National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for tight oil development

  1. Going Global: Tight Oil Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    GOING GLOBAL: TIGHT OIL PRODUCTION Leaping out of North America and onto the World Stage JULY 2014 GOING GLOBAL: TIGHT OIL PRODUCTION Jamie Webster, Senior Director Global Oil ...

  2. Technical Options for Processing Additional Light Tight Oil Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Technical Options for Processing Additional Light Tight Oil Volumes within the United ... for Processing Additional Light Tight Oil Volumes within the United States i This ...

  3. Expansion of DOE-DOT Tight Oil Research Work

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Expansion of DOE-DOT Tight Oil Research Work - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia ... Twitter Google + Vimeo Newsletter Signup SlideShare Expansion of DOE-DOT Tight Oil ...

  4. Altering wettability to recover more oil from tight formations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brady, Patrick V.; Bryan, Charles R.; Thyne, Geoffrey; Li, Huina

    2016-06-03

    We describe here a method for chemically modifying fracturing fluids and overflushes to chemically increase oil recovery from tight formations. Oil wetting of tight formations is usually controlled by adhesion to illite, kerogen, or both; adhesion to carbonate minerals may also play a role. Oil-illite adhesion is sensitive to salinity, dissolved divalent cation content, and pH. We measure oil-rock adhesion with middle Bakken formation oil and core to verify a surface complexation model of reservoir wettability. The agreement between the model and experiments suggests that wettability trends in tight formations can be quantitatively predicted and that fracturing fluid and overflushmore » compositions can be individually tailored to increase oil recovery.« less

  5. Implications of Increasing Light Tight Oil Production for U.S. Refining

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Implications of Increasing Light Tight Oil Production for U.S. Refining May 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Implications of Increasing Light Oil Production on the U.S. Refining System i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are

  6. DOE Showcases Websites for Tight Gas Resource Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Two U.S. Department of Energy projects funded by the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory provide quick and easy web-based access to sought after information on tight-gas sandstone plays.

  7. Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development Robert Keiter; John Ruple...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conjunctive Surface and Groundwater Management in Utah: Implications for Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development Robert Keiter; John Ruple; Heather Tanana; Rebecca Holt 29 ENERGY...

  8. Improving the Availability and Delivery of Critical Information for Tight Gas Resource Development in the Appalachian Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mary Behling; Susan Pool; Douglas Patchen; John Harper

    2008-12-31

    To encourage, facilitate and accelerate the development of tight gas reservoirs in the Appalachian basin, the geological surveys in Pennsylvania and West Virginia collected widely dispersed data on five gas plays and formatted these data into a large database that can be accessed by individual well or by play. The database and delivery system that were developed can be applied to any of the 30 gas plays that have been defined in the basin, but for this project, data compilation was restricted to the following: the Mississippian-Devonian Berea/Murrysville sandstone play and the Upper Devonian Venango, Bradford and Elk sandstone plays in Pennsylvania and West Virginia; and the 'Clinton'/Medina sandstone play in northwestern Pennsylvania. In addition, some data were collected on the Tuscarora Sandstone play in West Virginia, which is the lateral equivalent of the Medina Sandstone in Pennsylvania. Modern geophysical logs are the most common and cost-effective tools for evaluating reservoirs. Therefore, all of the well logs in the libraries of the two surveys from wells that had penetrated the key plays were scanned, generating nearly 75,000 scanned e-log files from more than 40,000 wells. A standard file-naming convention for scanned logs was developed, which includes the well API number, log curve type(s) scanned, and the availability of log analyses or half-scale logs. In addition to well logs, other types of documents were scanned, including core data (descriptions, analyses, porosity-permeability cross-plots), figures from relevant chapters of the Atlas of Major Appalachian Gas Plays, selected figures from survey publications, and information from unpublished reports and student theses and dissertations. Monthly and annual production data from 1979 to 2007 for West Virginia wells in these plays are available as well. The final database also includes digitized logs from more than 800 wells, sample descriptions from more than 550 wells, more than 600 digital photos

  9. Oil Stop Valve : Oil Spill Containment Research and Development Project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourn, Robert D.

    1982-07-01

    This report summarizes the research and development project conducted by the Civil Engineering Section, Division of Substation and Control Engineering, to determine the effectiveness of the oil stop valve for use in the Bonneville Power Administration's Oil Spill Containment and Countermeasure Program. The most attractive alternative to lagoons and separator tanks was found in the oil stop valve manufactured by AFL/Clark Industries of Riviera Beach, Florida. This small, direct-acting and relatively inexpensive valve requires little maintenance and can either be employed independently, using existing drain lines for effluent storage, or in conjunction with oil separator tanks and lagoon systems. The AFL/Clark valve requires no power and has only one moving part, a ballasted float having a specific gravity between that of oil and water. In water, the float rides above the throat of the discharge pipe allowing water to flow out. When oil enters the water the float begins losing its relative bouyancy and sinks until it seats itself over the throat of the outlet, closing the valve. Usually installed in a manhole within a typical storm drainage system, the valve backs spilled oil into drainways and contains it for temporary storage within the switchyard.

  10. Developments in oil shale in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knutson, C.F.; Dana, G.F.; Solti, G.; Qian, J.L.; Ball, F.D.; Hutton, A.C.; Hanna, J.; Russell, P.L.; Piper, E.M.

    1988-10-01

    Oil shale development continued at a slow pace in 1987. The continuing interest in this commodity is demonstrated by the 342 oil shale citations added to the US Department of Energy Energy Database during 1987. The Unocal project in Parachute, Colorado, produced 600,000 bbl of synfuel in 1987. An appreciable amount of 1987's activity was associated with the nonsynfuel uses of oil shale. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Development of the oil-water monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, C.

    1990-04-02

    The oil-water monitor is a device invented by Dr. Claude Swanson of Applied Physics Technology to respond to the petroleum-loss problem in crude oil transfers. It is a device which measures water content in crude oil and other petroleum products, in a flowing pipe such as a pipeline or tanker manifold. It is capable of accurately measuring the water contamination levels in crude oil shipments, in real time as the crude oil flows through the loading manifold into the tanker, or at the receiving point as the oil is off-loaded It has application in the verification of oil volumes and concentration of contaminants at petroleum transfer points. The industry-estimated level of water loss at transfer points due to inadequate monitoring technology amounts to several billion dollars per year, so there is a definite perceived need within the petroleum community for this type of accurate water monitoring technology. The device has been patented, and initial feasibility experiments have been conducted. The present research is directed toward developing and demonstrating a bench model prototype of the oil-water monitor, complete with the computer software and automated microwave equipment and electronics which will demonstrate the performance of the invention, for implementation in full-scale fielded systems. 3 figs.

  12. SOLVENT-BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES TO DEVELOP WEST...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SOLVENT-BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES TO DEVELOP WEST SAK ALASKA NORTH SLOPE HEAVY OIL RESOURCES Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SOLVENT-BASED ENHANCED OIL ...

  13. Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McInerney, M.J.; Mouttaki, H.; Folmsbee, M.; Knapp, R.; Nagle, D.

    2003-01-24

    The overall goal of this research was to develop effective biosurfactant production for enhanced oil recovery in the United States.

  14. Gas Flow Tightly Coupled to Elastoplastic Geomechanics for Tight...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Gas Flow Tightly Coupled to Elastoplastic Geomechanics for Tight- and Shale-Gas ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Gas Flow Tightly Coupled to Elastoplastic ...

  15. The impact of oil on a developing country

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikein, A.

    1990-01-01

    This book provides an analysis of the impact of the oil industry on a particular developing country, Nigeria over a period of 32 years. Arguing that previous studies on the oil industry in developing countries have tended to focus only on the economic significance of oil, ignoring its societal costs, the author uses a multidimensional approach that enables him to identify the linkage between the performance of the oil industry and the pattern of Nigeria's national and regional development.

  16. International Oil and Gas Exploration and Development

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1993-01-01

    Presents country level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve to production ratios (R/P ratios) for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form.

  17. Ecuador steps up pace of oil development activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-23

    This paper reports that oil companies operating in Ecuador plan to quicken the pace of oil development this year. After delays in 1991, companies plan a series of projects to develop reserves discovered the past 3 years estimated at more than 600 million bbl. Oil and Gas Journal estimated Ecuador's proved crude reserves at 1.55 billion bbl as of Jan. 1, 1992. The development push is part of a larger effort needed to ensure Ecuador's status as an oil exporter into the next century. Ecuador is the smallest crude oil producer and exporter in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.

  18. Figure 8. Technically Recoverable and Commercially Developable Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Technically Recoverable and Commercially Developable Oil at 95 Percent, Mean, and 5 Percent Probabilities for Given Oil Prices as a Percentage of Technically Recoverable Oil for the ANWR 1002 Area of the Alaska North Slope fig8.jpg (38547 bytes) Source: United States Geological Survey, "Economics of Undiscovered Oil in the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge," 1998

  19. Australian developments in oil shale processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    This study gives some background on Australian oil shale deposits, briefly records some history of oil shale processing in the country and looks at the current status of the various proposals being considered to produce syncrudes from Australian oil shales. 5 refs.

  20. Heavy oil development in Canada - The need for upgrading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    The author first reviews Canada's petroleum reserves, then summarizes the problem facing Canada regarding dwindling supplies of conventional light and medium crude oils and briefly describes Canada's refining capability. With that background, he attempts to analyze the problems that face heavy oil producers in attempting to market their product and propose a potential solution to these problems as illustrated by Husky Oil's approach - the construction of a heavy oil upgrader. He closes by sharing his views on the future of heavy oil development and the policy issues facing our governments.

  1. Oil Shale Development from the Perspective of NETL's Unconventional Oil Resource Repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.W.; Shadle, L.J.; Hill, D.

    2007-01-01

    The history of oil shale development was examined by gathering relevant research literature for an Unconventional Oil Resource Repository. This repository contains over 17,000 entries from over 1,000 different sources. The development of oil shale has been hindered by a number of factors. These technical, political, and economic factors have brought about R&D boom-bust cycles. It is not surprising that these cycles are strongly correlated to market crude oil prices. However, it may be possible to influence some of the other factors through a sustained, yet measured, approach to R&D in both the public and private sectors.

  2. Oil shale fines process developments in Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisboa, A.C.; Nowicki, R.E. ); Piper, E.M. )

    1989-01-01

    The Petrobras oil shale retorting process, utilizes the particle range of +1/4 inch - 3 1/2 inches. The UPI plant in Sao Mateus do Sul has over 106,000 hours of operation, has processed over 6,200,000 metric tons of shale and has produced almost 3,000,000 barrels of shale oil. However, the nature of the raw oil shale is such that the amount of shale less than 1/4 inch that is mined and crushed and returned to the mine site is about 20 percent, thereby, increasing the cost of oil produced by a substantial number. Petrobras has investigated several systems to process the fines that are not handled by the 65 MTPH UPI plant and the 260 MTPH commercial plant. This paper provides an updated status of each of these processes in regard to the tests performed, potential contributions to an integrated use of the oil shale mine, and future considerations.

  3. Research and information needs for management of oil shale development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    This report presents information and analysis to assist BLM in clarifying oil shale research needs. It provides technical guidance on research needs in support of their regulatory responsibilities for onshore mineral activities involving oil shale. It provides an assessment of research needed to support the regulatory and managerial role of the BLM as well as others involved in the development of oil shale resources on public and Indian lands in the western United States.

  4. Oil and gas development in East Siberia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sagers, M.J.

    1994-03-01

    The East Siberian region, which comprises nearly 43% of Russia`s territory (including the Sakha (Yakut) republic), has substantial hydrocarbon potential that is impeded by significant logistical problems, the daunting physical environment, and technical challenges posed by the geological complexity of the region. The area`s three major oil and gas provinces are the Lena-Tunguska (with the greatest potential), Lena-Vilyuy, and Yenisey-Anabar. The paper focuses on assessment of reserves, production potential, and history, as well as joint-venture activity involving foreign capital. Foreign investment is targeting gas deposits in the Vilyuy basin and elsewhere in the Sakha republic and small oil deposits serving local markets in the Yakutsk and Noril`sk areas. Forecasts do not envisage substantial production of oil from the region before the year 2010. Future gas production levels are less predictable despite the ambitious plans to export gas from Sakha to South Korea. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 8. Health effects of oil shale development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotariu, G.J.

    1982-02-01

    Information on the potential health effects of a developing oil shale industry can be derived from two major sources: (1) the historical experience in foreign countries that have had major industries; and (2) the health effects research that has been conducted in the US in recent years. The information presented here is divided into two major sections: one dealing with the experience in foreign countries and the second dealing with the more recent work associated with current oil shale development in the US. As a result of the study, several observations can be made: (1) most of the current and historical data from foreign countries relate to occupational hazards rather than to impacts on regional populations; (2) neither the historical evidence from other countries nor the results of current research have shown pulmonary neoplasia to be a major concern, however, certain types of exposure, particularly such mixed source exposures as dust/diesel or dust/organic-vapor have not been adequately studied and the lung cancer question is not closed; (3) the industry should be alert to the incidence of skin disease in the industrial setting, however, automated techniques, modern industrial hygiene practices and realistic personal hygiene should greatly reduce the hazards associated with skin contact; and (4) the entire question of regional water contamination and any resultant health hazard has not been adequately addressed. The industrial practice of hydrotreating the crude shale oil will diminish the carcinogenic hazard of the product, however, the quantitative reduction of biological activity is dependent on the degree of hydrotreatment. Both Soviet and American experimentalists have demonstrated a correlation betweed carcinogenicity/toxicity and retorting temperature; the higher temperatures producing the more carcinogenic or toxic products.

  6. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michel, R.C.

    1987-10-01

    Licensed oil acreage in the 6 North Africa countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan and Tunisia) totaled 1,500,000 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1986, down 290,000 km/sup 2/ from 1985. About 50% of the relinquishments were in Libya. Most oil and gas discoveries were made in Egypt (16 oil and 2 gas). Several oil finds were reported in onshore Libya, and 1 was reported in Algeria in the southeastern Sahara. According to available statistics, development drilling decreased from 1985 levels, except in Tunisia. A 6.3% decline in oil production took place in 1986, falling below the 3 million bbl level (2,912,000 b/d). Only sparse data are released on the gas output in North Africa. 6 figures, 27 tables.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF SHALLOW VISCOUS OIL RESERVES IN NORTH SLOPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2003-07-01

    North Slope of Alaska has huge oil deposits in heavy oil reservoirs such as Ugnu, West Sak and Shrader Bluff etc. The viscosity of the last two reservoir oils vary from {approx}30 cp to {approx}3000 cp and the amount in the range of 10-20 billion barrels. High oil viscosity and low formation strength impose problems to high recovery and well productivity. Water-alternate-gas injection processes can be effective for the lower viscosity end of these deposits in West Sak and Shrader Bluff. Several gas streams are available in the North Slope containing NGL and CO{sub 2} (a greenhouse gas). The goal of this research is to develop tools to find optimum solvent, injection schedule and well-architecture for a WAG process in North Slope shallow sand viscous oil reservoirs. In the last quarter, we have developed streamline generation and convection subroutines for miscible gas injection. The WAG injection algorithms are being developed. We formulated a four-phase relative permeability model based on two-phase relative permeabilities. The new relative permeability formulations are being incorporated into the simulator. Wettabilities and relative permeabilities are being measured. Plans for the next quarter includes modeling of WAG injection in streamline based simulation, relative permeability studies with cores, incorporation of complex well-architecture.

  8. Oil exports, structural change, and economic development in Iran

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emami-Khoi, A.

    1981-01-01

    Within the broad Chenery-Kuznets framework, using structural change as a major indicator of economic development, this study investigates the direction and magnitude and broad features of structural change in Iran, and the role of oil production and exports in that change. Although the study covers a larger horizon, the analysis is focused on the period 1955 through 1977. A similar but less-detailed investigation is conducted for Algeria, Indonesia, and Venezuela also, and a cross-country, comparative perspective is generated. The study shows that, in general, the structural changes in Iran have either been weak (for example, in production and employment), or they are contrary to what the model would predict (for instance in trade). The pattern of structural change observed in Iran, therefore, does not indicate any significant economic development even though per capita income increased five-fold over the period 1955 through 1977. In short, oil does not appear to have been an engine of economic development in Iran. The situation appears broadly similar for the other three countries. Based on these findings, the study offers some suggestions concerning the future economic strategies that should enhance very considerably the contribution that oil industry can make toward Iran's economic development, and should thus accelerate the pace of economic development. These suggestions may be useful to other oil-exporting countries as well.

  9. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Exploratory and Development Wells

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wells Drilled (Number) Exploratory and Development NA NA NA NA NA NA 1973-2012 Crude Oil NA NA NA NA NA NA 1973-2012 Natural Gas NA NA NA NA NA NA 1973-2012 Dry Holes NA NA NA...

  10. Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruple, John; Keiter, Robert

    2010-12-31

    Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

  11. Pipeline issues shape southern FSU oil, gas development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-22

    To future production from southern republics of the former Soviet Union (FSU), construction and revitalization of pipelines are as important as the supply of capital. Export capacity will limit production and slow development activity in the region until new pipelines are in place. Plenty of pipeline proposals have come forward. The problem is politics, which for every proposal so far complicates routing or financing or both. Russia has made clear its intention to use pipeline route decisions to retain influence in the region. As a source of external pressure, it is not alone. Iran and Turkey also have made strong bids for the southern FSU`s oil and gas transport business. Diplomacy thus will say as much as commerce does about how transportation issues are settled and how quickly the southern republics move toward their potentials to produce oil and gas. The paper discusses possible routes and the problems with them, the most likely proposal, and future oil flows.

  12. Oil industry development and trade liberalization in the Western Hemisphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall, S.J.

    1993-12-31

    This paper provides an overview of oil industry developments in the Western Hemisphere with particular emphasis on Latin America since the inauguration of the Enterprise for the Americas Initiative by George Bush. The author discusses these developments in the context of the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (concluded in 1989), and the negotiation in 1992 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). This paper is concerned essentially with the oil industry and does not discuss the importance of natural gas for Canadian producers nor the fact that much of Latin American oil production (notably in Mexico) is associated with natural gas. The author examines the shift to trade and investment liberalization and privatization in the 1980s and early 1990s, especially in Latin America--where the most dramatic transformation has occurred. The author suggests that investment patterns in the industry have been only marginally related to trade liberalization, and have derived more from considerations of resource availability, exploration and development costs, market factors, and the general state of the international economy--all of which have contributed in the 1980s to significant restructuring and downsizing among a number of major corporations. The author also notes the important increase in an internal Latin American market, and the role of regional organizations such as ARPEL-the Association of Latin American State Oil Company Producers. 31 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. US production of natural gas from tight reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    For the purposes of this report, tight gas reservoirs are defined as those that meet the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC) definition of tight. They are generally characterized by an average reservoir rock permeability to gas of 0.1 millidarcy or less and, absent artificial stimulation of production, by production rates that do not exceed 5 barrels of oil per day and certain specified daily volumes of gas which increase with the depth of the reservoir. All of the statistics presented in this report pertain to wells that have been classified, from 1978 through 1991, as tight according to the FERC; i.e., they are ``legally tight`` reservoirs. Additional production from ``geologically tight`` reservoirs that have not been classified tight according to the FERC rules has been excluded. This category includes all producing wells drilled into legally designated tight gas reservoirs prior to 1978 and all producing wells drilled into physically tight gas reservoirs that have not been designated legally tight. Therefore, all gas production referenced herein is eligible for the Section 29 tax credit. Although the qualification period for the credit expired at the end of 1992, wells that were spudded (began to be drilled) between 1978 and May 1988, and from November 5, 1990, through year end 1992, are eligible for the tax credit for a subsequent period of 10 years. This report updates the EIA`s tight gas production information through 1991 and considers further the history and effect on tight gas production of the Federal Government`s regulatory and tax policy actions. It also provides some high points of the geologic background needed to understand the nature and location of low-permeability reservoirs.

  14. Oil

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department works to ensure domestic and global oil supplies are environmentally sustainable and invests in research and technology to make oil drilling cleaner and more efficient.

  15. Alaska Oil and Gas Exploration, Development, and Permitting Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall

    2006-03-31

    This is the final technical report for Project 15446, covering the grant period of October 2002 through March 2006. This project connects three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for an advanced information technology infrastructure to better support resource development and resource conservation. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells. The broad goal of this grant is to increase domestic production from Alaska's known producing fields through the implementation of preferred upstream management practices. (PUMP). Internet publication of extensive and detailed geotechnical data is the first task, improving the permitting process is the second task, and building an advanced geographical information system to offer continuing support and public access of the first two goals is the third task. Excellent progress has been made on all three tasks; the technical objectives as defined by the approved grant sub-tasks have been met. The end date for the grant was March 31, 2006.

  16. Demand for oil and energy in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolf, C. Jr.; Relles, D.A.; Navarro, J.

    1980-05-01

    How much of the world's oil and energy supply will the non-OPEC less-developed countries (NOLDCs) demand in the next decade. Will their requirements be small and thus fairly insignificant compared with world demand, or large and relatively important. How will world demand be affected by the economic growth of the NOLDCs. In this report, we try to develop some reasonable forecasts of NOLDC energy demands in the next 10 years. Our focus is mainly on the demand for oil, but we also give some attention to the total commercial energy requirements of these countries. We have tried to be explicit about the uncertainties associated with our forecasts, and with the income and price elasticities on which they are based. Finally, we consider the forecasts in terms of their implications for US policies concerning the NOLDCs and suggest areas of future research on NOLDC energy issues.

  17. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-08-04

    The objective of this project is to eliminate three closely inter-related barriers to oil production in Alaska through the use of a geographic information system (GIS) and other information technology strategies. These barriers involve identification of oil development potential from existing wells, planning projects to efficiently avoid conflicts with other interests, and gaining state approvals for exploration and development projects. Each barrier is the result of either current labor-intensive methods or poorly accessible information. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. This web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information online. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. The application will include an on-line diagnostic Coastal Project Questionnaire to determine the suite of permits required for a specific project. The application will also automatically create distribution lists based on the location and type of project, populate document templates for project review start-ups, public notices and findings, allow submission of e-comments, and post project status information on the Internet. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production

  18. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-09-15

    World oil use is projected to grow to 98 million b/d in 2015 and 118 million b/d in 2030. Total world natural gas consumption is projected to rise to 134 Tcf in 2015 and 182 Tcf in 2030. In an era of declining production and increasing demand, economically producing oil and gas from unconventional sources is a key challenge to maintaining global economic growth. Some unconventional hydrocarbon sources are already being developed, including gas shales, tight gas sands, heavy oil, oil sands, and coal bed methane. Roughly 20 years ago, gas production from tight sands, shales, and coals was considered uneconomic. Today, these resources provide 25% of the U.S. gas supply and that number is likely to increase. Venezuela has over 300 billion barrels of unproven extra-heavy oil reserves which would give it the largest reserves of any country in the world. It is currently producing over 550,000 b/d of heavy oil. Unconventional oil is also being produced in Canada from the Athabasca oil sands. 1.6 trillion barrels of oil are locked in the sands of which 175 billion barrels are proven reserves that can be recovered using current technology. Production from 29 companies now operating there exceeds 1 million barrels per day. The report provides an overview of continuous petroleum sources and gives a concise overview of the current status of varying types of unconventional oil and gas resources. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of the history of Oil and Natural Gas; an analysis of the Oil and Natural Gas industries, including current and future production, consumption, and reserves; a detailed description of the different types of unconventional oil and gas resources; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in unconventional resources; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the development of unconventional resources; profiles of key producing regions; and, profiles of key unconventional oil and gas producers.

