the Mesaverde and Dakota reservoirs of the San Juan Basin, with particular emphasis on data available in the areas defined as tight gas areas for purpose of FERC. A relational, geo-referenced database (a geographic information system, or GIS) will be created to archive this data. The information will be analyzed using neural networks, kriging, and other statistical interpolation/extrapolation techniques to fine-tune regional well log interpretations, improve pay zone recognition from old logs or cased-hole logs, determine permeability ratios, and also to analyze water chemistries and compatibilities within the study area. This single-phase project will be accomplished through four major tasks: Data Collection, Data Integration, Data Analysis, and User Interface Design. Data will be extracted from existing databases as well as paper records, then cleaned and integrated into a single GIS database. Once the data warehouse is built, several methods of data analysis will be used both to improve pay zone recognition in single wells, and to extrapolate a variety of petrophysical properties on a regional basis. A user interface will provide tools to make the data and results of the study accessible and useful. The final deliverable for this project will be a web-based GIS providing data, interpretations, and user tools that will be accessible to anyone with Internet access. During this project, the following work has been performed: (1) Assimilation of most special core analysis data into a GIS database; (2) Inventorying of additional data, such as log images or LAS files that may exist for this area; (3) Analysis of geographic distribution of that data to pinpoint regional gaps in coverage; (4) Assessment of the data within both public and proprietary data sets to begin tuning of regional well logging analyses and improve payzone recognition; (5) Development of an integrated web and GIS interface for all the information collected in this effort, including data from northwest New Mexico; (6) Acquisition and digitization of logs to create LAS files for a subset of the wells in the special core analysis data set; and (7) Petrophysical analysis of the final set of well logs.

Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Robert Balch; Tom Engler; Roger Ruan; Shaojie Ma

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Social navigation for loosely-coupled information seeking in tightly-knit groups using webwear  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many web-based information-seeking tasks are set in a social context where other people's knowledge and advice improves success in finding information. However, when tightly-knit contacts (friends, family, colleagues) are not available, information seeking ... Keywords: collaborative information seeking, social navigation

Scott S. Bateman; Carl A. Gutwin; Gordon I. McCalla

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Efficiency and Fluctuation in Tight-Coupling Model of Molecular Motor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A simple tight-coupling model of a molecular chemical engine is proposed. The efficiency of the chemical engine and its average velocity can be explicitly calculated. The diffusion constant is evaluated approximately using the fluctuation theorem. Langevin simulations with stochastic boundary conditions are performed and the numerical results are compared with theoretical calculations.

Hidetsugu Sakaguchi

2006-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

204

High Performance Biomorphic Image Processing Under Tight Space and Power Constraints  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Image processing for space systems must be performed under tight space and power constraints while not compromising performance. Traditional computer vision approaches are not ideal because they are notoriously power hungry and physically large. We present ... Keywords: centroid localization chip, computational sensing, focal-plane processing, image process chip, motion detection chip, spatiotemporal convolution chip, vision chip

Ralph Etienne-Cummings; Viktor Gruev; Mathew Clapp

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

A Tight Lower Bound to the Outage Probability of Discrete-Input Block-Fading Channels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this correspondence, a tight lower bound to the outage probability of discrete-input Nakagami-m block-fading channels is proposed. The approach permits an efficient method for numerical evaluation of the bound, providing an additional tool for system ... Keywords: Block-fading channel, diversity, error probability, outage probability, rate-diversity tradeoff, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)-exponent

K. D. Nguyen; A. Guillen i Fabregas; L. K. Rasmussen

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Combustion System Development for Medium-Sized Industrial Gas Turbines: Meeting Tight Emission Regulations while Using  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combustion System Development for Medium-Sized Industrial Gas Turbines: Meeting Tight Emission and the oil & gas industries. The combustion system used in Solar's products are discussed along- bility for the introduction of new combustion systems for gas turbine products to enhance fuel

Ponce, V. Miguel

207

Geothermal resources Frio Formation, South Texas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A preliminary study of the Frio sand distribution and formation temperatures and pressures was undertaken in order to define prospective areas in which a more detailed reservoir analysis is necessary prior to the selection of a site for a geothermal well. As a result two potential geothermal fairways were identified--one in the south part of the area in Hidalgo, Willacy, and Cameron Counties, and the other in the north part in north-central Nueces County.

Bebout, D.G.; Dorfman, M.H.; Agagu, O.K.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Enhancing permeability in oil shale and applications to tar sands  

SciTech Connect

Explosive fracturing and rubblization are used to enhance oil shale permeability. Blasting strategy and results are discussed, in particular the Geokinetics blasting. The field data desired are listed. Comments are offered on the extension of the blasting techniques to tar sands. (DLC)

Schamaun, J.T.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Mechanism of acoustic emissions from booming sand dunes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The classical elastic mechanics shows that the fundamental frequency of a sand grain chain is similar to the typical frequency of acoustic emission generated by the booming dunes. The "song of dunes" is therefore considered to originate from the resonance of grain chains occurring within a solid layer only several centimeters thick.

Zhen-Ting Wang

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

210

Nitrate-Cancrinite Precipitation on Quartz Sand in Simulated Hanford  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nitrate-Cancrinite Precipitation on Quartz Sand in Simulated Hanford Tank Solutions B A R R Y R . B minerals at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site in Washington. Nitrate-cancrinite began's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington since the late 1950s (1). To predict the fate

Illinois at Chicago, University of

211

SAND2006-1982J Solid-State Environmentally Safe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

battery packs in parallel.The commercial target cost is expected to open at $50 per 1.5-volt cellSAND2006-1982J #12;Solid-State Environmentally Safe Battery for Replacing Lithium Batteries 1 Entry with High Power Battery Systems Company 5 Silkin Street, Apt. 40 Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod Russia

212

Western Gas Sands Project. Quarterly basin activities report  

SciTech Connect

A summation is presented of the coring program site identification, and drilling and testing activity in the four primary study areas of the Western Gas Sands Project (WGSP). Pertinent information for January, February, and March, 1978 is included for each study area. The areas are the Northern Great Plains Province, the Greater Green River Basin, the Piceance Basin, and the Uinta Basin.

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Numerical modeling of gas migration into and through faulted sand reservoirs in Pabst Field (Main Pass East Block 259), northern Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The further exploration and development of Pabst Gas Field with faulted sand reservoirs require an understanding of the properties and roles of faults, particularly Low Throw near Vertical Faults (LTNVFs), in gas migration and accumulation at a reservoir scale. This study presents numerical modeling of gas migration and accumulation processes in Pabst Field. Based on studies of the reservoirs, structure, faults, and fluid properties of the field, reservoir scale modeling was performed to determine the gas supply style and the fault properties by means of hundreds of iterations in which the fault properties and gas supply pattern were modified to match the gas distribution obtained from modeling with the gas distribution inferred from seismic data constrained by well data and production data. This study finds that in the main three sand reservoirs of Pabst Field the overlying younger sands cut down into the underlying older sands, so that partial connections between the three sands allow gas communication among the sands. Meanwhile, three fault families break up the three sands into numerous compartments. A primary fault and large synthetic and antithetic faults act as gas migration pathways: the synthetic and antithetic faults are inlets for gas flow and the primary fault is an outlet, and LTNVFs act as barriers to gas flow. Modeling requires fault properties in the field to change while the field is formed. The porosity and permeability of the faults in Pabst Field are 10% and 0.1 md, respectively, during gas charging of the sand reservoirs. But when there is no gas charging and large gas columns are maintained, the porosity and permeability of the faults decrease to 6% and 0.001 md, respectively. Pabst Field probably has an impulse gas charge history. Fault opening and closing, gas charge and recharge, and replacement of gas by formation water may occur. A combination of stratigraphy, structure, overpressure and gas charge rate control gas migration style, gas charge history, and gas distribution in the field. The significance of the study is that this improved numerical approach for modeling gas migration into and through specifically faulted sand reservoirs fills the gap between basin modeling and production modeling.

Li, Yuqian

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Predicting Well Stimulation Results in a Gas Storage Field in the Absence of Reservoir Data, Using Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sand. The Clinton is a tight gas-bearing sandstone. Natural fracturing is thought to account storage field located in Northeastern Ohio. The formation is a tight gas sandstone known as the Clinton for production in economic quantities. Sand occurs in lenses and is largely discontinuous from one well

Mohaghegh, Shahab

215

Identification of Parameters Influencing the Response of Gas Storage Wells to Hydraulic Fracturing with the Aid of a Neural Network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

located in Northeastern Ohio. The formation is a tight gas sandstone called the Clinton Sand. All was trained with existing data to identify influential parameters in hydraulic fracturing of the Clinton Sand Characteristics The Clinton reservoir is a tight gas sandstone. Natural fracturing is thought to account

Mohaghegh, Shahab

216

Copyright 2005, Society of Petroleum Engineers This paper was prepared for presentation at the 2005 SPE Eastern Regional Meeting held in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Selection", Mohaghegh, Reeves, and Hill, SPE 59767, 2000. 8. "Restimulation Technology for Tight Gas Sand-Verlag, Heidelberg, New York. 6. "Benchmarking of Restimulation Candidate Selection Techniques in Layered, Tight Gas Sand Formations Using Reservoir Simulation", Reeves, Bastian, Spivey, Flumerfelt, Mohaghegh

Mohaghegh, Shahab

217

Permeability of laboratory-formed methane-hydrate-bearing sand: Measurements and observations using x-ray computed tomography  

SciTech Connect

Methane hydrate was formed in two moist sands and a sand/silt mixture under a confining stress in an X-ray-transparent pressure vessel. Three initial water saturations were used to form three different methane-hydrate saturations in each medium. X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to observe location-specific density changes caused by hydrate formation and flowing water. Gas-permeability measurements in each test for the dry, moist, frozen, and hydrate-bearing states are presented. As expected, the effective permeabilities (intrinsic permeability of the medium multiplied by the relative permeability) of the moist sands decreased with increasing moisture content. In a series of tests on a single sample, the effective permeability typically decreased as the pore space became more filled, in the order of dry, moist, frozen, and hydrate-bearing. In each test, water was flowed through the hydrate-bearing medium and we observed the location-specific changes in water saturation using CT scanning. We compared our data to a number of models, and our relative permeability data compare most favorably with models in which hydrate occupies the pore bodies rather than the pore throats. Inverse modeling (using the data collected from the tests) will be performed to extend the relative permeability measurements.

Kneafsey, T. J.; Seol, Y.; Gupta, A.; Tomutsa, L.

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

218

Paleo-Storminess in the Southern Lake Michigan Basin, as Recorded by Eolian Sand Downwind of Dunes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Eolian sand deposited in lakes downwind of coastal sand dunes record a history of paleoclimatic fluctuations. Studies from embayed lakes along the east-central coast of… (more)

Hanes, Barbara E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Velocities of deep water reservoir sands De-hua Han, University of Houston  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and shale, which is not focus for this study. Sorting HP Shale ShallowDeep Sorting HP Shale Sorting HP Shale sands. Grain density is 2.65 gm/cc, typical for clean sands. Measured gas permeability ranged from 100 have revealed gradual effect of clay content on porosity and velocity of shaly sands and sandy shales

220

The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Final report, July 1989--September 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research and development of surface extraction and upgrading processes of western tar sands are described. Research areas included modified hot water, fluidized bed, and rotary kiln pyrolysis of tar sands for extraction of bitumen. Bitumen upgrading included solvent extraction of bitumen, and catalytic hydrotreating of bitumen. Characterization of Utah tar sand deposits is also included.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tight sand formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Examination of pulverized waste recycled glass as filter media in slow sand filtration. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate the pulverization of waste recycled glass to produce glass sand for slow sand filters. Pulverization experiments were performed using a fail mill pulverizer. The glass sand product from the pulverizer meets the size distribution requirements of ASTM-C-33 without size distribution adjustment. The size distribution must be adjusted to meet the grain size distribution requirements of the Ten States Standards and the USEPA for filter media used in slow sand filters. Pulverized glass that meet slow sand filter media specifications is an effective alternative to silica sand as a filter media for slow sand filtration. Three pilot plant slow sand filters with glass sand filter media were compared to a fourth filter containing silica sand filter media. Over an 8 month period of continuous operation, the performance of the glass sand filter media was as good or better than the silica sands, with removals of 56% to 96% for turbidity; 99.78% to 100.0% for coliform bacteria; 99.995% to 99.997% for giardia cysts; 99.92% and 99.97% for cryptosporidium oocysts. Based on a cost-benefit analysis, converting waste glass into filter media may be economically advantageous for recycling facilities.

Piccirillo, J.B.; Letterman, R.D.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Using multi-layer models to forecast gas flow rates in tight gas reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The petroleum industry commonly uses single-layer models to characterize and forecast long-term production in tight gas reservoir systems. However, most tight gas reservoirs are layered systems where the permeability and porosity of each layer can vary significantly, often over several orders of magnitude. In addition, the drainage areas of each of the layers can be substantially different. Due to the complexity of such reservoirs, the analysis of pressure and production history using single-layer analyses techniques provide incorrect estimates of permeability, fracture conductivity, drainage area, and fracture half-length. These erroneous values of reservoir properties also provide the reservoir engineer with misleading values of forecasted gas recovery. The main objectives of this research project are: (1) to demonstrate the typical errors that can occur in reservoir properties when single-layer modeling methods are used to history match production data from typical layered tight gas reservoirs, and (2) to use the single-layer match to demonstrate the error that can occur when forecasting long-term gas production for such complex gas reservoirs. A finite-difference reservoir simulator was used to simulate gas production from various layered tight gas reservoirs. These synthetic production data were analyzed using single-layer models to determine reservoir properties. The estimated reservoir properties obtained from the history matches were then used to forecast ten years of cumulative gas production and to find the accuracy of gas reserves estimated for tight gas reservoirs when a single-layer model is used for the analysis. Based on the results obtained in this work, I conclude that the accuracy in reservoir properties and future gas flow rates in layered tight gas reservoirs when analyzed using a single-layer model is a function of the degree of variability in permeability within the layers and the availability of production data to be analyzed. In cases where there is an idea that the reservoir presents a large variability in ��k�, using a multi-layer model to analyze the production data will provide the reservoir engineer with more accurate estimates of long-term production recovery and reservoir properties.

Jerez Vera, Sergio Armando

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Analysis of Critical Permeabilty, Capillary Pressure and Electrical Properties for Mesaverde Tight Gas Sandstones from Western U.S. Basins  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although prediction of future natural gas supply is complicated by uncertainty in such variables as demand, liquefied natural gas supply price and availability, coalbed methane and gas shale development rate, and pipeline availability, all U.S. Energy Information Administration gas supply estimates to date have predicted that Unconventional gas sources will be the dominant source of U.S. natural gas supply for at least the next two decades (Fig. 1.1; the period of estimation). Among the Unconventional gas supply sources, Tight Gas Sandstones (TGS) will represent 50-70% of the Unconventional gas supply in this time period (Fig. 1.2). Rocky Mountain TGS are estimated to be approximately 70% of the total TGS resource base (USEIA, 2005) and the Mesaverde Group (Mesaverde) sandstones represent the principal gas productive sandstone unit in the largest Western U.S. TGS basins including the basins that are the focus of this study (Washakie, Uinta, Piceance, northern Greater Green River, Wind River, Powder River). Industry assessment of the regional gas resource, projection of future gas supply, and exploration programs require an understanding of reservoir properties and accurate tools for formation evaluation. The goal of this study is to provide petrophysical formation evaluation tools related to relative permeability, capillary pressure, electrical properties and algorithms for wireline log analysis. Detailed and accurate moveable gas-in-place resource assessment is most critical in marginal gas plays and there is need for quantitative tools for definition of limits on gas producibility due to technology and rock physics and for defining water saturation. The results of this study address fundamental questions concerning: (1) gas storage; (2) gas flow; (3) capillary pressure; (4) electrical properties; (5) facies and upscaling issues; (6) wireline log interpretation algorithms; and (7) providing a web-accessible database of advanced rock properties. The following text briefly discusses the nature of these questions. Section I.2 briefly discusses the objective of the study with respect to the problems reviewed.

Alan Byrnes; Robert Cluff; John Webb; John Victorine; Ken Stalder; Daniel Osburn; Andrew Knoderer; Owen Metheny; Troy Hommertzheim; Joshua Byrnes; Daniel Krygowski; Stefani Whittaker

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

224

Air tightness of new houses in the U.S.: A preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

Most dwellings in the United States are ventilated primarily through leaks in the building shell (i.e., infiltration) rather than by whole-house mechanical ventilation systems. Consequently, quantification of envelope air-tightness is critical to determining how much energy is being lost through infiltration and how much infiltration is contributing toward ventilation requirements. Envelope air tightness and air leakage can be determined from fan pressurization measurements with a blower door. Tens of thousands of unique fan pressurization measurements have been made of U.S. dwellings over the past decades. LBNL has collected the available data on residential infiltration into its Residential Diagnostics Database, with support from the U.S. Department of Energy. This report documents the envelope air leakage section of the LBNL database, with particular emphasis on new construction. The work reported here is an update of similar efforts carried out a decade ago, which used available data largely focused on the housing stock, rather than on new construction. The current effort emphasizes shell tightness measurements made on houses soon after they are built. These newer data come from over two dozen datasets, including over 73,000 measurements spread throughout a majority of the U.S. Roughly one-third of the measurements are for houses identified as energy-efficient through participation in a government or utility program. As a result, the characteristics reported here provide a quantitative estimate of the impact that energy-efficiency programs have on envelope tightness in the US, as well as on trends in construction.

Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

SAND97-8490 UC-404 Unlimited Release  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

SAND97-8490 UC-404 SAND97-8490 UC-404 Unlimited Release Printed March 1997 J Mechanical Properties and Energy Absorption Characteristics of a Polyurethane Foam S. H. Goods, C. L. Neuschwanger, C. Henderson, D. M. Skala DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as a n account of work sponsored by a n agenq of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, make any warrantyy express or impIied, or assumes any legal liabili- ty or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, appa- ratus, product, or process disdased, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necrsariiy constitute or

226

Shredded tires and rubber-sand as lightweight backfill  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The growing interest in utilizing waste materials in civil engineering applications has opened the possibility of constructing reinforced soil structures with unconventional backfills. Scrap tires are a high-profile waste material for which several uses have been studied, including the use of shredded tires as backfill. A triaxial testing program was conducted to investigate the stress-strain relationship and strength of tire chips and a mixture of sand and tire chips. The test results and additional information from the literature were used in the numerical modeling of wall backfills, both unreinforced and reinforced with geosynthetics. The numerical modeling results suggest tire shreds, particularly when mixed with sand, may be effectively used as a backfill.

Lee, J.H.; Salgado, R.; Lovell, C.W. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Civil Engineering; Bernal, A. [GeoHidra, Caracas (Venezuela)

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

White Sands, New Mexico: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sands, New Mexico: Energy Resources Sands, New Mexico: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 32.38319°, -106.481499° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.38319,"lon":-106.481499,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

228

NETL Report format template  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

waste: scenario selection procedure; Report of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission NUREGCR-1667 (SAND80-1429); NRC: Washington, DC, 1982. CSLF. Phase I Final Report from CSLF...

229

Shallow horizontal drilling in unconsolidated sands offshore California  

SciTech Connect

Four shallow horizontal wells were drilled from Platform C in Dos Cuadras field offshore California to recover reserves inaccessible with conventional drilling techniques. The wells had true vertical depths (TVD's) ranging from 746 to 989 ft with total horizontal displacements from 1,613 to 3,788 ft. The wells had horizontal displacement TVD ratios up to 3.95. The targets were unconsolidated, high-permeability sands. This paper details well planning, drilling, and completion.

Payne, J.D.; Bunyak, M.J. (Unocal Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Huston, C.W. (Smith International Inc., Tyler, TX (United States))

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Method for diverting a gaseous sand-consolidating fluid  

SciTech Connect

An unconsolidated gas-producing sand in which the permeability is layered and the productivity can be impaired by liquid blocking can be consolidated by wetting the rock surfaces with a limited amount of water, injecting a smoke which selectively reduces the permeability of the most permeable layers by depositing on their faces unconsolidated masses of substantially inert solid particles and injecting a gaseous silicon polyhalide to convert a significant proportion of the rock surface-wettingwater to a grain bonding silica gel.

Davies, D. R.; Richardson, E. A.

1980-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

231

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1992  

SciTech Connect

Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

Not Available

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

232

Project Drum Inlet: explosive excavation in saturated sand  

SciTech Connect

Seasonal storms during February of 1971 completely closed the Drum Inlet navigation channel through the Outer Banks off the North Carolina coast. This channel is highly useful to commercial and sport fishing industries in the Carteret County vicinity of North Carolina, and is vital to maintenance of the ecological balance in the inland Core Sound waters. To reopen Drum Inlet, an alignment about 2.1 miles south of the original location was selected. A contract dredge excavated a channel from the inland Core Sound waterway to and part way through the Outer Banks. The final 385-ft-long section of sand separating the Core Sound from the Atlantic Ocean was excavated with large explosive charges, This report describes the explosive excavation of that portion of the channel. Twenty-two separate canisters, each containing 1 ton of aluminized ammonium-nitrate slurry blasting agent, were emplaced in two rows. All charges were detonated simultaneously at 1327 hours, 23 Decembcr 1971. The detonation successfully removed the sand barrier, forming a continuous channel over 80 ft in width. This channel subsequently washed out to a width of about 1000 ft and was used:is an access route to the Raleigh Bay fishing grounds. The Drum Inlet project demonstrated the practicality of explosive channel excavation in saturated sand under the special conditions encountered at this site. (auth)

Snell, C.M.; Gillespie, R.H.

