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Sample records for ti rb cs

  1. Half metallic ferromagnetism in alkali metal nitrides MN (M = Rb, Cs): A first principles study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murugan, A. Rajeswarapalanichamy, R. Santhosh, M. Sudhapriyanga, G.; Kanagaprabha, S.

    2014-04-24

    The structural, electronic and elastic properties of two alkali metal nitrides (MN: M= Rb, Cs) are investigated by the first principles calculations based on density functional theory using the Vienna ab-initio simulation package. At ambient pressure the two nitrides are stable in ferromagnetic state with CsCl structure. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the available results. The electronic structure reveals that these materials are half metallic in nature. A pressure-induced structural phase transition from CsCl to ZB phase is observed in RbN and CsN.

  2. Cation ordering and effect of biaxial strain in double perovskite CsRbCaZnCl6

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pilania, G.; Uberuaga, B. P.

    2015-03-19

    Here, we investigate the electronic structure, energetics of cation ordering, and effect of biaxial strain on double perovskite CsRbCaZnCl6 using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The two constituents (i.e., CsCaCl3 and RbZnCl3) forming the double perovskite exhibit a stark contrast. While CsCaCl3 is known to exist in a cubic perovskite structure and does not show any epitaxial strain induced phase transitions within an experimentally accessible range of compressive strains, RbZnCl3 is thermodynamically unstable in the perovskite phase and exhibits ultra-sensitive response at small epitaxial strains if constrained in the perovskite phase. We show that combining the two compositionsmore » in a double perovskite structure not only improves overall stability but also the strain-polarization coupling of the material. Our calculations predict a ground state with P4/nmm space group for the double perovskite, where A-site cations (i.e., Cs and Rb) are layer-ordered and B-site cations (i.e., Ca and Zn) prefer a rocksalt type ordering. The electronic structure and bandgap in this system are shown to be quite sensitive to the B-site cation ordering and is minimally affected by the ordering of A-site cations. We find that at experimentally accessible compressive strains CsRbCaZnCl6 can be phase transformed from its paraelectric ground state to an antiferroelectric state, where Zn atoms contribute predominantly to the polarization. Furthermore, both energy difference and activation barrier for a transformation between this antiferroelectric state and the corresponding ferroelectric configuration are predicted to be small. As a result, the computational approach presented here opens a new pathway towards a rational design of novel double perovskites with improved strain response and functionalities.« less

  3. A full dimensional investigation of infrared spectroscopy of the RbCs dimer using the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Huihui; Yang, Yonggang Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2013-12-28

    The geometry and infrared absorption spectrum of (RbCs){sub 2} have been studied by full dimensional quantum dynamics simulations. For this purpose, the potential energy and dipole moment surfaces are generated by means of a cluster expansion with all two and three mode correlations, and fitted to analytical expressions with negligible deviations. Accordingly, the ground state (RbCs){sub 2} has a diamond geometry with D{sub 2h} symmetry. The infrared spectrum with frequencies up to 120 cm{sup −1}, exhibits rich details of the fundamentals, overtones, and combination bands; the highest fundamental frequency of (RbCs){sub 2} is only 40.26 cm{sup −1}. The present study unravels important details of the interactions between the widely investigated ultracold RbCs molecules.

  4. Novel defect pyrochlores ABi/sub 2/B/sub 5/O/sub 16/ (A = Cs, Rb; B = Ta, Nb)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehlert, M.K., Greedan, J.E.; Subramanian, M.A.

    1988-07-01

    The crystal structures of three oxides with compositions CsBi/sub 2/Nb/sub 5/O/sub 16/, CsBi/sub 2/Ta/sub 5/O/sub 16/, and RbBi/sub 2/Ta/sub 5/O/sub 16/ have been determined from powder neutron diffraction data. A common structure of the defect pyrochlore types has been found. Atomic positions in space group Fd3m are 3.2 O and 3.2 Cs(Rb) in 8b, 6.4 Bi in 16d, 16 Ta(Nb) in 16c, and 48 O in 48f. There is some evidence that the Rb atoms actually occupy 32e sites. On electrostatic grounds it is highly unlikely that the Cs(Rb) and O atoms are randomly distributed in 8b. Evidence for short-range order is apparent in the X-ray powder diffraction data. Cell constants are 10.528(1) A (Cs, Nb), 10.504(1) A (Cs, Ta), and 10.510(2) A (Rb, Ta), respectively, with 48f x parameters 0.3139(2) (Cs, Nb), 0.3152(2) (Cs, Ta), and 0.3153(2) (Rb, Ta). Isotropic temperature factors for the 8b and 16d site atoms ranged from 3 to 6 (A)/sup 2/. These large values suggest anharmonic behavior or high mobility for some of the ions. Evidence for this is found in the presence of significant dielectric loss effects in all of the compounds studied.

  5. Shape resonances in ground-state diatomic molecules: General trends and the example of RbCs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Londono, B. E.; Mahecha, J. E.; Luc-Koenig, E.; Crubellier, A.

    2010-07-15

    The presence of shape resonances due to tunneling through the centrifugal barrier modifies strongly the dynamics of cold atom scattering. As shown on the example of the ground and lowest triplet electronic states of the {sup 85}Rb{sup 133}Cs molecule, the crucial parameter is, as usual for cold collisions, the scattering length. A general description of shape resonances of diatomic molecules is given from three simple single channel asymptotic models, whose respective performances are discussed. The first model, which consists of a R{sup -6} potential limited at short range by a repulsive wall, positioned to reproduce the s-wave scattering length, accounts satisfactorily for the main system-independent properties of shape resonances. Introduction in the model of energy- and angular-momentum-dependent nodal lines specific to the inner part of the potential greatly improves its efficiency. When the energy and angular momentum dependence of the nodal lines cannot be deduced from full potential calculations or from experiment, a rough, but universal, estimate of these properties is obtained by extending the R{sup -6} behavior of the potential up to the origin.

  6. Synthesis and structural characterization of the new clathrates K8Cd4Ge42, Rb8Cd4Ge42, and Cs8Cd4Ge42

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schafer, Marion; Bobev, Svilen

    2016-03-25

    This paper presents results from our exploratory work in the systems K-Cd-Ge, Rb-Cd-Ge, and Cs-Cd-Ge, which yielded the novel type-I clathrates with refined compositions K8Cd3.77(7)Ge42.23, Rb8Cd3.65(7)Ge42.35, and Cs7.80(1)Cd3.65(6)Ge42.35. The three compounds represent rare examples of clathrates of germanium with the alkali metals, where a d10 element substitutes a group 14 element. The three structures, established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, indicate that the framework-building Ge atoms are randomly substituted by Cd atoms on only one of the three possible crystallographic sites. Furthermore, this and several other details of the crystal chemistry are elaborated.

  7. Diffusion of Ag, Au and Cs implants in MAX phase Ti3SiC2 (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Diffusion of Ag, Au and Cs implants in MAX phase Ti3SiC2 MAX phases (M: early transition metal; A: elements in group 13 or 14; X: C or N), such as titanium silicon carbide ...

  8. Crystal Structure and Thermodynamic Stability of Ba/Ti-Substituted Pollucites for Radioactive Cs/Ba Immobilization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Hongwu; Chavez, Manuel E.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Garino, Terry J.; Schwarz, Haiqing L.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Rademacher, David X.; Nenoff, Tina Maria

    2015-04-23

    An analogue of the mineral pollucite (CsAlSi2O6), CsTiSi2O6.5 has a potential host phase for radioactive Cs. However, as 137Cs and 135Cs transmute to 137Ba and 135Ba, respectively, through the beta decay, it is essential to study the structure and stability of this phase upon Cs → Ba substitution. In this work, two series of Ba/Ti-substituted samples, CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5 and CsxBa1-xTiSi2O7-0.5x, (x = 0.9 and 0.7), were synthesized by high-temperature crystallization from their respective precursors. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis reveal that while CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5 samples are phase-pure, CsxBa1-xTiSi2O7-0.5x samples contain Cs3x/(2+x)Ba(1-x)/(2+x)TiSi2O6.5 pollucites (i.e., also two-Cs-to-one-Ba substitution) and a secondary phase, fresnoitemore » (Ba2TiSi2O8). Thus, the CsxBa1-xTiSi2O7-0.5x series is energetically less favorable than CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5. To study the stability systematics of CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5 pollucites, high-temperature calorimetric experiments were performed at 973 K with or without the lead borate solvent. Enthalpies of formation from the constituent oxides (and elements) have thus been derived. Our results show that with increasing Ba/(Cs + Ba) ratio, the thermodynamic stability of these phases decreases with respect to their component oxides. Hence, from the energetic viewpoint, continued Cs → Ba transmutation tends to destabilize the parent silicotitanate pollucite structure. However, the Ba-substituted pollucite co-forms with fresnoite (which incorporates the excess Ba), thereby providing viable ceramic waste forms for all the Ba decay products.« less

  9. Synthesis and structure of R{sub 2}[UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}] (R = Rb or Cs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serezhkin, V. N.; Peresypkina, E. V.; Grigor’eva, V. A.; Virovets, A. V.; Serezhkina, L. B.

    2015-01-15

    Crystals Rb{sub 2}[UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}] (I) and Cs{sub 2}[UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}] (II) have been synthesized and studied by IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Crystals I are monoclinic, with the following parameters: a = 12.2118(5) Å, b = 10.2545(3) Å, c = 11.8754(4) Å, β = 110.287(1)°, sp. gr. C2/c, Z = 4, and R = 0.0523. Crystals II are orthorhombic, with a = 13.7309(3) Å, b = 10.5749(2) Å, c = 10.1891(2) Å, sp. gr. Pnma, Z = 4, and R = 0.0411. The basic structural units of crystals I and II are one-core complexes [UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}]{sup 2−}, which belong to the crystallochemical group cis-AB{sub 2}{sup 01}M{sub 2}{sup 1} (A = UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, B{sup 01} = NO{sub 3}{sup −}, M{sup 1} = NCS{sup −}), which are combined into a framework via electrostatic interactions with ions of alkaline metals R (R = Rb or Cs). The structural features of crystals I and II, which condition the formation of [UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}]{sup 2−} complexes with a cis rather than a trans position of isothiocyanate ions in the coordination sphere of uranyl ions, are discussed.

  10. Crystal Structure and Thermodynamic Stability of Ba/Ti-Substituted Pollucites for Radioactive Cs/Ba Immobilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Hongwu; Chavez, Manuel E.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Garino, Terry J.; Schwarz, Haiqing L.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Rademacher, David X.; Nenoff, Tina Maria

    2015-04-23

    An analogue of the mineral pollucite (CsAlSi2O6), CsTiSi2O6.5 has a potential host phase for radioactive Cs. However, as 137Cs and 135Cs transmute to 137Ba and 135Ba, respectively, through the beta decay, it is essential to study the structure and stability of this phase upon Cs → Ba substitution. In this work, two series of Ba/Ti-substituted samples, CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5 and CsxBa1-xTiSi2O7-0.5x, (x = 0.9 and 0.7), were synthesized by high-temperature crystallization from their respective precursors. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis reveal that while CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5 samples are phase-pure, CsxBa1-xTiSi2O7-0.5x samples contain Cs3x/(2+x)Ba(1-x)/(2+x)TiSi2O6.5 pollucites (i.e., also two-Cs-to-one-Ba substitution) and a secondary phase, fresnoite (Ba2TiSi2O8). Thus, the CsxBa1-xTiSi2O7-0.5x series is energetically less favorable than CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5. To study the stability systematics of CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5 pollucites, high-temperature calorimetric experiments were performed at 973 K with or without the lead borate solvent. Enthalpies of formation from the constituent oxides (and elements) have thus been derived. Our results show that with increasing Ba/(Cs + Ba) ratio, the thermodynamic stability of these phases decreases with respect to their component oxides. Hence, from the energetic viewpoint, continued Cs → Ba transmutation tends to destabilize the parent silicotitanate pollucite structure. However, the Ba-substituted pollucite co-forms with fresnoite (which incorporates the excess Ba

  11. High temperature redox reactions with uranium: Synthesis and characterization of Cs(UO{sub 2})Cl(SeO{sub 3}), Rb{sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 3}O{sub 2}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2}, and RbNa{sub 5}U{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 7}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babo, Jean-Marie; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2013-10-15

    Cs(UO{sub 2})Cl(SeO{sub 3}) (1), Rb{sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 3}O{sub 2}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 3} (2), and RbNa{sub 5}U{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 7} (3) single crystals were synthesized using CsCl, RbCl, and a CuCl/NaCl eutectic mixture as fluxes, respectively. Their lattice parameters and space groups are as follows: P2{sub 1}/n (a=6.548(1) Å, b=11.052(2) Å, c=10.666(2) Å and β=93.897(3)°), P1{sup ¯} (a=7.051(2) Å, b=7.198(2) Å, c=8.314(2) Å, α=107.897(3)°, β=102.687(3)° and γ=100.564(3)°) and C2/c (a=17.862(4) Å, b=6.931(1) Å, c=20.133(4) Å and β=109.737(6)°. The small anionic building units found in these compounds are SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} tetrahedra, oxide, and chloride. The crystal structure of the first compound is composed of [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup 2−} chains separated by Cs{sup +} cations. The structure of (2) is constructed from [(UO{sub 2}){sub 3}O{sub 11}]{sup 16−} chains further connected through selenite units into layers stacked perpendicularly to the [0 1 0] direction, with Rb{sup +} cations intercalating between them. The structure of compound (3) is made of uranyl sulfate layers formed by edge and vertex connections between dimeric [U{sub 2}O{sub 16}] and [SO{sub 4}] polyhedra. These layers contain unusual sulfate–metal connectivity as well as large voids. - Graphical abstract: A new family of uranyl selenites and sulfates has been prepared by high-temperature redox reactions. This compounds display new bonding motifs. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Low-dimensional Uranyl Oxoanion compounds. • Conversion of U(IV) to U(VI) at high temperatures. • Dimensional reduction by both halides and stereochemically active lone-pairs.

  12. Binding energies of the ground triplet state a{sup 3}?{sub u}{sup +} of Rb{sub 2} and Cs{sub 2} in terms of the generalized Le RoyBernstein near-dissociation expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sovkov, V. B.; Ivanov, V. S. [V.A. Fock Institute of Physics and Department of Physics of St. Petersburg State University, Ulyanovskaya Street 1, Petrodvoretz, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation)] [V.A. Fock Institute of Physics and Department of Physics of St. Petersburg State University, Ulyanovskaya Street 1, Petrodvoretz, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-07

    Formulae of Le RoyBernstein near-dissociation theory are derived in a general isotopeinvariant form, applicable to any term in the rotational expansion of a diatomic ro-vibrational term value. It is proposed to use the generalized Le RoyBernstein expansion to describe the binding energies (ro-vibrational term values) of the ground triplet state a{sup 3}?{sub u}{sup +} of alkali metal dimers. The parameters of this description are determined for Rb{sub 2} and Cs{sub 2} molecules. This approach gives a recipe to calculate the whole variety of the binding energies with characteristic accuracies from ?1 10{sup ?3} to 1 10{sup ?2} cm{sup ?1} using a relatively simple algebraic equation.

  13. CS Chang

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CS Chang CS Chang FES Requirements Worksheet 1.1. Project Information - Center for Plasma Edge Simulation Document Prepared By CS Chang Project Title Center for Plasma Edge...

  14. Synthesis and structural characterization of new defect pyrochlore type A{sub x}Ln{sub y}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 6+z} antimoniates (0Rb, Cs, Tl; Ln = Eu, Gd, and Y) prepared by coprecipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Haimouti, A.; Zambon, D.; El-Ghozzi, M.; Avignant, D.; Leroux, F.; El Aatmani, M.; Daoud, M

    2003-07-14

    New cubic defect pyrochlore type A{sub x}Ln{sub y}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 6+z} antimoniates (0Rb, Cs, Tl; Ln=Eu, Gd, and Y) (space group Fd3m) were prepared by calcination in air at 650 deg. C of compositions obtained by a coprecipitation method. Their crystal structures were refined by the Rietveld procedure and further confirmed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS) experiments. Refinements of the X-ray powder diffraction data show a partial and statistical occupation of the 8b site by alkaline or thallous ions and oxygen and lead to values close to 0.33 for the only refinable positional x parameter of the 48f oxygenated site.

  15. CS Chang

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CS Chang CS Chang FES Requirements Worksheet 1.1. Project Information - Center for Plasma Edge Simulation Document Prepared By CS Chang Project Title Center for Plasma Edge Simulation Principal Investigator CS Chang Participating Organizations New York University, ORNL, PPPL, LBNL, MIT, Columbia U., Rutgers U. Lehigh U., Georgia Tech, Auburn U., U. Colorado, U. California at Irvine, Caltech, Hinton Associates Funding Agencies DOE SC DOE NSA NSF NOAA NIH Other: 2. Project Summary & Scientific

  16. High temperature synthesis of two open-framework uranyl silicates with ten-ring channels: Cs{sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}Si{sub 8}O{sub 19} and Rb{sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}Si{sub 5}O{sub 13}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babo, Jean-Marie; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2013-01-15

    The uranyl silicates Cs{sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}Si{sub 8}O{sub 19} and Rb{sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}Si{sub 5}O{sub 13} were obtained by mixing stoichiometric amounts of uranium metal, tellurium dioxide, silicon dioxide, and an excess of correspondent alkali metal halide flux. These compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic space groups Pnma and C222 with eight and two units per unit cell, respectively. Their crystal structures are dominated by zippered pentagonal bipyramidal chains of UO{sub 7} and silicates layer that are further connected into 3D frameworks. The cesium compound has silicate double layers while rubidium has a single layer. Six-ring voids and ten-ring channels are found in both compounds. - Graphical abstract: A view of the three-dimensional network structure of Cs{sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}Si{sub 8}O{sub 19}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three-dimensional uranium silicates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analogs of natural uranyl silicate minerals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complexity and symmetry ambiguity of uranyl silicates.

  17. CS Frontend

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-01-07

    CS Frontend is a data acquisition frontend software that interfaces to the open source software MIDAS, to read information from VME modules and transfer it to the MIDAS logger.

  18. New hypodiphosphates of the alkali metals: Synthesis, crystal structure and vibrational spectra of the hypodiphosphates(IV) M{sub 2}[(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})] (M=Rb and Cs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Peng; Wiegand, Thomas; Eckert, Hellmut

    2012-10-15

    The new hypodiphosphates(IV) Rb{sub 2}[(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})] (1) and Cs{sub 2}[(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})] (2) were synthesized by soft chemistry reactions from aqueous solutions of hypophosphoric acid and the corresponding heavy alkali-metal carbonates. Their crystal structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds crystallize isotypic in the triclinic space group P-1 with one formula unit in the unit cell. The structures are built up by discrete (H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sup 2-} and (H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}) units in staggered conformation for the P{sub 2}O{sub 6} skeleton and the corresponding alkali-metal cations. In the (H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sup 2-} ion the hydrogen atoms are in a 'trans-trans' conformation. O{center_dot}H-O hydrogen bonds between the (H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sup 2-} and (H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}) groups consolidate the structures into a three-dimensional network. The FT-Raman and {sup 31}P and {sup 1}H and MAS NMR spectra of the title compounds have been recorded and interpreted, especially with respect to their assignment to the (H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sup 2-} and (H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}) groups. Thermogravimetric data of 2 have been interpreted in terms of a thermal decomposition model. - Graphical Abstract: The layered compounds Rb{sub 2}[(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})] and Cs{sub 2}[(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})] have been synthesized and investigated. Both crystallize isotypic. The structures are built up by discrete (H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}){sup 2-} and (H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6}) units and the corresponding alkali-metal cations. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis and single-crystal structure of new alkali hypodiphosphates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structures are characterized by [(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})(H{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 6})]{sup 2-} units and M{sup +} cations

  19. Melt Processed Single Phase Hollandite Waste Forms For Nuclear Waste Immobilization: Ba{sub 1.0}Cs{sub 0.3}A{sub 2.3}Ti{sub 5.7}O{sub 16}; A = Cr, Fe, Al

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, Kyle; Marra, James; Amoroso, Jake; Conradson, Steven D.; Tang, Ming

    2013-09-23

    Cs is one of the more problematic fission product radionuclides to immobilize due to its high volatility at elevated temperatures, ability to form water soluble compounds, and its mobility in many host materials. The hollandite structure is a promising crystalline host for Cs immobilization and has been traditionally fabricated by solid state sintering methods. This study presents the structure and performance of Ba{sub 1.0}Cs{sub 0.3}A{sub 2.3}Ti{sub 5.7}O{sub 16}; A = Cr, Fe, Al hollandite fabricated by melt processing. Melt processing is considered advantageous given that melters are currently in use for High Level Waste (HLW) vitrification in several countries. This work details the impact of Cr additions that were demonstrated to i) promote the formation of a Cs containing hollandite phase and ii) maintain the stability of the hollandite phase in reducing conditions anticipated for multiphase waste form processing.

  20. Microporous titanosilicate AM-2: Rb-exchange and thermal behaviour

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doebelin, Nicola . E-mail: nicola@doebelin.org; Armbruster, Thomas

    2007-01-18

    Rb-exchange and thermal stability of the microporous titanosilicate AM-2 were analysed by powder X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and chemical analysis of the mother liquid after exchange. The dehydration and thermal stability of the exchanged structure were monitored with in situ high temperature powder X-ray diffraction. Crystal structures were refined with Rietveld methods at 25 and 400 deg. C. The AM-2 structure was found to incorporate Rb{sup +} by replacing K{sup +}. After four exchange cycles and 166 h reaction time at 90 deg. C, the chemical composition was refined to K{sub 0.18}Rb{sub 1.82}TiSi{sub 3}O{sub 9}.H{sub 2}O. Extrapolation suggests that higher exchange ratios may be obtained after further cycles. H{sub 2}O was expelled by heating, leading to a dehydrated structure at 360 deg. C. Dehydration was associated with a change of space group symmetry from orthorhombic P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} to monoclinic P2{sub 1}, which proved to be reversible after rehydration. This change of symmetry leaves the AM-2 characteristic structural topology uninfluenced and causes only minor distortions. The monoclinic AM-2 structure breaks down above 600 deg. C to become X-ray amorphous, and at 750 deg. C a wadeite-type phase (K {sub x}Rb{sub 2-x}TiSi{sub 3}O{sub 9}) crystallises. This transformation is irreversible and leads to immobilisation of Rb{sup +}.

  1. CS267: NERSC Discussion

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    Computers Discussion CS267: NERSC Discussion This area is intended for NERSC users and staff to help each other with questions about CS267. Last edited: 2011-05-19 11:55:08...

  2. SF6432-CS

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    ... prior to any attempts to enter a government site as shown ... premises are subject to search. (e) Contractor shall ... SF 6432-CS Title: Standard Terms and Conditions for ...

  3. SF6432-CS

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    ... SF 6432-CS Title: Standard Terms and Conditions for ... Any Contractor personnel who will enter a government site to ... premises are subject to search. (e) Contractor shall ...

  4. SF6432-CS

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    with the Directorate of Defense Trade Control : SF 6432-CS Title: Standard Terms and Conditions for Commercial Services Owner: Procurement Policy Department Release Date: 04...

  5. Characterization of Interlayer Cs+ in Clay Samples Using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry with Laser Sample Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. S. Groenewold; R. Avci; C. Karahan; K. Lefebre; R. V. Fox; M. M. Cortez; A. K. Gianotto; J. Sunner; W. L. Manner

    2004-04-01

    Ultraviolet laser irradiation was used to greatly enhance the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) detection of Cs+ adsorbed to soil consisting of clay and quartz. Imaging SIMS showed that the enhancement of the Cs+ signal was spatially heterogeneous: the intensity of the Cs+ peak was increased by factors up to 100 for some particles but not at all for others. Analysis of standard clay samples exposed to Cs+ showed a variable response to laser irradiation depending on the type of clay analyzed. The Cs+ abundance was significantly enhanced when Cs+-exposed montmorillonite was irradiated and then analyzed using SIMS, which contrasted with the behavior of Cs+-exposed kaolinite, which displayed no Cs+ enhancement. Exposed illitic clays displayed modest enhancement of Cs+ upon laser irradiation, intermediate between that of kaolinite and montmorillonite. The results for Cs+ were rationalized in terms of adsorption to interlayer sites within the montmorillonite, which is an expandable phyllosilicate. In these locations, Cs+ was not initially detectable using SIMS. Upon irradiation, Cs+ was thermally redistributed, which enabled detection using SIMS. Since neither the illite nor the kaolinite is an expandable clay, adsorption to inner-layer sites does not occur, and either modest or no laser enhancement of the Cs+ signal is observed. Laser irradiation also produced unexpected enhancement of Ti+ from illite and kaolinite clays that contained small quantities of Ti, which indicates the presence of microscopic titanium oxide phases in the clay materials.

  6. Ba2+-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb+ fluxes across membranes of vesicles from toad urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garty, H.; Civan, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    /sup 86/Rb+ fluxes have been measured in suspensions of vesicles prepared from the epithelium of toad urinary bladder. A readily measurable barium-sensitive, ouabain-insensitive component has been identified; the concentration of external Ba2+ required for half-maximal inhibition was 0.6 mM. The effects of externally added cations on /sup 86/Rb+ influx and efflux have established that this pathway is conductive, with a selectivity for K+, Rb+ and Cs+ over Na+ and Li+. The Rb+ uptake is inversely dependent on external pH, but not significantly affected by internal Ca2+ or external amiloride, quinine, quinidine or lidocaine. It is likely, albeit not yet certain, that the conductive Rb+ pathway is incorporated in basolateral vesicles oriented right-side-out. It is also not yet clear whether this pathway comprises the principle basolateral K+ channel in vivo, and that its properties have been unchanged during the preparative procedures. Subject to these caveats, the data suggest that the inhibition by quinidine of Na+ transport across toad bladder does not arise primarily from membrane depolarization produced by a direct blockage of the basolateral channels. It now seems more likely that the quinidine-induced elevation of intracellular Ca2+ activity directly blocks apical Na+ entry.

  7. SF6432-CS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    11/17/15 Page 1 of 20 Printed copies of this document are uncontrolled. Retrieve latest version electronically. SANDIA CORPORATION SF 6432-CS (11/2015) SECTION II STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COMMERCIAL SERVICES THE FOLLOWING CLAUSES APPLY TO THIS CONTRACT AS INDICATED UNLESS SPECIFICALLY DELETED, OR EXCEPT TO THE EXTENT THEY ARE SPECIFICALLY SUPPLEMENTED OR AMENDED IN WRITING IN THE COVER PAGE OR SECTION I. (CTRL+CLICK ON A LINK BELOW TO ADVANCE DIRECTLY TO THAT SECTION) ACCEPTANCE OF

  8. SF6432-CS Commercial Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... SF 6432-CS Title: Standard Terms and Conditions for ... Any Contractor personnel who will enter a government site to ... premises are subject to search. (e) Contractor will ...

  9. CAES MaCS Home

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cross-cutting capabilities that support the Center for Advanced Energy Studies' (CAES) mission in multiple initiative areas. MaCS is largely made possible through its...

  10. SF6432-CS Commercial Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with the Directorate of Defense Trade Control : SF 6432-CS Title: Standard Terms and Conditions for Commercial Services Owner: Procurement Policy & Quality Dept Release Date:...

  11. Magnetic dipole sequences in {sup 83}Rb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwengner, R.; Schnare, H.; Wagner, A.; Doenau, F.; Rainovski, G.; Frauendorf, S.; Jungclaus, A.; Hausmann, M.; Lieb, K. P.; Yordanov, O.; Napoli, D. R.; De Angelis, G.; Axiotis, M.; Marginean, N.; Brandolini, F.; Alvarez, C. Rossi

    2009-10-15

    High-spin states in {sup 83}Rb were populated in the reaction {sup 11}B+{sup 76}Ge at beam energies of 45 and 50 MeV. {gamma} rays were detected with the spectrometer GASP. The level scheme of {sup 83}Rb was extended up to 13.9 MeV. Mean lifetimes of 23 levels were determined using the Doppler-shift-attenuation method. Among the bands newly established is a sequence comprising intense M1 transitions and crossover E2 transitions. This sequence turns out to be irregular and thus shows that magnetic rotation as observed in the neighboring odd-odd isotopes is not realized in this odd-even nuclide. Excited states in {sup 83}Rb were interpreted in terms of the shell model using the model space {pi}(0f{sub 5/2},1p{sub 3/2},1p{sub 1/2},0g{sub 9/2}) {nu}(1p{sub 1/2},0g{sub 9/2}). The configurations predicted for the negative-parity M1 sequence reproduce the M1 transition strengths fairly well.

  12. CRAD, NNSA- Criticality Safety (CS)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CRAD for Criticality Safety (CS). Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) that can be used to conduct a well-organized and thorough assessment of elements of safety and health programs.

  13. Circular dichroism of RbHe and RbN{sub 2} molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lancor, B.; Wyllie, R.; Walker, T. G.; Babcock, E.

    2010-10-15

    We present measurements of the circular dichroism of optically pumped Rb vapor near the D{sub 1} resonance line. Collisions with the buffer gases {sup 3}He and N{sub 2} reduce the transparency of the vapor, even when fully polarized. We use two methods to measure this effect, show that the He results can be understood from RbHe potential curves, and show how this effect conspires with the spectral profile of the optical pumping light to increase the laser power demands for optical pumping of very optically thick samples.

  14. Two spatially separated phases in semiconducting Rb0.8Fe1.5S2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Meng; Tian, Wei; Valdivia, P.; Chi, Songxue; Bourret-Courchesne, E.; Dai, Pengcheng; Birgeneau, R. J.

    2014-09-26

    We report neutron scattering and transport measurements on semiconducting Rb0.8Fe1.5S2, a compound isostructural and isoelectronic to the well-studied A0.8FeySe2(A = K, Rb, Cs, Tl/K) superconducting systems. Both resistivity and DC susceptibility measurements reveal a magnetic phase transition at T = 275 K. Neutron diffraction studies show that the 275 K transition originates from a phase with rhombic iron vacancy order which exhibits an in-plane stripe antiferromagnetic ordering below 275 K. In addition, the stripe antiferromagnetic phase interdigitates mesoscopically with an ubiquitous phase with √5 x√5 iron vacancy order. This phase has a magnetic transition at TN = 425 K andmore » an iron vacancy order-disorder transition at TS = 600 K. These two different structural phases are closely similar to those observed in the isomorphous Se materials. Based on the close similarities of the in-plane antiferromagnetic structures, moments sizes, and ordering temperatures in semiconducting Rb0.8Fe1.5S2 and K0.81Fe1.58Se2, we argue that the in-plane antiferromagnetic order arises from strong coupling between local moments. Superconductivity, previously observed in the A0.8FeySe2₋ zSz system, is absent in A0.8Fe1.5S2, which has a semiconducting ground state. We discuss the implied relationship between stripe and block antiferromagnetism and superconductivity in these materials as well as a strategy for further investigation.« less

  15. Optical pumping in a microfabricated Rb vapor cell using a microfabricated Rb discharge light source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatraman, V.; Kang, S.; Affolderbach, C.; Mileti, G.; Shea, H.

    2014-02-03

    Miniature (Rb discharge lamp light source, as well as (2) a conventional glass-blown Rb discharge lamp. The microfabricated Rb lamp cell is a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) light source, having the same inner cell volume of around 40 mm{sup 3} as that of the resonance cell, both filled with suitable buffer gases. A miniature (∼2 cm{sup 3} volume) test setup based on the M{sub z} magnetometer interrogation technique was used for observation of optical-radiofrequency double-resonance signals, proving the suitability of the microfabricated discharge lamp to introduce efficient optical pumping. The pumping ability of this light source was found to be comparable to or even better than that of a conventional glass-blown lamp. The reported results indicate that the micro-fabricated DBD discharge lamp has a high potential for the development of a new class of miniature atomic clocks, magnetometers, and quantum sensors.

  16. CS2SAT Desktop Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-03-15

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed a Control System Cyber Security Self-Assessment Tool (CS2SAT) desktop tool that provides a repeatable and systematic approach for control system users to assess the cyber security posture of their control system networks. The tool assists users in identifying the cyber security parameters of their systems and then offers security objectives, in the form of requirements, for improving the security of their specific network. Each requirement is linked tomore » a series of associated recommendations for compliance dependent upon the desired level of security protection. Each requirement is supported by links to the original standards document and recommendations are supported by links to whitepapers and other help documents. Package also includes two back-end supporting codes: CS2SAT Requirements Matrix and Control System Security Information System.« less

  17. .sup.82 Sr-.sup.82 Rb Radioisotope generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grant, Patrick M.; Erdal, Bruce R.; O'Brien, Harold A.

    1976-01-01

    An improved .sup.82 Sr-.sup.82 Rb radioisotope generator system, based upon the complexing ion exchange resin Chelex-100, has been developed. Columns of this material can be easily and rapidly milked, and the Rb-Sr separation factor for a fresh generator was found to be > 10.sup.7. Approximately 80 percent of the .sup.82 Rb present was delivered in a 15-ml volume of aqueous 0.2 M NH.sub.4 Cl solution. After more than 6 liters of eluant had been put through the generator, the Rb-Sr separation factor was still observed to be > 10.sup.5, and no unusual strontium breakthrough behavior was seen in the system over nearly three .sup.82 Sr half lives.

  18. Rb-Sr Geochronologic Investigation Of Precambrian Samples From...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rb-Sr Geochronologic Investigation Of Precambrian Samples From Deep Geothermal Drill Holes, Fenton Hill, New Mexico Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  19. Charging Properties of Cassiterite (alpha-SnO2) surfaces in NaCl and RbCl Ionic Media.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenqvist, Jorgen K; Machesky, Michael L.; Vlcek, Lukas; Wesolowski, David J

    2009-09-01

    The acid-base properties of cassiterite (alpha-SnO2) surfaces at 10-50 degrees C were studied using potentiometric titrations of powder suspensions in aqueous NaCl and RbCl media. The proton sorption isotherms exhibited common intersection points in the pH range of 4.0-4.5 under all conditions, and the magnitude of charging was similar but not identical in NaCl and RbCl. The hydrogen bonding configuration at the oxide-water interface, obtained from classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, was analyzed in detail, and the results were explicitly incorporated in calculations of protonation constants for the reactive surface sites using the revised MUSIC model. The calculations indicated that the terminal SnOH2 group is more acidic than the bridging Sn2OH group, with protonation constants (log KH) of 3.60 and 5.13 at 25 degrees C, respectively. This is contrary to the situation on the isostructural alpha-TiO2 (rutile), apparently because of the difference in electronegativity between Ti and Sn. MD simulations and speciation calculations indicated considerable differences in the speciation of Na+ and Rb+, despite the similarities in overall charging. Adsorbed sodium ions are almost exclusively found in bidentate surface complexes, whereas adsorbed rubidium ions form comparable numbers of bidentate and tetradentate complexes. Also, the distribution of adsorbed Na+ between the different complexes shows a considerable dependence on the surface charge density (pH), whereas the distribution of adsorbed Rb+ is almost independent of pH. A surface complexation model (SCM) capable of accurately describing both the measured surface charge and the MD-predicted speciation of adsorbed Na+/Rb+ was formulated. According to the SCM, the deprotonated terminal group (SnOH(-0.40)) and the protonated bridging group (Sn2OH+0.36) dominate the surface speciation over the entire pH range of this study (2.7-10). The complexation of medium cations increases significantly with increasing

  20. Charging Properties of Cassiterite (alpha-SnO2) Surfaces in NaCl and RbCl Ionic Media.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenqvist, Jorgen K; Machesky, Michael L.; Vlcek, Lukas; Wesolowski, David J

    2009-09-01

    The acid-base properties of cassiterite ({alpha}-SnO{sub 2}) surfaces at 10-50 C were studied using potentiometric titrations of powder suspensions in aqueous NaCl and RbCl media. The proton sorption isotherms exhibited common intersection points in the pH range of 4.0-4.5 under all conditions, and the magnitude of charging was similar but not identical in NaCl and RbCl. The hydrogen bonding configuration at the oxide-water interface, obtained from classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, was analyzed in detail, and the results were explicitly incorporated in calculations of protonation constants for the reactive surface sites using the revised MUSIC model. The calculations indicated that the terminal SnOH{sub 2} group is more acidic than the bridging Sn{sub 2}OH group, with protonation constants (log K{sub H}) of 3.60 and 5.13 at 25 C, respectively. This is contrary to the situation on the isostructural {alpha}-TiO{sub 2} (rutile), apparently because of the difference in electronegativity between Ti and Sn. MD simulations and speciation calculations indicated considerable differences in the speciation of Na{sup +} and Rb{sup +}, despite the similarities in overall charging. Adsorbed sodium ions are almost exclusively found in bidentate surface complexes, whereas adsorbed rubidium ions form comparable numbers of bidentate and tetradentate complexes. Also, the distribution of adsorbed Na{sup +} between the different complexes shows a considerable dependence on the surface charge density (pH), whereas the distribution of adsorbed Rb{sup +} is almost independent of pH. A surface complexation model (SCM) capable of accurately describing both the measured surface charge and the MD-predicted speciation of adsorbed Na{sup +}/Rb{sup +} was formulated. According to the SCM, the deprotonated terminal group (SnOH{sup -0.40}) and the protonated bridging group (Sn{sub 2}OH{sup +0.36}) dominate the surface speciation over the entire pH range of this study (2.7-10). The

  1. Colloid formation study of U, Th, Ra, Pb, Po, Sr, Rb, and Cs in briny (high ionic strength) groundwaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiti, T.C.; Smith, M.R.; Laul, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Colloid formation of uranium, thorium, radium, lead, polonium, strontium, rubidium, and cesium in briny (high ionic strength) groundwaters is studied to predict their capability as vectors for transporting radionuclides. This knowledge is essential in developing models to infer the transport of radionuclides from the source region to the surrounding environment. Except polonium, based on the experimental results, colloid formation of uranium, thorium, radium, lead, strontium, rubidium, and cesium is unlikely in brines with compositions similar to the synthetic Palo Duro Basin brine. This observation of no colloid formation is explained by electrokinetic theory and inorganic solution chemistry.

  2. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions.

  3. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interoperability Standards and Framework (EISA 1305) Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) ... PDF icon Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity ...

  4. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Smart Grid Investment Grant Program (EISA 1306) Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) ... PDF icon Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity ...

  5. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workforce Development Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of ... Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and ...

  6. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): American ... Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and ...

  7. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and ... Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and ...

  8. Fast CsI-phoswich detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langenbrunner, James R.

    1996-01-01

    An improved phoswich radiation detector used pure CsI crystal and a fast plastic scintillator and a single photomultiplier tube. The plastic is arranged to receive incident radiation, and that which passed through then strikes the CsI crystal. Scintillation light from both the plastic and CsI crystal are applied to the photomultiplier tube, with the light from the plastic passing through the crystal without absorption therein. Electronics are provided for analyzing the output of the photomultiplier tube to discriminate responses due to the plastic and the CsI crystal, through short gate and long gate integration, to produce results which are indicative of the characteristics of the different types of incident radiation, even in the presence of large amounts of radiation. The phoswich detector has excellent timing resolution. The scintillators of the CsI- phoswich were chosen for their fast risetimes, of about 3 ns for NE102A, and 30 ns for the pure CsI.

  9. Fast CsI-phoswich detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langenbrunner, J.R.

    1996-05-07

    An improved phoswich radiation detector used pure CsI crystal and a fast plastic scintillator and a single photomultiplier tube. The plastic is arranged to receive incident radiation, and that which passed through then strikes the CsI crystal. Scintillation light from both the plastic and CsI crystal are applied to the photomultiplier tube, with the light from the plastic passing through the crystal without absorption therein. Electronics are provided for analyzing the output of the photomultiplier tube to discriminate responses due to the plastic and the CsI crystal, through short gate and long gate integration, to produce results which are indicative of the characteristics of the different types of incident radiation, even in the presence of large amounts of radiation. The phoswich detector has excellent timing resolution. The scintillators of the CsI- phoswich were chosen for their fast risetimes, of about 3 ns for NE102A, and 30 ns for the pure CsI. 5 figs.