  19. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-11-19

    This is the second technical report, covering the period from April 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. The geo-technical component is a shared effort between the State Department of Administration and the US Department of Energy. The Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission is rapidly converting high volumes of paper documents and geo-technical information to formats suitable for search and retrieval over the Internet. The permitting component is under the lead of the DNR Office of Project Management and Permitting. A web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information on-line. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. Structural changes are taking place in terms of organization, statutory authority, and regulatory requirements. Geographic Information Systems are a central component to the organization of information, and the delivery of on-line services. Progress has been made to deploy the foundation system for the shared GIS based on open GIS protocols to the extent feasible. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells.

  20. Development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) must be done...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    unconventional oil and gas (UOG) must be done in responsible ways to minimize surface ... Office of Oil and Natural Gas Goals * To reduce the amount of land and time needed for oil ...

  1. EIS-0068: Development Policy Options for the Naval Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves prepared this programmatic statement to examine the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of development projects on the Naval Oil Shale Reserve 1, and examine select alternatives, such as encouraging production from other liquid fuel resources (coal liquefaction, biomass, offshore oil and enhanced oil recovery) or conserving petroleum in lieu of shale oil production.

  2. Development of Authorized Limits for Portsmouth Oil Inventory...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Authorized Limits for Portsmouth Oil Inventory Disposition September 12, 2012 By ... closure M E Environmental Management PORTS Oil Disposition Problem in Late 2007 * Need to ...

  3. Development and Standardization of Techniques for Bio-oil Characteriza...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Standardization of Techniques for Bio-oil Characterization Jack Ferrell, NREL; ... quantitative analytical methods for bio-oil characterization - Standard methods do not ...

  4. Methods of Managing Water in Oil Shale Development - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cost of producing potable water is low Reuse of water in drilling procedures Significant dewatering of the oil shale deposit Applications and Industries Oil shale drilling ...

  5. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michel, R.C.

    1986-10-01

    Petroleum rights in the 6 North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia) covered in this paper were 1,839,817 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1985, a decrease of 3% from the 1,896,446 km/sup 2/ held at the end of 1984. This decrease mainly is due to significant relinquishments made in Algeria, Egypt, and Tunisia. Morocco, however, had an increase of 18,087 km/sup 2/. Oil discoveries were reported in Algeria (possibly 5), Libya (at least 2), and Egypt (16). Only 1 gas find was made (in Morocco). According to sparse information, development drilling may have decreased markedly during 1985. Oil and condensate production increased by 3.1% to approximately 3,054,000 b/d compared to about 2,963,400 b/d in 1984. No statistics are currently available on gas production in North Africa. 8 figures, 27 tables.

  6. International oil and gas exploration and development activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-29

    This report is part of an ongoing series of quarterly publications that monitors discoveries of oil and natural gas in foreign countries and provides an analysis of the reserve additions that result. The report is prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). It presents a summary of discoveries and reserve additions that result from recent international exploration and development activities. It is intended for use by petroleum industry analysts, various government agencies, and political leaders in the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy plans, policy, and legislation. 25 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF BYPASSED OIL RESERVES USING BEHIND CASING RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. Conner; Jeffrey A. Blesener

    2005-02-07

    Tubing and rods of the S.P. Pedro-Nepple No.1 well were pulled and the well was prepared for running of Schlumberger's Cased Hole Formation Resistivity Tool (CHFR) in selected intervals. The CHFR tool was successfully run and data was captured. The CHFR formation resistivity readings were compared to original open hole resistivity measurements. Separation between the original and CHFR resistivity curves indicate both swept and un-swept sand intervals. Both watered out sand intervals and those with higher remaining oil saturation have been identified. Due to the nature of these turbidite sands being stratigraphically continuous, both the swept and unswept layers have been correlated across to one of the four nearby offset shallow wells. As a result of the cased hole logging, one well was selected for a workover to recomplete high oil saturated shallow sand intervals. During the second report period, well S.P. Pedro-Nepple No.2 was plugged back with cement excluding the previously existing production interval, squeeze cemented behind casing, selectively perforated in the shallower ''Bell'' zone and placed on production to develop potential new oil reserves and increase overall well productivity. Prior workover production averaged 3.0 BOPD for the previous six-months. Post workover well production was marginally increased to 3.7 BOPD on average for the following six months.

  8. Oil and gas exploration and development in Arizona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nations, D.; Doss, A.K.; Ubarra, R.

    1984-07-01

    Recent oil and gas exploration activity has been widespread throughout Arizona. Development drilling has continued in the Dineh-bi-keyah and Teec-nos-Pos fields in the northeastern corner, and exploratory drilling continues to test potential Paleozoic reservoirs elsewhere on the plateau. Several shallow wells north of the Grand Canyon encountered shows and limited recoveries of oil from Permian and Triassic rocks. The greatest activity has occurred along the Overthrust trend from northwestern to southeastern Arizona. Several million acres were leased and eight exploratory wells drilled along this trend. None were discoveries, but the presence of a Laramide thrust fault in the vicinity of Tombstone was established. The other tests have neither proved nor disproved the concept of the Overthrust belt in southern Arizona. Recent discoveries in the nonmarine Tertiary and marine Paleozoic of southern Nevada have stimulated interest in the oil potential of similar rocks and structures in the Basin and Range province of Arizona, which are coincident with the Overthrust trend. Reported gas discoveries by Pemex in Miocene marine sediments of the Gulf of California have stimulated leasing in the Yuma area, where one uncompleted well is reported to be a potential producer. The Pedregosa basin of extreme southeastern Arizona remains an area of great interest to explorationists because of the presence of a 25,000-ft (7600-m) sequence of Paleozoic marine sediments similar to those of the Permian basin, and Cretaceous marine rocks, including coral-rudist reefs, similar to those that produce in Texas and Mexico.

  9. Development of Bypassed Oil Reserves Using Behind Casing Resistivity Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. Conner

    2004-02-14

    Tubing and rods of the S.P. Pedro-Nepple No.1 well were pulled and the well was prepared for running of Schlumberger's Cased Hole Formation Resistivity Tool (CHFR) in selected intervals. The CHFR tool was successfully run and data was captured. The CHFR formation resistivity readings were compared to original open hole resistivity measurements. Separation between the original and CHFR resistivity curves indicate both swept and un-swept sand intervals. Both watered out sand intervals and those with higher remaining oil saturation have been identified. Due to the nature of these turbidite sands being stratigraphically continuous, both the swept and unswept layers have been correlated across to one of the four nearby offset shallow wells. As a result of the cased hole logging, one well was selected for a workover to recomplete and test suspected oil saturated shallow sand intervals. Well S.P. Pedro-Nepple No.2 was plugged back with cement excluding the previously existing production interval, squeeze cemented behind casing, selectively perforated in the shallower ''Bell'' zone and placed on production to develop potential new oil reserves and increase overall well productivity. Prior workover production averaged 3.0 BOPD for the previous six-months from the original ''Meyer'' completion interval. Post workover well production was increased to 5.3 BOPD on average for the following fifteen months. In December 2005, a bridge plug was installed above the ''Bell'' zone to test the ''Foix'' zone. Another cement squeeze was performed behind casing, selectively perforated in the shallower ''Foix'' zone and placed on production. The ''Foix'' test has produced water and a trace of oil for two months.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF BYPASSED OIL RESERVES USING BEHIND CASING RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. Conner; Jeffrey A. Blesener

    2006-04-02

    Tubing and rods of the S.P. Pedro-Nepple No.1 well were pulled and the well was prepared for running of Schlumberger's Cased Hole Formation Resistivity Tool (CHFR) in selected intervals. The CHFR tool was successfully run and data was captured. The CHFR formation resistivity readings were compared to original open hole resistivity measurements. Separation between the original and CHFR resistivity curves indicate both swept and un-swept sand intervals. Both watered out sand intervals and those with higher remaining oil saturation have been identified. Due to the nature of these turbidite sands being stratigraphically continuous, both the swept and unswept layers have been correlated across to one of the four nearby offset shallow wells. As a result of the cased hole logging, one well was selected for a workover to recomplete and test suspected oil saturated shallow sand intervals. Well S.P. Pedro-Nepple No.2 was plugged back with cement excluding the previously existing production interval, squeeze cemented behind casing, selectively perforated in the shallower ''Bell'' zone and placed on production to develop potential new oil reserves and increase overall well productivity. Prior workover production averaged 3.0 BOPD for the previous six-months from the original ''Meyer'' completion interval. Post workover well production was increased to 5.3 BOPD on average for the following fifteen months. In December 2005, a bridge plug was installed above the ''Bell'' zone to test the ''Foix'' zone. Another cement squeeze was performed behind casing, selectively perforated in the shallower ''Foix'' zone and placed on production. The ''Foix'' test has produced water and a trace of oil for two months.

  11. Volume 9: A Review of Socioeconomic Impacts of Oil Shale Development WESTERN OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT: A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotariu, G. J.

    1982-02-01

    The development of an oil shale industry in northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah has been forecast at various times since early this century, but the comparatively easy accessibility of other oil sources has forestalled development. Decreasing fuel supplies, increasing energy costs, and the threat of a crippling oil embargo finally may launch a commercial oil shale industry in this region. Concern for the possible impacts on the human environment has been fostered by experiences of rapid population growth in other western towns that have hosted energy resource development. A large number of studies have attempted to evaluate social and economic impacts of energy development and to determine important factors that affect the severity of these impacts. These studies have suggested that successful management of rapid population growth depends on adequate front-end capital for public facilities, availability of housing, attention to human service needs, long-range land use and fiscal planning. This study examines variables that affect the socioeconomic impacts of oil shale development. The study region is composed of four Colorado counties: Mesa, Moffat, Garfield and Rio Blanco. Most of the estimated population of 111 000 resides in a handful of urban areas that are separated by large distances and rugged terrain. We have projected the six largest cities and towns and one planned company town (Battlement Mesa) to be the probable centers for potential population impacts caused by development of an oil shale industry. Local planners expect Battlement Mesa to lessen impacts on small existing communities and indeed may be necessary to prevent severe regional socioeconomic impacts. Section II describes the study region and focuses on the economic trends and present conditions in the area. The population impacts analyzed in this study are contingent on a scenario of oil shale development from 1980-90 provided by the Department of Energy and discussed in Sec. III. We

  12. Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development and operations release...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office of Oil and Natural Gas Goals The Administration has set a goal to reduce methane emissions from the oil and gas sector by 40-45 percent from 2012 levels by 2025. Achieving ...

  13. Annual Energy Outlook 2014 projects reduced need for U.S. oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Annual Energy Outlook 2014 projects reduced need for U.S. oil imports due to tight oil production growth U.S. production of tight crude oil is expected to make up a larger share ...

  14. SE Gobe: Papua New Guinea`s second oil development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langston, M.V.; McCaul, T.R.; Fitzmorris, R.E.

    1994-12-31

    A reservoir development plan was developed from a detailed geological model of the SE Gobe Iagifu reservoir. This model incorporated sequence stratigraphy and extensive core and log analysis to provide the detailed layering framework for reservoir simulation. Cross-sectional balancing techniques were applied to field derived dip and strike, dipmeter log, and RFT data to obtain a structural model for the reservoir. Cross-sectional, sector and, finally, full field reservoir simulation models were constructed and used by the team to generate a reservoir development and management plan. The simulation models were used to examine the relative merits of vertical, deviated and horizontal wells, well placement, offtake rates, gas compression requirements and pressure maintenance strategies. Due to the uncertainty in the size and shape of the field, development options were considered at each of three reserve levels: proven, probable and possible. The simulation results showed that well rates should be held to less than 8,000 stb/d and that horizontal wells, with a length of at least 700 m, generally out-performed vertical wells. Oil recovery ranged between 34 and 45% of OOIP. The cases offering the best recoveries included both water injection and horizontal wells.

  15. Venezuelan projects advance to develop world`s largest heavy oil reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croft, G.; Stauffer, K.

    1996-07-08

    A number of joint venture projects at varying stages of progress promise to greatly increase Venezuela`s production of extra heavy oil. Units of Conoco, Chevron, Total, Arco, and Mobil have either signed agreements or are pursuing negotiations with affiliates of state-owned Petroleos de Venezuela SA on the development of huge reserves of 8--10{degree} gravity crude. Large heavy oil resources are present in the oil producing areas of eastern and western Venezuela, and the largest are in eastern Venezuela`s Orinoco heavy oil belt. The paper discusses the Orinoco heavy oil belt geology and several joint ventures being implemented.

  16. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michel, R.Ch.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum rights in the 6 North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia) covered in this paper were 1,906,065 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1984, an increase of 4.6% from the 1,821,966 km/sup 2/ in force at the end of 1983. This increase is due to large awards in the Sudan despite significant relinquishments elsewhere. Seismic surveys conducted during 1984 decreased to about 510.5 crew-months onshore and 29.5 crew-months offshore. However, exploration in and off Egypt was higher compared to 1983. Exploratory drilling was lower, with only 125 wells drilled compared to 179 tests completed in 1983. The main decrease was in Egypt and Sudan, but drilling in Libya resulted in 20 more completions. A significant oil discovery was made in the offshore part of the Sirte basin, off southwest Cyrenaica. The success rate in North Africa ranged from 19% to 50% (Libya). Development drilling increased during 1984, as higher activity appears to have taken place in 3 countries. Oil production, with an estimated daily rate of 2,952,570 bbl, was up 2.8% from 1983 (2,871,460 BOPD). In Egypt, 7 fields located in the Gulf of Suez area went on stream during the year. Political unrest, which prevailed in southern Sudan during most of 1984, will likely delay the start-up of production in several fields. No statistics are available on gas production in North African countries.

  17. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michel, R.C.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum rights in the 6 North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia) covered in this paper were 1,906,065 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1984. An increase of 4.6% from the 1,821,966 km/sup 2/ in force at the end of 1983. This increase is due to large awards in the Sudan despite significant relinquishments elsewhere. Seismic surveys conducted during 1984 decreased to about 510.5 crew-months onshore and 29.5 crew-months offshore. However, exploration in and off Egypt was higher compared to 1983. Exploratory drilling was lower, with only 125 wells drilled compared to 179 tests completed in 1983. The main decrease was in Egypt and Sudan, but drilling in Libya resulted in 20 more completions. A significant oil discovery was made in the offshore part of the Sirte basin, off southwest Cyrenaica. The success rate in North America ranged from 19% to 50% (Libya). Development drilling increased during 1984, as higher activity appears to have taken place in 3 countries. Oil production, with an estimated daily rate of 2,952,570 bbl, was 2.8% from 1983 (2,871,460 BOPD). In Egypt, 7 fields located in the Gulf of Suez area went on stream during the year. Political unrest, which prevailed in southern Sudan during most of 1984, will likely delay the start-up of production in several fields. No statistics are available on gas production in North African countries. 9 figures, 27 tables.

  18. Review of EIA Oil Production Outlooks

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Review of EIA oil production outlooks For 2014 EIA Energy Conference July 15, 2014 | Washington, DC By Samuel Gorgen, Upstream Analyst Overview Gorgen, Tight Oil Production Trends EIA Conference, July 15, 2014 2 * Drilling Productivity Report performance review - Permian - Eagle Ford - Bakken * Crude oil production projections - Short-Term Energy Outlook - Annual Energy Outlook - International tight oil outlook * New DPR region highlights: Utica Drilling Productivity Report review - major tight

  19. Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 7: an ecosystem simulation of perturbations applied to shale oil development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    Progress is outlined on activities leading toward evaluation of ecological and agricultural impacts of shale oil development in the Piceance Creek Basin region of northwestern Colorado. After preliminary review of the problem, it was decided to use a model-based calculation approach in the evaluation. The general rationale and objectives of this approach are discussed. Previous studies were examined to characterize climate, soils, vegetation, animals, and ecosystem response units. System function was methodically defined by developing a master list of variables and flows, structuring a generalized system flow diagram, constructing a flow-effects matrix, and conceptualizing interactive spatial units through spatial matrices. The process of developing individual mathematical functions representing the flow of matter and energy through the various system variables in different submodels is discussed. The system model diagram identified 10 subsystems which separately account for flow of soil temperatures, soil water, herbaceous plant biomass, shrubby plant biomass, tree cover, litter biomass, shrub numbers, animal biomass, animal numbers, and land area. Among these coupled subsystems there are 45 unique kinds of state variables and 150 intra-subsystem flows. The model is generalizeable and canonical so that it can be expanded, if required, by disaggregating some of the system state variables and allowing for multiple ecological response units. It integrates information on climate, surface water, ecology, land reclamation, air quality, and solid waste as it is being developed by several other task groups.

  20. Development Practices for Optimized MEOR in Shallow Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shari Dunn-Norman

    2006-09-30

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate an economically viable and sustainable method of producing shallow heavy oil reserves in southwest Missouri and southeast Kansas using a combination of microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) and hydraulic fracturing of vertical wells.

  1. Canola-Based Automotive Oil Research and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, Ira N.; Kammerman, Steven B.

    2009-12-07

    convert to bio-based products. The U.S. needs closer cooperation between the producers of agricultural products and the industry that makes the final product. Consequently, without ample government support, green technology projects will not be developed rapidly and in a substantial size to be able to realize the economies of scale needed. State and federal government collaboration and participation, including financial support, is imperative to the rapid development of incentives to ensure a sustained total conversion by the private sector and government to biobased lubricants and other industrial bioproducts. State and local governments can assist this industry by making certain that all of their fleets and those of their contractors use green oil.

  2. Recent hydrocarbon developments in Latin America: Key issues in the downstream oil sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, K.; Pezeshki, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report discusses the following: (1) An overview of major issues in the downstream oil sector, including oil demand and product export availability, the changing product consumption pattern, and refineries being due for major investment; (2) Recent upstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela; (3) Recent downstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Cuba, and Venezuela; (4) Pipelines in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico; and (5) Regional energy balance. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry's view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  4. International oil and gas exploration and development: 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This report starts where the previous quarterly publication ended. This first publication of a new annual series contains most of the same data as the quarterly report, plus some new material, through 1991. It also presents historical data covering a longer period of time than the previous quarterly report. Country-level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve-to-production rations (R/P ratios) are listed for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form. The most popular table in the previous quarterly report, a listing of new discoveries, continues in this annual report as Appendix A.

  5. Field development options for a waterflooded heavy-oil reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasraie, M. ); Sammon, P.H. ); Jespersen, P.J. )

    1993-09-01

    Battrum Unit 4 is a moderately heavy-oil reservoir in Saskatchewan producing under waterflood from a thin sand. This paper describes a history match of previous field behavior and systematically analyzes through the use of numerical simulation the potential benefits to production of further waterflooding (with and without infill drilling), steamflooding, and horizontal drilling. It is found that the remaining oil recovery potential of a steamflood with horizontal well is significantly higher than that of any of the waterflood options.

  6. Development prospects of the capital-surplus oil-exporting countries. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habluetzel, R.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the political and economic factors that are likely to determine, in the next five years, the absorptive capacity for investment and consumption in the capital-surplus oil-exporting countries; this permits an evaluation of the prospective size of their oil surplus under specific assumptions of oil export volume and oil prices. Starting with an analysis of the notion that the volume of oil production, beyond a specific point for each country, is of a discretionary nature, the paper proceeds to review the experience of the oil-surplus countries during the last seven years in absorbing oil income and creating a domestic income base for the post-oil era. The results of this experience and its side effects (in the form of inflation and immigrant labor) and their political and economic implications are reviewed in the context of different resource endowments and societal structures with a view to understanding the likely development and expenditures the governments will take. The paper concludes with a prognosis of likely levels of total oil income, domestic absorptions, and oil surpluses for the six countries. 4 references, 26 tables.

  7. Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 2: technology characterization and production scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    A technology characterization of processes that may be used in the oil shale industry is presented. The six processes investigated are TOSCO II, Paraho Direct, Union B, Superior, Occidental MIS, and Lurgi-Ruhrgas. A scanario of shale oil production to the 300,000 BPD level by 1990 is developed. (ACR)

  8. Obama Administration Announces Members of Steering Team to Lead Interagency Coordination of Unconventional Oil and Gas Research and Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department announces two members (policy and technical) to unconventional oil and gas research and development steering team.

  9. Tight gas reservoirs: A visual depiction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Future gas supplies in the US will depend on an increasing contribution from unconventional sources such as overpressured and tight gas reservoirs. Exploitation of these resources and their conversion to economically producible gas reserves represents a major challenge. Meeting this challenge will require not only the continuing development and application of new technologies, but also a detailed understanding of the complex nature of the reservoirs themselves. This report seeks to promote understanding of these reservoirs by providing examples. Examples of gas productive overpressured tight reservoirs in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming are presented. These examples show log data (raw and interpreted), well completion and stimulation information, and production decline curves. A sampling of wells from the Lewis and Mesaverde formations are included. Both poor and good wells have been chosen to illustrate the range of productivity that is observed. The second section of this document displays decline curves and completion details for 30 of the best wells in the Greater Green River Basin. These are included to illustrate the potential that is present when wells are fortuitously located with respect to local stratigraphy and natural fracturing, and are successfully hydraulically fractured.

  10. Development of an In Situ Biosurfactant Production Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.J. McInerney; R.M. Knapp; Kathleen Duncan; D.R. Simpson; N. Youssef; N. Ravi; M.J. Folmsbee; T.Fincher; S. Maudgalya; Jim Davis; Sandra Weiland

    2007-09-30

    The long-term economic potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is large with more than 300 billion barrels of oil remaining in domestic reservoirs after conventional technologies reach their economic limit. Actual EOR production in the United States has never been very large, less than 10% of the total U. S. production even though a number of economic incentives have been used to stimulate the development and application of EOR processes. The U.S. DOE Reservoir Data Base contains more than 600 reservoirs with over 12 billion barrels of unrecoverable oil that are potential targets for microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). If MEOR could be successfully applied to reduce the residual oil saturation by 10% in a quarter of these reservoirs, more than 300 million barrels of oil could be added to the U.S. oil reserve. This would stimulate oil production from domestic reservoirs and reduce our nation's dependence on foreign imports. Laboratory studies have shown that detergent-like molecules called biosurfactants, which are produced by microorganisms, are very effective in mobilizing entrapped oil from model test systems. The biosurfactants are effective at very low concentrations. Given the promising laboratory results, it is important to determine the efficacy of using biosurfactants in actual field applications. The goal of this project is to move biosurfactant-mediated oil recovery from laboratory investigations to actual field applications. In order to meet this goal, several important questions must be answered. First, it is critical to know whether biosurfactant-producing microbes are present in oil formations. If they are present, then it will be important to know whether a nutrient regime can be devised to stimulate their growth and activity in the reservoir. If biosurfactant producers are not present, then a suitable strain must be obtained that can be injected into oil reservoirs. We were successful in answering all three questions. The specific objectives

  11. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemer, D.O.; Lyle, J.H.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1984 totaled 4,088,853,000 bbl (an average rate of 11,144,407 BOPD), down less than 1.0% from the revised total of 4,112,116,000 bbl produced in 1983. Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, and Oman had significant increases; Iran and Dubai had significant decreases. Jordan produced oil, although a minor amount, for the first time ever, and new production facilities were in the planning stage in Syria, North Yemen, and Oman, which will bring new fields on stream when completed.

  12. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemer, D.O.; Gohrbandt, K.H.A.

    1986-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1985 totaled 3,837,580,000 bbl (an average rate of 10,513,917 BOPD), down 2.2% from the revised 1984 total of 3,924,034,000 bbl. Iran, Iraq, Dubai, Oman, and Syria had significant increases; Kuwait, Kuwait-Saudi Arabia Divided Neutral Zone, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar had significant decreases. New fields went on production in Iraq, Abu Dhabi, Oman, and Syria. In North Yemen, the first ever oil production in that country was nearing the start-up stage at year end. 9 figures, 9 tables.