1973-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

File:OilSands.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

OilSands.pdf OilSands.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage File:OilSands.pdf Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixels. Other resolution: 464 × 600 pixels. Go to page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 Go! next page → next page → Full resolution ‎(1,275 × 1,650 pixels, file size: 1.69 MB, MIME type: application/pdf, 85 pages) File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 14:24, 14 February 2012 Thumbnail for version as of 14:24, 14 February 2012 1,275 × 1,650, 85 pages (1.69 MB) Graham7781 (Talk | contribs)

234

QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMPROVED RECOVERY: APPLICATION TO HEAVY OIL SANDS  

SciTech Connect

Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity has the potential to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involves application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation, particularly in heavy oil sands. The investigation was performed in collaboration with Chevron Production Company U.S.A. as an industrial partner, and incorporates data from the Temblor Formation in Chevron's West Coalinga Field. Observations of lateral variability and vertical sequences observed in Temblor Formation outcrops has led to a better understanding of reservoir geology in West Coalinga Field. Based on the characteristics of stratigraphic bounding surfaces in the outcrops, these surfaces were identified in the subsurface using cores and logs. The bounding surfaces were mapped and then used as reference horizons in the reservoir modeling. Facies groups and facies tracts were recognized from outcrops and cores of the Temblor Formation and were applied to defining the stratigraphic framework and facies architecture for building 3D geological models. The following facies tracts were recognized: incised valley, estuarine, tide- to wave-dominated shoreline, diatomite, and subtidal. A new minipermeameter probe, which has important advantages over previous methods of measuring outcrop permeability, was developed during this project. The device, which measures permeability at the distal end of a small drillhole, avoids surface weathering effects and provides a superior seal compared with previous methods for measuring outcrop permeability. The new probe was used successfully for obtaining a high-quality permeability data set from an outcrop in southern Utah. Results obtained from analyzing the fractal structure of permeability data collected from the southern Utah outcrop and from core permeability data provided by Chevron from West Coalinga Field were used in distributing permeability values in 3D reservoir models. Spectral analyses and the Double Trace Moment method (Lavallee et al., 1991) were used to analyze the scaling and multifractality of permeability data from cores from West Coalinga Field. T2VOC, which is a numerical flow simulator capable of modeling multiphase, multi-component, nonisothermal flow, was used to model steam injection and oil production for a portion of section 36D in West Coalinga Field. The layer structure and permeability distributions of different models, including facies group, facies tract, and fractal permeability models, were incorporated into the numerical flow simulator. The injection and production histories of wells in the study area were modeled, including shutdowns and the occasional conversion of production wells to steam injection wells. The framework provided by facies groups provides a more realistic representation of the reservoir conditions than facies tracts, which is revealed by a comparison of the history-matching for the oil production. Permeability distributions obtained using the fractal results predict the high degree of heterogeneity within the reservoir sands of West Coalinga Field. The modeling results indicate that predictions of oil production are strongly influenced by the geologic framework and by the boundary conditions. The permeability data collected from the southern Utah outcrop, support a new concept for representing natural heterogeneity, which is called the fractal/facies concept. This hypothesis is one of the few potentially simplifying concepts to emerge from recent studies of geological heterogeneity. Further investigation of this concept should be done to more fully apply fractal analysis to reservoir modeling and simulation. Additional outcrop permeability data sets and further analysis of the data from distinct facies will be needed in order to fully develop

James W. Castle; Fred J. Molz; Ronald W. Falta; Cynthia L. Dinwiddie; Scott E. Brame; Robert A. Bridges

2002-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

235

Microsoft Word - Secure ICCP Implementation Rpt SAND format V5.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

345 345 Unlimited Release Printed June 2007 Secure ICCP Integration Considerations and Recommendations John T. Michalski, Andrew Lanzone, Jason Trent, and Sammy Smith Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited. Secure ICCP Integration Considerations and Recommendations 2 Issued by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the

236

Canyon dissolution of sand, slag, and crucible residues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An alternative to the FB-Line scrap recovery dissolver was desired for the dissolution of sand, slag, and crucible (SS{ampersand}C) residues from the plutonium reduction process due to the potential generation of hydrogen gas concentrations above the lower flammability limit. To address this concern, a flowsheet was developed for the F-Canyon dissolvers. The dissolvers are continually purged with nominally 33 SCFM of air; therefore the generation of flammable gas concentrations should not be a concern. Following removal of crucible fragments, small batches of the remaining sand fines or slag chunks containing less than approximately 350 grams of plutonium can be dissolved using the center insert in each of the four annular dissolver ports to address nuclear criticality safety concerns. Complete dissolution of the sand fines and slag chunks was achieved in laboratory experiments by heating between 75 and 85 degrees Celsius in a 9.3M nitric acid/0.013M (hydrogen) fluoride solution. Under these conditions, the sand and slag samples dissolved between 1 and 3 hours. Complete dissolution of plutonium and calcium fluorides in the slag required adjusting the dissolver solution to 7.5 wt% aluminum nitrate nonahydrate (ANN). Once ANN was added to a dissolver solution, further dissolution of any plutonium oxide (PuO2) in successive charges was not practical due to complexation of the fluoride by aluminum. During the laboratory experiments, well mixed solutions were necessary to achieve rapid dissolution rates. When agitation was not provided, sand fines dissolved very slowly. Measurement of the hydrogen gas generation rate during dissolution of slag samples was used to estimate the amount of metal in the chunks. Depending upon the yield of the reduction, the values ranged between approximately 1 (good yield) and 20% (poor yield). Aging of the slag will reduce the potential for hydrogen generation as calcium metal oxidizes over time. The potential for excessive corrosion in the dissolvers was evaluated using experimental data reported in the literature. Corrosion data at the exact flowsheet conditions were not available; however, the corrosion rate for 304L stainless steel (wrought material) corrosion coupons in 10M nitric acid/0.01M hydrofluoric acid at 95 degrees Celsius was reported as 21 mils per year. If the fluoride in the dissolver is complexed with aluminum, the corrosion rate will decrease to approximately 5 mils per year.

Rudisill, T.S.; Gray, J.H.; Karraker, D.G.; Chandler, G.T.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

The Geological Society of America Special Paper 458  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A consists of tight clay that is silty and slightly sandy. The sand-sized por- tion consists of common are mainly fine-grained marine siliciclastics, with the exception of Pleistocene sand, clay, and gravel.75 rmcd; 712.7 ft* 225.43 rmcd; 739.6 ft* R ** ** N* N R R ** CalvertFormation Polarity EXPLANATION SAND

238

National Metal Casting Research Institute final report. Volume 1, Sand reclamation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mobile thermal foundry sand reclamation unit was designed and constructed. This unit consisted of thermal and mechanical sand reclamation equipment installed on the bed of a 50 foot low-boy trailer. It was transported to a number of Midwest foundries for on-site demonstration of the sand reclamation process. This allowed participating foundries to have their own refuse sand (10-100 tons) processed and then reused in production for evaluation. The purpose for building the unit was to demonstrate to foundries through ``hands on`` experience that refuse sands can be reclaimed and successfully reused particularly in regard to product quality. Most of the participating foundries indicated a high level of satisfaction with the reclaimed sand. Laboratory testing of samples of the used sand, before and after processing by the demonstration unit, verified the usability of the reclaimed sand. One of the foundries participating was a brass foundry, the sand from this foundry contained lead and is classified as a hazardous material. After reclamation the sand was no longer hazardous and could also be reused in the foundry.

Vondra, L.F.; Burningham, J.S. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Industrial Technology

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 2. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains reports on nine of these projects, references, and a bibliography. 351 refs., 192 figs., 65 tabs.

Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1997-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

240

File Formats  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home Page Home Page File Formats MODIS Product Subsets Output Data File Format Descriptions The MODIS product subsets for North America and Worldwide are available in several formats, which are described in the following text. MODIS Land Product ASCII Data Image Data Files in ASCII Grid Format QC-Filtered Data and Statistics Generated for this Request Land Cover Data in ASCII Grid Format Statistical Data for MODIS Land Products in Comma Separated Format Underlying BRDF Parameters Used in Generating this Request (available with Albedo MOD43B and MCD43B only) MODIS Land Product ASCII Data Description of File File Content: Data as read from MODIS Land Product HDF-EOS data files. These data are the starting point for deriving the other subset data products. Data Type: As indicated by Land Product Code (e.g., MOD15A2).

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tight sand formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Tight bound on coherent-state-based entanglement generation over lossy channels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first stage of the hybrid quantum repeaters is entanglement generation based on transmission of pulses in coherent states over a lossy channel. Protocols to make entanglement with only one type of error are favorable for rendering subsequent entanglement distillation efficient. Here we provide the tight upper bound on performances of these protocols that is determined only by the channel loss. In addition, we show that this bound is achievable by utilizing a proposed protocol [K. Azuma, N. Sota, R. Namiki, S. K. Oezdemir, T. Yamamoto, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, Phys. Rev. A 80, 060303(R) (2009)] composed of a simple combination of linear optical elements and photon-number-resolving detectors.

Azuma, Koji; Sota, Naoya; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki [Division of Materials Physics, Department of Materials Engineering Science, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

242

Production process for glass sand from the quartz waste from the beneficiation of kingiseppsk phosphorites  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a process developed for the production of molding sand from the quartz waste which makes it possible to simplify the system for obtaining glass sand. According to this system, the main operation in the removal of most of the residual phosphate shell and alkaline earth metal oxides from the quartz waste is foam separation, using the residual concentration of reagents in the pulp (tallow and kerosene). After the subsequent washing and hydraulic classification, the sands meet the requirements set for molding sands grade Ob2K. The characteristics of the original flotation tailings and molding sand are presented. The mineralogical analysis of the molding sand showed that the iron-containing impurities are grains of glauconite, films of iron oxide on the surface of the grains, grains of ferrous-dolomite cement, and iron from the apparatus.

Ershov, V.I.; Lezhnev, Y.P.; Novofastovskaya, E.M.; Rants, G.F.; Shalamova, V.G.; Sinyakova, E.I.; Sokolova, E.I.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Renewable Energy Opportunities at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewable Energy Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

Chvala, William D.; Solana, Amy E.; States, Jennifer C.; Warwick, William M.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Costs Models in Design and Manufacturing of Sand Casting Products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the early phases of the product life cycle, the costs controls became a major decision tool in the competitiveness of the companies due to the world competition. After defining the problems related to this control difficulties, we will present an approach using a concept of cost entity related to the design and realization activities of the product. We will try to apply this approach to the fields of the sand casting foundry. This work will highlight the enterprise modelling difficulties (limits of a global cost modelling) and some specifics limitations of the tool used for this development. Finally we will discuss on the limits of a generic approach.

Perry, Nicolas; Bernard, Alain

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Costs Models in Design and Manufacturing of Sand Casting Products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the early phases of the product life cycle, the costs controls became a major decision tool in the competitiveness of the companies due to the world competition. After defining the problems related to this control difficulties, we will present an approach using a concept of cost entity related to the design and realization activities of the product. We will try to apply this approach to the fields of the sand casting foundry. This work will highlight the enterprise modelling difficulties (limits of a global cost modelling) and some specifics limitations of the tool used for this development. Finally we will discuss on the limits of a generic approach.

Nicolas Perry; Magali Mauchand; Alain Bernard

2010-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

246

Non-Incineration Treatment to Reduce Benzene and VOC Emissions from Green Sand Molding Systems  

SciTech Connect

Final report describing laboratory, pilot scale and production scale evaluation of advanced oxidation systems for emissions and cost reduction in metal casting green sand systems.

Fred S. Cannon; Robert C. Voigt

2002-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

247

Development of Optimal Energy Infrastructures for the Oil Sands Industry in a CO?-constrained World.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Western Canadian bitumen is becoming a predominant source of energy for North American markets. The bitumen extraction and upgrading processes in the oil sands industry… (more)

Ordorica Garcia, Jesus Guillermo

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Adsorption of Single-ring Model Naphthenic Acid from Oil Sands ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Adsorption of Single-ring Model Naphthenic Acid from Oil Sands Tailings Pond Water Using Petroleum Coke-derived Activated Carbon.

249

An investigation of the combustion of oil sand derived bitumen-in-water emulsions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Dwindling conventional oil resources has caused exploration efforts to focus elsewhere. Bitumen from oil sands has emerged as one of the primary unconventional oil… (more)

Kennelly, Timothy Robert

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

O-1: Using of Spent Moulding Sands for Production of Burned ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The measurements of exhaust gases emissions performed during burning the products containing spent moulding sands as well as during the normal ...

251

I-8: Research on the Influence of Moulding Sand with Furan Resin ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, I-8: Research on the Influence of Moulding Sand with Furan Resin ... Study of Different metallurgical Waste for Preparation of Glass-Ceramics.

252

Meso-Scale Simulations to Examine the Role of Sand Paper Grit on ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The surface between the platen and LX-10 sample includes a layer of sand particulates to .... Shock-Induced Phase Transformations in Ce-Al Metallic Glass.

253

Development Of Reclamation Substrates For Alberta Oil Sands Using Mature Fine Tailings And Coke.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Mature fine tailings and coke are waste products of the oil sands industry with potential for reclamation. A greenhouse study assessed whether substrates of various… (more)

Luna-Wolter, Gabriela L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Preparation of Activated Carbon from Oil Sands Coke by Chemical and Physical Activation Techniques.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Oil sands coke is a by-product resulting from the upgrading of heavy crude bitumen to light synthetic oil. This research investigates the preparation of activated… (more)

Morshed, Golam

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Trace metals in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens  

SciTech Connect

Fe, Ni, and V are considered trace impurities in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens. In order to understand the importance of these metals, we have examined several properties: (1) bulk metals levels, (2) distribution in separated fractions, (3) size behavior in feeds and during processing, (4) speciation as a function of size, and (5) correlations with rheological properties. Some of the results of these studies show: (1) V and Ni have roughly bimodal size distributions, (2) groupings were seen based on location, size distribution, and Ni/V ratio of the sample, (3) Fe profiles are distinctively different, having a unimodal distribution with a maximum at relatively large molecular size, (4) Fe concentrations in the tar sand bitumens suggest possible fines solubilization in some cases, (5) SARA separated fractions show possible correlations of metals with asphaltene properties suggesting secondary and tertiary structure interactions, and (6) ICP-MS examination for soluble ultra-trace metal impurities show the possibility of unexpected elements such as U, Th, Mo, and others at concentrations in the ppB to ppM range. 39 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

Reynolds, J.G.

1990-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

256

Numerical Modeling of Fractured Shale-Gas and Tight-Gas Reservoirs Using Unstructured Grids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Various models featuring horizontal wells with multiple induced fractures have been proposed to characterize flow behavior over time in tight gas and shale gas systems. Currently, there is little consensus regarding the effects of non-ideal fracture geometries and coupled primary-secondary fracture interactions on reservoir performance in these unconventional gas reservoirs. This thesis provides a grid construction tool to generate high-resolution unstructured meshes using Voronoi grids, which provides the flexibility required to accurately represent complex geologic domains and fractures in three dimensions. Using these Voronoi grids, the interaction between propped hydraulic fractures and secondary "stress-release" fractures were evaluated. Additionally, various primary fracture configurations were examined, where the fractures may be non-planar or non-orthogonal. For this study, a numerical model was developed to assess the potential performance of tight gas and shale gas reservoirs. These simulations utilized up to a half-million grid-blocks and consider a period of up to 3,000 years in some cases. The aim is to provide very high-definition reference numerical solutions that will exhibit virtually all flow regimes we can expect in these unconventional gas reservoirs. The simulation results are analyzed to identify production signatures and flow regimes using diagnostic plots, and these interpretations are confirmed using pressure maps where useful. The coupled primary-secondary fracture systems with the largest fracture surface areas are shown to give the highest production in the traditional "linear flow" regime (which occurs for very high conductivity vertical fracture cases). The non-ideal hydraulic fracture geometries are shown to yield progressively lower production as the angularity of these fractures increases. Hence, to design optimum fracture completions, we should endeavor to keep the fractures as orthogonal to the horizontal well as possible. This work expands the current understanding of flow behavior in fractured tight-gas and shale-gas systems and may be used to optimize fracture and completion design, to validate analytical models and to facilitate more accurate reserves estimation.

Olorode, Olufemi Morounfopefoluwa

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Characterization of Tight Gas Reservoir Pore Structure Using USANS/SANS and Gas Adsorption Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Small-angle and ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (SANS and USANS) measurements were performed on samples from the Triassic Montney tight gas reservoir in Western Canada in order to determine the applicability of these techniques for characterizing the full pore size spectrum and to gain insight into the nature of the pore structure and its control on permeability. The subject tight gas reservoir consists of a finely laminated siltstone sequence; extensive cementation and moderate clay content are the primary causes of low permeability. SANS/USANS experiments run at ambient pressure and temperature conditions on lithologically-diverse sub-samples of three core plugs demonstrated that a broad pore size distribution could be interpreted from the data. Two interpretation methods were used to evaluate total porosity, pore size distribution and surface area and the results were compared to independent estimates derived from helium porosimetry (connected porosity) and low-pressure N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} adsorption (accessible surface area and pore size distribution). The pore structure of the three samples as interpreted from SANS/USANS is fairly uniform, with small differences in the small-pore range (< 2000 {angstrom}), possibly related to differences in degree of cementation, and mineralogy, in particular clay content. Total porosity interpreted from USANS/SANS is similar to (but systematically higher than) helium porosities measured on the whole core plug. Both methods were used to estimate the percentage of open porosity expressed here as a ratio of connected porosity, as established from helium adsorption, to the total porosity, as estimated from SANS/USANS techniques. Open porosity appears to control permeability (determined using pressure and pulse-decay techniques), with the highest permeability sample also having the highest percentage of open porosity. Surface area, as calculated from low-pressure N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} adsorption, is significantly less than surface area estimates from SANS/USANS, which is due in part to limited accessibility of the gases to all pores. The similarity between N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}-accessible surface area suggests an absence of microporosity in these samples, which is in agreement with SANS analysis. A core gamma ray profile run on the same core from which the core plug samples were taken correlates to profile permeability measurements run on the slabbed core. This correlation is related to clay content, which possibly controls the percentage of open porosity. Continued study of these effects will prove useful in log-core calibration efforts for tight gas.

Clarkson, Christopher R [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Agamalian, Michael [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey; Bustin, Mark [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell [ORNL; Blach, Tomasz P [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Fluid Resistance Analysis of Sand Control Slotted Liner with Compound Cavity Based on Fluent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Slotted liners have been used for many years to provide sand control in many oil industry applications. They are commonly applied in reservoirs that produce high-viscosity oil from horizontal wells with unconsolidated, high-permeability sands. However, ... Keywords: slotted liner, newly-designed slot, Fluid resistance

Hang Li; Yonghong Liu; Jianmin Ma; Xinfang Wei

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Effect of temperature on wave velocities in sands and sandstones with heavy hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory investigation was made of the effects of temperature on wave velocities in sandstones and unconsolidated sand saturated with heavy hydrocarbons. The large decreases of the compressional and shear velocities in such sandstones and sand with increasing temperature suggest that seismic methods may be very useful in detecting heat fronts in heavy hydrocarbon reservoirs undergoing steamflooding or in-situ combustion.

Wang, Z.; Nur, A.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Guide to preparing SAND reports and other communication products : quick reference guide.  

SciTech Connect

This 'Quick Reference Guide' supplements the more complete 'Guide to Preparing SAND Reports and Other Communication Products'. It provides limited guidance on how to prepare SAND Reports at Sandia National Laboratories. Users are directed to the in-depth guide for explanations of processes.

Not Available

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tight sand formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Occurrence of gas hydrate in Oligocene Frio sand: Alaminos Canyon Block 818: Northern Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

volumes of shale (gray), sand (yellow), gas hydrate-?lledgas hydrate-bearing zone is also bounded laterally with impermeable shaleshale section that overlies the Frio sand showing four-way closure that forms the trap for the AC818 gas

Boswell, R.D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

A modeling approach for iron concentration in sand filtration effluent using adaptive neuro-fuzzy model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effluent iron concentration is an important water quality criterion used for the assessment of the performance of rapid sand filters, in addition to other criteria. This study deals with the prediction of effluent iron concentrations by adaptive neuro-fuzzy ... Keywords: ANFIS, Effluent iron concentration, Modeling, Sand filtration

Mehmet Çakmakci; Cumali Kinaci; Mahmut Bayramo?lu; Y?lmaz Yildirim

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Modelling damping ratio and shear modulus of sand-mica mixtures using genetic programming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents two Genetic Programming (GP) models for damping ratio and shear modulus of sand-mica mixtures based on experimental results. The experimental database used for GP modelling is based on a laboratory study of dynamic properties of saturated ... Keywords: Genetic programming, Leighton buzzard sand, Mica, Resonant column testing

Abdulkadir Cevik; Ali Firat Cabalar

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Guide to Preparing SAND Reports and other communication products : quick reference guide.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Quick Reference Guide supplements the more complete Guide to Preparing SAND Reports and Other Communication Products. It provides limited guidance on how to prepare SAND Reports at Sandia National Laboratories. Users are directed to the in-depth guide for explanations of processes.

Not Available

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Anyon-Fermion Mapping and Applications to Ultracold Gases in Tight Waveguides  

SciTech Connect

The Fermi-Bose mapping method for one-dimensional Bose and Fermi gases with zero-range interactions is generalized to an anyon-fermion mapping and applied to exact solution of several models of ultracold gases with anyonic exchange symmetry in tight waveguides: anyonic Calogero-Sutherland model, anyons with point hard-core interaction (anyonic Tonks-Girardeau gas), and spin-aligned anyon gas with infinite zero-range odd-wave attractions (attractive anyonic Tonks-Girardeau, or AATG, gas). It is proved that for even N{>=}4 there are states of the AATG gas on A, with anyonic phase slips which are odd integral multiples of {pi}/(N-1), of energy lower than that of the corresponding fermionic ground state. A generalization to a spinor Fermi gas state with anyonic symmetry under purely spatial exchange enables energy lowering by the same mechanism.

Girardeau, M. D. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)

2006-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

266

Soluble Models of Strongly Interacting Ultracold Gas Mixtures in Tight Waveguides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Fermi-Bose mapping method is used to determine the exact ground states of several models of mixtures of strongly interacting ultracold gases in tight waveguides, which are generalizations of the Tonks-Girardeau (TG) gas (1D Bose gas with point hard cores) and fermionic Tonks-Girardeau (FTG) gas (1D spin-aligned Fermi gas with infinitely strong zero-range attractions). We detail the case of a Bose-Fermi mixture with TG boson-boson (BB) and boson-fermion (BF) interactions. Exact results are given for density profiles in a harmonic trap, single-particle density matrices, momentum distibutions, and density-density correlations. Since the ground state is highly degenerate, we analyze the splitting of the ground manifold for large but finite BB and BF repulsions.

Girardeau, M. D. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Minguzzi, A. [Laboratoire de Physique et Modelisation des Mileux Condenses, C.N.R.S., B.P. 166, 38042 Grenoble (France)

2007-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

267

Electron acceleration by a tightly focused Hermite-Gaussian beam: higher-order corrections  

SciTech Connect

Taking the TEM{sub 1,0}-mode Hermite-Gaussian (H-G) beam as a numerical calculation example, and based on the method of the perturbation series expansion, the higher-order field corrections of H-G beams are derived and used to study the electron acceleration by a tightly focused H-G beam in vacuum. For the case of the off-axis injection the field corrections to the terms of order f{sup 3} (f=1/kw{sub 0}, k and w{sub 0} being the wavenumber and waist width, respectively) are considered, and for the case of the on-axis injection the contributions of the terms of higher orders are negligible. By a suitable optimization of injection parameters the energy gain in the giga-electron-volt regime can be achieved.

Zhao Zhiguo [Department of Physics, Luoyang Normal College, Luoyang 471022 (China); Institute of Laser Physics and Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Yang Dangxiao; Lue Baida [Institute of Laser Physics and Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

Hybrid Monte-Carlo simulation of interacting tight-binding model of graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, results are presented of Hybrid-Monte-Carlo simulations of the tight-binding Hamiltonian of graphene, coupled to an instantaneous long-range two-body potential which is modeled by a Hubbard-Stratonovich auxiliary field. We present an investigation of the spontaneous breaking of the sublattice symmetry, which corresponds to a phase transition from a conducting to an insulating phase and which occurs when the effective fine-structure constant $\\alpha$ of the system crosses above a certain threshold $\\alpha_C$. Qualitative comparisons to earlier works on the subject (which used larger system sizes and higher statistics) are made and it is established that $\\alpha_C$ is of a plausible magnitude in our simulations. Also, we discuss differences between simulations using compact and non-compact variants of the Hubbard field and present a quantitative comparison of distinct discretization schemes of the Euclidean time-like dimension in the Fermion operator.