  10. Low level detection of Cs-135 and Cs-137 in environmental samples...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The measurement of the fission product cesium isotopes 135Cs and ... by high sensitivity ICP-MS analysis. A high efficiency desolvating nebulizer system was employed to maximize ...

  11. Materials Data on RbTiI3 (SG:185) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-03-25

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  12. 135Cs/137Cs isotopic composition of environmental samples across Europe: Environmental transport and source term emission applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Snow, Mathew S.; Snyder, Darin C.

    2015-11-02

    135Cs/137Cs isotopic analyses represent an important tool for studying the fate and transport of radiocesium in the environment; in this work the 135Cs/137Cs isotopic composition in environmental samples taken from across Europe is reported. Surface soil and vegetation samples from western Russia, Ukraine, Austria, and Hungary show consistent aged thermal fission product 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios of 0.58 ± 0.01 (age corrected to 1/1/15), with the exception of one sample of soil-moss from Hungary which shows an elevated 135Cs/137Cs ratio of 1.78 ± 0.12. With the exception of the outlier sample from Hungary, surface soil/vegetation data are in quantitative agreement withmore » values previously reported for soils within the Chernobyl exclusion zone, suggesting that radiocesium at these locations is primarily composed of homogenous airborne deposition from Chernobyl. Seawater samples taken from the Irish Sea show 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios of 1.22 ± 0.11 (age corrected to 1/1/15), suggesting aged thermal fission product Cs discharged from Sellafield. Furthermore, the differences in 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios between Sellafield, Chernobyl, and global nuclear weapons testing fallout indicate that 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios can be utilized to discriminate between and track radiocesium transport from different nuclear production source terms, including major emission sources in Europe.« less

  13. Properties of CsI and CsI-TMAE photocathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S.; Peskov, V.; Hoeneisen, B.

    1992-06-01

    The importance of heating the CsI or CsI-TMAE photocathodes during preparation, as well as the importance of the gas environment on the quantum efficiency is presented. The dependence of the aging characteristics of these photocathodes on the operating temperature, on the presence of gas, and on the charge amplification of the chamber is also discussed. For CsI photocathodes charges in excess of 2{times}10{sup 14} e{sup {minus}}/mm{sup 2} can be collected with little degradation of performance. A timing resolution of 0.55 ns is also achieved for single photoelectrons suggesting a possible time-of-flight detector.

  14. In situ 7Li and 133Cs NMR Investigations of the Role of Cs+ Additive in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium-Metal Deposition Processes - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research February 1, 2016, Research Highlights In situ 7Li and 133Cs NMR Investigations of the Role of Cs+ Additive in Lithium-Metal Deposition Processes In situ 7Li NMR spectra from live Li-metal batteries with and without Cs+ additives. At discharge voltage point "C," more microstructured lithium (260 ppm) is recharged back onto the opposite Li electrode to form smoothly deposited Li-metal structures (248 ppm)

  15. Synthesis and characterization of F-N-W-codoped TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst with enhanced visible light response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Xiaoliang; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 ; Qin, Haibo; Yang, Xingyong; Zhang, Qiaoxin; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Anatase F-N-W-codoped TiO{sub 2} was prepared by a solgel-hydrothermal method. ? Under visible illumination, carbon removal rate of RB reached 94% using F-7NW-TiO{sub 2}. ? F, N and W dopants narrowed band gap and lowed charge pairs recombination rate. ? There were W{sub x}Ti{sub 1?x}O{sub 2}, O-Ti-N and valence variation of W ions existing. -- Abstract: Anatase F-N-W-codoped TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst was successfully prepared by a method combining solgel with hydrothermal treatment. Effects of F, N and W ion dosage concentration on the crystallinity, morphology, grain size and chemical status of the photocatalyst were investigated. The results showed that the F-7NW-TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst composed of uniform ellipsoidal particles around 20 nm in length and 10 nm in width, and the photocatalyst displayed enhanced visible-light absorption and photocatalytic activities. Using the photocatalyst and under visible irradiation for 1.5 h, the decoloration percent of RB and carbon removal rate were about 98% and 94% respectively, which were much higher than that of commercial P25, TiO{sub 2}, N-W-TiO{sub 2} and F-TiO{sub 2}. The high visible-light photocatalytic activity of F-7NW-TiO{sub 2} might result from narrowing the band gap and lowing charge pairs recombination rate for the W{sub x}Ti{sub 1?x}O{sub 2}, O-Ti-N and valence variation of W ions existing.

  16. The Effect of Ramp Rate on the C49 to C54 Titanium Disilicide Phase Transformation from Ti and Ti(Ta)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BAILEY, GLENN A.; HU, YAO ZHI; SMITH, PAUL M.; TAY, SING PIN

    1999-09-22

    The C49 to C54 TiSi{sub 2} transformation temperature is shown to be reduced by increasing the ramp rate during rapid thermal processing and this effect is more pronounced for thinner initial Ti and Ti(Ta) films. Experiments were performed on blanket wafers and on wafers that had patterned polycrystalline Si lines with Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} sidewall spacers. Changing the ramp rate caused no change in the transformation temperature for 60 nm blanket Ti films. For blanket Ti films of 25 or 40 nm, however, increasing the ramp rate from 7 to 180 C/s decreased the transformation temperature by 15 C. Studies of patterned lines indicate that sheet resistance of narrow lines is reduced by increased ramp rates for both Ti and Ti(Ta) films, especially as the linewidths decrease below 0.4 {micro}m. This improvement is particularly pronounced for the thinnest Ti(Ta) films, which exhibited almost no linewidth effect after being annealed with a ramp rate of 75 C/s.

  17. IR-Improved DGLAP-CS Theory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ward, B. F. L.

    2008-01-01

    We show that it is possible to improve the infrared aspects of the standard treatment of the DGLAP-CS evolution theory to take into account a large class of higher-order corrections that significantly improve the precision of the theory for any given level of fixed-order calculation of its respective kernels. We illustrate the size of the effects we resum using the moments of the parton distributions.

  18. The radiation chemistry of Cs-7SB, a solvent modifier used in Cs and Sr extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mincher, B.J.; Martin, L.R.; Elias, G.; Mezyk, S.P.

    2008-07-01

    The solvent modifier 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoro-propoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol, (Cs- 7SB) is used in conjunction with calixarenes and crown ethers dissolved in alkane diluents for the extraction of Cs and Sr from highly radioactive solutions. Its purpose is to solvate the ligands and the resulting ligand-metal complexes in the organic phase. Given this role, and its relatively high concentration in the formulations used for solvent extraction, radiolytic degradation of Cs-7SB might decrease the extraction efficiency of these elements as the solvent accumulates absorbed radiation dose. This work presents the results of studies of Cs-7SB using post-radiolysis gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and solvent-extraction distribution-ratio measurements. Also presented is the kinetic analysis of the bimolecular rate constant for the modifier's reaction with nitrogen trioxide and nitrogen dioxide radicals, major radiolytically-produced radical species in irradiated aqueous nitric acid. Although Cs-7SB was found to undergo reactions with nitrogen-centered radicals, little decrease in extraction efficiency was found. It is concluded the modifier, always present at concentrations much higher than the ligands, acts as a radical scavenger, protecting ligands from radiolytic attack. (authors)

  19. Short-lived isomers in {sup 94}Rb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsekhanovich, I.; Dare, J. A.; Smith, A. G.; Varley, B. J.; Simpson, G. S.; Urban, W.; Soldner, T.; Jolie, J.; Linnemann, A.; Orlandi, R.; Smith, J. F.; Scherillo, A.; Rzaca-Urban, T.; Zlomaniec, A.; Dorvaux, O.; Gall, B. J. P.; Roux, B.

    2008-07-15

    The medium-spin structure of the neutron-rich, odd-odd nucleus {sup 94}Rb was studied by means of {gamma}-ray spectroscopy. Excited levels were populated in the neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U and in the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf and {sup 248}Cm. Two isomeric states were found at 1485.2 and 2074.8 keV with half-lives of 18 and 107 ns, respectively. The probable structures of the two isomers involve the fully aligned, proton-neutron configurations [{pi}(g{sub 9/2}) x {nu}(g{sub 7/2})]{sub 8{sup +}} and [{pi}(g{sub 9/2}) x {nu}(h{sub 11/2})]{sub 10{sup -}}, respectively. These new data give information on the single-particle energies in the region.

  20. The electrical transport properties of liquid Rb using pseudopotential theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, A. B. Bhatt, N. K. Thakore, B. Y. Jani, A. R.; Vyas, P. R.

    2014-04-24

    Certain electric transport properties of liquid Rb are reported. The electrical resistivity is calculated by using the self-consistent approximation as suggested by Ferraz and March. The pseudopotential due to Hasegawa et al for full electron-ion interaction, which is valid for all electrons and contains the repulsive delta function due to achieve the necessary s-pseudisation was used for the calculation. Temperature dependence of structure factor is considered through temperature dependent potential parameter in the pair potential. Finally, thermo-electric power and thermal conductivity are obtained. The outcome of the present study is discussed in light of other such results, and confirms the applicability of pseudopotential at very high temperature via temperature dependent pair potential.

  1. Microbial Electrochemical Technology (MxCs): Challenges and Opportunities |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Electrochemical Technology (MxCs): Challenges and Opportunities Microbial Electrochemical Technology (MxCs): Challenges and Opportunities Presentation by Jason Ren, University of Colorado Boulder, during the "Technological State of the Art" panel at the Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop held March 18-19, 2015. Microbial Electrochemical Technology (MxCs): Challenges and Opportunities (2.69 MB) More Documents &

  2. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PP-366 Twin Rivers Paper Company, Inc. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, ... Record of Categorical Exclusion PDF icon PP-366 Twin Rivers Paper Company, Inc. More ...

  3. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    StateRegionalLocal Assistance for Interconnection Transmission Planning and Ana Record ... PDF icon Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity ...

  4. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Marketing LP Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): EA-368 Brookfield Energy Marketing LP Record of ...

  5. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): EA-363 Noble Americas Gas & Power Corporation Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, ...

  6. Microbial Electrochemical Technology (MxCs): Challenges and Opportunit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Microbial Electrolysis Cells (MECs) for High Yield Hydrogen (H2) Production from Biodegradable Materials Microbial Fuel Cell Technologies-MxCs: Can ...

  7. Possibility of transmutation of {sup 135}Cs by ultraintense laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takashima, R.; Hasegawa, S.; Nemoto, K.; Kato, K.

    2005-01-03

    The possibility of photo-transmutation of long-lived nuclide {sup 135}Cs by ultrashort ultraintense laser was analytically evaluated. The yield of {sup 135}Cs({gamma},n) {sup 134}Cs was strongly dependent on the laser intensity at around 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. If {sup 135}Cs were irradiated by such a laser with the intensity of 10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2} and 10 Hz for 30 min, characteristic {gamma}-ray counting rate was estimated to be 3 Bq.

  8. SF6432-CS (02-01-12) Commercial Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... prior to any attempts to enter a government site as shown ... premises are subject to search. (e) Contractor will ... SF 6432-CS Title: Standard Terms and Conditions for ...

  9. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Noble Americas Gas & Power Corporation Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): EA-365 Centre Land Trading

  10. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EDF Trading North America, LLC (EDF) Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): EA-365 Centre Land Trading

  11. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EA-365 Centre Land Trading Limited Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): EA-365 Centre Land Trading ...

  12. Microbial Fuel Cell Technologies--MxCs: Can They Scale?

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Technol. 29 30 Conclusions * Microbial Fuel Cell Technologies-- MxCs: Can they scale? Yes 30 MET Companies * Emefcy (Israel) , www.emefcy.com * Cambrian Innovations (Boston, ...

  13. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    North America, LLC (EDF) Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): EA-367 EDF Trading North America, LLC (EDF) ...

  14. CS-Studio Scan System Parallelization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasemir, Kay; Pearson, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    For several years, the Control System Studio (CS-Studio) Scan System has successfully automated the operation of beam lines at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). As it is applied to additional beam lines, we need to support simultaneous adjustments of temperatures or motor positions. While this can be implemented via virtual motors or similar logic inside the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) Input/Output Controllers (IOCs), doing so requires a priori knowledge of experimenters requirements. By adding support for the parallel control of multiple process variables (PVs) to the Scan System, we can better support ad hoc automation of experiments that benefit from such simultaneous PV adjustments.

  15. Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis: Characterization Rb Promoted Iron Catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar,A.; Jacobs, G.; Ji, Y.; Hamdeh, H.; Davis, B.

    2008-01-01

    Rubidium promoted iron Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts were prepared with two Rb/Fe atomic ratios (1.44/100 and 5/100) using rubidium nitrate and rubidium carbonate as rubidium precursors. Results of catalytic activity and deactivation studies in a CSTR revealed that rubidium promoted catalysts result in a steady conversion with a lower deactivation rate than that of the corresponding unpromoted catalyst although the initial activity of the promoted catalyst was almost half that of the unpromoted catalyst. Rubidium promotion results in lower methane production, and higher CO2, alkene and 1-alkene fraction in FTS products. M{umlt o}ssbauer spectroscopic measurements of CO activated and working catalyst samples indicated that the composition of the iron carbide phase formed after carbidization was -Fe5 C2 for both promoted and unpromoted catalysts. However, in the case of the rubidium promoted catalyst, '-Fe2.2C became the predominant carbidic phase as FTS continued and the overall catalyst composition remained carbidic in nature. In contrast, the carbide content of the unpromoted catalyst was found to decline very quickly as a function of synthesis time. Results of XANES and EXAFS measurements suggested that rubidium was present in the oxidized state and that the compound most prevalent in the active catalyst samples closely resembled that of rubidium carbonate.

  16. Materials Data on Ti2CS (SG:194) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-01-27

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  17. Materials Data on CsTi2I7 (SG:205) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-03-19

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. Materials Data on CsTiF4 (SG:129) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-01-27

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  19. Materials Data on CsTiF4 (SG:129) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  20. Materials Data on Cs2TiS3 (SG:63) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  1. Nanocrystalline SiC and Ti3SiC2 Alloys for Reactor Materials: Diffusion of Fission Product Surrogates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henager, Charles H.; Jiang, Weilin

    2014-11-01

    MAX phases, such as titanium silicon carbide (Ti3SiC2), have a unique combination of both metallic and ceramic properties, which make them attractive for potential nuclear applications. Ti3SiC2 has been suggested in the literature as a possible fuel cladding material. Prior to the application, it is necessary to investigate diffusivities of fission products in the ternary compound at elevated temperatures. This study attempts to obtain relevant data and make an initial assessment for Ti3SiC2. Ion implantation was used to introduce fission product surrogates (Ag and Cs) and a noble metal (Au) in Ti3SiC2, SiC, and a dual-phase nanocomposite of Ti3SiC2/SiC synthesized at PNNL. Thermal annealing and in-situ Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) were employed to study the diffusivity of the various implanted species in the materials. In-situ RBS study of Ti3SiC2 implanted with Au ions at various temperatures was also performed. The experimental results indicate that the implanted Ag in SiC is immobile up to the highest temperature (1273 K) applied in this study; in contrast, significant out-diffusion of both Ag and Au in MAX phase Ti3SiC2 occurs during ion implantation at 873 K. Cs in Ti3SiC2 is found to diffuse during post-irradiation annealing at 973 K, and noticeable Cs release from the sample is observed. This study may suggest caution in using Ti3SiC2 as a fuel cladding material for advanced nuclear reactors operating at very high temperatures. Further studies of the related materials are recommended.

  2. Evaluation of polymer-coated CsI:Tl as an alpha/beta pulse shape discriminating flow-cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Branton, S.D.; Fjeld, R.A.; DeVol, T.A.

    1996-12-31

    A pulse shape discriminating flow-cell radiation detection system constructed with polymer coated CsI:Tl was evaluated for simultaneous gross alpha/gross beta quantification. The CsI:TI scintillator was crushed and sieved to 63-90 {mu}m particle size and microencapsulated with Parylene C to reduce its rate of dissolution. Averaged over the first hour of use, the pulse shape discrimination figure-of-merit was 1.4 and the detection efficiencies were 64.9 {+-} 5.7 %, 52.5 {+-} 4.5 % and 4.5 {+-} 0.2 % for {sup 233}U, {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and {sup 14}C , respectively. The typical background count rate in the alpha and beta pulse shape window was 0.17 and 0.004 cps, respectively. The resultant minimum detectable activity for a 30 second count time was calculated to be 0.19 {+-} 0.01 Bq, 0.9 {+-} 0.1 Bq and 11.4 {+-} 0.6 Bq for {sup 233}U, {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and {sup 14}C, respectively. Although the 3 {mu}m thick microencapsulation reduced CsI:Tl dissolution, the detection efficiency declined by a factor of two after 4.8 hours while the pulse shape resolution degraded slightly.

  3. EnergyCS Inc Energy Control Systems Engineering Inc | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EnergyCS Inc Energy Control Systems Engineering Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: EnergyCS Inc (Energy Control Systems Engineering, Inc) Sector: Services Product: String...

  4. ESI_CS_Zirkle 1.6.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    more information about BPA ESI: Visit www.energysmartindustrial.com or contact your local utility provider. LIT ESI-CS-006-1 REV DATE 2012-11-14 ZIRKLE FRUIT energy efficiency...

  5. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) Smart Grid Investment Grant Program (EISA 1306) | Department of Energy CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) Smart Grid Investment Grant Program (EISA 1306) Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): American Recovery and

  6. Solvent Extraction of Tc and Cs from Alkaline Nitrate Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Haverlock, T J.; Sachleben, R A.; Leonard, R A.; Conner, C; Lumetta, Gregg J. ); M. Cox, M. Hidalgo, and M. Valiente

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes progress at three collaborating U.S. national laboratories on the extraction of the fission products 99Tc and 137Cs from alkaline high-level wastes. Efficient economical processes for Tc and Cs extraction (SRTALK and alkaline-side CSEX, respectively) have been developed, and testing has progressed through batch tests on actual wastes and continuous counter-current centrifugal-contactor tests on simulants.

  7. Solvent Extraction of Tc and Cs from Alkaline Nitrate Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonnesen, P.V.; Conner, C.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Leonard, R.A.; Lumetta, G.J.; Moyer, B.A.; Sachleben, R.A.

    1999-07-11

    This paper summarizes progress at three collaborating US national laboratories on the extraction of the fission products {sup 99}Tc and {sup 137}Cs from alkaline high-level wastes (HLW). Efficient, economical processes for Tc and Cs extraction (SRTALK and alkaline-side CSEX, respectively) have been developed, and testing has progressed through batch tests on actual wastes and continuous countercurrent centrifugal-contactor tests on simulants.

  8. Microbial cleavage of organic C-S bonds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilbane, II, John J.

    1994-01-01

    A microbial process for selective cleavage of organic C--S bonds which may be used for reducing the sulfur content of sulfur-containing organic carbonaceous materials, Microorganisms of Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Bacillus sphaericus have been found which have the ability of selective cleavage of organic C--S bonds. Particularly preferred microorganisms are Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain ATCC 53968 and Bacillus sphaericus strain ATCC 53969 and their derivatives.

  9. Microbial cleavage of organic C-S bonds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilbane, J.J. II.

    1994-10-25

    A microbial process is described for selective cleavage of organic C-S bonds which may be used for reducing the sulfur content of sulfur-containing organic carbonaceous materials. Microorganisms of Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Bacillus sphaericus have been found which have the ability of selective cleavage of organic C-S bonds. Particularly preferred microorganisms are Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain ATCC 53968 and Bacillus sphaericus strain ATCC 53969 and their derivatives.

  10. High-spin states and level structure in {sup 84}Rb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen Shuifa; Han Guangbing; Wen Shuxian; Gu Jianzhong; Wu Xiaoguang; Zhu Lihua; He Chuangye; Li Guangsheng; Yu Beibei; Pan Feng; Zhu Jianyu; Draayer, J. P.; Wen Tingdun; Yan, Yupeng

    2010-07-15

    High-spin states in {sup 84}Rb have been studied by using the {sup 70}Zn({sup 18}O,p3n){sup 84}Rb reaction at beam energy of 75 MeV. The gamma-gamma coincidence, excitation function, and ratios for directional correlation of oriented states were determined. A new level scheme was established in which the positive- and negative-parity bands have been extended up to 17{sup +} and 17{sup -} with an excitation energy of about 7 MeV. The signature splitting and signature inversion of the positive-parity yrast band were observed. To understand the microscopic origin of the signature inversion in the yrast positive-parity bands of doubly odd Rb nuclei, as an example, we performed calculations using the projected shell model to describe the energy spectra in {sup 84}Rb. It can be seen that the main features are reproduced in the calculations. This analysis shows that the signature splitting, especially its inversion, can be reproduced by varying only the gamma deformation with increasing spin. To research the deformation of {sup 84}Rb carefully, we calculate the total Routhian surfaces of positive-parity yrast states by the cranking shell model formalism. In addition, the results of theoretical calculations about the negative-parity yrast band in {sup 84}Rb with configuration pi(p{sub 3/2},f{sub 5/2}) x nug{sub 9/2} are compared with experimental data, and a band diagram calculated for this band is also shown to extract physics from the numerical results.

  11. Materials Data on Rb2Ti(Si2O5)3 (SG:9) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  12. Total absorption spectroscopy study of ?Rb decay: A major contributor to reactor antineutrino spectrum shape [Total absorption spectroscopy study of ?Rb: A major contributor to reactor antineutrino flux

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sonzogni, A.; Zakari-Issoufou, A. -A.; Fallot, M.; Porta, A.; Algora, A.; Tain, J. L.; Valencia, E.; Rice, S.; Bui, V. M.; Cormon, S.; et al

    2015-03-09

    The accurate determination of the emitted reactor antineutrino flux is still a major challenge for actual and future neutrino experiments at reactors, especially after the evidence of a disagreement between the measured antineutrino energy spectrum by Double Chooz, Daya Bay, and Reno and calculated antineutrino spectra obtained from the conversion of the unique integral beta spectra measured at the ILL reactor. Using nuclear data to compute reactor antineutrino spectra may help understanding this bias, with the study of the underlying nuclear physics. Summation calculations allow identifying a list of nuclei that contribute importantly to the antineutrino energy spectra emitted aftermorethe fission of ?,?Pu and ?,?U, and whose beta decay properties might deserve new measurements. Among these nuclei, ?Rb exhausts by itself about 16% of of the antineutrino energy spectrum emitted by Pressurized Water Reactors in the 5 to 8 MeV range. In this Letter, we report new Total Absorption Spectroscopy (TAS) results for this important contributor. The obtained beta feeding from ?Rb shows beta intensity unobserved before in the 4.5 to 5.5 MeV energy region and gives a ground state to ground state branch of 87.5 % 3%. These new data induce a dramatic change in recent summation calculations where a 51% GS to GS branch was considered for ?Rb, increasing the summation antineutrino spectrum in the region nearby the observed bias.The new data still have an important impact on other summation calculations in which more recent data were consideredless

  13. The third-generation turbocharged engine for the Audi 5000 CS and 5000 CS Quattro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stock, D.

    1986-01-01

    In September 1985 the new Audi 5000 CS Quattro was introduced to the American market. This luxurious high performance touring sedan has been equipped with a more advanced turbocharged engine with intercooler and electronic engine management giving improved performance, excellent torque, faster response and better fuel economy. The basic engine is the tried-and-tested Audi 5-cylinder unit. The turbocharged engine's ancillary systems, the electronic ignition control and fuel injection have all been newly developed, carefully optimized and well matched in the special demands of a turbocharged engine. The ignition system controls the engine and fuel injection and delivers analog and digital signals to the car's instrument panel display. The system also has an integrated self-diagnostic function.

  14. Role of excited state photoionization in the 852.1 nm Cs laser pumped by Cs-Ar photoassociation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewitt, J. D.; Houlahan, T. J. Jr.; Eden, J. G.; Gallagher, J. E.; Perram, G. P.; Carroll, D. L.; Palla, A. D.; Verdeyen, J. T.

    2013-03-18

    Photoionization of Cs (6p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) atoms during the operation of a Cs D{sub 2} line (852.1 nm: 6p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2}{yields}6s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}) laser, pumped by free{yields}free transitions of thermal Cs-Ar ground state pairs, has been investigated experimentally and computationally. Photoexcitation of Cs vapor/Ar mixtures through the blue satellite of the D{sub 2} transition (peaking at 836.7 nm) selectively populates the {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} upper laser level by the dissociation of the CsAr excited complex. Comparison of laser output energy data, for instantaneous pump powers up to 3 MW, with the predictions of a numerical model sets an upper bound of 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -26} cm{sup 4} W{sup -1} on the Cs (6p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) two photon ionization cross-section at 836.7 nm which corresponds to a single photon cross-section of 2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -19} cm{sup 2} for a peak pump intensity of 3 MW cm{sup -2}.

  15. A combined Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, and U-Pb isotopic study of Mg-suite norite 78238: Further evidence for early differentiation of the Moon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmunson, J; E.Borg, L; Nyquist, L E; Asmerom, Y

    2008-11-17

    Lunar Mg-suite norite 78238 was dated using the Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, and U-Pb isotopic systems in order to constrain the age of lunar magma ocean solidification and the beginning of Mg-suite magmatism, as well as to provide a direct comparison between the three isotopic systems. The Sm-Nd isotopic system yields a crystallization age for 78238 of 4334 {+-} 37 Ma and an initial {var_epsilon}{sub Nd}{sup 143} value of -0.27 {+-} 0.74. The age-initial {var_epsilon}{sub Nd}{sup 143} (T-I) systematics of a variety of KREEP-rich samples, including 78238 and other Mg-suite rocks, KREEP basalts, and olivine cumulate NWA 773, suggest that lunar differentiation was completed by 4492 {+-} 61 Ma assuming a Chondritic Uniform Reservoir bulk composition for the Moon. The Rb-Sr isotopic systematics of 78238 were disturbed by post-crystallization processes. Nevertheless, selected data points yield two Rb-Sr isochrons. One is concordant with the Sm-Nd crystallization age, 4366 {+-} 53 Ma. The other is 4003 {+-} 95 Ma and is concordant with an Ar-Ar age for 78236. The {sup 207}Pb-{sup 206}Pb age of 4333 {+-} 59 Ma is concordant with the Sm-Nd age. The U-Pb isotopic systematics of 78238 yield linear arrays equivalent to younger ages than the Pb-Pb system, and may reflect fractionation of U and Pb during sample handling. Despite the disturbed nature of the U-Pb systems, a time-averaged {mu} ({sup 238}U/{sup 204}Pb) value of the source can be estimated at 27 {+-} 30 from the Pb-Pb isotopic systematics. Because KREEP-rich samples are likely to be derived from source regions with the highest U/Pb ratios, the relatively low {mu} value calculated for the 78238 source suggests the bulk Moon does not have an exceedingly high {mu} value.

  16. Photoelectron Emission Studies in CsBr at 257 nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maldonado, Juan R.; Liu, Zhi; Sun, Yun; Pianetta, Piero A.; Pease, Fabian W.; /Stanford U., Elect. Eng. Dept. /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-09-28

    CsBr/Cr photocathodes were found [1,2] to meet the requirements of a multi-electron beam lithography system operating with a light energy of 4.8 eV (257nm). The fact that photoemission was observed with a light energy below the reported 7.3 eV band gap for CsBr was not understood. This paper presents experimental results on the presence of intra-band gap absorption sites (IBAS) in CsBr thin film photo electron emitters, and presents a model based on IBAS to explain the observed photoelectron emission behavior at energies below band gap. A fluorescence band centered at 330 nm with a FWHM of about 0.34 eV was observed in CsBr/Cr samples under 257 nm laser illumination which can be attributed to IBAS and agrees well with previously obtained synchrotron photoelectron spectra[1] from the valence band of CsBr films.

  17. Estimation of average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors by using the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Endo, T.; Sato, S.; Yamamoto, A.

    2012-07-01

    Average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors is estimated, using the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method for measured radioactivities of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in contaminated soils within the range of 100 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants. As a result, the measured {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio from the contaminated soil is 0.996{+-}0.07 as of March 11, 2011. Based on the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method, the estimated burnup of damaged fuels is approximately 17.2{+-}1.5 [GWd/tHM]. It is noted that the numerical results of various calculation codes (SRAC2006/PIJ, SCALE6.0/TRITON, and MVP-BURN) are almost the same evaluation values of {sup 134}Cs/ {sup 137}Cs ratio with same evaluated nuclear data library (ENDF-B/VII.0). The void fraction effect in depletion calculation has a major impact on {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio compared with the differences between JENDL-4.0 and ENDF-B/VII.0. (authors)

  18. A=16Al (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    93TI07) (Not observed) See (1986AN07

  19. A=16Mg (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    93TI07) (Not observed) See (1986AN07

  20. A=16Na (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    93TI07) (Not observed) See (1986AN07

  1. A=16Si (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    93TI07) (Not observed) See (1986AN07

  2. A=19Be (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    95TI07) (Not observed) See (1983ANZQ

  3. A=19He (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    95TI07) (Not observed) See (1983ANZQ

  4. A=19Li (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    95TI07) (Not observed) See (1983ANZQ

  5. Total absorption spectroscopy study of ?Rb decay: A major contributor to reactor antineutrino spectrum shape [Total absorption spectroscopy study of ?Rb: A major contributor to reactor antineutrino flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonzogni, A.; Zakari-Issoufou, A. -A.; Fallot, M.; Porta, A.; Algora, A.; Tain, J. L.; Valencia, E.; Rice, S.; Bui, V. M.; Cormon, S.; Estienne, M.; Agramunt, J.; Aysto, J.; Bowry, M.; Briz Monago, J. A.; Caballero-Folch, R.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cucoanes, A.; Eloma, V.; Estvez, E.; Farrelly, G. F.; Garcia, A.; Gelletly, W.; Gomez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gorlychev, V.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Jordan, M. D.; Kankainen, A.; Kondev, F. G.; Martinez, T.; Mendoza, E.; Molina, F.; Moore, I.; Perez, A.; Podolyak, Zs.; Penttil, H.; Regan, P. H.; Shiba, T.; Rissanen, J.; Rubio, B.; Weber, C.

    2015-03-09

    The accurate determination of the emitted reactor antineutrino flux is still a major challenge for actual and future neutrino experiments at reactors, especially after the evidence of a disagreement between the measured antineutrino energy spectrum by Double Chooz, Daya Bay, and Reno and calculated antineutrino spectra obtained from the conversion of the unique integral beta spectra measured at the ILL reactor. Using nuclear data to compute reactor antineutrino spectra may help understanding this bias, with the study of the underlying nuclear physics. Summation calculations allow identifying a list of nuclei that contribute importantly to the antineutrino energy spectra emitted after the fission of ?,?Pu and ?,?U, and whose beta decay properties might deserve new measurements. Among these nuclei, ?Rb exhausts by itself about 16% of of the antineutrino energy spectrum emitted by Pressurized Water Reactors in the 5 to 8 MeV range. In this Letter, we report new Total Absorption Spectroscopy (TAS) results for this important contributor. The obtained beta feeding from ?Rb shows beta intensity unobserved before in the 4.5 to 5.5 MeV energy region and gives a ground state to ground state branch of 87.5 % 3%. These new data induce a dramatic change in recent summation calculations where a 51% GS to GS branch was considered for ?Rb, increasing the summation antineutrino spectrum in the region nearby the observed bias.The new data still have an important impact on other summation calculations in which more recent data were considered

  6. 135Cs/137Cs isotopic composition of environmental samples across Europe: Environmental transport and source term emission applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snow, Mathew S.; Snyder, Darin C.

    2015-11-02

    135Cs/137Cs isotopic analyses represent an important tool for studying the fate and transport of radiocesium in the environment; in this work the 135Cs/137Cs isotopic composition in environmental samples taken from across Europe is reported. Surface soil and vegetation samples from western Russia, Ukraine, Austria, and Hungary show consistent aged thermal fission product 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios of 0.58 ± 0.01 (age corrected to 1/1/15), with the exception of one sample of soil-moss from Hungary which shows an elevated 135Cs/137Cs ratio of 1.78 ± 0.12. With the exception of the outlier sample from Hungary, surface soil/vegetation data are in quantitative agreement with values previously reported for soils within the Chernobyl exclusion zone, suggesting that radiocesium at these locations is primarily composed of homogenous airborne deposition from Chernobyl. Seawater samples taken from the Irish Sea show 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios of 1.22 ± 0.11 (age corrected to 1/1/15), suggesting aged thermal fission product Cs discharged from Sellafield. Furthermore, the differences in 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios between Sellafield, Chernobyl, and global nuclear weapons testing fallout indicate that 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios can be utilized to discriminate between and track radiocesium transport from different nuclear production source terms, including major emission sources in Europe.

  7. 137 Cs Activities and 135 Cs/ 137 Cs Isotopic Ratios from Soils at Idaho National Laboratory: A Case Study for Contaminant Source Attribution in the Vicinity of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snow, Mathew S.; Snyder, Darin C.; Clark, Sue B.; Kelley, Morgan; Delmore, James E.

    2015-03-03

    Radiometric and mass spectrometric analyses of Cs contamination in the environment can reveal the location of Cs emission sources, release mechanisms, modes of transport, prediction of future contamination migration, and attribution of contamination to specific generator(s) and/or process(es). The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) represents a complicated case study for demonstrating the current capabilities and limitations to environmental Cs analyses. 137Cs distribution patterns, 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios, known Cs chemistry at this site, and historical records enable narrowing the list of possible emission sources and release events to a single source and event, with the SDA identified as the emission source and flood transport of material from within Pit 9 and Trench 48 as the primary release event. These data combined allow refining the possible number of waste generators from dozens to a single generator, with INL on-site research and reactor programs identified as the most likely waste generator. A discussion on the ultimate limitations to the information that 135Cs/137Cs ratios alone can provide is presented and includes (1) uncertainties in the exact date of the fission event and (2) possibility of mixing between different Cs source terms (including nuclear weapons fallout and a source of interest).

  8. Precise Measurement of Strontium-82 Radioactivity in the Sr-Rb PET

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Generator | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Precise Measurement of Strontium-82 Radioactivity in the Sr-Rb PET Generator Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science Applications of Nuclear Science Archives Small Business Innovation Research / Small Business Technology Transfer Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of

  9. Status of lithium-filled specimen subcapsules for the HFIR-MFE-RB10J experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, J.P.; Howell, M.; Lenox, K.E.

    1998-09-01

    The HFIR-MFE-RB-10J experiment will be irradiated in a Removable Beryllium position in the HFIR for 10 reactor cycles, accumulating approximately 5 dpa in steel. The upper region of the capsule contains two lithium-filled subcapsules containing vanadium specimens. This report describes the techniques developed to achieve a satisfactory lithium fill with a specimen occupancy of 26% in each subcapsule.

  10. Rb+ adsorption at the quartz(101)-aqueous interface: comparison of resonant anomalous x-ray reflectivity with ab initio calculations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bellucci, Francesco; Lee, Sang Soo; Kubicki, James D.; Bandura, Andrei V.; Zhang, Zhan; Wesolowski, David J.; Fenter, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We study adsorption of Rb+ to the quartz(101)–aqueous interface at room temperature with specular X-ray reflectivity, resonant anomalous X-ray reflectivity, and density functional theory. The interfacial water structures observed in deionized water and 10 mM RbCl solution at pH 9.8 were similar, having a first water layer at height of 1.7 ± 0.1 Å above the quartz surface and a second layer at 4.8 ± 0.1 Å and 3.9 ± 0.8 Å for the water and RbCl solutions, respectively. The adsorbed Rb+ distribution is broad and consists of presumed inner-sphere (IS) and outer-sphere (OS) complexes at heights of 1.8 ±more » 0.1 and 6.4 ± 1.0 Å, respectively. Projector-augmented planewave density functional theory (DFT) calculations of potential configurations for neutral and negatively charged quartz(101) surfaces at pH 7 and 12, respectively, reveal a water structure in agreement with experimental results. These DFT calculations also show differences in adsorbed speciation of Rb+ between these two conditions. At pH 7, the lowest energy structure shows that Rb+ adsorbs dominantly as an IS complex, whereas at pH 12 IS and OS complexes have equivalent energies. The DFT results at pH 12 are generally consistent with the two site Rb distribution observed from the X-ray data at pH 9.8, albeit with some differences that are discussed. In conclusion, surface charge estimated on the basis of the measured total Rb+ coverage was -0.11 C/m2, in good agreement with the range of the surface charge magnitudes reported in the literature.« less

  11. Pb{sub 5}Fe{sub 3}TiO{sub 11}Cl: A rare example of Ti(IV) in a square pyramidal oxygen coordination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batuk, Maria; Batuk, Dmitry; Abakumov, Artem M.; Hadermann, Joke

    2014-07-01

    A new oxychloride Pb{sub 5}Fe{sub 3}TiO{sub 11}Cl has been synthesized using the solid state method. Its crystal and magnetic structure was investigated in the 1.5550 K temperature range using electron diffraction, high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic resolution energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, neutron and X-ray powder diffraction. At room temperature Pb{sub 5}Fe{sub 3}TiO{sub 11}Cl crystallizes in the P4/mmm space group with the unit cell parameters a=3.91803(3) and c=19.3345(2) . Pb{sub 5}Fe{sub 3}TiO{sub 11}Cl is a new n=4 member of the oxychloride perovskite-based homologous series A{sub n+1}B{sub n}O{sub 3n?1}Cl. The structure is built of truncated Pb{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}TiO{sub 11} quadruple perovskite blocks separated by CsCl-type Pb{sub 2}Cl slabs. The perovskite blocks consist of two layers of (Fe,Ti)O{sub 6} octahedra sandwiched between two layers of (Fe,Ti)O{sub 5} square pyramids. The Ti{sup 4+} cations are preferentially located in the octahedral layers, however, the presence of a noticeable amount of Ti{sup 4+} in a five-fold coordination environment has been undoubtedly proven using neutron powder diffraction and atomic resolution compositional mapping. Pb{sub 5}Fe{sub 3}TiO{sub 11}Cl is antiferromagnetically ordered below 450(10) K. The ordered Fe magnetic moments at 1.5 K are 4.06(4) ?{sub B} and 3.86(5) ?{sub B} on the octahedral and square-pyramidal sites, respectively. - Highlights: Pb{sub 5}Fe{sub 3}TiO{sub 11}Cl has been synthesized using the solid state method. The structure has been refined using neutron powder diffraction data at 1.5550 K. It is a new n=4 member of the perovskite-related homologous series A{sub n+1}B{sub n}O{sub 3n?1}Cl. Ti{sup 4+} cations have both octahedral and square-pyramidal coordination environment. Pb{sub 5}Fe{sub 3}TiO{sub 11}Cl is antiferromagnetically ordered below T{sub N}?450 K.

  12. Structure and Interactions of the CS Domain of Human H/ACA RNP...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structure and Interactions of the CS Domain of Human HACA RNP Assembly Protein Shq1 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structure and Interactions of the CS Domain of Human...

  13. Lattice dynamics in perovskite halides CsSn X 3 with X = I ,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lattice dynamics in perovskite halides CsSn X 3 with X I , Br , Cl Prev Next Title: Lattice dynamics in perovskite halides CsSn X 3 with X I , Br , Cl Authors: Huang, ...

  14. Lattice dynamics in perovskite halides CsSn X 3 with X = I ,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lattice dynamics in perovskite halides CsSn X 3 with X I , Br , Cl Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lattice dynamics in perovskite halides CsSn X 3 with X I , Br , Cl ...

  15. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) Interoperability Standards and Framework (EISA 1305) | Department of Energy Interoperability Standards and Framework (EISA 1305) Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) Interoperability Standards and Framework (EISA 1305) Based on OE's review of the information

  16. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) Program Direction | Department of Energy Program Direction Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) Program Direction Based on OE's review of the information concerning the proposal action, the NEPA compliance Officer has determined that the proposed action fits

  17. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) Smart Grid Investment Grant Program (EISA 1306) | Department of Energy Smart Grid Investment Grant Program (EISA 1306) Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) Smart Grid Investment Grant Program (EISA 1306) Based on OE's review of the information concerning the

  18. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) Smart Grid Investment Grant Program (EISA 1306) | Department of Energy Smart Grid Investment Grant Program (EISA 1306) Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) Smart Grid Investment Grant Program (EISA 1306) Based on OE's review of the information concerning the

  19. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) State/Regional/Local Assistance for Interconnection Transmission Planning and Ana | Department of Energy State/Regional/Local Assistance for Interconnection Transmission Planning and Ana Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) State/Regional/Local Assistance for

  20. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) Workforce Development | Department of Energy Workforce Development Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) Workforce Development Based on OE's review of the information concerning the proposal action, the NEPA compliance Officer has determined that the proposed

  1. High gradient rf gun studies of CsBr photocathodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vecchione, Theodore; Maldonado, Juan R.; Gierman, Stephen; Corbett, Jeff; Hartmann, Nick; Pianetta, Piero A.; Hesselink, Lambertus; Schmerge, John F.