  13. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemer, D.O.; Lyle, J.H.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1984 totaled 4,088,853,000 bbl (an average rate of 11,144,407 BOPD), down less than 1.0% from the revised total of 4,112,116,000 bbl produced in 1983. Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, and Oman had significant increases; Iran and Dubai had significant decreases. Jordan produced oil, although a minor amount, for the first time ever, and new production facilities were in the planning stage in Syria, North Yemen, and Oman, which will bring new fields on stream when completed. 4 figures, 9 tables.

  14. Minimizing the environmental impact of oil and gas developments in the tropics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenfeld, A.B.; Gordon, D.L.; Guerin-McManus, M.

    1997-07-01

    The next big frontier for oil and gas development will be the humid tropics, where more than 80% of exploration and production is expected to take place in the next decade. The tropical areas targeted by these operations not only hold large stores of oil and gas, but are also frequently undeveloped and remote, located in or near important and sensitive ecosystems. Within the tropics the most heavily targeted area is the Latin American Neotropics (New World tropics), which include South America, Mesoamerica and the Caribbean. A regionwide move toward privatization of state oil industries, growing liberalization of markets, and contractual incentives for foreign investment make this region a prime target for oil exploration and development. Proper evaluation of available technologies and planning will help determine how and where mitigation efforts should be directed to prevent and control environmental impacts.

  15. Expanded unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development has led to increased seism

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Expanded unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development has led to increased seismicity in several areas of the country, including areas where it was previously very uncommon. The primary cause of these earthquakes, which can reach magnitude 3.0 to 6.0, is large-scale wastewater injection from oil and gas production. In order to provide useful information to regulators and those who manage wastewater, the Department of Energy (DOE) is funding collaborative efforts to 1) identify the risks, 2)

  16. Planning and management of the Nido Reef Complex Oil Field development, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry, R.Y.

    1981-01-01

    As Operator for the Northeast Palawan consortium, Philippines-Cities Service, Inc., commenced the Philippines first commercial offshore oil production from the Nido Reef Complex Oil Field on February 1, 1979, some 11 months after a decision by management to start development. The relative speed at which design, fabrication, and construction were accomplished is attributed to the use of the concepts of project planning, task force approach, and project management. This paper presents the above concepts as applied to the Nido Complex.

  17. Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dandina N. Rao; Subhash C. Ayirala; Madhav M. Kulkarni; Wagirin Ruiz Paidin; Thaer N. N. Mahmoud; Daryl S. Sequeira; Amit P. Sharma

    2006-09-30

    This is the final report describing the evolution of the project ''Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery'' from its conceptual stage in 2002 to the field implementation of the developed technology in 2006. This comprehensive report includes all the experimental research, models developments, analyses of results, salient conclusions and the technology transfer efforts. As planned in the original proposal, the project has been conducted in three separate and concurrent tasks: Task 1 involved a physical model study of the new GAGD process, Task 2 was aimed at further developing the vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for gas-oil miscibility determination, and Task 3 was directed at determining multiphase gas-oil drainage and displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks at realistic pressures and temperatures. The project started with the task of recruiting well-qualified graduate research assistants. After collecting and reviewing the literature on different aspects of the project such gas injection EOR, gravity drainage, miscibility characterization, and gas-oil displacement characteristics in porous media, research plans were developed for the experimental work to be conducted under each of the three tasks. Based on the literature review and dimensional analysis, preliminary criteria were developed for the design of the partially-scaled physical model. Additionally, the need for a separate transparent model for visual observation and verification of the displacement and drainage behavior under gas-assisted gravity drainage was identified. Various materials and methods (ceramic porous material, Stucco, Portland cement, sintered glass beads) were attempted in order to fabricate a satisfactory visual model. In addition to proving the effectiveness of the GAGD process (through measured oil recoveries in the range of 65 to 87% IOIP), the visual models demonstrated three possible

  18. New noncatalytic heavy-oil process developed in Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, I.P.; Souhrada, F.; Woods, H.J.

    1982-11-22

    Describes Gulf Canada's hydrogen addition upgrading process, named Donor Refined Bitumen (DRB), which involves the pyrolysis of the residuum portion of the bitumen or heavy oil in the presence of an efficient hydrogen donor that stabilizes the intermediates from the pyrolyzing bitumen. Advantages are high operability and reliability, low capital and operating costs, high yields and good product quality, feedstock and independence, the use of conventional refinery equipment, and ready availability of high quality donor. Presents a schematic flow sheet of the DRB process showing how bitumen is upgraded sufficiently to allow easy pipelining to a central major upgrading plant. Tables give comparative compositional data on middle distillates; naptha compositions and qualities; and operating costs.

  19. Crude Oil Characteristics Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SAE Plan June 29, 2015 Page 1 Crude Oil Characteristics Research Sampling, Analysis and Experiment (SAE) Plan The U.S. is experiencing a renaissance in oil and gas production. The Energy Information Administration projects that U.S. oil production will reach 9.3 million barrels per day in 2015 - the highest annual average level of oil production since 1972. This domestic energy boom is due primarily to new unconventional production of light sweet crude oil from tight-oil formations like the

  20. State-of-the-art report summarizing techniques to determine residual oil saturation and recommendations on the requirements for residual oil saturation research and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, M.M.; Maerefat, N.L.

    1986-05-01

    An investigation was conducted on the residual oil saturation (ROS) measurement techniques developed during the last fifteen years. Knowledge of precise ROS measurements is required for EOR project planning. The advantages, limitations, and problems of each one of the techniques are presented in tabulated form. Also, some of the possible improvements in the measurement techniques for the residual oil saturation are summarized. The following residual oil saturation techniques are discussed: core analyses, well logging, backflow tracer tests, material balance and well testing, newly developed gravity log methods, and interwell residual oil saturation measurements. Several aspects left to be improved in both instrumentations and data interpretation on pressure coring, back-flow tracer tests, well logging, material balance calculations, well testing, and interwell ROS measurements are presented. A nuclear magnetism log-inject-log method is proposed in which the need for porosity measurement for determining residual oil saturation is eliminated. 91 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. Oil and gas development in Middle East in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemer, D.O.; Gohrbandt, K.H.A.; Phillips, C.B.

    1988-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1987 totaled an estimated 4,500,500,000 bbl (an average rate of 12,330,137 b/d), up slightly from the revised 1986 total of 4,478,972,000 bbl. Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic had significant increases; Kuwait and Saudi Arabia had significant decreases. Production was established for the first time in People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. New fields went on production in Iraq, Oman, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, and Syria, and significant oil discoveries were reported in Iraq, Oman, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. The level of exploration increased in 1987 with new concessions awarded in some countries, drilling and seismic activities on the increase, new regions in mature areas explored for the first time, and significant reserve additions reported in new and old permits. The Iraq-Iran war still had a negative impact in some regions of the Middle East, particularly in and around the Gulf. 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. South America: Growth in E and P opportunities keeps accelerating. [Oil and gas exploration and development in South America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This paper reviews and summarizes the oil and gas developments in Columbia, Argentina, Venezuela, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and other South American oil and gas producing countries during 1992 through 1993 and forecasts the future developments. The expanding exploration in these areas has resulted from the major new oil finds and the need for local countries to help stabilize their currency. The paper discusses exploration and drilling activity, production, and financial expenditures made on developing this regions reserves.

  3. Development of Authorized Limits for Portsmouth Oil Inventory Disposition

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    State | Department of Energy Developing and Enhancing Workforce Training Programs: Number of Projects by State Developing and Enhancing Workforce Training Programs: Number of Projects by State Map of the United States showing the location of Workforce Training Projects, funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Developing and Enhancing Workforce Training Programs: Number of Projects by State (389.21 KB) More Documents & Publications Workforce Development Wind Projects

  4. Pompano subsea development -- TFL well design for deepwater unconsolidated waxy oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holt, J.; Black, J.W.; Meader, A.; Whitehead, N.

    1996-12-31

    BP Exploration`s Pompano subsea development, in 1,865 ft of water uses a subsea production system to produce oil to a host platform 4.5 miles away. This paper describes the well construction and completion design for a template/manifold Through Flowline (TFL) subsea oil production system. Included are an outline of the rig upgrade requirements, casing design, completion design, and simultaneous operations strategy. It will provide a useful guide for drilling staff involved in planning and execution of a subsea development.

  5. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Standard Oil Development Co of NJ - NJ

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    18 Standard Oil Development Co of NJ - NJ 18 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: STANDARD OIL DEVELOPMENT CO. OF NJ (NJ.18) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Exxon Research and Engineering Co. NJ.18-1 NJ.18-4 Location: 1900 Linden Avenue , Linden , New Jersey NJ.18-1 Evaluation Year: Circa 1990 - 1991 NJ.18-2 Site Operations: From its Linden, NJ laboratory facilities, provided consulting services to the MED/AEC and acted as a broker in the

  6. GIS-and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Wei; Minnick, Matthew; Geza, Mengistu; Murray, Kyle; Mattson, Earl

    2012-09-30

    The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) was awarded a grant by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a research project en- titled GIS- and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development in October of 2008. The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a water resource geo-spatial infrastructure that serves as “baseline data” for creating solutions on water resource management and for supporting decisions making on oil shale resource development. The project came to the end on September 30, 2012. This final project report will report the key findings from the project activity, major accomplishments, and expected impacts of the research. At meantime, the gamma version (also known as Version 4.0) of the geodatabase as well as other various deliverables stored on digital storage media will be send to the program manager at NETL, DOE via express mail. The key findings from the project activity include the quantitative spatial and temporal distribution of the water resource throughout the Piceance Basin, water consumption with respect to oil shale production, and data gaps identified. Major accomplishments of this project include the creation of a relational geodatabase, automated data processing scripts (Matlab) for database link with surface water and geological model, ArcGIS Model for hydrogeologic data processing for groundwater model input, a 3D geological model, surface water/groundwater models, energy resource development systems model, as well as a web-based geo-spatial infrastructure for data exploration, visualization and dissemination. This research will have broad impacts of the devel- opment of the oil shale resources in the US. The geodatabase provides a “baseline” data for fur- ther study of the oil shale development and identification of further data collection needs. The 3D geological model provides better understanding through data interpolation and

  7. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean Area, and Mexico in 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deal, C.S.

    1983-10-01

    Petroleum developments in the region in 1982 had a more varied pattern than in 1981 when all aspects were upbeat with varying degrees of increases. In 1982, Brazil, Mexico, and Guatemala had striking increases in oil production; Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia had moderate increases; and Argentina, Trinidad, and Venezuela reported declines. In exploration, Argentina reported several additional offshore Tierra del Fuego discoveries in the Cretaceous Springhill and 2 more encouraging gas discoveries in the Noroeste basin. Bolivia reported an oil discovery from Silurian rocks more generally considered a gas objective. Brazil extended and confirmed the Western Amazonas gas area with 2 discoveries. Colombia added 2 more spectacular oil discoveries in the Llanos basin to follow up 2 similar finds in 1981. Several countries reported that discoveries have increased the national reserves of hydrocarbons. Considering the social, political, and economic problems in several countries, along with the worldwide depression and petroleum surplus, developments in the region have been on the whole favorable.

  8. Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terralog Technologies USA Inc.

    2001-12-17

    The goals of this DOE sponsored project are to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to test these improved models and guidelines in the field.

  9. Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terralog Technologies

    2002-11-25

    The goals of this project have was to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to apply these improved models and guidelines in the field.

  10. Unconventional Oil and Gas Projects Help Reduce Environmental Impact of Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Fossil Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory has an unconventional oil and gas program devoted to research in this important area of energy development. The laboratory partners with industry and academia through cost-sharing agreements to develop scientific knowledge and advance technologies that can improve the environmental performance of unconventional resource development. Once the resulting technologies are deployed for commercial use, our nation stands to reap huge benefits.

  11. Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 1. Main report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    The general goal of this study is to present the prospects of shale oil within the context of (1) environmental constraints, (2) available natural and economic resources, and (3) the characteristics of existing and emerging technology. The objectives are: to review shale oil technologies objectively as a means of supplying domestically produced fuels within environmental, social, economic, and legal/institutional constraints; using available data, analyses, and experienced judgment, to examine the major points of uncertainty regarding potential impacts of oil shale development; to resolve issues where data and analyses are compelling or where conclusions can be reached on judgmental grounds; to specify issues which cannot be resolved on the bases of the data, analyses, and experienced judgment currently available; and when appropriate and feasible, to suggest ways for the removal of existing uncertainties that stand in the way of resolving outstanding issues.

  12. Advanced Hydraulic Fracturing Technology for Unconventional Tight Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Holditch; A. Daniel Hill; D. Zhu

    2007-06-19

    The objectives of this project are to develop and test new techniques for creating extensive, conductive hydraulic fractures in unconventional tight gas reservoirs by statistically assessing the productivity achieved in hundreds of field treatments with a variety of current fracturing practices ranging from 'water fracs' to conventional gel fracture treatments; by laboratory measurements of the conductivity created with high rate proppant fracturing using an entirely new conductivity test - the 'dynamic fracture conductivity test'; and by developing design models to implement the optimal fracture treatments determined from the field assessment and the laboratory measurements. One of the tasks of this project is to create an 'advisor' or expert system for completion, production and stimulation of tight gas reservoirs. A central part of this study is an extensive survey of the productivity of hundreds of tight gas wells that have been hydraulically fractured. We have been doing an extensive literature search of the SPE eLibrary, DOE, Gas Technology Institute (GTI), Bureau of Economic Geology and IHS Energy, for publicly available technical reports about procedures of drilling, completion and production of the tight gas wells. We have downloaded numerous papers and read and summarized the information to build a database that will contain field treatment data, organized by geographic location, and hydraulic fracture treatment design data, organized by the treatment type. We have conducted experimental study on 'dynamic fracture conductivity' created when proppant slurries are pumped into hydraulic fractures in tight gas sands. Unlike conventional fracture conductivity tests in which proppant is loaded into the fracture artificially; we pump proppant/frac fluid slurries into a fracture cell, dynamically placing the proppant just as it occurs in the field. From such tests, we expect to gain new insights into some of the critical issues in tight gas fracturing, in

  13. Development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems for Flexible Electricity and Reduced Fossil Fuel Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel Curtis; Charles Forsberg; Humberto Garcia

    2015-05-01

    We propose the development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems (NROSS) in northern Europe, China, and the western United States to provide large supplies of flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity and fossil fuel production with reduced CO2 emissions. NROSS are a class of large hybrid energy systems in which base-load nuclear reactors provide the primary energy used to produce shale oil from kerogen deposits and simultaneously provide flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity to the grid. Kerogen is solid organic matter trapped in sedimentary shale, and large reserves of this resource, called oil shale, are found in northern Europe, China, and the western United States. NROSS couples electricity generation and transportation fuel production in a single operation, reduces lifecycle carbon emissions from the fuel produced, improves revenue for the nuclear plant, and enables a major shift toward a very-low-carbon electricity grid. NROSS will require a significant development effort in the United States, where kerogen resources have never been developed on a large scale. In Europe, however, nuclear plants have been used for process heat delivery (district heating), and kerogen use is familiar in certain countries. Europe, China, and the United States all have the opportunity to use large scale NROSS development to enable major growth in renewable generation and either substantially reduce or eliminate their dependence on foreign fossil fuel supplies, accelerating their transitions to cleaner, more efficient, and more reliable energy systems.

  14. Flexible riser and mooring system develops small oil fields in the North Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, A.M.; Holmes, G. ); Benstead, P.J. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports on the flexible riser and mooring system (FRAMS) which provides a technically straightforward, commercially attractive method of developing small oil fields. A passively moored 60,000-deadweight-ton (60,000-DWT) tanker with deck-mounted equipment provides a swivelless well fluid and injection water path from and to the wellheads. The system can be disconnected rapidly in severe weather.

  15. Development and certification of the innovative pioneer oil burner for residential heating appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamath, B.

    1997-09-01

    The Pioneer burner represents another important milestone for the oil heat industry. It is the first practical burner design that is designated for use in small capacity heating appliances matching the needs of modern energy efficient home designs. Firing in the range of 0.3 GPH to 0.65 GPH (40,000-90,000 Btu/hr) it allows for new oil heating appliance designs to compete with the other major fuel choices in the small design load residential market. This market includes energy efficient single family houses, town-houses, condominiums, modular units, and mobile homes. The firing range also is wide enough to cover a large percentage of more conventional heating equipment and home designs as well. Having recently passed Underwriters Laboratory certification tests the burner in now being field tested in several homes and samples are being made available to interested boiler and furnace manufacturers for product development and application testing.

  16. GIS-based Geospatial Infrastructure of Water Resource Assessment for Supporting Oil Shale Development in Piceance Basin of Northwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Wei; Minnick, Matthew D; Mattson, Earl D; Geza, Mengistu; Murray, Kyle E.

    2015-04-01

    Oil shale deposits of the Green River Formation (GRF) in Northwestern Colorado, Southwestern Wyoming, and Northeastern Utah may become one of the first oil shale deposits to be developed in the U.S. because of their richness, accessibility, and extensive prior characterization. Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock that contains significant amounts of kerogen from which liquid hydrocarbons can be produced. Water is needed to retort or extract oil shale at an approximate rate of three volumes of water for every volume of oil produced. Concerns have been raised over the demand and availability of water to produce oil shale, particularly in semiarid regions where water consumption must be limited and optimized to meet demands from other sectors. The economic benefit of oil shale development in this region may have tradeoffs within the local and regional environment. Due to these potential environmental impacts of oil shale development, water usage issues need to be further studied. A basin-wide baseline for oil shale and water resource data is the foundation of the study. This paper focuses on the design and construction of a centralized geospatial infrastructure for managing a large amount of oil shale and water resource related baseline data, and for setting up the frameworks for analytical and numerical models including but not limited to three-dimensional (3D) geologic, energy resource development systems, and surface water models. Such a centralized geospatial infrastructure made it possible to directly generate model inputs from the same database and to indirectly couple the different models through inputs/outputs. Thus ensures consistency of analyses conducted by researchers from different institutions, and help decision makers to balance water budget based on the spatial distribution of the oil shale and water resources, and the spatial variations of geologic, topographic, and hydrogeological Characterization of the basin. This endeavor

  17. Development of the Write Process for Pipeline-Ready Heavy Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee Brecher; Charles Mones; Frank Guffey

    2009-03-07

    Work completed under this program advances the goal of demonstrating Western Research Institute's (WRI's) WRITE{trademark} process for upgrading heavy oil at field scale. MEG Energy Corporation (MEG) located in Calgary, Alberta, Canada supported efforts at WRI to develop the WRITE{trademark} process as an oil sands, field-upgrading technology through this Task 51 Jointly Sponsored Research project. The project consisted of 6 tasks: (1) optimization of the distillate recovery unit (DRU), (2) demonstration and design of a continuous coker, (3) conceptual design and cost estimate for a commercial facility, (4) design of a WRITE{trademark} pilot plant, (5) hydrotreating studies, and (6) establish a petroleum analysis laboratory. WRITE{trademark} is a heavy oil and bitumen upgrading process that produces residuum-free, pipeline ready oil from heavy material with undiluted density and viscosity that exceed prevailing pipeline specifications. WRITE{trademark} uses two processing stages to achieve low and high temperature conversion of heavy oil or bitumen. The first stage DRU operates at mild thermal cracking conditions, yielding a light overhead product and a heavy residuum or bottoms material. These bottoms flow to the second stage continuous coker that operates at severe pyrolysis conditions, yielding light pyrolyzate and coke. The combined pyrolyzate and mildly cracked overhead streams form WRITE{trademark}'s synthetic crude oil (SCO) production. The main objectives of this project were to (1) complete testing and analysis at bench scale with the DRU and continuous coker reactors and provide results to MEG for process evaluation and scale-up determinations and (2) complete a technical and economic assessment of WRITE{trademark} technology to determine its viability. The DRU test program was completed and a processing envelope developed. These results were used for process assessment and for scaleup. Tests in the continuous coker were intended to determine the

  18. Colorado oil shale development on policy and impact mitigation plan. Final report, March 31, 1980-November 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The impacts of accelerated oil shale development in four northwestern Colorado counties, Moffat, Rio Blanco, Mesa, and Garfield are being monitored and managed through a grant to the Colorado Department of Highways.

  19. The boomerang area: An example of oil and gas fields related to a transfer zone development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Specht, M.; Colletta, B.; Letouzey, J. ); Baby, P. ); Oller, J.; Montemuro, G. ); Guillier, B. )

    1993-02-01

    We present results of a study realized from petroleum data of Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos of the most important transfer zone of the Bolivian Andean belt: the Santa Cruz transfer zone. Frontal part of the Bolivian Andean belt consists of a thick series (6 to 8 km) of paleozoic to cenozoic sedimentary rocks thrusted eastwards on a sole thrust located in paleozoic series. The frontal part of the belt, globally N-S oriented, undergoes an important deviation East of Santa Cruz with a left lateral offset of 100 Km. Taking into account the E-W shortening direction, this transfer zone can be interpreted as a lateral ramp. The Santa Cruz transfer zone coincide with a set of small oil and gas fields whereas frontal structures lack hydrocarbon occurrences. We are then faced with a two-fold problem: (1) what is the origin of the transfer zone (2) why are the oil and gas concentrated in the transfer zone Our synthesis shows that the transfer zone is superimposed on the limit of a detached Paleozoic basin whose border direction is oblique to the regional shortening direction. We then interpret the oil and gas formation in two steps: (1) source rock maturation and hydrocarbon migration towards the top of the Paleozoic sedimentary wedge before Andean deformation. (2) hydrocarbon dismigration towards anticlinal structures developed during the lateral ramp propagation. In order to test our interpretation we performed a set of analog model experiments whose 3D visualization was analyzed by computerized X-ray tomography.

  20. Oil and gas developments in New Zealand and southwest Pacific Islands in 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herzer, R.H.; Katz, H.R.

    1987-10-01

    In New Zealand, 5 new licenses were granted in offshore Taranaki and 4 licenses were relinquished in other parts of the country. Seismic survey activity increased, partly due to a dense survey over Maui field. Sniffer surveys were used for the first time in New Zealand in 5 licensees. Onshore seismic totaled 717 line-km, and offshore seismic totaled 3693 line-km. Drilling continued at a high level for New Zealand with 12 onshore and 5 offshore wells totaling 57,147 m. Two gas and condensate discoveries, Tariki-1A and Ahuroa-2A, were made in the overthrust play of eastern Taranaki, and a gas and condensate (possible oil) discovery was made off the south Taranaki coast at Kupe South-1. Total petroleum production increased to 4546 million m/sup 3/ of gas, 1208 thousand m/sup 3/ of condensate, 186.7 thousand m/sup 3/ of LPG, and 501 thousand m/sup 3/ of oil. Early depletion of the D-sand reservoir in Maui-A field led Shell BP Todd to shoot 1598 km of seismic over the field and to drill 3 appraisal wells. Tonga has released a new license map with 119 blocks offered. Significant changes in legislation include increased royalties, a reduction of exploration license duration to 11 years (but 25 years for development of a discovery), and replacement of expenditure commitments by license work programs. In Papua New Guinea, Iagifu-2X discovery was confirmed with the drilling of Iagifu-3X, which established 4 oil pay zones in the field. The Papuan foldbelt is now considered a very attractive oil province, and most of the basin is under license. 4 figures, 6 tables.

  1. Oil and gas developments in New Zealand and southwest Pacific islands in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahill, J.P.; Katz, H.R.