Dominik Smith; Lorenz von Smekal

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

269

Discovery of a tight correlation among the prompt emission properties of long Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the discovery of a correlation among three prompt emission properties of GRBs. These are the isotropic peak luminosity L_iso, the peak energy of the time-integrated prompt emission spectrum E_pk, and the ``high signal" timescale T_0.45, previously used to characterize the variability behavior of bursts. In the rest frame of the source the found correlation reads L_iso\\propto E_pk^1.62 T_0.45^-0.49. We find other strong correlations, but at the cost of increasing the number of variables, involving the variability and the isotropic energy of the prompt emission. With respect to the previous tight correlations found in GRBs the newly found correlation does not require any information from the afterglow phase of the bursts, nor any model-dependent assumption. In the popular scenario in which we are receiving beamed radiation originating in a fireball pointing at us, the found correlation preserves its form in the comoving frame. This helps to explain the small scatter of the correlation, and underlines the role of the local brightness (i.e. the brightness of the visible fraction of the fireball surface). This correlation has been found for 19 objects, and it is hard to establish if any selection bias affects it. Its connection with the prompt local brightness is promising, but a solid physical understanding is still to be found. Despite all that, we find that some properties of the correlation, which we discuss, support its true existence, and this has important implications for the GRB physics. Furthermore, it is possible to use such correlation as an accurate redshift estimator, and its tightness will allow us to use it as a tool to constrain the cosmological parameters (abridged)

C. Firmani; G. Ghisellini; V. Avila-Reese; G. Ghirlanda

2006-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

270

Preliminary relative permeability estimates of methanehydrate-bearing sand  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relative permeability to fluids in hydrate-bearing sediments is an important parameter for predicting natural gas production from gas hydrate reservoirs. We estimated the relative permeability parameters (van Genuchten alpha and m) in a hydrate-bearing sand by means of inverse modeling, which involved matching water saturation predictions with observations from a controlled waterflood experiment. We used x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning to determine both the porosity and the hydrate and aqueous phase saturation distributions in the samples. X-ray CT images showed that hydrate and aqueous phase saturations are non-uniform, and that water flow focuses in regions of lower hydrate saturation. The relative permeability parameters were estimated at two locations in each sample. Differences between the estimated parameter sets at the two locations were attributed to heterogeneity in the hydrate saturation. Better estimates of the relative permeability parameters require further refinement of the experimental design, and better description of heterogeneity in the numerical inversions.

Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Moridis,George J.

2006-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

271

Preliminary relative permeability estimates of methanehydrate-bearing sand  

SciTech Connect

The relative permeability to fluids in hydrate-bearingsediments is an important parameter for predicting natural gas productionfrom gas hydrate reservoirs. We estimated the relative permeabilityparameters (van Genuchten alpha and m) in a hydrate-bearing sand by meansof inverse modeling, which involved matching water saturation predictionswith observations from a controlled waterflood experiment. We used x-raycomputed tomography (CT) scanning to determine both the porosity and thehydrate and aqueous phase saturation distributions in the samples. X-rayCT images showed that hydrate and aqueous phase saturations arenon-uniform, and that water flow focuses in regions of lower hydratesaturation. The relative permeability parameters were estimated at twolocations in each sample. Differences between the estimated parametersets at the two locations were attributed to heterogeneity in the hydratesaturation. Better estimates of the relative permeability parametersrequire further refinement of the experimental design, and betterdescription of heterogeneity in the numerical inversions.

Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Moridis,George J.

2006-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

272

Western Gas Sands Project. Quarterly basin activities report  

SciTech Connect

A summation of information is presented on geology and drilling activity in the four primary study areas of the Western Gas Sands Project. The areas of interest are the Greater Green River Basin, the Piceance Basin, the Uinta Basin, and the Northern Great Plains Province. Drilling activity is discussed for the months of October, November, and December, 1977, with the major emphasis on wells located in low permeability sandstone areas, having significant gas production and utilizing hydraulic fracturing treatments. The drilling information was obtained primarily from ''The Rocky Mountain Region Report'' published by Petroleum Information Corporation on a daily basis. Another source of information was the ''Montana Oil and Gas Journal'' which is released weekly.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Guide to preparing SAND reports and other communication products : version 4.  

SciTech Connect

This guide describes the R&A process, Common Look and Feel requirements, and preparation and publishing procedures for communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Samples of forms and examples of published communications products are provided. This guide takes advantage of the wealth of material now available on the Web as a resource. Therefore, it is best viewed as an electronic document. If some of the illustrations are too small to view comfortably, you can enlarge them on the screen as needed. The most significant changes since Version 1 involve the introduction of the electronic Review and Approval application at the Sandia/California (CA) and Sandia/New Mexico (NM) sites. Authors are advised to check the most current material on the application Web site before initiating the R&A process. The format of this document is considerably different than that expected of a SAND Report. It was selected to permit the large number of illustrations and examples to be placed closer to the text that references them. In the case of forms, covers, and other items that are included as examples, a link to the Web is provided so that you can access the items and download them for use.

Brittenham, Phillip W.

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Guide to preparing SAND reports and other communication products : version 3.  

SciTech Connect

This guide describes the R&A process, Common Look and Feel requirements, and preparation and publishing procedures for communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Samples of forms and examples of published communications products are provided. This guide takes advantage of the wealth of material now available on the Web as a resource. Therefore, it is best viewed as an electronic document. If some of the illustrations are too small to view comfortably, you can enlarge them on the screen as needed. The most significant changes since Version 1 involve the introduction of the electronic Review and Approval application at the Sandia/California (CA) and Sandia/New Mexico (NM) sites. Authors are advised to check the most current material on the application Web site before initiating the R&A process. The format of this document is considerably different than that expected of a SAND Report. It was selected to permit the large number of illustrations and examples to be placed closer to the text that references them. In the case of forms, covers, and other items that are included as examples, a link to the Web is provided so that you can access the items and download them for use.

Brittenham, Phillip W.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Retention behavior of dilute polymers in oil sands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Adequate mobility control between fluid banks is a pertinent factor in the successful application of secondary and tertiary oil recovery processes. Favorable mobilities can be obtained by increasing the viscosity or reducing the permeability to the displacing fluid phase. Polyacrylamide and oio-polymers have proved to be useful for these purposes. These polymers increase the water viscosity substantially at low concentrations. The resulting reduced mobility of the displacing phase suppresses the fingering phenomenon and improves piston-like displacement. However, the structural complexity of these polymers coupled with the complexity of the flow channels in the porous medium cause part of these polymers to be retained in the reservoir as the displacing fluid from advances, thereby causing a reduction in the concentration of the polymer solution and consequently a loss of mobility control. In addition to the mechanical filtering, adsorption on the grain surfaces reduce the polymer concentration in the displacing fluid. Behavior of polyacrylamide polymers has been studied extensively. Susceptibility of these polymers to salinity, pH, shear, temperature, etc., is well documented. Mechanical entrapment, retention, degradation and adsorption behavior on porous media, including fired Berea sandstone, bead packs and Ottawa sand have been reported. The present study investigates the adsorption and trapping of polymers in flow experiments through unconsolidated oil field sands. Effects of particle size and mineral content have been studied. Effect of a surfactant slug on polymer-rock interaction is also reported. Corroborative studies have been conducted to study the pressure behavior and high tertiary oil recovery in surfactant dilute-polymer systems.

Kikani, J.; Somerton, W.H.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Alberta bound : the interface between Alberta's environmental policies and the environmental management of three Albertan oil sands companies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Athabasca Oil Sands, located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, were for many years anomalous. Two oil sands operators developed their extraction techniques for 30 years, refining their technology before production became ...

Lemphers, Nathan C

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Impact of Mineralogy and Diagenesis on Reservoir Quality of the Lower Cretaceous Upper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

les réservoirs tant conventionnels que non conventionnels ("tight reservoirs") de cette formation. Les Mannville reservoirs are formed as incised valley fill, and are therefore mostly discontinuous sand bodies that significant volumes of gas are still present in both conventional and tight reservoirs of this formation

278

Experience with SAND-Tcl: A Scripting Tool for Spatial Databases 1 CLAUDIO ESPERANC A (Contact Author)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experience with SAND-Tcl: A Scripting Tool for Spatial Databases 1 CLAUDIO ESPERANC¸ A (Contact. This is illustrated by de- scribing our experience with SAND-Tcl, a scripting tool developed by us for building spatial database applications. SAND-Tcl is an extension of the Tcl embedded scripting language

Samet, Hanan

279

Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt  

SciTech Connect

This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at Nini, Ndes, and Nmax. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

Paul J. Tikalsky, Hussain U. Bahia, An Deng and Thomas Snyder

2004-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

280

Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: (1) a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, (2) a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and (3) the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at N{sub ini}, N{sub des}, and N{sub max}. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

Pauul J. Tikalsky

2004-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tight sand formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Hybrid derivative-free extended Kalman filter for unknown lever arm estimation in tightly coupled DGPS/INS integration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Differential carrier phase observations from GPS (Global Positioning System) integrated with high-rate sensor measurements, such as those from an inertial navigation system (INS) or an inertial measurement unit (IMU), in a tightly coupled approach can ... Keywords: Global positioning system (GPS), Inertial measurement unit (IMU), Kalman filter, Lever arm

Yanrui Geng; Richard Deurloo; Luisa Bastos

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

ACT sup 2 project report: Ventilation and air tightness measurement of the Sunset Building  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of ventilation and air tightness measurements made on the test section of the Sunset Building as part of the ACT{sup 2} project. Real-time measurements were made over a two-week period in July 1991 to determine the building's performance; most of the results derive from intensive measurements made during (unoccupied) weekend periods. The ventilation rate of the entire building was measured to be about 2 air changes per hour of outdoor air which exceeds ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 design requirements by over a factor of two. Ventilation in all specific locations was found to be adequate, except for conference rooms -- some of which were significantly under ventilated. Opportunities exist for energy savings with better control of the ventilation. Ventilation efficiency was measured for the test section and selected sub-sections as well. In order to account for interzonal and intrazonal interactions, axillary information was collected and used to adjust the data. The implications of this data may be important for future interpretation of the building's performance.

Sherman, M.; Dickerhoff, D.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

ACT{sup 2} project report: Ventilation and air tightness measurement of the Sunset Building  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of ventilation and air tightness measurements made on the test section of the Sunset Building as part of the ACT{sup 2} project. Real-time measurements were made over a two-week period in July 1991 to determine the building`s performance; most of the results derive from intensive measurements made during (unoccupied) weekend periods. The ventilation rate of the entire building was measured to be about 2 air changes per hour of outdoor air which exceeds ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 design requirements by over a factor of two. Ventilation in all specific locations was found to be adequate, except for conference rooms -- some of which were significantly under ventilated. Opportunities exist for energy savings with better control of the ventilation. Ventilation efficiency was measured for the test section and selected sub-sections as well. In order to account for interzonal and intrazonal interactions, axillary information was collected and used to adjust the data. The implications of this data may be important for future interpretation of the building`s performance.

Sherman, M.; Dickerhoff, D.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

CAVITY LIKE COMPLETIONS IN WEAK SANDS PREFERRED UPSTREAM MANAGEMENT PRACTICES  

SciTech Connect

The technology referred to as Cavity Like Completions (CLC) offers a new technique to complete wells in friable and unconsolidated sands. A successfully designed CLC provides significant increases in well PI (performance index) at lower costs than alternative completion techniques. CLC technology is being developed and documented by a partnership of major oil and gas companies through a GPRI (Global Petroleum Research Institute) joint venture. Through the DOE-funded PUMP program, the experiences of the members of the joint venture will be described for other oil and gas producing companies. To date six examples of CLC completions have been investigated by the JV. The project was performed to introduce a new type of completion (or recompletion) technique to the industry that, in many cases, offers a more cost effective method to produce oil and gas from friable reservoirs. The project's scope of work included: (1) Further develop theory, laboratory and field data into a unified model to predict performance of cavity completion; (2) Perform at least one well test for cavity completion (well provided by one of the sponsor companies); (3) Provide summary of geo-mechanical models for PI increase; and (4) Develop guidelines to evaluate success of potential cavity completion. The project tracks the experiences of a joint industry consortium (GPRI No. 17) over a three year period and compiles results of the activities of this group.

Ian Palmer; John McLennan

2004-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

285

Economic benefits of R and D on gas supply technologies. [Unconventioal natural gas resources which are tight sands, Devonian shale, coal seam gas, and gas co-produced with water  

SciTech Connect

Advanced natural gas supply technologies, if successful, could lower the average cost of gas to consumers by 18% and increase the expected gas demand by 2 quads/year by the year 2000. Advanced production techniques for unconventional gas will have by far the greatest impact on future gas prices, providing economic benefits of between $200 billion and $320 billion. Advanced SNG from coal will provide only a $9 billion benefit if unconventional gas meets all of its performance targets. However, higher demand and failure of unconventional gas R and D could raise the benefits of SNG research to $107 billion. SNG research provides a hedge value that increases the likelihood of receiving a positive payoff from gas supply R and D. Changing the performance goals for SNG research to emphasize cost reduction rather than acceleration of the date of commercialization would greatly increase the potential benefits of the program. 9 references, 8 figures, 5 tables.

Darrow, K.G.; Ashby, A.B.; Nesbitt, D.M.; Marshalla, R.A.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

An Observational Analysis and Evaluation of Land Surface Model Accuracy in the Nebraska Sand Hills  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the influence of subsurface water on the energy budget components of three locations with heterogeneous land surfaces in the Nebraska Sand Hills are examined through observations and use of the Noah land surface model (LSM). ...

David B. Radell; Clinton M. Rowe

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Characterization Report on Sand, Slag, and Crucible Residues and on Fluoride Residues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports on the chemical characterization of the sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C) residues and the fluoride residues that may be shipped from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) to Savannah River Site (SRS).

Murray, A.M.

1999-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

288

Technologies, markets and challenges for development of the Canadian Oil Sands industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper provides an overview of the current status of development of the Canadian oil sands industry, and considers possible paths of further development. We outline the key technology alternatives, critical resource ...

Lacombe, Romain H.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Engineering assessment of radioactive sands and residues, Lowman Site, Lowman, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Lowman site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive sands and residues at Lowman, Idaho. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of radioactive sands and residues and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, and investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 191,000 tons of radioactive sands, residues, and contaminated soils at the Lowman site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown radioactive sands and external gamma radiation also are factors.

Not Available

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Determination of soil liquefaction characteristics by large-scale laboratory tests. [Sand  

SciTech Connect

The testing program described in this report was carried out to study the liquefaction behavior of a clean, uniform, medium sand. Horizontal beds of this sand, 42 inches by 90 inches by 4 inches were prepared by pluviation with a special sand spreader, saturated, and tested in a shaking table system designed for this program, which applied a horizontal cyclic shear stress to the specimens. Specimen size was selected to reduce boundary effects as much as possible. Values of pore pressures and shear strains developed during the tests are presented for sand specimens at relative densities of 54, 68, 82, and 90 percent, and the results interpreted to determine the values of the stress ratio causing liquefaction at the various relative densities.

1975-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Temperature, Precipitation, and Lightning Modification in the Vicinity of the Athabasca Oil Sands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Athabasca oil sands development in northeast Alberta, Canada, has disturbed more than 500 km2 of boreal forest through surface mining and tailings ponds development. In this paper, the authors compare the time series of temperatures and ...

Daniel M. Brown; Gerhard W. Reuter; Thomas K. Flesch

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

CONTRACTOR REPORT SAND952729 Unlimited Release U G A Q O D  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

r x 12-N -. CONTRACTOR REPORT SAND952729 Unlimited Release U G A Q O D Evaluation of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a Binding Polymer for Absorbers Used to-Treat Liquid Radioactive...

293

Investigation of sand consolidation using steam for the Tar Zone, Wilmington field, California.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??An experimental study was carried out to better understand and optimize the process of sand consolidation using high-pH steam in wells of the Wilmington field,… (more)

Nilsen, Knut Arild

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Integration of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Technology with Oil Sands Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper summarizes an evaluation of siting an HTGR plant in a remote area supplying steam, electricity and high temperature gas for recovery and upgrading of unconventional crude oil from oil sands. The area selected for this evaluation is the Alberta Canada oil sands. This is a very fertile and active area for bitumen recovery and upgrading with significant quantities piped to refineries in Canada and the U.S Additionally data on the energy consumption and other factors that are required to complete the evaluation of HTGR application is readily available in the public domain. There is also interest by the Alberta oil sands producers (OSP) in identifying alternative energy sources for their operations. It should be noted, however, that the results of this evaluation could be applied to any similar oil sands area.

L.E. Demick

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Dynamics of Fluids in Fractured Rock  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the Development of Tight Sand Gas Deposits G.I.the Development of Tight Sand Gas Deposits G.I. Barenblattintense exploitation of tight sand gas deposits will be

Faybishenko, Boris; Witherspoon, Paul A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future projectspecific analyses. Additional information about the PEIS can be found at http://ostseis.anl.gov.

Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

297

Adhesive-based selection by a tentacle-feeding polychaete for particle size, shape and bacterial coating in silt and sand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tendency of less spherical particles to pack more tightly (Donev et al., 2004), potentially in uencing

Jumars, Pete

298

Characterization of the 3-D Properties of the Fine-Grained Turbidite 8 Sand Reservoir, Green Canyon 18, Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding the internal organization of the Lower Pleistocene 8 Sand reservoir in the Green Canyon 18 field, Gulf of Mexico, helps to increase knowledge of the geology and the petrophysical properties, and hence contribute to production management in the area. Interpretation of log data from 29 wells, core and production data served to detail as much as possible a geological model destined for a future reservoir simulation. Core data showed that the main facies resulting from fine-grained turbidity currents is composed of alternating sand and shale layers, whose extension is assumed to be large. They correspond to levee and overbank deposits that are usually associated to channel systems. The high porosity values, coming from unconsolidated sediment, were associated to high horizontal permeability but generally low kv/kh ratio. The location of channel deposits was not obvious but thickness maps suggested that two main systems, with a northwest-southeast direction, contributed to the 8 Sand formation deposition. These two systems were not active at the same time and one of them was probably eroded by overlying formations. Spatial relationships between them remained unclear. Shingled stacking of the channel deposits resulted from lateral migration of narrow, meandering leveed channels in the mid part of the turbidite system. Then salt tectonics tilted turbidite deposits and led to the actual structure of the reservoir. The sedimentary analysis allowed the discrimination of three facies A, B and E, with given porosity and permeability values, that corresponded to channel, levee and overbank deposits. They were used to populate the reservoir model. Well correlation helped figure out the extension of these facies.

Plantevin, Matthieu Francois

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of compacted sand-kaolin mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of compacted sand-kaolin mixtures containing 0, 5, 10, and 30% kaolin (by dry weight) is measured for matric suctions, {psi}{sub m} < {approximately} 6.0 m. The measured unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (k{sub m}) values are compared with predicted unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (k{sub p}) values using the Brooks-Corey-Burdine and van Genuchten-Mualem relative hydraulic conductivity functions. In general, the accuracy of k{sub p} decreases with an increase in kaolin content or an increase in {psi}{sub m}. In addition, k{sub m} tends to be underpredicted for kaolin contents of 10 and 30% at relatively high suctions (1.0 m {le} {psi}{sub m} {le} 6.0 m) and overpredicted for kaolin contents of 0 and 5% at relatively low suctions (0.1 m {le} {psi}{sub m} < 1.0 m). For a given kaolin content and {psi}{sub m}, k{sub p} based on the Brooks-Corey-Burdine function tends to be more accurate than k{sub m} based on the van Genuchten-Mualem function. Finally, for 1.0 m {le} {psi}{sub m} {le} 6.0 m, k{sub p} based on analysis using the maximum volumetric water content ({theta}{sub m}) attained under steady-state flow conditions typically is more accurate than k{sub p} based on analysis using the saturated volumetric water content, {theta}{sub s}, where {theta}{sub m} {approximately} 84--90% of {theta}{sub s} in this study.

Chiu, T.F. [Genesis Group, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Shackelford, C.D. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

FIELD TESTING & OPTIMIZATION OF CO2/SAND FRACTURING TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

These contract efforts involved the demonstration of a unique liquid free stimulation technology which was, at the beginning of these efforts, in 1993 unavailable in the US. The process had been developed, and patented in Canada in 1981, and held promise for stimulating liquid sensitive reservoirs in the US. The technology differs from that conventionally used in that liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), instead of water is the base fluid. The CO{sub 2} is pumped as a liquid and then vaporizes at reservoir conditions, and because no other liquids or chemicals are used, a liquid free fracture is created. The process requires a specialized closed system blender to mix the liquid CO{sub 2} with proppant under pressure. These efforts were funded to consist of up to 21 cost-shared stimulation events. Because of the vagaries of CO{sub 2} supplies, service company support and operator interest only 19 stimulation events were performed in Montana, New Mexico, and Texas. Final reports have been prepared for each of the four demonstration groups, and the specifics of those demonstrations are summarized. A summary of the demonstrations of a novel liquid-free stimulation process which was performed in four groups of ''Candidate Wells'' situated in Crockett Co., TX; San Juan Co., NM; Phillips Co., MT; and Blaine Co., MT. The stimulation process which employs CO{sub 2} as the working fluid and the production responses were compared with those from wells treated with conventional stimulation technologies, primarily N{sub 2} foam, excepting those in Blaine Co., MT where the reservoir pressure is too low to clean up spent stimulation liquids. A total of 19 liquid-free CO{sub 2}/sand stimulations were performed in 16 wells and the production improvements were generally uneconomic.

Raymond L. Mazza

2004-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tight sand formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Dynamic Behavior of Sand: Annual Report FY 11  

SciTech Connect

Currently, design of earth-penetrating munitions relies heavily on empirical relationships to estimate behavior, making it difficult to design novel munitions or address novel target situations without expensive and time-consuming full-scale testing with relevant system and target characteristics. Enhancing design through numerical studies and modeling could help reduce the extent and duration of full-scale testing if the models have enough fidelity to capture all of the relevant parameters. This can be separated into three distinct problems: that of the penetrator structural and component response, that of the target response, and that of the coupling between the two. This project focuses on enhancing understanding of the target response, specifically granular geomaterials, where the temporal and spatial multi-scale nature of the material controls its response. As part of the overarching goal of developing computational capabilities to predict the performance of conventional earth-penetrating weapons, this project focuses specifically on developing new models and numerical capabilities for modeling sand response in ALE3D. There is general recognition that granular materials behave in a manner that defies conventional continuum approaches which rely on response locality and which degrade in the presence of strong response nonlinearities, localization, and phase gradients. There are many numerical tools available to address parts of the problem. However, to enhance modeling capability, this project is pursuing a bottom-up approach of building constitutive models from higher fidelity, smaller spatial scale simulations (rather than from macro-scale observations of physical behavior as is traditionally employed) that are being augmented to address the unique challenges of mesoscale modeling of dynamically loaded granular materials. Through understanding response and sensitivity at the grain-scale, it is expected that better reduced order representations of response can be formulated at the continuum scale as illustrated in Figure 1 and Figure 2. The final result of this project is to implement such reduced order models in the ALE3D material library for general use.