    2015-04-03

    CsBr photocathodes have 10 times higher quantum efficiency with only 3 times larger intrinsic transverse emittance than copper. They are robust and can withstand 80 MV/m fields without breaking down or emitting dark current. They can operate in 2×10⁻⁹ torr vacuum and survive exposure to air. They are well suited for generating high pulse charge in rf guns without a photocathode transfer system.

  2. HPC_AppPerf_2013_CS267.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Performance Debugging Techniques For HPC Applications David Skinner deskinner@lbl.gov CS267 Feb 19 2013 Today's Topics * Principles - Topics in performance scalability - Examples of areas where tools can help * Practice - Where to find tools - Specifics to NERSC and Hopper/Franklin * Scope & Audience - Budding simulation scientist app dev - Compiler/middleware dev, YMMV 2 Overview * Serving all of DOE Office of Science domain breadth range of scales * Lots of users ~4.5K active ~500 logged

  3. High gradient rf gun studies of CsBr photocathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vecchione, Theodore; Maldonado, Juan R.; Gierman, Stephen; Corbett, Jeff; Hartmann, Nick; Pianetta, Piero A.; Hesselink, Lambertus; Schmerge, John F.

    2015-04-03

    CsBr photocathodes have 10 times higher quantum efficiency with only 3 times larger intrinsic transverse emittance than copper. They are robust and can withstand 80 MV/m fields without breaking down or emitting dark current. They can operate in 210?? torr vacuum and survive exposure to air. They are well suited for generating high pulse charge in rf guns without a photocathode transfer system.

  4. Duration Test Report for the Viryd CS8 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roadman, J.; Murphy, M.; van Dam, J.

    2013-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of a duration noise test that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted on the Viryd CS8 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with Clause 9.4 of the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind turbines - Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed. 2.0:2006-03. NREL researchers evaluated the turbine based on structural integrity and material degradation, quality of environmental protection, and dynamic behavior.

  5. Quantum spin transport through magnetic superatom dimer (Cs{sub 8}V-Cs{sub 8}V)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu Lin; Khanna, Shiv N.

    2012-10-28

    Theoretical studies of the spin transport through a magnetic superatom dimer (Cs{sub 8}V)-(Cs{sub 8}V) have been carried out within a density functional theory combined with nonequilibrium Green's-function formalism. It is shown that the electronic transport is sensitive to the binding site as well as the contact distance between the dimer and the electrode, and that the conductance at zero bias exhibits an oscillatory behavior as a function of the contact distance. The conductance in ferromagnetic state shows an unusually high spin polarization that exceeds 80% at large separations. The I-V curve shows negative differential resistance for specific contact distances, whose origin lies in the shift of frontier energy levels as well as the charged state of the superatom, under external bias.

  6. (References: Klein SA, RB McCoy, H Morrison, AS Ackerman, A

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of cloud microphysics can lead to improved simulations. The high-quality observations and broad participation of the modeling community in this study points to the importance of Arctic mixed-phase clouds as a key target for climate modeling centers to improve with future cloud parameterization developments. (References: Klein SA, RB McCoy, H Morrison, AS Ackerman, A Avramov, G de Boer, M Chen, JN Cole, AD Del Genio, M Falk, MJ Foster, A Fridlind, JC Golaz, T Hashino, JY Harrington, C Hoose, MF

  7. Differential Light-Shift Cancellation in a Magnetic-Field-Insensitive Transition of {sup 87}Rb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chicireanu, R.; Nelson, K. D.; Olmschenk, S.; Porto, J. V.; Lundblad, N.; Derevianko, A.

    2011-02-11

    The precise measurement of transition frequencies of trapped atomic samples is susceptible to inaccuracy arising from the inhomogeneous differential shift of the relevant energy levels in the presence of the trapping fields. We demonstrate near-complete cancellation of the differential ac Stark shift (''light shift'') of a two-photon magnetic-field-insensitive microwave hyperfine (clock) transition in {sup 87}Rb atoms trapped in an optical lattice. Up to 95(2)% of the differential light shift is cancelled while maintaining magnetic-field insensitivity. This technique should have applications in quantum information and frequency metrology.

  8. Inhibition of white light of sup 86 Rb sup + absorption in the root apex of corn. [Zea mays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKendree, W.L.; Smith, R.C. )

    1990-06-01

    Measurements of cell lengths made at 0.5 millimeter intervals in median longitudinal sections of the primary roots of corn (Zea mays) were used to construct a growth curve. The region 1.5 to 4.0 millimeters from the apex contained the largest number of elongating cells. Absorption of {sup 86}Rb{sup +} was measured using intact, dark-grown corn seedlings. Following uptake and exchange, the terminal 8.0 millimeters of each root was cut into four 2.0 millimeter segments. Maximum {sup 86}Rb{sup +} uptake occurred in the region from 0.0 to 4.0 millimeter from the root tip. Washing the intact primary root in fresh 2.0 millimolar CaSO{sub 4} for 2 hours prior to uptake augmented the rate of {sup 86}Rb{sup +} uptake in all regions. Illumination with white light during washing caused a reduction of {sup 86}Rb{sup +} uptake as compared with controls washing in darkness, and the region of greatest light response was the region of elongation. Removal of the coleoptile prior to washing did not prevent the light inhibition of subsequent {sup 86}Rb{sup +} uptake. Removal of the root cap prior to washing in light partially reversed the light-induced inhibition of the washing response.

  9. Continuous Nondemolition Measurement of the Cs Clock Transition Pseudospin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaudhury, Souma; Smith, Greg A.; Schulz, Kevin; Jessen, Poul S.

    2006-02-03

    We demonstrate a weak continuous measurement of the pseudospin associated with the clock transition in a sample of Cs atoms. Our scheme uses an optical probe tuned near the D{sub 1} transition to measure the sample birefringence, which depends on the z component of the collective pseudospin. At certain probe frequencies the differential light shift of the clock states vanishes, and the measurement is nonperturbing. In dense samples the measurement can be used to squeeze the collective clock pseudospin and has the potential to improve the performance of atomic clocks and interferometers.

  10. Chemical information on tank supernatants, Cs adsorption from tank liquids onto Hanford sediments, and field observations of Cs migration from past tank leaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serne, R.J.; Zachara, J.M.; Burke, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    Borehole gamma-logging profiles beneath the SX-Tank Farm suggest that contamination from Cs-137 extends to at least a depth of 40 m (130 ft), and may extend even deeper. What is presently not known is the pathway that Cs-137 has taken to reach these depths. In this report we provide an analysis of the chemistry of tank supernates with emphasis on the REDOX waste stream disposed in SX tanks, Cs chemistry in aqueous solutions and adsorption properties onto minerals, available data on Cs adsorption onto Hanford sediments, and information on Cs migration from other Hanford tank leaks that have been studied. The data in this report was used to help guide the vadose zone transport analysis of the SX Tank Farm presented in a companion report. The goal of the vadose zone transport modelling is to attempt to explain the depth and extent of the Cs-137 plume under the SX Tank farm, specifically in the vicinity of the greatest leak, near the SX-109 Tank as inferred from the gamma logs (DOE 1996). In solution Cs is present as the monovalent cation and shows very little tendency to form aqueous complexes with inorganic or organic ligands. Cs is expected to adsorb primarily onto selective minerals that have unique adsorption sites. The small Cs{sup +} ion is accommodated on these frayed edge and interlayer sites. Adsorption within the interlayers often leads to collapse of the layers such that the Cs{sup +} ion is effectively trapped and not readily exchangeable by all other common cations. The degree of adsorption is thus only moderately dependent on the types and high concentrations of other cations in leaking tank liquors.

  11. Structure and optical properties of a noncentrosymmetric borate RbSr{sub 4}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, M.J.; Li, R.K.

    2013-01-15

    A new noncentrosymmetric borate, RbSr{sub 4}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} (abbreviated as RSBO), has been grown from Rb{sub 2}O--B{sub 2}O{sub 3}--RbF flux and its crystal structure was determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in space group Ama2 with cell parameters of a=11.128(10) A, b=12.155(15) A, c=6.952(7) A, Z=4. The basic structural units are isolated planar BO{sub 3} groups. Second harmonic generation (SHG) test of the title compound by the Kurtz-Perry method shows that RSBO can be phase matchable with an effective SHG coefficient about two-thirds as large as that of KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} (KDP). Finally, based on the anionic group approximation, the optical properties of the title compound are compared with those of the structure-related apatite-like compounds with the formula 'A{sub 5}(TO{sub n}){sub 3}X'. - Graphical abstract: RbSr{sub 4}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} and some other borate NLO compounds, namely Ca{sub 5}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}F RCa{sub 4}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}O (R=Y or Gd) and Na{sub 3}La{sub 2}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} can be viewed as the derivatives of apatite. They have similar formula composed of five cations and three anion groups (we call them 5/3 structures). The detailed SHG coefficients and optical properties of the apatite-like NLO crystals were compared and summarized. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new noncentrosymmetric borate RbSr{sub 4}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} was grown from flux. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The RbSr{sub 4}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} can be viewed as a derivative of the apatite-like structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure and its relationship to the optical properties of RbSr{sub 4}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} are compared with other NLO crystals with apatite-like structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The basic structural units are the planar BO{sub 3} groups in the structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Second harmonic generation (SHG) test shows that RbSr{sub 4}(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} can be phase matchable with an

  12. A=10F (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (Not illustrated) Not observed: see (1979AJ01). See also (1988AJ01

  13. A=10Ne (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (Not illustrated) Not observed: see (1979AJ01). See also (1988AJ01

  14. A=10O (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (Not illustrated) Not observed: see (1979AJ01). See also (1988AJ01

  15. A=17Al (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Al (1993TI07) (Not observed) See (1983ANZQ, 1988WA18, 1992AV03).

  16. A=17He (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    93TI07) (Not illustrated) Not observed: see (1986AJ04, 1988POZS

  17. A=17Li (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    93TI07) (Not illustrated) Not observed: see (1986AJ04, 1988POZS

  18. A=17Mg (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mg (1993TI07) (Not observed) See (1983ANZQ, 1988WA18, 1992AV03).

  19. A=17P (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    93TI07) (Not observed) See (1983ANZQ, 1988WA18, 1992AV03

  20. A=17Si (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Si (1993TI07) (Not observed) See (1983ANZQ, 1988WA18, 1992AV03).

  1. A=18He (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    95TI07) (Not illustrated) Not observed: See (1982AV1A, 1983ANZQ

  2. A=20Al, etc. (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    98TI06) (Not observed) See (1972AJ02, 1983ANZQ, 1986AN07

  3. A=20Be (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    98TI06) (Not observed) See (1977CE05, 1983ANZQ, 1986AN07, 1987SIZX

  4. A=20n (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    98TI06) (Not observed) See (1977CE05, 1983ANZQ, 1986AN07, 1987SIZX

  5. Materials Data on Cs2Ti(CuSe2)2 (SG:132) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  6. Materials Data on Cs2Ti(AgS2)2 (SG:132) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  7. Diffusion of Ag, Au and Cs implants in MAX phase Ti3SiC2 (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 462; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0022-3115 Publisher: Elsevier Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and ...

  8. Photoinduced Br Desorption from CsBr Thin Films Grown on Cu(100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halliday, Matthew T.; Joly, Alan G.; Hess, Wayne P.; Shluger, AL

    2015-10-22

    Thin films of CsBr deposited onto metals such as copper are potential photocathode materials for light sources and other applications. We investigate desorption dynamics of Br atoms from CsBr films grown on insulator (KBr, LiF) and metal (Cu) substrates induced by sub-bandgap 6.4 eV laser pulses. The experimental results demonstrate that the peak kinetic energy of Br atoms desorbed from CsBr/Cu films is much lower than that for the hyperthermal desorption from CsBr/LiF films. Kelvin probe measurements indicate negative charge at the surface following Br desorption from CsBr/Cu films. Our ab initio calculations of excitons at CsBr surfaces demonstrate that this behavior can be explained by an exciton model of desorption including electron trapping at the CsBr surface. Trapped negative charges reduce the energy of surface excitons available for Br desorption. We examine the electron-trapping characteristics of low-coordinated sites at the surface, in particular, divacancies and kink sites. We also provide a model of cation desorption caused by Franck-Hertz excitation of F centers at the surface in the course of irradiation of CsBr/Cu films. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of photoinduced structural evolution of alkali halide films on metal substrates and activation of metal photocathodes coated with CsBr.

  9. Dipole-dipole broadening of Rb ns-np microwave transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Hyunwook; Tanner, P. J.; Claessens, B. J.; Shuman, E. S.; Gallagher, T. F.

    2011-08-15

    The dipole-dipole broadening of ns-np microwave transitions of cold Rb Rydberg atoms in a magneto-optical trap has been recorded for 28{<=}n{<=}51. Since the electric dipole transition matrix elements scale as n{sup 2}, a broadening rate scaling as n{sup 4} is expected and a broadening rate of 8.2x10{sup -15}n{sup 4} MHz cm{sup 3} is observed. The observed broadening is smaller than expected from a classical picture due to the spin-orbit interaction in the np atoms. The broadened resonances are asymmetric and cusp shaped, and their line shapes can be reproduced by a diatomic model which takes into account the dipole-dipole interaction, including the spin-orbit interaction, the strengths of the allowed microwave transitions, and the distribution of the atomic spacings in the trap.

  10. Ionization of Rb Rydberg atoms in the attractive nsnp dipole-dipole potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Hyunwook; Shuman, E. S.; Gallagher, T. F.

    2011-11-15

    We have observed the ionization of a cold gas of Rb Rydberg atoms which occurs when nsns van der Waals pairs of ns atoms of n{approx_equal} 40 on a weakly repulsive potential are transferred to an attractive dipole-dipole nsnp potential by a microwave transition. Comparing the measurements to a simple model shows that the initial 300-{mu}K thermal velocity of the atoms plays an important role. Excitation to a repulsive dipole-dipole potential does not lead to more ionization on a 15-{mu}s time scale than leaving the atoms in the weakly repulsive nsns state. This observation is slightly surprising since a radiative transition must occur to allow ionization in the latter case. Finally, by power broadening of the microwave transition, to allow transitions from the initial nsns state to the nsnp state over a broad range of internuclear spacings, it is possible to accelerate markedly the evolution to a plasma.

  11. Experimental observation of magic-wavelength behavior of {sup 87}Rb atoms in an optical lattice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundblad, N.; Schlosser, M.; Porto, J. V.

    2010-03-15

    We demonstrate the cancellation of the differential ac Stark shift of the microwave hyperfine clock transition in trapped {sup 87}Rb atoms. Recent progress in metrology exploits so-called magic wavelengths, whereby an atomic ensemble can be trapped with laser light whose wavelength is chosen so that both levels of an optical atomic transition experience identical ac Stark shifts. Similar magic-wavelength techniques are not possible for the microwave hyperfine transitions in the alkali metals due to their simple electronic structure. We show, however, that ac Stark shift cancellation is indeed achievable for certain values of wavelength, polarization, and magnetic field. The cancellation comes at the expense of a small magnetic-field sensitivity. The technique demonstrated here has implications for experiments involving the precise control of optically trapped neutral atoms.

  12. Chloride-dependent acceleration of cell cycle via modulation of Rb and cdc2 in osteoblastic cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maki, Masahiro; Miyazaki, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Yamane, Junko; Niisato, Naomi; Morihara, Toru; Kubo, Toshikazu; Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2007-10-05

    In the present study, we investigated if Cl{sup -} regulates the proliferation of the MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. The proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells was diminished by lowering the extracellular Cl{sup -} concentration ([Cl{sup -}]{sub o}) in the culture medium. The lowered in [Cl{sup -}]{sub o} increased the periods of the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} and the G{sub 2}/M phases in cell cycle. We further studied the effects of [Cl{sup -}]{sub o} on the key enzymes, Rb and cdc2, playing key roles in checking points of the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} and the G{sub 2}/M phases in cell cycle. The lowered in [Cl{sup -}]{sub o} diminished the active forms of enzymes, Rb and cdc2. We further found that the action of lowered [Cl{sup -}]{sub o} on the cell proliferation, the cell cycle, Rb and cdc2 was abolished by the presence of 2 mM glutamine, but not by that of pyruvate as another Krebs cycle substrate. Taken together, these observations indicate here for the first time that Cl{sup -} modulates Rb and cdc2, enhancing the proliferation of the MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells.

  13. The Dependence of the Oxidation Enhancement of InP(100) Surface on the Coverage of the Adsorbed Cs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yun

    2010-06-07

    We report the oxidation of the InP(100) surface promoted by adsorbed Cs by synchrotron radiation photoemission. Oxygen exposure causes reduction of the charge transferred to the InP substrate from Cs and the growth of indium oxide and phosphorous oxide. The oxide growth displays a clear dependence on the Cs coverage. The oxidation of phosphorous is negligible up to 1000 L of O{sub 2} exposure when the Cs coverage is less than half a monolayer (ML), but the formation of the second half monolayer of Cs greatly accelerates the oxidation. This different enhancement of the InP oxidation by the first and the second half monolayer of Cs is due to the double layer structure of the adsorbed Cs atoms, and consequently the higher 6s electron density in the Cs atoms when Cs coverage is larger than 0.5 ML.

  14. Technical memo on new results on CsI photocathodes: Enhancement and aging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S. ); Hoeneisen, B. ); Peskov, V. . World Lab.)

    1991-09-01

    It appears that there are 4 processes involved in the enhancement and aging of a CsI or CsI-TMAE photocathode: water absorption, charging up of the photocathode, a self annealing aging, and a permanent aging. The evidence for these processes are presented. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Martensitic transformation behaviors of rapidly solidified TiNiMo powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Yeon-wook

    2012-10-15

    For the fabrication of bulk near-net-shape shape memory alloys and porous metallic biomaterials, consolidation of TiNiMo alloy powders is more useful than that of elemental powders of Ti, Ni and Mo. Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 49.9}Mo{sub 0.1} shape memory alloy powders were prepared by gas atomization, and transformation temperatures and microstructures of those powders were investigated as a function of powder size. XRD analysis showed that the B2RB19 martensitic transformation occurred in powders smaller than 150 ?m. According to DSC analysis of the as-atomized powders, the B2R transformation temperature (T{sub R}) of the 2550 ?m powders was 18.4 C. The T{sub R} decreased with increasing powder size, however, the difference in T{sub R} between 2550 ?m powders and 100150 ?m powders is only 1 C. Evaluation of powder microstructures was based on SEM examination of the surface and the polished and etched powder cross sections and the typical images of the rapidly solidified powders showed cellular morphology. Porous cylindrical foams of 10 mm diameter and 1.5 mm length were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 800 C and 5 MPa. Finally these porous TiNi alloy samples are heat-treated for 1 h at 850 C, and then quenched in ice water. The bulk samples have 23% porosity and 4.6 g/cm{sup 3} density and their T{sub R} is 17.8 C.

  16. Temporal resolution limit estimation of x-ray streak cameras using a CsI photocathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiang; Gu, Li; Zong, Fangke; Zhang, Jingjin; Yang, Qinlao

    2015-08-28

    A Monte Carlo model is developed and implemented to calculate the characteristics of x-ray induced secondary electron (SE) emission from a CsI photocathode used in an x-ray streak camera. Time distributions of emitted SEs are investigated with an incident x-ray energy range from 1 to 30 keV and a CsI thickness range from 100 to 1000 nm. Simulation results indicate that SE time distribution curves have little dependence on the incident x-ray energy and CsI thickness. The calculated time dispersion within the CsI photocathode is about 70 fs, which should be the temporal resolution limit of x-ray streak cameras that use CsI as the photocathode material.

  17. A=20Ne (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (1988CS01), distribution of -particle strength (1988LE05), cluster formation in the cluster-orbital shell model (1990HA38), the microscopic complex effective interaction for...

  18. Hanford Isotope Project strategic business analysis Cesium-137 (Cs-137)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this business analysis is to address the beneficial reuse of Cesium 137 (Cs-137) in order to utilize a valuable national asset and possibly save millions of tax dollars. Food irradiation is the front runner application along with other uses. This business analysis supports the objectives of the Department of Energy National Isotope Strategy distributed in August 1994 which describes the DOE plans for the production and distribution of isotope products and services. As part of the Department`s mission as stated in that document. ``The Department of Energy will also continue to produce and distribute other radioisotopes and enriched stable isotopes for medical diagnostics and therapeutics, industrial, agricultural, and other useful applications on a businesslike basis. This is consistent with the goals and objectives of the National Performance Review. The Department will endeavor to look at opportunities for private sector to co-fund or invest in new ventures. Also, the Department will seek to divest from ventures that can more profitably or reliably be operated by the private sector.``

  19. Separation of CsCl from a Ternary CsCl-LiCl-KCl Salt via a Melt Crystallization Technique for Pyroprocessing Waste Minimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammon Williams; Supathorn Phongikaroon; Michael Simpson

    2013-02-01

    A parametric study has been conducted to identify the effects of several parameters on the separation of CsCl from molten LiCl-KCl salt via a melt crystallization process. A reverse vertical Bridgman technique was used to grow the salt crystals. The investigated parameters were: (1) the advancement rate, (2) the crucible lid configuration, (3) the amount of salt mixture, (4) the initial composition of CsCl, and (5) the temperature difference between the high and low furnace zones. From each grown crystal, samples were taken axially and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results show that CsCl concentrations at the top of the crystals were low and increased to a maximum at the bottom of the salt. Salt (LiCl-KCl) recycle percentages for the experiments ranged from 50% to 75% and the CsCl composition in the waste salt was low. To increase the recycle percentage and the concentration of CsCl in the waste form, the possibility of using multiple crystallization stages was explored to further optimize the process. Results show that multiple crystallization stages are practical and the optimal experimental conditions should be operated at 5.0 mm/hr rate with a lid configuration and temperature difference of 200 C for a total of five crystallization stages. Under these conditions, up to 88% of the salt can be recycled.

  20. Management options for implementing a basic and applied research program responsive to CS technology base needs. Task VIII. Review existing CS materials R and D programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-02-28

    Possibilities for setting up a basic and applied research program that would be responsive to the Conservation and Solar energy base needs are considered with emphasis on the area of materials research. Several organizational arrangements for the implementation of this basic and applied research program are described and analyzed. The key functions of the system such as resources allocation, and program coordination and management follow from two fundamental characteristics: assignment of lead responsibility (CS and the Office of Energy Research, ER); and nature of the organizational chain-of-command. Three options are categorized in terms of these two characteristics and discussed in detail. The first option retains lead responsibility in ER, with CS personnel exercising sign-off authority and filling the coordination role. Option 2 places lead responsibility with CS program office management, and utilizes the existing chain-of-command, but adds a Basic and Applied Research Division to each program office. Option 3 also places lead responsibility with CS, but within a new Office of Basic and Applied Research, which would include a Research Coordinator to manage interactions with ER, and Research Managers for each CS program area. (MCW)

  1. Performance Study of K2CsSb Photocathode inside a DC High Voltage Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. Rao, J. Smedley, J.M. Grames, R. Mammei, J.L. McCarter, M. Poelker, R. Suleiman

    2011-03-01

    In the past decade, there has been considerable interest in the generation of tens of mA average current in a photoinjector. Until recently, GaAs:Cs cathodes and K2CsSb cathodes have been tested successfully in DC and RF injectors respectively for this application. Our goal is to test the GaAs:Cs in RF injector and the K2CsSb cathode in the DC gun in order to widen our choices. Since the multialkali cathode is a compound with uniform stochiometry over its entire thickness, we anticipate that the life time issues seen in GaAs:Cs due surface damage by ion bombardment would be minimized with this material. Hence successful operation of the K2CsSb cathode in DC gun could lead to a relatively robust electron source capable of delivering ampere level currents. In order to test the performance of K2CsSb cathode in a DC gun, we have designed and built a load lock system that would allow the fabrication of the cathode at BNL and its testing at JLab. In this paper, we will present the design of the load-lock system, cathode fabrication, and the cathode performance in the preparation chamber and in the DC gun.

  2. Performance Study of K2CsSb Photocathode Inside a DC High Voltage Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarter J. L.; Rao T.; Smedley, J.; Grames, J.; Mammei, R.; Poelker, M.; Suleiman, R.

    2011-09-01

    In the past decade, there has been considerable interest in the generation of tens of mA average current in a photoinjector. Until recently, GaAs:Cs cathodes and K{sub 2}CsSb cathodes have been tested successfully in DC and RF injectors respectively for this application. Our goal is to test the K{sub 2}CsSb photocathode inside a DC gun. Since the multialkali cathode is a compound with constant characteristics over its entire thickness, we anticipate that the lifetime issues seen in GaAs:Cs due to surface damage by ion bombardment would be minimized. Hence successful operation of the K{sub 2}CsSb cathode in a DC gun could lead to a relatively robust electron source capable of delivering ampere level currents. In order to test the performance of a K{sub 2}CsSb cathode in a DC gun, we have designed and built a load lock system that allows the fabrication of the cathode at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) and its testing at Jefferson Lab (JLab). In this paper, we will present the performance of the K{sub 2}CsSb photocathode in the preparation chamber and in the DC gun.

  3. Microstructure and Cs Behavior of Ba-Doped Aluminosilicate Pollucite Irradiated with F+ Ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Weilin; Kovarik, Libor; Zhu, Zihua; Varga, Tamas; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bowden, Mark E.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Garino, Terry

    2014-08-07

    Radionuclide 137Cs is one of the major fission products that dominate heat generation in spent fuels over the first 300 hundred years. A durable waste form for 137Cs that decays to 137Ba is needed to minimize its environmental impact. Aluminosilicate pollucite CsAlSi2O6 is selected as a model waste form to study the decay-induced structural effects. While Ba-containing precipitates are not present in charge-balanced Cs0.9Ba0.05AlSi2O6, they are found in Cs0.9Ba0.1AlSi2O6 and identified as monoclinic Ba2Si3O8. Pollucite is susceptible to electron irradiation induced amorphization. The threshold density of the electronic energy deposition for amorphization is determined to be ~235 keV/nm3. Pollucite can be readily amorphized under F+ ion irradiation at 673 K. A significant amount of Cs diffusion and release from the amorphized pollucite is observed during the irradiation. However, cesium is immobile in the crystalline structure under He+ ion irradiation at room temperature. The critical temperature for amorphization is not higher than 873 K under F+ ion irradiation. If kept at or above 873 K all the time, the pollucite structure is unlikely to be amorphized; Cs diffusion and release are improbable. A general discussion regarding pollucite as a potential waste form is provided in this report.

  4. Spectroscopy and applications of the 3?{sup 3}?{sup +} electronic state of {sup 39}K{sup 85}Rb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Jayita Rahmlow, David; Carollo, Ryan; Bellos, Michael; Eyler, Edward E.; Gould, Phillip L.; Stwalley, William C.

    2013-11-07

    We report new results on the spectroscopy of the 3?{sup 3}?{sup +} electronic state of {sup 39}K{sup 85}Rb. The observations are based on resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization of ultracold KRb molecules starting in vibrational levels v?? = 1823 of the a?{sup 3}?{sup +} state and ionized via the intermediate 3?{sup 3}?{sup +} state. The a-state ultracold molecules are formed by photoassociation of ultracold {sup 39}K and {sup 85}Rb atoms to the 3(0{sup +}) state of KRb followed by spontaneous emission. We discuss the potential applications of this state to future experiments, as a pathway for populating the lowest vibrational levels of the a state as well as the X state.

  5. A=20He (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    He (1998TI06) (Not observed) See (1977CE05, 1983ANZQ, 1986AN07, 1987SIZX).

  6. A=20Li (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Li (1998TI06) (Not observed) See (1977CE05, 1983ANZQ, 1986AN07, 1987SIZX).

  7. A=5n (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (Not illustrated) See also the A = 5 introductory discussion titled A = 5 resonance parameters.

  8. Crystal chemistry peculiarities of Cs{sub 2}Te{sub 4}O{sub 12}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamani, David; Mirgorodsky, Andrei; Masson, Olivier; Merle-Mejean, Therese; Colas, Maggy; Smirnov, Mikhael; Thomas, Philippe

    2011-03-15

    The Raman and IR-absorption spectra of the Cs{sub 2}Te{sub 4}O{sub 12} lattice are first recorded and interpreted. Extraordinary features observed in the structure and Raman spectra of Cs{sub 2}Te{sub 4}O{sub 12} are analyzed by using ab initio and lattice-dynamical model calculations. This compound is specified as a caesium-tellurium tellurate Cs{sub 2}Te{sup IV}(Te{sup VI}O{sub 4}){sub 3} in which Te{sup IV} atoms transfer their 5p electrons to [Te{sup VI}O{sub 4}]{sub 3}{sup 6-} tellurate anions, thus fulfilling (jointly with Cs atoms) the role of cations. The Te{sup VI}-O-Te{sup VI} bridge vibration Raman intensity is found abnormally weak, which is reproduced by model treatment including the Cs{sup +} ion polarizability properties in consideration. -- Graphical abstract: Two versions of the BPM estimations of the Raman intensity for the Cs{sub 2}Te{sub 4}O{sub 12} lattice vibrations: (a) without including effects of the Cs-O bonds and (b) including the above mentioned effects. Experimentally observed peaks are characterized by their frequency positions. Display Omitted Research highlights: > Extraordinary features observed in the structure and Raman spectra of Cs{sub 2}Te{sub 4}O{sub 12}. > Ab initio and lattice-dynamical model calculations. > Abnormally weak Raman intensities of the symmetric Te{sup VI}-O-Te{sup VI} bridge. > The monovalent Cs{sup +} cations profoundly influence the polarizability properties.

  9. Rb+ adsorption at the quartz(101)-aqueous interface: comparison of resonant anomalous x-ray reflectivity with ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellucci, Francesco; Lee, Sang Soo; Kubicki, James D.; Bandura, Andrei V.; Zhang, Zhan; Wesolowski, David J.; Fenter, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We study adsorption of Rb+ to the quartz(101)–aqueous interface at room temperature with specular X-ray reflectivity, resonant anomalous X-ray reflectivity, and density functional theory. The interfacial water structures observed in deionized water and 10 mM RbCl solution at pH 9.8 were similar, having a first water layer at height of 1.7 ± 0.1 Å above the quartz surface and a second layer at 4.8 ± 0.1 Å and 3.9 ± 0.8 Å for the water and RbCl solutions, respectively. The adsorbed Rb+ distribution is broad and consists of presumed inner-sphere (IS) and outer-sphere (OS) complexes at heights of 1.8 ± 0.1 and 6.4 ± 1.0 Å, respectively. Projector-augmented planewave density functional theory (DFT) calculations of potential configurations for neutral and negatively charged quartz(101) surfaces at pH 7 and 12, respectively, reveal a water structure in agreement with experimental results. These DFT calculations also show differences in adsorbed speciation of Rb+ between these two conditions. At pH 7, the lowest energy structure shows that Rb+ adsorbs dominantly as an IS complex, whereas at pH 12 IS and OS complexes have equivalent energies. The DFT results at pH 12 are generally consistent with the two site Rb distribution observed from the X-ray data at pH 9.8, albeit with some differences that are discussed. In conclusion, surface charge estimated on the basis of the measured total Rb+ coverage was -0.11 C/m2, in good agreement with the range of the surface charge magnitudes reported in the literature.

  10. A comparison of {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in localized evergreen and deciduous plant species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rangel, R.C.

    1996-05-01

    A vegetation study at the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES) near Glen Rose, Texas was conducted in 1991 and 1992. The CPSES is a commercial nuclear power plant owned and operated by Texas Utilities Electric of Dallas, Texas. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) requires the CPSES to routinely sample broadleaf vegetation in place of milk samples. Few commercial dairies exist in the vicinity. Broadleaf tree species are scarce because the climate and local limestone geology have produced a dry rolling hill topography. An evergreen juniper is the dominant tree species. Few broadleaves during the winter season have hindered year-round sampling. This study compares the environmental {sup 137}Cs concentrations between broadleaf and evergreen foliage at CPSES. Soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations from each vegetation location were also compared to the foliage {sup 137}Cs concentrations. The study`s objective was to determine if the deciduous and evergreen vegetation {sup 137}Cs concentrations are statistically the same.

  11. Variations in the Retention and Excretion of {sup 137}Cs with Age and Sex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boni, A.L.

    2001-08-29

    This report discusses the effects of age and sex on the retention and excretion of {sup 137}Cs in the body in a cross section of the general population over a four-year period.

  12. Useful for cleavage of organic C-S bonds Bacillus sphaericus microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilbane II, John J.

    1993-01-01

    A mutant Bacillus sphaericus strain ATCC No. 53969 which has the property of sulfur removal and sulfur metabolism by selective cleavage of C-S bonds in organic carbonaceous materials.

  13. Useful for cleavage of organic C-S bonds Bacillus sphaericus microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilbane, J.J. II.

    1993-03-30

    A mutant Bacillus sphaericus strain ATCC No. 53969 which has the property of sulfur removal and sulfur metabolism by selective cleavage of C-S bonds in organic carbonaceous materials.

  14. Mutant microorganisms useful for cleavage of organic C-S bonds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilbane, II, John J.

    1991-01-01

    A mutant Bacillus sphaericus strain ATC No. 53969 which has the property of sulfur removal and sulfur metabolism by selective cleavage of C-S bonds in organic carbonaceous materials.

  15. Mutant microorganisms useful for cleavage of organic C-S bonds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilbane, II, John J.

    1992-01-01

    A mutant Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain ATCC No. 53968 which has the property of sulfur removal and sulfur metabolism by selective cleavage of C-S bonds in organic carbonaceous materials.

  16. CsBi4Te6: A High-Performance Thermoelectric Material for Low...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    thermoelectric properties of CsBi(4)Te(6) appear to match or exceed those of Bi(2-x)Sb(x)Te(3-y)Se(y) alloys. URL: Link to article - National Center for Biotechnology Information

  17. Fragmentation dynamics of CS22+ on collision with a self assembled...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Surface-induced dissociation of doubly charged CS22+ ions in collision with a self assembled monolayer surface of fluorinated alkyl thiol on gold 111 crystal has been studied on a ...

  18. Infrared spectroscopy of CaTiO3, SrTiO3, BaTiO3, Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Infrared spectroscopy of CaTiO3, SrTiO3, BaTiO3, Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films, and (BaTiO3)5(SrTiO3)5 superlattice grown on SrRuO3SrTiO3(001) substrates Citation Details In-Document ...

  19. Characterization of Cs vapor cell coated with octadecyltrichlorosilane using coherent population trapping spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hafiz, Moustafa Abdel; Maurice, Vincent; Chutani, Ravinder; Passilly, Nicolas; Gorecki, Christophe; Boudot, Rodolphe; Guérandel, Stéphane; Clercq, Emeric de

    2015-05-14

    We report the realization and characterization using coherent population trapping (CPT) spectroscopy of an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS)-coated centimeter-scale Cs vapor cell. The dual-structure of the resonance lineshape, with presence of a narrow structure line at the top of a Doppler-broadened structure, is clearly observed. The linewidth of the narrow resonance is compared to the linewidth of an evacuated Cs cell and of a buffer gas Cs cell of similar size. The Cs-OTS adsorption energy is measured to be (0.42 ± 0.03) eV, leading to a clock frequency shift rate of 2.7 × 10{sup −9}/K in fractional unit. A hyperfine population lifetime, T{sub 1}, and a microwave coherence lifetime, T{sub 2}, of 1.6 and 0.5 ms are reported, corresponding to about 37 and 12 useful bounces, respectively. Atomic-motion induced Ramsey narrowing of dark resonances is observed in Cs-OTS cells by reducing the optical beam diameter. Ramsey CPT fringes are detected using a pulsed CPT interrogation scheme. Potential applications of the Cs-OTS cell to the development of a vapor cell atomic clock are discussed.

  20. Topologically identical, but geometrically isomeric layers in hydrous α-, β-Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})]·H{sub 2}O and anhydrous Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Na; Klepov, Vladislav V.; Villa, Eric M.; Bosbach, Dirk; Suleimanov, Evgeny V.; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.; Alekseev, Evgeny V.

    2014-07-01

    The hydrothermal reaction of uranyl nitrate with rubidium nitrate and arsenic (III) oxide results in the formation of polymorphic α- and β-Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})]·H{sub 2}O (α-, β-RbUAs) and the anhydrous phase Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})] (RbUAs). These phases were structurally, chemically and spectroscopically characterized. The structures of all three compounds are based upon topologically identical, but geometrically isomeric layers. The layers are linked with each other by means of the Rb cations and hydrogen bonding. Dehydration experiments demonstrate that water deintercalation from hydrous α- and β-RbUAs yields anhydrous RbUAs via topotactic reactions. - Graphical abstract: Three different layer geometries observed in the structures of Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})] and α- and β- Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})]·H{sub 2}O. Two different coordination environments of uranium polyhedra (types I and II) are shown schematically on the top of the figure. - Highlights: • Three new uranyl arsenates were synthesized from the hydrothermal reactions. • The phases consist of the topologically identical but geometrically different layers. • Topotactic transitions were observed in the processes of mono-hyrates dehydration.

  1. Total Absorption Spectroscopy Study of ⁹²Rb Decay: A Major Contributor to Reactor Antineutrino Spectrum Shape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonzogni, A.; Zakari-Issoufou, A. -A.; Fallot, M.; Porta, A.; Algora, A.; Tain, J. L.; Valencia, E.; Rice, S.; Bui, V. M.; Cormon, S.; Estienne, M.; Agramunt, J.; Aysto, J.; Bowry, M.; Briz Monago, J. A.; Caballero-Folch, R.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cucoanes, A.; Eloma, V.; Estvez, E.; Farrelly, G. F.; Garcia, A.; Gelletly, W.; Gomez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gorlychev, V.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Jordan, M. D.; Kankainen, A.; Kondev, F. G.; Martinez, T.; Mendoza, E.; Molina, F.; Moore, I.; Perez, A.; Podolyak, Zs.; Penttil, H.; Regan, P. H.; Shiba, T.; Rissanen, J.; Rubio, B.; Weber, C.