    1988-10-01

    In New Zealand, 14 new licenses were granted: 6 in the East Coast region, 6 offshore Taranaki, and 2 in the South Island. Two licenses were relinquished, and the onshore Taranaki license held by petrocorp expired. Onshore seismic activity totaled 525 km; offshore seismic activity totaled 3,221 km (reconnaissance seismic surveys by TCPL accounted for much of the offshore activity). Drilling decreased slightly, with 18 wells drilled (13 onshore and 5 offshore) total 55,203 m. The drilling of Kora-1 on a volcanic structure in the North Taranaki basin has led to speculation about a possible oil discovery. Total petroleum production remained steady at 4,360 million m/sup 3/ of gas, 1,127 thousand m/sup 3/ of condensate, 190 thousand m/sup 3/ of LPG, and 509 thousand m/sup 3/ of oil. In Papua New Guinea, further discoveries in the overthrust belt of the Papuan basin have confirmed the highly prospective nature of this area. A major gas and condensate field with 4 pay zones was established in the Hides structure east of Juha field, and early in 1988 gas, condensate, and oil were found in the Hedinia structure south of the Iagifu oil field discovered in 1986. Total drilling amounted to 15,725.55 m during 1987. Seismic surveys covered 858 km onshore and 4,747 km offshore. There are 36 active Petroleum Prospecting Licenses: 32 in the Papuan basin and 4 in the North New Guinea basin. No new developments were reported in Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2005-12-31

    to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted in sandpacks to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on DPR. All gels studied reduced the permeability to water by a greater factor than the factor by which the oil permeability was reduced. Greater DPR was observed as the concentrations of polymer and chromium were increased. A conceptual model of the mechanisms responsible for DPR is presented. Primary features of the model are (1) the development of flow channels through the gel by dehydration and displacement of the gel and by re-connection of pre-treatment, residual oil volume and (2) high flow resistance in the channels during water flow is caused by significant saturations of oil remaining in the channels. A similar study of DPR was conducted in Berea sandstone cores. Both oil and water permeabilities were reduced by much smaller factors in Berea sandstone cores than in similar treatments in sandpacks. Poor maturation of the gelant in the Berea rock was thought to be caused by fluid-rock interactions that interfered with the gelation process.

  3. WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this project are: (1) to improve understanding of the wettability alteration of mixed-wet rocks that results from contact with the components of synthetic oil-based drilling and completion fluids formulated to meet the needs of arctic drilling; (2) to investigate cleaning methods to reverse the wettability alteration of mixed-wet cores caused by contact with these SBM components; and (3) to develop new approaches to restoration of wetting that will permit the use of cores drilled with SBM formulations for valid studies of reservoir properties.

  4. Eco Oil 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett Earl; Brenda Clark

    2009-10-26

    This article describes the processes, challenges, and achievements of researching and developing a biobased motor oil.

  5. STEO January 2013 - oil production increase

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    since 1988. Most of America's oil production growth over the next two years will come from more drilling activity in tight shale rock formations located in North Dakota and Texas

  6. Final report on development and testing of the microwave oil-water monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, C.

    1991-06-15

    The oil-water monitor is a device invented by Dr. Claude Swanson of Applied Physics Technology to respond to the petroleum-loss problem in crude oil transfers. It is a device which measures water content in crude oil and other petroleum products, in a flowing pipe such as a pipeline or tanker manifold. It is capable of accurately measuring the water contamination levels in crude oil shipments, in real time as the crude oil flows through the loading manifold into the tanker, or at the receiving point as the oil is off-loaded. The oil-water monitor has application in the verification of oil volumes and concentration of contaminants at petroleum transfer points. The industry-estimated level of water loss at transfer points due to inadequate monitoring technology amounts to several billion dollars per year, so there is a definite perceived need within the petroleum community for this type of accurate water monitoring technology. News articles indicating the importance of this problem are shown. The microwave oil-water monitor measures the water content in the oil, whether in the form of small droplets or large globules. Therefore it can be applied to the crude oil as it flows through crude oil pipes into the ship, or at transfer points in a crude oil distribution system. 4 refs., 18 figs.

  7. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Carribbean area, and Mexico in 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deal, C.S.

    1982-11-01

    Petroleum developments in 1981 continued in the pattern of recent years of increasing exploration and exploitation in response to the second catastrophic surge in crude oil prices thrust on the world economy in 1979. Production of crude oil increased in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Guatemala, and Mexico, whereas Venezuela, Trinidad, Peru, and Bolivia experienced declines. Exploratory surveys, exploratory drilling, and development drilling all increased in most of the countries reporting. Significant successful exploratory drilling is reported for several countries. In Argentina, the producing zone of the Austral basin has been extended farther offshore, and is reportedly productive in what is apparently the upper Malvinas basin. In Brazil, extensions to several producing areas are reported in the Campos basin. Also, the Jurua gas province of western Amazonas reportedly had an encouraging extension. Colombia had several discoveries in the Magdalena basins, but the 2 Llanos discoveries are considered much more significant. For a variety of reasons, several countries have undertaken or are undertaking changes in laws and regulations to attract foreign companies into exploration risk ventures. In some countries, exploitation ventures are also offered.

  8. Venezuelan oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, A.R. )

    1989-01-01

    Oil reserves have been known to exist in Venezuela since early historical records, however, it was not until the 20th century that the extensive search for new reserves began. The 1950's marked the height of oil exploration when 200 new oil fields were discovered, as well as over 60{percent} of proven reserves. Venezuela now produces one tone in seven of crude oil consumption and the country's abundant reserves such as the Bolivar Coastal field in the West of the country and the Orinoco Belt field in the East, will ensure it's continuing importance as an oil producer well into the 21st century. This book charts the historical development of Venezuela oil and provides a chronology of all the significant events which have shaped the oil industry of today. It covers all the technical, legal, economic and political factors which have contributed to the evolution of the industry and also gives information on current oil resources and production. Those events significant to the development of the industry, those which were influential in shaping future policy and those which precipitated further action are included. The book provides a source of reference to oil companies, oil economists and petroleum geologists.

  9. Oil and Gas Development in the United States in the Early 1990's

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of the growing prominence of smaller energy companies in U.S. oil and natural gas production.

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF GAS-ASSISTED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (GAGD) PROCESS FOR IMPROVED LIGHT OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dandina N. Rao; Subhash C. Ayirala; Madhav M. Kulkarni; Amit P. Sharma

    2004-10-01

    This report describes the progress of the project ''Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery'' for the duration of the second project year (October 1, 2003--September 30, 2004). There are three main tasks in this research project. Task 1 is scaled physical model study of GAGD process. Task 2 is further development of vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for miscibility determination. Task 3 is determination of multiphase displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks. In Section I, preliminary design of the scaled physical model using the dimensional similarity approach has been presented. Scaled experiments on the current physical model have been designed to investigate the effect of Bond and capillary numbers on GAGD oil recovery. Experimental plan to study the effect of spreading coefficient and reservoir heterogeneity has been presented. Results from the GAGD experiments to study the effect of operating mode, Bond number and capillary number on GAGD oil recovery have been reported. These experiments suggest that the type of the gas does not affect the performance of GAGD in immiscible mode. The cumulative oil recovery has been observed to vary exponentially with Bond and capillary numbers, for the experiments presented in this report. A predictive model using the bundle of capillary tube approach has been developed to predict the performance of free gravity drainage process. In Section II, a mechanistic Parachor model has been proposed for improved prediction of IFT as well as to characterize the mass transfer effects for miscibility development in reservoir crude oil-solvent systems. Sensitivity studies on model results indicate that provision of a single IFT measurement in the proposed model is sufficient for reasonable IFT predictions. An attempt has been made to correlate the exponent (n) in the mechanistic model with normalized solute compositions present in both fluid phases

  11. Oil and gas development in the United States in the early 1990`s: An expanded role for independent producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    Since 1991, the major petroleum companies` foreign exploration and development expenditures have exceeded their US exploration and development expenditures. The increasing dependence of US oil and gas development on the typically much smaller nonmajor companies raises a number of issues. Did those companies gain increased prominence largely through the reduced commitments of the majors or have they been significantly adding to the US reserve base? What are the characteristics of surviving and growing producers compared with companies exiting the US oil and gas business? Differences between majors` development strategies and those of other US oil and gas producers appear considerable. As the mix of exploration and development strategies in US oil and gas increasingly reflects the decisions of smaller, typically more specialized producers, what consequences can be seen regarding the costs of adding to US reserves? How are capital markets accessed? Are US oil and gas investments by the nonmajors likely to be undertaken only with higher costs of capital? This report analyzes these issues. 20 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Venezuela offshore oil and gas production development: Past, present and future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez La Salvia, H.; Schwartz, E.; Contreras, M.; Rodriguez, J.I.; Febres, G.; Gajardo, E.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents a short history of offshore oil and gas production in Venezuela starting in Lake Maracaibo in 1923. The main emphasis has been the results of the recent R and D and the exploratory offshore programs in areas like Orinoco Delta located in the Atlantic Ocean, Northeast and Northwest Venezuela in the Caribbean sea. In the R and D offshore program the main objectives were: (1) To establish the local environmental, oceanographical, geotechnical and seismicity conditions for the Venezuelan Continental Platform. (2) To give a technical support to the PDVSA Operating Affiliates during the exploratory programs including: (a) to develop accurate drilling vessel positioning systems; (b) evaluation of sea bottom geotechnical conditions for safely operating the jack-ups and drilling vessels involved in the exploratory wells and (c) to identify those areas which because of their special nature require further investigation to establish preliminary type of platforms required for the areas to be developed or to evaluate other solutions proposed by Foreign Consultant Engineering Companies to the PDVSA Operating Affiliated Companies. The main objective of PDVSA for the coming future will be to develop the North of Paria Gas Field through the initially named Christopher Columbus Project now Sucre Gas, S.A., a consortium conformed by LaGoven, S.A. Shell, Exxon and Mitsubishi. objective of this paper is to give an idea of the history of the Venezuelan Oil and Gas Offshore development giving emphasis to the results of the INTEVEP S.A. Red offshore program and to show some results of the particular characteristics of oceanographical, environmental, geotechnical and seismic conditions in the main areas evaluated during the exploratory program: Orinoco Delta, Gulf of Paria and North of Paria.

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF GAS-ASSISTED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (GAGD) PROCESS FOR IMPROVED LIGHT OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dandina N. Rao

    2003-10-01

    This is the first Annual Technical Progress Report being submitted to the U. S. Department of Energy on the work performed under the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15323. This report follows two other progress reports submitted to U.S. DOE during the first year of the project: The first in April 2003 for the project period from October 1, 2002 to March 31, 2003, and the second in July 2003 for the period April 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003. Although the present Annual Report covers the first year of the project from October 1, 2002 to September 30, 2003, its contents reflect mainly the work performed in the last quarter (July-September, 2003) since the work performed during the first three quarters has been reported in detail in the two earlier reports. The main objective of the project is to develop a new gas-injection enhanced oil recovery process to recover the oil trapped in reservoirs subsequent to primary and/or secondary recovery operations. The project is divided into three main tasks. Task 1 involves the design and development of a scaled physical model. Task 2 consists of further development of the vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for miscibility determination. Task 3 involves the determination of multiphase displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks. Each technical progress report, including this one, reports on the progress made in each of these tasks during the reporting period. Section I covers the scaled physical model study. A survey of literature in related areas has been conducted. Test apparatus has been under construction throughout the reporting period. A bead-pack visual model, liquid injection system, and an image analysis system have been completed and used for preliminary experiments. Experimental runs with decane and paraffin oil have been conducted in the bead pack model. The results indicate the need for modifications in the apparatus, which are currently underway. A bundle of capillary tube model has been considered and

  14. Developing an oil generation model for resource assessment of Bakken formation, Williston Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charpentier, R.R.; Krystinik, K.B.

    1984-04-01

    A model was developed for oil generation in the Devonian and Mississippian Bakken Formation, which has been proposed as the main hydrocarbon source rock within the Williston basin. The data consisted of formation temperatures and of density, neutron-porosity, resistivity, and gamma-ray logs from more than 250 wells in North Dakota and Montana. The upper and the lower shale members of the Bakken Formation were studied. Regression analysis, analysis of residuals, and cluster, discriminant, and factor analyses were used in an attempt to separate depositional effects--especially variations in organic content-from maturity. Regression and analysis of residuals indicate differences both areally and between the upper and lower members. In the upper member, and less strongly in the lower member, the center of the basin differs from the basin margins in that it has extreme residuals--either high or low. Clustering and residual analyses show roughly the same areal patterns. Inverse relationships, similar to those suggested by other workers, were found between formation temperature and organic content and between density logs and organic content. Also found, though, was that the addition of other factors, such as neutron porosity, helps to indicate organic content. Preliminary results show that it may be possible to model oil generation by using statistical techniques on well-log data. In particular, the model has the potential to refine estimates of the amount of hydrocarbons generated by the Bakken Formation in the Williston basin.

  15. Oil and gas developments in west Texas and eastern New Mexico in 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pause, P.H.; Adams, D.R.; Collier, W.W.; Gibson, W.R.; Miller, H.A. Jr.; Robbins, L.D.; Williams, S.M.

    1985-10-01

    1984 was a surprisingly good year for drilling activity in the Permian basin. 8012 wells were drilled in west Texas and eastern New Mexico, almost 14% more than in 1983. The success rate for all wells continued to climb, reaching 83.5%, up 3.7% from 1983. Exploratory drilling was up almost 5% to 1080 wells. Total exploratory footage increased 8%, and the success rate for exploratory tests increased 1.5% to 26.9%. Development drilling also increased with 6932 wells drilled, up 15.5% from 1983. This was only 150 wells shy of the record set in 1982. The overall development success rate climbed from 89.2% to 92.4%, reflecting increased emphasis on safe drilling. These overall increases stand in sharp contrast to gas well drilling efforts. Exploratory gas completions declined 12.8%, and development gas well drilling was down 33.4%, a result of lower gas prices and a weak market. Oil and gas production in 1984 increased for the first time in 10 years. Total oil production was 551,911,001 bbl, an increase of 0.3% from 1983. Gas production was 2,006,907 mmcf, up 0.6%. Seismic activity increased in 1984, maintaining a trend started the year before. 1993 seismic crew-weeks were reported, up almost 4% from 1983. Overall leasing interest declined again for the third year in a row. Glasscock, Midland, and Hockley Counties, Texas, however, continued to be areas of vigorous activity. 6 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Oil and gas developments in west Texas and eastern New Mexico in 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pause, P.H.; Adams, D.R.; Collier, W.W.; Gibson, W.R.; Miller, H.A.; Robbins, L.D.; Williams, S.M.

    1985-10-01

    1984 was a surprisingly good year for drilling activity in the Permian basin. 8,012 wells were drilled in west Texas and eastern New Mexico, almost 14% more than in 1983. The success rate for all wells continued to climb, reaching 83.5%, up 3.7% from 1983. Exploratory drilling was up almost 5% to 1,080 wells. Total exploratory footage increased 8%, and the success rate for exploratory tests increased 1.5% to 26.9%. Development drilling also increased with 6,932 wells drilled, up 15.5% from 1983. This was only 150 wells shy of the record set in 1982. The overall development success rate climbed from 89.2% to 92.4%, reflecting increased emphasis on ''safe'' drilling. These overall increases stand in sharp contrast to gas well drilling efforts. Exploratory gas completions declined 12.8%, and development gas well drilling was down 33.4%, a result of lower gas prices and a weak market. Oil and gas production in 1984 increased for the first time in 10 years. Total oil production was 551,911,001 bbl, an increase of 0.3% from 1983. Gas production was 2,006,907 mmcf, up 0.6%. Seismic activity increased in 1984, maintaining a trend started the year before. 1,993 seismic crew-weeks were reported, up almost 4% from 1983. Overall leasing interest declined again for the third year in a row. Glasscock, Midland, and Hockley Counties, Texas, however, continued to be areas of vigorous activity.

  17. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrew, H.J.

    1982-11-01

    Exploratory activity in central and southern Africa continued to grow during 1981. Geophysical operations reached nearly record levels and the number of wells increased markedly. Oil production suffered from the adverse conditions that existed throughout the world and dropped by a significant amount. New Concession acquisitions occurred in several of the countries in northeast Africa. Elsewhere, the operating companies negotiated new concessions and renewed those that were expiring. In several countries where production has been proven, the operators were assigned exploitation concessions. Seismic crews and marine geophysical vessels were active throughout the countries in this area. A total of 365 party-months of work was done to yield 98,035 km of new lines. A moderate amount of 3-D recording was carried out in connection with field development. Some aeromagnetic work was done, principally in northeast Africa and in Mozambique. Forty-four new fields or pools were discovered by drilling 115 new-field wildcat and exploratory wells. These wells accounted for 1,060,254 ft (323,248 m) of hole. Appraisal and development drilling resulted in 321 wells with a total of 2,533,305 ft (772,349 m) of hole drilled. At year end, 25 exploratory wells were under way or resting, and 49 rigs were active in development drilling. Oil production for the year was 691,995,939 bbl, a decrease of nearly 25% from 1980. Nigeria suffered the greatest drop in production; however, increases were achieved in Cameroon, Congo, and Zaire. The cumulative production from this part of Africa passed the 10 billion bbl mark.

  18. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Michael Vanden; Anderson, Paul; Wallace, Janae; Morgan, Craig; Carney, Stephanie

    2012-04-30

    in the subsurface of the Uinta Basin using a combination of water chemistry data collected from various sources and by analyzing geophysical well logs. By re-mapping the base of the moderately saline aquifer using more robust data and more sophisticated computer-based mapping techniques, regulators now have the information needed to more expeditiously grant water disposal permits while still protecting freshwater resources. Part 2: Eastern Uinta Basin gas producers have identified the Birds Nest aquifer, located in the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, as the most promising reservoir suitable for large-volume saline water disposal. This aquifer formed from the dissolution of saline minerals that left behind large open cavities and fractured rock. This new and complete understanding the aquifer?s areal extent, thickness, water chemistry, and relationship to Utah?s vast oil shale resource will help operators and regulators determine safe saline water disposal practices, directly impacting the success of increased hydrocarbon production in the region, while protecting potential future oil shale production. Part 3: In order to establish a baseline of water quality on lands identified by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management as having oil shale development potential in the southeastern Uinta Basin, the UGS collected biannual water samples over a three-year period from near-surface aquifers and surface sites. The near-surface and relatively shallow groundwater quality information will help in the development of environmentally sound water-management solutions for a possible future oil shale and oil sands industry and help assess the sensitivity of the alluvial and near-surface bedrock aquifers. This multifaceted study will provide a better understanding of the aquifers in Utah?s Uinta Basin, giving regulators the tools needed to protect precious freshwater resources while still allowing for increased hydrocarbon production.

  19. WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

    2004-11-01

    Contamination of crude oils by surface-active agents from drilling fluids or other oil-field chemicals is more difficult to detect and quantify than bulk contamination with, for example, base fluids from oil-based muds. Bulk contamination can be detected by gas chromatography or other common analytical techniques, but surface-active contaminants can be influential at much lower concentrations that are more difficult to detect analytically, especially in the context of a mixture as complex as a crude oil. In this report we present a baseline study of interfacial tensions of 39 well-characterized crude oil samples with aqueous phases that vary in pH and ionic composition. This extensive study will provide the basis for assessing the effects of surface-active contaminant on interfacial tension and other surface properties of crude oil/brine/rock ensembles.

  20. Tightly Coupled Atomistic-Continuum Simulations of Brain Blood...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tightly Coupled Atomistic-Continuum Simulations of Brain Blood Flow on Petaflop Supercomputers Authors: L. Grinberg, J. A. Insley, D. Fedosov, V. Morozov, M. E. Papka, G. E. ...

  1. Development of Extraction Techniques for the Detection of Signature Lipids from Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borglin, Sharon; Geller, Jil; Chakraborty, Romy; Hazen, Terry; Mason, Olivia

    2010-05-17

    Pure cultures, including Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanococcus maripaludus, were combined with model oil samples and oil/diesel mixtures to optimize extraction techniques of signature lipids from oil in support of investigation of microbial communities in oil deposit samples targets for microbial enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Several techniques were evaluated, including standard phospholipid extraction, ether linked lipid for Archaeal bacterial detection, and high pressure extractiontechniques. Recovery of lipids ranged from 50-80percent as compared to extraction of the pure culture. Extraction efficiency was evaluated by the use of internal standards. Field samples will also be tested for recovery of signature lipids with optimized extraction techniques.

  2. Oil and gas developments in west Texas and eastern New Mexico in 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.R.; Collier, W.W.; Gail, G.J.; Gaines, G.B.; Gibson, W.R.; Miller, H.A. Jr.; Pause, P.H.; Robbins, L.D.

    1984-10-01

    7034 wells were drilled in west Texas and eastern New Mexico in 1983, 17.2% less than in 1982. The success rate for all wells was 79.8% up 1.1% from 1982. The exploratory success rate decreased to 25.4% in 1983 from 26.4% in 1982. The number of exploratory wells drilled in 1983 decreased 27.1% from 1982, and total exploratory footage decreased 30.1%. The severe decline in exploratory drilling during 1983 was anticipated because seismic crew activity had declined during the 2 preceding years. However, 1983 seismic activity increased 2.1% from 1982, reversing the trend. Therefore, because seismic crew activity is usually a reliable leading indicator of trends in exploratory drilling, an increase in Permian basin wildcat drilling is predicted for mid-1985. In 1983, the number of development wells drilled decreased 15.2% from 1982, and total development footage decreased 17.6%. Development success increased by 0.1% to 89.2%. Oil production for 1983 was 550,473,920 bbl, down 1.7% from 1982. Gas production was 1,995,555,963 mcf, down 9.5% from 1982. Overall leasing activity decreased in 1983. The land sales of New Mexico and the University of Texas received only a fraction of the attention normally paid to them. However, leasing was very aggressive in Glasscock, Midland, and Hockley Counties, Texas, of the Midland basin. 6 figures, 3 tables.

  3. Using biodiversity methods to assess the impacts of oil and gas development in tropical rain forests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, D.P.; Silva del Poso, X. |

    1995-06-01

    Oil and gas development in tropical rain forests has attracted international attention because of the potentially adverse effects on the forest ecosystems. Biodiversity is a topic of particular concern, but is difficult to assess for small areas of disturbance. In July 1992 we used light traps to compare insect diversity at canopy and ground level as a means of detecting the impacts of an exploratory well site and related facilities within mature Amazonian rain forest in the Oriente Province of Ecuador. Replicate samples were collected at the well site, in a nearby area of agricultural development, and in a reference site within mature forest. Species richness was determined, and diversity indices were calculated for each set of samples. Results indicated that changes in diversity could be detected in the canopy and at ground level at the well site, but that the reduction in diversity was small. Biological diversity was substantially reduced in the area of agricultural development. Limitations and possible applications of this approach are discussed.

  4. Production of Natural Gas and Fluid Flow in Tight Sand Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maria Cecilia Bravo

    2006-06-30

    This document reports progress of this research effort in identifying relationships and defining dependencies between macroscopic reservoir parameters strongly affected by microscopic flow dynamics and production well performance in tight gas sand reservoirs. These dependencies are investigated by identifying the main transport mechanisms at the pore scale that should affect fluids flow at the reservoir scale. A critical review of commercial reservoir simulators, used to predict tight sand gas reservoir, revealed that many are poor when used to model fluid flow through tight reservoirs. Conventional simulators ignore altogether or model incorrectly certain phenomena such as, Knudsen diffusion, electro-kinetic effects, ordinary diffusion mechanisms and water vaporization. We studied the effect of Knudsen's number in Klinkenberg's equation and evaluated the effect of different flow regimes on Klinkenberg's parameter b. We developed a model capable of explaining the pressure dependence of this parameter that has been experimentally observed, but not explained in the conventional formalisms. We demonstrated the relevance of this, so far ignored effect, in tight sands reservoir modeling. A 2-D numerical simulator based on equations that capture the above mentioned phenomena was developed. Dynamic implications of new equations are comprehensively discussed in our work and their relative contribution to the flow rate is evaluated. We performed several simulation sensitivity studies that evidenced that, in general terms, our formalism should be implemented in order to get more reliable tight sands gas reservoirs' predictions.