Antoun, T; Herbold, E; Johnson, S

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

302

Energy dependence of the optical potential of weakly and tightly bound nuclei as projectiles on a medium-mass target  

SciTech Connect

Angular distributions for the elastic scattering of the weakly bound {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 144}Sm systems were measured with high accuracy at bombarding energies from 85% up to 170% of the Coulomb barrier. An optical model analysis was performed, and the relevant parameters of the real and imaginary parts of the optical potential were extracted. The results are compared with those previously published for the tightly bound {sup 12}C+{sup 144}Sm and {sup 16}O+{sup 144}Sm systems. The usual threshold anomaly observed in the behavior of the potential of tightly bound systems was not observed for either weakly bound system. This absence is attributed to the repulsion due to breakup coupling which cancels the attraction arising from couplings with bound channels.

Figueira, J. M.; Arazi, A.; Carnelli, P.; Heimann, D. Martinez; Negri, A. E.; Pacheco, A. J. [Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, B1650KNA San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, C1033AAJ Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Niello, J. O. Fernandez [Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, B1650KNA San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, C1033AAJ Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad de San Martin, B1650BWA San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Capurro, O. A.; Fimiani, L.; Marti, G. V. [Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, B1650KNA San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lubian, J.; Monteiro, D. S.; Gomes, P. R. S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Gragoata, Niteroi, R. J., 24210-340 (Brazil)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

303

Experimental investigation of sand consolidation using high-temperature alkaline solution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study was conducted to better understand the sand consolidation process under high-temperature alkaline solution. Wilmington Tar sand samples were successfully consolidated in the laboratory using high-temperature (250-260?C) solution of sodium carbonate (pH 11-12). The sample was placed in a vertical 18 in. long aluminum cylindrical cell with an ID of 1.5 in.. The top half of the cell was thermally insulated while the bottom half was cooled. Hot alkaline solution was injected at 20 ml/min for 3-4 hours at the top of the cell and liquid produced at the bottom of the cell. After each experiment, the cell contents were removed and analyzed to determine if sand consolidation occurred. Both aggregates of sand grains and sectioned and polished epoxy-mounted sand grains were examined and analyzed using an electron microprobe to determine any change in shape, size, or composition of the sand pack and precipitation and growth of secondary phases. To better understand the process, experiments were subsequently conducted using samples of pure quartz, pure feldspar, and a 50:50 (by weight) mixture of quartz and feldspar. In each case, both varied 20-40 mesh and 50-250 mesh grain size samples were used. For the 20-40 mesh cases, zeolites and a mixture of amorphous silica and sodium carbonate were deposited on grain surfaces but were insufficient to cause overall sand consolidation. However, when a finer, poorly sorted (50-250 mesh) 50:50 mixture of feldspar and quartz was used, sand consolidation was obtained in 2.5 hours. At the top, hotter part of the cell, equant and acicular zeolite crystals (sodium aluminum silicates) weakly bound the sand grains. At the bottom and cooler part of the cell, the sand grains were strongly bound by a mixture of amorphous silica and sodium carbonate. Results to-date indicate that both zeolite and silica may be cementing agents, the grain-bonding strength depending on the grain surface area. This investigation is part of an ongoing research. The temperature, injection rate, and pH of the alkaline solution, treating time and "soaking period" are considered important process parameters that need to be further investigated.

Moreno Romero, Fidel Enrique

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Optimization of density functional tight-binding and classical reactive molecular dynamics for high-throughput simulations of carbon materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon materials and nanostructures (fullerenes, nanotubes) are promising building blocks of nanotechnology. Potential applications include optical and electronic devices, sensors, and nano-scale machines. The multiscale character of processes related ... Keywords: ACM proceedings, BLAS, Cray XT5, LAPACK, advanced materials, density-functional tight binding, high-throughput, linear algebra, material science, molecular dynamics, multiscale-modeling, quantum chemistry, scientific libraries, scientific-computing

Jacek Jakowski; Bilel Hadri; Steven J. Stuart; Predrag Krstic; Stephan Irle; Dulma Nugawela; Sophya Garashchuk

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Improving the Availability and Delivery of Critical Information for Tight Gas Resource Development in the Appalachian Basin  

SciTech Connect

To encourage, facilitate and accelerate the development of tight gas reservoirs in the Appalachian basin, the geological surveys in Pennsylvania and West Virginia collected widely dispersed data on five gas plays and formatted these data into a large database that can be accessed by individual well or by play. The database and delivery system that were developed can be applied to any of the 30 gas plays that have been defined in the basin, but for this project, data compilation was restricted to the following: the Mississippian-Devonian Berea/Murrysville sandstone play and the Upper Devonian Venango, Bradford and Elk sandstone plays in Pennsylvania and West Virginia; and the 'Clinton'/Medina sandstone play in northwestern Pennsylvania. In addition, some data were collected on the Tuscarora Sandstone play in West Virginia, which is the lateral equivalent of the Medina Sandstone in Pennsylvania. Modern geophysical logs are the most common and cost-effective tools for evaluating reservoirs. Therefore, all of the well logs in the libraries of the two surveys from wells that had penetrated the key plays were scanned, generating nearly 75,000 scanned e-log files from more than 40,000 wells. A standard file-naming convention for scanned logs was developed, which includes the well API number, log curve type(s) scanned, and the availability of log analyses or half-scale logs. In addition to well logs, other types of documents were scanned, including core data (descriptions, analyses, porosity-permeability cross-plots), figures from relevant chapters of the Atlas of Major Appalachian Gas Plays, selected figures from survey publications, and information from unpublished reports and student theses and dissertations. Monthly and annual production data from 1979 to 2007 for West Virginia wells in these plays are available as well. The final database also includes digitized logs from more than 800 wells, sample descriptions from more than 550 wells, more than 600 digital photos in 1-foot intervals from 11 cores, and approximately 260 references for these plays. A primary objective of the research was to make data and information available free to producers through an on-line data delivery model designed for public access on the Internet. The web-based application that was developed utilizes ESRI's ArcIMS GIS software to deliver both well-based and play-based data that are searchable through user-originated queries, and allows interactive regional geographic and geologic mapping that is play-based. System tools help users develop their customized spatial queries. A link also has been provided to the West Virginia Geological Survey's 'pipeline' system for accessing all available well-specific data for more than 140,000 wells in West Virginia. However, only well-specific queries by API number are permitted at this time. The comprehensive project web site (http://www.wvgs.wvnet.edu/atg) resides on West Virginia Geological Survey's servers and links are provided from the Pennsylvania Geological Survey and Appalachian Oil and Natural Gas Research Consortium web sites.

Mary Behling; Susan Pool; Douglas Patchen; John Harper

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

306

Western Gas Sands Project: Northern Great Plains Province review  

SciTech Connect

The synopsis outlines the Upper Cretaceous low permeability natural (biogenic) gas formations of the Northern Great Plains Province (NGPP) of Montana, Wyoming, North and South Dakota. The main objectives are to present a general picture of that stratigraphy, significant structures, and natural gas potential.

Newman, III, H E [comp.

1979-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Hierarchical Structure Formation and Modes of Star Formation in Hickson Compact Group 31  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The handful of low-mass, late-type galaxies that comprise Hickson Compact Group 31 is in the midst of complex, ongoing gravitational interactions, evocative of the process of hierarchical structure formation at higher redshifts. With sensitive, multicolor Hubble Space Telescope imaging, we characterize the large population of <10 Myr old star clusters that suffuse the system. From the colors and luminosities of the young star clusters, we find that the galaxies in HCG 31 follow the same universal scaling relations as actively star-forming galaxies in the local Universe despite the unusual compact group environment. Furthermore, the specific frequency of the globular cluster system is consistent with the low end of galaxies of comparable masses locally. This, combined with the large mass of neutral hydrogen and tight constraints on the amount of intragroup light, indicate that the group is undergoing its first epoch of interaction-induced star formation. In both the main galaxies and the tidal-dwarf candida...

Gallagher, S C; Elmegreen, D M; Chandar, R; English, J; Charlton, J C; Gronwall, C; Young, J; Tzanavaris, P; Johnson, K E; de Oliveira, C Mendes; Whitmore, B; Hornschemeier, A E; Maybhate, A; Zabludoff, Ann

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

FACTORS AFFECTING HYDRAULICALLY FRACTURED WELL PERFORMANCE IN THE MARCELLUS SHALE GAS RESERVOIRS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Unconventional reservoirs such as shale, hydrates, tight sand, ultra tight sand and coal bed methane reservoirs serves as alternative sources to meet the increasing demand… (more)

Osholake, Tunde

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Pressure measurements in low permeability formations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper examines the performance requirements and identifies candidate hardware implementations for pressure instrumentation that is needed to provide well test data in low permeability formations. Low permeability values are typically defined to be less than 1 microdarcy and are usually encountered in hard rock formations, such as granite, that are of interest in hot dry rock geothermal, deep exploration drilling, and fluid waste disposal. Groundwater flow in these tight formations has been shown to be dominated by flow-through fractures rather than through the formation's intrinsic permeability. In these cases, we cannot use Darcy's law or the usual dimensionless coefficients to estimate the expected scale factors and dynamic responses necessary to properly select and setup the wellbore pressure instrument. This paper shows that the expected instrument responses can be estimated using some recent work by Wang, Narasimhan, and Witherspoon. This paper further describes the minimum electronic capability that the downhole pressure instrument must have in order to provide the required measurement resolution, dynamic range, and transient response. Three specific hardware implementations are presented based on the following transducers: a quartz resonator, a capacitance gauge, and a resistance strain gauge.

Veneruso, A.F.; McConnell, T.D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Case study of a stimulation experiment in a fluvial, tight-sandstone gas reservoir  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that a successful stimulation experiment was conducted in a fluvial sandstone of the Mesaverde formation at the U.S. DOE's Multiwell Experiment (MWX) Site in the Piceance basin of Colorado. The stimulation experiment consisted of stress tests, a three-well prefracture interference test, step-rate/flowback tests, a minifracture, a full stimulation treatment borehole geophone diagnostics during fracturing, and a postfracture interference test.

Warpinski, N.R.; Sattler, R.; Thorne, B.J.; Lorenz, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Branagan, P.T.; Cipolla, C.L. (CER Corp., Las Vegas, NV (USA))

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

F A C I L I T I E S M A N A G E M E N T A N D O P E R A T I O N S C E N T E R Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

feet per day in 2011, as production has shifted from conventional sandstone basins to shale and tight water, plus sand (either natural or synthetic) and a variety of different chemicals. The exact chemical to produce natural gas from shale and tight rock formations, including whether there is a potential

312

DOI: 10.1007/s00339-006-3758-y Appl. Phys. A 86, 275281 (2007)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Computational framework Cluster formation has been investigated by means of tight-binding molecular dynamics-empirical #12;276 Applied Physics A ­ Materials Science & Processing tight-binding (TB) model. Assuming a frozen to study systems involving more than a thou- sand atoms, we have switched from TB to model potential

Powles, Rebecca

313

Sand deformation concept for in-situ recovery of bitumen by cyclic steam injection  

SciTech Connect

Historically, a vertical or horizontal fracture is believed to be a main recovery mechanism for a cyclic steam injection process from the unconsolidated oil sands. Most of the current computer models for the process are based on the fracture concept. With the new postulated ''Sand Deformation Concept'' on the other hand, the injected fluid is able to penetrate the unconsolidated oil sand by creating microchannels. When the pore pressure is reduced during production, these secondary flow channels will totally or partially collapse. Condensed steam tends to sweep fluids where the bitumen had been heated and imparts mobility due to the injected hot fluid. Flow geometry of the new concept was fully investigated in this study. The physical differences between the sand deformation zone and the no-deformation zone were also investigated. The major differences zone were also investigated. The major differences between these two zones are a porosity change, a pressure level and energy and flow characteristics resulting from the existence of microchannels. All of these modifications were successfully incorporated into a conventional numerical thermal simulator. The new model provided an excellent match for all the field observations (steam injection pressure, oil-and-water production rates, fluid production temperature, downhole production pressure and the salinity changes) of a steam stimulated well in an unconsolidated oil sand. Conclusion from the study indicates that the most important phenomenon for in-situ recovery of bitumen is the one way valve effect of the microchannels which are opened during injection and closed during production.

Ito, Y.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Annual report, July 1991--July 1992  

SciTech Connect

The University of Utah tar sand research and development program is concerned with research and development on Utah is extensive oil sands deposits. The program has been intended to develop a scientific and technological base required for eventual commercial recovery of the heavy oils from oil sands and processing these oils to produce synthetic crude oil and other products such as asphalt. The overall program is based on mining the oil sand, processing the mined sand to recover the heavy oils and upgrading them to products. Multiple deposits are being investigated since it is believed that a large scale (approximately 20,000 bbl/day) plant would require the use of resources from more than one deposit. The tasks or projects in the program are organized according to the following classification: Recovery technologies which includes thermal recovery methods, water extraction methods, and solvent extraction methods; upgrading and processing technologies which covers hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and hydropyrolysis; solvent extraction; production of specialty products; and environmental aspects of the production and processing technologies. These tasks are covered in this report.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Copyright 2000, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Inc. This paper was prepared for presentation at the International Symposium on Formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, or members. Papers presented at SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees unconsolidated formations in the field. Two kinds of laboratory tests have been conducted: (1) centrifuge tests disposal costs, all as a function of volume of sand removed. The results herein have implications for other

316

Disjointed connections : the presidential permitting of tar sands oil pipelines at the U.S.-Canadian border.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The fuel for dynamic change in the United State’s energy relationship with Canada lies in immense deposits of tar sands beneath the boreal forests of… (more)

Tomasovic, Brian Scott

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Evaluation of metals release from oil sands coke : an ecotoxicological assessment of risk and hazard to aquatic invertebrates .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The oil sands operations in northeast Alberta, Canada, employ unconventional processes to produce synthetic crude oil (SCO). Because the extracted bitumen, ˇ®the form of oil… (more)

PUTTASWAMY, NAVEEN V

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Diagenesis and cement fabric of gas reservoirs in the Oligocene Vicksburg Formation, McAllen Ranch Field, Hidalgo County, Texas  

SciTech Connect

McAllen Ranch field produces natural gas from 12 deep, overpressured sandstone packages, each interpreted to be the deposit of a prograding shelf-edge delta. One hundred and sixty thin sections from 350 ft of core were petrographically described. The sandstones are feldspathic litharenites containing subequal proportions of volcanic rock fragments (VRF), feldspar, and quartz grains. Grain size ranges from very fine to coarse sand. Porosity is mostly secondary, having formed through dissolution of VRF and feldspar grains. There are four major diagenetic facies (portions of core that can be grouped by the predominance of one diagenetic cement and similar appearance in hand specimen): (1) calcite cemented; (2) chlorite cemented, tight; (3) chlorite cemented, porous; and (4) quartz overgrowths, porous. The calcite-cemented facies predominates in very fine grained sandstones and siltstones and encroaches into adjoining sandstones irrespective of grain size. Sparry calcite filled all available pores and replaced some feldspar. Core permeabilities are generally less than 0.01 md, and porosities range from 7 to 15%. Authigenic clay (predominantly chlorite) generally cements sands intermediate in grain size between those cemented by calcite and those cemented by quartz. Two types of diagenetic clay fabric are interbedded, forming distinct alternating bands 0.1 in. to 3 ft thick. Gray, tightly chlorite-cemented bands are macroscopically and microscopically distinct from green, porous chlorite-cemented bands. In the tightly chlorite-cemented facies, permeabilities are less than 0.3 md, and porosities range from 8 to 16%. Small plates of chlorite fill interparticle pores, and secondary pores are rare. In the porous chlorite-cemented facies, dissolution of framework grains and chlorite cement increased porosity, and a second chlorite cement was precipitated. Core permeability ranges from 0.1 to 1 md, and porosities range from 15 to 20%.

Langford, R.P.; Lynch, F.L. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA))

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

caverns for the storage of natural gas, crude oil and compressed air: Geomechanical aspects of construction, operation and abandonment,caverns involved in CAES include stability, air tightness, acceptable surface subsidence, and (later on) an environmentally safe decommissioning and abandonment [

Kim, H.-M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

A proliferation resistant hexagonal tight lattice BWR fueled core for increased burnup and reduced fuel storage requirements. Annual progress report: August, 1999 to July, 2000 [DOE NERI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

(OAK/B204) A proliferation resistant hexagonal tight lattice BWR fueled core for increased burnup and reduced fuel storage requirements. Annual progress report: August, 1999 to July, 2000 [DOE NERI

Hiroshi Takahashi; Upendra Rohatgi; T.J. Downar

2000-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tight sand formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Three-dimensional geometry of fluvial reservoir sands: steam-drive case study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The three-dimensional geometry of fluvial sands in South Belridge heavy oil field was investigated as part of an Enhanced Oil Recovery study. It was shown that only close-spaced well data are sufficient to define the sand-body geometries and heterogeneities of multichannelled fluvial systems. Reservoir flow-unit patterns cannot necessarily be correctly delineated by isolated vertical sequence analysis. Wireline logs from 19 wells and conventional cores from seven wells in a 10-ac (660 ft x 660 ft) pattern were correlated in detail, using additional input from sedimentology, steam-flow patterns, and reservoir flow-unit continuity.

McPherson, J.G.; Miller, D.D.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Vp-Vs ratio sensitivity to pressure, fluid, and lithology changes in tight gas sandstones Eugenia Rojas*, Thomas L. Davis, Michael Batzle, Manika Prasad, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(apparent) fluid properties. Similarly, sand-face transient pressure measurements are affected by OBM and apparent fluid properties at the sand-face against observed field measurements. A history matching approach of sand-face pressure and fluid contamination function. Our observation is that transient pressure, GOR

323

Coring unconsolidated sands in the Gulf of Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Diamant Board Stratabit has achieved coring recovery rates in soft, unconsolidated formations as high as 99 percent. These rates are achieved using conventional coring equipment in a special configuration to minimize frictional resistance to the core as it passes through the bit and core catcher assembly and enters the inner barrel. This paper describes DBS's coring experience with its Maximum Core Protection System, which has been used at depths from 3000 ft to below 20,000 ft and in deviated holes up to 57 degrees. In the Gulf of Mexico, the system cored over 5800 ft from Matagorda Island to Charlotte Harbor, with an overall recovery rate of 93 percent. In most applications, the hole size dictates the core barrel and core size. Through 9 5/8-in. casing with an 8 1/2-in. by 4-in. core bit, the 6 3/4-in. by 4-in. by 30-ft conventional core barrel will be used with a Fibertube inner barrel to replace the steel inner barrel, allowing a full 4-in. core to be cut. In smaller hole sizes, other equipment with the Maximum Core Protection System will be used. With a top drive unit or long Kelly, a 45-ft or 60-ft barrel may be used. Many times an unconsolidated formation will not support more than 30 ft of core, therefore 30-ft barrels are normally used.

Wilcox, J.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Experimental Investigation of Propped Fracture Conductivity in Tight Gas Reservoirs Using The Dynamic Conductivity Test  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic Fracturing stimulation technology is used to increase the amount of oil and gas produced from low permeability reservoirs. The primary objective of the process is to increase the conductivity of the reservoir by the creation of fractures deep into the formation, changing the flow pattern from radial to linear flow. The dynamic conductivity test was used for this research to evaluate the effect of closure stress, temperature, proppant concentration, and flow back rates on fracture conductivity. The objective of performing a dynamic conductivity test is to be able to mimic actual field conditions by pumping fracturing fluid/proppant slurry fluid into a conductivity cell, and applying closure stress afterwards. In addition, a factorial design was implemented in order to determine the main effect of each of the investigated factors and to minimize the number of experimental runs. Due to the stochastic nature of the dynamic conductivity test, each experiment was repeated several times to evaluate the consistency of the results. Experimental results indicate that the increase in closure stress has a detrimental effect on fracture conductivity. This effect can be attributed to the reduction in fracture width as closure stress was increased. Moreover, the formation of channels at low proppant concentration plays a significant role in determining the final conductivity of a fracture. The presence of these channels created an additional flow path for nitrogen, resulting in a significant increase in the conductivity of the fracture. In addition, experiments performed at high temperatures and stresses exhibited a reduction in fracture conductivity. The formation of a polymer cake due to unbroken gel dried up at high temperatures further impeded the propped conductivity. The effect of nitrogen rate was observed to be inversely proportional to fracture conductivity. The significant reduction in fracture conductivity could possibly be due to the effect of polymer dehydration at higher flow rates and temperatures. However, there is no certainty from experimental results that this conductivity reduction is an effect that occurs in real fractures or whether it is an effect that is only significant in laboratory conditions.

Romero Lugo, Jose 1985-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Auditory system comparisons between sand cats and other felid species : acoustic input admittance of ears and auditory brainstem responses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The sand cat, one species of the cat family, is found only in deserts and has unusually large ear canals and middle-ear air cavities. Recent work has shown that sand cat ears absorb acoustic power at low frequencies (<1 ...

Chan, Howard F

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Patterns in Flowing Sand: Understanding the Physics of Granular Flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dense granular flows are often unstable and form inhomogeneous structures. Although significant advances have been recently made in understanding simple flows, instabilities of such flows are often not understood. We present experimental and numerical results that show the formation of longitudinal stripes that arise from instability of the uniform flowing state of granular media on a rough inclined plane. The form of the stripes depends critically on the mean density of the flow with a robust form of stripes at high density that consists of fast sliding plug-like regions (stripes) on top of highly agitated boiling material - a configuration reminiscent of the Leidenfrost effect when a droplet of liquid lifted by its vapor is hovering above a hot surface.

Tamas Borzsonyi; Robert E. Ecke; Jim N. McElwaine

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

The Effect of Temperature on the Absolute Permeability to Distilled Water of Unconsolidated Sand Cores  

SciTech Connect

The work presented herein is a study of the effect of temperature on the absolute permeability to distilled water of unconsolidated sandstones at one confining pressure. The absolute permeability to distilled water of Ottawa silica sand was not dependent on the temperature level.

Sageev, A.; Gobran, B.D.; Brigham, W.E.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.

1980-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

328

Integration of nuclear power with oil sands extraction projects in Canada  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the largest oil reserves in the world is not in the Middle East or in Alaska, but in Canada. This fuel exists in the form of bitumen in Alberta's oil sands. While it takes a tremendous amount of energy to recover ...

Finan, Ashley (Ashley E.)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Ensemble-approaches for clustering health status of oil sand pumps F. Di Maio a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Ensemble-approaches for clustering health status of oil sand pumps F. Di Maio a , J. Hu b , P-of-the-practice entails oil pump failures being diagnosed by expert analysis of the parameter values measured during the monitoring time and their comparison with the nominal power curve of every oil pump: drawing the actual power

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

330

Simulation of a cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS) separation system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simulation of a heavy oil well site separation process was developed to test some of the requirements of operating on the North Slope of Alaska. This simulation used estimates of the dynamic proportions of oil, water and sand coming from the oil well ... Keywords: iThink™, CHOPS, North Slope, Alaska, continuous simulation, heavy oil

John Danielsen; David B. Hoffman

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Use of Brazilian sugarcane bagasse ash in concrete as sand replacement  

SciTech Connect

Sugarcane today plays a major role in the worldwide economy, and Brazil is the leading producer of sugar and alcohol, which are important international commodities. The production process generates bagasse as a waste, which is used as fuel to stoke boilers that produce steam for electricity cogeneration. The final product of this burning is residual sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA), which is normally used as fertilizer in sugarcane plantations. Ash stands out among agroindustrial wastes because it results from energy generating processes. Many types of ash do not have hydraulic or pozzolanic reactivity, but can be used in civil construction as inert materials. The present study used ash collected from four sugar mills in the region of Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil, which is one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The ash samples were subjected to chemical characterization, sieve analysis, determination of specific gravity, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solubilization and leaching tests. Mortars and concretes with SBA as sand replacement were produced and tests were carried out: compressive strength, tensile strength and elastic modulus. The results indicated that the SBA samples presented physical properties similar to those of natural sand. Several heavy metals were found in the SBA samples, indicating the need to restrict its use as a fertilizer. The mortars produced with SBA in place of sand showed better mechanical results than the reference samples. SBA can be used as a partial substitute of sand in concretes made with cement slag-modified Portland cement.