    2015-03-09

    The accurate determination of the emitted reactor antineutrino flux is still a major challenge for actual and future neutrino experiments at reactors, especially after the evidence of a disagreement between the measured antineutrino energy spectrum by Double Chooz, Daya Bay, and Reno and calculated antineutrino spectra obtained from the conversion of the unique integral beta spectra measured at the ILL reactor. Using nuclear data to compute reactor antineutrino spectra may help understanding this bias, with the study of the underlying nuclear physics. Summation calculations allow identifying a list of nuclei that contribute importantly to the antineutrino energy spectra emitted after the fission of ²³⁹,²⁴¹Pu and ²³⁵,²³⁸U, and whose beta decay properties might deserve new measurements. Among these nuclei, ⁹²Rb exhausts by itself about 16% of of the antineutrino energy spectrum emitted by Pressurized Water Reactors in the 5 to 8 MeV range. In this Letter, we report new Total Absorption Spectroscopy (TAS) results for this important contributor. The obtained beta feeding from ⁹²Rb shows beta intensity unobserved before in the 4.5 to 5.5 MeV energy region and gives a ground state to ground state branch of 87.5 % ± 3%. These new data induce a dramatic change in recent summation calculations where a 51% GS to GS branch was considered for ⁹²Rb, increasing the summation antineutrino spectrum in the region nearby the observed bias.The new data still have an important impact on other summation calculations in which more recent data were considered

  2. Total Absorption Spectroscopy Study of ⁹²Rb Decay: A Major Contributor to Reactor Antineutrino Spectrum Shape

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sonzogni, A.; Zakari-Issoufou, A. -A.; Fallot, M.; Porta, A.; Algora, A.; Tain, J. L.; Valencia, E.; Rice, S.; Bui, V. M.; Cormon, S.; et al

    2015-03-09

    The accurate determination of the emitted reactor antineutrino flux is still a major challenge for actual and future neutrino experiments at reactors, especially after the evidence of a disagreement between the measured antineutrino energy spectrum by Double Chooz, Daya Bay, and Reno and calculated antineutrino spectra obtained from the conversion of the unique integral beta spectra measured at the ILL reactor. Using nuclear data to compute reactor antineutrino spectra may help understanding this bias, with the study of the underlying nuclear physics. Summation calculations allow identifying a list of nuclei that contribute importantly to the antineutrino energy spectra emitted aftermore » the fission of ²³⁹,²⁴¹Pu and ²³⁵,²³⁸U, and whose beta decay properties might deserve new measurements. Among these nuclei, ⁹²Rb exhausts by itself about 16% of of the antineutrino energy spectrum emitted by Pressurized Water Reactors in the 5 to 8 MeV range. In this Letter, we report new Total Absorption Spectroscopy (TAS) results for this important contributor. The obtained beta feeding from ⁹²Rb shows beta intensity unobserved before in the 4.5 to 5.5 MeV energy region and gives a ground state to ground state branch of 87.5 % ± 3%. These new data induce a dramatic change in recent summation calculations where a 51% GS to GS branch was considered for ⁹²Rb, increasing the summation antineutrino spectrum in the region nearby the observed bias.The new data still have an important impact on other summation calculations in which more recent data were considered« less

  3. Magnetic Hardening of CeFe11Ti and the Effect of TiC Addition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Magnetic Hardening of CeFe11Ti and the Effect of TiC Addition Citation ... Publication Date: 2015-04-01 OSTI Identifier: 1221660 Report Number(s): IS-J 8423 Journal ID: ISSN ...

  4. Crystal structural study of ternary molybdate LiRbBi{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klevtsova, R.F.; Glinskaya, L.A.; Alekseev, V.I.

    1994-03-01

    Single crystals of the title compound have been synthesized and its crystal structure has been determined. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group C2/c, Z = 2 (a = 5.3056, b = 12.976, c = 19.578 {angstrom}, {beta} = 92.583{degrees}, R = 0.029). A distinctive feature of the structure is lacy layers of eight-vertex Bi polyhedra and Mo tetrahedra connected to them via common vertices. The adjacent layers are linked together by ten-vertex Rb polyhedra and Li octahedra.

  5. First-principles studies of the structural, electronic, and optical properties of a novel thorium compound Rb{sub 2}Th{sub 7}Se{sub 15}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brik, M.G.

    2014-04-01

    The structural, electronic, and optical properties of a recently synthesized thorium compound Rb{sub 2}Th{sub 7}Se{sub 15} have been calculated in the density functional theory framework for the first time. The calculated direct band gap was 1.471 eV (generalized gradient approximation) and 1.171 eV (local density approximation), with both results being close to the experimental result of 1.83 eV. High covalency/iconicity of the Th–Se/Rb–Se bonds was demonstrated by calculating effective Mulliken charges of all ions. The polarized calculations of the complex dielectric function are presented; dependence of the calculated index of refraction was fitted to the Sellmeyer equation in the wavelength range from 500 to 2500 nm. - Graphical abstract: Calculated band structure of Rb{sub 2}Th{sub 7}Se{sub 15}. - Highlights: • The first theoretical analysis of the Rb{sub 2}Th{sub 7}Se{sub 15} properties is reported. • Structural, electronic and optical properties of Rb{sub 2}Th{sub 7}Se{sub 15} were calculated. • An indirect character of Rb{sub 2}Th{sub 7}Se{sub 15} band gap was confirmed. • Dependence of the refractive index on the wavelength was calculated.

  6. Porous Alumina Silicate Matrix Gubka for Solidification of {sup 137}Cs Strip Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aloy, Albert; Strelnikov, Alexander; Essimantovskiy, Vyacheslav

    2007-07-01

    Separated liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) fractions, in particular, about 100 liters of a {sup 137}Cs strip product with activity up to {approx} 100 Ci/l (3.7 TBq/l) have been produced during the development and testing of partitioning technology and temporarily stored at V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) (Saint-Petersburg, Russia). The bench-scale experimental unit designed for operation in the hot cell was developed for {sup 137}Cs strip product solidification using an alumina silicate porous inorganic material (PIM) called Gubka. Conditions of saturation, drying, and calcinations of the salts into Gubka pores were optimized, and the operations under a remote control regime were executed during tests using a simulated strip product doped with {sup 137}Cs. The volume reduction coefficients were equal by a factor of 3.2-3.9 and a {sup 137}Cs discharge into an off-gas system was not detected. {sup 137}Cs leach rates from Gubka blocks after calcination at 800 deg. C were 1.0-1.5.10{sup -3} g/m{sup 2}.per day. (authors)

  7. Statistical analysis of content of Cs-137 in soils in Bansko-Razlog region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobilarov, R. G.

    2014-11-18

    Statistical analysis of the data set consisting of the activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in soils in Bansko–Razlog region is carried out in order to establish the dependence of the deposition and the migration of {sup 137}Cs on the soil type. The descriptive statistics and the test of normality show that the data set have not normal distribution. Positively skewed distribution and possible outlying values of the activity of {sup 137}Cs in soils were observed. After reduction of the effects of outliers, the data set is divided into two parts, depending on the soil type. Test of normality of the two new data sets shows that they have a normal distribution. Ordinary kriging technique is used to characterize the spatial distribution of the activity of {sup 137}Cs over an area covering 40 km{sup 2} (whole Razlog valley). The result (a map of the spatial distribution of the activity concentration of {sup 137}Cs) can be used as a reference point for future studies on the assessment of radiological risk to the population and the erosion of soils in the study area.

  8. Bioaccumulation factor of {sup 137}Cs in some marine biotas from West Bangka Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suseno, Heny

    2014-03-24

    Radionuclides may be released from nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Concentrations of radionuclides within marine biotic systems can be influenced by a number of factors, including the type of biota, its source, the radionuclide, and specific characteristics of the sampled specimens and the marine environment (salinity, etc.). The bioconcentration factor for a marine organism is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in that organism to the concentration found in its marine water environment - under conditions of equilibrium. Information on the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 in marine organisms is required to risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health. Bioaccumulation of Cs was investigated in marine biota from west Bangka such as Marine cat fish (Arius thalassinus), Baramundi (Lates calcarifer), Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), Striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus), eel tailed fish (Euristhmus microceps), Yellowtail fusilier (Caesio erythrogaster), Coastal crab (Scylla sp), White shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and marine bivalve mollusk (Anadara granosa). Muscle of these marine biota, sediments and water were assayed for Cs-137 by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The bioaccumulation factor for fishes were calculated by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in water. The bioaccumulation factor for mollusks were calculates by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in sediments. The bioaccumulation factor were range 4.99 to 136.34.

  9. A=16Li (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Li (1993TI07) (Not illustrated) This nucleus has not been observed. Shell model studies (1988POZS) are used to predict J and the magnetic dipole moment....

  10. A=16He (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    93TI07) (Not illustrated) This nucleus has not been observed. See (1982AV1A, 1983ANZQ, 1986AJ04

  11. A=19Mg (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mg (1995TI07) (Not observed) See (1987AJ02) and (1987GU1K, 1987PO01, 1993HI08

  12. Performance of a prototype atomic clock based on lin parallel lin coherent population trapping resonances in Rb atomic vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikhailov, Eugeniy E.; Horrom, Travis; Belcher, Nathan; Novikova, Irina

    2010-03-15

    We report on the performance of the first table-top prototype atomic clock based on coherent population trapping (CPT) resonances with parallel linearly polarized optical fields (lin parallel lin configuration). Our apparatus uses a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) tuned to the D{sub 1} line of {sup 87}Rb with the current modulation at the {sup 87}Rb hyperfine frequency. We demonstrate cancellation of the first-order light shift by the proper choice of rf modulation power and further improve our prototype clock stability by optimizing the parameters of the microwave lock loop. Operating in these optimal conditions, we measured a short-term fractional frequency stability (Allan deviation) 2x10{sup -11}{tau}{sup -1/2} for observation times 1 s{<=}{tau}{<=}20 s. This value is limited by large VCSEL phase noise and environmental temperature fluctuation. Further improvements in frequency stability should be possible with an apparatus designed as a dedicated lin parallel lin CPT resonance clock with environmental impacts minimized.

  13. Coupled Neutronics Thermal-Hydraulic Solution of a Full-Core PWR Using VERA-CS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarno, Kevin T; Palmtag, Scott; Davidson, Gregory G; Salko, Robert K; Evans, Thomas M; Turner, John A; Belcourt, Kenneth; Hooper, Russell; Schmidt, Rodney

    2014-01-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) is developing a core simulator called VERA-CS to model operating PWR reactors with high resolution. This paper describes how the development of VERA-CS is being driven by a set of progression benchmark problems that specify the delivery of useful capability in discrete steps. As part of this development, this paper will describe the current capability of VERA-CS to perform a multiphysics simulation of an operating PWR at Hot Full Power (HFP) conditions using a set of existing computer codes coupled together in a novel method. Results for several single-assembly cases are shown that demonstrate coupling for different boron concentrations and power levels. Finally, high-resolution results are shown for a full-core PWR reactor modeled in quarter-symmetry.

  14. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): EA-361 Aquilon Power Limited

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) for Aquilon Power Limited to export electric energy to Canada

  15. Hydrolysis of COS and CS{sub 2} over alumina catalysts at lower temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shangguan Ju; Li Chunhu; Guo Hanxian [Taiyuan Univ. of Technology, Shanxi (China). Research Inst. of Chemical Engineering for Coal

    1997-12-31

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) widely exist in chemical processing gases from natural gas, coal, Claus tail gas, and petroleum. Those sulfur compound are a major factor of deactivation of synthesis catalysts. Since it is difficult to remove COS and CS{sub 2} completely by the conventional desulfurization, a hydrolysis process has been developed in recent years. The activity of COS and CS{sub 2} hydrolysis was measured in a fixed bed reactor and the surface basicity was studied by CO{sub 2}-TPD. The results showed that the apparent reaction activation energies of COS over three catalysts are 57.80, 52.50 and 44.71 kJ/mol at lower temperature, and those of CS{sub 2}, 55.53, 38.70 and 35.30 kJ/mol, respectively. The apparent activation energies of desorption for weak type basic center over three catalysts were 25.97, 27.92 and 29.77kJ/mol respectively. The surface basicity on catalysts played an important role in the hydrolysis of COS and CS{sub 2}.The weak basic center was the catalytic active center of COS hydrolysis, while the weak and the weaker basic centers took part in catalytic reaction of CS{sub 2} hydrolysis. The K{sub 2}O and Pt loaded on active {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} could greatly change the distribution of surface basicity over catalysts and increase organic sulfide catalytic hydrolysis.

  16. Acoustic Noise Test Report for the Viryd CS8 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roadman, J.; Huskey, A.

    2013-07-01

    This report summarizes the results of an acoustic noise test that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted on the Viryd CS8 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Systems Part 11: Acoustic Noise Measurement Techniques, IEC 61400-11 Ed.2.1, 2006-11. However, because the Viryd CS8 is a small turbine, as defined by IEC, NREL used 10-second averages instead of 60-second averages and binning by wind speed instead of regression analysis.

  17. {sup 137}Cs sorption into bentonite from Cidadap-Tasikmalaya as buffer material for disposal demonstration plant facility at Serpong

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setiawan, B. Sriwahyuni, H. Ekaningrum, NE. Sumantry, T.

    2014-03-24

    According to co-location principle, near surface disposal type the disposal demonstration plant facility will be build at Serpong nuclear area. The facility also for anticipation of future needs to provide national facility for the servicing of radwaste management of non-nuclear power plant activity in Serpong Nuclear Area. It is needs to study the material of buffer and backfill for the safety of demonstration plant facility. A local bentonite rock from Cidadap-Tasikmalaya was used as the buffer materials. Objective of experiment is to find out the specific data of sorption characteristic of Cidadap bentonite as buffer material in a radwaste disposal system. Experiments were performed in batch method, where bentonite samples were contacted with CsCl solution labeled with Cs-137 in 100 ml/g liquid:solid ratio. Initial Cs concentration was 10{sup −8} M and to study the effects of ionic strength and Cs concentration in solution, 0.1 and 1.0 M NaCl also CsCl concentration ranging 10{sup −8} - 10{sup −4} M were added in solution. As the indicator of Cs saturated in bentonite samples, Kd value was applied. Affected parameters in the experiment were contact time, effects of ionic strength and concentration of CsCl. Results showed that sorption of Cs by bentonite reached constantly after 16 days contacted, and Kd value was 10.600 ml/g. Effect of CsCl concentration on Kd value may decreased in increased in CsCl concentration. Effect of ionic strength increased according to increased in concentration of background and would effect to Kd value due to competition of Na ions and Cs in solution interacts with bentonite. By obtaining the bentonite character data as buffer material, the results could be used as the basis for making of design and the basic of performance assessment the near surface disposal facility in terms of isolation capacity of radwaste later.

  18. Photon-enhanced thermionic emission from p-GaAs with nonequilibrium Cs overlayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuravlev, A. G.; Romanov, A. S.; Alperovich, V. L.

    2014-12-22

    Photon-enhanced thermionic emission (PETE), which is promising for increasing the efficiency of solar energy conversion, is studied during cesium deposition on the As- and Ga-rich p-GaAs(001) surfaces and subsequent relaxation in the nonequilibrium Cs overlayer by means of photoemission quantum yield spectroscopy adapted for systems with time-variable parameters. Along with direct photoemission of hot electrons excited by light above the vacuum level, the spectra contain PETE contribution of thermalized electrons, which are excited below the vacuum level and emit in vacuum due to thermalization up in energy by phonon absorption. Comparing the measured and calculated spectra, the effective electron affinity and escape probabilities of hot and thermalized electrons are obtained as functions of submonolayer Cs coverage. The minima in the affinity and pronounced peaks in the escape probabilities are observed for Cs deposition on both the As- and Ga-rich surfaces. Possible reasons for the low mean values of the electron escape probabilities and for the observed enhancement of the probabilities at certain Cs coverages are discussed, along with the implications for the PETE device realization.

  19. Power Performance Test Report for the Viryd CS8 Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roadman, J.; Murphy, M.; van Dam, J.

    2012-12-01

    This report contains the results of the power performance test that was performed on a Viryd CS8 wind turbine as part of the DOE Independent Testing project. The test is an accredited test to the IEC 61400-12-1 power performance standard.

  20. Estimation of SX Farm Vadose Zone CS-137 Inventories from Geostatistical Analysis of Drywell and Soil Core Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KNEPP, A.J.

    2000-06-02

    This report provides an estimation of the Cs-137 inventories in the soil under the SX Tank Farm based on measurements obtained from drywell and soil cores. The Cs-137 inventories are estimated separately for distinct volumes of soil associated etc.

  1. Enviromental influences on the {sup 137}Cs kinetics of the yellow-bellied turtle (Trachemys Scripta)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, E.L.; Brisbin, L.I. Jr.

    1996-02-01

    Assessments of ecological risk require accurate predictions of contaminant dynamics in natural populations. However, simple deterministic models that assume constant uptake rates and elimination fractions may compromise both their ecological realism and their general application to animals with variable metabolism or diets. In particular, the temperature-dependent model of metabolic rates characteristic of ectotherms may lead to significant differences between observed and predicted contaminant kinetics. We examined the influence of a seasonally variable thermal environment on predicting the uptake and annual cycling of contaminants by ectotherms, using a temperature-dependent model of {sup 137}Cs kinetics in free-living yellow-bellied turtles, Trachemys scripta. We compared predictions from this model with those of deterministics negative exponential and flexibly shaped Richards sigmoidal models. Concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in a population if this species in Pond B, a radionuclide-contaminated nuclear reactor cooling reservoir, and {sup 137}Cs uptake by the uncontaminated turtles held captive in Pond B for 4 yr confirmed both the pattern of uptake and the equilibrium concentrations predicted by the temperature-dependent model. Almost 90% of the variance on the predicted time-integrated {sup 137}Cs concentration was explainable by linear relationships with model paramaters. The model was also relatively insensitive to uncertainties in the estimates of ambient temperature, suggesting that adequate estimates of temperature-dependent ingestion and elimination may require relatively few measurements of ambient conditions at sites of interest. Analyses of Richards sigmoidal models of {sup 137}Cs uptake indicated significant differences from a negative exponential trajectory in the 1st yr after the turtles` release into Pond B. 76 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Constrained Surface Complexation Modeling: Rutile in RbCl, NaCl, and NaCF3SO3 Media to 250 °C

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Machesky, Michael L.; Předota, Milan; Ridley, Moira K.; Wesolowski, David J.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive set of molecular-level results, primarily from classical molecular dynamics (CMD) simulations, are used to constrain CD-MUSIC surface complexation model (SCM) parameters describing rutile powder titrations conducted in RbCl, NaCl, and NaTr (Tr = triflate, CF3SO3–) electrolyte media from 25 to 250 °C. Rb+ primarily occupies the innermost tetradentate binding site on the rutile (110) surface at all temperatures (25, 150, 250 °C) and negative charge conditions (-0.1 and -0.2 C/m2) probed via CMD simulations, reflecting the small hydration energy of this large, monovalent cation. Consequently, variable SCM parameters (Stern-layer capacitance values and intrinsic Rb+ bindingmore » constants) were adjusted relatively easily to satisfactorily match the CMD and titration data. The larger hydration energy of Na+ results in a more complex inner-sphere distribution, which shifts from bidentate to tetradentate binding with increasing negative charge and temperature, and this distribution was not matched well for both negative charge conditions, which may reflect limitations in the CMD and/or SCM approaches. Finally, in particular, the CMD axial density profiles for Rb+ and Na+ reveal that peak binding distances shift toward the surface with increasing negative charge, suggesting that the CD-MUSIC framework may be improved by incorporating CD or Stern-layer capacitance values that vary with charge.« less

  3. Calcium accumulated by sickle cell anemia red cells does not affect their potassium (86Rb+) flux components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, O.E.; Lew, V.L.; Bookchin, R.M.

    1986-03-01

    We investigate here the hypothesis that the high Ca content of sickle cell anemia (SS) red cells may produce a sustained activation of the Ca2+-dependent K+ permeability (Gardos effect) and that the particularly high Ca levels in the dense SS cell fraction rich in irreversibly sickled cells (ISCs) might account for the Na pump inhibition observed in these cells. We measured active and passive 86Rb+ influx (as a marker for K+) in density-fractionated SS cells before and after extraction of their excess Ca by exposure to the Ca ionophore (A23187) and ethylene glycol tetra-acetic acid and with or without adenosine triphosphate depletion or addition of quinine. None of these maneuvers revealed any evidence of a Ca2+-dependent K leak in SS discocytes or dense cells. Na pump inhibition in the dense SS cells was associated with normal activation by external K+ and a low Vmax that persisted after Ca extraction from the cells. These results are consistent with our recent findings that the excess Ca in these cells is compartmentalized in intracellular inside-out vesicles and unavailable as free Ca2+ to the inner membrane surface. Although the steady-state free cytoplasmic Ca2+ in oxygenated SS cells must be below the levels needed to activate the K+ channel, possible brief activation of the channels of some SS cells resulting from transient elevations of cell Ca2+ during deoxygenation-induced sickling cannot be excluded. The dense, ISC-rich SS cell fraction showed a Ca2+-independent increase in the ouabain-resistant, nonsaturable component of 86Rb+ influx that, if uncompensated by Na+ gain, could contribute to the dehydration of these cells.

  4. The permeation behavior of deuterium through 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel with TiN+TiC-TiN multiple films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Y.; Song, J.; Luo, D.; Lei, Q.; Chen, C.

    2015-03-15

    The prevention of tritium losses via permeation through structure components is an important issue in fusion technology. The production of thin layers on materials with low diffusivity and/or low surface recombination constants (so-called permeation barriers) seems to be the most practical method to reduce or hinder the permeation of tritium through materials. TiN+TiC+TiN multiple films are deposited on the surface of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel by ion-beam assisted deposition technology. The characteristics of films are tested by XPS ASEM and XRD, which shows that the film are compact and uniform with a thickness of about 15 μm, and have a good adherence with the substrate below 773 K. The diffraction peaks in the XRD patterns for TiC and TiN are broadened, implying that the multiple films are deposited on the surface of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel. Meanwhile, the C-H bonded CH{sub 4}-appears in the infrared spectra of multiple films, suggesting that the CH{sub 4}- is in a static state, so hydrogen atom cannot migrate from the site bonded with carbon to a neighboring site. The measured deuterium permeability in 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel coated with multiple films is 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than that of pure 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel substrate from 473 K to 773 K. However, this barrier is partly destroyed above 773 K.

  5. Baicalein induces G1 arrest in oral cancer cells by enhancing the degradation of cyclin D1 and activating AhR to decrease Rb phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Ya-Hsin; Li, Lih-Ann; Lin, Pinpin; Cheng, Li-Chuan; Hung, Chein-Hui; Chang, Nai Wen; Lin, Chingju

    2012-09-15

    Baicalein is a flavonoid, known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. As an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, baicalein at high concentrations blocks AhR-mediated dioxin toxicity. Because AhR had been reported to play a role in regulating the cell cycle, we suspected that the anti-cancer effect of baicalein is associated with AhR. This study investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-cancer effect of baicalein in oral cancer cells HSC-3, including whether such effect would be AhR-mediated. Results revealed that baicalein inhibited cell proliferation and increased AhR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase and the expression of CDK4, cyclin D1, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pRb) was decreased. When the AhR was suppressed by siRNA, the reduction of pRb was partially reversed, accompanied by a decrease of cell population at G1 phase and an increase at S phase, while the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4 did not change. This finding suggests that the baicalein activation of AhR is indeed associated with the reduction of pRb, but is independent of the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4. When cells were pre-treated with LiCl, the inhibitor of GSK-3β, the decrease of cyclin D1 was blocked and the reduction of pRb was recovered. The data indicates that in HSC-3 the reduction of pRb is both mediated by baicalein through activation of AhR and facilitation of cyclin D1 degradation, which causes cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, and results in the inhibition of cell proliferation. -- Highlights: ► Baicalein causes the G1 phase arrest by decreasing Rb phosphorylation. ► Baicalein modulates AhR-mediated cell proliferation. ► Both AhR activation and cyclin D1 degradation results in hypophosphorylation of Rb. ► Baicalein facilitates cyclin D1 degradation by signalling the GSK-3β pathway.

  6. Cs/sup +/ + Cs/sup +/ charge-transfer and ionization cross-section measurements by a plasma-target technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stalder, K.R.

    1982-05-01

    A Q machine plasma target using cesium was constructed to serve as a target for a beam of Cs/sup +/ ions. The sum of charge transfer and ionization cross sections was determined by measuring the growth of the Cs/sup + +/ component of the beam as a function of the plasma radial line density. The measured cross section varies approximately linearly with energy between 50 and 110 keV. This loss cross section is 0.47 +- .11 x 10/sup -16/ cm/sup 2/ at 110 keV. These results have been compared to the cross section determined by a crossed-beam technique. The agreement between the results of the experiments is good at energies above 75 keV. A discrepancy between the results at lower energies indicated a systematic error in one of the techniques. Theoretical estimates of the cross section recently have begun to agree with the magnitude of the cross section but have not fully explained the energy dependence.

  7. Ti Leggett | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ti Leggett Deputy Project Directcor & Deputy Director of Operations Argonne National Laboratory 9700 S. Cass Avenue Building 240 - Room 3132 Argonne, IL 60439 630-252-1937 tleggett

  8. A=10C (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 10C) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 10C published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into...

  9. A=10N (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (Not illustrated) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 10N published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed,...

  10. A=10Li (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 10Li) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 10Li published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into...

  11. A=10He (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 10He) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 10He published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into...

  12. A=18Li (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Li (1995TI07) (Not illustrated) 18Li has not been observed. Shell model calculations described in (1988POZS) predict the ground-state magentic dipole moment and charge and matter radii.

  13. A=18Mg, etc. (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    95TI07) (Not observed) See (1986AN07) and (1983ANZQ). See also the results of calculations of β+/electron capture half lives for neutron deficient nuclei in (1993HI08

  14. A=6B (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (Not illustrated) Not observed: see ( 1984AJ01, 1989GR06 [6Li(π+, π-) at Eπ+ = 180, 240 MeV], 1993PO11 [properties of exotic light nuclei]) (1998SU18

  15. A=6C (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (Not illustrated) Not observed: see (1979AJ01, 1984AJ01, 1989GR06 [6Li(π+, π-) at Eπ+ = 180, 240 MeV], 1993PO11 [properties of exotic light nuclei]) (1998SU18

  16. A=20B (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    98TI06) (Not observed) The mass excess of 20B is predicted to be 69.08 MeV (1974TH01). 20B is then unstable with respect to breakup into 19B + n by 0.9 MeV: see 19B in (1995TI07) and (1978AJ03, 1983ANZQ) and see the work on effective interactions for the (0p1s0d) nuclear shell-model space (1992WA22

  17. Instability of Hydrogenated TiO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Manandhar, Sandeep; Schwarz, Ashleigh M.; Oxenford, Lucas S.; Kennedy, John V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Henderson, Michael A.

    2015-11-06

    Hydrogenated TiO2 (H-TiO2) is toted as a viable visible light photocatalyst. We report a systematic study on the thermal stability of H-implanted TiO2 using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Protons (40 keV) implanted at a ~2 atom % level within a ~120 nm wide profile of rutile TiO2(110) were situated ~300 nm below the surface. NRA revealed that this H-profile broadened preferentially toward the surface after annealing at 373 K, dissipated out of the crystal into vacuum at 473 K, and was absent within the beam sampling depth (~800 nm) at 523 K. Photoemission showed that the surface was reduced in concert with these changes. Similar anneals had no effect on pristine TiO2(110). The facile bulk diffusivity of H in rutile, as well as its activity toward interfacial reduction, significantly limits the utilization of H-TiO2 as a photocatalyst. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. The research was performed using the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  18. Determination of prescription dose for Cs-131 permanent implants using the BED formalism including resensitization correction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Wei Molloy, Janelle; Aryal, Prakash; Feddock, Jonathan; Randall, Marcus

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The current widely used biological equivalent dose (BED) formalism for permanent implants is based on the linear-quadratic model that includes cell repair and repopulation but not resensitization (redistribution and reoxygenation). The authors propose a BED formalism that includes all the four biological effects (4Rs), and the authors propose how it can be used to calculate appropriate prescription doses for permanent implants with Cs-131. Methods: A resensitization correction was added to the BED calculation for permanent implants to account for 4Rs. Using the same BED, the prescription doses with Au-198, I-125, and Pd-103 were converted to the isoeffective Cs-131 prescription doses. The conversion factor F, ratio of the Cs-131 dose to the equivalent dose with the other reference isotope (F{sub r}: with resensitization, F{sub n}: without resensitization), was thus derived and used for actual prescription. Different values of biological parameters such as α, β, and relative biological effectiveness for different types of tumors were used for the calculation. Results: Prescription doses with I-125, Pd-103, and Au-198 ranging from 10 to 160 Gy were converted into prescription doses with Cs-131. The difference in dose conversion factors with (F{sub r}) and without (F{sub n}) resensitization was significant but varied with different isotopes and different types of tumors. The conversion factors also varied with different doses. For I-125, the average values of F{sub r}/F{sub n} were 0.51/0.46, for fast growing tumors, and 0.88/0.77 for slow growing tumors. For Pd-103, the average values of F{sub r}/F{sub n} were 1.25/1.15 for fast growing tumors, and 1.28/1.22 for slow growing tumors. For Au-198, the average values of F{sub r}/F{sub n} were 1.08/1.25 for fast growing tumors, and 1.00/1.06 for slow growing tumors. Using the biological parameters for the HeLa/C4-I cells, the averaged value of F{sub r} was 1.07/1.11 (rounded to 1.1), and the averaged value of F

  19. Potentiometric Response Characteristics of Membrane-BasedCs+-Selective Electrodes Containing Ionophore-Functionalized Polymeric Microspheres

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peper, Shane; Gonczy, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Cs+-selective solvent polymeric membrane-based ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) were developed by doping ethylene glycol-functionalized cross-linked polystyrene microspheres (P-EG) into a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix containing sodium tetrakis-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl) borate (TFPB) as the ion exchanger. A systematic study examining the effects of the membrane plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (DOS), 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), and 2-fluorophenyl nitrophenyl ether (FPNPE) on the potentiometric response and selectivity of the corresponding electrodes was performed. Under certain conditions, P-EG-based ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) containing TFPB and plasticized with NPOE exhibited a super-Nernstian response between110?3and110?4?M Cs+, a response characteristic not observed in analogous membranes plasticized with either DOS or FPNPE.moreAdditionally, the performance of P-EG-based ISEs was compared to electrodes based on two mobile ionophores, a neutral lipophilic ethylene glycol derivative (ethylene glycol monooctadecyl ether (U-EG)) and a charged metallacarborane ionophore, sodium bis(dicarbollyl)cobaltate(III) (CC). In general, P-EG-based electrodes plasticized with FPNPE yielded the best performance, with a linear range from 10-110-5?M Cs+, a conventional lower detection limit of8.110?6?M Cs+, and a response slope of 57.7?mV/decade. The pH response of P-EG ISEs containing TFPB was evaluated for membranes plasticized with either NPOE or FPNPE. In both cases, the electrodes remained stable throughout the pH range 312, with only slight proton interference observed below pH 3.less

  20. Magnetic measurements on ??CS{sub 2}U{sub 4}O{sub 12}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanrar, Buddhadev Misra, N. L.; Sastry, P. U.; Dube, V.; Ravikumar, G.

    2014-04-24

    Magnetic and XRD measurements on ??CS{sub 2}U{sub 4}O{sub 12} having uranium in mixed valent states of U (V) and U (VI) have been made. The study reveals that the compound undergoes an antiferromagnetic transition below 25K and an anomalous magnetic behavior was seen around 75K. This anomalous behavior indicates towards a structural phase transition. However, the low temperature XRD could not confirm this observation.

  1. Evaluation of aqueous Na{sup +}/Cs{sup +} separation by electrodialysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buehler, M.F.; Lawrence, W.E.; Norton, J.D.

    1993-12-01

    In support of the Hanford Site cleanup, electrodialysis is being investigated as a method to separate aqueous sodium (Na{sup +}) and cesium (Cs{sup +}) ions. The approach has many advantages over existing separation technologies; in particular, electrodialysis creates little secondary waste while producing usable acid and base streams. The fundamentals of electrodialysis are presented in this report to provide a foundation for interpreting experimental data. A flat-plate laboratory-scale apparatus was used to determine the feasibility of separating Na{sup +}/Cs{sup +} mixtures by electrodialysis. The results showed that Cs{sup +} is preferentially separated over Na{sup +} by a factor of 2 to 3 using a Nafion{reg_sign} 417 cationic membrane. The separation is relatively insensitive to solution ionic strength and flow-rate variations. The current efficiency of the separation ranges from 0.60 to 0.65 depending on the applied voltage. The laboratory-scale system was characterized by dimensional analysis, which demonstrated that the process could be scaled up to a size attractive for the volume of waste at the Hanford Site. Preliminary experiments on a bench-scale system were also conducted. The initial results showed that the current-voltage response of the laboratory- and the bench-scale unit is identical.

  2. Inline Monitors for Measuring Cs-137 in the SRS Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casella, V

    2006-04-24

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, a portion of dissolved saltcake waste will be processed through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). The MCU employs the CSSX process, a continuous process that uses a novel solvent to extract cesium from waste and concentrate it in dilute nitric acid. Of primary concern is Cs-137 which makes the solution highly radioactive. Since the MCU does not have the capacity to wait for sample results while continuing to operate, the Waste Acceptance Strategy is to perform inline analyses. Gamma-ray monitors are used to: measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) before entering the DSS Hold Tank; measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent (SE) before entering the SE Hold Tank; and verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process. Since this gamma ray monitoring system application is unique, specially designed shielding was developed and software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling the monitor hardware and communicating with the host Distributed Control System. This paper presents the design, fabrication and implementation of this monitoring system.

  3. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): EA-368 Brookfield Energy Marketing LP

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE):  Application from Brookfield Energy Marketing LP to export electric energy to CanadaA

  4. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): EA-365 Centre Land Trading Limited

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE):  Application from Centre Land Trading Limited to export electric energy to Canada

  5. Decomposition of tetraphenylborate precipitates used to isolate Cs-137 from Savannah River Site high-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrara, D.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Ha, B.C.

    1993-03-01

    This paper presents results of the radioactive demonstration of the Precipitate Hydrolysis Process (PHP) that will be performed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site. The PHP destroys the tetraphenylborate precipitate that is used at SRS to isolate Cs-137 from caustic High-Level Waste (HLW) supernates. This process is necessary to decrease the amount of organic compounds going to the melter in the DWPF. Actual radioactive precipitate containing Cs-137 was used for this demonstration.

  6. Synthesis and structural characterization of a new rubidium borosulfate, Rb{sub 5}BS{sub 4}O{sub 16}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Lingyun; Pan, Shilie; Wang, Ying; Yu, Hongwei; Lin, Xiaoxia; Han, Shujuan

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Rb{sub 5}BS{sub 4}O{sub 16} has been synthesized using (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} as a source of sulfate ions for the first time. • Zero-dimensional anion groups, [B(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}]{sup 5−}, exist in the title compound. • Spectral properties and thermal analysis of Rb{sub 5}BS{sub 4}O{sub 16} were reported. - Abstract: A new rubidium borosulfate, Rb{sub 5}BS{sub 4}O{sub 16}, has been synthesized using (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} as a source of sulfate ions for the first time. The compound crystallizes in the space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 (No. 96) of the tetragonal system with a = 10.148(4) Å, c = 16.689(14) Å, V = 1718.8(17) Å{sup 3}, and Z = 4. Zero-dimensional anion groups, [B(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}]{sup 5−}, a central BO{sub 4} tetrahedron sharing all its four vertices with neighboring sulfate tetrahedra, exist in the title compound, and then the rubidium atoms are situated in the voids of the resulting structure. The IR spectrum confirms the presence of BO{sub 4} and SO{sub 4} units. The UV–vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectrum exhibits a band gap of about 3.99 eV. The TG-DSC analysis suggests that Rb{sub 5}BS{sub 4}O{sub 16} is an incongruent melting compound.

  7. Evaluation and comparison of SuperLig{reg_sign} 644, resorcinol-formaldehyde and CS-100 ion exchange materials for the removal of cesium from simulated alkaline supernate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, G.N.; Bray, L.A.; Eloviche, R.J.; Bruening, R.L.; Decker, R.M.; Kafka, T.M.; White, L.R.

    1995-03-01

    PNL evaluated three polymeric materials for Cs removal efficiency from a simulated Hanford Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW) supernatant liquid using 200 mL ion exchange columns. Cs loadings (mmole Cs/g resin) were 0.20, 0.18, and 0.039 for Super Lig 644, R-F, and CS-100 (0.045, 0.070, 0.011 mmole Cs/mL resin). Elution of each resin material with 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} required 3.5, 7.0, and 3.2 cv to reach 0.1 C/C{sub 0} for the respective materials, resulting in volume compressions of 27, 20, and 6.9. Peak Cs concentrations during elution was 185, 38.5, and 27.8 C/C{sub 0}. SuperLig 644 had the highest Cs loading per gram in NCAW and the greatest volume compression on aci elution. Because of high density and poor elution, R-F had the highest Cs loading per unit volume and lower volume compression. CS-100, the baseline material for Cs removal at Hanford, was inferior to both SuperLig 644 and R-F in terms of Cs loading and selectivity over sodium.

  8. APPLICATION OF BAYESIAN AND GEOSTATISTICAL MODELING TO THE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF CS-137 AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kara G. Eby

    2010-08-01

    At the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Cs-137 concentrations above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency risk-based threshold of 0.23 pCi/g may increase the risk of human mortality due to cancer. As a leader in nuclear research, the INL has been conducting nuclear activities for decades. Elevated anthropogenic radionuclide levels including Cs-137 are a result of atmospheric weapons testing, the Chernobyl accident, and nuclear activities occurring at the INL site. Therefore environmental monitoring and long-term surveillance of Cs-137 is required to evaluate risk. However, due to the large land area involved, frequent and comprehensive monitoring is limited. Developing a spatial model that predicts Cs-137 concentrations at unsampled locations will enhance the spatial characterization of Cs-137 in surface soils, provide guidance for an efficient monitoring program, and pinpoint areas requiring mitigation strategies. The predictive model presented herein is based on applied geostatistics using a Bayesian analysis of environmental characteristics across the INL site, which provides kriging spatial maps of both Cs-137 estimates and prediction errors. Comparisons are presented of two different kriging methods, showing that the use of secondary information (i.e., environmental characteristics) can provide improved prediction performance in some areas of the INL site.

  9. Effects of Compaction and Temperature on Sorption and Diffusion of Cs and HTO in Compacted Bentonite Saturated with Saline Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satoru Suzuki; Masashi Haginuma; Kazunori Suzuki

    2007-07-01

    The sorption and diffusion of Cs and tritiated water (HTO) in compacted bentonite was investigated at temperatures from 30 to 60 deg. C. The apparent (D{sub a}) and effective (D{sub e}) diffusion coefficients were determined by in-diffusion and through-diffusion experiments with a constant boundary concentration maintained. The temperature dependence of De and Da obeyed an Arrhenius-type equation, allowing determination of the activation energy for diffusion of Cs and HTO. The D{sub e} value of Cs was three times the D{sub e} of HTO, which is considered to be a result of surface-excess diffusion. Cs may be concentrated near the surface of the negatively charged clay, thus giving a large diffusive flux. The activation energies for Cs diffusion were 21.4{+-}2.8 kJ/mol and 37.3{+-}1.5 kJ/mol as determined based on D{sub e} and D{sub a}, respectively. This difference was due to the temperature dependence of the distribution coefficient K{sub d} of Cs. (authors)

  10. Comparison of the post-Chernobyl [sup 137]Cs contamination of mushrooms from eastern Europe, Sweden, and North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.L.; Taylor, H.W.; Sharma, H.D. )

    1993-01-01

    A comparison was made of 134Cs and 137Cs contamination in fungi from eastern Europe and eastern North America. Mean activities of 25 Ukrainian, 6 Swedish, and 10 North American collections were 4,660, 9,750, and 205 Bq/kg (dry weight), respectively. Additional measurements were made on samples from the Moscow, southern Belarus, and Yugoslavia/Bulgaria regions. Activity values were found to vary by several orders of magnitude within all geographic areas, even for the same mushroom species. Significantly higher specific activities were observed in mycorrhizal species than in saprophytic and parasitic fungi. Unfortunately, many of the European mycorrhizal species considered as prized edibles contained unacceptably high levels of 137Cs (> 1,000 Bq/kg [dry weight]) and should be used sparingly as food. By contrast, no mushrooms collected in Ontario or northern Michigan exceeded 1,000 Bq of 137Cs per kg (dry weight). The excessive 137Cs contamination was evident in mushrooms from areas that had substantial fallout from the 1986 accident in reactor 4 at the Chernobyl nuclear power station. However, observations suggest that about 20% of the 137Cs in eastern Europe (Moscow area, Belarus, and Ukraine) is of non-Chernobyl origin.

  11. Morphology, deformation, and defect structures of TiCr{sub 2} in Ti-Cr alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, K.C.; Allen, S.M.; Livingston, J.D.

    1992-12-31

    The morphologies and defect structures of TiCr{sub 2} in several Ti-Cr alloys have been examined by optical metallography, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in order to explore the room-temperature deformability of the Laves phase TiCr{sub 2}. The morphology of the Laves phase was found to be dependent upon alloy composition and annealing temperature. Samples deformed by compression have also been studied using TEM. Comparisons of microstructures before and after deformation suggest an increase in twin, stacking fault, and dislocation density within the Laves phase, indicating some but not extensive room-temperature deformability.