  5. Tightly Coupled Multiphysics Algorithm for Pebble Bed Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HyeongKae Park; Dana Knoll; Derek Gaston; Richard Martineau

    2010-10-01

    We have developed a tightly coupled multiphysics simulation tool for the pebble-bed reactor (PBR) concept, a type of Very High-Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR). The simulation tool, PRONGHORN, takes advantages of the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment library, and is capable of solving multidimensional thermal-fluid and neutronics problems implicitly with a Newton-based approach. Expensive Jacobian matrix formation is alleviated via the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, and physics-based preconditioning is applied to minimize Krylov iterations. Motivation for the work is provided via analysis and numerical experiments on simpler multiphysics reactor models. We then provide detail of the physical models and numerical methods in PRONGHORN. Finally, PRONGHORN's algorithmic capability is demonstrated on a number of PBR test cases.

  6. "U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves Summary Data Tables, 2014" "Contents" "Table 1: U.S. proved reserves, and reserves changes, 2013-14" "Table 2: U.S. tight oil ...

  7. U.S. oil reserves highest since 1975, natural gas reserves set...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Most of that came from the state's Eagle Ford shale play and other tight oil formations in the Permian Basin. Proved reserves are those volumes of oil natural gas that analysis of ...

  8. North Dakota and Texas help boost U.S. oil reserves to highest...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Most of that came from the state's Eagle Ford shale play and other tight oil formations in the Permian Basin. The other states that rounded out the top 5 increases in proved oil ...

  9. WETTABILITY AND PREDICTION OF OIL RECOVERY FROM RESERVOIRS DEVELOPED WITH MODERN DRILLING AND COMPLETION FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow

    2004-05-01

    We report on progress in three areas. In part one, the wetting effects of synthetic base oils are reported. Part two reports progress in understanding the effects of surfactants of known chemical structures, and part three integrates the results from surface and core tests that show the wetting effects of commercial surfactant products used in synthetic and traditional oil-based drilling fluids. An important difference between synthetic and traditional oil-based muds (SBM and OBM, respectively) is the elimination of aromatics from the base oil to meet environmental regulations. The base oils used include dearomatized mineral oils, linear alpha-olefins, internal olefins, and esters. We show in part one that all of these materials except the esters can, at sufficiently high concentrations, destabilize asphaltenes. The effects of asphaltenes on wetting are in part related to their stability. Although asphaltenes have some tendency to adsorb on solid surfaces from a good solvent, that tendency can be much increased near the onset of asphaltene instability. Tests in Berea sandstone cores demonstrate wetting alteration toward less water-wet conditions that occurs when a crude oil is displaced by paraffinic and olefinic SBM base oils, whereas exposure to the ester products has little effect on wetting properties of the cores. Microscopic observations with atomic forces microscopy (AFM) and macroscopic contact angle measurements have been used in part 2 to explore the effects on wetting of mica surfaces using oil-soluble polyethoxylated amine surfactants with varying hydrocarbon chain lengths and extent of ethoxylation. In the absence of water, only weak adsorption occurs. Much stronger, pH-dependent adsorption was observed when water was present. Varying hydrocarbon chain length had little or no effect on adsorption, whereas varying extent of ethoxylation had a much more significant impact, reducing contact angles at nearly all conditions tested. Preequilibration of

  10. Developing effective strategies for complying with the oil and gas MACT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatt, T.N.; Ebarb, W.

    1996-12-31

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), enacted on November 15, 1990, represent landmark legislation which provides the US Environmental Protection Agency with unprecedented authority to promulgate regulations affecting air pollution. Title 3 of the 1990 CAAA focuses on the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) from the sources of concern. The HAP affected by Title 3 are identified in Section 112(b) of the Clean Air Act (CAA). The industry specific regulations promulgated for major industrial source categories under Section 112(d) and Section 112(g) of the CAA are referred to as the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT). In order to maximize operational flexibility and optimize costs of compliance, facilities must develop a plan to identify methods to comply with the area source provisions of the regulations by becoming a minor source/synthetic minor source or to comply with the major source requirements of the regulations in the most cost effective manner. Area source requirements are generally less stringent as compared to the major source requirements. This paper outlines the fundamental aspects of Title 3 as they impact the upstream oil and gas industry. The paper provides guidelines to the potentially affected facilities in determining applicability of the MACT rules based on emission inventories, potential to emit (PTE), and latest guidance from the EPA. The paper finally provides strategies to comply with the requirements of the regulations and discusses the advantages and disadvantages associated with using specific strategies.

  11. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiman, W.D.

    1988-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987 showed significant increases in seismic acquisition in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru, and a decrease in Chile and Venezuela. Exploratory drilling increased in most major producing countries but was accompanied by a decline in development drilling. Most of the increase could be attributed to private companies fulfilling obligations under risk contracts; however, state oil companies in Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia showed significant increased activity, with only Mexico showing a decrease. Colombia again had a dramatic increase in production (29% from 1986). Noteworthy discoveries were made in Bolivia (Villamontes-1); Brazil, in the Solimoes basin (1-RUC-1-AM); Chile (Rio Honda-1); Colombia, in the Llanos basin (Austral-1, La Reforma-1, Libertad Norte-1, Cravo Este-1, and Cano Yarumal-1), in the Upper Magdalena basin (Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1); Ecuador (Frontera-1, a joint-exploration venture with Colombia); Mexico, in the Chiapas-Tabasco region (Guacho-1 and Iridi-1), in the Frontera Norte area (Huatempo-1); Peru, in the Madre de Dios basin (Armihuari-4X); Trinidad (West East Queen's Beach-1); and Venezuela (Musipan-1X). Brazil's upper Amazon (Solimoes basin) discovery, Colombia's Upper Magdalena basin discoveries Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1, Mexico's Chiapas-Tabasco discoveries, Peru's confirmation of the giant Cashiriari discovery of 1986, and Venezuela's success in Monagas state were the highlights of 1987. 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry`s view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R&D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  13. Analysis of heavy oils: Method development and application to Cerro Negro heavy petroleum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbognani, L.; Hazos, M.; Sanchez, V. ); Green, J.A.; Green, J.B.; Grigsby, R.D.; Pearson, C.D.; Reynolds, J.W.; Shay, J.Y.; Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Thomson, J.S.; Vogh, J.W.; Vrana, R.P.; Yu, S.K.T.; Diehl, B.H.; Grizzle, P.L.; Hirsch, D.E; Hornung, K.W.; Tang, S.Y.

    1989-12-01

    On March 6, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Venezuela (MEMV) entered into a joint agreement which included analysis of heavy crude oils from the Venezuelan Orinoco oil belt.The purpose of this report is to present compositional data and describe new analytical methods obtained from work on the Cerro Negro Orinoco belt crude oil since 1980. Most of the chapters focus on the methods rather than the resulting data on Cerro Negro oil, and results from other oils obtained during the verification of the method are included. In addition, published work on analysis of heavy oils, tar sand bitumens, and like materials is reviewed, and the overall state of the art in analytical methodology for heavy fossil liquids is assessed. The various phases of the work included: distillation and determination of routine'' physical/chemical properties (Chapter 1); preliminary separation of >200{degree}C distillates and the residue into acid, base, neutral, saturated hydrocarbon and neutral-aromatic concentrates (Chapter 2); further separation of acid, base, and neutral concentrates into subtypes (Chapters 3-5); and determination of the distribution of metal-containing compounds in all fractions (Chapter 6).

  14. Method for closing a drift between adjacent in situ oil shale retorts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hines, Alex E.

    1984-01-01

    A row of horizontally spaced-apart in situ oil shale retorts is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. Each row of retorts is formed by excavating development drifts at different elevations through opposite side boundaries of a plurality of retorts in the row of retorts. Each retort is formed by explosively expanding formation toward one or more voids within the boundaries of the retort site to form a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. Following formation of each retort, the retort development drifts on the advancing side of the retort are closed off by covering formation particles within the development drift with a layer of crushed oil shale particles having a particle size smaller than the average particle size of oil shale particles in the adjacent retort. In one embodiment, the crushed oil shale particles are pneumatically loaded into the development drift to pack the particles tightly all the way to the top of the drift and throughout the entire cross section of the drift. The closure between adjacent retorts provided by the finely divided oil shale provides sufficient resistance to gas flow through the development drift to effectively inhibit gas flow through the drift during subsequent retorting operations.

  15. Method for closing a drift between adjacent in-situ oil shale retorts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hines, A.E.

    1984-04-10

    A row of horizontally spaced-apart in situ oil shale retorts is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. Each row of retorts is formed by excavating development drifts at different elevations through opposite side boundaries of a plurality of retorts in the row of retorts. Each retort is formed by explosively expanding formation toward one or more voids within the boundaries of the retort site to form a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. Following formation of each retort, the retort development drifts on the advancing side of the retort are closed off by covering formation particles within the development drift with a layer of crushed oil shale particles having a particle size smaller than the average particle size of oil shale particles in the adjacent retort. In one embodiment, the crushed oil shale particles are pneumatically loaded into the development drift to pack the particles tightly all the way to the top of the drift and throughout the entire cross section of the drift. The closure between adjacent retorts provided by the finely divided oil shale provides sufficient resistance to gas flow through the development drift to effectively inhibit gas flow through the drift during subsequent retorting operations.

  16. Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: Hot-Gas Filtration; Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-333

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, R.

    2012-07-01

    The hypothesis that was tested in this task was that separation of char, with its associated mineral matter from pyrolysis vapors before condensation, will lead to improved oil quality and stability with respect to storage and transportation. The metric used to evaluate stability in this case was a 10-fold reduction in the rate of increase of viscosity as determined by ASTM D445 (the accelerated aging test). The primary unit operation that was investigated for this purpose was hot-gas filtration. A custom-built heated candle filter system was fabricated by the Pall Corporation and furnished to NREL for this test campaign. This system consisted of a candle filter element in a containment vessel surrounded by heating elements on the external surface of the vessel. The filter element and housing were interfaced to NREL?s existing 0.5 MTD pyrolysis Process Development Unit (PDU). For these tests the pyrolysis reactor of the PDU was operated in the entrained-flow mode. The HGF test stand was installed on a slipstream from the PDU so that both hot-gas filtered oil and bio-oil that was not hot-gas filtered could be collected for purposes of comparison. Two filter elements from Pall were tested: (1) porous stainless steel (PSS) sintered metal powder; (2) sintered ceramic powder. An extremely sophisticated bio-oil condensation and collection system was designed and fabricated at NREL and interfaced to the filter unit.

  17. Compilation and Presentation of Existing Data on Oil and Gas Leasing Development in a Manner Useful to the NEPA Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amy Childers; Dave Cornue

    2008-11-30

    In recognition of our nation's increasing energy needs, the George W. Bush Administration's National Energy Policy Development Group report (May 2001) suggested that one way to increase domestic on-shore production of oil and gas is to increase access to undiscovered resources on federal lands. Also recognized is the need to protect and conserve natural resources, which often are located on and around federal lands. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was designed to create and maintain conditions under which man and nature can exist in productive harmony. NEPA requires that federal agencies prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) prior to the approval of any development activities. The NEPA scope is broad, with the process applicable to many situations from the building of highways, barge facilities and water outtake facilities, bridges, and watersheds to other less significant projects. The process often involves cooperation among multiple federal agencies, industry, scientists and consultants, and the surrounding community. The objective of the project, titled Compilation and Presentation of Existing Data on Oil and Gas Leasing and Development in a Manner Useful to the NEPA Process, is to facilitate faster and more comprehensive access to current oil and gas data by land management agencies and operators. This will enable key stakeholders in the NEPA process to make decisions that support access to federal resources while at the same time achieving a legitimate balance between environmental protection and appropriate levels of development.

  18. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  19. Hydration and strength development of binder based on high-calcium oil shale fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freidin, C. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)] [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)

    1998-06-01

    The properties of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, which are produced in Israeli power stations, were investigated. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} in the form of lime and anhydrite. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash binder, were shown to cure and have improved strength. The influence of the composition and curing conditions on the compressive strength of fly ash binders was examined. The microstructure and the composition of fly ash binder after curing and long-term exposure in moist air, water and open air conditions were studied. It was determined that ettringite is the main variable in the strength and durability of cured systems. The positive effect of calcium silicate hydrates, CSH, which are formed by interaction of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash components, on the carbonation and dehydration resistance of fly ash binder in open air is pronounced. It was concluded that high-calcium oil shale fly ash with high CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} content can be used as a binder for building products.

  20. Assessment of environmental health and safety issues associated with the commercialization of unconventional gas recovery: Tight Western Sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riedel, E.F.; Cowan, C.E.; McLaughlin, T.J.

    1980-02-01

    Results of a study to identify and evaluate potential public health and safety problems and the potential environmental impacts from recovery of natural gas from Tight Western Sands are reported. A brief discussion of economic and technical constraints to development of this resource is also presented to place the environmental and safety issues in perspective. A description of the resource base, recovery techniques, and possible environmental effects associated with tight gas sands is presented.

  1. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrew, H.J.

    1984-10-01

    All exploratory activity in central and southern Africa decreased in 1983, reflecting world economic conditions and excess productive capacity. Seismic activity has declined sharply from its peak year of 1981. Land operations suffered the greatest drop in 1983, whereas party-months of marine work increased slightly. 3-D recording continued to be used but at a reduced rate compared with 1982. Large aeromagnetic surveys were made in several countries; however, the coverage was less than in 1982. Gravity continues to be used to supplement other geophysical work, but other exploratory techniques are being used infrequently. Total wells drilled dropped from 464 in 1982 to 387 in 1983. Most of the decline was in exploratory drilling, which dropped from 132 to 86 wells. This was reflected in the number of discoveries, which decreased from 48 to 27 while the success rate continued about the same. Development drilling continued at a high level in Cameroon and Congo, whereas in Nigeria the emphasis shifted to the drilling of appraisal wells. In all, 2,937,708 ft (895,643 m) of hole was drilled, a decrease of about 20% from 1982. Oil production of 673,075,667 bbl in 1983 was an increase of 1.7% over 1982's production, bringing cumulative production to over 12 billion bbl. Marked increases in production were recorded in Cabinda, Ivory Coast, and Congo. Production from Nigerian fields continued to dominate this part of the world as they contributed about 67% of the annual production and 75% of the cumulative production. 44 figures, 15 tables.

  2. Western tight gas sands advanced logging workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, J B; Carroll, Jr, H B

    1982-04-01

    An advanced logging research program is one major aspect of the Western Tight Sands Program. Purpose of this workshop is to help BETC define critical logging needs for tight gas sands and to allow free interchange of ideas on all aspects of the current logging research program. Sixteen papers and abstracts are included together with discussions. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 12 papers. (DLC)

  3. Oil and gas developments in South Africa, Central America, Caribbean Area, and Mexico in 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tappmeyer, D.M.

    1985-10-01

    For the 25 countries described in the region, exploration activity continued to be centered in proven petroleum provinces in 1984. Exploration activity increased in Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela. Important, successful exploration efforts continued in areas around Cano Limon field in Colombia, and Guafita and La Victoria fields in Venezuela. Notable discoveries in South America included the 42-46-1X San Martin Cretaceous discovery by Shell in the Ucayali basin in Peru, the significant oil and gas discovery at Palmar Largo ES-1 by YPF in Argentina, and the first offshore gas discovery, the Pecten 1-SPS-20 wildcat in the Santo basin in Brazil. Oil production increased in Barbados, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. A notable increase (40%) in oil production occurred in Brazil. Gas production increased in Argentina, Barbados, Colombia, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago. 8 figures, 8 tables.

  4. Rock matrix and fracture analysis of flow in western tight gas sands: Annual report, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dandge, V.; Graham, M.; Gonzales, B.; Coker, D.

    1987-12-01

    Tight gas sands are a vast future source of natural gas. These sands are characterized as having very low porosity and permeability. The main resource development problem is efficiently extracting the gas from the reservoir. Future production depends on a combination of gas price and technological advances. Gas production can be enhanced by fracturing. Studies have shown that many aspects of fracture design and gas production are influenced by properties of the rock matrix. Computer models for stimulation procedures require accurate knowledge of flow properties of both the rock matrix and the fractured regions. In the proposed work, these properties will be measured along with advanced core analysis procedure aimed at understanding the relationship between pore structure and properties. The objective of this project is to develop reliable core analysis techniques for measuring the petrophysical properties of tight gas sands. Recent research has indicated that the flow conditions in the reservoir can be greatly enhanced by the presence of natural fractures, which serve as a transport path for gas from the less permeable matrix. The study is mainly concerned with the dependence of flow in tight gas matrix and healed tectonic fractures on water saturation and confining pressure. This dependency is to be related to the detailed pore structure of tight sands as typified by cores recovered in the Multi-Well experiment. 22 refs., 34 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Africa: Unrest and restrictive terms limit abundant potential. [Oil and gas exploration and development in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes the drilling and exploration activity of the oil and gas industries of Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, the Congo, Angola, and South Africa. Information is provided on current and predicted trends in well drilling activities (both onshore and offshore), numbers of new wells, footage information, production statistics and what fields accounted for this production, and planned new exploration activities. The paper also describes the current status of government policies and political problems affecting the oil and gas industry.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A VIRTUAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUE FOR THE UPSTREAM OIL INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iraj A. Salehi; Shahab D. Mohaghegh; Samuel Ameri

    2004-09-01

    The objective of the research and development work reported in this document was to develop a Virtual Intelligence Technique for optimization of the Preferred Upstream Management Practices (PUMP) for the upstream oil industry. The work included the development of a software tool for identification and optimization of the most influential parameters in upstream common practices as well as geological, geophysical and reservoir engineering studies. The work was performed in cooperation with three independent producing companies--Newfield Exploration, Chesapeake Energy, and Triad Energy--operating in the Golden Trend, Oklahoma. In order to protect data confidentiality, these companies are referred to as Company One, Two, Three in a randomly selected order. These producing companies provided geological, completion, and production data on 320 wells and participated in frequent technical discussions throughout the project. Research and development work was performed by Gas Technology Institute (GTI), West Virginia University (WVU), and Intelligent Solutions Inc. (ISI). Oklahoma Independent Petroleum Association (OIPA) participated in technology transfer and data acquisition efforts. Deliverables from the project are the present final report and a user-friendly software package (Appendix D) with two distinct functions: a characterization tool that identifies the most influential parameters in the upstream operations, and an optimization tool that seeks optimization by varying a number of influential parameters and investigating the coupled effects of these variations. The electronic version of this report is also included in Appendix D. The Golden Trend data were used for the first cut optimization of completion procedures. In the subsequent step, results from soft computing runs were used as the guide for detailed geophysical and reservoir engineering studies that characterize the cause-and-effect relationships between various parameters. The general workflow and the main

  7. Investigation and development of alternative methods for shale oil processing and analysis. Final technical report, October 1979--April 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, R.A.

    1998-06-01

    Oil shale, a carbonaceous rock which occurs abundantly in the earth`s crust, has been investigated for many years as an alternate source of fuel oil. The insoluble organic matter contained in such shales is termed {open_quotes}Kerogen{close_quotes} from the Greek meaning oil or oil forming. The kerogen in oil shale breaks down into oil-like products when subjected to conditions simulating destructive distillation. These products have been the subject of extensive investigations by several researchers and many of the constituents of shale oil have been identified. (1) Forsman (2) estimates that the kerogen content of the earth is roughly 3 {times} 10{sup 15} tons as compared to total coal reserves of about 5 {times} 10{sup 12}. Although the current cost per barrel estimate for commercial production of shale oil is higher than that of fossil oil, as our oil reserves continue to dwindle, shale oil technology will become more and more important. When oil shale is heated, kerogen is said to undergo chemical transformation to usable oil in two steps (3): Kerogen (in oil shale) 300-500{degrees}C bitumen. Crude shale oil and other products. The crude shale oil so obtained differs from fossil oil in that: (1) kerogen is thought to have been produced from the aging of plant matter over many years; (2) shale oil has a higher nitrogen content than fossil oil; (3) non-hydrocarbons are present to a much greater extent in shale oil; and (4) the hydrocarbons in shale oil are much more unsaturated than those in fossil oil (petroleum).

  8. Application of nonparametric regression and statistical testing to identify the impact of oil and natural gas development on local air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekney, Natalie J.; Cheng, Hanqi; Small, Mitchell J.

    2015-11-05

    Abstract: The objective of the current work was to develop a statistical method and associated tool to evaluate the impact of oil and natural gas exploration and production activities on local air quality.

  9. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoirs detection optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoekstra, P.

    1995-04-01

    This contract is a joint project between METC and Louisiana Land and Exploration, planned to extend for 3 years. Substantial help and key information has been provided at the field by the owner/operator. All their well logs, cores, production data, geologic data, and geophysical data are available for study in this project. Their commitment in this technology development is demonstrated by their proposed contribution in the form of cost sharing: (1) obtaining the P-Wave (compressional wave) 3-D survey, (2) furnishing a borehole in which to acquire the 9-C vertical seismic profile (VSP), and (3) drilling and completing a test well for verification of the seismic anomaly. Also of significance is the direct involvement and participation of their professional staff. This staff has been responsible for generating and maintaining the database at the field and will form part of the team which evaluates the seismic data`s findings.

  10. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tappmeyer, D.M.

    1984-10-01

    Petroleum exploration in the region was generally less in 1983 than in 1982. Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Barbados increased crude production, whereas Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, and Trinidad-Tobago reported increases in gas production. Although drilling activities remained low compared to past years, significant oil discoveries were reported in Colombia, Mexico, and Brazil. In Colombia, Cano Limon field is reported to be the largest field found in the Llanos region. In Brazil, important oil discoveries were made offshore in the Para, Potiquas, and Ampos basins. In Mexico, discoveries were reported in the Cerro Azul, Poza Rica (Chicontepec, Villahermosa, and Tabasco) areas onshore and in the Bay of Campeche offshore. In Argentina, discoveries were made in the San Jorge basin and the Noreste Tarija basin. 10 figures, 11 tables.

  11. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiman, W.D.

    1987-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1986 was considerably reduced compared to 1985. Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Venezuela had increased oil production, with Colombia showing a dramatic 71% increase attributed mainly to bringing on-stream the pipeline connecting Occidental-Shell-Ecopetrol's Cano Limon complex to the port of Covenas. Significant discoveries were reported from Argentina in the Olmedo, Oran, and San Jorge basins; Brazil in the offshore Campos and Amazon basins; Colombia in the Llanos basin; Ecuador in the Oriente basin; Mexico in the Bay of Campeche; Peru in the Ucayali basin; and Venezuela in the Eastern Venezuela basin. Eastern Venezuela's Furrial discovery is reported to have recoverable reserves of more than 1 million bbl of oil, and Shell's Ucayali basin discovery is reported to hold more than 7 tcf of gas. 7 figures, 10 tables.

  12. Re-Entries: New strategies in development zones at the Orinoco Oil Belt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, R.; Briceno, M.; Figueroa, J.; Bolanos, C.