Sales, Almir, E-mail: almir@ufscar.b [Department of Civil Engineering, UFSCar, Via Washington Luis, km 235, Monjolinho, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Lima, Sofia Araujo, E-mail: sofiaalima@yahoo.com.b [Department of Civil Engineering, UFSCar, Via Washington Luis, km 235, Monjolinho, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

332

The Coupling of Gravity Waves and Turbulence at White Sands, New Mexico, from VHF Radar Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Doppler spectra taken with the VHF Doppler radar at White Sands Missile Range are used to describe the winds and turbulence for 10 days in March?April 1991. The large power aperture product of this radar provides excellent data coverage in 150-m ...

G. D. Nastrom; F. D. Eaton

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

BIOTIGER, A NATURAL MICROBIAL PRODUCT FOR ENHANCED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY FROM OIL SANDS.  

SciTech Connect

BioTiger{trademark} is a unique microbial consortia that resulted from over 8 years of extensive microbiology screening and characterization of samples collected from a century-old Polish waste lagoon. BioTiger{trademark} shows rapid and complete degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, produces novel surfactants, is tolerant of both chemical and metal toxicity and shows good activity at temperature and pH extremes. Although originally developed and used by the U.S. Department of Energy for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils, recent efforts have proven that BioTiger{trademark} can also be used to increase hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands. This enhanced ex situ oil recovery process utilizes BioTiger{trademark} to optimize bitumen separation. A floatation test protocol with oil sands from Ft. McMurray, Canada was used for the BioTiger{trademark} evaluation. A comparison of hot water extraction/floatation test of the oil sands performed with BioTiger{trademark} demonstrated a 50% improvement in separation as measured by gravimetric analysis in 4 h and a five-fold increase at 25 hr. Since BioTiger{trademark} performs well at high temperatures and process engineering can enhance and sustain metabolic activity, it can be applied to enhance recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands or other complex recalcitrant matrices.

Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Whitney Jones, W; Charles Milliken, C

2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

334

The Effect of Well Trajectory on Production Performance of Tight Gas Wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Horizontal wells are a very important element in oil and gas industry due to their distinguished advantages. Horizontal wells are not technically horizontal. This is because of the structural nature of reservoir formations and drilling procedures. In response to the reservoir rock’s strength, the horizontal well deviates upward and downward while being drilled forming an undulating path instead of a horizontal. In this study, horizontal wells with an undulating trajectory within a gas reservoir have been studied. The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of the trajectory angle on pressure drop in horizontal wells. In addition, the contribution of water flow to pressure drop is a part of this research. Generally, water comes from different sources like an aquifer or a water flood job. In low permeability horizontal wells, hydraulic fracturing introduces water to gas wells. Water distribution is an important issue in gas wells production. In order to achieve the goal of this study, a model has been developed to simulate different situations for a horizontal well with an undulating trajectory in gas reservoirs. This study is a step forward to understand well performance in low permeability gas reservoirs.

Aldousari, Mohammad

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Occurrence of gas hydrate in Oligocene Frio sand: Alaminos Canyon Block 818: Northern Gulf of Mexico  

SciTech Connect

A unique set of high-quality downhole shallow subsurface well log data combined with industry standard 3D seismic data from the Alaminos Canyon area has enabled the first detailed description of a concentrated gas hydrate accumulation within sand in the Gulf of Mexico. The gas hydrate occurs within very fine grained, immature volcaniclastic sands of the Oligocene Frio sand. Analysis of well data acquired from the Alaminos Canyon Block 818 No.1 ('Tigershark') well shows a total gas hydrate occurrence 13 m thick, with inferred gas hydrate saturation as high as 80% of sediment pore space. Average porosity in the reservoir is estimated from log data at approximately 42%. Permeability in the absence of gas hydrates, as revealed from the analysis of core samples retrieved from the well, ranges from 600 to 1500 millidarcies. The 3-D seismic data reveals a strong reflector consistent with significant increase in acoustic velocities that correlates with the top of the gas-hydrate-bearing sand. This reflector extends across an area of approximately 0.8 km{sup 2} and delineates the minimal probable extent of the gas hydrate accumulation. The base of the inferred gas-hydrate zone also correlates well with a very strong seismic reflector that indicates transition into units of significantly reduced acoustic velocity. Seismic inversion analyses indicate uniformly high gas-hydrate saturations throughout the region where the Frio sand exists within the gas hydrate stability zone. Numerical modeling of the potential production of natural gas from the interpreted accumulation indicates serious challenges for depressurization-based production in settings with strong potential pressure support from extensive underlying aquifers.

Boswell, R.D.; Shelander, D.; Lee, M.; Latham, T.; Collett, T.; Guerin, G.; Moridis, G.; Reagan, M.; Goldberg, D.

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

Modeling Electromagnetic Reflectivity of Agbabu Oil Sand from Hyperspectral Infrared Reflectance Spectra and Dielectric Properties at L-, C- and X-Band Frequencies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper remote identification of oil sand reservoirs from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is enhanced by accurate modeling of the electromagnetic (EM) reflectivity of Agbabu oil sands. This is demonstrated using a novel combination of hyperspectral ... Keywords: EM Reflectivity, Computer Simulation, Agbabu Oil Sand, Dielectric property, Petroleum Exploration

Maurice Ezeoke, Kenneth Tong

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Formation evaluation using wavelet analysis on logs of the Chinji and Nagri Formations, northern Pakistan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The relatively new method of using wavelets in well log analysis is a powerful tool for defining multiple superimposed scales of lithic trends and contacts. Interpreting depositional processes associated with different scales of vertical variation within well log responses allows prediction of the lateral extent of sands and the distribution of internal flow barriers important for development of oil field recovery strategies. Wavelet analysis of grain-size variations in a 2.1 km thick fluvial section including the fluvial Chinji and Nagri Formations, northern Pakistan, revealed three major wavelengths. Reliability of the wavelength values was tested and confirmed by multiple sectioning of the dataset. These dominant wavelengths are interpreted to reflect vertical variations within individual channels, the stacking of channel belts within overbank successions due to river avulsion, and larger-scale channel stacking patterns within this foreland basin that may reflect allocyclic influences. Wavelet analysis allows quantification of the scales of periodic vertical variations that may not be strictly cyclic in nature. Comparison of total wavelet energies over all scales for each depth to the grain size and sand percentages yielded good correlations with sand proportion curves. Although changes in the wavelet energy profile were much more distinct with respect to grain size, lithic boundaries' locations were not detected based solely on the total of the wavelet energies. The data were also analyzed using Fourier transforms. Although Fourier transforms of the data yielded the smallest scale cyclicities, the higher-order cyclicities were not defined. This comparison demonstrates the power of wavelet analysis in defining types of repetitive, but not strictly cyclic, variations that are commonly observed in the sedimentary record. Assessments of Milankovitch cyclicities were performed for the Chinji and the Nagri Formations using statistical and analytical analysis methods. A clear match between Milankovitch frequency ratios and vertical lithic variations was not observed, and thus distinct climatic control on cyclic lithological trends was not demonstrated. Analysis using wavelets to determine wavelet coefficients helps quantify characteristic scales of vertical variations, cyclicities, zone thicknesses, and locations of abrupt lithic boundaries. Wavelet analysis provides methods that could be used to help automate well log analysis.

Tanyel, Emre Doruk

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Cover: Caspian Sea, Kazakhstan. Fugro NPA Satellite Mapping Limited. All rights reserved. No reproduction, copy or transmission of these images may be made without written permission. NPA are corporate affiliates of the Geological Society and have special  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hedberg Series No. 3 Understanding, Exploring and Developing Tight-Gas Sands: 2005 Vail Hedberg Conference to gain a better understanding of the tight-gas sand resource life cycle by encouraging a free exchange to exploit the vast North American tight-gas sand potential and emerging international tight-gas sand plays

Brown, David J.

339

Geology and hydrology of the Dakota formation in South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

A better understanding of the Cretaceous stratigraphy is obtained if the term Dakota is employed as used by Meek and Hayden in the type area. In this manner, the entire 400-ft section of sediments in the type area in NE. Nebraska is included in the Dakota Formation. The Dakota thins westward and is represented in the Black Hills by the newcastel tongues at the base and sporadic outcrops of the Mowry sands at the top; it includes no part of older sandstone bodies. The Inyan Kara Group which resembles the Dakota Formation and crops out in the Black Hills, is not represented either at the surface or in the subsurface at the type area of the Dakota. It is believed that the Inyan Kara Group and the Dakota Formation are separate stratigraphic and hydrologic units with distinctive water characteristics and hydraulic pressures. There are 3 distinct water types in the Dakota Formation-- sodium chloride in the W. half of the state, sodium sulfate in the E. part of the state, and a smaller area of calcium-sulfate type water in the SE. quarter of the state. The sodium-chloride water in the Dakota Formation of W. South Dakota is connate. In E. South Dakota where the Dakota yields a sodium-sulfate type water, the formation is recharged by the Roundtop-Inyan Kara interval. (63 refs.)

Schoon, R.A.

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Method for completing wells in unconsolidated formations  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for producing fluids from a subterranean formation in a formation region of substantially unconsolidated sandlike particles comprising the steps of: penetrating the region to form an uncased wellbore cavity extending within the region; extending within the region; inserting filter means into the cavity, the filter means forming an interior space for gathering fluids from the region for production from the wellbore and the filter means including means for permitting the flow of solids fines into the space with the fluids from the region; causing fluids to flow into the cavity and through the filter means into the space to be produced from the region at a rate which will cause sand particles in the region to flow into and occupy the cavity to form an in situ packing around the filter means; producing fluids from the region through the cavity and into the space and having a limited quantity of solids fines entrained therein smaller than the solid particles retained in the cavity; and controlling the rate of production of fluids to form a cylindrical dilatant zone extending radially outward in the region from the cavity and which is mechanically stable.

Perkins, T.K.

1989-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tight sand formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

IA REP0 SAND85-2809 Unlimited Release UC-92A  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

IA REP0 SAND85-2809 Unlimited Release UC-92A IA REP0 SAND85-2809 Unlimited Release UC-92A Printed July 1986 High Energy Gas Fracture Experiments in Fluid-Filled Boreholes-Potential Geothermal Application J. F. Cuderman, T. Y. Chu, J. Jung, R. D. Jacobson Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87 185 and Livermore, California 94550 for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-76DP00789 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process

342

Microsoft Word - CX-Marion and Sand Springs Substation Towers Revised.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

KEC-4 KEC-4 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Dave Tripp Project Manager - TEP-CSB-1 Proposed Action: Marion and Sand Springs Substations Radio Tower Projects Budget Information: Work Orders 00243411 and 00243190; Task 3 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.19 Siting, construction, and operation of microwave and radio communication towers and associated facilities... Location: Marion and Deschutes counties, Oregon Proposed by: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Description of the Proposed Action: BPA proposes to install new radio towers at the Marion Substation and Sand Springs Substation communication sites in Oregon. BPA must vacate radio frequencies in the 1710-1755MHz band to comply with a Federal law mandating reallocation of

343

Polymer flotation and activated carbon adsorption treatment for in situ tar sand process water  

SciTech Connect

Tar sand deposits in the United States are estimated to exceed thirty billion barrels, and offer long term potential for satisfying future energy needs. At present there is no commercial scale tar sand extraction industry in the United States, although several bench and pilot scale research projects have been completed. Three of the larger field scale experiments were completed by the Department of Energy (DOE) at a site near Vernal, Utah. The first two of these efforts involved in situ combustion while the third used steam drive. This paper reviews some of the flotation configurations which were used to generate a large (350 L) volume of treated effluent as well as describing some toxicology and analytical chemistry protocols used to characterize these fluids. Additional emphasis is placed upon a series of activated carbon adsorption experiments undertaken to detoxify the flotation effluents.

Mc Ternan, W.F.; Kocornik, D.J.; Nolan, B.T.; Blanton, W.E.; Boardman, G.D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

True in-situ bed preparation: oil shale and tar sand  

SciTech Connect

In 1978, a detailed study was conducted to evaluate the status of the bed preparation technology that had been developed for true in-situ processing of oil shale. It was concluded that the two techniques which had received the bulk of the attention in prior field experimentation, namely the wellbore springing and hydraulic/explosive fracturing concepts, both had inherent traits which would prevent them from being useful in practical applications. In the current paper, the previous results are reviewed to determine whether or not they are also applicable to tar sand. The conclusion reached is that neither technique would be practical for preparing a tar sands deposit for in-situ processing.

Boade, R. R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Improvements in Sand Mold/Core Technology: Effects on Casting Finish  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the development and impact of density gradients on metal castings were investigated using sand molds/cores from both industry and from in-house production. In spite of the size of the castings market, almost no quantitative information about density variation within the molds/cores themselves is available. In particular, a predictive understanding of how structure and binder content/chemistry/mixing contribute to the final surface finish of these products does not exist. In this program we attempted to bridge this gap by working directly with domestic companies in examining the issues of surface finish and thermal reclamation costs resulting from the use of sand molds/cores. We show that these can be substantially reduced by the development of an in-depth understanding of density variations that correlate to surface finish. Our experimental tools and our experience with them made us uniquely qualified to achieve technical progress.

Prof. John J. Lannutti; Prof. Carroll E. Mobley

2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

346

Some Geotechnical Properties of Palm Biodiesel Contaminated Mining Sand and Weathered Granite Soil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil-pollution due to accidental during transportation or leakage from storage not only brings large damage to the environments, but it also affects the geotechnical properties of soil. Hence, an extensive laboratory testing program was carried out to investigate the geotechnical properties on palm biodiesel contaminated weathered granite soil and mining sand. A series of laboratory experiments has been carried out by using a direct simple shear device on clean and contaminated soil samples. The contaminated soil samples were mixed with palm biodiesel in the amount 5%, 10 % and 15 % by dry weight. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of palm biodiesel contamination on the mining sand and weathered granite soil samples. The overall results indicated decrease of shear strength with increasing palm biodiesel contents.

Yue Ling

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Unconventional gas resources. [Eastern Gas Shales, Western Gas Sands, Coalbed Methane, Methane from Geopressured Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document describes the program goals, research activities, and the role of the Federal Government in a strategic plan to reduce the uncertainties surrounding the reserve potential of the unconventional gas resources, namely, the Eastern Gas Shales, the Western Gas Sands, Coalbed Methane, and methane from Geopressured Aquifers. The intent is to provide a concise overview of the program and to identify the technical activities that must be completed in the successful achievement of the objectives.

Komar, C.A. (ed.)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Application of gas flotation and foam separation for the treatment of tar-sand wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

A feasibility study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of air flotation and foam separation for the treatment of tar sand, steam generation waste waters collected following an in-situ experiment in Vernal, Utah. It was found that the process waters were not amenable to treatment by means of polymer-aided air flotation or foam separation. Suspended solids were readily removed by the process, but dissolved organic substances were not affected significantly.

Boardman, G.D.; Nolan, B.T.; VanLeigh, L.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

SANDS: A service-oriented architecture for clinical decision support in a National Health Information Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we describe and evaluate a new distributed architecture for clinical decision support called SANDS (Service-oriented Architecture for NHIN Decision Support), which leverages current health information exchange efforts and is based on the ... Keywords: Clinical decision making, Computer communication networks/standards, Computer-assisted decision support techniques, Computerized decision support systems, Hospital information systems, Information systems/organization & administration/standards, Medical records systems, Systems integration

Adam Wright; Dean F. Sittig

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Effect of temperature on wave velocities in sands and sandstones with heavy hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory investigation was made of the effects of temperature on wave velocities in well cemented Massillon and Boise sandstones and unconsolidated Ottawa sand saturated with heavy hydrocarbons, as well as the dependence of compressional velocities in the hydrocarbons themselves as a function of temperature. The hydrocarbons selected as pore saturants were a commercial paraffin wax, 1-Eicosene, natural heavy crude, and natural tar. The experimental results show that the compressional wave velocities in the hydrocarbons decrease markedly with increasing temperature. In contrast wave velocities in the Massillon and Boise sandstones and unconsolidated Ottawa sand saturated with air or water decrease only little with increasing temperatures. The main reason for the large decreases in rocks with hydrocarbons is the melting of solid hydrocarbons, and high pore pressure. Thermal expansion of the saturants, and possibly thermal cracking of the heavy fractions and vaporization of the light fractions of the hydrocarbons may also contribute. The large decreases of the compressional and shear wave velocities in the hydrocarbon-saturated rocks and sands with temperature, suggest that seismic measurements such as used in seismology or borehole tomography may be very useful in detecting steam fronts in heavy hydrocarbon reservoirs undergoing steam flooding.

Wang, Z.; Nur, A.M.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Diamonds in the rough: identification of individual napthenic acids in oil sands process water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Expansion of the oil sands industry of Canada has seen a concomitant increase in the amount of process water produced and stored in large lagoons known as tailings ponds. Concerns have been raised, particularly about the toxic complex mixtures of water-soluble naphthenic acids (NA) in the process water. To date, no individual NA have been identified, despite numerous attempts, and while the toxicity of broad classes of acids is of interest, toxicity is often structure-specific, so identification of individual acids may also be very important. The chromatographic resolution and mass spectral identification of some individual NA from oil sands process water is described. The authors concluded that the presence of tricyclic diamondoid acids, never before even considered as NA, suggests an unprecedented degree of biodegradation of some of the oil in the oil sands. The identifications reported should now be followed by quantitative studies, and these used to direct toxicity assays of relevant NA and the method used to identify further NA to establish which, or whether all NA, are toxic. The two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method described may also be important for helping to better focus reclamation/remediation strategies for NA as well as in facilitating the identification of the sources of NA in contaminated surface waters (auth)

Rowland, Steven J.; Scarlett, Alan G.; Jones, David; West, Charles E. (Petroleum and Environmental Geochemistry Group, Biogeochemistry Research Centre, University of Plymouth (United Kingdom)); Frank, Richard A. (Aquatic Ecosystems Protection Research Division-Water Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

2011-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

352

Global Sea Level Stabilization-Sand Dune Fixation: A Solar-powered Sahara Seawater Textile Pipeline  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Could anthropogenic saturation with pumped seawater of the porous ground of active sand dune fields in major deserts (e.g., the westernmost Sahara) cause a beneficial reduction of global sea level? Seawater extraction from the ocean, and its deposition on deserted sand dune fields in Mauritania and elsewhere via a Solar-powered Seawater Textile Pipeline (SSTP) can thwart the postulated future global sea level. Thus, Macro-engineering offers an additional cure for anticipated coastal change, driven by global sea level rise, that could supplement, or substitute for (1) stabilizing the shoreline with costly defensive public works (armoring macroprojects) and (2) permanent retreat from the existing shoreline (real and capital property abandonment). We propose Macro-engineering use tactical technologies that sculpt and vegetate barren near-coast sand dune fields with seawater, seawater that would otherwise, as commonly postulated, enlarge Earth seascape area! Our Macro-engineering speculation blends eremology with hydrogeology and some hydromancy. We estimate its cost at 1 billion dollars - about 0.01 per sent of the USA 2007 Gross Domestic Product.

Viorel Badescu; Richard B. Cathcart; Alexander A. Bolonkin

2007-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

353

Western Gas Sands Subprogram. Status report, October-November-December 1982  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The progress during October, November and December 1982 of government-sponsored projects to increase gas production from low permeability gas sands of the Western United States, is summarized in this edition of the Western Gas Sands Subprogram (WGSS) Quarterly Status Report. During the quarter, major changes were made in the management of the subprogram. Personnel in the Division of Petroleum Projects Management at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) assumed the role of management for the Western Gas Sands Subprogram that had been performed by the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC). BETC continued in-house research on the fluid and proppant problems of fracture conductivity, and management of the Multi-Well Experiment (MWX). Owing to economic constraints, all efforts at the Sandia National Laboratory that were not directly related to the performance of MWX were terminated. The projects at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory were reduced by approximately 50 percent. The efforts at the USGS were reduced by 70 percent. Significant progress was made in the MWX project. Both the Upper and Lower Cozzette zones were production tested. Interference tests run on the Upper Cozzette showed much higher in situ permeability than core and log analysis indicated. This higher permeability has been attributed to the natural fractures. The site was closed for the winter on December 22 and the test trailer moved to CER Corporation, Las Vegas, for maintenance and upgrading. 40 figures, 16 tables.

Crawley, A. (comp.)

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Pyrolysis of Sunnyside (Utah) tar sand: Characterization of volatile compound evolution  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sunnyside (Utah) tar sand was subjected to programmed temperature pyrolysis and the volatile products were detected by tandem on-line mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in real time analyses. A heating rate of 4/degree/C/min from room temperature to 900/degree/C was employed. Evolution of hydrogen, light hydrocarbons, nitrogen-, sulfur- and oxygen-containing compounds was monitored by MS or MS/MS detection. Evolution of volatile organic compounds occurred in two regimes: 1) low temperature (maximum evolution at 150 to 175/degree C), corresponding to entrained organics, and 2) high temperature (maximum evolution at 440 to 460/degreeC), corresponding to cracking of large organic components. Pyrolysis yields were dominated by the evolution of light hydrocarbons. Alkanes and alkenes of two carbons and higher had temperatures of maximum evolution at approximately 440/degree/C, and methane at approximately 474/degree/C. Aromatic hydrocarbons had temperatures of maximum evolution slightly higher, at approximately 450/degree/C. In general, H/sub2/, CO, and CO/sub2/ exhibited evolution associated with hydrocarbon cracking reactions, and high temperature evolution associated with mineral decomposition, the water-gas shift reaction, and gasification reactions. Compared to other domestic tar sands, the gas evolution relected more mineral decomposition character for Sunnyside tar sand. 26 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Reynolds, J.G.; Crawford, R.W.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Composition of modern sand from the Sierra Nevada, California, USA: Implications for actualistic petrofacies of continental-margin magmatic arcs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

modern and ancient source rocks: Geology, v. 18, p. 733–736.sand composition and source-rock type, and the secondaryrock types, including Paleozoic and Mesozoic metamorphic terranes, and Cenozoic volcanic cover, is a source

Ingersoll, Raymond V.; Eastmond, Daniel J.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Improving both bond strength and corrosion resistance of steel rebar in concrete by water immersion or sand blasting of rebar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water immersion (2 days) and sand blasting were similarly effective for treating steel rebars for the purpose of improvement steel-concrete bond strength and corrosion resistance of steel in concrete. The increase in bond strength is due to surface roughening in the case of sand blasting and the presence of a surface layer in the case of water immersion. The increase in corrosion resistance is due to the surface uniformity rendered by either treatment.