  12. Solution-Derived Bi(ZnTi)O3 - BaTiO3 Thin Films with Bulk-like...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Solution-Derived Bi(ZnTi)O3 - BaTiO3 Thin Films with Bulk-like Permittivity. Abstract not provided. Authors: Meyer, Kelsey Elizabeth ; Kotula, Paul Gabriel ; Brennecka, ...

  13. Carrier-Controlled Ferromagnetism in SrTiO3

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moetakef, Pouya; Williams, James R.; Ouellette, Daniel G.; Kajdos, Adam P.; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Allen, S. James; Stemmer, Susanne

    2012-06-27

    Magnetotransport and superconducting properties are investigated for uniformly La-doped SrTiO3 films and GdTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures, respectively. GdTiO3/SrTiO3 interfaces exhibit a high-density 2D electron gas on the SrTiO3 side of the interface, while, for the SrTiO3 films, carriers are provided by the dopant atoms. Both types of samples exhibit ferromagnetism at low temperatures, as evidenced by a hysteresis in the magnetoresistance. For the uniformly doped SrTiO3 films, the Curie temperature is found to increase with doping and to coexist with superconductivity for carrier concentrations on the high-density side of the superconducting dome. The Curie temperature of the GdTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures scales with themore » thickness of the SrTiO3 quantum well. The results are used to construct a stability diagram for the ferromagnetic and superconducting phases of SrTiO3.« less

  14. Crystal structure and phase transition mechanisms in CsFe{sub 2}F{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molokeev, M.S.; Bogdanov, E.V.; Misyul, S.V.; Tressaud, A.; Flerov, I.N.

    2013-04-15

    For the first time, structural phase transitions induced by the temperature were found in A{sub x}M{sub x}{sup II}M{sub (1?x)}{sup III}F{sub 3} fluorides with the defect pyrochlore structure (Fd3{sup }m, Z=8). The room temperature structure of CsFe{sub 2}F{sub 6} was determined using X-ray powder diffraction technique. This phase was found to be ordered with the Pnma space group. The study of the temperature stability of orthorhombic structure by differential scanning calorimeter between 100 K and 700 K has shown a succession of phase transitions. The Pnma (Z=4)?Imma (Z=4)?I4{sub 1}/amd (Z=4)?Fd3{sup }m (Z=8) structural sequence was proposed to occur within a rather narrow temperature range 500560 K. The mechanism of structural transition has been mainly associated with the rotation of (MF{sub 6}) octahedra and small displacements of some Fe atoms. This assumption is in good agreement with the low experimental entropy value, which is characteristic for displacive transformations. - Graphical abstract: Mechanism of phase transition between the HT cubic form of CsFe{sub 2}F{sub 6} at 573 K (left) and the room temperature orthorhombic form at 298 K (right). The grey rectangles are clusters of five FeF{sub 6} octahedra. Highlights: ? Structural transition found for the first time in CsFe{sub 2}F{sub 6} with defect pyrochlore type. ? Fe{sup II} and Fe{sup III} atoms are ordered in room temperature Pnma form of CsFe{sub 2}F{sub 6}. ? Pnma(Z=4)?Imma(Z=4)?I4{sub 1}/amd(Z=4)?Fd-3m(Z=8) transition sequence is proposed. ? Structural transition due to rotation of MF{sub 6} groups+small displacements of Fe atoms. ? The low value of the entropy is in agreement with a displacive-type transition.

  15. Correlation of CsK2Sb photocathode lifetime with antimony thickness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamun, M. A.; Hernandez-Garcia, C.; Poelker, M.; Elmustafa, A. A.

    2015-06-01

    CsK2Sb photocathodes with quantum efficiency on the order of 10% at 532 nm, and lifetime greater than 90 days at low voltage, were successfully manufactured via co-deposition of alkali species emanating from an effusion source. Photocathodes were characterized as a function of antimony layer thickness and alkali consumption, inside a vacuum chamber that was initially baked, but frequently vented without re-baking. Photocathode lifetime measured at low voltage is correlated with the antimony layer thickness. Photocathodes manufactured with comparatively thick antimony layers exhibited the best lifetime. We speculate that the antimony layer serves as a reservoir, or sponge, for the alkali.

  16. In Situ Remediation of {sup 137}Cs Contaminated Wetlands Using Naturally Occurring Minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, D.I.

    1999-08-11

    Cesium-137 has contaminated a large area of the wetlands on the Savannah River Site. Remediation of the contaminated wetlands is problematic because current techniques destroy the sensitive ecosystem and generate a higher dose to workers. To address this problem, we proposed a non-trusive, in situ technology to sequester 137Cs in sediments. One intention of this study was to provide information regarding a go/no go decision for future work. Since the proof-of-concept was successful and several minerals were identified as potential candidates for this technology, a go decision was made.

  17. Complete genome sequence of the phenanthrene-degrading soil bacterium Delftia acidovorans Cs1-4

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shetty, Ameesha R.; de Gannes, Vidya; Obi, Chioma C.; Lucas, Susan; Lapidus, Alla; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Samuel; Peters, Linda; Mikhailova, Natalia; et al

    2015-08-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants and microbial biodegradation is an important means of remediation of PAH-contaminated soil. Delftia acidovorans Cs1-4 (formerly Delftia sp. Cs1-4) was isolated by using phenanthrene as the sole carbon source from PAH contaminated soil in Wisconsin. Its full genome sequence was determined to gain insights into a mechanisms underlying biodegradation of PAH. Three genomic libraries were constructed and sequenced: an Illumina GAii shotgun library (916,416,493 reads), a 454 Titanium standard library (770,171 reads) and one paired-end 454 library (average insert size of 8 kb, 508,092 reads). The initial assembly contained 40 contigs inmore » two scaffolds. The 454 Titanium standard data and the 454 paired end data were assembled together and the consensus sequences were computationally shredded into 2 kb overlapping shreds. Illumina sequencing data was assembled, and the consensus sequence was computationally shredded into 1.5 kb overlapping shreds. Gaps between contigs were closed by editing in Consed, by PCR and by Bubble PCR primer walks. A total of 182 additional reactions were needed to close gaps and to raise the quality of the finished sequence. The final assembly is based on 253.3 Mb of 454 draft data (averaging 38.4 X coverage) and 590.2 Mb of Illumina draft data (averaging 89.4 X coverage). The genome of strain Cs1-4 consists of a single circular chromosome of 6,685,842 bp (66.7 %G+C) containing 6,028 predicted genes; 5,931 of these genes were protein-encoding and 4,425 gene products were assigned to a putative function. Genes encoding phenanthrene degradation were localized to a 232 kb genomic island (termed the phn island), which contained near its 3’ end a bacteriophage P4-like integrase, an enzyme often associated with chromosomal integration of mobile genetic elements. Other biodegradation pathways reconstructed from the genome sequence included: benzoate (by the acetyl

  18. Complete genome sequence of the phenanthrene-degrading soil bacterium Delftia acidovorans Cs1-4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shetty, Ameesha R.; de Gannes, Vidya; Obi, Chioma C.; Lucas, Susan; Lapidus, Alla; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Samuel; Peters, Linda; Mikhailova, Natalia; Teshima, Hazuki; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren J.; Kyrpides, Nikos; Ivanova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Denef, Vincent J.; Woyke, Tanya; Hickey, William J.

    2015-08-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants and microbial biodegradation is an important means of remediation of PAH-contaminated soil. Delftia acidovorans Cs1-4 (formerly Delftia sp. Cs1-4) was isolated by using phenanthrene as the sole carbon source from PAH contaminated soil in Wisconsin. Its full genome sequence was determined to gain insights into a mechanisms underlying biodegradation of PAH. Three genomic libraries were constructed and sequenced: an Illumina GAii shotgun library (916,416,493 reads), a 454 Titanium standard library (770,171 reads) and one paired-end 454 library (average insert size of 8 kb, 508,092 reads). The initial assembly contained 40 contigs in two scaffolds. The 454 Titanium standard data and the 454 paired end data were assembled together and the consensus sequences were computationally shredded into 2 kb overlapping shreds. Illumina sequencing data was assembled, and the consensus sequence was computationally shredded into 1.5 kb overlapping shreds. Gaps between contigs were closed by editing in Consed, by PCR and by Bubble PCR primer walks. A total of 182 additional reactions were needed to close gaps and to raise the quality of the finished sequence. The final assembly is based on 253.3 Mb of 454 draft data (averaging 38.4 X coverage) and 590.2 Mb of Illumina draft data (averaging 89.4 X coverage). The genome of strain Cs1-4 consists of a single circular chromosome of 6,685,842 bp (66.7 %G+C) containing 6,028 predicted genes; 5,931 of these genes were protein-encoding and 4,425 gene products were assigned to a putative function. Genes encoding phenanthrene degradation were localized to a 232 kb genomic island (termed the phn island), which contained near its 3’ end a bacteriophage P4-like integrase, an enzyme often associated with chromosomal integration of mobile genetic elements. Other biodegradation pathways reconstructed from the genome sequence included: benzoate (by the acetyl-CoA pathway

  19. Structure and properties of electronic and hole centers in CsBr from theoretical calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halliday, Matthew T.; Hess, Wayne P.; Shluger, Alexander L.

    2015-06-24

    The electronic structure, geometry, diffusion barriers and optical properties of fundamental defects of CsBr are calculated using hybrid functional DFT and TD- DFT methods. The B3LYP functional with a modified exchange contribution has been used in an embedded cluster scheme to model the structure and spectroscopic properties of self-trapped triplet exciton, interstitial Br atoms and ions, self-trapped holes and Br vacancies. The calculated migration barriers and positions of maxima of optical absorption bands are in good agreement with experiment, justifying the obtained defect geometries. The o*-center triplet exciton luminescence energy is also accurately calculated.

  20. In-situ x-ray diffraction and resistivity analysis of CoSi{sub 2} phase formation with and without a Ti interlayer at rapid thermal annealing rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, C. Jr.; Clevenger, L.A.; Stephenson, G.B.; Brauer, S.; Morales, G.; Ludwig, K.F. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    It has been demonstrated, using synchrotron radiation, that at rapid thermal annealing rates (3 C/s) the 2formation of CoSi{sub 2} shifts to higher temperatures when a thin Ti interlayer is placed between Co and polycrystalline Si. It has also been shown that the Ti interlayer reduces the temperature range between the start of CoSi formation and CoSi{sub 2} formation (i.e. the range over which CoSi is present). 13 nm of Co deposited by physical vapor deposition on polycrystalline Si with and without either a 2 nm or 3.4 nm interlayer of Ti was analyzed in-situ by monitoring x-ray diffraction (XRD) peak intensity as a function of temperature using monochromatic radiation from a synchrotron beam line and by monitoring resistivity as a function of temperature i a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) system. The XRD analysis indicates that the phase formation proceeds from CoSi to CoSi{sub 2} in a temperature range that decreases from about 200 C to 140 C to 115 C with pure Co, Co/2 nm Ti and Co/3.4 nm Ti films respectively. The onset of the CoSi formation increases by about 135 C and 160 C for Co/2 nm Ti and Co/3.4 nm Ti compared to pure Co. The CoSi temperature range decreases from about 75 C in pure Co to less than 50 C in Co/Ti. In-situ RTA resistance along with in-situ XRD analysis indicates that the onset formation temperatures for CoSi are about 440 C, 575 C and 600 C and the temperatures for the completion of CoSi{sub 2} formation are about 640 C, 715 C and 715 C for Co, Co/2 nm Ti and Co/3.4 nm Ti films respectively. The results are consistent with he Ti interlayer acting as a diffusion barrier during the initial stages of the Co-Si reaction.

  1. Signal and noise transfer properties of CMOS based active pixel flat panel imager coupled to structured CsI:Tl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arvanitis, C. D.; Bohndiek, S. E.; Blakesley, J.; Olivo, A.; Speller, R. D.

    2009-01-15

    Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) active pixel sensors can be optically coupled to CsI:Tl phosphors forming a indirect active pixel flat panel imager (APFPI) for high performance medical imaging. The aim of this work is to determine the x-ray imaging capabilities of CMOS-based APFPI and study the signal and noise transfer properties of CsI:Tl phosphors. Three different CsI:Tl phosphors from two different vendors have been used to produce three system configurations. The performance of each system configuration has been studied in terms of the modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectra, and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) in the mammographic energy range. A simple method to determine quantum limited systems in this energy range is also presented. In addition, with aid of monochromatic synchrotron radiation, the effect of iodine characteristic x-rays of the CsI:Tl on the MTF has been determined. A Monte Carlo simulation of the signal transfer properties of the imager is also presented in order to study the stages that degrade the spatial resolution of our current system. The effect of using substrate patterning during the growth of CsI:Tl columnar structure was also studied, along with the effect of CsI:Tl fixed pattern noise due to local variations in the scintillation light. CsI:Tl fixed pattern noise appears to limit the performance of our current system configurations. All the system configurations are quantum limited at 0.23 {mu}C/kg with two of them having DQE (0) equal to 0.57. Active pixel flat panel imagers are shown to be digital x-ray imagers with almost constant DQE throughout a significant part of their dynamic range and in particular at very low exposures.

  2. Giant persistent photoconductivity in BaTiO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plodinec, Milivoj; anti?, Ana; Gajovi?, Andreja; Zavanik, Janez; ?eh, Miran

    2014-10-13

    The persistent photoconductivity (PPC) effect in nanotube arrays of barium titanate and TiO{sub 2} (BTO/TiO{sub 2}NT) was studied at room temperature under daylight illumination. The BTO/TiO{sub 2}NT heterostructures exhibited a giant PPC effect that was six orders of magnitude higher than the dark conductivity, followed by a slow relaxation for 3 h. The PPC in this material was explained by the existence of defects at the surfaces and the interfaces of the investigated heterostructures. The sample was prepared using a two-step synthesis: the anodization of a Ti-foil and a subsequent hydrothermal synthesis. The structural and electrical characteristics were studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy, field-emission-gun scanning electron microscopy, and impedance spectroscopy.

  3. Watts Bar Unit 1 Cycle Zero Power Physics Tests Analysis with VERA-CS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gehin, Jess C; Godfrey, Andrew T; Evans, Thomas M; Hamilton, Steven P; Francheschini, F.

    2014-01-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) is developing a collection of methods and software products known as VERA, the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications, including a core simulation capability called VERA-CS. A key milestone for this endeavor is to validate VERA against measurements from operating nuclear power reactors. The first step in validation against plant data is to determine the ability of VERA to accurately simulate the initial startup physics tests for Watts Bar Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1 (WBN1) cycle 1. VERA-CS calculations were performed with the Insilico code developed at ORNL using cross section processing from the SCALE system and the transport capabilities within the Denovo transport code using the SPN method. The calculations were performed with ENDF/B-VII.0 cross sections in 252 groups (collapsed to 23 groups for the 3D transport solution). The key results of the comparison of calculations with measurements include initial criticality, control rod worth critical configurations, control rod worth, differential boron worth, and isothermal temperature reactivity coefficient (ITC). The VERA results for these parameters show good agreement with measurements, with the exception of the ITC, which requires additional investigation. Results are also compared to those obtained with Monte Carlo methods and a current industry core simulator.

  4. A=18C (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the 48Ca(18O, 18C)48Ti reaction. 18C is then bound by 4.188 MeV with respect to breakup into 17C + n. See also (1982FI10, 1987AJ02, 1992WA22). 1. 18C(-)18N Qm 11.807 The...

  5. A=18Na (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    95TI07) (Not observed) 18Na has not been observed; its atomic mass excess has been estimated to be 25.32 MeV (1993AU05); it is then unbound with respect to proton emission by 1.6 MeV: see (1978AJ03). See also (1986AN07) and (1983ANZQ

  6. A=5Be (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (See the Isobar Diagram for 5Be) See also the A = 5 introductory discussion titled A = 5 resonance parameters. The absence of any group structure in the neutron spectrum in the reaction 3He(3He, n)5Be at E(3He) = 18.0 to 26.0 MeV indicates that 5Beg.s

  7. Glass Ceramic Waste Forms for Combined CS+LN+TM Fission Products Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Turo, Laura A.; Riley, Brian J.; Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna; Sickafus, Kurt E.

    2010-09-23

    In this study, glass ceramics were explored as an alternative waste form for glass, the current baseline, to be used for immobilizing alkaline/alkaline earth + lanthanide (CS+LN) or CS+LN+transition metal (TM) fission-product waste streams generated by a uranium extraction (UREX+) aqueous separations type process. Results from past work on a glass waste form for the combined CS+LN waste streams showed that as waste loading increased, large fractions of crystalline phases precipitated upon slow cooling.[1] The crystalline phases had no noticeable impact on the waste form performance by the 7-day product consistency test (PCT). These results point towards the development of a glass ceramic waste form for treating CS+LN or CS+LN+TM combined waste streams. Three main benefits for exploring glass ceramics are: (1) Glass ceramics offer increased solubility of troublesome components in crystalline phases as compared to glass, leading to increased waste loading; (2) The crystalline network formed in the glass ceramic results in higher heat tolerance than glass; and (3) These glass ceramics are designed to be processed by the same melter technology as the current baseline glass waste form. It will only require adding controlled canister cooling for crystallization into a glass ceramic waste form. Highly annealed waste form (essentially crack free) with up to 50X lower surface area than a typical High-Level Waste (HLW) glass canister. Lower surface area translates directly into increased durability. This was the first full year of exploring glass ceramics for the Option 1 and 2 combined waste stream options. This work has shown that dramatic increases in waste loading are achievable by designing a glass ceramic waste form as an alternative to glass. Table S1 shows the upper limits for heat, waste loading (based on solubility), and the decay time needed before treatment can occur for glass and glass ceramic waste forms. The improvements are significant for both combined waste

  8. The corrosivity and passivity of sputtered Mg-Ti alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Song, Guang -Ling; Unocic, Kinga A.; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Cakmak, Ercan; Brady, Michael P.; Gannon, Paul E.; Himmer, Phil; Andrews, Quinn

    2015-11-30

    Our study explored the possibility of forming a “stainless” Mg–Ti alloy. The electrochemical behavior of magnetron-sputtered Mg–Ti alloys was measured in a NaCl solution, and the surface films on the alloys were examined by XPS, SEM and TEM. Increased corrosion resistance was observed with increased Ti content in the sputtered Mg–Ti alloys, but passive-like behavior was not reached until the Ti level (atomic %) was higher than the Mg level. Moreover, the surface film that formed on sputtered Mg–Ti based alloys in NaCl solution was thick, discontinuous and non-protective, whereas a thin, continuous and protective Mg and Ti oxide filmmore » was formed on a sputtered Ti–Mg based alloy.« less

  9. The corrosivity and passivity of sputtered Mg-Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Guang -Ling; Unocic, Kinga A.; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Cakmak, Ercan; Brady, Michael P.; Gannon, Paul E.; Himmer, Phil; Andrews, Quinn

    2015-11-30

    Our study explored the possibility of forming a “stainless” Mg–Ti alloy. The electrochemical behavior of magnetron-sputtered Mg–Ti alloys was measured in a NaCl solution, and the surface films on the alloys were examined by XPS, SEM and TEM. Increased corrosion resistance was observed with increased Ti content in the sputtered Mg–Ti alloys, but passive-like behavior was not reached until the Ti level (atomic %) was higher than the Mg level. Moreover, the surface film that formed on sputtered Mg–Ti based alloys in NaCl solution was thick, discontinuous and non-protective, whereas a thin, continuous and protective Mg and Ti oxide film was formed on a sputtered Ti–Mg based alloy.

  10. Task 2 - Limits for High-Frequency Conducted Susceptibility Testing - CS114 (NRC-HQ-60-14-D-0015)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Richard Thomas; Ewing, Paul D.; Moses, Rebecca J.

    2015-09-01

    A principal focus of Task 2 under this project was for ORNL to evaluate the basis for susceptibility testing against high-frequency conducted interference and to establish recommendations to resolve concerns about the severity of test limits for the conducted susceptibility (CS) test, CS114, from MIL-STD-461. The primary concern about the test limit has been characterized by the EPRI EMI Working Group in the following terms: Demonstrating compliance with the CS114 test limits recommended in TR-102323 has proven to be problematic, even for components that have been tested to commercial standards and demonstrated proper operation in industrial applications [6]. Specifically, EPRI notes that the CS114 limits approved in regulatory documents are significantly higher than those invoked by the US military and similar commercial standards in the frequency range below 200 kHz. For this task, ORNL evaluated the original approach to establishing the test limit, EPRI technical findings from a review of the limit, and the regulatory basis through which the currently approved limits were accepted. Based on this analysis, strategies have been developed regarding changes to the CS114 limit that can resolve the technical concerns raised by the industry. Guided by the principles that reasonable assurance of safety must not be compromised but excessive conservatism should be reduced, recommendations on a suitable basis for a revised limit have been developed and can be incorporated into the planned Revision 2 of RG 1.180.

  11. X-ray absorption studies of mixed salt polymer electrolytes: ZnBr{sub 2}/CaBr{sub 2}-PEO, ZnBr{sub 2}/LiBr-PEO, and ZnBr{sub 2}/RbBr-PEO complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBreen, J.; Yang, X.Q.; Lee, H.S.; Okamoto, Y.

    1995-02-01

    Polyethylene oxide (PEO)-salt systems are an important new class of electrolytes that are being considered for many uses. X-ray absorption (XAS) studies of ZnBr{sub 2}-PEO complexes, at the Zn K edge, at temperatures between 25 and 120 C, indicate that additions of bromide salts of Li, Rb, or Ca result in the formation of ZnBr{sub 4}{sup {minus} 2} complexes with a Zn-Br bond length of 2.42 {angstrom}. XAS, at the Rb K edge, in mixed RbBr/ZnBr{sub 2}-PEO complexes with an excess of ZnBr{sub 2}, shows that the ZnBr{sub 2} causes the RbBr to dissolve in the polymer. The Rb{sup +} ions are weakly complexed with the PEO with an Rb-O bond distance of 2.93 {angstrom}.

  12. A novel cold-regulated gene from Camellia sinensis, CsCOR1, enhances salt- and dehydration-tolerance in tobacco

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xian-Wen; College of Life Science, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000; Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology of the Ministry of Education, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 ; Feng, Zhi-Guo; Yang, Hui-Min; Zhu, Xiao-Pei; Liu, Jun; Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology of the Ministry of Education, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 ; Yuan, Hong-Yu

    2010-04-02

    In present research, the full-length cDNA and the genomic sequence of a novel cold-regulated gene, CsCOR1, were isolated from Camellia sinensis L. The deduced protein CsCOR1 contains a hydrophobic N-terminus as a signal peptide and a hydrophilic C-terminal domain that is rich in glycine, arginine and proline. Two internal repetitive tridecapeptide fragments (HSVTAGRGGYNRG) exist in the middle of the C-terminal domain and the two nucleotide sequences encoding them are identical. CsCOR1 was localized in the cell walls of transgenic-tobaccos via CsCOR1::GFP fusion approach. The expression of CsCOR1 in tea leaves was enhanced dramatically by both cold- and dehydration-stress. And overexpression of CsCOR1 in transgenic-tobaccos improved obviously the tolerance to salinity and dehydration.

  13. Nanocrystalline Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} particles: Effects of N{sub 2} annealing on microstructure and near-infrared shielding characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jing-Xiao, E-mail: drliu-shi@dlpu.edu.cn [School of Textile and Material Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Material, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577,Japan (Japan); Shi, Fei; Dong, Xiao-Li; Xu, Qiang [School of Textile and Material Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Yin, Shu; Sato, Tsugio [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Material, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577,Japan (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    In order to further improve the near-infrared shielding properties of cesium tungsten bronze (Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3}) for solar filter applications, Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} particles were prepared by solvothermal reaction method and the effects of nitrogen annealing on the microstructure and near-infrared shielding properties of Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} were investigated. The obtained Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectrophotometer. The results indicate that nanosheet-like Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} particles with hexagonal structure began to transform into nanorods after annealed at temperature higher than 600 C. The near-infrared shielding properties of Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} particles could be further improved by N{sub 2} annealing at 500700 C. Particularly, the 500 C-annealed Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} samples in the N{sub 2} atmosphere showed best near-infrared shielding properties. It was suggested that the excellent near-infrared shielding ability of the 500 C-annealed Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} samples is correlated with its minimum O/W atomic ratio and most oxygen vacancies. Highlights: N{sub 2} annealing could further improve the near-infrared (NIR) shielding of Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3}. Effects of N{sub 2} annealing on microstructure and NIR shielding of Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} were studied. The 500 C-N{sub 2}-annealed Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} exhibited minimum O/W ratio and most oxygen vacancies. The 500 C-N{sub 2}-annealed Cs{sub x}WO{sub 3} particles exhibited best NIR shielding properties.

  14. Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy and determination of the three dimensional potential energy surface for ArCS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niida, Chisato; Nakajima, Masakazu; Endo, Yasuki; Sumiyoshi, Yoshihiro; Ohshima, Yasuhiro; Kohguchi, Hiroshi

    2014-03-14

    Pure rotational transitions of the ArCS van der Waals complex have been observed by Fourier Transform Microwave (FTMW) and FTMW-millimeter wave double resonance spectroscopy. Rotational transitions of v{sub s} = 0, 1, and 2 were able to be observed for normal CS, together with those of C{sup 34}S in v{sub s} = 0, where v{sub s} stands for the quantum number of the CS stretching vibration. The observed transition frequencies were analyzed by a free rotor model Hamiltonian, where rovibrational energies were calculated as dynamical motions of the three nuclei on a three-dimensional potential energy surface, expressed by analytical functions with 57 parameters. Initial values for the potential parameters were obtained by high-level ab initio calculations. Fifteen parameters were adjusted among the 57 parameters to reproduce all the observed transition frequencies with the standard deviation of the fit to be 0.028 MHz.

  15. Selective Separation of Cs and Sr from LiCl-Based Salt for Electrochemical Processing of Oxide Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P Sachdev

    2008-07-01

    Electrochemical processing technology is currently being used for the treatment of metallic spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II at Idaho National Laboratory. The treatment of oxide-based spent nuclear fuel via electrochemical processing is possible provided there is a front-end oxide reduction step. During this reduction process, certain fission products, including Cs and Sr, partition into the salt phase and form chlorides. Both solid state and molten LiCl-zeolite-A ion exchange tests were conducted for selectively removing Cs and Sr from LiCl-based salt. The solid-state tests produced in excess of 99% removal of Cs and Sr. The molten state tests failed due to phase transformation of the zeolite structure when in contact with the molten LiCl salt.

  16. Effect of neutron irradiation on defect evolution in Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tallman, Darin J.; He, Lingfeng; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.; Hoffman, Elizabeth N.; Kohse, Gordon; Sindelar, Robert L.; Barsoum, Michel W.

    2015-10-23

    Here, we report on the characterization of defects formed in polycrystalline Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC samples exposed to neutron irradiation – up to 0.1 displacements per atom (dpa) at 350 ± 40 °C or 695 ± 25 °C, and up to 0.4 dpa at 350 ± 40 °C. Black spots are observed in both Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC after irradiation to both 0.1 and 0.4 dpa at 350 °C. After irradiation to 0.1 dpa at 695 °C, small basal dislocation loops, with a Burgers vector of b = 1/2 [0001] are observed in both materials. At 9 ± 3 and 10 ±more » 5 nm, the loop diameters in the Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC samples, respectively, were comparable. At 1 × 1023 loops/m3, the dislocation loop density in Ti2AlC was ≈1.5 orders of magnitude greater than in Ti3SiC2, at 3 x 1021 loops/m3. After irradiation at 350 °C, extensive microcracking was observed in Ti2AlC, but not in Ti3SiC2. The room temperature electrical resistivities increased as a function of neutron dose for all samples tested, and appear to saturate in the case of Ti3SiC2. The MAX phases are unequivocally more neutron radiation tolerant than the impurity phases TiC and Al2O3. Based on these results, Ti3SiC2 appears to be a more promising MAX phase candidate for high temperature nuclear applications than Ti2AlC.« less

  17. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): EA-363 Noble Americas Gas & Power Corporation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE):  Noble Americas Gas & Power Corporation to export electric energy to Mexico

  18. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): OE Docket EA-364 Noble Americas Gas & Power Corporation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE):  Application from Noble Americas Gas & Power Corporation to export electric...

  19. 137Cs Inter-Plant Concentration Ratios Provide a Predictive Tool for Coral Atolls with Distinct Benefits Over Transfer Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F; Bogen, K; Corado, C L; Kehl, S R

    2007-07-17

    Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR), [Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in coral atoll tree food-crops/Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume], can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict {sup 137}Cs concentration in tree food-crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact tree roots naturally integrate 137Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of {sup 137}Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in {sup 137}Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSD's of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD = 1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10 to 20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples.

  20. Observation of cold Rb{sub 2} molecules trapped in an optical dipole trap using a laser-pulse-train technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menegatti, Carlos R.; Marangoni, Bruno S.; Marcassa, Luis G.

    2011-11-15

    In this work, we have developed and characterized a laser-pulse-train technique to observe cold Rb{sub 2} molecules trapped in an optical dipole trap. The molecules are produced in a magneto-optical trap, and then loaded into a crossed optical dipole trap. The time evolution of the molecular population is obtained by applying a laser pulse train, which photoionizes the ground-state molecules through intermediate molecular bands. Our results show that this technique allows us to obtain a faster data acquisition rate of the time evolution of the molecule population than other techniques.

  1. Structural and Morphological Difference Between Ti/TiN/TiCN Coatings Grown in Multilayer and Graded Form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Restrepo, E.; Baena, A.; Agudelo, C.; Castillo, H.; Devia, A.; Marino, A.

    2006-12-04

    Thin films can be grown in super-lattice, multilayers and graded form, having each one advantages and disadvantages. The difference between multilayer and graded coatings is the interface. In multilayers the interface is abrupt and in graded coatings it is diffuse. The interface influences many chemical and physical properties of the materials, and its choice depends on the application. Graded coatings have the advantage of having gradual properties such as thermal expansion coefficient and lattice parameter, avoiding adherence problems due to good match between their component materials. In this work the comparison between some properties of coatings grown as multilayer and graded is performed. The materials are produced using the sputtering DC technique because of its facility to control the deposition parameters and generate a slow growth. The target is a disc of titanium and the samples are made of stainless steel 304. The working gases are argon, nitrogen and methane, which are mixed according to the material to be produced, i.e. Ti layer is grown with argon, the TiN film is produced with a mixture of argon and nitrogen, and the TiCN material is obtained mixing argon, nitrogen and methane. These materials are characterized with AFM in order to determine grain size and with XPS studying the chemical composition and performing depth profiles.

  2. EVALUATION OF THE MIGRATION POTENTIAL FOR 60Co AND 137Cs AT THE MAINE YANKEE SITE.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FUHRMANN,M.SULLIVAN,T.

    2002-08-08

    The objective of this report is to discuss the degree of sorption and desorption of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co that may be associated with the granite bedrock and the ''popcorn'' cement drain system that underlie the Maine Yankee Containment Foundation. The purpose is to estimate how much retardation of these two radionuclides takes place in groundwater that flows in the near-field of the Containment Foundation, specifically with respect to contamination originating at the PAB Test Pit. Specific concerns revolve around the potential for the contamination originating near the PAB to create a radioactive dose to a hypothetical ''resident farmer'' using a well intercepting this water to exceed 4 millirems/yr.

  3. Bose-Einstein Condensation of Magnons in Cs{sub 2}CuCl{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radu, T.; Wilhelm, H.; Luehmann, T.; Steglich, F.; Yushankhai, V.; Kovrizhin, D.; Coldea, R.; Tylczynski, Z.

    2005-09-16

    We report on results of specific heat measurements on single crystals of the frustrated quasi-2D spin-1/2 antiferromagnet Cs{sub 2}CuCl{sub 4} (T{sub N}=0.595 K) in external magnetic fields B<12 T and for temperatures T>30 mK. Decreasing B from high fields leads to the closure of the field-induced gap in the magnon spectrum at a critical field B{sub c}{approx_equal}8.51 T and a magnetic phase transition is clearly seen below B{sub c}. In the vicinity of B{sub c}, the phase transition boundary is well described by the power law T{sub c}(B){proportional_to}(B{sub c}-B){sup 1/{phi}}, with the measured critical exponent {phi}{approx_equal}1.5. These findings are interpreted as a Bose-Einstein condensation of magnons.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF DEPOSIT DETECTION SYSTEM IN PIPELINES OF THE STEELWORKS USING CS-137 GAMMA-RAY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Won-Joon; Lee, Seung-Hee; Jeong, Hee-Dong

    2008-02-28

    The deposit is built up in the pipeline of the steelworks by the chemical reaction among COG (coke oven gas), BFG (blast furnace gas), moisture, and steel in the high temperature environment and obstructs the smooth gas flow. In this study a gamma-ray system is developed to detect the deposit accumulated in pipelines and calculate the accumulation rate with respect to the cross section area of pipes. Cs-137 is used as the gamma-ray source and the system is designed to apply to pipes of various diameters. This system also includes the DB for storage and display of the measurement results so that it can be used for the efficient management of the pipelines.

  5. Sulfurization behavior of cerium doped uranium oxides by CS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, Nobuaki; Kato, Shintaro; Kirishima, Akira; Tochiyama, Osamu

    2007-07-01

    For the recovery of nuclear materials from the spent nuclear fuel, the sulfide process has been proposed and the voloxidation of spent fuel and selective sulfurization rare-earth elements has been proposed. In this paper, cerium was used as a stand-in of plutonium and sulfurization behavior of cerium doped uranium dioxide by CS{sub 2} was studied. UO{sub 2} was oxidized to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in air, while the Ce doped UO{sub 2} solid solution was formed in the presence of CeO{sub 2} by the heat treatment in air. The effect of heating time, temperature and the ratio of uranium to cerium on the formation of solid solution was analyzed. The results were also compared with those of thermodynamic consideration. (authors)

  6. TUNGSTEN SHIELDS FOR CS-137 INLINE MONITORS IN THE CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casella, V; Mark Hogue, M; Javier Reyes-Jimenez, J; Paul Filpus-Luyckx, P; Timothy Riley, T; Fred Ogden, F; Donald Pak, D

    2007-05-10

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The CSSX process is a continuous process that uses a novel solvent to extract cesium from highly radioactive waste and concentrate it in dilute nitric acid. In-line analyses are performed with gamma-ray monitors to measure the C-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) and in the strip effluent (SE). Sodium iodide (NaI) monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration before the DSS Hold Tank, while Geiger-Mueller (GM) monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the SE hold tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to provide the needed reduction of the process background radiation at the detector positions. A one-inch tungsten cylindrical shield reduced the background radiation by a factor of fifty that was adequate for the GM detectors, while a three-and-one-half-inch tungsten cylindrical shield was required for the NaI detectors. Testing of the NaI shield was performed at the SRS Instrument Calibration Facility. Based on this testing, the as-built shield is predicted to be able to detect the MCU DSS stream at concentrations above 0.003 Ci/gal under the ''worst case'' field conditions with a MCU feed solution of 1.1 Ci/gal and all of the process tanks completely full. This paper discusses the design, fabrication, testing and implementation of the tungsten shields in the MCU facility.

  7. A magnesium-carboxylate framework showing luminescent sensing for CS{sub 2} and nitroaromatic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Zhao-Feng; Tan, Bin; Feng, Mei-Ling; Du, Cheng-Feng; Huang, Xiao-Ying

    2015-03-15

    A magnesium metal-organic framework compound, namely [NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}][Mg{sub 3}(NDC){sub 2.5}(HCO{sub 2}){sub 2}(DMF){sub 0.75}(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.25}]·1.25DMF·0.75H{sub 2}O (1) (H{sub 2}NDC=1,4-naphthalene dicarboxylic acid, DMF=N,N′-dimethylformamide), has been synthesized in solvothermal conditions and structurally characterized. It features a three-dimensionally anionic framework with aligned channels parallel to the b-axis. Luminescent studies indicated that it showed significant luminescence quenching for carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) and nitrobenzene after being activated, at a content of only 3.0 and 0.1 vol% in DMF, respectively. In addition, the activated sample showed sensitive luminescence quenching for 1,3,5-trinitrophenol with a low concentration of 5×10{sup −5} mol/L. - Graphical abstract: Presented is a microporous 3D Mg-MOF, namely, [NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}][Mg{sub 3}(NDC){sub 2.5}(HCO{sub 2}){sub 2}(DMF){sub 0.75}(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.25}]·1.25DMF·0.75H{sub 2}O (1) (H{sub 2}NDC=1,4-naphthalene dicarboxylic acid) showing significant luminescence quenching for carbon disulfide and nitrobenzene. - Highlights: • A microporous 3D metal-organic framework based on Mg. • The compound shows significant luminescence quenching for CS{sub 2} and nitrobenzene after activated. • The compound shows sensitive luminescence quenching for 1,3,5-trinitrophenol with a low concentration of 5×10{sup −5} mol/L.

  8. A=3n (1987TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1987TI07) (Not illustrated) GENERAL: The weight of experimental evidence reviewed in the previous compilation of Fiarman and Hanna (1975FI08) is strongly against the existence of a bound state of the three-neutron system, and only controversial evidence of 3n resonances was cited. Several experiments carried out more recently have strengthened the evidence against the bound trineutron and have failed to discover resonance structure that cannot be otherwise explained. The most suggestive work is

  9. High-temperature behavior of dicesium molybdate Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}: Implications for fast neutron reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallez, Gilles; Raison, Philippe E.; Smith, Anna L.; Clavier, Nicolas

    2014-07-01

    Dicesium molybdate (Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4})'s thermal expansion and crystal structure have been investigated herein by high temperature X ray diffraction in conjunction with Raman spectroscopy. This first crystal-chemical insight at high temperature is aimed at predicting the thermostructural and thermomechanical behavior of this oxide formed by the accumulation of Cs and Mo fission products at the periphery of nuclear fuel rods in sodium-cooled fast reactors. Within the temperature range of the fuel's rim, Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} becomes hexagonal P6{sub 3}/mmc, with disordered MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra and 2D distribution of CsO bonds that makes thermal axial expansion both large (50??{sub l}?70 10{sup ?6} C{sup ?1}, 500800 C) and highly anisotropic (?{sub c}??{sub a}=6710{sup ?6} C{sup ?1}, hexagonal form). The difference with the fuel's expansion coefficient is of potential concern with respect to the cohesion of the Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} surface film and the possible release of cesium radionuclides in accidental situations. - Graphical abstract: The weakness of the CsO bonds and the disordering of the MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra array in the high-temperature form are responsible for the huge thermal expansion of Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} along the c-axis. - Highlights: Thermomechanical behavior of Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} fission products compound is studied. High-temperature form of Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} is characterized by XRD and Raman. Thermal expansion appears very high and anisotropic. Cohesion between Cs{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} and nuclear fuel seems questionable, and Cs release is expected.

  10. A Review Corrosion of TI Grade 7 and Other TI Alloys in Nuclear Waste Repository Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F. Hua; K. Mon; P. Pasupathi; G. Gordon

    2004-05-11

    Titanium alloy degradation modes are reviewed in relation to their performance in repository environments. General corrosion, localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen induced cracking, microbially influenced corrosion, and radiation-assisted corrosion of Ti alloys are considered. With respect to the Ti Grade 7 drip shields selected for emplacement in the repository at Yucca Mountain, general corrosion, hydrogen induced cracking, and radiation-assisted corrosion will not lead to failure within the 10,000 year regulatory period; stress corrosion cracking (in the absence of disruptive events) is of no consequence to barrier performance; and localized corrosion and microbially influenced corrosion are not expected to occur. To facilitate the discussion, Ti Grades 2, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18, and 24 are included in this review.

  11. Nature of Transactions (TI) Code | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    | (NNSA) Nature of Transactions (TI) Code U.S. Department of Energy / U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Materials Management & Safeguards System Nature of Transactions (TI) Code* Nature of Transactions (TI) Code* Code: Description: A Initiates lease and financial responsibility of DOE-owned material B Transfer of lease and financial responsiblity of DOE-owned material C Transfer of DOE-owned material with no change in lease or financial responsibility D Return to DOE for credit

  12. Production of monoclonal antibody (MoAB) CS-1 against platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa (GP IIb-IIIa)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsamooj, P.; Morris, M.; Doellgast, G.; Hantgan, R.