    1996-08-01

    Drilling of horizontal wells in Venezuela began in the Orinoco Oil Belt with the wells CI-87 and CI-97 in the J-20 block, drilled in 1989 and 1990, respectively. Well CI-87 produces up to 1000 BPD without steam injection. Due to the success of this well, the exploitation strategy was oriented toward re-entry and sidetracking wells with mechanical problems, high water cut and low potential. The purpose of this programme was to enhance drainage patterns, access new reservoirs through existing bores, and increase oil production while reducing per-barrel costs. Eighteen (18) wells were re-drilled in different pay zones such as O-12, O-13, O-14 and O-15 with horizontal sections between a thousand feet and one thousand six hundred feet. Those wells were completed with progressive cavity pumps, sucker rod beam pumps and electrical submersible pumps. Presented in this paper are the results of the re-entries at the Orinoco Oil Belt and the future re-entry strategy.

  13. Money windfalls and oil-exporting developing countries: a comparative study of Algeria, Ecuador, trinidad and Tobago, and Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avin, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis analyzes how the oil windfalls of the 1970s have affected the growth path and the sectoral composition of output and trade of the oil rich developing countries. The policy makers of the four subject countries have adopted different development strategies so that their economies can achieve sustained increases in per capita income and a higher level of economic development after the resource is depleted. The analysis is concerned with the consequences of these policies. The neoclassical models used in the literature to analyze the effects of a resource boom predict the following consequences among others: (1) increase in the prices of nontraded goods, which include construction and services; (2) appreciation of the real exchange rate, which is defined as the ratio of the price of nontraded goods to the price of traded goods, and (3) fall in the output and employment of the traditional traded goods sector, not including the resource or booming sector. The consequences are known as the Dutch Disease in reference to a decline in Dutch manufacturing in the 1960s brought about by natural gas discoveries. To test the hypotheses of the trade and development models, national accounts data are used in order to measure the changes in the composition of production and trade in the 1970s and early 1980s.

  14. Development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process: Air-promoted oil agglomeration of moderately hydrophobic coals. 2: Effect of air dosage in a model mixing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drzymala, J.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1996-07-01

    In a selective oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal, fine-size particles are suspended in water and treated with a water-immiscible hydrocarbon which can range from pentane to heavy fuel oil. Vigorous agitation is applied to disperse the oil and to produce frequent contacts between oil-coated particles. In Part 1 of this series of papers, it was shown that a definite amount of air had to be present in a laboratory mixing unit which produced a moderate shear rate in order to form compact, spherical agglomerates in an aqueous suspension of moderately hydrophobic coal using heptane or hexadecane as an agglomerate. In this paper, the effects of different amounts of air including dissolved air are discussed. The results indicate that a small amount of air will trigger the process of agglomeration, and even the air dissolved in water under equilibrium conditions at room temperature and pressure is sufficient to promote agglomeration provided it is released from solution.

  15. Oil-futures markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prast, W.G.; Lax, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    This book on oil futures trading takes a look at a market and its various hedging strategies. Growing interest in trading of commodity futures has spread to petroleum, including crude oil, and key refined products such as gasoline and heating oil. This book describes how the international petroleum trade is structured, examines the working of oil futures markets in the United States and the United Kingdom, and assesses the possible courses of further developments.

  16. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

  17. Extended Lagrangian Density Functional Tight-Binding Molecular Dynamics for Molecules and Solids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aradi, Bálint; Niklasson, Anders M. N.; Frauenheim, Thomas

    2015-06-26

    A computationally fast quantum mechanical molecular dynamics scheme using an extended Lagrangian density functional tight-binding formulation has been developed and implemented in the DFTB+ electronic structure program package for simulations of solids and molecular systems. The scheme combines the computational speed of self-consistent density functional tight-binding theory with the efficiency and long-term accuracy of extended Lagrangian Born–Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. Furthermore, for systems without self-consistent charge instabilities, only a single diagonalization or construction of the single-particle density matrix is required in each time step. The molecular dynamics simulation scheme can also be applied to a broad range of problems in materialsmore » science, chemistry, and biology.« less

  18. Extended Lagrangian Density Functional Tight-Binding Molecular Dynamics for Molecules and Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aradi, Bálint; Niklasson, Anders M. N.; Frauenheim, Thomas

    2015-06-26

    A computationally fast quantum mechanical molecular dynamics scheme using an extended Lagrangian density functional tight-binding formulation has been developed and implemented in the DFTB+ electronic structure program package for simulations of solids and molecular systems. The scheme combines the computational speed of self-consistent density functional tight-binding theory with the efficiency and long-term accuracy of extended Lagrangian Born–Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. Furthermore, for systems without self-consistent charge instabilities, only a single diagonalization or construction of the single-particle density matrix is required in each time step. The molecular dynamics simulation scheme can also be applied to a broad range of problems in materials science, chemistry, and biology.

  19. Tight-binding calculation studies of vacancy and adatom defects in graphene

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Wei; Lu, Wen-Cai; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Ho, K. M.; Wang, C. Z.

    2016-02-19

    Computational studies of complex defects in graphene usually need to deal with a larger number of atoms than the current first-principles methods can handle. We show a recently developed three-center tight-binding potential for carbon is very efficient for large scale atomistic simulations and can accurately describe the structures and energies of various defects in graphene. Using the three-center tight-binding potential, we have systematically studied the stable structures and formation energies of vacancy and embedded-atom defects of various sizes up to 4 vacancies and 4 embedded atoms in graphene. In conclusion, our calculations reveal low-energy defect structures and provide a moremore » comprehensive understanding of the structures and stability of defects in graphene.« less

  20. China shows increasing interest in heavy oil and oil sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    China and Canadian and US groups are cooperating in several areas to develop the heavy oil, asphalt, and oil sand deposits of China. The agreements dealing with exploration and upgrading are briefly described. The majority of the paper describes the occurrences of heavy oil, asphalt, and oil sands in China. 1 figure.

  1. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  2. Steam Line Break and Station Blackout Transients for Proliferation Resistant Hexagonal Tight Lattice BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upendra Rohatgi; Jae Jo; Bub Dong Chung; Hiroshi Takahashi [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Energy Sciences and Technology Department, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Downar, T.J. [Purdue University, School of Nuclear Engineering, West Lafayette, IN 47906-1290 (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Safety analyses of a proliferation resistant, economically competitive, high conversion, boiling water reactor (HCBWR) fueled with fissile plutonium and fertile thorium oxide fuel elements, and with passive safety systems are presented here. The HCBWR developed here is characterized by a very tight lattice with a relatively small water volume fraction in the core which therefore operates with a fast reactor neutron spectrum, and a considerably improved neutron economy compared to the current generation of Light Water Reactors. A tight lattice BWR core has very narrow flow channels with a hydraulic diameter less than half of the regular BWR core. The tight lattice core presented a special challenge to core cooling, because of reduced water inventory and high friction in the core. The primary safety concern when reducing the moderator to fuel ratio and when using a tightly packed lattice arrangement is to maintain adequate cooling of the core during both normal operation and accident scenarios. In the preliminary HCBWR design, the core has been placed in a vessel with a large chimney section, and the vessel is connected with an Isolation Cooling System (ICS). The vessel is placed in a containment with a Gravity Driven Cooling System (GDCS) and a Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) in a configuration similar to General Electric's (GE) Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR). The safety systems are similar to the SBWR; the ICS and PCCS are scaled with power. An internal recirculation pump was placed in the downcomer to augment the buoyancy head provided by the chimney. The buoyancy provided by the chimney alone could not generate sufficient recirculation in the vessel since the tight lattice configuration resulted in much larger friction in the core than the SBWR. A modified RELAP5 Code was used to simulate and analyze two of the most limiting events for a tight pitch lattice core: the Station Blackout and the Main Steam Line Break events. The constitutive

  3. Oil and gas developments in Atlantic Coastal Plain and Outer Continental Shelf in 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giordano, A.C.; Carpenter, G.B.; Amato, R.V.

    1984-10-01

    Exploratory drilling in the Atlantic coastal plain region declined slightly in 1983. Four wells were spudded during the year: 2 in the offshore Baltimore Canyon area and 2 onshore in Lee County, North Carolina. One North Carolina well was drilled, and the other was being tested at year end. In April, 4050 tracts were offered in the mid-Atlantic lease offering (OCS Sale 76), the first area-wide offering of offshore oil and gas leases under the Department of the Interior's new streamlined leasing system. Bids of $86,822,680 were exposed on 40 tracts, and 37 tracts were subsequently leased. In July 3, 082 tracts were offered in the south Atlantic lease offering (OCS Sale 78). Bids of $14,562,040 were exposed on 11 tracts, and all high bids were accepted. Seismic data acquisition decreased 64% below the 1982 level to 13,166 line-mi (21,189 line-km). 3 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Oil and gas developments in New Zealand and southwest Pacific islands in 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, H.R.

    1982-11-01

    New Zealand has experienced a strong increase in exploration activity. Offshore license holdings are up to 164,015 km/sup 2/, an increase of 53%. Onshore licences are 20,467 km/sup 2/, an increase of 77%. Four offshore wells were drilled to a total depth of 13,690 m; they were all dry. Onshore drilling amounted to 8548 m and was concentrated around last year's oil discovery of McKee-2A. Onland seismic surveys covered 484 line-km, while marine seismic work amounted to 6561 km. Because of increased re-injection of gas in the Kapuni field, the saleable production slightly went down, but condensate production rose by nearly 50,000 m/sup 3/; 21% more than last year. With the strongly increased output from the offshore Maui field, total gas production for sale was 1286 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/, up 20.2%, while the total production of condensate was 550,101 m/sup 3/, up 31.3%. LPG production rose to 41,179 m/sup 3/, up 50.8%. In Papua New Guinea, the total concession areas increased to 72,600 km/sup 2/. Oil companies recorded 550 km of seismic lines onshore, and 1716 km offshore; aeromagnetic surveys covered 9779 line-km. Outside concession areas, CCOP/SOPAC conducted single-channel seismic surveys in the New Ireland basin between Bougainville and Manus Island, for a total length of 4964 km. Interpretation of these surveys has been completed and prepared for publication. An appraisal well, Barikewa-2, was spudded shortly before year-end; initial reserve estimates for this large anticline had run as high as 10 tcf of gas in place. Drilling depth will be about 2120 m. (JMT)

  5. Oil and gas developments in New Zealand and southwest Pacific Islands in 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, H.R.; Herzer, R.H.

    1985-10-01

    New Zealand had an increase in petroleum production, while exploration drilling continued at 1983's high level. Although there was an overall drop in licensed acreage, the amount of seismic exploration increased markedly, with 1,100 km of acquisition onshore and 4,300 km offshore. A new oil discovery, Toetoe-1A, was made near McKee field. Combined production from Kapuni, Maui, McKee, and Kaimiro fields was 2,978.56 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/ of gas (up 25%) and 962,323 m/sup 3/ of condensate (up 14%). The combined McKee and Pouri fields, which came on line in November, are producing oil at about 5,200 b/d (830 m/sup 3//day). All licenses in Tonga have been relinquished, and all company data are on open file. New petroleum legislation will be in force in 1985. Fiji had no exploration activities. Three license blocks have been renewed at reduced acreage. Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands are still awaiting legislation for petroleum exploration. A second stage of a CCOP/SOPAC-sponsored tripartite project (S. P. Lee cruise) was carried out in both countries, and also in Tonga and the New Ireland basin of Papua New Guinea. On the mainland of Papua New Guinea, 5 wells were drilled to a combined depth of 10,158 m (up 10.9%). All were dry. Concession areas comprise 11 Petroleum Prospecting Licences with a total of 1,062 blocks (at 5-min graticules).

  6. Oil and gas developments in New Zealand and southwest Pacific Islands in 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, H.R.; Herzer, R.H.

    1985-10-01

    New Zealand had an increase in petroleum production, while exploration drilling continued at 1983's high level. Although there was an overall drop in licensed acreage, the amount of seismic exploration increased markedly, with 1100 km of acquisition onshore and 4300 km offshore. A new oil discovery, Toetoe-1A, was made near McKee field. Combined production from Kapuni, Maui, McKee, and Kaimiro fields was 2978.56 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/ of gas (up 25%) and 962,323 m/sup 3/ of condensate (up 14%). The combined McKee and Pouri fields, which came on line in November, are producing oil at about 5200 b/d (830 m/sup 3//day). All licenses in Tonga have been relinquished, and all company data are on open file. New petroleum legislation will be in force in 1985. Fiji had no exploration activities. Three license blocks have been renewed at reduced acreage. Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands are still awaiting legislation for petroleum exploration. A second stage of a CCOP/SOPAC-sponsored tripartite project (S.P. Lee cruise) was carried out in both countries, and also in Tonga and the New Ireland basin of Papua New Guinea. On the mainland of Papua New Guinea, 5 wells were drilled to a combined depth of 10,158 m (up 10.9%). All were dry. Concession areas comprise 11 Petroleum Prospecting Licenses with a total of 1062 blocks (at 5-min graticules). 5 figures, 5 tables.

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF INFILL DRILLING IN NATURALLY-FRACTURED TIGHT-GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence W. Teufel; Her-Yuan Chen; Thomas W. Engler; Bruce Hart

    2004-05-01

    A major goal of industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) fossil energy program is to increase gas reserves in tight-gas reservoirs. Infill drilling and hydraulic fracture stimulation in these reservoirs are important reservoir management strategies to increase production and reserves. Phase II of this DOE/cooperative industry project focused on optimization of infill drilling and evaluation of hydraulic fracturing in naturally-fractured tight-gas reservoirs. The cooperative project involved multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and simulation studies to determine infill well potential in the Mesaverde and Dakota sandstone formations at selected areas in the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico. This work used the methodology and approach developed in Phase I. Integrated reservoir description and hydraulic fracture treatment analyses were also conducted in the Pecos Slope Abo tight-gas reservoir in southeastern New Mexico and the Lewis Shale in the San Juan Basin. This study has demonstrated a methodology to (1) describe reservoir heterogeneities and natural fracture systems, (2) determine reservoir permeability and permeability anisotropy, (3) define the elliptical drainage area and recoverable gas for existing wells, (4) determine the optimal location and number of new in-fill wells to maximize economic recovery, (5) forecast the increase in total cumulative gas production from infill drilling, and (6) evaluate hydraulic fracture simulation treatments and their impact on well drainage area and infill well potential. Industry partners during the course of this five-year project included BP, Burlington Resources, ConocoPhillips, and Williams.

  8. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, J.B.; Walker, T.L.

    1988-10-01

    Significant rightholding changes took place in central and southern Africa during 1987. Angola, Benin, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mauritania, Seychelles, Somali Republic, Tanzania, Zaire, and Zambia announced awards or acreage open for bidding. Decreases in exploratory rightholdings occurred in Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, and Tanzania. More wells and greater footage were drilled in 1987 than in 1986. Total wells increased by 18% as 254 wells were completed compared to 217 in 1986. Footage drilled during the year increased by 46% as about 1.9 million ft were drilled compared to about 1.3 million ft in 1986. The success rate for exploration wells in 1987 improved slightly to 36% compared to 34% in 1986. Significant discoveries were made in Nigeria, Angola, Congo, and Gabon. Seismic acquisition in 1987 was the major geophysical activity during the year. Total oil production in 1987 was 773 million bbl (about 2.1 million b/d), a decrease of 7%. The decrease is mostly due to a 14% drop in Nigerian production, which comprises 60% of total regional production. The production share of OPEC countries (Nigeria and Gabon) versus non-OPEC countries of 67% remained unchanged from 1986. 24 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Oil and gas developments in New Zealand and southwest Pacific islands in 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, H.R.; Herzer, R.H.

    1986-10-01

    In New Zealand, a moratorium on petroleum exploration licensing was in effect throughout 1985. Seismic surveying activity was greatly reduced, with 960 km shot offshore and 780 km shot onshore. Drilling continued at a high rate, with 25 wells drilled, 5 offshore and 20 onshore. Total meterage exceeded 41,000 m. Although there were good indications of hydrocarbons, no major discoveries were made. At the end of 1985, the government lifted the licensing moratorium with the announcement of an offer of 50 blocks in the offshore Taranaki basin. Total petroleum production figures for New Zealand were 3802 million m/sup 3/ of gas, 1095 thousand m/sup 3/ of condensate, and 452 thousand m/sup 3/ of oil. The entire production is from fields in the Taranaki basin. In 1985, production of synthetic gasoline began at the Motunui synfuels plant using Maui and Kapuni gas and condensate as feedstock. Tonga introduced new petroleum legislation and is offering license blocks for exploration. No activity was reported from Fiji, Vanuatu, and Solomon Islands. License holdings in Papua New Guinea increased 78.3% to 16 petroleum prospecting licenses with a total of 1894 blocks. Seismic surveys amounts to 1500 km on land and 500 km offshore in 1985, after virtually no seismic in 1984. Drilling was up 23.9%. 3 figures, 6 tables.

  10. Research projects needed for expediting development of domestic oil and gas resources through arctic, offshore, and drilling technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canja, S.; Williams, C.R.

    1982-04-01

    This document contains the research projects which were identified at an industry-government workshop on Arctic, Offshore, and Drilling Technology (AODT) held at Bartlesville Energy Technology Center, January 5-7, 1981. The purpose of the workshop was to identify those problem areas where government research could provide technology advancement that would assist industry in accelerating the discovery and development of US oil and gas resouces. The workshop results are to be used to guide an effective research program. The workshop identified and prioritized the tasks that need to be implemented. All of the projects listed in the Arctic and Offshore sections were selected as appropriate for a Department of Energy (DOE) research role. The drilling projects identified as appropriate only for industry research have been separated in the Drilling section of this report.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn C. England; Stephanie Wien; Mingchih O. Chang

    2002-08-01

    This report provides results from the first year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operations. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation test results for a refinery gas-fired process heater and plans for cogeneration gas turbine tests and pilot-scale tests are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods to compare PM2.5 mass and chemical speciation. Test plans are presented for a gas turbine facility that will be tested in the fourth quarter of 2002. A preliminary approach for pilot-scale tests is presented that will help define design constraints for a new dilution sampler design that is smaller, lighter, and less costly to use.

  12. Oil and gas developments in New Zealand and southwest Pacific islands in 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, H.R.

    1984-10-01

    New Zealand had an increase in exploration activity, particularly drilling. 30,876 m were drilled onshore (up 62%) and 14,034 m offshore. Concession holdings slightly increased offshore (to 230,665 km), but dropped to nearly half onshore (to 34,353 km). Seismic surveys decreased to 477.5 line-km onshore and 1128 km offshore, down 56% and 93%, respectively. Oil, gas, and condensate were found in several wells on small structures close to the recently discovered McKee field. Regular production from McKee began in April 1984, at an initial rate of 1000 BOPD. Production from Kapuni and Maui fields combined was 2,381.313 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/ of gas (up 9.4%) and 845,286 m/sup 3/ of condensate (down 2.3%). Construction of a 1200-MT/day methanol plant, which uses natural gas from these fields, was completed. No exploration was carried out in Tonga, Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands. In Fiji, all prospecting licenses expired, but renewal terms on areas reduced by 50% were agreed on in principle. Papua New Guinea had 4 wells drilled to a combined depth of 9158 m (up 23.2%). The Juha-2X appraisal well confirmed the discovery of gas and condensate in the Juha anticline. In the Gulf of Papua, the offshore appraisal well, Pasca-A3, blew out and was abandoned. The total area of petroleum prospecting licenses slightly increased to 74,715 km. 4 figures, 5 tables.

  13. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-12-31

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  14. U.S. monthly oil production tops 8 million barrels per day for...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1970. Almost all of the growth in U.S. crude oil production over the last few years has been from drilling in tight shale formations, particularly those in Texas and North Dakota

  15. STEAM LINE BREAK AND STATION BLACKOUT TRANSIENTS FOR PROLIFERATION RESISTANT HEXAGONAL TIGHT LATTICE BWR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROHATGI,U.S.; JO,J.; CHUNG,B.D.; TAKAHASHI,H.

    2002-06-09

    Safety analyses of a proliferation resistant, economically competitive, high conversion, boiling water reactor (HCBWR) fueled with fissile plutonium and fertile thorium oxide fuel elements, and with passive safety systems are presented here. The HCBWR developed here is characterized by a very tight lattice with a relatively small water volume fraction in the core which therefore operates with a fast reactor neutron spectrum, and a considerably improved neutron economy compared to the current generation of Light Water Reactors. The tight lattice core has a very narrow flow channels with a hydraulic diameter less than half of the regular BWR core and, thus, presents a special challenge to core cooling, because of reduced water inventory and high friction in the core. The primary safety concern when reducing the moderator to fuel ratio and when using a tightly packed lattice arrangement is to maintain adequate cooling of the core during both normal operation and accident scenarios. In the preliminary HCBWR design, the core has been placed in a vessel with a large chimney section, and the vessel is connected with Isolation Condenser System (ICs). The vessel is placed in containment with Gravity Driven Cooling System (GDCS) and Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) in a configuration similar to General Electric's Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR). The safety systems are similar to SBWR; ICs and PCCS are scaled with power. An internal recirculation pump was placed in the downcomer to augment the buoyancy head provided by the chimney, since the buoyancy provided by the chimney alone could not generate sufficient recirculation in the vessel as the tight lattice configuration resulted in much larger friction in the core than the SBWR. The constitutive relationships for RELAP5 were assessed for narrow channels, and as a result the heat transfer package was modified. The modified RELAP5 was used to simulate and analyze two of the most limiting events for a tight

  16. Analysis of selected energy security issues related to US crude oil and natural gas exploration, development, production, transportation and processing. Final report, Task 13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    In July 1989, President Bush directed the Secretary of Energy to initiate the development of a comprehensive National Energy Strategy (NES) built upon a national consensus. The overall principle for the NES, as defined by the President and articulated by the Economic Policy Council (EPC), is the continuation of the successful policy of market reliance, consistent with the following goals: Balancing of energy, economic, and environmental concerns; and reduced dependence by the US and its friends and allies on potentially unreliable energy suppliers. The analyses presented in this report draw upon a large body of work previously conducted for DOE/Office of Fossil Energy, the US Department of Interior/Minerals Management Service (DOI/MMS), and the Gas Research Institute (GRI), referenced throughout the text of this report. This work includes assessments in the following areas: the potential of advanced oil and gas extraction technologies as improved through R&D, along with the successful transfer of these technologies to the domestic petroleum industry; the economic and energy impacts of environmental regulations on domestic oil and gas exploration, production, and transportation; the potential of tax incentives to stimulate domestic oil and gas development and production; the potential environmental costs associated with various options for leasing for US oil and gas resources in the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS); and the economic impacts of environmental regulations affecting domestic crude oil refining.

  17. Implications of Increasing Light Tight Oil Production for U.S. Refining -

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum & Other Liquids Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Summary Prices Crude reserves and production Refining and processing Imports/exports & movements Stocks Consumption/sales All petroleum & other liquids data reports Analysis & Projections Major Topics Most popular Consumption & sales Crude reserves & production Imports/exports & movements Prices Projections Recurring Refining & processing Stocks All reports Browse

  18. Options for U.S. Petroleum Refineries to Process Additional Light Tight Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - Energy Information Administration Petroleum & Other Liquids Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Summary Prices Crude reserves and production Refining and processing Imports/exports & movements Stocks Consumption/sales All petroleum & other liquids data reports Analysis & Projections Major Topics Most popular Consumption & sales Crude reserves & production Imports/exports & movements Prices Projections Recurring Refining & processing Stocks All reports Browse

  19. Table 2. U.S. tight oil plays: production and proved reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Basin","Play","State(s)","Production","Reserves" "Williston","Bakken","ND, MT, SD",270,4844,387,5972,1128 "Western Gulf","Eagle Ford","TX",351,4177,497,5172,995 "Permian","Bo...