Hou, J.; Fu, X.; Chung, D.D.L. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Composite Materials Research Lab.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

First Edition Geologic Storage Formation Classification: Understanding...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

storage. Currently, these tight organic rich shales are being developed as gas and oil shale plays, such as the Marcellus Shale, and are a significant contributor to the...

358

Molecular hydrogen regulated star formation in cosmological SPH simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has been shown observationally that star formation (SF) correlates tightly with the presence of molecular hydrogen (H2). Therefore it would be important to investigate its implication on galaxy formation in a cosmological context. In the present work, we track the H2 mass fraction within our cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code GADGET-3 using an equilibrium analytic model by Krumholz et al. This model allows us to regulate the star formation in our simulation by the local abundance of H2 rather than the total cold gas density, and naturally introduce the dependence of star formation on metallicity. We investigate implications of the equilibrium H2-based SF model on galaxy population properties, such as the stellar-to-halo mass ratio (SHMR), baryon fraction, cosmic star formation rate density (SFRD), galaxy specific SFR, galaxy stellar mass functions (GSMF), and Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) relationship. The advantage of our work over the previous ones is having a large sample of simulated gala...

Thompson, Robert; Jaacks, Jason; Choi, Jun-Hwan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Examination of Hydrate Formation Methods: Trying to Create Representative Samples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Forming representative gas hydrate-bearing laboratory samples is important so that the properties of these materials may be measured, while controlling the composition and other variables. Natural samples are rare, and have often experienced pressure and temperature changes that may affect the property to be measured [Waite et al., 2008]. Forming methane hydrate samples in the laboratory has been done a number of ways, each having advantages and disadvantages. The ice-to-hydrate method [Stern et al., 1996], contacts melting ice with methane at the appropriate pressure to form hydrate. The hydrate can then be crushed and mixed with mineral grains under controlled conditions, and then compacted to create laboratory samples of methane hydrate in a mineral medium. The hydrate in these samples will be part of the load-bearing frame of the medium. In the excess gas method [Handa and Stupin, 1992], water is distributed throughout a mineral medium (e.g. packed moist sand, drained sand, moistened silica gel, other porous media) and the mixture is brought to hydrate-stable conditions (chilled and pressurized with gas), allowing hydrate to form. This method typically produces grain-cementing hydrate from pendular water in sand [Waite et al., 2004]. In the dissolved gas method [Tohidi et al., 2002], water with sufficient dissolved guest molecules is brought to hydrate-stable conditions where hydrate forms. In the laboratory, this is can be done by pre-dissolving the gas of interest in water and then introducing it to the sample under the appropriate conditions. With this method, it is easier to form hydrate from more soluble gases such as carbon dioxide. It is thought that this method more closely simulates the way most natural gas hydrate has formed. Laboratory implementation, however, is difficult, and sample formation is prohibitively time consuming [Minagawa et al., 2005; Spangenberg and Kulenkampff, 2005]. In another version of this technique, a specified quantity of gas is placed in a sample, then the sample is flooded with water and cooled [Priest et al., 2009]. We have performed a number of tests in which hydrate was formed and the uniformity of the hydrate formation was examined. These tests have primarily used a variety of modifications of the excess gas method to make the hydrate, although we have also used a version of the excess water technique. Early on, we found difficulties in creating uniform samples with a particular sand/ initial water saturation combination (F-110 Sand, {approx} 35% initial water saturation). In many of our tests we selected this combination intentionally to determine whether we could use a method to make the samples uniform. The following methods were examined: Excess gas, Freeze/thaw/form, Freeze/pressurize/thaw, Excess gas followed by water saturation, Excess water, Sand and kaolinite, Use of a nucleation enhancer (SnoMax), and Use of salt in the water. Below, each method, the underlying hypothesis, and our results are briefly presented, followed by a brief conclusion. Many of the hypotheses investigated are not our own, but were presented to us. Much of the data presented is from x-ray CT scanning our samples. The x-ray CT scanner provides a three-dimensional density map of our samples. From this map and the physics that is occurring in our samples, we are able to gain an understanding of the spatial nature of the processes that occur, and attribute them to the locations where they occur.

Kneafsey, T.J.; Rees, E.V.L.; Nakagawa, S.; Kwon, T.-H.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to evaluate alternatives for establishing commercial oil shale and tar sands leasing programs in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. This PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of alternatives identifying BLM-administered lands as available for application for commercial leasing of oil shale resources within the three states and of tar sands resources within Utah. The scope of the analysis of the PEIS also includes an assessment of the potential effects of future commercial leasing. This Class I cultural resources study is in support of the Draft Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and is an attempt to synthesize archaeological data covering the most geologically prospective lands for oil shale and tar sands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. This report is based solely on geographic information system (GIS) data held by the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The GIS data include the information that the BLM has provided to the SHPOs. The primary purpose of the Class I cultural resources overview is to provide information on the affected environment for the PEIS. Furthermore, this report provides recommendations to support planning decisions and the management of cultural resources that could be impacted by future oil shale and tar sands resource development.

O'Rourke, D.; Kullen, D.; Gierek, L.; Wescott, K.; Greby, M.; Anast, G.; Nesta, M.; Walston, L.; Tate, R.; Azzarello, A.; Vinikour, B.; Van Lonkhuyzen, B.; Quinn, J.; Yuen, R.; Environmental Science Division

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tight sand formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Seismic amplitude and coherency response of channel sand, offshore Louisiana, Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Geological drilling hazards are a major concern in the ics. drilling and development of offshore reservoirs. Some of these hazards may display high amplitudes on seismic profiles and some may be associated with stratigraphic features. Seismic amplitude anomalies associated with channel sand deposits may indicate potential accumulations of hydrocarbons in reservoirs. However, shallow hydrocarbon accumulations are rarely of production size. More often, they are potential geological drilling hazards that could inhibit the development of petroleum resources from deeper hydrocarbon-bearing layers. Traditionally, existing and potential geologic hazards are identified by interpretation of high-resolution site survey data, acquired specifically for drilling hazard delineation. This paper describes a new technique for drilling hazard identification using a conventional 3D seismic amplitude dataset. An event coherence calculation program is applied to a 3D seismic dataset to derive seismic attributes sufficient to highlight structural and stratigraphic discontinuities in the area. A resultant 3D difference cube is used to establish fault framework and to detect spatial distribution of channel deposits in the area and their geometries. Superposition of the difference cube on seismic amplitude data allows simultaneous display of structural and stratigraphic discontinuities and reflectivity information. Therefore, it is used for the delineation of channels, which show anomalous amplitudes, identification of their dimensions and spatial locations, and implication of gas-charged sand distribution within the detected channel. The paper gives a detailed description of a workflow, which was found sufficient for delineation of likely gas-charged sand channels, and discusses the ways to adjust the proposed workbox to specific objectives.

Fischer, Elena Mikhaylovna

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Effects of Sand on the Components and Performance of Electric Submersible Pumps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The increasing world demand for oil has pushed oil companies to extract it from the ocean at extreme depths. With the increase in depth comes an increase in operation costs, especially the deep-sea equipment changeover cost. To be able to push the oil to the ocean surface, Electrical Submersible Pumps (ESPs) are commonly used as artificial lift. The changeover cost of these pumps in deep-water has been estimated to sometimes be as much as forty times the cost of a new pump. One common reason for the failure of ESPs is the erosion and abrasion created by the fine sands that seep through the gravel pack mesh in the well hole. These fine sand particles are most destructive to the bearings and bushings due to their capability to enter the clearances lubricated by the pumped fluid. Over time, the sustained abrasion and erosion in the different components of the ESP will affect the performance of the pump and could lead to its damage. This work describes the design, construction and evaluation of an erosion test rig built at the facilities of the Turbomachinery Laboratory in Texas A&M University. The test rig is capable of introducing 100 mesh (6 mil) sand into the flow loop, measure its concentration and separate it at the exit with minimal water loss. The pump under study is a Baker Hughes 10.25" WJE1000. The performance of the pump is described by measuring the head, flow rate, power and efficiency. The pump is equipped with accelerometers to detect the casing vibration as well as proximity probes in five locations along the pump to detect the internal vibrations of the shaft near the bearings as well as impeller radial movement. The baseline data, to be used for comparison with the worn out pump, has been shown and recommendations for the study method and operation of the rig are given.

Carvajal Diaz, Nicolas 1985-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands  

SciTech Connect

The first twelve months of the project focused on collecting data for characterization and modeling. In addition, data from Coalinga Field was analyzed to define the fractal structure present in the data set. The following sections of the report parallel the first four subtasks of the investigation were: (1) Collect and Load Property Data from Temblor Outcrops in California, (2) Collect and Load Property Data from Temblor Reservoir Sands, West Coalinga Field, California, (3) Collect and Load Property Data from Continuous Upper Cretaceous Outcrops in Utah, and (4) Define Fractal Structure in the Data Sets and Apply to Generating Property Representations.

Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred J.

2001-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

364

The introduction of the microchanneling phenomenon to cyclic steam stimulation and its application to the numerical simulator (sand deformation concept)  

SciTech Connect

Historically, a vertical or horizontal fracture is believed to be a main recovery mechanism for a cyclic steam-injection process in unconsolidated oil sands. Most current computer models for the process are based on the fracture concept. With the postulated sand deformation concept, on the other hand, the injected fluid is able to penetrate the unconsolidated oil sand by creating microchannels. When the pore pressure is reduced during production, these secondary flow channels will collapse totally or partially. Condensed steam tends to sweep fluids where the bitumen had been heated and imparts mobility as a result of the injected hot fluid. Flow geometry of the new concept is described in this paper. The physical differences between the sand deformation zone and the no-deformation zone are also investigated. The three major differences between these two zones are porosity change, pressure level, and energy and flow characteristics resulting from the existence of microchannels. All these modifications were incorporated successfully into a conventional numerical thermal simulator. The new model provided an excellent match for all the field observations (steam-injection pressure, oil-and-water production rates, fluid production temperature, downhole production pressure, and salinity changes) of a steam-stimulated well in an unconsolidated oil sand. The study indicates that the most important phenomenon for in-situ recovery of bitumen is the one-way-valve effect of the microchannels, which are opened during injection and closed during production.

Ito, Y.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns associated with oil recovery from US tar-sand deposits: state-of-knowledge  

SciTech Connect

Tar-sand petroleum-extraction procedures undergoing field testing for possible commercial application in the US include both surface (above-ground) and in situ (underground) procedures. The surface tar-sand systems currently being field tested in the US are thermal decomposition processes (retorting), and suspension methods (solvent extraction). Underground bitumen extraction procedures that are also being field tested domestically are in situ combustion and steam-injection. Environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns associated with construction and operation of 20,000-bbl/d commercial tar-sand surface and in situ facilities have been estimated and are summarized in this report. The principal regulations that commercial tar-sand facilities will need to address are also discussed, and environmental control technologies are summarized and wherever possible, projected costs of emission controls are stated. Finally, the likelihood-of-occurrence of potential environmental, health, and safety problems that have been determined are reviewed, and from this information inference is made as to the environmental acceptability of technologically feasible 20,000-bbl/d commercial tar-sand oil-extraction procedures.

Daniels, J.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Ricker, Y.E.

1982-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

366

Tropical Cyclone Formation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The physics of tropical cyclone formation is not well understood, and more is known about the mature hurricane than the formative mechanisms that produce it. It is believed part of the reason for this can be traced to insufficient upper-level ...

Michael T. Montgomery; Brian F. Farrell

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Flowsheet modifications for dissolution of sand, slag, and crucible residues in the F-canyon dissolvers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An initial flowsheet for the dissolution of sand, slag, and crucible (SS{ampersand}C) was developed for the F- Canyon dissolvers as an alternative to dissolution in FB-Line. In that flowsheet, the sand fines were separated from the slag chunks and crucible fragments. Those two SS{ampersand}C streams were packaged separately in mild-steel cans for dissolution in the 6.4D dissolver. Nuclear safety constraints limited the dissolver charge to approximately 350 grams of plutonium in two of the three wells of the dissolver insert and required 0.23M (molar) boron as a soluble neutron poison in the 9.3M nitric acid/0.013M fluoride dissolver solution. During the first dissolution of SS{ampersand}C fines, it became apparent that a significant amount of the plutonium charged to the 6.4D dissolver did not dissolve in the time predicted by previous laboratory experiments. The extended dissolution time was attributed to fluoride complexation by boron. An extensive research and development (R{ampersand}D) program was initiated to investigate the dissolution chemistry and the physical configuration of the dissolver insert to understand what flowsheet modifications were needed to achieve a viable dissolution process.

Rudisill, T.S.; Karraker, D.G.; Graham, F.R.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Mineral Dissolution and Secondary Precipitation on Quartz Sand in Simulated Hanford Tank Solutions Affecting Subsurface Porosity  

SciTech Connect

Highly alkaline nuclear waste solutions have been released from underground nuclear waste storage tanks and pipelines into the vadose zone at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington, causing mineral dissolution and re-precipitation upon contact with subsurface sediments. High pH caustic NaNO3 solutions with and without dissolved Al were reacted with quartz sand through flow-through columns stepwise at 45, 51, and 89°C to simulate possible reactions between leaked nuclear waste solution and primary subsurface mineral. Upon reaction, Si was released from the dissolution of quartz sand, and nitrate-cancrinite [Na8Si6Al6O24(NO3)2] precipitated on the quartz surface as a secondary mineral phase. Both steady-state dissolution and precipitation kinetics were quantified, and quartz dissolution apparent activation energy was determined. Mineral alteration through dissolution and precipitation processes results in pore volume and structure changes in the subsurface porous media. In this study, the column porosity increased up to 40.3% in the pure dissolution column when no dissolved Al was present in the leachate, whereas up to a 26.5% porosity decrease was found in columns where both dissolution and precipitation were observed because of the presence of Al in the input solution. The porosity change was also confirmed by calculation using the dissolution and precipitation rates and mineral volume changes.

Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong

2012-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

369

Ammonia conversion and NOx formation in laminar coflowing nonpremixed methane-air flames  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Technical Report SAND96-8216, Sandia National Laboratories,Technical Report SAND85-8240, Sandia National Laboratories,Technical Report SAND86-8246, Sandia National Laboratories,

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Eubank Field, Kansas: a formation evaluation and secondary recovery project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Basal Chester sand, an oil reservoir pertaining to the last stage of the Mississippian, is located some 3,000 ft below the Permian reservoir of the Hugoton Gas Field (Kansas). Anadarko Petroleum Corporation (Anadarko) has acquired significant acreage in Haskell County (Kansas), a part of the Eubank Field. The Basal Chester sand in the Eubank Field as deposited in a paleovalley system that was incised in the Sainte Genevieve and Saint Louis limestones. Anadarko plans to develop a secondary recovery project in the Eubank Field, and this thesis was proposed to evaluate the Chester in terms of reservoir and fluids properties. The purpose of this thesis is to provide recommendations to implement a waterflood project at Eubank Field. All of the wells in this field have well logs, five wells were cored, and a 26 square-mile, 3-D seismic survey was performed in 1995. I have summarized all of the data available to date-well logs, production data, core data, PVT data, pressure transient tests, wellborn sketches-and organized these data into an electronic database. My focus in this work is twofold: well log interpretation and analysis of the oil production data-flow rates mostly, since very few pressure data are available. The log analysis follows Holditch's guidelines and Schlumberger's textbooks. I also present a well log-derived permeability profile for most welts, where this permeability profile is used to guide the development of my overall reservoir description. To perform production data analysis, I use the decline type curve analysis method. This approach allows a quick estimate at current conditions of the oil-in-place, drainage area, as well as the permeability of the formation and requires formation and fluid properties as input. I have evaluated all existing data for 43 production wells.

Dexheimer, Dominique

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Quaternary Research 57, 355370 (2002) doi:10.1006/qres.2002.2322, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of tight-gas sand reservoirs invaded with water-base mud (WBM) and oil-bearing reservoirs invaded with oil- base mud (OBM). In the case of tight-gas sands, our method explains the marginal producibility measurements. Cases of consideration include partially- depleted hydrocarbon-bearing sands and tight-gas sands

IngĂłlfsson, Ă?lafur

372

www.VadoseZoneJournal.org | 12011, Vol. 10 Flow Processes in the Dry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(OBM). In the case of tight-gas sands, our method explains the marginal productivity of deeply invaded partially-depleted hydrocarbon-bearing sands and tight-gas sands. SIMULATION METHOD Petrophysical Analysis example considers a tight-gas sand invaded with WBM. The second example considers an oil-bearing zone

Wildenschild, Dorthe

373

NUREG/CR-6547 SAND97-2776 DOSFAC2 User's Guide  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

547 547 SAND97-2776 DOSFAC2 User's Guide Prepared by M. L.Young/SNL D. Chanin/TE Sandia National Laboratories Technadyne Engineering Prepared for U . S . Nuclear Regulatory Commission AVAllABlLlTY NOTICE Availabiliiy o f Reference Materials Cied in NFlC Publications Most documents cited In NRC publications will be available from one of the following sources: 1. The NRC Public DoclJment Room. 2120 L Street, NW., Lower Level. Washington, DC 20555-0001 2. The Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, P. 0. Box 37082, Washington, DC 20402-9328 3. Although the listing that follows represents the majority of documents cited in NRC publications, it is not in- tended to be exhaustive. The National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22 161 -0002

374

Temperature effects on oil-water relative permeabilities for unconsolidated sands  

SciTech Connect

This study presents an experimental investigation of temperature effects on relative permeabilities of oil- water systems in unconsolidated sands. The fluids used in this study were refined mineral oil and distilled water. A rate sensitivity study was done on residual oil saturation and oil and water relative permeabilities. The temperature sensitivity study of relative permeabilities was conducted in 2 parts. The first was to investigate changes in residual oil saturation with temperature where the cores were 100% saturated with oil at the start of the waterflood. The second part continued the floods for a longer time until the water-cut was virtually 100%. Under these conditions, little change in residual oil saturation was observed with temperature. A study on viscous instabilities also was performed. This verified the existence of viscous fingers during waterflooding. It also was observed that tubing volume after the core could cause fingering, resulting in lower apparent breakthrough oil recoveries.

Sufi, A.H.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Evolution of seismic velocities in heavy oil sand reservoirs during thermal recovery process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In thermally enhanced recovery processes like cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) or steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), continuous steam injection entails changes in pore fluid, pore pressure and temperature in the rock reservoir, that are most often unconsolidated or weakly consolidated sandstones. This in turn increases or decreases the effective stresses and changes the elastic properties of the rocks. Thermally enhanced recovery processes give rise to complex couplings. Numerical simulations have been carried out on a case study so as to provide an estimation of the evolution of pressure, temperature, pore fluid saturation, stress and strain in any zone located around the injector and producer wells. The approach of Ciz and Shapiro (2007) - an extension of the poroelastic theory of Biot-Gassmann applied to rock filled elastic material - has been used to model the velocity dispersion in the oil sand mass under different conditions of temperature and stress. A good agreement has been found between these pre...

Nauroy, Jean-François; Guy, N; Baroni, Axelle; Delage, Pierre; Mainguy, Marc; 10.2516/ogst/2012027

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Well production system to prevent cave-in and sloughing in unconsolidated formations  

SciTech Connect

A well production system is disclosed for controlling ingress and egress of high pressure fluid through the annuli formed between the well and a screen support tube internally thereof. The screen support tube and an internal high pressure wash pipe with valves maintain constant high fluid pressure against the overburden during work in the well, as during drilling of an enlarged cavity therein for preventing cave-in and sloughing of the unconsolidated formation well walls until a sand pack is formed and the well producing.

Widmyer, R.H.

1982-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

377

Groundwater flow near the Shoal Site, Sand Springs Range, Nevada: Impact of density-driven flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The nature of flow from a highland recharge area in a mountain range in north-central Nevada to discharge areas on either side of the range is evaluated to refine a conceptual model of contaminant transport from an underground nuclear test conducted beneath the range. The test, known as the Shoal event, was conducted in 1963 in granitic rocks of the Sand Springs Range. Sparse hydraulic head measurements from the early 1960s suggest flow from the shot location to the east to Fairview Valley, while hydrochemistry supports flow to salt pans in Fourmile Flat to the west. Chemical and isotopic data collected from water samples and during well-logging arc best explained by a reflux brine system on the west side of the Sand Springs Range, rather than a typical local flow system where all flow occurs from recharge areas in the highlands to a central discharge area in a playa. Instead, dense saline water from the playa is apparently being driven toward the range by density contrasts. The data collected between the range and Fourmile Flat suggest the groundwater is a mixture of younger, fresher recharge water with older brine. Chemical contrasts between groundwater in the east and west valleys reflect the absence of re-flux water in Fairview Valley because the regional discharge area is distant and thus there is no accumulation of salts. The refluxing hydraulic system probably developed after the end of the last pluvial period and differences between the location of the groundwater divide based on hydraulic and chemical indicators could reflect movement of the divide as the groundwater system adjusts to the new reflux condition.

Chapman, J.; Mihevc, T.; McKay, A.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

Ruple, John; Keiter, Robert

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

379

After the fire is out: A post in-situ combustion audit, Upper Miocene deepwater sands, San Joaquin Valley, California  

SciTech Connect

An audit of small-scale, air in-situ combustion projects developed in the upper Miocene Monarch and Webster unconsolidated, arkosic sand reservoirs, Midway Sunset field, Kern County, California, demonstrates minor rock diagenesis. Burn distribution and progression is controlled by reservoir continuity, layering, and original permeability variations. Air in-situ combustion projects were operated between 1962 and 1976. Injected air drives a burning oil (coke) front through a reservoir reaching maximum temperatures of 650C. Dense new well control including 3,000 ft of core is part of a large steamdrive development. Fireflood-induced diagenesis was clearly visible in core. Altered zones include sands with reduced oil saturations, burn zones with remaining coke, and reddish (oxidized) zones with no hydrocarbons. Wireline log response in these zones have been highly modified. Detailed mapping by subzone using pre- and post-burn logs permits the determination of three-dimensional burn and reduced saturation geometries. Little rock alteration occurred in these sands. The only diagenesis of the sand fraction was to calcite grains, where oil/calcite reactions produced calcium sulfate rims and CO{sub 2} gas. X-ray diffraction of finer 'matrix' reveals no recrystallization of opal-CT, no irreversible collapse of smectite, and only minor removal of kaolinite. Partial dissolution of opal and zeolites was visible in SEM. This nonequilibrium mineral suite probably reflects kinetic control by grain size, protective grain coatings, and alteration time.

Eagan, J.M.; Barrett, M.L. (Mobil Exploration and Producing US, Bakersfield, CA (United States)); Soustek, P.G. (Mobil Exploration and Producing US, Denver, CO (United States))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Variations of Winds and Turbulence Seen by the 50-MHz Radar at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mean vertical profiles of the winds from about 5 to 20 km at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, are described. The variability of wind speed, spectral width, volume reflectivity calibrated as CN2, and vertical wind shear are documented as ...