    1987-05-01

    Platelet aggregation is mediated by the binding of fibrinogen (FGN) to the platelet GP IIb-IIIa complex. Receptor complex was purified from a solubilized platelet membrane fraction followed by lentil-lectin affinity chromatography and gel filtration. SDS-PAGE showed the product to be the complex, GP IIb-IIIa; light scattering intensity measurements indicated a Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent complex of the appropriate MW. Purified complex was then used to raise antibodies in Balb-c mice by standard hybridoma technology; positive cells were found by ELISA enabling the detection of antibody concentrations as low as 3 ng/ml. The MoABs were purified from both culture supernatant and ascites fluid by ion exchange and protein-A affinity chromatography. Western blotting determined that CS-1 is specific for nonreduced GP IIIa but not reduced GP IIIa or any form of GP IIb. CS-1 inhibited binding of radiolabeled FGN to ADP-stimulated platelets by 40-50% over a concentration range of 5-70 ..mu..g/ml. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that CS-1 recognized a protein on the surface of both resting and stimulated platelets. The determined specificity of CS-1 and its limited ability to inhibit FGN binding to platelets make this MoAB useful for analysis of the structural and functional relationships between fibrin(ogen) and GP IIb-IIIa.

  13. Evaluation of polymer-coated CsI:Tl as an alpha/beta pulse shape discriminating flow cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chotoo, S.D.; DeVol, T.A.; Fjeld, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    A pulse shape discriminating flow-cell radiation detection system constructed with polymer-coated CsI:Tl was evaluated for simultaneous gross alpha/gross beta quantification. The CsI:Tl scintillator was crushed and sieved to 63--90-{micro}m particle size and encapsulated with Parylene C to slow its dissolution rate. Averaged over the first hour of use, the pulse shape discrimination figure of merit was 1.4, and the detection efficiencies ({+-}1{sigma}) were 64.9 {+-} 5.7%, 52.5 {+-} 4.5%, and 4.5 {+-} 0.2% for {sup 233}U, {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, and {sup 14}C, respectively. The typical background count rates in the alpha and beta pulse shape window were 0.004 and 0.17 cps, respectively. The resultant minimum detectable activities ({+-}1{sigma}) for a 30-s count time were calculated to be 0.19 {+-} 0.01 Bq, 0.9 {+-} 0.1 Bq, and 11.4 {+-} 0.6 Bq for {sup 233}U, {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, and {sup 14}C, respectively. Although the 3-{micro}m-thick encapsulation slowed CsI:Tl dissolution, the detection efficiency declined by a factor of two after 4.8 h, while the pulse shape resolution degraded slightly. With an appropriate coating, CsI:Tl is a good candidate for a heterogeneous pulse shape discriminating flow-cell.

  14. Environmental effects of fog oil and CS usage at the Combat Maneuver Training Center, Hohenfels, Germany. [2-chlorophenylmethylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brubaker, K.L.; Rosenblatt, D.H.; Snyder, C.T.

    1992-03-01

    In response to environmental concerns at the Combat Maneuver Training Center (CMTC), Hohenfels, Germany, the US Army 7th Army Training Command commissioned a scientific study by Argonne National Laboratory to investigate specific issues. The study involved three parts: (1) a field study to determine if fog oil and CS (a compound named after its discoverers, B.B. Carson and R.W. Stoughton) were accumulating in the CMTC environment, (2) a screening of selected soil samples for the presence of US Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutants, and (3) a literature review of the health effects of fog oil and CS, as well as a review of training practices at CMTC. No fog oil or fog oil degradation products were detected in any soil, sediment, or vegetation sample collected at CMTC. Trace quantities of one or more priority pollutants were tentatively detected in three of eight soil and sediment samples. However, the priority pollutant concentrations are so low that they pose no environmental or health hazards. No evidence of widespread or significant contamination in the training areas was found. Crucial data needed to fully evaluate both acute and chronic health effects of civilian exposures to CS at CMTC are not available. On the basis of the available literature, long-ten-n health effects in the civilian population near CMTC that could result from the use of fog oil and CS during training activities are believed to be negligible.

  15. Design, Development and Operational Experience of Demonstration Facility for Cs-137 Source Pencil Production at Trombay - 13283

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patil, S.B.; Srivastava, P.; Mishra, S.K.; Khan, S.S.; Nair, K.N.S.

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive waste management is a vital aspect of any nuclear program. The commercial feasibility of the nuclear program largely depends on the efficiency of the waste management techniques. One of such techniques is the separation of high yield radio-nuclides from the waste and making it suitable for medical and industrial applications. This will give societal benefit in addition to revenue generation. Co-60, the isotope presently being used for medical applications, needs frequent replacement because of its short half life. Cs-137, the major constituent of the nuclear waste, is a suitable substitute for Co-60 as a radioactive source because of its longer half life (28 years). Indian nuclear waste management program has given special emphasis on utilization of Cs-137 for such applications. In view of this a demonstration facility has been designed for vitrification of Cs-137 in borosilicate glass, cast in stainless steel pencils, to be used as source pencils of 300 Ci strength for blood irradiation. An induction heated metallic melter of suitable capacity has been custom designed for the application and employed for the Cs-137 pencil fabrication facility. This article describes various systems, design features, experiments and resulting modifications, observations and remote handling features necessary for the actual operation of such facility. The layout of the facility has been planned in such a way that the same can be adopted in a hot cell for commercial production of source pencils. (authors)

  16. Thermoelastic Analysis of a Vibrating TiB/Ti Cantilever Beam Using Differential Thermography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrd, Larry; Wyen, Travis; Byrd, Alex

    2008-02-15

    Differential thermography has been used to detect the fluctuating temperatures due the thermoelastic effect for a number of years. This paper examines functionally graded TiB/Ti cantilever beams excited on an electromechanical shaker in fully reversed bending. Finite difference analysis of specimens was used to look at the effect of heat conduction, convection and the fundamental frequency on the surface temperature distribution and compared to experimental data. The thermoelastic effect was also used to detect cracking and the stress field at the tip of the fixture during fatigue.

  17. Ab initio Study of He Stability in hcp-Ti

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Yunya; Yang, Li; Peng, SM; Long, XG; Gao, Fei; Zu, Xiaotao T.

    2010-12-20

    The stability of He in hcp-Ti was studied using ab initio method based on density functional theory. The results indicate that a single He atom prefers to occupy the tetrahedral site rather than the octahedral site. The interaction of He defects with Ti atoms has been used to explain the relative stabilities of He point defects in hcp-Ti. The relative stability of He defects in hcp-Ti is useful for He clustering and bubble nucleation in metal tritides, which provides the basis for development of improved atomistic models.

  18. Cathodic cage plasma deposition of TiN and TiO{sub 2} thin films on silicon substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sousa, Romulo R. M. de; Sato, Patricia S.; Nascente, Pedro A. P.; Viana, Bartolomeu C.; Alves, Clodomiro; Nishimoto, Akio

    2015-07-15

    Cathodic cage plasma deposition (CCPD) was used for growing titanium nitride (TiN) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) thin films on silicon substrates. The main advantages of the CCPD technique are the uniformity, tridimensionality, and high rate of the film deposition that occurs at higher pressures, lower temperatures, and lower treatment times than those used in conventional nitriding treatments. In this work, the influence of the temperature and gas atmosphere upon the characteristics of the deposited films was investigated. The TiN and TiO{sub 2} thin films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy to analyze their chemical, structural, and morphological characteristics, and the combination of these results indicates that the low-cost CCPD technique can be used to produce even and highly crystalline TiN and TiO{sub 2} films.

  19. Ferroelectric Self-assembled PbTiO3 Perovskite Nanostructures...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Perovskite Nanostructures onto (100)SrTiO3 Substrates from a Novel Microemulsion-aided Sol-Gel Preparation Figure 1. PbTiO3 nanostructures onto (100) SrTiO3 substrates....

  20. Optimizing optical absorption of TiO{sub 2} by alloying with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Optimizing optical absorption of TiOsub 2 by alloying with TiSsub 2 TiOsub 2 is an attractive material for photocatalytic water splitting, but its band gap is too ...

  1. Fiscal year 1995 laboratory scale studies of Cs elution in Tank 8D-1 and sludge dissolution in tank 8D-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sills, J.A.; Patello, G.K.; Roberts, J.S.; Wiemers, K.D.; Elmore, M.R.; Richmond, W.G.; Russell, R.L.

    1996-04-01

    During Phase I of West Valley Demonstration project waste remediation, an estimated 95% of the zeolite currently in tank 8D-1 will be transferred to tank 8D-2, leaving behind residual Cs-loaded zeolite which will require treatment to remove the Cs. After phase I vitrification, tank 8D-2 will contain residual waste from PUREX and THOREX and spent Cs-loaded zeolite. The residual waste will require treatment. Oxalic acid has been proposed for eluting Cs from zeolite in tank 8D-1 and dissolving radionuclides in tank 8D-2. Laboratory tests were performed to determine optimum Cs elution and sludge dissolution conditions and to evaluate effects of multiple contacts, long-term contacts, presence of corrosion products, lack of agitation, temperature of tank contents, and oxalic acid concentration. Mild steel corrosion tests were also conducted.

  2. Temperature and composition phase diagram in the iron-based ladder compounds Ba 1 - x Cs x Fe 2 Se 3

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hawai, Takafumi; Nambu, Yusuke; Ohgushi, Kenya; Du, Fei; Hirata, Yasuyuki; Avdeev, Maxim; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Sekine, Yurina; Fukazawa, Hiroshi; Ma, Jie; et al

    2015-05-28

    We investigated the iron-based ladder compounds (Ba,Cs)Fe₂Se₃. Their parent compounds BaFe₂Se₃ and CsFe₂Se₃ have different space groups, formal valences of Fe, and magnetic structures. Electrical resistivity, specific heat, magnetic susceptibility, x-ray diffraction, and powder neutron diffraction measurements were conducted to obtain a temperature and composition phase diagram of this system. Block magnetism observed in BaFe₂Se₃ is drastically suppressed with Cs doping. In contrast, stripe magnetism observed in CsFe₂Se₃ is not so fragile against Ba doping. A new type of magnetic structure appears in intermediate compositions, which is similar to stripe magnetism of CsFe₂Se₃, but interladder spin configuration is different. Intermediatemore » compounds show insulating behavior, nevertheless a finite T-linear contribution in specific heat was obtained at low temperatures.« less

  3. Progress report for FACETS (Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations): C.S. SAP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epperly, T W

    2008-10-01

    The mission of the Computer Science Scientific Application Partnership (C.S. SAP) at LLNL is to develop and apply leading-edge scientific component technology to FACETS software. Contributions from LLNL's fusion energy program staff towards the underlying physics modules are described in a separate report. FACETS uses component technology to combine selectively multiple physics and solver software modules written in different languages by different institutions together in an tightly-integrated, parallel computing framework for Tokamak reactor modeling. In the past fiscal year, the C.S. SAP has focused on two primary tasks: applying Babel to connect UEDGE into the FACETS framework through UEDGE's existing Python interface and developing a next generation componentization strategy for UEDGE which avoids the use of Python. The FACETS project uses Babel to solve its language interoperability challenges. Specific accomplishments for the year include: (1) Refined SIDL interfaces for UEDGE to meet satisfy the standard interfaces required by FACETS for all physics modules. This required consensus building between framework and UEDGE developers. (2) Wrote prototype C++ driver for UEDGE to demonstrate how UEDGE can be called from C++ using Babel. (3) Supported the FACETS project by adding new features to Babel such as release number tagging, porting to new machines, and adding new configuration options. Babel modifications were delivered to FACETS by testing and publishing development snapshots in the projects software repository. (4) Assisted Tech-X Corporation in testing and debugging of a high level build system for the complete FACETS tool chain--the complete list of third-party software libraries that FACETS depends on directly or indirectly (e.g., MPI, HDF5, PACT, etc.). (5) Designed and implemented a new approach to wrapping UEDGE as a FACETS component without requiring Python. To get simulation results as soon as possible, our initial connection from the FACETS

  4. Structure of a highly acidic β-lactamase from the moderate halophile Chromohalobacter sp. 560 and the discovery of a Cs{sup +}-selective binding site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arai, Shigeki; Yonezawa, Yasushi; Okazaki, Nobuo; Matsumoto, Fumiko; Shibazaki, Chie; Shimizu, Rumi; Yamada, Mitsugu; Adachi, Motoyasu; Tamada, Taro; Kawamoto, Masahide; Tokunaga, Hiroko; Ishibashi, Matsujiro; Blaber, Michael; Tokunaga, Masao; Kuroki, Ryota

    2015-03-01

    The tertiary structure of a β-lactamase derived from the halobacterium Chromohalobacter sp. 560 (HaBLA) was determined by X-ray crystallography. Three unique Sr{sup 2+}-binding sites and one Cs{sup +}-binding site were discovered in the HaBLA molecule. Environmentally friendly absorbents are needed for Sr{sup 2+} and Cs{sup +}, as the removal of the radioactive Sr{sup 2+} and Cs{sup +} that has leaked from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant is one of the most important problems in Japan. Halophilic proteins are known to have many acidic residues on their surface that can provide specific binding sites for metal ions such as Cs{sup +} or Sr{sup 2+}. The crystal structure of a halophilic β-lactamase from Chromohalobacter sp. 560 (HaBLA) was determined to resolutions of between 1.8 and 2.9 Å in space group P3{sub 1} using X-ray crystallography. Moreover, the locations of bound Sr{sup 2+} and Cs{sup +} ions were identified by anomalous X-ray diffraction. The location of one Cs{sup +}-specific binding site was identified in HaBLA even in the presence of a ninefold molar excess of Na{sup +} (90 mM Na{sup +}/10 mM Cs{sup +}). From an activity assay using isothermal titration calorimetry, the bound Sr{sup 2+} and Cs{sup +} ions do not significantly affect the enzymatic function of HaBLA. The observation of a selective and high-affinity Cs{sup +}-binding site provides important information that is useful for the design of artificial Cs{sup +}-binding sites that may be useful in the bioremediation of radioactive isotopes.

  5. Structure-Curie temperature relationships in BaTiO 3 -based ferroelect...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ferroelectric perovskites: Anomalous behavior of ( Ba , Cd ) TiO 3 from DFT, ... ferroelectric perovskites: Anomalous behavior of ( Ba , Cd ) TiO 3 from DFT, ...

  6. Effects of hydrochloric acid treatment of TiO{sub 2}nanoparticles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effects of hydrochloric acid treatment of TiOsub 2 nanoparticlesnanofibers bilayer film ... Title: Effects of hydrochloric acid treatment of TiOsub 2 nanoparticlesnanofibers ...

  7. Equation of State Model Quality Study for Ti and Ti64.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wills, Ann Elisabet; Sanchez, Jason James

    2015-02-01

    Titanium and the titanium alloy Ti64 (6% aluminum, 4% vanadium and the balance ti- tanium) are materials used in many technologically important applications. To be able to computationally investigate and design these applications, accurate Equations of State (EOS) are needed and in many cases also additional constitutive relations. This report describes what data is available for constructing EOS for these two materials, and also describes some references giving data for stress-strain constitutive models. We also give some suggestions for projects to achieve improved EOS and constitutive models. In an appendix, we present a study of the 'cloud formation' issue observed in the ALEGRA code. This issue was one of the motivating factors for this literature search of available data for constructing improved EOS for Ti and Ti64. However, the study shows that the cloud formation issue is only marginally connected to the quality of the EOS, and, in fact, is a physical behavior of the system in question. We give some suggestions for settings in, and improvements of, the ALEGRA code to address this computational di culty.

  8. A=10B (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 10B) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 10B published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 10B located on our website at: (www.tunl.duke.edu/nucldata/General_Tables/10b.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 10.18 preview 10.18 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). μ = +1.80064475 ± 0.00000057 μN: see (1989RA17); Q = +84.72

  9. A=19B (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    95TI07) (Not illustrated) 19B has been observed in the bombardment of Be by 12 MeV/A 56Fe ions (1984MU27) and in the fragmentation of 44 MeV/A 40Ar (1988GU1A) and 55 MeV/A 48Ca (1991MU19). See also (1989DE52). The mass excess adopted by (1993AU05) is 59.360 ± 0.400 MeV. Shell model predictions for low-lying levels are discussed in (1992WA22). See also (1989PO1K, 1990LO11

  10. A=20C (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    98TI06) (Not illustrated) 20C has been observed in heavy ion projectile fragmentation reactions (1987GI05, 1990MU06, 1991MU19) and in proton-induced target-fragmentation reactions (1987VI13, 1988MU08, 1993WOZZ). The atomic mass excess is 37.560 ± 0.200 MeV (1995AU04). It is then stable with respect to 19C + n and 18C + 2n by 3.3 and 3.5 MeV, respectively. β-delayed neutron emission has been observed (1987GI05, 1990MU06, 1991MU19). The half life and neutron emission probability have been

  11. A=20N (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    98TI06) (Not illustrated) 20N is particle stable. Its atomic mass excess is 21.770 ± 0.050 MeV (1995AU04). It has been observed in heavy-ion transfer (1989OR03) and projectile fragmentation reactions (1987GI05, 1988DUZT, 1988MU08, 1990MU06, 1991OR01) and in target fragmentation reactions (1988WO09, 1991RE02, 1993WOZZ). See also the review (1988VI1D). Mass measurements were reported in (1987GI05, 1988WO09, 1989OR03, 1991OR01, 1993WOZZ). Nuclear matter rms radii have been derived from

  12. A=3He (1987TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1987TI07) GENERAL: Ground State: Jπ = 1/2+, μ = -2.127624 ± 0.0000011 nm, M - A = 14.93132 ± 0.00003 MeV. General properties of the ground state of the A = 3 system are under 3H above. The wave function is predominantly S-state (~ 90%) with S'-state (1 - 2%) and D-state (~ 9%) admixtures (1975FI08, 1980PA12, 1984CI05, 1984CI09). For 3He the measured magnetic moment is μ = -2.127624 ± 0.0000011 nm (1978LEZA, 1978NE12). Calculations which include both impulse and pion exchange contributions

  13. A=3Li (1987TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1987TI07) GENERAL: The previous compilation (1975FI08) listed a small number of references reporting on the four reactions discussed below. Only one of the experiments cited contained any evidence for a 3p resonance, and the discussion suggested that the observed enhancement in 3He(p, n) was more likely a final state interaction. In the work reported since (1975FI08) and listed below, only (1974POZN) contains any mention of the tri-proton, and no evidence for its existence was observed. 1. 2H(p,

  14. A=4HE (1992TI02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    He (1992TI02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 4He) GENERAL: Ground state:Due to non-central forces, the wave function for the Jπ = 0+ ground state of 4He can be a positive-parity mixture of three 1S0, six 3P0, and five 5D0 orthogonal states (1967BE74). Of course, the symmetric S-wave component is the dominant part of the wavefunction, with significant D-wave and almost negligible P-wave contributions. Since the D-state admixture can be inferred from measurements such as the tensor analyzing

  15. A=4Li (1992TI02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Li (1992TI02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 4Li) GENERAL: The stability of 8B against particle decay (1988AJ01), in particular against decay into 4He + 4Li, sets an upper limit of 1.7 MeV on the separation energy of 4Li into p + 3He (1952SH44). The instability of 4H against particle decay (see 4H, GENERAL section) makes the particle stability of 4Li very unlikely, since the Coulomb energy of 4Li is approximately 1.7 MeV larger than that of 4H (1963WE10), and the nuclear energies should be

  16. A=5H (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (Not illustrated) See also the A = 5 introductory discussion titled A = 5 resonance parameters. The previous review (1988AJ01) noted that the 9Be(11B, 15O) reaction at E(11B) = 52 - 76 MeV showed no evidence for the formation of 5H (1986BE35, 1987BO40). For the earlier work see (1984AJ01). See also (1987KO47, 1988SEZJ). In several experiments on π- absorption at rest there is some evidence for the formation of a very broad (8 ± 3 MeV) resonance in the 5H system with Er = 7.4 ± 0.7

  17. A=5He (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 5He) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 5He published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 5He located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/NuclData/General_Tables/5he.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 5.1 preview 5.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). See also the A = 5 introductory discussion titled A = 5 resonance

  18. A=5Li (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 5Li) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 5Li published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 5Li located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/NuclData/General_Tables/5li.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 5.3 preview 5.3 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). See also the A = 5 introductory discussion titled A = 5 resonance

  19. A=6Be (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 6Be) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 6Be published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 6Be located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/NuclData/General_Tables/6be.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 6.14 preview 6.14 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). 1. (a) 3He(3He, γ)6Be Qm = 11.4884 (b) 3He(3He, p)5Li Qm = 11.17

  20. A=6He (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 6He) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 6He published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 6He located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/NuclData/General_Tables/6he.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 6.1 preview 6.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Ground State Properties: The interaction radius of 6He, obtained

  1. A=6Li (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 6Li) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 6He published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and isted, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 6Li located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/NuclData/General_Tables/6li.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 6.4 preview 6.4 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Ground State Properties: μ = +0.8220473(6) nm, +0.8220567(3) nm:

  2. A=6n (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (Not illustrated) 6n has not been observed. See (1979AJ01, 1988AJ01) and references cited there. More recently (1990AL40) reports a search for 6n in a 14C(7Li, 6n) activation experiment at E(7Li) = 82 MeV. No evidence for 6n was obtained. The method of angular potential functions was used by (1989GO18) in a calculation of the properties of multi-neutron systems which indicated that these systems have no bound states. The ground state energy of a six-neutron drop has been computed with

  3. A=7Be (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 7Be) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 7Be published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 7Be located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/NuclData/General_Tables/7be.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 7.7 preview 7.7 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). The interaction nuclear radius of 7Be is 2.22 ± 0.02 fm

  4. A=7He (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 7He) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 7He published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 7He located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/NuclData/General_Tables/7he.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 7.1 preview 7.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Mass of 7He: The atomic mass excess of 7He is 26.11 ± 0.03 MeV:

  5. A=8B (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 8B) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 8B published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 8B located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/nucldata/General_Tables/8b.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 8.15 preview 8.15 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). μ = 1.0355 ± 0.0003 μN: see (1996FIZY). Q = 68.3 ± 2.1 mb

  6. A=8He (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 8He) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 8He published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 8He located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/nucldata/General_Tables/8he.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 8.1 preview 8.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Mass of 8He: The atomic mass excess of 8He adopted by us and by

  7. A=9B (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 9B) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 9B published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 9B located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/nucldata/General_Tables/9b.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 9.13 preview 9.13 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). The low-lying levels of 9B have mainly [441] spatial symmetry and

  8. A=9Be (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 9Be) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 9Be published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 9Be located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/nucldata/General_Tables/9be.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 9.2 preview 9.2 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). μ = -1.1778 ± 0.0009 μN: see (1978LEZA); Q = 52.88 ± 0.38 mb:

  9. A=9C (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 9C) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 9C published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 9C located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/nucldata/General_Tables/9c.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 9.16 preview 9.16 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Ground state properties: μ = -1.3914 ± 0.0005 μN (1996MA38). See

  10. A=9He (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (See the Isobar Diagram for 9He) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 9He published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 9He located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/nucldata/General_Tables/9he.shtml). Mass of 9He: Although the value adopted in the 2003 Atomic Mass Evaluation (2003AU02) for the 9He ground state is 40.939 ± 0.029 MeV based on the results

  11. A=9Li (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 9Li) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 9Li published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 9Li located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/nucldata/General_Tables/9li.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 9.1 preview 9.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Ground state properties: μ = 3.4391 ± 0.0006 μN (1983CO11). See

  12. A=9N (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (Not illustrated) Not observed: see (1988AJ01). Mass excesses of 46.56 and 46.40 MeV have been estimated from two different mass formulae (2000PO32). 9N would then be proton unbound by ~ 4 MeV. However, mass formulae neither take into account the fact that the last occupied orbit(s) may change near the drip lines nor the fact that an extended low-l orbit leads to a lowered Coulomb energy. The suggested s-wave ground-state of 9He and a Coulomb energy estimated from the 11N ground state

  13. Spectroscopy identification performance enhancement of a novel CZT/CsI hybrid system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russ, W.; Nakazawa, D.; Hau, I.; Morichi, M.

    2011-07-01

    New hybrid spectroscopic systems directly combine spectra from detectors with very different energy resolutions, accommodating standard analyses of the output hybrid spectrum. Simulations of a hybrid system consisting of a 2 or 4 cm{sup 3} cadmium zinc telluride detector combined with a 32.8 cm{sup 3} CsI(Tl) were evaluated for identification performance. 29 nuclides of interest for security applications were simulated as singles and unique pairs, producing 435 spectral simulations at live times of 3, 10, 30, 100 and 300 seconds. The nuclides were modeled as point sources at 25 cm with activities that provide an interesting range of statistical significance for the range of counting times. Standard nuclide identification analyses were applied to the component detectors as well as the hybrid combination. Tallies of the results were used to calculate true and false identification rates. The hybrid system was shown to provide an identification performance benefit, consistently achieving performances closest to ideal relative to the separate component detectors. The hybrid approach enables the consideration of a greater variety of measurement system solutions in terms of cost and performance. (authors)

  14. Radiocesium ([sup 137]Cs) from the Chernobyl reactor in Eurasian woodcock and earthworms in Norway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalas, J.A. ); Bretten, S.; Njastad, O. ); Byrkjedal, I. )

    1994-01-01

    To understand the ecological effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident, we investigated radiocesium ([sup 137]Cs) levels in Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), earthworms (Lambricidae), litter (dead organic materials lying on the ground), humus (beneath litter 2 cm deep), and mineral soil samples (3-6 cm deep) from a heavily effected (20-60 kBq/m[sup 2][1 Bq = 1 nuclear fission/sec]) area in Norway. The highest concentrations measured in earthworms (1988 median = 142 Bq/Kg) and woodcock (1986 median = 730 Bq/kg) for human food (600 Bq/kg fresh mass) only were found in woodcock during 1986. Radiocesium concentrations decreased (P < 0.001) in earthworms (40%) and woodcock (95%) from 1986 to 1990. There was no reduction in total radiocesium in soil over the same period. The relatively high radiocesium concentrations in woodcock during 1986 and the decreasing radiocesium ratio in woodcock to earthworms during the first years following fallout could have been caused by woodcock ingesting abiotic radiocesium with earthworms. The decrease in radiocesium in woodcock and earthworms during the study (1986-90) probably resulted from decreasing bioavailability of radiocesium during the first years after fallout rather than by radiocesium disappearing from the ecosystem. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Characterization of high-voltage cathodes in CsBr-LiBr-KBr eutectic electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.

    2000-04-20

    The transition-metal oxides LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, MnO{sub 2}, CrO{sub 2}, and LiCoO{sub 2} were evaluated for possible use as high-voltage cathodes for potential geothermal power applications. These were coupled with Li(Si) anodes and a low-melting CsBr-LiBr-KBr eutectic electrolyte that melts at 228.5 C. Single-cell tests at 250 C and 300 C at 15.8 and 31.6 mA/cm{sup 2} showed that MnO{sub 2} performed the best overall and had the lowest polarization. A 5-cell battery test using LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathodes was only modestly successful due to possible parasitic chemical reactions between the cathode and electrolyte at the much higher temperature (500 C) during discharge. The overall energy densities for these cathode were still less than for FeS{sub 2}.

  16. Heavy ion beam induced charge transfer in Ar-Cs mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murnick, D.E.; Gernhauser, R.; Ulrich, A.; Krotz, W.; Wieser, J.

    1993-12-01

    In situ production of target ions in cold, dense matter by heavy ion collisions and subsequent selective charge transfer may provide an effective pumping scheme for heavy ion beam pumped lasers. Charge transfer from cesium atoms to doubly charged argon ions was used for selective population of 4d-levels in Ar II. The argon ions were produced in an argon-cesium gas target by a pulsed beam of 100 MeV {sup 32}S{sup 8+} ions from the Munich Tandem van de Graaff accelerator. The ion beam of 12 {times} 10{sup 6} ions/pulse had a pulse width of 2 ns and a repetition rate of 32 kHz. The argon pressure was typically 250 mbar. The cesium partial pressure was adjusted by heating the gas target, including a cesium reservoir, to temperatures between 250 and 500{degrees}C. Time resolved wavelength spectra showed large intensity increases corresponding to 4d {sup 4}D and 4d {sup 4}F to 4p transitions in Ar II in the ultraviolet wavelength region between 300 and 400 nm. This is interpreted as a resonant charge transfer of outer electrons of cesium to 4d levels in Ar II in Cs{sup 0} + Ar{sup 2+} collisions.

  17. Conditioning and Repackaging of Spent Radioactive Cs-137 and Co-60 Sealed Sources in Egypt - 13490

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasan, M.A.; Selim, Y.T.; El-Zakla, T.

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive Sealed sources (RSSs) are widely use all over the world in medicine, agriculture, industry, research, etc. The accidental misuse and exposure to RSSs has caused significant environmental contamination, serious injuries and many deaths. The high specific activity of the materials in many RSSs means that the spread of as little as microgram quantities can generate significant risk to human health and inhibit the use of buildings and land. Conditioning of such sources is a must to protect humans and environment from the hazard of ionizing radiation and contamination. Conditioning is also increase the security of these sources by decreasing the probability of stolen and/or use in terrorist attacks. According to the law No.7/2010, Egyptian atomic energy authority represented in the hot laboratories and waste management center (centralized waste facility, HLWMC) has the responsibility of collecting, conditioning, storing and management of all types of radioactive waste from all Egyptian territory including spent radioactive sealed sources (SRSSs). This paper explains the conditioning procedures for two of the most common SRSSs, Cs{sup 137} and Co{sup 60} sources which make up more than 90% of the total spent radioactive sealed sources stored in our centralized waste facility as one of the major activities of hot laboratories and waste management center. Conditioning has to meet three main objectives, be acceptable for storage, enable their safe transport, and comply with disposal requirements. (authors)

  18. Fabrication of TiO{sub 2} Thick Film for Photocatalyst from Commercial TiO{sub 2} Powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asteti, S. Fuji; Syarif, D. Gustaman

    2008-03-17

    Photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} thick film ceramics made of commercial TiO{sub 2} powder has been studied. The TiO{sub 2} powder was nano sized one that was derived from dried TiO{sub 2} suspension. The TiO{sub 2} suspension was made by pouring some blended commercial TiO{sub 2} powder into some amount of water. The paste of TiO{sub 2} was made by mixing the nano sized TiO{sub 2} powder with organic vehicle and glass frit. The paste was spread on a glass substrate. The paste was dried at 100 deg. C and heated at different temperatures (400 deg. C and 500 deg. C) for 60 minutes to produce thick film ceramics. The photocatalytic activity of these films was evaluated by measuring the concentration of a solution of methylene blue where the thick films were inside after being illuminated by UV light at various periods of times. The initial concentration of the methylene blue solution was 5 ppm. Structural analyses were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD analyses showed that the produced thick film ceramic had mainly crystal structure of anatase. According to the photocatalytical data, it was known that the produced thick film ceramics were photocatalyst which were capable of decomposing an organic compound such as the methylene blue.

  19. Intrinsic quantum anomalous Hall effect in the kagome lattice Cs2LiMn3F12

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Gang; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou -Cheng

    2015-10-27

    In a kagome lattice, the time reversal symmetry can be broken by a staggered magnetic flux emerging from ferromagnetic ordering and intrinsic spin-orbit coupling, leading to several well-separated nontrivial Chern bands and intrinsic quantum anomalous Hall effect. Based on this idea and ab initio calculations, we propose the realization of the intrinsic quantum anomalous Hall effect in the single layer Cs2Mn3F12 kagome lattice and on the (001) surface of a Cs2LiMn3F12 single crystal by modifying the carrier coverage on it, where the band gap is around 20 meV. Furthermore, a simplified tight binding model based on the in-plane ddσ antibondingmore » states is constructed to understand the topological band structures of the system.« less

  20. Comparison of CsBr and KBr coated Cu photocathodes: Effects of laser irradiation and work function changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Weidong; VilayurGanapathy, Subramanian; Joly, Alan G.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Chambers, Scott A.; Maldonado, Juan R.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2013-02-20

    Thin films (7 nm layers) of CsBr and KBr were deposited on Cu(100) to investigate photoemission properties of these potential photocathode materials. After thin film deposition and prolonged laser ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (266 nm picosecond laser) photoemission quantum efficiency increases by factors of 26 and 77 for KBr/Cu(100) and CsBr/Cu(100) photocathodes, respectively. Immediately following thin film deposition, a decrease in work function is observed, compared to bare Cu, in both cases. Quantum efficiency enhancements are attributed to the decrease in photocathode work function, due to the deposition of alkali halide thin films, and photo-induced processes, that introduce defect states into the alkali halide bandgap, induced by UV laser irradiation. It is possible that alkali metal formation occurs during UV irradiation and that this further contributes to photoemission enhancement. Our results suggest that KBr, a relatively stable alkali-halide, has potential for photocathode applications.

  1. Electrostatic carrier doping of GdTiO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moetakef, Pouya; Cain, Tyler A.; Zhang, Jack Y.; Janotti, Anderson; Van de Walle, Chris G.; Stemmer, Susanne; Ouellette, Daniel G.; Allen, S. James; Klenov, Dmitri O.; Rajan, Siddharth

    2011-12-05

    Heterostructures and superlattices consisting of a prototype Mott insulator, GdTiO{sub 3}, and the band insulator SrTiO{sub 3} are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and show intrinsic electronic reconstruction, approximately 1/2 electron per surface unit cell at each GdTiO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interface. The sheet carrier densities in all structures containing more than one unit cell of SrTiO{sub 3} are independent of layer thicknesses and growth sequences, indicating that the mobile carriers are in a high concentration, two-dimensional electron gas bound to the interface. These carrier densities closely meet the electrostatic requirements for compensating the fixed charge at these polar interfaces. Based on the experimental results, insights into interfacial band alignments, charge distribution, and the influence of different electrostatic boundary conditions are obtained.

  2. Luminescent properties of phosphor converted LED using an orange-emitting Rb{sub 2}CaP{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Hee Jo; Yim, Dong Kyun; Cho, In-Sun; Roh, Hee-Suk; Kim, Ju Seong; Kim, Dong-Wan; Hong, Kug Sun

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Phase-pure Rb{sub 2}CaP{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Eu{sup 2+} powders were synthesized by a solid state reaction process. ► The optimum emission intensity was observed at the Eu{sup 2+} ion concentration of 0.006. ► The dipole–dipole interaction was the major concentration quenching mechanism. ► The pc-LED coated with Rb{sub 2}CaP{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Eu{sup 2+} had higher CRI than commercial red phosphor. -- Abstract: A series of orange-emitting Rb{sub 2}CaP{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphors were synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction method. The as-prepared phosphors were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), fluorescence spectroscopy, and spectroradiometry. XRD showed that all prepared samples exhibited a monoclinic Rb{sub 2}CaP{sub 2}O{sub 7} phase. Fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the photoluminescence efficiency of Rb{sub 2}Ca{sub 1−x}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Eu{sub x}{sup 2+} phosphors increased with increasing Eu{sup 2+} concentration until x = 0.006, then decreased at higher concentrations, due to a concentration quenching effect. The thermal activation energy was also measured to be 0.40 eV. Furthermore, a phosphor-converted LED (pc-LED) coated with Rb{sub 2}Ca{sub 0.994}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Eu{sub 0.006}{sup 2+} was fabricated, which exhibited bright orange emission under a forward bias, from 200 to 300 mA. The color rendering index (CRI) of pc-LED coated with Rb{sub 2}Ca{sub 0.994}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Eu{sub 0.006}{sup 2+} was higher than the CRI of pc-LED coated with commercial red phosphor, due to the broad emission band of Rb{sub 2}CaP{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor. In applying with three-band pc-LEDs, moreover, white pc-LED using Rb{sub 2}CaP{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor had a higher CRI, than using commercial phosphor. These results indicated that Rb{sub 2}CaP{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor could be a good candidate for a near-UV based w-LED.

  3. Comparison of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 137}Cs concentrations in soil around Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulse, S.E.; Ibrahim, S.A.; Whicker, F.W.; Chapman, P.L.

    1999-03-01

    Gamma spectroscopy measurements were used to estimate concentrations of {sup 241}Am and {sup 137}Cs in soil profiles to depths of 21 cm at on-site and off-site locations around the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and at regional background locations east of the Front Range between Colorado`s borders with New Mexico and Wyoming. Concentrations of these radionuclides were compared with concentrations of {sup 239,240}Pu in the same samples. Concentrations of {sup 241}Am in soil from depths of 0 to 3 cm decreased in an easterly direction from more than 5.3 kBq kg{sup {minus}1} 5 to 7 km away at a rate that was nearly proportional to the inverse square of distance. Deposits of {sup 137}Cs were ubiquitous, averaging 0.12 kBq kg{sup {minus}1} in soil from depths of 0 to 3 cm, but were unevenly distributed around Rocky Flats and the regional background locations. Deviations from the uniform exponential rate at which soil concentrations of {sup 137}Cs typically decreased with depth, {minus}0.25 cm{sup {minus}1} at undisturbed sites, enabled the authors to determine that about 10% of their sampling sites had been disturbed by erosion, tillage, or other factors. The mean rate at which {sup 239,240}Pu decreased with depth was about the same, {minus}0.23 cm{sup {minus}1}, throughout the study area. Soil concentrations of {sup 241}Am decreased with depth at a similar mean rate of {minus}0.22 cm{sup {minus}1} at locations close to the 903 pad where measurements were robust. Ratios between {sup 241}Am or {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 137}Cs proved more useful for delineating the extent and pattern of contamination from Rocky Flats than did activity concentrations in soil.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF 90SR AND 137CS PENETRATION INTO REINFORCED CONCRETE (EXTENT OF 'DEEPENING') UNDER NATURAL ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    When assessing the feasibility of remediation following the detonation of a radiological dispersion device or improvised nuclear device in a large city, several issues should be considered including the levels and characteristics of the radioactive contamination, the availability of resources required for decontamination, and the planned future use of the city's structures and buildings. Currently, little is known about radionuclide penetration into construction materials in an urban environment. Knowledge in this area would be useful when considering costs of a thorough decontamination of buildings, artificial structures, and roads in an affected urban environment. Pripyat, a city substantially contaminated by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in April 1986, may provide some answers. The main objective of this study was to assess the depth of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs penetration into reinforced concrete structures in a highly contaminated urban environment under natural weather conditions. Thirteen reinforced concrete core samples were obtained from external surfaces of a contaminated building in Pripyat. The concrete cores were drilled to obtain sample layers of 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, 20-30, 30-40, and 40-50 mm. Both {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were detected in the entire 0-50 mm profile of the reinforced cores sampled. In most of the cores, over 90% of the total {sup 137}Cs inventory and 70% of the total {sup 90}Sr inventory was found in the first 0-5 mm layer of the reinforced concrete. {sup 90}Sr had penetrated markedly deeper into the reinforced concrete structures than {sup 137}Cs.

  5. Crystal structure and thermal expansion of a CsCe2Cl7 scintillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuravleva, M.; Lindsey, A.; Chakoumakos, B. C.; Custelcean, R.; Meilleur, F.; Hughes, R. W.; Kriven, W. M.; Melcher, C. L.

    2015-04-06

    Here we used single-crystal X-ray diffraction data to determine crystal structure of CsCe2Cl7. It crystallizes in a P1121/b space group with a = 19.352(1) Å, b = 19.352(1) Å, c = 14.838(1) Å, γ = 119.87(2) ° , and V = 4818.6(5) Å3. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements combined with the structural evolution of CsCe2Cl7 via X-ray diffractometry over a temperature range from room temperature to the melting point indicates no obvious intermediate solid-solid phase transitions. The anisotropy in the average linear coefficient of thermal expansion of the a axis (21.3 10-6/ °C) with respect to the b and c axes (27.0 10-6/ °C) was determined through lattice parameter refinement of the temperature dependent diffraction patterns. Lastly, these findings suggest that the reported cracking behavior during melt growth of CsCe2Cl7 bulk crystals using conventional Bridgman and Czochralski techniques may be largely attributed to the anisotropy in thermal expansion.