  20. Appraisal of the tight sands potential of the Sand Wash and Great Divide Basins. Final report, June 1989--June 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The volume of future tight gas reserve additions is difficult to estimate because of uncertainties in the characterization and extent of the resource and the performance and cost-effectiveness of stimulation and production technologies. Ongoing R&D by industry and government aims to reduce the risks and costs of producing these tight resources, increase the certainty of knowledge of their geologic characteristics and extent, and increase the efficiency of production technologies. Some basins expected to contain large volumes of tight gas are being evaluated as to their potential contribution to domestic gas supplies. This report describes the results of one such appraisal. This analysis addresses the tight portions of the Eastern Greater Green River Basin (Sand Wash and Great Divide Subbasins in Northwestern Colorado and Southwestern Wyoming, respectively), with respect to estimated gas-in-place, technical recovery, and potential reserves. Geological data were compiled from public and proprietary sources. The study estimated gas-in-place in significant (greater than 10 feet net sand thickness) tight sand intervals for six distinct vertical and 21 areal units of analysis. These units of analysis represent tight gas potential outside current areas of development. For each unit of analysis, a ``typical`` well was modeled to represent the costs, recovery and economics of near-term drilling prospects in that unit. Technically recoverable gas was calculated using reservoir properties and assumptions about current formation evaluation and extraction technology performance. Basin-specific capital and operating costs were incorporated along with taxes, royalties and current regulations to estimate the minimum required wellhead gas price required to make the typical well in each of unit of analysis economic.

  1. Table 4.5 Crude Oil and Natural Gas Exploratory and Development...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... only, and Table 4.7 for development wells only. * Service wells, stratigraphic tests, and core tests are excluded. * For 19491959, data represent wells completed in a given year. ...

  2. Hot Oiling Spreadsheet

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-10-22

    One of the most common oil-field treatments is hot oiling to remove paraffin from wells. Even though the practice is common, the thermal effectiveness of the process is not commonly understood. In order for producers to easily understand the thermodynamics of hot oiling, a simple tool is needed for estimating downhole temperatures. Such a tool has been developed that can be distributed as a compiled spreadsheet.

  3. NETL Gas Migration Study to Advance Understanding of Responsible Oil and Natural Gas Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    President Obama’s “All-of-the-Above” energy strategy focuses on safely and efficiently developing America’s natural resources, and emphasizes that energy must be produced in a responsible and sustainable manner. Today, a study released by the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory provides further clarity on responsible development that both furthers America’s energy security and environmental stewardship. It does not speak broadly to all cases of hydraulic fracturing, and is a limited study focused around specific wells in Pennsylvania.

  4. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik; Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat; Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd

    2014-02-12

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  5. Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspac...

  6. Gas Flow Tightly Coupled to Elastoplastic Geomechanics for Tight- and Shale-Gas Reservoirs: Material Failure and Enhanced Permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jihoon; Moridis, George J.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate coupled flow and geomechanics in gas production from extremely low permeability reservoirs such as tight and shale gas reservoirs, using dynamic porosity and permeability during numerical simulation. In particular, we take the intrinsic permeability as a step function of the status of material failure, and the permeability is updated every time step. We consider gas reservoirs with the vertical and horizontal primary fractures, employing the single and dynamic double porosity (dual continuum) models. We modify the multiple porosity constitutive relations for modeling the double porous continua for flow and geomechanics. The numerical results indicate that production of gas causes redistribution of the effective stress fields, increasing the effective shear stress and resulting in plasticity. Shear failure occurs not only near the fracture tips but also away from the primary fractures, which indicates generation of secondary fractures. These secondary fractures increase the permeability significantly, and change the flow pattern, which in turn causes a change in distribution of geomechanical variables. From various numerical tests, we find that shear failure is enhanced by a large pressure drop at the production well, high Biot's coefficient, low frictional and dilation angles. Smaller spacing between the horizontal wells also contributes to faster secondary fracturing. When the dynamic double porosity model is used, we observe a faster evolution of the enhanced permeability areas than that obtained from the single porosity model, mainly due to a higher permeability of the fractures in the double porosity model. These complicated physics for stress sensitive reservoirs cannot properly be captured by the uncoupled or flow-only simulation, and thus tightly coupled flow and geomechanical models are highly recommended to accurately describe the reservoir behavior during gas production in tight and shale gas reservoirs and to smartly design production

  7. Gas Flow Tightly Coupled to Elastoplastic Geomechanics for Tight- and Shale-Gas Reservoirs: Material Failure and Enhanced Permeability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Jihoon; Moridis, George J.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate coupled flow and geomechanics in gas production from extremely low permeability reservoirs such as tight and shale gas reservoirs, using dynamic porosity and permeability during numerical simulation. In particular, we take the intrinsic permeability as a step function of the status of material failure, and the permeability is updated every time step. We consider gas reservoirs with the vertical and horizontal primary fractures, employing the single and dynamic double porosity (dual continuum) models. We modify the multiple porosity constitutive relations for modeling the double porous continua for flow and geomechanics. The numerical results indicate that production of gasmore » causes redistribution of the effective stress fields, increasing the effective shear stress and resulting in plasticity. Shear failure occurs not only near the fracture tips but also away from the primary fractures, which indicates generation of secondary fractures. These secondary fractures increase the permeability significantly, and change the flow pattern, which in turn causes a change in distribution of geomechanical variables. From various numerical tests, we find that shear failure is enhanced by a large pressure drop at the production well, high Biot's coefficient, low frictional and dilation angles. Smaller spacing between the horizontal wells also contributes to faster secondary fracturing. When the dynamic double porosity model is used, we observe a faster evolution of the enhanced permeability areas than that obtained from the single porosity model, mainly due to a higher permeability of the fractures in the double porosity model. These complicated physics for stress sensitive reservoirs cannot properly be captured by the uncoupled or flow-only simulation, and thus tightly coupled flow and geomechanical models are highly recommended to accurately describe the reservoir behavior during gas production in tight and shale gas reservoirs and to smartly design

  8. H.R. 817: A Bill to authorize the Secretary of Energy to lease lands within the naval oil shale reserves to private entities for the development and production of oil and natural gas. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This bill would give the Secretary of Energy authority to lease lands within the Naval oil shale reserves to private entities for the purpose of surveying for and developing oil and gas resources from the land (other than oil shale). It also allows the Bureau of Land Management to be used as a leasing agent, establishes rules on royalties, and the sharing of royalties with the state, and covers the transfer of existing equipment.

  9. Ischemic preconditioning enhances integrity of coronary endothelial tight junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhao; Jin, Zhu-Qiu

    2012-08-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cardiac tight junctions are present between coronary endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ischemic preconditioning preserves the structural and functional integrity of tight junctions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Myocardial edema is prevented in hearts subjected to ischemic preconditioning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ischemic preconditioning enhances translocation of ZO-2 from cytosol to cytoskeleton. -- Abstract: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is one of the most effective procedures known to protect hearts against ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. Tight junction (TJ) barriers occur between coronary endothelial cells. TJs provide barrier function to maintain the homeostasis of the inner environment of tissues. However, the effect of IPC on the structure and function of cardiac TJs remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that myocardial IR injury ruptures the structure of TJs and impairs endothelial permeability whereas IPC preserves the structural and functional integrity of TJs in the blood-heart barrier. Langendorff hearts from C57BL/6J mice were prepared and perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer. Cardiac function, creatine kinase release, and myocardial edema were measured. Cardiac TJ function was evaluated by measuring Evans blue-conjugated albumin (EBA) content in the extravascular compartment of hearts. Expression and translocation of zonula occludens (ZO)-2 in IR and IPC hearts were detected with Western blot. A subset of hearts was processed for the observation of ultra-structure of cardiac TJs with transmission electron microscopy. There were clear TJs between coronary endothelial cells of mouse hearts. IR caused the collapse of TJs whereas IPC sustained the structure of TJs. IR increased extravascular EBA content in the heart and myocardial edema but decreased the expression of ZO-2 in the cytoskeleton. IPC maintained the structure of TJs. Cardiac EBA content and edema were reduced in IPC hearts. IPC

  10. Development stategy for a mature oil field in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela - an integrated study in petroleum engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rondon, L.; Coll, C.; Cordova, P.; Gamero, H.

    1996-12-31

    The results from a 3-D , 3-Phase numerical simulation model of Lower Lagunillas reservoir in Block IV Lake Maracaibo, indicate the possibility of additional recovery from this mature field by drilling infill horizontal wells. The simulation model was the final outcome of an integrated work effort by a team of specialists. The field has produced approximately 920 MMSTB or 43% of OOIP to date and the remaining reserves are estimated to be 270 MMSTB. The reservoir pressure has declined from 4200 psi to 1400 psi, well below the bubble point pressure of 4000 psi. The objectives of an integrated reservoir study were to understand the reservoir heterogeneity and dynamics, evaluate the efficiency of the gas injection started in 1966 and the strength of the active acquifer as pressure support mechanisms. The new model shows the presence of layers with bypassed oil and higher pressures between layers that show greater pressure depletion and high GOR This situation demonstrates the need to formulate a new development strategy for efficiently recovering the remaining reserves. The study indicates that the drilling of horizontal wells or infill deviated wells in some of these layers offers the best solution for maximizing recovery from this reservoir taking full advantage of the reservoir heterogeneity aquifer support and secondary gas cap to optimize well locations.

  11. Development stategy for a mature oil field in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela - an integrated study in petroleum engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rondon, L.; Coll, C.; Cordova, P.; Gamero, H. )

    1996-01-01

    The results from a 3-D , 3-Phase numerical simulation model of Lower Lagunillas reservoir in Block IV Lake Maracaibo, indicate the possibility of additional recovery from this mature field by drilling infill horizontal wells. The simulation model was the final outcome of an integrated work effort by a team of specialists. The field has produced approximately 920 MMSTB or 43% of OOIP to date and the remaining reserves are estimated to be 270 MMSTB. The reservoir pressure has declined from 4200 psi to 1400 psi, well below the bubble point pressure of 4000 psi. The objectives of an integrated reservoir study were to understand the reservoir heterogeneity and dynamics, evaluate the efficiency of the gas injection started in 1966 and the strength of the active acquifer as pressure support mechanisms. The new model shows the presence of layers with bypassed oil and higher pressures between layers that show greater pressure depletion and high GOR This situation demonstrates the need to formulate a new development strategy for efficiently recovering the remaining reserves. The study indicates that the drilling of horizontal wells or infill deviated wells in some of these layers offers the best solution for maximizing recovery from this reservoir taking full advantage of the reservoir heterogeneity aquifer support and secondary gas cap to optimize well locations.

  12. U(VI) bioreduction with emulsified vegetable oil as the electron donor-- Microcosm tests and model development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Guoping; Wu, Wei-min; Watson, David B; Parker, Jack C.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Brooks, Scott C; Shi, Xiaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Microcosm tests were conducted to study U(VI) bioreduction in contaminated sediments with emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) as the electron donor. In the microcosms, EVO was degraded by indigenous microorganisms and stimulated Fe, U, and sulfate bioreduction, and methanogenesis. Removal of aqueous U occurred concurrently with sulfate reduction, with more reduction of total U in the case of higher initial sulfate concentrations. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) analysis confirmed U(VI) reduction to U(IV). As the acetate concentration peaked in 10~20 days in oleate microcosms, the maximum was reached in 100~120 days in the EVO microcosms, indicating that EVO hydrolysis was rate-limiting. The acetate accumulation was sustained over 50 days longer in the oleate and EVO than in the ethanol microcosms, suggesting that acetate-utilizing methanogenesis was slower in the cases of oleate and EVO. Both slow hydrolysis and methanogenesis could contribute to potential sustained bioreduction in field application. Biogeochemical models were developed to couple degradation of EVO, production and oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, glycerol, acetate, and hydrogen, reduction of Fe(III), U(VI) and sulfate, and methanogenesis with growth and decay of microbial functional groups. The models were used to simulate the coupled processes in a field test in a companion article.

  13. Preliminary Reference Case Results for Oil and Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Preliminary Reference Case Results for Oil and Natural Gas AEO2014 Oil and Gas Supply Working Group Meeting Office of Petroleum, Gas, and Biofuels Analysis September 26, 2013 | Washington, DC WORKING GROUP PRESENTATION FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE AS RESULTS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AEO2014P uses ref2014.d092413a AEO2013 uses ref2013.d102312a Changes for AEO2014 2 * Revised shale & tight play resources (EURs, type curves) * Updated classification of shale gas, tight gas, &

  14. Development of bonded composite doublers for the repair of oil recovery equipment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, David W.; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2005-06-01

    An unavoidable by-product of a metallic structure's use is the appearance of crack and corrosion flaws. Economic barriers to the replacement of these structures have created an aging infrastructure and placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair methods. In the past decade, an advanced composite repair technology has made great strides in commercial aviation use. Extensive testing and analysis, through joint programs between the Sandia Labs FAA Airworthiness Assurance Center and the aviation industry, have proven that composite materials can be used to repair damaged aluminum structure. Successful pilot programs have produced flight performance history to establish the durability of bonded composite patches as a permanent repair on commercial aircraft structures. With this foundation in place, this effort is adapting bonded composite repair technology to civil structures. The use of bonded composite doublers has the potential to correct the difficulties associated with current repair techniques and the ability to be applied where there are no rehabilitation options. It promises to be cost-effective with minimal disruption to the users of the structure. This report concludes a study into the application of composite patches on thick steel structures typically used in mining operations. Extreme fatigue, temperature, erosive, and corrosive environments induce an array of equipment damage. The current weld repair techniques for these structures provide a fatigue life that is inferior to that of the original plate. Subsequent cracking must be revisited on a regular basis. The use of composite doublers, which do not have brittle fracture problems such as those inherent in welds, can help extend the structure's fatigue life and reduce the equipment downtime. Two of the main issues for adapting aircraft composite repairs to civil applications are developing an installation technique for carbon steel and accommodating large repairs on extremely thick structures

  15. Methods and apparatus for measuring the tightness of enclosures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Modera, Mark P.; Sherman, Max H.

    1987-01-13

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for measuring tightness of an enclosure such as a building by utilizing alternating pressurization techniques. One method comprises providing apparatus capable of causing an internal volume change for the enclosure, the apparatus including a means for determining the instantaneous volume change, and a means for determining the instantaneous pressure within the enclosure. The apparatus is operated within the enclosure to change the volume thereof, and at least one of the frequency and the displacement is adjusted to achieve a root mean square pressure in the enclosure approximately equal to a reference pressure. At that pressure, the leakage of the enclosure is determined from the instantaneous displacement and instantaneous pressure values.

  16. Methods and apparatus for measuring the tightness of enclosures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Modera, M.P.; Sherman, M.H.

    1987-01-13

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for measuring tightness of an enclosure such as a building by utilizing alternating pressurization techniques. One method comprises providing apparatus capable of causing an internal volume change for the enclosure, the apparatus including a means for determining the instantaneous volume change, and a means for determining the instantaneous pressure within the enclosure. The apparatus is operated within the enclosure to change the volume thereof, and at least one of the frequency and the displacement is adjusted to achieve a root mean square pressure in the enclosure approximately equal to a reference pressure. At that pressure, the leakage of the enclosure is determined from the instantaneous displacement and instantaneous pressure values. 3 figs.

  17. Enhanced Oil Recovery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhanced Oil Recovery Enhanced Oil Recovery Cross-section illustrating how carbon dioxide and water can be used to flush residual oil from a subsurface rock formation between wells. Cross-section illustrating how carbon dioxide and water can be used to flush residual oil from a subsurface rock formation between wells. Crude oil development and production in U.S. oil reservoirs can include up to three distinct phases: primary, secondary, and tertiary (or enhanced) recovery. During primary

  18. World oil trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, A. )

    1991-01-01

    This book provides data on many facets of the world oil industry topics include; oil consumption; oils share of energy consumption; crude oil production; natural gas production; oil reserves; prices of oil; world refining capacity; and oil tankers.

  19. Groundwater and Wastewater Remediation Using Agricultural Oils - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Groundwater and Wastewater Remediation Using Agricultural Oils Savannah River National Laboratory Contact SRNL About This Technology Soybean oil used for groundwater and wastewater remediation Soybean oil used for groundwater and wastewater remediation Technology Marketing Summary Scientists have developed a groundwater treatment technique that employs agricultural oils to stimulate endogenous microbes which accelerates the cleanup. The oils tested include canola oil,

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn C. England

    2004-10-20

    ambient air to dilute the stack gas sample followed by 80-90 seconds residence time to allow aerosol formation and growth to stabilize prior to sample collection and analysis. More accurate and complete emissions data generated using the methods developed in this program will enable more accurate source-receptor and source apportionment analysis for PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) implementation and streamline the environmental assessment of oil, gas and power production facilities. The overall goals of this program were to: (1) Develop improved dilution sampling technology and test methods for PM2.5 mass emissions and speciation measurements, and compare results obtained with dilution and traditional stationary source sampling methods. (2) Develop emission factors and speciation profiles for emissions of fine particulate matter, especially organic aerosols, for use in source-receptor and source apportionment analyses. (3) Identify and characterize PM2.5 precursor compound emissions that can be used in source-receptor and source apportionment analyses.

  1. Oil shale technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. (Akron Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    Oil shale is undoubtedly an excellent energy source that has great abundance and world-wide distribution. Oil shale industries have seen ups and downs over more than 100 years, depending on the availability and price of conventional petroleum crudes. Market forces as well as environmental factors will greatly affect the interest in development of oil shale. Besides competing with conventional crude oil and natural gas, shale oil will have to compete favorably with coal-derived fuels for similar markets. Crude shale oil is obtained from oil shale by a relatively simple process called retorting. However, the process economics are greatly affected by the thermal efficiencies, the richness of shale, the mass transfer effectiveness, the conversion efficiency, the design of retort, the environmental post-treatment, etc. A great many process ideas and patents related to the oil shale pyrolysis have been developed; however, relatively few field and engineering data have been published. Due to the vast heterogeneity of oil shale and to the complexities of physicochemical process mechanisms, scientific or technological generalization of oil shale retorting is difficult to achieve. Dwindling supplied of worldwide petroleum reserves, as well as the unprecedented appetite of mankind for clean liquid fuel, has made the public concern for future energy market grow rapidly. the clean coal technology and the alternate fuel technology are currently of great significance not only to policy makers, but also to process and chemical researchers. In this book, efforts have been made to make a comprehensive text for the science and technology of oil shale utilization. Therefore, subjects dealing with the terminological definitions, geology and petrology, chemistry, characterization, process engineering, mathematical modeling, chemical reaction engineering, experimental methods, and statistical experimental design, etc. are covered in detail.

  2. Oil shale: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    This report documents the status of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oil Shale Program as of the end of FY 86. The report consists of (1) a status of oil shale development, (2) a description of the DOE Oil Shale Program, (3) an FY 86 oil shale research summary, and (4) a summary of FY 86 accomplishments. Discoveries were made in FY 86 about the physical and chemical properties and behavior of oil shales, process chemistry and kinetics, in situ retorting, advanced processes, and the environmental behavior and fate of wastes. The DOE Oil Shale Program shows an increasing emphasis on eastern US oil shales and in the development of advanced oil shale processing concepts. With the award to Foster Wheeler for the design of oil shale conceptual plants, the first step in the development of a systems analysis capability for the complete oil shale process has been taken. Unocal's Parachute Creek project, the only commercial oil shale plant operating in the United States, is operating at about 4000 bbl/day. The shale oil is upgraded at Parachute Creek for input to a conventional refinery. 67 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

  4. US Geological Survey publications on western tight gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupa, M.P.; Spencer, C.W.

    1989-02-01

    This bibliography includes reports published from 1977 through August 1988. In 1977 the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the US Department of Energy's, (DOE), Western Gas Sands Research program, initiated a geological program to identify and characterize natural gas resources in low-permeability (tight) reservoirs in the Rocky Mountain region. These reservoirs are present at depths of less than 2,000 ft (610 m) to greater than 20,000 ft (6,100 m). Only published reports readily available to the public are included in this report. Where appropriate, USGS researchers have incorporated administrative report information into later published studies. These studies cover a broad range of research from basic research on gas origin and migration to applied studies of production potential of reservoirs in individual wells. The early research included construction of regional well-log cross sections. These sections provide a basic stratigraphic framework for individual areas and basins. Most of these sections include drill-stem test and other well-test data so that the gas-bearing reservoirs can be seen in vertical and areal dimensions. For the convenience of the reader, the publications listed in this report have been indexed by general categories of (1) authors, (2) states, (3) geologic basins, (4) cross sections, (5) maps (6) studies of gas origin and migration, (7) reservoir or mineralogic studies, and (8) other reports of a regional or specific topical nature.

  5. Prediction of Gas Leak Tightness of Superplastically Formed Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snippe, Corijn H. C.; Meinders, T.

    2010-06-15

    In some applications, in this case an aluminium box in a subatomic particle detector containing highly sensitive detecting devices, it is important that a formed sheet should show no gas leak from one side to the other. In order to prevent a trial-and-error procedure to make this leak tight box, a method is set up to predict if a formed sheet conforms to the maximum leak constraint. The technique of superplastic forming (SPF) is used in order to attain very high plastic strains before failure. Since only a few of these boxes are needed, this makes, this generally slow, process an attractive production method. To predict the gas leak of a superplastically formed aluminium sheet in an accurate way, finite element simulations are used in combination with a user-defined material model. This constitutive model couples the leak rate with the void volume fraction. This void volume fraction is then dependent on both the equivalent plastic strain and the applied hydrostatic pressure during the bulge process (backpressure).

  6. NETL: Oil & Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil & Gas Efficient recovery of our nation's fossil fuel resources in an environmentally safe manner requires the development and application of new technologies that address the unique nature and challenging locations of many of our remaining oil and natural gas accumulations. The National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL) research projects are designed to help catalyze the development of these new technologies, provide objective data to help quantify the environmental and safety risks

  7. History of western oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    The history of oil shale in the United States since the early 1900's is detailed. Research on western oil shale probably began with the work of Robert Catlin in 1915. During the next 15 years there was considerable interest in the oil shales, and oil shale claims were located, and a few recovery plants were erected in Colorado, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, and Montana. Little shale soil was produced, however, and the major oil companies showed little interest in producing shale oil. The early boom in shale oil saw less than 15 plants produce a total of less than 15,000 barrels of shale oil, all but about 500 barrels of which was produced by the Catlin Operation in Nevada and by the US Bureau of Mines Rulison, Colorado operation. Between 1930 and 1944 plentiful petroleum supplies at reasonable prices prevent any significant interest in shale oil, but oil shortages during World War II caused a resurgence of interest in oil shale. Between 1940 and 1969, the first large-scale mining and retorting operations in soil shale, and the first attempts at true in situ recovery of shale oil began. Only 75,000 barrels of shale oil were produced, but major advancements were made in developing mine designs and technology, and in retort design and technology. The oil embargo of 1973 together with a new offering of oil shale leases by the Government in 1974 resulted in the most concentrated efforts for shale oil production to date. These efforts and the future prospects for shale oil as an energy source in the US are discussed.

  8. The Structural Basis for Tight Control of PP2A Methylation and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Our studies suggested mechanisms of LCMT-1 in tight control of PP2A function, important ... Country of Publication: United States Language: ENGLISH Subject: 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL ...

  9. Favorable conditions noted for Australia shale oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    After brief descriptions of the Rundle, Condor, and Stuart/Kerosene Creek oil shale projects in Queensland, the competitive advantages of oil shale development and the state and federal governments' attitudes towards an oil shale industry in Australia are discussed. It is concluded that Australia is the ideal country in which to start an oil shale industry.

  10. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil)...