G. D. Nastrom; F. D. Eaton

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tight sand formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Comprehensive Study of the Reservoir Sand and Depositional Setting of Garden Banks Field 236, North-Central Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Central Gulf of Mexico Sean O'Brien, M. Royhan Gani, and Abu K. M. Sarwar Department of Earth and Environmental in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Hydrocarbon explo- ration and production of these deposits has yielded one of the largest gas producing trends in the Gulf of Mexico continental shelf-slope break. Reservoir sands were

Gani, M. Royhan

382

Technology assessment: environmental, health, and safety impacts associated with oil recovery from US tar-sand deposits  

SciTech Connect

The tar-sand resources of the US have the potential to yield as much as 36 billion barrels (bbls) of oil. The tar-sand petroleum-extraction technologies now being considered for commercialization in the United States include both surface (above ground) systems and in situ (underground) procedures. The surface systems currently receiving the most attention include: (1) thermal decomposition processes (retorting); (2) suspension methods (solvent extraction); and (3) washing techniques (water separation). Underground bitumen extraction techniques now being field tested are: (1) in situ combustion; and (2) in situ steam-injection procedures. At this time, any commercial tar-sand facility in the US will have to comply with at least 7 major federal regulations in addition to state regulations; building, electrical, and fire codes; and petroleum-industry construction standards. Pollution-control methods needed by tar-sand technologies to comply with regulatory standards and to protect air, land, and water quality will probably be similar to those already proposed for commercial oil-shale systems. The costs of these systems could range from about $1.20 to $2.45 per barrel of oil produced. Estimates of potential pollution-emisson levels affecting land, air, and water were calculated from available data related to current surface and in situ tar-sand field experiments in the US. These data were then extrapolated to determine pollutant levels expected from conceptual commercial surface and in situ facilities producing 20,000 bbl/d. The likelihood-of-occurrence of these impacts was then assessed. Experience from other industries, including information concerning health and ecosystem damage from air pollutants, measurements of ground-water transport of organic pollutants, and the effectiveness of environmental-control technologies was used to make this assessment.

Daniels, J.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Ricker, Y.E.

1981-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

383

Laboratory tests, statistical analysis and correlations for regained permeability and breakthrough time in unconsolidated sands for improved drill-in fluid cleanup practices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Empirical models for estimating the breakthrough time and regained permeability for selected nondamaging drill-in fluids (DIF's) give a clear indication of formation damage and proper cleanup treatments for reservoir conditions analyzed in this study. We determined values of breakthrough time and regained permeability for common polymer-carbonate and sized-salt/saturated brine DIF's for a range at reservoir properties including temperature, drill solids content, and percent of acid in the cleanup treatment. We chose these DIF's because they form tight, thin filtercakes that control fluid leakoff and afford more complete wellbore cleanup properties than standard drilling muds, and we chose reservoir properties that could be varied and measured. Beginning with a large database of 101 tests with 8 independent variables such as type of drill-in fluid, temperature, screen type, presence of gravel pack, formation type, type of drill solids, concentration of drill solids, and cleanup treatments, we analyzed the importance of each variable. After that, we identified the independent variables we were taking into account during this research. Those variables were temperature, drill solids content, and concentration of hydrochloric acid in the cleanup treatment. Then we generated a matrix for each set of experiments that allowed us to organize and measure the conditions we were looking for, regained permeability and breakthrough time. In measuring the regained permeability, we used a linear-flow cell apparatus. In measuring the breakthrough time that particular cleaning procedures take to flow across the filter cake, we used a ceramic disc cell apparatus. We used statistical software to select properties, formation, and diagnostics of the models and to develop relationships among the properties of the DIF's. We developed four new empirical models for estimating the breakthrough time and regained permeability in polymer carbonate and sized salt. High correlations resulted with R˛ values between 0.851 and 0.986 corroborated by close values of adjusted R-square and low P-values give validity to the correlations found. This technique gives a broad overview of the formation damage as well as the proper cleanup treatment for similar conditions presented in the field.

Serrano, Gerardo Enrique

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Primary Radiation Damage Formation  

SciTech Connect

The physical processes that give rise to changes in the microstructure, and the physical and mechanical properties of materials exposed to energetic particles are initiated by essentially elastic collisions between atoms in what has been called an atomic displacement cascade. The formation and evolution of this primary radiation damage mechanism are described to provide an overview of how stable defects are formed by displacement cascades, as well as the nature and morphology of the defects themselves. The impact of the primary variables cascade energy and irradiation temperature are discussed, along with a range of secondary factors that can influence damage formation.

Stoller, Roger E [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Facies and architecture of deep-water Sandstone lobes: Comparison of a shale-rich and a sand-rich system  

SciTech Connect

Two different foreland-basin deep-water sandstone systems have been studied for reservoir characterization purposes: the Broto lobes of the Eocene Hecho group, spain, and two sand bodies of the Oligocene-Miocene Arakintos Sandstone, Greece. The shale-rich Broto lobes are characterized by distinct vertical developments in terms of facies and expression of heterogeneity. Bed-thickness trends, lateral extent of sand beds, and facies variability are related to overall sand/shale ratio. A feature common to most of the sandstone packages is the occurrence of a basal slump and/or pebbly mudstone. The dominant sediment source is considered fluvial. Variation in sand quality within and between lobes is high. Deposition is considered to be strongly controlled by tectonics. The sand-rich Arakintos Sandstone consists of massive and pebbly sandstones, forming thick, sandy sheets alternating with relatively coarse-grained, thin-bedded turbidites. Facies, geometries, vertical organization, and the relation between grain size and bed thickness indicate a constrained development of the lobes, partly influenced by preexisting topography. A coastal sediment source is inferred. Little variation exists in sand quality within and between the lobes. The overall regularity in terms of facies, and the absence of slumps, suggest that fluctuations in relative sea level may have formed a major control on deposition. The two lobe systems illustrate the effect of tectonics, sediment type, topographic confinement, and possible sea level on facies and sand body architecture of deep-water sandstone lobes.

Schuppers, J.D. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Warm Water Mass Formation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Poleward heat transport by the own implies warm Water mass formation, i.e., the retention by the tropical and subtropical ocean of some of its net radiant heat gain. Under what condition net heat retention becomes comparable to latent heat ...

G. T. Csanady

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Ecological Consequences of Landscape Fragmentation on the Lizard Community in the Mescalero-Monahans Shinnery Sands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Landscape fragmentation poses a major threat to biodiversity world-wide. The goal of my dissertation research was to determine the effects of landscape fragmentation on a lizard community in the Mescalero-Monahans shinnery sands, New Mexico and the extent to which conservation efforts might protect biodiversity in this ecosystem. My research relied heavily on data collected from a large-scale spatially-replicated comparative study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impacts of landscape fragmentation as a result of oil and gas development on the dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus). Results from analysis of lizard community structure indicate that fragmented sites are less diverse than non-fragmented sites. In particular, two species are found in lower density and occupancy in the fragmented locations (Holbrookia maculata and Sceloporus arenicolus). Analysis of landscape configuration at the scale of a trapping grid indicated that sand dune blowout shape and size differed between fragmented and non-fragmented locations. Differences in landscape pattern were associated with reduced lizard diversity. Because of this association between lower diversity and altered landscape pattern, extensive alterations to landscape pattern may cause disassembly at the ecosystem level. The maintenance of existing landscape pattern may be important to the maintenance of diversity in this ecosystem. Evaluations of habitat use patterns of the lizards in this community demonstrate that a few species have narrow preferences for certain habitats. In particular, H. maculata, Phrynosoma cornutum, and S. arenicolus all demonstrated narrow habitat use patterns. Effect size of fragmentation for each species indicated that the same three species showed a large effect when comparing their average abundances between fragmented and non-fragmented locations. Thus species that are most likely to benefit or be harmed by landscape fragmentation are those with the most specific habitat requirements. Umbrella species represent one of many approaches to conservation using surrogate species. I used data on ants, beetles, small mammals, lizards, and endemic species to test the use of the dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus) as an umbrella for endemism and biodiversity of the Mescalero-Monahans shinnery sands ecosystem. I applied a comparative approach at three spatial scales to examine how conservation practices at different scales may affect biodiversity and endemism in this ecosystem. At the largest scale, the frequency of occurrence for endemic species increased though no other patterns emerged because S. arenicolus was present at all sites and there were no relationships between relative abundances of S. arenicolus and the other taxonomic groups. At the smallest scale, both beetle species richness, diversity, and endemic species richness were higher in the presence of S. arenicolus. To protect biodiversity in this ecosystem, conservation efforts should focus on protection at the scale of the species distribution rather than on the small-scale placement of individual well pads.

Leavitt, Daniel 1979-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

National Type Evaluation Technical Committee  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... There is nothing in R 59 requiring a dust-tight or weather-tight enclosure, so it seems illogical to require a sand and dust test. ...

2011-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

389

Characterization of the Dundee formation, Winterfield Field, Clare County, Michigan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Devonian Dundee Formation of the Winterfield field was originally developed in the late 1930`s and early 1940`s and rapid production helped support the U.S. war effort. Poor completion and production practices may have caused the field to have been inefficiently developed, and wells prematurely watered out due to water coning. Production occurs in porous dolomitized {open_quotes}chimneys{close_quotes} where they extend above the oil-water contact within the otherwise {open_quotes}tight{close_quotes} limestone. Cross plots of the PEF (Photoelectric) log and the LLD (deep lateral) log separate the porous, oil-saturated dolomite from water-saturated dolomites and the {open_quotes}tight{close_quotes} limestone. The PEF distinguishes the lithologies (dolomite and limestone) and the LLD separates the fluids (water and oil); other useful logs are the CNL and GR to indicate porous and shale zones respectively. The dolomite {open_quotes}chimneys{close_quotes} are small in scale, less than 60` high and can be laterally discontinuous between wells on 40 acres spacing. The dolomite zones tend to have good porosity and permeability; the API gravity of the oil is 44.2 and the reservoir is produced by a strong, constant water drive. Initial production tests on some wells indicate the ability to produce up to nearly 2000 barrels per day (BOPD). Wells drilled in the 1980`s to the deeper Richfield intercepted and isolated oil pocket in the Dundee off structure, prompting further drilling activity; subsequent production has significantly added to the cumulative production in the field. Due to the heterogeneity of the reservoir, the strong water drive, the low density of the oil and the relatively high permeabilities, the reservoir and others like it are ideal candidates for horizontal drain technology. The horizontal wells could link {open_quotes}chimney`s{close_quotes} that have previously been untapped, significantly adding to the total production of these Dundee fields.

Chittick, S.; Salotti, C.; Wood, J.R. [and others

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Measuring Energy Sustainability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and natural gas, unconventional oil (e.g., tar sands, oil shale, and extra heavy oil), unconventional natural unconventional resources, such as oil shale or tight gas formations. Over the first thirty years there is a clear. However, the chemical processes for mak- ing distillate fuel from coal, oil shale, natural gas, and even

391

Formation and prevention of agglomerated deposits during the gasification of high-sodium lignite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-sodium lignite from the Freedom mine in North Dakota was tested in the transport gasifier at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). During the first use of the high-sodium lignite in October 2003, agglomerated deposits formed at various locations in the transport gasifier system. An extensive laboratory testing program was carried out to characterize the deposits, understand the mechanism of the deposit formation, and test various methods of preventing or minimizing the agglomeration. The results of the deposit analysis and initial lab studies suggested that sodium released from the lignite was deposited on the surface of the sand bed material, resulting in the formation of sticky sodium silicates. Additional laboratory tests indicated that the agglomeration could be avoided or minimized by replacing the sand with a nonreactive bed material (e.g., coarse coal ash), operating at slightly reduced temperatures and using certain types of additives. By using these procedures, we completely eliminated the deposition problems in a subsequent gasification run in August 2004. 10 refs., 10 figs.

Robert S. Dahlin; WanWang Peng; Matt Nelson; Pannalal Vimalchand; Guohai Liu [Southern Research Institute and Southern Company Services, Wilsonville, AL (United States). Power Systems Development Facility

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

392

Effect of temperature on oil/water relative permeabilities of unconsolidated and consolidated sands  

SciTech Connect

Over the last 20 years, a number of studies have reported temperature effects on two-phase relative permeabilities in porous media. However, some of the reported results have been contradictory. Also, observed effects have not been explained in terms of fundamental properties known to govern two-phase flow. The purpose of this study was to attempt to isolate the fundamental properties affecting two-phase relative permeabilities at elevated temperature. Laboratory dynamic displacement relative permeability measurements were made on unconsolidated and consolidated sand cores, using water and a refined white mineral oil. Experiments were run on 2 in. (51 mm) diameter, 20 in. (510 mm) long cores from room temperature to 300/sup 0/F (149/sup 0/C). Unlike the results of previous researchers, essentially no changes with temperatures were observed in either residual saturations or relative permeability relationships. It was concluded that previous results may have been affected by viscous instabilities, capillary end-effects, and/or difficulties in maintaining material balances.

Miller, M.A.; Ramey, H.J.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Potential for substitution of geothermal energy at domestic defense installations and White Sands Missile Range  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Geothermal resources that might provide substitute energy at any of 76 defense installations are identified and evaluated. The geologic characteristics and related economics of potential geothermal resources located at or near the 76 installations were estimated. The geologic assessment identified 18 installations with possible geothermal resources and 4 Atlantic Coastal Plain resource configurations that represented the alternatives available to East Coast bases. These 18 locations and 4 resource configurations, together with 2 possible resources at the White Sands Missile Range and a potential resource at Kings Bay, Georgia, were examined to determine the relative economics of substituting potential geothermal energy for part or all of the existing oil, gas, and electrical energy usage. Four of the military installations - Mountain Home, Norton, Hawthorne, and Sierra - appear to be co-located with possible geothermal resources which, if present, might provide substitute energy at or below current market prices for oil. Six additional locations - Ellsworth, Luke, Williams, Bliss, Fallon, and Twentynine Palms - could become economically attractive under certain conditions. No geothermal resource was found to be economically competitive with natural gas at current controlled prices. Generation of electric power at the locations studied is estimated to be uneconomic at present.

Bakewell, C.A.; Renner, J.L.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Impact of early diagenesis of Eolian reservoirs, Great Sand Dunes National Monument, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Dune and associated alluvial and playa deposits at Great Sand Dunes National Monument, Colorado, provide an excellent opportunity to study early diagenetic development of vertical and horizontal permeability barriers in recent eolian deposits (> 10 ka). Cements observed include calcite, aragonite, protodolomite(.), amorphous silica, iron hydroxide, smectite, trona, and halite. Cementation is controlled by the availability of water, with several hydrologic subenvironments producing different cements. Evaporative cementation in dunes adjacent to playas is commonly dominated by trona and halite, but calcite, aragonite, and amorphous silica also bind the sediment. These cements are generally most concentrated in fine laminations where capillary action has pulled water into dunes. Iron hydroxides, calcite, and amorphous silica precipitate at the interface between ground water and streams or lakes, where the pH gradient may exceed 5 pH units (pH 5.7-11.5). Subsequent movement of the ground-water table can result in cross-cutting cement zones. Early cementation in dunes prevents deflation and provides a mechanism for preservation of the reservoir unit. Intense cementation may permanently occlude porosity, or leaching may reestablish well-interconnected porosity. An understanding of the extent and composition of early cement zones can be used to improve hydrodynamic models for production and enhanced recovery.

Krystinik, L.F.; Andrews, S.; Fryberger, S.G.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Tight Correlations Between Massive Galaxy Structural Properties and Dynamics: The Mass Fundamental Plane Was in Place by z~2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Fundamental Plane (FP) is an empirical relation between the size, surface brightness, and velocity dispersion of early-type galaxies. This relation has been studied extensively for early-type galaxies in the local universe to constrain galaxy formation mechanisms. The evolution of the zeropoint of this plane has been extended to high redshifts to study the luminosity evolution of massive galaxies, under the assumption of structural homology. In this work, we assess this assumption by replacing surface brightness with stellar mass density and present the evolution of the "mass FP" for massive, quiescent galaxies since z~2. By accounting for stellar populations, we thereby isolate and trace structural and dynamical evolution. Despite the observed dramatic evolution in the sizes and morphologies of massive galaxies since z~3, we find that quiescent galaxies lie on the mass FP out to z~2. In contrast with ~1.4 dex evolution in the luminosity FP, average residuals from the z~0 mass FP are less than ~0.15 dex s...

Bezanson, Rachel; van de Sande, Jesse; Franx, Marijn; Leja, Joel; Kriek, Mariska

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrographic study of Fe in bitumens derived from tar sands  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on bitumens extracted from tar sands from various locations (Utah, California, Kentucky, and Alberta) that were examined by size exclusion chromatography with on-line element-specific detection to study the Fe concentration as a function of size. In most cases, the resulting profiles exhibit unimodal distributions at relatively large molecular size with very similar times for maximum elution. specifically, Sunnyside (Utah) and McKittrick (California) tar-sand bitumens exhibited very intense maxima consistent with extremely high bulk Fe contents. Arroyo Grande (California) exhibited an additional maximum at very large molecular size. This size behavior of the Fe appears to correlate with the large molecular size Ni and V components eluted under the same conditions.

Reynolds, J.G. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (US)); Biggs, W.R. (Chevron Research Co., Richmond, CA (US))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Formation flow channel blocking  

SciTech Connect

A method is claimed for selectively blocking high permeability flow channels in an underground hydrocarbon material bearing formation having flow channels of high permeability and having flow channels of lesser permeability. The method includes the following steps: introducing a blocking material fluid comprising a blocking material in a carrier into the flow channels through an injection well in communication with the formation; introducing a buffer fluid into the formation through the injection well for the buffer fluid to displace the blocking material fluid away from the injection well; allowing the blocking material to settle in the channels to resist displacement by fluid flowing through the channels; introducing a quantity of an activating fluid into the channels through the injection well at a sufficient rate for the activating fluid to displace the buffer fluid and finger into the high permeability channels to reach the blocking material in the high permeability channels without reaching the blocking material in the low permeability channels, the activating fluid being adapted to activate the blocking material which it reaches to cause blocking of the high permeability channels.

Kalina, A.I.

1982-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

398

Sand-rich submarine fans, Mio-Pliocene of Santa Monica Basin, offshore California: Untapped exploration targets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Santa Monica Basin lies directly west of Los Angeles Basin, one of the world's most prolific oil provinces. Published literature suggests that Santa Monica Basin was starved of coarse clastics during the late Miocene through Pliocene. However, seismic sequence stratigraphy indicates that deposition of sand-rich fans alternated with mixed-load systems throughout the Delmontian and Repettian stages. Seismic sequences and facies are calibrated to seismic and well data from Beta Oil Field, in San Pedro Basin to the south. Eustasy evidently played a dominant role in controlling sedimentation. Variations in tan lithology, thickness, and basinward extent correspond to worldwide changes in sea level. Regional erosion surfaces apparently signify drops in sea level. Overlying thick seismic packages display hummocky to chaotic seismic facies separated by high- to low-amplitude continuous reflections. These configurations are interpreted as inner- to mid-fan channels separated by overbank deposits in sand-rich lowstand fans. High-amplitude basinwide reflections bound the tops of the sand-rich intervals, and likely represent condensed sections formed during sea-level rises. Thin seismic intervals above the condensed sections display downlap, and are interpreted as interbedded sandstones and shales of prograding highstand fans. Sediment input to Santa Monica Basin, based on seismic-facies and isochron patterns, was predominantly from the (present-day) north, with subordinate input from the east. High-amplitude eustatic variations dominated deposition and sequence development even in this tectonically active basin Previously unidentified sand-rich fans are present, and have not been drilled.

May, J.A.; McMillen, K.J.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Orbital circularisation of white dwarfs and the formation of gravitational radiation sources in star clusters containing an intermediate mass black hole  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(abbreviated) We consider how tight binaries consisting of a super-massive black hole of mass $M=10^{3}-10^{4}M_{\\odot}$ and a white dwarf can be formed in a globular cluster. We point out that a major fraction of white dwarfs tidally captured by the black hole may be destroyed by tidal inflation during ongoing circularisation, and the formation of tight binaries is inhibited. However, some stars may survive being spun up to high rotation rates. Then the energy loss through gravitational wave emission induced by tidally excited pulsation modes and dissipation through non linear effects may compete with the increase of pulsation energy due to dynamic tides. The semi-major axes of these stars can be decreased below a 'critical' value where dynamic tides are not effective because pulsation modes retain phase coherence between successive pericentre passages. The rate of formation of such circularising stars is estimated assuming that they can be modelled as $n=1.5$ polytropes and that results of the tidal theory for slow rotators can be extrapolated to fast rotators. We estimate the total capture rate as $\\sim \\dot N\\sim 2.5\\cdot 10^{-8}M_{4}^{1.3}r_{0.1}^{-2.1}yr^{-1}$, where $M_{4}=M/10^4M_{\\odot}$ and $r_{0.1}$ is the radius of influence of the black hole in units $0.1pc$. We find that the formation rate of tight pairs is approximately 10 times smaller than the total capture rate. It is used to estimate the probability of detection of gravitational waves coming from such tight binaries by LISA. We conclude that LISA may detect such binaries provided that the fraction of globular clusters with black holes in the mass range of interest is substantial and that the dispersion velocity of the cluster stars near the radius of influence of the black hole exceeds $\\sim 20km/s$.

P. B. Ivanov; J. C. B. Papaloizou

2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

400

Characterization of Black Trona Waters and use of the waters for recovery of bitumen from US tar sands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There were two principal research objectives for this project. The first objective was to characterize organic material in Black Trona Water with an emphasis on colloids and organic acids. The second objective was to determine the utility of Black Trona Water as a solvent for extracting fossil fuels from US Tar Sands. Spectroscopic studies, molecular weights and shapes of polymeric acids and behavior as a polysoap were determined. Experiments indicate that trona water is preferable to Black Trona Water as an extraction agent for tar sands. The trona water is fairly efficient at stripping bitumen from the sand with gentle heating. In trona water, the displaced bitumen is readily collected on a Teflon surface (i.e., a non-water-wetted surface) with little material dissolving in the water. In contrast, the polysoap in Black Trona Water appears to take up displaced bitumen in a detergent-like process. Separating bitumen from the polysoap would undoubtedly be very difficult. 38 references, 16 figures, 2 tables.

Barden, R.E.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tight sand formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Impacts of human trampling and periodic sand inundation on Southern California intertidal algal turf communities : implications for conservation and management of rocky shores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

associated with rocky shore algae. Pgs. 36- 56 in: P.G.associated with rocky shore algae. In: P. G. Moore & R.h. Boulder Boulder / Turf Other Algae Sand > 50 mm, < 200 mm

Huff, Tonya Michelle

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a numerical modeling study of coupled thermodynamic, multiphase fluid flow and heat transport associated with underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. Specifically, we explored the concept of using concrete lined caverns at a relatively shallow depth for which constructing and operational costs may be reduced if air tightness and stability can be assured. Our analysis showed that the key parameter to assure long-term air tightness in such a system was the permeability of both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. The analysis also indicated that a concrete lining with a permeability of less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2} would result in an acceptable air leakage rate of less than 1%, with the operational pressure range between 5 and 8 MPa at a depth of 100 m. It was further noted that capillary retention properties and the initial liquid saturation of the lining were very important. Indeed, air leakage could be effectively prevented when the air-entry pressure of the concrete lining is higher than the operational air pressure and when the lining is kept moist at a relatively high liquid saturation. Our subsequent energy-balance analysis demonstrated that the energy loss for a daily compression and decompression cycle is governed by the air-pressure loss, as well as heat loss by conduction to the concrete liner and surrounding rock. For a sufficiently tight system, i.e., for a concrete permeability off less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2}, heat loss by heat conduction tends to become proportionally more important. However, the energy loss by heat conduction can be minimized by keeping the air-injection temperature of compressed air closer to the ambient temperature of the underground storage cavern. In such a case, almost all the heat loss during compression is gained back during subsequent decompression. Finally, our numerical simulation study showed that CAES in shallow rock caverns is feasible from a leakage and energy efficiency viewpoint. Our numerical approach and energy analysis will next be applied in designing and evaluating the performance of a planned full-scale pilot test of the proposed underground CAES concept.