  6. A new ab initio potential energy surface and infrared spectra for the Ar–CS{sub 2} complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Ting; Sun, Xueli; Hu, Yi; Zhu, Hua

    2014-09-14

    We report a new three-dimensional potential energy surface for Ar–CS{sub 2} involving the Q{sub 3} normal mode for the υ{sub 3} antisymmetric stretching vibration of the CS{sub 2} molecule. The potential energies were calculated using the supermolecular method at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles level with noniterative inclusion of connected triples, using augmented correlation-consistent quadruple-zeta basis set plus midpoint bond functions. Two vibrationally averaged potentials with CS{sub 2} at both the ground (υ = 0) and the first excited (υ = 1)υ{sub 3} vibrational states were generated from the integration of the three-dimensional potential over the Q{sub 3} coordinate. Each potential was found to have a T-shaped global minimum and two equivalent linear local minima. The radial discrete variable representation /angular finite basis representation method and the Lanczos algorithm were applied to calculate the rovibrational energy levels. The calculated band origin shift of the complex (0.0622 cm{sup −1}) is very close to the observed one (0.0671 cm{sup −1}). The predicted infrared spectra and spectroscopic parameters based on the two averaged potentials are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data.

  7. Magnetic excitations in the spin-1/2 triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Cs2CuBr4

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zvyagin, S. A.; Ozerov, M.; Kamenskyi, D.; Wosnitza, J.; Krzystek, J.; Yoshizawa, D.; Hagiwara, M.; Hu, Rongwei; Ryu, Hyejin; Petrovic, C.; et al

    2015-11-27

    We present on high- field electron spin resonance (ESR) studies of magnetic excitations in the spin- 1/2 triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Cs2CuBr4. Frequency- field diagrams of ESR excitations are measured for different orientations of magnetic fields up to 25 T. We show that the substantial zero- field energy gap, Δ ≈ 9.5 K, observed in the low-temperature excitation spectrum of Cs2CuBr4 [Zvyagin et al:, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 077206 (2014)], is present well above TN. Noticeably, the transition into the long-range magnetically ordered phase does not significantly affect the size of the gap, suggesting that even below TN the high-energy spin dynamicsmore » in Cs2CuBr4 is determined by short-range-order spin correlations. The experimental data are compared with results of model spin-wave-theory calculations for spin-1/2 triangle-lattice antiferromagnet.« less

  8. Colloid-Facilitated Transport of 137Cs in Fracture-Fill Material. Experiments and Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dittrich, Timothy M.; Reimus, Paul William

    2015-10-29

    In this study, we demonstrate how a combination of batch sorption/desorption experiments and column transport experiments were used to effectively parameterize a model describing the colloid-facilitated transport of Cs in the Grimsel granodiorite/FFM system. Cs partition coefficient estimates onto both the colloids and the stationary media obtained from the batch experiments were used as initial estimates of partition coefficients in the column experiments, and then the column experiment results were used to obtain refined estimates of the number of different sorption sites and the adsorption and desorption rate constants of the sites. The desorption portion of the column breakthrough curves highlighted the importance of accounting for adsorption-desorption hysteresis (or a very nonlinear adsorption isotherm) of the Cs on the FFM in the model, and this portion of the breakthrough curves also dictated that there be at least two different types of sorption sites on the FFM. In the end, the two-site model parameters estimated from the column experiments provided excellent matches to the batch adsorption/desorption data, which provided a measure of assurance in the validity of the model.

  9. Zn2+ and Sr2+ Adsorption at the TiO2 (110)-Electrolyte Interface: Influence of Ionic Strength, Coverage, and Anions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang,Z.; Fenter, P.; Cheng, L.; Sturchio, N.; Bedzyk, M.; Machesky, M.; Anovitz, L.; Wesolowski, D.

    2006-01-01

    The X-ray standing wave technique was used to probe the sensitivity of Zn{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+} ion adsorption to changes in both the adsorbed ion coverage and the background electrolyte species and concentrations at the rutile ({alpha}-TiO{sub 2}) (110)-aqueous interface. Measurements were made with various background electrolytes (NaCl, NaTr, RbCl, NaBr) at concentrations as high as 1 m. The results demonstrate that Zn{sub 2+} and Sr{sub 2+} reside primarily in the condensed layer and that the ion heights above the Ti-O surface plane are insensitive to ionic strength and the choice of background electrolyte (with <0.1 Angstroms changes over the full compositional range). The lack of any specific anion coadsorption upon probing with Br{sup -}, coupled with the insensitivity of Zn{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+} cation heights to changes in the background electrolyte, implies that anions do not play a significant role in the adsorption of these divalent metal ions to the rutile (110) surface. Absolute ion coverage measurements for Zn{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+} show a maximum Stern-layer coverage of {approx}0.5 monolayer, with no significant variation in height as a function of Stern-layer coverage. These observations are discussed in the context of Gouy-Chapman-Stern models of the electrical double layer developed from macroscopic sorption and pH-titration studies of rutile powder suspensions. Direct comparison between these experimental observations and the MUltiSIte Complexation (MUSIC) model predictions of cation surface coverage as a function of ionic strength revealed good agreement between measured and predicted surface coverages with no adjustable parameters.

  10. Phase equilibria, formation, crystal and electronic structure of ternary compounds in Ti-Ni-Sn and Ti-Ni-Sb ternary systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romaka, V.V.; Rogl, P.; Romaka, L.; Stadnyk, Yu.; Melnychenko, N.; Grytsiv, A.; Falmbigl, M.; Skryabina, N.

    2013-01-15

    The phase equilibria of the Ti-Ni-Sn and Ti-Ni-Sb ternary systems have been studied in the whole concentration range by means of X-ray and EPM analyses at 1073 K and 873 K, respectively. Four ternary intermetallic compounds TiNiSn (MgAgAs-type), TiNi{sub 2-x}Sn (MnCu{sub 2}Al-type), Ti{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Sn (U{sub 2}Pt{sub 2}Sn-type), and Ti{sub 5}NiSn{sub 3} (Hf{sub 5}CuSn{sub 3}-type) are formed in Ti-Ni-Sn system at 1073 K. The TiNi{sub 2}Sn stannide is characterized by homogeneity in the range of 50-47 at% of Ni. The Ti-Ni-Sb ternary system at 873 K is characterized by formation of three ternary intermetallic compounds, Ti{sub 0.8}NiSb (MgAgAs-type), Ti{sub 5}Ni{sub 0.45}Sb{sub 2.55} (W{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type), and Ti{sub 5}NiSb{sub 3} (Hf{sub 5}CuSn{sub 3}-type). The solubility of Ni in Ti{sub 0.8}NiSb decreases number of vacancies in Ti site up to Ti{sub 0.91}Ni{sub 1.1}Sb composition. - Graphical abstract: Isothermal section of the Ti-Ni-Sn phase diagram and DOS distribution in hypothetical TiNi{sub 1+x}Sn solid solution. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti-Ni-Sn phase diagram was constructed at 1073 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four ternary compounds are formed: TiNiSn, TiNi{sub 2-x}Sn, Ti{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Sn, and Ti{sub 5}NiSn{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three ternary compounds exist in Ti-Ni-Sb system at 873 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TiNi{sub 2}Sb compound is absent.

  11. Development of Ti/Ti{sub 3}Sn functionally gradient material produced by eutectic bonding method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirihara, S.; Takeda, M.; Tsujimoto, T. [Ibaraki Univ., Hitachi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering] [Ibaraki Univ., Hitachi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-07-15

    Although many materials which have a single function have been developed, future needs are anticipated to include materials which have various functions. A functionally gradient material (FGM) which has characteristics of two different materials is a promising candidate for multi-functional material. The present methods for production of FGM, however, are very complicated and costly. In this study the authors answer the serious problem of high production cost by fabricating the FGM by a eutectic bonding method. This fabrication method includes structural control of FGM by changing the cooling process. They describe Ti/Ti{sub 3}Sn FGM obtained by the eutectic bonding method, and tell how the structure of its composition gradient part is changed by controlling the cooling process.

  12. Application of Ti-alloys as compressor discs and blades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helm, D.

    1999-07-01

    Ti-alloys are widely used as materials for compressor discs, blades, vanes and housings in modern aero-engines due to their excellent strength-to-weight ratio. Their high corrosion resistance and good weldability are additional factors for their application as main compressor components. A variety of different Ti-alloys have been developed in recent years and introduced into jet engines in order to fulfill the large spectrum of required mechanical properties. The main topic of the present paper is to describe the correlation between essential microstructural features of a number of Ti-alloys for compressor disc and blade applications and such mechanical properties as strength, creep and fatigue resistance, fracture toughness, and crack propagation behavior. It will be shown that for different engine requirements the choice of the suitable alloy, as well as tailoring of microstructural features with the aim to achieve an optimized balance of relevant mechanical properties, is necessary. The influence of thermomechanical treatment on morphology and dimensions of phases, and the resulting correlation to mechanical properties, will be discussed in detail for selected Ti-alloys, i.e., Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo and IMI 834 (Ti-5.8Al-4Sn-3.5Zr-0.5Mo-0.7Nb-0.35Si-0.06C). Additionally, effects of surface conditions caused by surface treatment (shot peening) or by service exposure (surface oxidation) will be presented.

  13. Nondestructive evaluation of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meir, S.; Gordon, S.; Karsh, M.; Ayers, R.; Olson, D. L.; Wiezman, A.

    2011-06-23

    The nondestructive evaluation of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) alloys for applications such as heat treatment for biomaterials applications (dental) and welding was investigated. Ni-Ti alloys and its ternary alloys are valued for mechanical properties in addition to the shape memory effect. Two analytical approaches were perused in this work. Assessment of the microstructure of the alloy that determines the martensitic start temperature (Ms) of Ni-Ti alloy as a function of heat treatment, and secondly, an attempt to evaluate a Friction Stir Welding, which involves thermo-mechanical processing of the alloy.

  14. A=16B (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    93TI07) (Not illustrated) This nucleus has not been observed in the 4.8 GeV proton bombardment of a uranium target. It is particle unstable. Its mass excess is predicted to be 37.97 MeV; it would then be unstable with respect to decay into 15B + n by 0.93 MeV. See (1985WA02, 1986AJ04). The ground state is predicted to have Jπ = 0- and the first three excited states are predicted to lie at 0.95, 1.10, and 1.55 MeV [Jπ = 2-, 3-, 4-] in a (0 + 1)ℏω space shell model calculation. See (1983ANZQ,

  15. A=16C (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    93TI07) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 16C) GENERAL: See Table Prev. Table 16.1 preview 16.1 [General Table] (in PDF or PS) and Table Prev. Table 16.2 preview 16.2 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. 1. 16C(β-)16N Qm = 8.012 The half life of 16C is 0.747 ± 0.008 sec. It decays to 16N*(0.12, 3.35, 4.32) [Jπ = 0-, 1+, 1+]: see Table Prev. Table 16.3 preview 16.3 (in PDF or PS) and (1993CH06). See also (1986AJ04) and see (1986KI05, 1988WA1E, 1992WA1L) for theoretical discussions of

  16. A=16Ne (1993TI07)

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    93TI07) (See the Isobar Diagram for 16Ne) GENERAL: See Table Prev. Table 16.29 preview 16.29 [General Table] (in PDF or PS) and Table Prev. Table 16.32 preview 16.32 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Mass of 16Ne: The Q-values of the 20Ne(α, 8He) and 16O(π+, π-) reactions lead to atomic mass excesses of 23.93 ± 0.08 MeV (1978KE06), 23.978 ± 0.024 MeV (1983WO01) and 24.048 ± 0.045 MeV (1980BU15) [recalculated using the (1985WA02) masses for 8He, 16O and 20Ne]. The weighted mean is

  17. A=17C (1993TI07)

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    93TI07) (See the Isobar Diagram for 17C) The atomic mass excess given by (1988WA18) for 17C is 21035 ± 17 keV. See also (1986AN07). 17C is then stable with respect to 16C + n by 0.73 MeV. Eβ- (max) to 17Ng.s. = 13.16 MeV. See also (1986BI1A). The half-life of 17C has been measured to be 202 ± 17 msec (1986CU01), 220 ± 80 msec (1986DU07), 180 ± 31 msec (1988SA04), and 174 ± 31 msec (1991RE02). Relative intensities of β-delayed gammas were measured by (1986DU07, 1986HU1A, 1986JEZY) [see

  18. A=17Ne (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    93TI07) (See the Isobar Diagram for 17Ne) GENERAL: See Table Prev. Table 17.26 preview 17.26 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). 1. (a) 17Ne(β+)17F* → 16O + p Qm = 13.928 (b) 17Ne(β+)17F → 13N + α Qm = 8.711 (c) 17Ne(β+)17F Qm = 14.529 The half-life of 17Ne has been reported as 109.0 ± 1.0 msec (1971HA05) and 109.3 ± 0.6 msec (1988BO39): the weighted mean is 109.2 ± 0.6 and we adopt it. The decay is primarily to the proton unstable states of 17F at 4.65, 5.49, 6.04 and 8.08 MeV

  19. A=18B (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    95TI07) (Not illustrated) 18B has not been observed in the bombardment of Ta by 44 MeV/A Ar ions (1985DE60, 1985LA03, 1986PO13) or in the bombardment of Be by 12 MeV/A 56Fe ions (1984MU27). 18B has been predicted to have a mass excess of 52.3 MeV (1993AU05). It would then be unstable with respect to 17B + n by 0.5 MeV: see (1978AJ03, 1985WA02). 18B is calculated to have Jπ = 4- and to have excited states at 0.62, 0.86 and 1.59 MeV with Jπ = 1-, 2- and 2- (1985PO10).The shell model calculations

  20. A=18F (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    95TI07) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 18F) GENERAL: See Table Prev. Table 18.23 preview 18.23 [General Table] (in PDF or PS) and Table Prev. Table 18.24 preview 18.24 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). μ1.12 = +2.86 ± 0.03 nm [see (1983AJ01)] Q1.12 = 0.13 ± 0.03 b [see (1983AJ01)]. 1. 18F(β+)18O Qm = 1.655 The positron decay is entirely to the ground state of 18O [Jπ = 0+, T = 1]; the half-life is 109.77 ± 0.05 min [see Table Prev. Table 18.11 preview 18.11 (in PDF or PS) in

  1. A=18N (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    95TI07) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 18N) GENERAL: See Table Prev. Table 18.3 preview 18.3 [General Table ] (in PDF or PS) and Table Prev. Table 18.4 preview 18.4 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Mass of 18N: The atomic mass excess derived from the Q-value of the 18O(7Li, 7Be)18N reaction and adopted by (1993AU05) is 13.117 ± 0.020 MeV (1983PU01). 18N is then stable with respect to breakup into 17N + n by 2.825 MeV. See (1983AJ01) for the earlier work. 1. 18N(β-)18O Qm = -13.899 The

  2. A=18Ne (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    95TI07) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 18Ne) GENERAL: See Table Prev. Table 18.35 preview 18.35 [General Table] (in PDF or PS) and Table Prev. Table 18.36 preview 18.36 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). For B(E2) of 18Ne*(1.89) and other parameters see (1987RA01) and Table Prev. Table 2 preview 2 in the Introduction. 1. 18Ne(β+)18F Qm = 4.446 The half-life of 18Ne is 1672 ± 8 ms: see (1978AJ03) and (1983AD03). The decay is primarily to 18F*(0, 1.04, 1.70 MeV). In addition there is an

  3. A=19C (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    95TI07) (See the Isobar Diagram for 19C) 19C has been observed in the 0.8 GeV proton bombardment of thorium (1986VI09, 1988WO09) and in the fragmentation of 66 MeV/A argon ions (1987GI05) and in 44 MeV/A 22Ne on 181Ta, and in 112 MeV/A 20Ne on 12C (1994RAZW, 1995OZ02). The mass excess adopted by (1993AU05) is 32.23 ± 0.11 MeV. See also (1986VI09, 1987GI05, 1988WO09, 1991OR01). 19C is then stable with respect to decay into 18C + n by 0.16 MeV and into 17C + 2n by 4.35 MeV. The half-life was

  4. A=19N (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    95TI07) (See the Isobar Diagram for 19N) 19N has been produced in a number of different multinucleon transfer reactions (1983AJ01, 1987AJ02), and these results lead to an adopted value (1993AU05) of 15.860 ± 0.016 MeV for the mass excess. 19N is then stable with respect to decay into 18N + n by 5.33 MeV. The half-life has been measured to be 0.32 ± 0.10 s (1986DU07), 0.21+0.2-0.1 s (1988MU08), 0.235 ± 0.032 s (1988SA04), 0.300 ± 0.080 s (1988DUZT), 0.329 ± 0.019 s (1991RE02). The neutron

  5. A=19Na (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    95TI07) (See the Isobar Diagram for 19Na) This nucleus was observed in the 24Mg(p, 6He)19Na reaction at Ep = 54.7 MeV (1969CE01). A study via the 24Mg(3He, 8Li)19Na reaction at E(3He) = 76.3 MeV leads to an atomic mass excess of 12.929 ± 0.012 MeV for 19Na; it is then unstable with respect to breakup into 18Ne + p by 321 ± 13 keV. An excited state at Ex = 120 ± 10 keV is also reported (1975BE38, 1993AU05). See also (1987AJ02) and (1987PO01, 1987SA24, 1988CO15, 1990PO04, 1992AV03

  6. A=19Ne (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    95TI07) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 19Ne) GENERAL: See Table Prev. Table 19.26 preview 19.26 [General Table] (in PDF or PS) and Table Prev. Table 19.27 preview 19.27 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. μg.s. = -1.88542 (8) nm (1982MA39) μ0.239 = -0.740 (8) nm (1978LEZA) 1. 19Ne(β+)19F Qm = 3.238 We adopt the half-life of 19Ne suggested by (1983AD03): 17.34 ± 0.09 s. See also (1978AJ03). The decay is principally to 19Fg.s.: see Table Prev. Table 19.29 preview 19.29 (in PDF or

  7. A=19O (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    95TI07) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 19O) GENERAL: See Table Prev. Table 19.1 preview 19.1 [General Table] (in PDF or PS) and Table Prev. Table 19.2 preview 19.2 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. 1. 19O(β-)19F Qm = 4.819 The weighted mean of several half-lives is 26.96 ± 0.07 s: see (1972AJ02, 1987AJ02). The decay is complex: see reaction 34 of 19F and Table Prev. Table 19.23 preview 19.23 (in PDF or PS) and Table Prev. Table 19.24 preview 19.24 (in PDF or PS). 2. 9Be(18O,

  8. A=20F (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    98TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20F) GENERAL: See Table Prev. Table 20.4 preview 20.4 [General Table] (in PDF or PS) and Table Prev. Table 20.5 preview 20.5 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. μ = +2.0935 (9) nm (1989RA17) Q = -0.042 (3) b (1989RA17) 1. 20F(β-)20Ne Qm = 7.025 The half-life of 20F is (11.163 ± 0.008) s (1992WA04), (11.11 ± 0.04) s (1995IT1C). For earlier measurements see (1987AJ02). 20F decays principally to 20Ne*(1.63): see 20Ne, reaction 37. 2. (a) 6Li(15N,

  9. A=20Mg (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    98TI06) (See the Isobar Diagram for 20Mg) 20Mg has been populated in the 24Mg(α, 8He) reaction at Eα = 127 and 156 MeV, in the 20Ne(3He, 3n) reaction at E(3He) = 70 MeV, and more recently in projectile fragmentation reactions. Reviews of proton rich nuclei and methods of production are presented in (1989AYZU, 1993SO13). See also (1990PO04). The super-allowed decay of 20Mg to the first T = 2 (Jπ = 0+) state of 20Na [Ex = 6.534 ± 0.013 MeV (1995PI03)] has been reported in early work (1979MO02,

  10. A=20Na (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    98TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20Na) GENERAL: See Table Prev. Table 20.32 preview 20.32 [General Table] (in PDF or PS) and Table Prev. Table 20.33 preview 20.33 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. μ = 0.3694 ± 0.0002 nm (1975SC20, 1989RA17) 1. 20Na(β+)20Ne Qm = 13.887 20Na decays by positron emission to 20Ne*(1.63) and to a number of other excited states of 20Ne: see Table Prev. Table 20.31 preview 20.31 (in PDF or PS) and reaction 59 in 20Ne. The half-life of 20Na is 447.9

  11. A=20O (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    98TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20O) GENERAL: See Table Prev. Table 20.1 preview 20.1 [General Table] (in PDF or PS) and Table Prev. Table 20.2 preview 20.2 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. 1. 20O(β-)20F Qm = 3.814 20O decays with a half-life of 13.51 ± 0.05 s to the 1+ states 20F*(1.06, 3.49) with branching ratios (99.973 ± 0.003) and (0.027 ± 0.003)%, log f0t = 3.740 ± 0.006 and 3.65 ± 0.06, respectively (1987AL06). Upper limits for the branching to other states of

  12. A=3H (1987TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1987TI07) (Not illustrated) GENERAL: Ground State: Jπ = 1/2+, μ = 2.978960 ± 0.000001 nm, M - A = 14.94991 ± 0.00003 MeV. The wave function for the triton bound state is calculated to be mostly S-state (~ 90%) with S'-state (~ 1%) and D-state (~ 9%) admixtures depending on the potentials used (1979SA15, 1986IS06). See also (1980HA10, 1980LO091983FR19, 1984CI05, 1984CI09, 1984MU23). The measured magnetic moment for 3H is μ = 2.978960 ± 0.000001 nm (1978LEZA). Calculations which include both

  13. A=4n (1992TI02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4n (1992TI02) GENERAL: The stability of 8He (1968BA48, 1968ME03, 1973FI04, 1988AJ01) sets an upper limit to the total binding energy of 4n, because the decay 8He → 4He + 4n does not occur (1964GO1B, 1964GO25). The most precisely determined mass excess of 8He (1988WA18) yields B(4n) ≤ 3.1 MeV. Noting that in all known nuclei the proton binding energy increases when two neutrons are added, (1964VL1A) show that B(4n) < -Q, where Q is the decay energy for 5H → 3H + 2n. Since Q > 0

  14. A=7B (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (See the Isobar Diagram for 7B) The mass excess of 7B adopted by (1997AU04) is 27.870 ± 0.070 MeV. It was obtained by averaging the values of 27.94 ± 0.10 MeV from the 10B(3He, 6He)7B reaction (1967MC14, 1988AJ01) and the value 27.800 ± 0.10 MeV obtained in the 7Li(π+, π-)7B reaction (1981SE1B). The width of the ground state is Γ = 1.4 ± 0.2 MeV: see (1967MC14, 1988AJ01). 7B is unbound with respect to 6Be + p, 5Li + 2p and 4He + 3p by 2.21, 1.61 and 3.38 MeV, respectively. The

  15. A=7H (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (Not illustrated) 7H has not been observed. Attempts have been made to detect it in the spontaneous fission of 252Cf (1982AL33) and in the 7Li(π-, π+) reaction [see (1984AJ01)]. A study of 9Be(π-, 2p) (1987GO25) found no evidence for 7H. See also the review of (1989OG1B) and the 7Li(π-, π+) investigation reported in (1989GR06). The ground state is calculated to have Jπ = 1/2+ and to be unstable with respect to 1n, 2n, 3n and 4n emission. Excited states are predicted at 4.84, 5.00

  16. A=8Be (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 8Be) GENERAL: References to articles on general properties of 8Be published since the previous review (1988AJ01) are grouped into categories and listed, along with brief descriptions of each item, in the General Tables for 8Be located on our website at (www.tunl.duke.edu/nucldata/General_Tables/8be.shtml). See also Table Prev. Table 8.9 preview 8.9 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). 1. 8Be → 4He4He Qm = 0.0918 Γcm for 8Beg.s. = 5.57 ± 0.25 eV:

  17. A=8C (2004TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004TI06) (See the Isobar Diagram for 8C) Mass of 8C: The atomic mass excess of 8C is 35094 ± 23 keV (2003AU03); Γcm = 230 ± 50 keV [Jπ = 0+; T = 2]: see (1979AJ01). 8C is stable with respect to 7B + p (Q = -0.07 MeV) and unstable with respect to 6Be + 2p (Q = 2.14), 5Li + 3p (Q = 1.55) and 4He + 4p (Q = 3.51). At E(3He) = 76 MeV the differential cross section for formation of 8Cg.s. in the 14N(3He, 9Li) reaction is ~ 5 nb/sr at θlab = 10°. The 12C(α, 8He)8C reaction has been studied at

  18. Cs-doped Mo as surface converter for H{sup −}/D{sup −} generation in negative ion sources: First steps and proof of principle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiesko, L. Hopf, C.; Höschen, T.; Meisl, G.; Encke, O.; Franzen, P.; Heinemann, B.; Hopf, C.; Fantz, U.; Cartry, G.; Achkasov, K.

    2015-04-08

    In a proof-of-principle study, molybdenum samples were implanted with a very small dose of Cs in order to test the properties of the compound as a surface converter for negative hydrogen ion production. First results on the properties of Cs doped Mo compounds show a reduction of the work function and a stable H{sup −} yield up to four hours in low density hydrogen plasma. The implanted Cs atoms were stable in the Mo lattice over one year for samples stored in vacuum and not exposed to the plasma. The surface H{sup −} generation mechanisms were identified and a comparison of the negative ion yield with pure Mo showed that the Cs doped Mo sample’s yield was much larger.

  19. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): EA-367 EDF Trading North America, LLC (EDF)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE):  Application of EDF Trading North America, LLC (EDF) to export electric energy to Canada

  20. Modeling and experimental studies of oxide covered metal surfaces: TiO{sub 2}/Ti a model system. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smyrl, W.H.

    1991-12-31

    Prior work in our laboratories at the Corrosion Research Center has shown that thin, anodic TiO{sub 2} films formed by the Slow Growth Mode (SGM) on polycrystalline titanium and microcrystalline with a texture that varies from one metal grain to another. Furthermore, the underlying metal grains are mapped by the photoelectrochemical response of the oxide. The same characteristics have also been demonstrated in our laboratory for ZnO grown on Zn. The TiO{sub 2}/Ti system has been chosen for study both because of its importance in energy systems, and because it can serve as a model system for other metal-metal oxide couples. The investigations of anodic TiO{sub 2} films on Ti have shown that the properties of thin films are consistent with the rutile form of the oxide. Both experimental data and theoretical calculations show the close resemblance to results on single crystal TiO{sub 2}. Furthermore, the modeling studies reveal that the optical transitions near the bandedge arise from the bulk band structure. The photoelectrochemical properties of anodic TiO{sub 2} films have now been shown to obey the simple Gaertner-Butler model for the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, with a few modifications. The most important deviation has now been shown to be a result of multiple internal reflections in the oxide film.

  1. Modeling and experimental studies of oxide covered metal surfaces: TiO sub 2 /Ti a model system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smyrl, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    Prior work in our laboratories at the Corrosion Research Center has shown that thin, anodic TiO{sub 2} films formed by the Slow Growth Mode (SGM) on polycrystalline titanium and microcrystalline with a texture that varies from one metal grain to another. Furthermore, the underlying metal grains are mapped by the photoelectrochemical response of the oxide. The same characteristics have also been demonstrated in our laboratory for ZnO grown on Zn. The TiO{sub 2}/Ti system has been chosen for study both because of its importance in energy systems, and because it can serve as a model system for other metal-metal oxide couples. The investigations of anodic TiO{sub 2} films on Ti have shown that the properties of thin films are consistent with the rutile form of the oxide. Both experimental data and theoretical calculations show the close resemblance to results on single crystal TiO{sub 2}. Furthermore, the modeling studies reveal that the optical transitions near the bandedge arise from the bulk band structure. The photoelectrochemical properties of anodic TiO{sub 2} films have now been shown to obey the simple Gaertner-Butler model for the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, with a few modifications. The most important deviation has now been shown to be a result of multiple internal reflections in the oxide film.

  2. Photoinduced electron transfer in perylene-TiO2 nanoassemblies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ABSTRACT: The photosensitization effect of three perylene dye derivatives on titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) has been investigated. The dyes used, 1,7-dibromoperylene-3,4...

  3. TI--CR--AL--O thin film resistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Schmid, Anthony P.

    2000-01-01

    Thin films of Ti--Cr--Al--O are used as a resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O.sub.2. Resistivity values from 10.sup.4 to 10.sup.10 Ohm-cm have been measured for Ti--Cr--Al--O film <1 .mu.m thick. The film resistivity can be discretely selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The application of Ti--Cr--Al--O as a thin film resistor has been found to be thermodynamically stable, unlike other metal-oxide films. The Ti--Cr--Al--O film can be used as a vertical or lateral resistor, for example, as a layer beneath a field emission cathode in a flat panel display; or used to control surface emissivity, for example, as a coating on an insulating material such as vertical wall supports in flat panel displays.

  4. Distribution and Ratios of 137Cs and K in Control and K-treated Coconut Trees at Bikini Island where Nuclear Test Fallout Occurred: Effects and Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W L; Brown, P H; Stone, E L; Hamilton, T F; Conrado, C L; Kehl, S R

    2008-05-19

    Coconut trees growing on atolls of the Bikini Islands are on the margin of K deficiency because the concentration of exchangeable K in coral soil is very low ranging from only 20 to 80 mg kg{sup -1}. When provided with additional K, coconut trees absorb large quantities of K and this uptake of K significantly alters the patterns of distribution of {sup 137}Cs within the plant. Following a single K fertilization event, mean total K in trunks of K-treated trees is 5.6 times greater than in trunks of control trees. In contrast, {sup 137}Cs concentration in trunks of K-treated and control trees is statistically the same while {sup 137}Cs is significantly lower in edible fruits of K treated trees. Within one year after fertilization (one rainy season), K concentration in soil is back to naturally, low concentrations, however, the tissue concentrations of K in treated trees stays very high internally in the trees for years while {sup 137}Cs concentration in treated trees remains very low in all tree compartments except for the trunk. Potassium fertilization did not change soil Cs availability. Mass balance calculations suggest that the fertilization event increased above ground plant K content by at least a factor of 5 or 2.2 kg. Potassium concentrations and content were higher in all organs of K fertilized trees with the greatest increases seen in organs that receive a portion of tissue K through xylem transport (trunk, fronds and fruit husks) and lowest in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). {sup 137}Cesium concentrations and contents were dramatically lower in all organs of K treated trees with greatest proportional reductions observed in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). All trees remobilize both K and {sup 137}Cs from fronds as they proceed toward senescence. In control trees the reduction in concentration of K and {sup 137}Cs in fronds as they age

  5. Martensite transformation of epitaxial Ni-Ti films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buschbeck, J.; Kozhanov, A.; Kawasaki, J. K.; James, R. D.; Palmstroem, C. J.

    2011-05-09

    The structure and phase transformations of thin Ni-Ti shape memory alloy films grown by molecular beam epitaxy are investigated for compositions from 43 to 56 at. % Ti. Despite the substrate constraint, temperature dependent x-ray diffraction and resistivity measurements reveal reversible, martensitic phase transformations. The results suggest that these occur by an in-plane shear which does not disturb the lattice coherence at interfaces.

  6. A comparative study of precipitation effects in Ti only and Ti-V Ultra Low Carbon (ULC) strip steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ooi, S.W.; Fourlaris, G. . E-mail: g.fourlaris@swansea.ac.uk

    2006-04-15

    Two ULC steel grades were investigated, one based on combined vanadium and titanium additions and the other based on titanium only additions. It has been established that TiC formation during interphase precipitation retards grain growth of the {l_brace}111{r_brace} texture grains during continuous annealing and hence positively affects the r value of the Ti only steel. The formation of newly formed TiC precipitates on dislocations during continuous annealing has been found to result in an increase of the yield strength in both steel grades, as the annealing temperature is increased. It is also confirmed that VC particles formed during the coiling process dissolve during the continuous annealing cycles. Suitable continuous annealing cycles can be adopted to produce high formable steels with a bake hardening potential using the beneficial effects of combined Ti-V additions.

  7. Temperature-dependent structural study of microporous CsAlSi{sub 5}O{sub 12}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisch, Martin; Armbruster, Thomas Kolesov, Boris

    2008-03-15

    CsAlSi{sub 5}O{sub 12} crystals were synthesized at high temperature by slow cooling of a vanadium oxide flux. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction structure analysis and electron microprobe analyses yielded the microporous CAS zeolite framework structure of Cs{sub 0.85}Al{sub 0.85}Si{sub 5.15}O{sub 12} composition. High-temperature single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction studies were utilized to analyze anisotropic thermal expansion. Rietveld refined cell constants from powder diffraction data, measured in steps of 25 deg. C up to 700 deg. C, show a significant decrease in expansion above 500 deg. C. At 500 deg. C, a displacive, static disorder-dynamic disorder-type phase transition from the acentric low-temperature space group Ama2 to centrosymmetric Amam (Cmcm in standard setting) was found. Thermal expansion below the phase transition is governed by rigid-body TO{sub 4} rotations accompanied by stretching of T-O-T angles. Above the phase transition at 500 deg. C all atoms, except one oxygen (O6), are fixed on mirror planes. Temperature-dependent polarized Raman single-crystal spectra between -270 and 300 deg. C and unpolarized spectra between room temperature and 1000 deg. C become increasingly less resolved with rising temperature confirming the disordered static-disordered dynamic type of the phase transition. - Graphical abstract: Temperature-dependent structural evolution of microporous CsAlSi{sub 5}O{sub 12} has been investigated by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, as well as Raman spectroscopy. Results yielded a phase transition of order-disorder type.

  8. Light output measurements and computational models of microcolumnar CsI scintillators for x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nillius, Peter Klamra, Wlodek; Danielsson, Mats; Sibczynski, Pawel; Sharma, Diksha; Badano, Aldo

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The authors report on measurements of light output and spatial resolution of microcolumnar CsI:Tl scintillator detectors for x-ray imaging. In addition, the authors discuss the results of simulations aimed at analyzing the results of synchrotron and sealed-source exposures with respect to the contributions of light transport to the total light output. Methods: The authors measured light output from a 490-?m CsI:Tl scintillator screen using two setups. First, the authors used a photomultiplier tube (PMT) to measure the response of the scintillator to sealed-source exposures. Second, the authors performed imaging experiments with a 27-keV monoenergetic synchrotron beam and a slit to calculate the total signal generated in terms of optical photons per keV. The results of both methods are compared to simulations obtained with hybridMANTIS, a coupled x-ray, electron, and optical photon Monte Carlo transport package. The authors report line response (LR) and light output for a range of linear absorption coefficients and describe a model that fits at the same time the light output and the blur measurements. Comparing the experimental results with the simulations, the authors obtained an estimate of the absorption coefficient for the model that provides good agreement with the experimentally measured LR. Finally, the authors report light output simulation results and their dependence on scintillator thickness and reflectivity of the backing surface. Results: The slit images from the synchrotron were analyzed to obtain a total light output of 48 keV{sup ?1} while measurements using the fast PMT instrument setup and sealed-sources reported a light output of 28 keV{sup ?1}. The authors attribute the difference in light output estimates between the two methods to the difference in time constants between the camera and PMT measurements. Simulation structures were designed to match the light output measured with the camera while providing good agreement with the

  9. Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 8}-cluster-based superconducting compounds Cs{sub 2}Mo{sub 12}Se{sub 14} and Rb{sub 4}Mo{sub 18}Se{sub 20}: Evidence for a strongly correlated and anisotropic electron system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brusetti, R.; Laborde, O.; Sulpice, A.; Calemczuk, R.; Potel, M.; Gougeon, P.

    1995-08-01

    We studied the normal and superconducting states of the title compounds by measuring the conductivity and magnetization of single crystals and powder samples. From the upper and lower critical fields we deduced the characteristic lengths and thermodynamical fields. These results are borne out by our specific-heat measurements. We recognize in these compounds many features of the Chevrel-phase superconductors, including very small coherence lengths and strong-coupling-like effects. However, we show that the electron system is much more anisotropic and still less delocalized in these materials where the Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 8} clusters have condensed in Mo{sub 6{ital n}}Se{sub 6{ital n}+2} finite chains. This condensation is accompanied by an enhancement of the magnetic response whereas the lengthening of the chains leads to a counteracting reduction of the density of carriers. This indicates that superconductivity is built upon highly correlated molecular states. Reviewing the available data on the other Chevrel-cluster-based superconductors confirms this picture and suggests that the small coherence lengths reflect the local character of the electron pairing. This comparison also shows that forming finite chains of Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 8} clusters makes the electron correlations more repulsive and pushes the electron system near the borderline between superconductivity and magnetism. In this respect these compounds could provide valuable complementary information on issues which are at the center of the research upon high-{ital Y}{sub {ital c}} superconductivity.

  10. Native SrTiO3 (001) surface layer from resonant Ti L2,3 reflectance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valvidares, Manuel; Huijben, Mark; Yu, Pu; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Kortright, Jeffrey

    2010-11-03

    We quantitatively model resonant Ti L2,3 reflectivity Rs,p(q, hn) from several SrTiO3 (001) single crystals having different initial surface preparations and stored in ambient conditions before and between measurements. All samples exhibit unexpected 300 K Rs(hn) - Rp(hn) anisotropy corresponding to weak linear dichroism and tetragonal distortion of the TiO6 octahedra indicating a surface layer with properties different from cubic SrTiO3. Oscillations in Rs(q) confirm a ubiquitous surface layer 2-3 nm thick that evolves over a range of time scales. Resonant optical constant spectra derived from Rs,p(hn) assuming a uniform sample are refined using a single surface layer to fit measured Rs(q). Differences in surface layer and bulk optical properties indicate that the surface is significantly depleted in Sr and enriched in Ti and O. While consistent with the tendency of SrTiO3 surfaces toward non-stoichiometry, this layer does not conform simply to existing models for the near surface region and apparently forms via room temperature surface reactions with the ambient. This new quantitative spectral modeling approach is generally applicable and has potential to study near-surface properties of a variety of systems with unique chemical and electronic sensitivities.

  11. Diminished cage effect in solid p-H{sub 2}: Infrared spectra of ClSCS, ClCS, and ClSC in an irradiated p-H{sub 2} matrix containing Cl{sub 2} and CS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Chiung-Wei; Lee, Yaw-Chang; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2010-04-28

    Irradiation of a p-H{sub 2} matrix containing Cl{sub 2} and CS{sub 2} at 3.3 K with laser emission at 340 nm followed by annealing of the matrix produced main features at 1479.5 and 1480.8 cm{sup -1}. These lines are attributed to {nu}{sub 1} (SCS antisymmetric stretching) mode of ClSCS. Irradiation of the matrix at 355 nm decomposes ClSCS. Products CS (1272.2 and 1271.1 cm{sup -1}), ClCS (1193.9/1191.9 and 637.5 cm{sup -1}), and ClSC (1137.0 cm{sup -1}) were observed upon annealing. The assignments were based on comparison of observed vibrational wavenumbers and {sup 13}C- and {sup 34}S-isotopic ratios with those predicted with density-functional theories (B3LYP and BPW91/aug-cc-pVTZ). These results demonstrate that the cage effect of solid p-H{sub 2} is diminished so that isolated Cl was produced via photodissociation of Cl{sub 2} in situ and subsequently reacted with CS{sub 2} to form ClSCS, but not ClC(=S)SCl, upon annealing; typically ClC(=S)SCl was produced as the major product on irradiation of noble-gas matrices containing Cl{sub 2} and CS{sub 2}. Observation of ClSCS but not ClCS{sub 2} is consistent with the theoretical prediction that only formation of the former proceeds via a barrierless path. Similarly, upon irradiation of ClSCS at 355 nm, Cl, CS, and CS{sub 2} were produced; subsequent annealing of the irradiated matrix produced ClSC and ClCS via barrierless paths.

  12. CHANGES IN 137 CS CONCENTRATIONS IN SOIL AND VEGETATION ON THE FLOODPLAIN OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER OVER A 30 YEAR PERIOD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paller, M.; Jannik, T.; Fledderman, P.