  11. Oil Production

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1989-07-01

    A horizontal and slanted well model was developed and incorporated into BOAST, a black oil simulator, to predict the potential production rates for such wells. The HORIZONTAL/SLANTED WELL MODEL can be used to calculate the productivity index, based on the length and location of the wellbore within the block, for each reservoir grid block penetrated by the horizontal/slanted wellbore. The well model can be run under either pressure or rate constraints in which wellbore pressuresmore » can be calculated as an option of infinite-conductivity. The model can simulate the performance of multiple horizontal/slanted wells in any geometric combination within reservoirs.« less

  12. Corrosivity Of Pyrolysis Oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, James R; Bestor, Michael A; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oils from several sources have been analyzed and used in corrosion studies which have consisted of exposing corrosion coupons and stress corrosion cracking U-bend samples. The chemical analyses have identified the carboxylic acid compounds as well as the other organic components which are primarily aromatic hydrocarbons. The corrosion studies have shown that raw pyrolysis oil is very corrosive to carbon steel and other alloys with relatively low chromium content. Stress corrosion cracking samples of carbon steel and several low alloy steels developed through-wall cracks after a few hundred hours of exposure at 50 C. Thermochemical processing of biomass can produce solid, liquid and/or gaseous products depending on the temperature and exposure time used for processing. The liquid product, known as pyrolysis oil or bio-oil, as produced contains a significant amount of oxygen, primarily as components of water, carboxylic acids, phenols, ketones and aldehydes. As a result of these constituents, these oils are generally quite acidic with a Total Acid Number (TAN) that can be around 100. Because of this acidity, bio-oil is reported to be corrosive to many common structural materials. Despite this corrosive nature, these oils have the potential to replace some imported petroleum. If the more acidic components can be removed from this bio-oil, it is expected that the oil could be blended with crude oil and then processed in existing petroleum refineries. The refinery products could be transported using customary routes - pipelines, barges, tanker trucks and rail cars - without a need for modification of existing hardware or construction of new infrastructure components - a feature not shared by ethanol.

  13. ADVANCED FRACTURING TECHNOLOGY FOR TIGHT GAS: AN EAST TEXAS FIELD DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukul M. Sharma

    2005-03-01

    The primary objective of this research was to improve completion and fracturing practices in gas reservoirs in marginal plays in the continental United States. The Bossier Play in East Texas, a very active tight gas play, was chosen as the site to develop and test the new strategies for completion and fracturing. Figure 1 provides a general location map for the Dowdy Ranch Field, where the wells involved in this study are located. The Bossier and other tight gas formations in the continental Unites States are marginal plays in that they become uneconomical at gas prices below $2.00 MCF. It was, therefore, imperative that completion and fracturing practices be optimized so that these gas wells remain economically attractive. The economic viability of this play is strongly dependent on the cost and effectiveness of the hydraulic fracturing used in its well completions. Water-fracs consisting of proppant pumped with un-gelled fluid is the type of stimulation used in many low permeability reservoirs in East Texas and throughout the United States. The use of low viscosity Newtonian fluids allows the creation of long narrow fractures in the reservoir, without the excessive height growth that is often seen with cross-linked fluids. These low viscosity fluids have poor proppant transport properties. Pressure transient tests run on several wells that have been water-fractured indicate a long effective fracture length with very low fracture conductivity even when large amounts of proppant are placed in the formation. A modification to the water-frac stimulation design was needed to transport proppant farther out into the fracture. This requires suspending the proppant until the fracture closes without generating excessive fracture height. A review of fracture diagnostic data collected from various wells in different areas (for conventional gel and water-fracs) suggests that effective propped lengths for the fracture treatments are sometimes significantly shorter than those

  14. ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"per Building (gallons)","per Square Foot...

  15. ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities, 1999" ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"per Building (gallons)","per Square Foot (gallons)","per Worker...

  16. Crude Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Barrels) Product: Crude Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases Distillate Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Oil Still Gas Petroleum Coke Marketable Petroleum Coke Catalyst Petroleum Coke Other Petroleum Products Natural Gas Coal Purchased Electricity Purchased Steam Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History U.S. 0 0 0 0 0 0 1986-2015 East Coast (PADD 1) 0 0 0 0

  17. Analysis of Seven NEPTUN-III (Tight-Lattice) Bottom-Flooding Experiments with RELAP5/MOD3.3/BETA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Analytis, G.Th.

    2004-05-15

    Seven tight-lattice NEPTUN-III bottom-flooding experiments are analyzed by using the frozen version of RELAP5, RELAP5/MOD3.3/BETA. This work is part of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) contribution to the High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR) European Union project and aims at assessing the capabilities of the code to model the reflooding phenomena in a tight hexagonal lattice (which was one of the core geometries considered at the time for an HPLWR) following a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident scenario. Even though the latest version of the code has as a default the new PSI reflood model developed by the author, which was tested and assessed against reflooding data obtained at standard light water reactor lattices, this work shows that for tight lattices, the code underpredicts the peak clad temperatures measured during a series of reflooding experiments performed at the NEPTUN-III tight-lattice heater rod bundle facility. The reasons for these differences are discussed, and the (possible) changes needed in the framework of RELAP5/MOD3.3 for improving the modeling of reflooding in tight lattices are investigated.

  18. Field performance of a premium heating oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santa, T.; Jetter, S.

    1997-01-01

    As part of ongoing research to provide quality improvements to heating oil, Mobil Oil together with Santa Fuel conducted a field trial to investigate the performance of a new premium heating oil. This premium heating oil contains an additive system designed to minimize sludge related problems in the fuel delivery system of residential home heating systems. The additive used was similar to others reported at this and earlier BNL conferences, but was further developed to enhance its performance in oil heat systems. The premium heating oil was bulk additized and delivered to a subset of the customer base. The performance of this premium heating oil is discussed.

  19. Oil shale: The environmental challenges III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, K.K.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers of a symposium whose purpose was to discuss the environmental and socio-economic aspects of oil shale development. Topics considered include oil shale solid waste disposal, modeling spent shale disposal, water management, assessing the effects of oil shale facilities on water quality, wastewater treatment and use at oil shale facilities, potential air emissions from oil shale retorting, the control of air pollutant emissions from oil shale facilities, oil shale air emission control, socioeconomic research, a framework for mitigation agreements, the Garfield County approach to impact mitigation, the relationship of applied industrial hygiene programs and experimental toxicology programs, and industrial hygiene programs.

  20. Bio-Oil Analysis Laboratory Procedures | Bioenergy | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bio-Oil Analysis Laboratory Procedures NREL develops laboratory analytical procedures ... These standard procedures have been validated and allow for reliable bio-oil analysis. ...

  1. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah Michael Vanden Berg; Paul Anderson; Janae Wallace;...

  2. Conventional Energy (Oil, Gas, and Coal) Forum & Associated Vertical...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    CONVENTIONAL ENERGY (OIL, GAS & COAL) FORUM & ASSOCIATED VERTICAL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT ... South, Las Vegas, NV 89119 The dynamic world of conventional energy (focusing on oil, gas ...

  3. Unconventional Oil and Gas Projects Help Reduce Environmental...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Unconventional Oil and Gas Projects Help Reduce Environmental Impact of Development Since the first commercial oil well was drilled in the United States in 1859, most of the ...

  4. Field Laboratory in the Osage Reservation -- Determination of the Status of Oil and Gas Operations: Task 1. Development of Survey Procedures and Protocols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    Procedures and protocols were developed for the determination of the status of oil, gas, and other mineral operations on the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate. The strategy for surveying Osage County, Oklahoma, was developed and then tested in the field. Two Osage Tribal Council members and two Native American college students (who are members of the Osage Tribe) were trained in the field as a test of the procedures and protocols developed in Task 1. Active and inactive surface mining operations, industrial sites, and hydrocarbon-producing fields were located on maps of the county, which was divided into four more or less equal areas for future investigation. Field testing of the procedures, protocols, and training was successful. No significant damage was found at petroleum production operations in a relatively new production operation and in a mature waterflood operation.

  5. Steam Line Break and Station Blackout Transients for Proliferation-Resistant Hexagonal Tight Lattice Boiling Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, Upendra S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States); Jo, Jae H. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States); Chung, Bub Dong [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States); Takahashi, Hiroshi [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States); Downar, Thomas J. [Purdue University (United States)

    2004-01-15

    Safety analyses of a proliferation-resistant, economically competitive, high-conversion boiling water reactor (HCBWR) fueled with fissile plutonium and fertile thorium oxide fuel elements, and with passive safety systems, are presented here. The HCBWR developed here is characterized by a very tight lattice with a relatively small water volume fraction in the core that therefore operates with a fast reactor neutron spectrum and a considerably improved neutron economy compared to the current generation of light water reactors. The tight lattice core has a very narrow flow channel with a hydraulic diameter less than half of the regular boiling water reactor (BWR) core and, thus, presents a special challenge to core cooling because of reduced water inventory and high friction in the core. The primary safety concern when reducing the moderator-to-fuel ratio and when using a tightly packed lattice arrangement is to maintain adequate cooling of the core during both normal operation and accident scenarios.In the preliminary HCBWR design, the core is placed in a vessel with a large chimney section, and the vessel is connected to the isolation condenser system (ICS). The vessel is placed in containment with the gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) and passive containment cooling system (PCCS) in a configuration similar to General Electric's simplified BWR (SBWR). The safety systems are similar to those of the SBWR; the ICS and PCCS are scaled with power. An internal recirculation pump is placed in the downcomer to augment the buoyancy head provided by the chimney since the buoyancy provided by the chimney alone could not generate sufficient recirculation in the vessel as the tight lattice configuration results in much larger friction in the core than with the SBWR.The constitutive relationships for RELAP5 are assessed for narrow channels, and as a result the heat transfer package is modified. The modified RELAP5 is used to simulate and analyze two of the most limiting events

  6. Promoting and Advancing the Development of Healthy, Durable,...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    * 16,000 HDD * Electricity .60kWh * Heating Oil 8gallon * 1,400 gallons... Tight assembly must be ventilated Annual fuel usage very low www.cchrc.org CCHRC Cold ...

  7. OriginOil Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc Place: Los Angeles, California Zip: 90016 Product: California-based OTC-quoted algae-to-oil technology developer. References: OriginOil Inc1 This article is a stub. You...

  8. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per...

  9. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  10. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per...

  11. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  12. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region, 1999" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per Square Foot"...

  13. Oil and gas developments in New Zealand and southwest Pacific islands in 1982. [Papua New Guinea; Fiji

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, H.R.

    1983-10-01

    New Zealand experienced a marked increase in activity. Concession holdings went up 205% onshore to 62,429 km/sup 2/, and 31% offshore to 215,439 km/sup 2/. Seismic coverage more than doubled both onshore and offshore, to 1,075 and 15,321 line-km, respectively. Several new targets have been delineated offshore, and 2 drillships are scheduled to arrive in the country and start drilling during 1983. Onshore, the total depth drilled more than doubled to 18,993 m. Drilling was concentrated in the recently discovered McKee field, where 2 additional oil producers were completed, and on 3 other structures nearby, where 1 well tested gas and condensate. Production of gas and condensate from the Kapuni and Maui fields combined was 2,177.122 X 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/ (up 69.3%) and 865,454 m/sup 3/ (up 57.3%), respectively. Expansion of the only refinery in New Zealand and the realization of large petrochemical projects using natural gas are well under way. These projects include an ammonia-urea plant, which was completed by year end, a methanol plant, and a methanol-to-synthetic petrol plant now under construction.

  14. Effective tight-binding model for MX2 under electric and magnetic fields

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shanavas, Kavungal Veedu; Satpathy, S.

    2015-06-15

    We present a systematic method for developing a five band Hamiltonian for the metal d orbitals that can be used to study the effect of electric and magnetic fields on multilayer MX2 (M=Mo,W and X=S,Se) systems. On a hexagonal lattice of d orbitals, the broken inversion symmetry of the monolayers is incorporated via fictitious s orbitals at the chalcogenide sites. A tight-binding Hamiltonian is constructed and then downfolded to get effective d orbital overlap parameters using quasidegenerate perturbation theory. The steps to incorporate the effects of multiple layers, external electric and magnetic fields are also detailed. We find that anmore » electric field produces a linear-k Rashba splitting around the Γ point, while a magnetic field removes the valley pseudospin degeneracy at the ±K points. Lastly, our model provides a simple tool to understand the recent experiments on electric and magnetic control of valley pseudospin in monolayer dichalcogendies.« less

  15. Tight regulation of plant immune responses by combining promoter and suicide exon elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, Tania L.; Liang, Yan; Nguyen, Bao N.; Staskawicz, Brian J.; Loqué, Dominique; Hammond, Ming C.

    2015-07-02

    Effector-triggered immunity (ETI) is activated when plant disease resistance (R) proteins recognize the presence of pathogen effector proteins delivered into host cells. The ETI response generally encompasses a defensive ‘hypersensitive response’ (HR) that involves programmed cell death at the site of pathogen recognition. While many R protein and effector protein pairs are known to trigger HR, other components of the ETI signaling pathway remain elusive. Effector genes regulated by inducible promoters cause background HR due to leaky protein expression, preventing the generation of relevant transgenic plant lines. By employing the HyP5SM suicide exon, we have developed a strategy to tightly regulate effector proteins such that HR is chemically inducible and non-leaky. This alternative splicing-based gene regulation system was shown to successfully control Bs2/AvrBs2-dependent and RPP1/ATR1Δ51-dependent HR in Nicotiana benthamiana and Nicotiana tabacum, respectively. It was also used to generate viable and healthy transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants that inducibly initiate HR. In conclusion, beyond enabling studies on the ETI pathway, our regulatory strategy is generally applicable to reduce or eliminate undesired background expression of transgenes.

  16. Oil-shale utilization at Morgantown, WV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, J.Y.; Notestein, J.E.; Mei, J.S.; Romanosky, R.R.; King, J.A.; Zeng, L.W.

    1982-01-01

    Fully aware of the nation's need to develop high-risk and long-term research in eastern oil-shale and low-grade oil-shale utilization in general, the US DOE/METC initiated an eastern oil-shale characterization program. In less than 3 months, METC produced shale oil from a selected eastern-US oil shale with a Fischer assay of 8.0 gallons/ton. In view of the relatively low oil yield from this particular oil shale, efforts were directed to determine the process conditions which give the highest oil yield. A 2-inch-diameter electrically heated fluidized-bed retort was constructed, and Celina oil shale from Tennessee was selected to be used as a representative eastern oil shale. After more than 50 runs, the retorting data were analyzed and reviewed and the best oil-yield operating condition was determined. In addition, while conducting the oil-shale retorting experiments, a number of technical problems were identified, addressed, and overcome. Owing to the inherent high rates of heat and mass transfers inside the fluidized bed, the fluidized-bed combustor and retorting appear to be a desirable process technology for an effective and efficient means for oil-shale utilization. The fluidized-bed operation is a time-tested, process-proven, high-throughput, solid-processing operation which may contribute to the efficient utilization of oil-shale energy.

  17. Upgrading Orinoco Belt heavy oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliantara, J.; Castillo, O.

    1982-05-01

    Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA), in an effort to develop new oil resources, has undertaken a program to evaluate and develop the Orinoco Heavy Oil Belt, in the eastern part of Venezuela. Lagoven, S.A., a subsidiary of PDVSA, has been assigned the responsibility for developing and upgrading part of the Orinoco belt. This paper describes the most relevant aspects of Lagoven's first upgrading module, a facility that will convert Orinoco oil into a premium crude with a very high yield of products of great market demand.

  18. Minimizing maintenance with oil condition monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-01

    Oil condition monitoring (OCM) involves the analysis of oil samples taken at specific points in the equipment at regular intervals. The condition of the oil, its pace of deterioration and the presence of contaminants provide important indicators of component wear or equipment failure. Shell Lubricants has developed a number of bespoke tests to meet equipment and operative requirements. 1 fig.

  19. Oil shale technology and evironmental aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scinta, J.

    1982-01-01

    Oil shale processes are a combination of mining, retorting, and upgrading facilities. This work outlines the processing steps and some design considerations required in an oil shale facility. A brief overview of above ground and in situ retorts is presented; 6 retorts are described. The development aspects which the oil shale industry is addressing to protect the environment are presented.

  20. Research, development, and testing of a prototype two-stage low-input rate oil burner for variable output heating system applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krajewski, R.F.; Butcher, T.A.

    1997-09-01

    The use of a Two-Stage Fan Atomized Oil Burner (TSFAB) in space and water heating applications will have dramatic advantages in terms of it`s potential for a high Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE) and/or Energy Factor (EF) rating for the equipment. While demonstrations of a single rate burner in an actual application have already yielded sufficient confidence that space and domestic heating loads can be met at a single low firing rate, this represents only a narrow solution to the diverse nature of building space heating and domestic water loads that the industry must address. The mechanical development, proposed control, and testing of the Two-Stage burner is discussed in terms of near term and long term goals.

  1. Dying for oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sachs, A.

    1996-05-01

    This article discusses the fight and execution of Ken Saro-Wiwa, the Ogoni leader who defended his people`s land on the Niger delta against oil development encouraged by the government and persued by the Royal/Dutch Shell Co. Political reprocussions and heightened vigilance of environmental activists are discussed at length.

  2. Oil and Gas

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    RD&D Leases in the United States Oil Shale RD&D Leases in the United States This paper describes the original plans, progress and accomplishments, and future plans for nine oil shale research, development and demonstration (RD&D) projects on six existing RD&D leases awarded in 2006 and 2007 by the United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to Shell, Chevron, EGL (now AMSO), and OSEC (now Enefit American, respectively); as well as three pending

  3. Impact and future of heavy oil produciton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K, )

    1996-01-01

    Heavy oil resources are becoming increaingly important in meeting world oil demand. Heavy oil accounts for 10% of the worlds current oil production and is anticipated to grow significantly. Recent narrowing of the price margins between light and heavy oil and the development of regional heavy oil markets (production, refining and marketing) have prompted renewed investment in heavy oil. Production of well known heavy oil resources of Canada, Venezuela, United States, and elsewhere throughout the world will be expanded on a project-by-project basis. Custom refineries designed to process these heavy crudes are being expanded. Refined products from these crudes will be cleaner than ever before because of the huge investment. However, heavy oil still remains at a competitive disadvantage due to higher production, transportation and refining have to compete with other investment opportunities available in the industry. Expansion of the U.S. heavy oil industry is no exception. Relaxation of export restrictions on Alaskan North Slope crude has prompted renewed development of California's heavy oil resources. The location, resource volume, and oil properties of the more than 80-billion barrel U.S. heavy oil resource are well known. Our recent studies summarize the constraints on production, define the anticipated impact (volume, location and time frame) of development of U.S. heavy oil resources, and examines the $7-billion investment in refining units (bottoms conversion capacity) required to accommodate increased U.S. heavy oil production. Expansion of Canadian and Venezuelan heavy oil and tar sands production are anticipated to dramatically impact the U.S. petroleum market while displacing some imported Mideast crude.

  4. Impact and future of heavy oil produciton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K,

    1996-12-31

    Heavy oil resources are becoming increaingly important in meeting world oil demand. Heavy oil accounts for 10% of the worlds current oil production and is anticipated to grow significantly. Recent narrowing of the price margins between light and heavy oil and the development of regional heavy oil markets (production, refining and marketing) have prompted renewed investment in heavy oil. Production of well known heavy oil resources of Canada, Venezuela, United States, and elsewhere throughout the world will be expanded on a project-by-project basis. Custom refineries designed to process these heavy crudes are being expanded. Refined products from these crudes will be cleaner than ever before because of the huge investment. However, heavy oil still remains at a competitive disadvantage due to higher production, transportation and refining have to compete with other investment opportunities available in the industry. Expansion of the U.S. heavy oil industry is no exception. Relaxation of export restrictions on Alaskan North Slope crude has prompted renewed development of California`s heavy oil resources. The location, resource volume, and oil properties of the more than 80-billion barrel U.S. heavy oil resource are well known. Our recent studies summarize the constraints on production, define the anticipated impact (volume, location and time frame) of development of U.S. heavy oil resources, and examines the $7-billion investment in refining units (bottoms conversion capacity) required to accommodate increased U.S. heavy oil production. Expansion of Canadian and Venezuelan heavy oil and tar sands production are anticipated to dramatically impact the U.S. petroleum market while displacing some imported Mideast crude.

  5. Method Of Making A Vacuum-Tight Continuous Cable Feedthrough Device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazizi, Kamel Abdel (St. Louis, MO); Haelen, Thomas Eugene (Rochester, NY); Lobkowicz, Frederick (Penfield, NY); Slattery, Paul Francis (Rochester, NY)

    2001-07-17

    A vacuum-tight cable feedthrough device includes a metallic first flange that is penetrated by a slot. Passing through the slot is a flat stripline cable that includes a plurality of conductive signal channels encompassed by a dielectric material on whose upper and lower surfaces is disposed a conductive material includes a ground. The stripline cable is sealed within the slot to provide a substantially vacuum-tight seal between the cable and the first flange. In a preferred embodiment, the cable feedthrough device includes a plurality, at least 16, of stripline cables. In a further preferred embodiment, the device includes a second flange and a bellows sealably connecting the first and second flanges, thereby providing a substantially vacuum-tight, flexible housing for the plurality of cables.

  6. Structurally controlled and aligned tight gas reservoir compartmentalization in the San Juan and Piceance Basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Decker, A.D.; Kuuskraa, V.A.; Klawitter, A.L.

    1995-10-01

    Recurrent basement faulting is the primary controlling mechanism for aligning and compartmentalizing upper Cretaceous aged tight gas reservoirs of the San Juan and Piceance Basins. Northwest trending structural lineaments that formed in conjunction with the Uncompahgre Highlands have profoundly influenced sedimentation trends and created boundaries for gas migration; sealing and compartmentalizing sedimentary packages in both basins. Fractures which formed over the structural lineaments provide permeability pathways which allowing gas recovery from otherwise tight gas reservoirs. Structural alignments and associated reservoir compartments have been accurately targeted by integrating advanced remote sensing imagery, high resolution aeromagnetics, seismic interpretation, stratigraphic mapping and dynamic structural modelling. This unifying methodology is a powerful tool for exploration geologists and is also a systematic approach to tight gas resource assessment in frontier basins.

  7. Upgrading Orinoco belt heavy oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alcantara, J.; Castillo, O.

    1982-09-01

    The Orinoco Heavy Oil Belt of Venezuela is a subsurface geological formation of petroleum-bearing sands that is approximately 700 km long and between 60 and 80 km wide. The results of recent explorations have shown the area to contain over one trillion barrels of oil in-place, ranging from 8/sup 0/ API to 14/sup 0/ APE gravity. In an effort to develop these resources, Petroleos de Venezuela has undertaken a program to evaluate and develop this heavy oil belt. The objectives of this program are discussed along with the process technology selection, pilot plants, and environmental protection measures. (JMT)

  8. Literature Survey of Crude Oil Properties Relevant to Handling and Fire Safety in Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    823 Unlimited Release Printed March 2015 Literature Survey of Crude Oil Properties Relevant to Handling and Fire Safety in Transport DOE/DOT Tight Crude Oil Flammability and Transportation Spill Safety Project David Lord, Anay Luketa, Chad Wocken, Steve Schlasner, Ted Aulich, Ray Allen, and David Rudeen Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia

  9. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  10. U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) research and development programs for heavy oil and tar sand recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, H.R.

    1981-01-01

    The main emphasis of the DOE tar sand program described is to develop in situ techniques capable of recovering bitumen from domestic tar sand deposits. This program primarily involves field experiments of in situ techniques (in situ combustion and steam drive). Supporting activities include resource assessment, upgrading and surface processing research, and environmental permitting and control. 5 refs.