Kim, H.-M.; Rutqvist, J.; Ryu, D.-W.; Choi, B.-H.; Sunwoo, C.; Song, W.-K.

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

403

Volatile compound evolution from the programmed temperature pyrolysis of Big Clifty and McKittrick tar sands at a 10 degrees C/min heating rate  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Big Clifty (Kentucky) and McKittrick (California) tar sands were pyrolyzed at a 10{degrees}C/min heating rate from room temperature to 900{degrees}C. The volatile compounds were detected on-line and in real time by tandem mass spectrometry using MS and MS/MS detection. This paper reports the programmed temperature pyrolysis behaviors of Big Clifty and McKittrick tar sands and compares their results. 48 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Reynolds, J.G.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Formation of Carbon Dwarfs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the formation of dwarf carbon stars via accretion from a carbon AGB companion in light of the new 107 object sample of Downes et al. (2004). This sample is now large enough to allow good mass determination via comparison of a composite spectrum to theoretical atmospheric models. Carbon dwarfs of spectral type M are indeed main sequence M dwarfs with enhanced metallicity and carbon abundance. We also calculate the predicted abundance of both M and of F/G carbon dwarfs, and show that the latter should be falsifiable in the near future.

Charles L. Steinhardt; Dimitar D. Sasselov

2005-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

405

Hypervelocity impact jet formation  

SciTech Connect

The hypervelocity impact of a particle on a surface generates a jet of shocked material which is thrown from the impact site. A simple analytic model has been developed to obtain expressions for the evolution of this jet of ejecta. The analysis is based on applying the conservation equations of mass and momentum to the problem of a normal impact of a sphere against a semi-infinite flat target. Expressions are developed for the evolution of the jet velocity, jet release point and the locus of points which describe the ejecta envelope. These analytical ejecta profiles are compared with high speed photographs of impact jet formation. 6 refs., 7 figs.

Ang, J.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of total production from tar sands or shale oil, we assumeproduction category, with unconventional (tar sands or shale oil)production covers coal bed methane, tight gas reservoirs, shale gas, tight oil,

Coughlin, Katie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Texas-Austin, Austin, TX Background A significant portion of U.S. natural gas production comes from unconventional gas resources such as tight gas sands. Tight gas sands...

408

Modelling the architecture of distal sand-rich lobe deposits : an example from Fan 2, Skoorsteenberg Formation, Tanqua Karoo, South Africa.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Fan 2, one of five submarine fan systems of the Tanqua fan complex in the south-western Karoo Basin, South Africa, is subdivided into Lower, Middle… (more)

Steyn, Rochelle

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Energy and Financial Markets Overview: Crude Oil Price Formation  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 ... oil demand growth, slow supply growth and tight spare capacity 22 Richard Newell, May 5, 2011

410

Self-formation in Microelectronics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The external formation of integrated circuits based on lithographic processes is not the only possible method for manufacturing electron devices, either integrated circuits or photovoltaic cells. Planar technology, based on external formation, requires ... Keywords: Artificial Systems, Development, Microelectronics, Reproduction, Self-Formation

Stepas Janušonis

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Optimal reorganization of agent formations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article we address the problem of determining how a structured formation of autonomous undistinguishable agents can be reorganized into another, eventually non-rigid, formation based on changes in the environment, perhaps unforeseeable. The methodology ... Keywords: combinatorial optimization, dynamic programming, formation reorganization

Dalila B. M. M. Fontes; Fernando A. C. C. Fontes

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Publications Portal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... S. Bright Abstract: A new derivative of Arizona sand, ISO Medium ... Silicon Carbide Nanostructures: A Tight Binding Approach Topic: Nanotechnology ...

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

413

take appropriate opportunities to produce utilisable enlarge the woods where possible.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

water immobile. Jones and Owens (1980) measured the gas permeabilities on more than 100 tight gas sand

414

Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Adam R. 2008. “Converting Oil Shale to Liquid Fuels: Energyshale gas, tight oil, oil shale, and tar (bitumen) sands. In

Coughlin, Katie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Current Status and Future Assumptions INTRODUCTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

supplies (coal bed methane, tight sands, oil shale), increased import capability through May 2005 2-9 #12

416

3 Subbasin Assessment 3.1 Subbasin Overview  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

supplies (coal bed methane, tight sands, oil shale), increased import capability through May 2005 2-9 #12

417

4. Natural Gas Statistics - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

gas fields, i.e., tight sands, shales, and coalbeds. Consideringthegrowingcontributionofthisgastothe National total, the term “unconventional” is ...

418

On the critical salt concentrations for particle detachment in homogeneous sand and heterogeneous Hanford sediments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hanford sediments Abstract One of the mechanisms for sudden particle release is a decrease in groundwater and (b) mineralogically heterogeneous sediment, taken from the Hanford formation in southeast Washington the amount of particles released and the CSC were an order of magnitude higher for the Hanford sediment than

Weisbrod, Noam

419

On the critical salt concentrations for particle detachment in homogeneous sand and heterogeneous Hanford sediments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hanford sediments Theresa Blumea,b , Noam Weisbrodc,*, John S. Selkera a Department of Bioengineering) mineralogically heterogeneous sediment, taken from the Hanford formation in southeast Washington. Stepwise the amount of particles released and the CSC were an order of magnitude higher for the Hanford sediment than

Selker, John

420

Horizontal well construction/completion process in a Gulf of Mexico unconsolidated sand: development of baseline correlations for improved drill-in fluid cleanup practices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis examines, in detail, the procedures and practices undertaken in the drilling and completion phases of a Gulf of Mexico horizontal well in an unconsolidated sand. In particular, this thesis presents a detailed case history analysis of well planning, completion and cleanup operations. Our objectives are to present a complete examination of the openhole horizontal well construction/completion process using a new drill-in fluid (DIF). Further, we will establish data critical to development of new cleanup correlation techniques (the continuing goal of the CEA-73 industry consortium). Project results are intended to advance the technology progression of cleanup in horizontal welts by using a "Best Completion Practices'' well to establish a baseline analysis for development of rigsite DIF cleanup correlations. Presented in this thesis are: * Completion specifics of subject well * Audit of horizontal well design/well construction process * Documentation (on-location) of lignite practices * Laboratory analyses of DO cleanup * Well performance analysis Well audit results show that prudent DIF selection requires a thorough understanding of formation and reservoir specifics, along with completion and cleanup operations. Adequate pre-planning by lignite personnel for handling, weather problems, storage/mixing requirements and fluid property maintenance are very important for successful operations using DIF. Proper maintenance of solids control systems is essential for quality control of DIF properties. Detailed well planning by the operator (Vastar Resources), coupled with a conscientious mud service company (TBC-Brinadd, Houston), led to smooth execution of well completion/cleanup operations.aboratory analyses of field DIF samples taken during drilling show that entrained drill solids in DIF can greatly impact mudcaps removal during cleanup. However, well performance was roughly three times original expectations, achieving a stabilized gas flow rate of approximately 34 MMCF/D. Horizontal well decline type curve techniques and a proprietary analysis method developed by Conoco were used to estimate formation properties, using only wellhead production rates and pressures. Using these results, we estimated DIF cupcake removal for various reservoir permeability scenarios. Results suggest that a high percentage of DIF filtercake removal was achieved only if reservoir permeability was less than the permeability range (100-500 md) initially estimated by the operator.

Lacewell, Jason Lawrence

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tight sand formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Anne B. Abell,1 and John M. Nichols2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of North Louisiana's tight- gas sand. Table 5 summarizes the petrophysical properties assumed-filtrate invasion on the simulated nuclear logs. The first field example is a tight-gas sand zone, which was drilled is another tight-gas sand zone, which was drilled with WBM. In this field example, it is not possible

Lange, David A.

422

Z .Applied Surface Science 154155 2000 577586 www.elsevier.nlrlocaterapsusc  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of North Louisiana's tight- gas sand. Table 5 summarizes the petrophysical properties assumed-filtrate invasion on the simulated nuclear logs. The first field example is a tight-gas sand zone, which was drilled is another tight-gas sand zone, which was drilled with WBM. In this field example, it is not possible

Marjoribanks, Robin S.

423

Estimation of Dry-Rock Elastic Moduli Based on the Simulation of Mud-Filtrate Invasion Effects on Borehole Acoustic Logs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.3 Stratigraphic column of the Rulison Field area. The tight gas sand reservoirs are within the late Cretaceous.S. and production is to increase by 50% in 2020 (Fletcher, 2005). Unconventional gas, such as tight gas sand for improving gas recovery from tight gas sands are needed. The Reservoir Characterization Project (RCP

Torres-VerdĂ­n, Carlos

424

Dependence of waterflood remaining oil saturation on relative permeability, capillary pressure, and reservoir parameters in mixed-wet turbidite sands  

SciTech Connect

The dependence of waterflood oil recovery on relative permeability, capillary pressure, and reservoir parameters was investigated by numerical simulation. The relative permeability and capillary pressure curves were based on laboratory measurements on unconsolidated sands. The water-wet case is based on the assumption that the system is water-wet and measurements were made with refined oil. The mixed-wet case assumed that the system is mixed-wet and restored-state measurements were made with crude oil. The reservoir model was a prototype turbidite sand with a range of thickness and permeability values. The economic oil recovery was based on an economic limit water cut of 50%. The remaining oil saturation (ROS) in the swept region for the water-wet cases was close to the residual oil saturation. The ROS of the mixed-wet cases ranged from low values near the residual oil saturation to far above the residual oil saturation. It is dependent on the reservoir parameters that govern (1) the vertical film surface drainage of oil by gravity, (2) accumulation of a high oil saturation and thus a high relative permeability under the caprock, and (3) up-dip migration of the oil that accumulated under the caprock. The dependence on the reservoir parameters can be summarized by dimensionless groups. There is a dimensionless time for the vertical displacement of oil by gravity. The accumulation of a high oil saturation under the caprock is dependent on the ratio of the capillary transition zone and the sand thickness. The updip migration is dependent on a combination of the gravity number and the endpoint mobility ratio.

Hirasaki, G.J. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Laboratory study on the use of tire shreds and rubber-sand in backfills and reinforced soil applications. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Millions of scrap tires are discarded annually in the United States, the bulk of which are currently landfilled or stockpiled. This consumes valuable landfill space, or, if improperly disposed, creates a fire hazard and provides a prolific breeding ground for rates and mosquitoes. The use of tire shreds as lightweight fill material can sharply reduce the tire disposal problem. The present study, based on laboratory testing and numerical modeling, examines the feasibility of incorporating tire shreds and rubber-sand mixtures as lightweight geomaterial in embankments and backfills.

Bernal, A.; Lovell, C.W.; Salgado, R.

1996-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

426

Characterization and control of formation damage during waterflooding of a high-clay-content reservoir  

SciTech Connect

Permeability damage was suspected as a factor contributing to postcompletion production declines observed during waterflooding of a friable to unconsolidated sandstone. A loss in water injectivity also indicated that near-wellbore damage may have been occurring. This paper summarizes the laboratory studies undertaken to evaluate and understand permeability damage in this formation. The experimental program consisted of primarily coreflooding experiments to evaluate the influence of injection fluid composition, temperature, mineralogy, and flow velocity on permeability damage. The significance of damage during brine injection was observed to be a strong function of mineralogy and injection rate. Permeability losses of greater than or equal to60% were observed in cores from some sand intervals, while little or no damage was apparent in cores from a second zone in identical wells. In the sands that were susceptible to brine damage, a critical velocity below which permeability damage did not occur was repeatedly established. The occurrence of a critical velocity, along with other observations, indicated that the primary damage mechanism was fines migration. Damage could be controlled by maintaining velocities below the critical value or reducing the pH of the injected brine.

Leone, J.A.; Scott, E.M. (Arco Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (US))

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-54 December 2002  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, respectively (Sargent 1988). Each jetty consisted of a sand dike to anchor the structure to the shore, a sand-tight the weir (USGAO 2002). In 1994, a sand-tight groin about 450 ft long at an elevation of about 4 ft National necessary to satisfy boating interests. The accumulation of sand in the inlet caused navigational problems

US Army Corps of Engineers

428

Granularity Jerry R. Hobbs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thereby sacri#12;ce the tight connection between our local theory and the overarching global theory, but sand is sand only down to the size of a grain of sand, the grain size associated with succotash

Hobbs, Jerry R.

429

The adsorption effect of C{sub 6}H{sub 5} on density of states for double wall carbon nanotubes by tight binding model  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical approach based on a tight-binding model is developed to study the effects of the adsorption of finite concentrations of C{sub 6}H{sub 5} gas molecules on double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) electronic properties. To obtain proper hopping integrals and random on-site energies for the case of one molecule adsorption, the local density of states for various hopping integrals and random on-site energies are calculated. Since C{sub 6}H{sub 5} molecule is a donor with respect to the carbon nanotubes and their states should appear near the conduction band of the system, effects of various hopping integral deviations and on-site energies for one molecule adsorption are considered to find proper hopping and on-site energies consistent with expected n-type semiconductor. We found that adsorption of C{sub 6}H{sub 5} gas molecules could lead to a (8.0)-(20.0) DWCNT n-type semiconductor. The width of impurity adsorbed gas states in the density of states could be controlled by adsorbed gas concentration.

Fathalian, A., E-mail: a.fathalian@gmail.com [Razi University, Department of Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

430

Experimental study on the formation and dissociation conditions of methane hydrates in porous media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas hydrates are crystalline compounds formed when gas and water molecules are combined under low temperature and high pressure conditions. This study experimentally investigates the conditions leading to the formation and dissociation of gas hydrates formed by methane gas and pure water in porous media. Methane gas hydrates were formed in a cell packed with 0.177-mm (0.007 in) diameter single sand (U.S. Sieve Series Designation Mesh No. 80) and 0.420-mm (0.017 in) diameter single sand (U.S. Sieve Series Designation Mesh No. 40), which were saturated with pure methane gas and distilled deionized water. From the plots of pressure and temperature curves for the formation and dissociation of methane hydrates in porous media, the beginning and ending points of hydrate formation as the cell was cooled are investigated. The ending point of hydrate dissociation occurs as the cell is heated, so that the cell pressure increases at the conditions of hydrate dissociation. The initial conditions in this experiment were in the range of 82.4 bars (1,200 psi) to 102.7 bars (1,497 psi) of pressure and in the range of 24.3?C (75.7?F) to 27.3?C (81.1?F) of temperature. At the end of hydrate dissociation, the conditions of equilibrium phase was found approximately at a pressure of 88.8 bars (1,294 psi) and temperature of 14.5oC (58.1?F) in Runs 1 to 10, at a pressure of 91.8 bars (1,337 psi) and temperature of 17.4?C (63.3?F) in Runs 11 and 12, at a pressure of 86.5 bars (1,260 psi) and temperature of 17.31oC (63.2?F) in Run 13, and at a pressure of 93.2 bars (1,359 psi) and temperature of 15.9?C (60.6?F) in Runs 14 to 16. Temperature jumping data at the beginning point of hydrate formation and the variation with time of pressure and temperature during hydrate formation and dissociation were recorded. These experimental data may be used to improve predictive thermodynamic models of methane hydrates in porous media. The accurate prediction of methane hydrates in porous media may remove a hazard to drilling from seafloor hydrate slides resulting from the dissociation of gas hydrates. A predictive thermodynamic model would also allow the prediction of the onset of hydrate formation conditions in porous media, and the evaluation of methods to recover methane gas from gas hydrate reservoirs.

Jung, Woodong

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Market Structure Across Retail Formats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study how market structure within a product category varies across retail formats. Building on the literature on internal market structure, we estimate a joint store and brand choice model where the loading matrix of brand attributes are allowed to ... Keywords: brand maps, heterogeniety, market structure, retail formats

Karsten Hansen; Vishal Singh

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Structure and Formation of Elliptical and Spheroidal Galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New surface photometry of all known elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster is added to published data to derive composite profiles over large dynamic ranges. Sersic functions fit them remarkably well. Effective brightnesses and radii are derived via Sersic fits and by integrating the profiles nonparametrically. We strongly confirm two dichotomies: (1) Elliptical galaxies from cDs to M32 form a tight sequence in Fundamental Plane parameter space that is almost perpendicular to the sequence of spheroidal galaxies from NGC 205 to Draco. This is consistent with our understanding of their different formation processes: mergers for Es and conversion of late-type galaxies into spheroidals by environmental effects and by energy feedback from supernovae. (2) Ellipticals come in two varieties: e.g., our 10 brightest Es have cuspy cores; our 17 fainter Es do not have cores. We find a new distinct component in coreless Es. All have extra light at the center above the inward extrapolation of the outer Sersic profile. We suggest that extra light is made by starbursts in dissipational (wet) mergers, as in numerical simulations. Three other new aspects also point to an explanation of how the E-E dichotomy formed: extra light Es were made in wet mergers while core Es were made in dry mergers. We confirm that core Es do and extra light Es generally do not contain X-ray gas. This suggests why the E-E dichotomy arose. Only core Es and their progenitors are massive enough to retain hot gas that can make dry mergers dry and protect old star populations from late star formation.

John Kormendy; David B. Fisher; Mark E. Cornell; Ralf Bender

2008-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

433

Low Stocks Mean Tight Markets  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: Like those for other petroleum products, gasoline inventories have been running below normal. As of the latest weekly data, stocks are about 5% lower than the low end of the normal range for this time of year. Behind all of the low product inventories are low crude oil inventories. Recall that the crude market tightened in 1999 when OPEC cut back production. Demand was greater than supply and inventories were used to make up the difference. They have not yet recovered. Crude oil inventories are running about 7% below the low end of the normal range for this time of year. After last week's very large stock draw, it appears inventories are the lowest that they have been since December 1975. The U.S. inventory data will be an important price barometer to

434

formatting | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

formatting formatting Home Jweers's picture Submitted by Jweers(83) Contributor 7 August, 2013 - 18:23 New Robust References! citation citing developer formatting reference Semantic Mediawiki wiki Check out the new Reference Form. Adding a reference object to OpenEI using this form is the most complete way to cite a reference. After providing the name of your reference, the form will ask for your document type. Rmckeel's picture Submitted by Rmckeel(297) Contributor 25 June, 2013 - 07:39 How to create formatted blocks to hold OpenEI wiki content content formatting user interface wiki The OpenEI wiki frontpage uses "boxes" that help organize content. These boxes are frequently re-used across the site. Syndicate content 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load)

435

Supplying Synthetic Crude Oil from Canadian Oil Sands: A Comparative Study of the Costs and CO2 Emissions of Mining and In-Situ Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and of unconventional deposits such as heavy oils, tar sands and oil shales.” As conventional oil becomes scarcer, the transport sector will remain dependent on petroleum resources, if no oil substitute is available. Fuels from non-conventional oil resources... www.eprg.group.cam.ac.uk E P R G W O R K IN G P A P E R Abstract Supplying Synthetic Crude Oil from Canadian Oil Sands: A Comparative Study of the Costs and CO2 Emissions of Mining and In-situ Recovery EPRG Working Paper 1005...

Méjean, A; Hope, Chris

436

Identifying and Remediating High Water Production Problems in Basin-Centered Formations  

SciTech Connect

Through geochemical analyses of produced waters, petrophysics, and reservoir simulation we developed concepts and approaches for mitigating unwanted water production in tight gas reservoirs and for increasing recovery of gas resources presently considered noncommercial. Only new completion research (outside the scope of this study) will validate our hypothesis. The first task was assembling and interpreting a robust regional database of historical produced-water analyses to address the production of excessive water in basin-centered tight gas fields in the Greater Green (GGRB ) and Wind River basins (WRB), Wyoming. The database is supplemented with a sampling program in currently active areas. Interpretation of the regional water chemistry data indicates most produced waters reflect their original depositional environments and helps identify local anomalies related to basement faulting. After the assembly and evaluation phases of this project, we generated a working model of tight formation reservoir development, based on the regional nature and occurrence of the formation waters. Through an integrative approach to numerous existing reservoir concepts, we synthesized a generalized development scheme organized around reservoir confining stress cycles. This single overarching scheme accommodates a spectrum of outcomes from the GGRB and Wind River basins. Burial and tectonic processes destroy much of the depositional intergranular fabric of the reservoir, generate gas, and create a rock volume marked by extremely low permeabilities to gas and fluids. Stress release associated with uplift regenerates reservoir permeability through the development of a penetrative grain bounding natural fracture fabric. Reservoir mineral composition, magnitude of the stress cycle and local tectonics govern the degree, scale and exact mechanism of permeability development. We applied the reservoir working model to an area of perceived anomalous water production. Detailed water analyses, seismic mapping, petrophysics, and reservoir simulation indicate a lithologic and structural component to excessive in situ water permeability. Higher formation water salinity was found to be a good pay indicator. Thus spontaneous potential (SP) and resistivity ratio approaches combined with accurate formation water resistivity (Rw) information may be underutilized tools. Reservoir simulation indicates significant infill potential in the demonstration area. Macro natural fracture permeability was determined to be a key element affecting both gas and water production. Using the reservoir characterization results, we generated strategies for avoidance and mitigation of unwanted water production in the field. These strategies include (1) more selective perforation by improved pay determination, (2) using seismic attributes to avoid small-scale fault zones, and (3) utilizing detailed subsurface information to deliberately target optimally located small scale fault zones high in the reservoir gas column. Tapping into the existing natural fracture network represents opportunity for generating dynamic value. Recognizing the crucial role of stress release in the natural generation of permeability within tight reservoirs raises the possibility of manmade generation of permeability through local confining stress release. To the extent that relative permeabilities prevent gas and water movement in the deep subsurface a reduction in stress around a wellbore has the potential to increase the relative permeability conditions, allowing gas to flow. For this reason, future research into cavitation completion methods for deep geopressured reservoirs is recommended.

R.L. Billingsley

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Predictions of long-term behavior of a large-volume pilot test for CO2 geological storage in a saline formation in the Central Valley, California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maximum Residual Gas Saturation S grmax ** Facies Sand Shalegas saturation. Table 3 shows that the permeability contrast between the sand and shale

Doughty, Christine

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Mechanisms of Banner Cloud Formation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Banner clouds are clouds in the lee of steep mountains or sharp ridges. Their formation has previously been hypothesized as due to three different mechanisms: (i) vertical uplift in a lee vortex (which has a horizontal axis), (ii) adiabatic ...

Matthias Voigt; Volkmar Wirth

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z