    2007-12-12

    {sup 137}Cs released during 1954-1974 from nuclear production reactors on the Savannah River Site, a US Department of Energy nuclear materials production site in South Carolina, contaminated a portion of the Savannah River floodplain known as Creek Plantation. {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations have been measured in Creek Plantation since 1974 making it possible to calculate effective half-lives for {sup 137}Cs in soil and vegetation and assess the spatial distribution of contaminants on the floodplain. Activity concentrations in soil and vegetation were higher near the center of the floodplain than near the edges as a result of frequent inundation coupled with the presence of low areas that trapped contaminated sediments. {sup 137}Cs activity was highest near the soil surface, but depth related differences diminished with time as a likely result of downward diffusion or leaching. Activity concentrations in vegetation were significantly related to concentrations in soil. The plant to soil concentration ratio (dry weight) averaged 0.49 and exhibited a slight but significant tendency to decrease with time. The effective half-lives for {sup 137}Cs in shallow (0-7.6 cm) soil and in vegetation were 14.9 (95% CI = 12.5-17.3) years and 11.6 (95% CI = 9.1-14.1) years, respectively, and rates of {sup 137}Cs removal from shallow soil and vegetation did not differ significantly among sampling locations. Potential health risks on the Creek Plantation floodplain have declined more rapidly than expected on the basis of radioactive decay alone because of the relatively short effective half-life of {sup 137}Cs.

  13. A=6H (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002TI10) (See the Isobar Diagram for 6H) 6H was reported in the 7Li(7Li, 8B)6H reaction at E(7Li) = 82 MeV (1984AL08, 1985AL1G) [σ(θ) ~ 60 nb/sr at θ = 10°] and in the 9Be(11B, 14O)6H reaction at E(11B) = 88 MeV (1986BE35) [σ(θ) ~ 16 nb/sr at θ ~ 8°]. 6H is unstable with respect to breakup into 3H + 3n by 2.7 ± 0.4 MeV, Γ = 1.8 ± 0.5 MeV (1984AL08), 2.6 ± 0.5 MeV, Γ = 1.3 ± 0.5 MeV (1986BE35). The value adopted in the previous review (1988AJ01) is 2.7 ± 0.3 MeV, Γ = 1.6 ± 0.4

  14. Direct evidence for a pressure-induced nodal superconducting gap in the Ba0.65Rb0.35Fe2As2 superconductor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guguchia, Z.; Amato, A.; Kang, J.; Luetkens, H.; Biswas, P. K.; Prando, G.; von Rohr, F.; Bukowski, Z.; Shengelaya, A.; Keller, H.; et al

    2015-11-09

    The superconducting gap structure in iron-based high-temperature superconductors (Fe-HTSs) is non-universal. Contrasting with other unconventional superconductors, in the Fe-HTSs both d-wave and extended s-wave pairing symmetries are close in energy. Probing the proximity between these very different superconducting states and identifying experimental parameters that can tune them is of central interest. Here we report high-pressure muon spin rotation experiments on the temperature-dependent magnetic penetration depth in the optimally doped nodeless s-wave Fe-HTS Ba0.65Rb0.35Fe2As2. Upon pressure, a strong decrease of the penetration depth in the zero-temperature limit is observed, while the superconducting transition temperature remains nearly constant. More importantly, the low-temperaturemore » behaviour of the inverse-squared magnetic penetration depth, which is a direct measure of the superfluid density, changes qualitatively from an exponential saturation at zero pressure to a linear-in-temperature behaviour at higher pressures, indicating that hydrostatic pressure promotes the appearance of nodes in the superconducting gap.« less

  15. Constrained Surface Complexation Modeling: Rutile in RbCl, NaCl, and NaCF3SO3 Media to 250 °C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machesky, Michael L.; Předota, Milan; Ridley, Moira K.; Wesolowski, David J.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive set of molecular-level results, primarily from classical molecular dynamics (CMD) simulations, are used to constrain CD-MUSIC surface complexation model (SCM) parameters describing rutile powder titrations conducted in RbCl, NaCl, and NaTr (Tr = triflate, CF3SO3) electrolyte media from 25 to 250 °C. Rb+ primarily occupies the innermost tetradentate binding site on the rutile (110) surface at all temperatures (25, 150, 250 °C) and negative charge conditions (-0.1 and -0.2 C/m2) probed via CMD simulations, reflecting the small hydration energy of this large, monovalent cation. Consequently, variable SCM parameters (Stern-layer capacitance values and intrinsic Rb+ binding constants) were adjusted relatively easily to satisfactorily match the CMD and titration data. The larger hydration energy of Na+ results in a more complex inner-sphere distribution, which shifts from bidentate to tetradentate binding with increasing negative charge and temperature, and this distribution was not matched well for both negative charge conditions, which may reflect limitations in the CMD and/or SCM approaches. Finally, in particular, the CMD axial density profiles for Rb+ and Na+ reveal that peak binding distances shift toward the surface with increasing negative charge, suggesting that the CD-MUSIC framework may be improved by incorporating CD or Stern-layer capacitance values that vary with charge.

  16. Magneto-transport in LaTi{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} oxide heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Pramod Dogra, Anjana Budhani, R. C.

    2014-04-24

    We report the growth of ultrathin film of Mn doped LaTiO{sub 3} on TiO{sub 2} terminated SrTiO{sub 3} (001) substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and their electrical transport characteristics including magnetoresistance (MR). Though the replacement of Mn in LaTiO{sub 3} at the Ti site in dilute limit does not affect the metallic behaviour of films but variation in resistance is observed. Normalised resistance behaviour is explained on the basis of variation in charge carriers and increased interaction between Mn atoms in the system under investigation.

  17. Inclusion property of Cs, Sr, and Ba impurities in LiCl crystal formed by layer-melt crystallization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jung-Hoon; Cho, Yung-Zun; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Eun, Hee-Chul; Kim, Jun-Hong; Park, Hwan-Seo; Kim, In-Tae; Park, Geun-Il

    2013-07-01

    Pyroprocessing is one of the promising technologies enabling the recycling of spent nuclear fuels from a commercial light water reactor (LWR). In general, pyroprocessing uses dry molten salts as electrolytes. In particular, LiCl waste salt after pyroprocessing contains highly radioactive I/II group fission products mainly composed of Cs, Sr, and Ba impurities. Therefore, it is beneficial to reuse LiCl salt in the pyroprocessing as an electrolyte for economic and environmental issues. Herein, to understand the inclusion property of impurities within LiCl crystal, the physical properties such as lattice parameter change, bulk modulus, and substitution enthalpy of a LiCl crystal having 0-6 at% Cs{sup +} or Ba{sup 2+} impurities under existence of 1 at% Sr{sup 2+} impurity were calculated via the first-principles density functional theory. The substitution enthalpy of LiCl crystals having 1 at% Sr{sup 2+} showed slightly decreased value than those without Sr{sup 2+} impurity. Therefore, through the substitution enthalpy calculation, it is expected that impurities will be incorporated within LiCl crystal as co-existed form rather than as a single component form. (authors)

  18. SU-E-I-11: Cascaded Linear System Model for Columnar CsI Flat Panel Imagers with Depth Dependent Gain and Blur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, B; Lubinsky, A; Zheng, H; Zhao, W; Teymurazyan, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To implement a depth dependent gain and blur cascaded linear system model (CLSM) for optimizing columnar structured CsI indirect conversion flat panel imager (FPI) for advanced imaging applications. Methods: For experimental validation, depth dependent escape efficiency, e(z), was extracted from PHS measurement of different CsI scintillators (thickness, substrate and light output). The inherent MTF and DQE of CsI was measured using high resolution CMOS sensor. For CLSM, e(z) and the depth dependent MTF(f,z), were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation (Geant4) of optical photon transport through columnar CsI. Previous work showed that Monte Carlo simulation for CsI was hindered by the non-ideality of its columnar structure. In the present work we allowed variation in columnar width with depth, and assumed diffusive reflective backing and columns. Monte Carlo simulation was performed using an optical point source placed at different depth of the CsI layer, from which MTF(z,f) and e(z) were computed. The resulting e(z) with excellent matching with experimental measurements were then applied to the CLSM, Monte Carlo simulation was repeated until the modeled MTF, DQE(f) also match experimental measurement. Results: For a 150 micron FOS HL type CsI, e(z) varies between 0.56 to 0.45, and the MTF at 14 cycles/mm varies between 62.1% to 3.9%, from the front to the back of the scintillator. The overall MTF and DQE(f) at all frequencies are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements at all frequencies. Conclusion: We have developed a CLSM for columnar CsI scintillators with depth dependent gain and MTF, which were estimated from Monte Carlo simulation with novel optical simulation settings. Preliminary results showed excellent agreement between simulation results and experimental measurements. Future work is aimed at extending this approach to optimize CsI screen optic design and sensor structure for achieving higher DQE(f) in cone-beam CT, which uses

  19. The Ground State of (CS)4 Is Different from that of (CO)4: An Experimental Test of a Computational Prediction by Negative Ion Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jian; Hrovat, David; Sun, Zhenrong; Bao, Xiaoguang; Borden, Weston; Wang, Xue B.

    2013-08-22

    Cyclobutane-1,2,3,4-tetrathione, (CS)4, has recently been calculated to have a singlet ground state, 1A1g, in which the highest b2g  MO is doubly occupied and the lowest a2u  MO is empty. Thus, (CS)4 is predicted to have a different ground state than its lighter congener, (CO)4, which has a triplet ground state, 3B1u, in which these two MOs are each singly occupied. Here we report the results of a negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES) study of the radical anion (CS)4●-, designed to test the prediction that (CS)4 has a singlet ground state. The NIPE spectrum reveals that (CS)4 does, indeed, have a singlet ground state with electron affinity (EA) = 3.75 eV. The lowest triplet state is found to lie 0.31 eV higher in energy than the ground state, and the open-shell singlet is 0.14 eV higher in energy than the triplet state. Calculations at the (U)CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ//(U)B3LYP/6-311+G(2df) level support the spectral assignments, giving EA = 3.71 eV, EST = 0.44 eV. These calculated values are, respectively, 0.04 eV (0.9 kcal/mol) smaller, and 0.13 eV (3.0 kcal/mol) larger than the corresponding experimental values. In addition, RASPT2 calculations with various active spaces converge on a 1B1u-3B1u energy gap of 0.137 eV, in excellent agreement with the 0.14 eV energy difference obtained from the NIPE spectrum. Finally, calculations of the Franck-Condon factors for transitions from the ground state of (CS)4●- to the ground (1A1g) and two excited states (3B1u, 1B1u) of (CS)4 account for all of the major spectral peaks, and nicely reproduce vibrational structure observed in each electronic transition. The close correspondence between the calculated and the observed features in the NIPE spectrum of (CS)4●- provides unequivocal proof that (CS)4, unlike (CO)4, has a singlet ground state.

  20. Novel apo E-derived ABCA1 agonist peptide (CS-6253) promotes reverse cholesterol transport and induces formation of preβ-1 HDL in vitro

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hafiane, Anouar; Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan O.; Genest, Jacques; Zhu, Xuewei

    2015-07-24

    Apolipoprotein (apo) mimetic peptides replicate some aspects of HDL function. We have previously reported the effects of compound ATI-5261 on its ability to replicate many functions of native apo A-I in the process of HDL biogenesis. ATI-5261 induced muscle toxicity in wild type C57Bl/6 mice, increased CPK, ALT and AST and increase in triglyceride (Tg) levels. Aromatic phenylalanine residues on the non-polar face of ATI-5261, together with positively charged arginine residues at the lipid-water interface were responsible for these effects. This information was used to create a novel analog (CS-6253) that was non-toxic. We evaluated this peptide designed from themore » carboxyl terminus of apo E, in its ability to mimic apo A-I functionality. Our data shows that the lipidated particles generated by incubating cells overexpressing ABCA1 with lipid free CS-6253 enhances the rate of ABCA1 lipid efflux with high affinity interactions with native ABCA1 oligomeric forms and plasma membrane micro-domains. Interaction between ABCA1 and lipid free CS-6253 resulted in formation of nascent HDL-CS-6253 particles that are actively remodeled in plasma. Mature HDL-CS-6253 particles deliver cholesterol to liver cells via SR-BI in-vitro. CS-6253 significantly increases cholesterol efflux in murine macrophages and in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells expressing ABCA1. Addition of CS-6253 to plasma dose-dependently displaced apo A-I from α-HDL particles and led to de novo formation of preβ-1 HDL that stimulates ABCA1 dependent cholesterol efflux efficiently. When incubated with human plasma CS-6253 was also found to bind with HDL and LDL and promoted the transfer of cholesterol from HDL to LDL predominantly. Our data shows that CS-6253 mimics apo A-I in its ability to promote ABCA1-mediated formation of nascent HDL particles, and enhances formation of preβ-1 HDL with increase in the cycling of apo A-I between the preβ and α-HDL particles in-vitro. These mechanisms are

  1. Cs{sub 3}Zr{sub 6}Br{sub 15}Z (Z = C, B): A stuffed rhombohedral perovskite structure of linked clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qi, Ru-Yi; Corbett, J.D.

    1995-03-29

    The isostructural title compounds are synthesized in good yields form reactions of Zr, ZrBr{sub 4}, CsBr, and Z in sealed Ta tubing for {approximately}3 weeks at 850 {degrees}C. Their single-crystal data refinements established the products as Cs{sub 3.02(7)-}Zr{sub 6}Br{sub 14}C and Cs{sub 3.39(5)}Zr{sub 6}br{sub 15}B (R3c, Z = 6, a = 13.1031 (6), 13.116(1) {angstrom}, c = 35.800(3), 35.980(6) {angstrom}, R(F)/R{sub w} = 5.4/5.9, 5.4/4.4%, respectively). The structure is derived form a three-dimensional [Zr{sub 6}(Z)Br{sub 12}]Br{sub 6/2} network of four-rings (as in ReO{sub 6/2}) twisted into a rhombohedral perovskite analogous to VF{sub 3}. The three necessary Cs{sup +} cations are fractionally distributed over five sites that are far from optimal or common, with either eight asymmetric or only three close bromide neighbors. Refinement of a third Cs{sub 3.18(5)}Zr{sub 6}Br{sub 15}C structure at {minus}50 {degrees}C gave the same result with somewhat smaller positional distributions of the atoms.

  2. Burnup estimation of fuel sourcing radioactive material based on monitored Cs and Pu isotopic activity ratios in Fukushima N. P. S. accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, T.; Suzuki, M.; Ando, Y.

    2012-07-01

    After the severe core damage of Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Station, radioactive material leaked from the reactor buildings. As part of monitoring of radioactivity in the site, measurements of radioactivity in soils at three fixed points have been performed for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs with gamma-ray spectrometry and for Pu, Pu, and {sup 240}Pu with {alpha}-ray spectrometry. Correlations of radioactivity ratios of {sup 134}Cs to {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 238}Pu to the sum of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu with fuel burnup were studied by using theoretical burnup calculations and measurements on isotopic inventories, and compared with the Cs and Pu radioactivity rations in the soils. The comparison indicated that the burnup of the fuel sourcing the radioactivity was from 18 to 38 GWd/t, which corresponded to that of the fuel in the highest power and, therefore, the highest decay heat in operating high-burnup fueled BWR cores. (authors)

  3. Morphology and structural development of reduced anatase-TiO{sub 2} by pure Ti powder upon annealing and nitridation: Synthesis of TiO{sub x} and TiO{sub x}N{sub y} powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolokang, A.S.; Motaung, D.E.

    2015-02-15

    It is well known that nitriding of titanium is suitable for surface coating of biomaterials and in other applications such as anti-reflective coating, while oxygen-rich titanium oxynitride has been applied in thin film resistors and photocatalysis. Thus in this work anatase was reduced with pure titanium powder during annealing in argon. This was done to avoid any metallic contamination and unwanted residual metal doping. As a result, interesting and different types of particle morphology were synthesized when the pre-milled elemental anatase and titanium powders were mixed. The formation of metastable face centred cubic and monoclinic titanium monoxide was detected by the X-ray diffraction technique. The phases were confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Raman analysis revealed weak intensity peaks for samples annealed in argon as compared to those annealed under nitrogen. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Reaction of TiO{sub 2} and Ti induced metastable FCC and monoclinic TiO{sub x}. • Compositions of mixed powder were prepared from the unmilled and pre-milled powders. • Nitridation of TiO{sub x} yielded TiO{sub x}N{sub y} phase. • Mixed morphology was observed on all three powder samples.

  4. Incorporation of chromium into TiO{sub 2} nanopowders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kollbek, Kamila; Sikora, Marcin; Kapusta, Czesław; Szlachetko, Jakub; Radecka, Marta; Lyson-Sypien, Barbara; Zakrzewska, Katarzyna

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Nanopowders of TiO{sub 2}:Cr with different amount of Cr dopant were obtained by flame spray synthesis, FSS. • Increase in the optical absorption and a shift of the absorption edge were observed upon Cr doping. • HERFD-XANES measurements indicated that the average valence state of titanium ions was preserved. • Increasing magnetic susceptibility of a paramagnetic character was observed upon Cr doping. - Abstract: The paper reports on the results of a study of optical, electronic and magnetic properties of TiO{sub 2} nanopowders doped with Cr ions. Diffused reflectance spectra reveal an increase in the optical absorption and a shift of the absorption edge towards lower energies upon Cr doping. Direct information on the Ti electronic state and the symmetry of its nearest environment is obtained from XANES Ti K-edge spectra. Magnetic behaviour is probed by means of the temperature dependence of DC magnetic susceptibility. Increasing magnetic susceptibility of a paramagnetic character is observed upon increasing chromium doping. The Curie constant of TiO{sub 2}:10 at.% Cr sample (0.12 emu K/mol Oe) is lower than that expected for Cr{sup 3+} (0.1875 emu K/mol Oe) possibly due to the appearance of Cr{sup 4+} or the presence of the orbital contribution to the magnetic moment.

  5. Interface-Induced Polarization in SrTiO3-LaCrO3 Superlattices...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Through x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy and aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy we show that the Ti cations are displaced off-center in the TiO6 ...

  6. FIRST-PRINCIPLES PHASE STABILITY IN THE TI-V ALLOY SYSTEM (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: FIRST-PRINCIPLES PHASE STABILITY IN THE TI-V ALLOY SYSTEM Citation Details In-Document Search Title: FIRST-PRINCIPLES PHASE STABILITY IN THE TI-V ALLOY SYSTEM ...

  7. Local Metal and Deuterium Ordering in the Deuterated ZrTiNi C14...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Local Metal and Deuterium Ordering in the Deuterated ZrTiNi C14 Laves Phase Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Local Metal and Deuterium Ordering in the Deuterated ZrTiNi ...

  8. Deformation behavior of Nb nanowires in TiNiCu shape memory alloy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in TiNiCu shape memory alloy matrix This content will become publicly available on August 18, 2016 Title: Deformation behavior of Nb nanowires in TiNiCu shape memory alloy matrix ...

  9. Electric control of magnetism at the Fe/BaTiO3 interface (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electric control of magnetism at the FeBaTiO3 interface Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electric control of magnetism at the FeBaTiO3 interface Interfacial ...

  10. High-Ti-concentration aerogels for bright x-ray sources (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ti-concentration aerogels for bright x-ray sources Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Ti-concentration aerogels for bright x-ray sources Authors: Perez, F ; Patterson,...

  11. High-Ti-concentration aerogels for bright x-ray sources (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ti-concentration aerogels for bright x-ray sources Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Ti-concentration aerogels for bright x-ray sources You are accessing a...

  12. Low temperature fabrication of perovskite solar cells with TiO...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the perovskite were fabricated from TiOsub 2 nanoparticles with different grain sizes. ... performance of solar cells was improved by combination of two TiOsub 2 nanoparticles. ...

  13. Ti3CrCu4: A possible 2-D ferromagnetic spin fluctuating system...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ti3CrCu4: A possible 2-D ferromagnetic spin fluctuating system Title: Ti3CrCu4: A possible ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Free ...

  14. Conversion of 1,3-Propylene Glycol on Rutile TiO2(110) (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conversion of 1,3-Propylene Glycol on Rutile TiO2(110) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conversion of 1,3-Propylene Glycol on Rutile TiO2(110) The adsorption of...

  15. Electrolyte Gate-Controlled Kondo Effect in SrTiO3 (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrolyte Gate-Controlled Kondo Effect in SrTiO3 Prev Next Title: Electrolyte Gate-Controlled Kondo Effect in SrTiO3 Authors: Lee, Menyoung ; Williams, J. R. ; Zhang, Sipei ...

  16. Electric control of magnetism at the Fe/BaTiO3 interface (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electric control of magnetism at the FeBaTiO3 interface Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electric control of magnetism at the FeBaTiO3 interface You are accessing a ...

  17. Water adsorption induced in-plane domain switching on BaTiO{sub 3} surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X.; Bai, Y.; Su, Y. J.; Wang, B. C.

    2015-09-07

    In this study, the influences of the adsorption of water molecules on the changes in the atomic and electric structures of BaTiO{sub 3} surface were investigated using ab initio calculation. Water molecules are molecularly and dissociatively adsorbed on the BaTiO{sub 3} surface, which makes electrons transfer from water molecules to the BaTiO{sub 3} surface. The redistribution of electrons in the BaTiO{sub 3} surface layers weakens the Ba-O interactions and strengthens the Ti-O interactions, so that the Ti atom shifts in TiO{sub 2} plane, i.e., an in-plane domain switching. The adsorption of water molecules on BaTiO{sub 3} surfaces also results in a reduction in the surface rumpling.

  18. Visible Light Absorption of N-Doped TiO2 Rutile Using (LR/RT...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    N-Doped TiO2 Rutile Using (LRRT)-TDDFT and Active Space EOMCCSD Calculations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Visible Light Absorption of N-Doped TiO2 Rutile Using ...

  19. Piezo-/dielectric properties of perovskite-structure high-temperature relaxor ferroelectrics: The Pb(Lu{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}–Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–PbTiO{sub 3} ternary ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Tao; Long, Xifa

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-based ternary ferroelectric ceramics were prepared by solid-state synthesis method. • Morphotropic phase boundary region has been determined by XRD, di-/piezoelectric properties. • The compositions near MPB region exhibit excellent piezoelectric properties. - Abstract: A new compositional system of relaxor ferroelectrics was investigated based on the high piezoelectricity Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–PbTiO{sub 3} ferroelectric perovskite family. Compositions were fabricated near an estimated morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) of the Pb(Lu{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}–Pb(Zn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–PbTiO{sub 3} (PLZNT) ternary system by a two-step synthetic process. Their structures have been analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction technique. On the basis of X-ray powder diffraction, the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) region for the ternary system was obtained. The Curie temperature T{sub C} of ternary system varied from 240 °C to 330 °C and the coercive fields E{sub c}s > 10 kV/cm. The values of piezoelectric coefficients d{sub 33} vary in the range of 260–450 pC/N with different PZN contents. It is worth noting that the optimum compositions were located at MPB region but near the tetragonal phase. The new PLZNT ceramics exhibit wider range of T{sub C}s and E{sub c}s, making it a promising material for high-powder ultrasound transducers using in a large temperature range.

  20. Coating power RF components with TiN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuchnir, M.; Hahn, E.

    1995-03-01

    A facility for coating RF power components with thin films of Ti and/or TiN has been in operation for some time at Fermilab supporting the Accelerator Division RF development work and the TESLA program. It has been experimentally verified that such coatings improve the performance of these components as far as withstanding higher electric fields. This is attributed to a reduction in the secondary electron emission coefficient of the surfaces when coated with a thin film containing titanium. The purpose of this Technical Memorandum is to describe the facility and the procedure used.

  1. Resonance photoelectron spectroscopy of TiX{sub 2} (X = S, Se, Te) titanium dichalcogenides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shkvarin, A. S. Yarmoshenko, Yu. M.; Skorikov, N. A.; Yablonskikh, M. V.; Merentsov, A. I.; Shkvarina, E. G.; Titov, A. N.

    2012-11-15

    The photoelectron valence band spectra of TiS{sub 2}, TiSe{sub 2}, and TiTe{sub 2} dichalcogenides are investigated in the Ti 2p-3d resonance regime. Resonance bands in the vicinity of the Fermi energy are found for TiS{sub 2} and TiTe{sub 2}. The nature of these bands is analyzed based on model calculations of the density of electronic states in TiS{sub 2}, TiSe{sub 2}, and TiTe{sub 2} compounds intercalated by titanium atoms. Analysis of experimental data and their comparison with model calculations showed that these bands have different origins. It is found that the resonance enhancement of an additional band observed in TiS{sub 2} is explained by self-intercalation by titanium during the synthesis of this compound. The resonance enhancement in TiTe{sub 2} is caused by occupation of the 3d band in Ti.

  2. High strength, light weight Ti-Y composites and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, John D.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Russell, Alan M.; Jones, Lawrence L.

    1993-04-06

    A high strength, light weight "in-situ" Ti-Y composite is produced by deformation processing a cast body having Ti and Y phase components distributed therein. The composite comprises elongated, ribbon-shaped Ti and Y phase components aligned along an axis of the deformed body.

  3. High strength, light weight Ti-Y composites and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Ellis, T.W.; Russell, A.M.; Jones, L.L.

    1993-04-06

    A high strength, light weight in-situ'' Ti-Y composite is produced by deformation processing a cast body having Ti and Y phase components distributed therein. The composite comprises elongated, ribbon-shaped Ti and Y phase components aligned along an axis of the deformed body.

  4. Response of Cs2LiYCl6:Ce (CLYC) to High Energy Protons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coupland, Daniel David Schechtman; Stonehill, Laura Catherine; Goett, John Jerome III

    2015-11-23

    Cs2LiYCl6:Ce (CLYC) is a promising new inorganic scintillator for gamma and neutron detection. As a gamma-ray detector, it exhibits bright light output and better resolution and proportionality of response than traditional gamma-ray scintillators such as NaI. It is also highly sensitive to thermal neutrons through capture on 6Li, and recent experiments have demonstrated sensitivity to fast neutrons through interactions with 35Cl. The response of CLYC to other forms of radiation has not been reported. We have performed the first measurements of the response of CLYC to several-hundred MeV protons. We have collected digitized waveforms from proton events, and compare to those produced by gammas and thermal neutrons. Finally, we discuss the potential for pulse shape discrimination between them.

  5. The radiation chemistry of CCD-PEG, a solvent-extraction process for Cs and Sr from dissolved nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mincher, B.J.; Herbst, R.S.; Tillotson, R.D.; Mezyk, S.P.

    2008-07-01

    Cobalt dicarbollide and polyethylene glycol in phenyl-trifluoromethyl sulfone (HCCD/PEG in FS- 13) is currently under consideration for use in the process-scale selective extraction of fission- product cesium and strontium from dissolved nuclear fuel. This solvent will be exposed to high radiation doses during use and has not been adequately investigated for radiation stability. Here, HCCD/PEG was y-irradiated to various absorbed doses, to a maximum of 432 kGy, using {sup 60}Co. Irradiations were performed for the neat organic phase and also for the organic phase in contact with 1 M-nitric acid mixed by air sparging. Post-irradiation solvent-extraction measurements showed that Cs distribution ratios were unaffected; however, Sr extraction efficiency decreased with absorbed dose under both conditions and was greater when in contact with the aqueous phase. Stripping performance was not affected. A mechanism, initiated by direct radiolysis of the sulfone diluent, is proposed. (authors)

  6. Radiochemical procedures for analysis of Pu, Am, Cs and Sr in water, soil, sediments and biota samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Noshkin, V.E.

    1994-02-01

    The Environmental Radioactivity Analysis Laboratory (ERAL) was established as an analytical facility. The primary function of ERAL is to provide fast and accurate radiological data of environmental samples. Over the years, many radiochemical procedures have been developed by the staffs of ERAL. As result, we have found that our procedures exist in many different formats and in many different notebooks, documents and files. Therefore, in order to provide for more complete and orderly documentation of the radiochemical procedures that are being used by ERAL, we have decided to standardize the format and compile them into a series of reports. This first report covers procedures we have developed and are using for the radiochemical analysis of Pu, Am, Cs, and Sr in various matrices. Additional analytical procedures and/or revisions for other elements will be reported as they become available through continuation of these compilation efforts.

  7. Hysteretic electrical transport in BaTiO{sub 3}/Ba{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3}/Ge heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ngai, J. H.; Kumah, D. P.; Walker, F. J.; Ahn, C. H.

    2014-02-10

    We present electrical transport measurements of heterostructures comprised of BaTiO{sub 3} and Ba{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3} epitaxially grown on Ge. Sr alloying imparts compressive strain to the BaTiO{sub 3}, which enables the thermal expansion mismatch between BaTiO{sub 3} and Ge to be overcome to achieve c-axis oriented growth. The conduction bands of BaTiO{sub 3} and Ba{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3} are nearly aligned with the conduction band of Ge, which facilitates electron transport. Electrical transport measurements through the dielectric stack exhibit rectifying behavior and hysteresis, where the latter is consistent with ferroelectric switching.

  8. Induced Ti magnetization at La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 and BaTiO3 interfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Yaohua; Tornos, J.; te Velthuis, S. G. E.; Freeland, J. W.; Zhou, H.; Steadman, P.; Bencok, P.; Leon, C.; Santamaria, J.

    2016-04-01

    In artificial multiferroics hybrids consisting of ferromagnetic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) and ferroelectric BaTiO3 epitaxial layers, net Ti moments are found from polarized resonant soft x-ray reflectivity and absorption. Moreover, the Ti dichroic reflectivity follows the Mn signal during the magnetization reversal, indicating exchange coupling between the Ti and Mn ions. But, the Ti dichroic reflectivity shows stronger temperature dependence than the Mn dichroic signal. Besides a reduced ferromagnetic exchange coupling in the interfacial LSMO layer, this may also be attributed to a weak Ti-Mn exchange coupling that is insufficient to overcome the thermal energy at elevated temperatures.

  9. Dye sensitized solar cell applications of CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite thin films deposited from single molecular complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehsan, Muhammad Ali; Khaledi, Hamid; Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Huang, Nay Ming; Arifin, Zainudin; Mazhar, Muhammad

    2015-10-15

    A heterobimetallic complex [Cd{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}(μ-O){sub 6}(TFA){sub 8}(THF){sub 6}]·1.5THF (1) (TFA=trifluoroacetato, THF=tetrahydrofuran) comprising of Cd:Ti (1:2) ratio was synthesized by a chemical reaction of cadmium (II) acetate with titanium (IV) isopropoxide and triflouroacetic acid in THF. The stoichiometry of (1) was recognized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic and elemental analyses. Thermal studies revealed that (1) neatly decomposes at 450 °C to furnish 1:1 ratio of cadmium titanate:titania composite oxides material. The thin films of CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite oxides were deposited at 550 °C on fluorine doped tin oxide coated conducting glass substrate in air ambient. The micro-structure, crystallinity, phase identification and chemical composition of microspherical architectured CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite thin film have been determined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The scope of composite thin film having band gap of 3.1 eV was explored as photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cell application. - Graphical abstarct: Microspherical designed CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite oxides photoanode film has been fabricated from single source precursor [Cd{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}(μ-O){sub 6}(TFA){sub 8}(THF){sub 6}]·1.5THF via aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition technique for dye sensitized solar cell application. - Highlights: • Synthesis and characterization of a heterobimetallic Cd–Ti complex. • Fabrication of CdTiO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} thin film photoelectrode. • Application as dye sensitized photoanode for solar application.

  10. Epitaxial single-crystal thin films of MnxTi1-xO2-δ grown on...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Epitaxial single-crystal thin films of MnxTi1-xO2- grown on (rutile)TiO2 substrates with ... Title: Epitaxial single-crystal thin films of MnxTi1-xO2- grown on (rutile)TiO2 ...

  11. Comparison of the spectral response of a thinned, backside illuminated CCD with a CsI coated MCP system and Kodak 101 film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Yuelin; Crespo Lopex-Urrutia, J. R.; Tsakiris, G. D.; Sigel, R.; Volk, R.; Pina, L.

    1995-05-01

    A thinned backside illuminated CCD chip was calibrated by self consistently determining the thickness of its dead layer. Its spectral response and sensitivity were then compared with those of the calibrated Kodak 101 photographic plates and of a CsI coated microchannel plate detection system.

  12. Adhesion evaluation of TiN and (Ti, Al)N coatings on titanium 6Al-4V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, R.D.; Gruss, K.A.; Horie, Y.; Davis, R.F.; Paisley, D.L.; Parthasarthi, S.; Tittmann, B.R.

    1996-12-31

    The metallic components of gas turbine engines are continually subjected to hostile atmospheres. Nitride coatings improve the performance of the metallic compressor blades in these engines. To assess the adhesion of nitride coatings on metals, titanium 6% aluminum 4% vanadium substrates were coated with titanium nitride (TiN) using both cathodic arc and electron beam evaporation. Titanium aluminum nitride ((Ti, Al)N) was also deposited using cathodic arc evaporation. The interfaces of the coated samples were loaded in tension using a high speed shock wave which caused spallation either at the interface, in the coating or in the metal. Scanning acoustic microscopy analysis of the spalled samples detected delaminations at the interface in the samples deposited by cathodic arc evaporation. DYNA2D modeling of plate impact spallation experiments revealed the tensile adhesion strength for TiN deposited by both techniques was {approx} 2.0 GPa. The tensile adhesion strength for (Ti, Al)N was less than 1.5 GPa.

  13. Laser hydrothermal reductive ablation of titanium monoxide: Hydrated TiO particles with modified Ti/O surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blazevska-Gilev, Jadranka; Jandova, Vera; Kupcik, Jaroslav; Bastl, Zdenek; Subrt, Jan; Bezdicka, Petr; Pola, Josef

    2013-01-15

    IR laser- and UV laser-induced ablation of titanium monoxide (TM) in hydrogen (50 Torr) is compared to the same process induced in vacuum and shown to result in deposition of hydrated surface modified nanostructured titanium suboxide films. Complementary analyses of the films deposited in vacuum and in hydrogen by Fourier transform infrared, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy allowed to determine different features of both films and propose a mechanism of surface modification of ejected particles, which involves hydrothermal reduction of TM and subsequent reactions of evolved water. The films exert good adhesion to metal and quartz surfaces and are hydrophobic in spite of having their surface coated with adsorbed water. - Graphical abstract: Laser ablation of titanium monoxide (TiO) in hydrogen involves a sequence of H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O eliminations and additions and yields hydrated amorphous nanostructured titanium suboxide which is richer in oxygen than TiO. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IR and UV laser ablated particles of titanium monoxide (TiO) undergo amorphization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films deposited in vacuum have TiO stoichiometry and are oxidized in atmosphere. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films deposited in hydrogen are hydrated and have more O in topmost layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films modification in hydrogen is explained by reactions in hydrogen plasma.

  14. Identification of a genetic interaction between the tumor suppressor EAF2 and the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) signaling pathway in C. elegans and prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Liquan; Wang, Dan; Fisher, Alfred L.; Wang, Zhou

    2014-05-02

    the growth and survival of prostate cancer cells. Together these findings identify a novel physical and functional interaction between EAF2 and the Rb pathway.

  15. Milestone Report - M4FT-15OR03120218 - A Literature Search on the Effects of the Decay of 85Kr to 85Rb on Long-term Storage Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruffey, Stephanie H.; Strachan, Denis M.; Jubin, Robert Thomas; Spencer, Barry B.

    2015-10-01

    Reprocessing of UNF that has been out of the reactor for less than about 50 y requires the removal of 85Kr from the process off-gas streams. This is needed despite the relatively small amount of that isotope in the combined Xe and Kr inventory (Table 1). The decay of 85Kr to 85Rb presents challenges to the materials that will potentially be used to remove and store the Kr recovered from the off-gas. To address some of these problems, a thorough literature survey was completed, and the results of that analysis are summarized in this document.

  16. One-pot occurrence of two polymorphs of Rb{sub 2}Sc[Si{sub 4}O{sub 10}]F and their structural, spectroscopic and computational characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahlenberg, Volker; Manninger, Tanja; Perfler, Lukas; Többens, Daniel M.

    2014-12-15

    Single-crystal growth experiments in the system RbF–Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2} resulted in the crystallization of two forms of Rb{sub 2}Sc[Si{sub 4}O{sub 10}]F within the same run. Basic crystallographic data of the two concomitant polymorphs at ambient conditions are as follows: phase I: space group I4/m, a=11.2619(3) Å, c=8.3053(4) Å, V=1053.36(6) Å{sup 3}, Z=4; phase II: space group P2{sub 1}/m, a=11.5085(6) Å, b=8.3805(3) Å, c=11.6750(6) Å, β=111.147(6)°, V=1050.19(9) Å{sup 3}, Z=4. The structures were determined by direct methods and refined to residuals of R(|F|)=0.0231 (phase I) for 516 and 0.0249 (phase II) for 2050 independent observed reflections with I>2σ(I). Phase I showed twinning by merohedry which was accounted for during the refinement process. Both compounds are based on multiple chains of [SiO{sub 4}]-tetrahedra forming closed columns or tubes. The multiplicity of the unbranched fundamental chains is two (for phase I) and four (for phase II), respectively. The periodicity of the multiple chains has a value of four in both modifications which is also reflected in similar translation periods along the chain directions (phase I: t{sub [001]}=8.31 Å; phase II: t{sub [010]}=8.38 Å). Alternatively, both polymorphs can be described as mixed octahedral–tetrahedral frameworks, which can be classified according to their polyhedral microensembles. A topological analysis of both networks is presented. Structural investigations have been supplemented by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The interpretation of the spectroscopic data including the allocation of the bands to certain vibrational species has been aided by DFT-calculations. - Graphical abstract: Mixed tetrahedral–octahedral framework of the tetragonal polymorph of Rb{sub 2}Sc[Si{sub 4}O{sub 10}]F. - Highlights: • We report the crystal structures of two polymorphs of Rb{sub 2}ScSi{sub 4}O{sub 10}F. • Both phases crystallized concomitantly in the same flux-growth experiment. • The

  17. Dual Phase Li4 Ti5O12TiO2 Nanowire Arrays As Integrated Anodes For High-rate Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Jin; Chabot, Victor; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Xiao, Xingcheng; Chen, Zhongwei

    2014-08-19

    Lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) is well known as a zero strain material inherently, which provides excellent long cycle stability as a negative electrode for lithium ion batteries. However, the low specific capacity (175 mA h g?1) limits it to power batteries although the low electrical conductivity is another intrinsic issue need to be solved. In this work, we developed a facile hydrothermal and ion-exchange route to synthesize the self-supported dual-phase Li4Ti5O12TiO2 nanowire arrays to further improve its capacity as well as rate capability. The ratio of Li4Ti5O12 to TiO2 in the dual phase Li4Ti5O12TiO2 nanowire is around 2:1. The introduction of TiO2 into Li4Ti5O12 increases the specific capacity. More importantly, by interface design, it creates a dual-phase nanostructure with high grain boundary density that facilitates both electron and Li ion transport. Compared with phase-pure nanowire Li4Ti5O12 and TiO2 nanaowire arrays, the dual-phase nanowire electrode yielded superior rate capability (135.5 at 5 C, 129.4 at 10 C, 120.2 at 20 C and 115.5 mA h g?1 at 30 C). In-situ transmission electron microscope clearly shows the near zero deformation of the dual phase structure, which explains its excellent cycle stability.

  18. Journal of Physical Chemistry A

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid ... Equilibrated molecular structure of interlayer Cs+ (yellow), Rb+ ...

  19. Structural and chemical characterization of BaTiO{sub 3} nanorods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zagar, K.; Recnik, A.; Sturm, S.; Gajovic, A.; Ceh, M.

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Polycrystalline BaTiO{sub 3} nanorods were synthesized with EPD into AAO templates. {yields} Nanorods are composed of crystalline, nanosized grains with pseudo-cubic structure. {yields} Integrowth of hexagonal BaTiO{sub 3} polymorph within pseudo-cubic structure was observed. -- Abstract: An electron-microscopy investigation was performed on BaTiO{sub 3} nanorods that were processed by sol-gel electrophoretic deposition (EPD) into anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes. The BaTiO{sub 3} nanorods grown within the template membranes had diameters ranging from 150 to 200 nm, with an average length of 10-50 {mu}m. By using various electron-microscopy techniques we showed that the processed BaTiO{sub 3} nanorods were homogeneous in their chemical composition. The BaTiO{sub 3} nanorods were always polycrystalline and were composed of well-crystallized, defect-free, pseudo-cubic BaTiO{sub 3} grains, ranging from 10 to 30 nm. No intergranular phases were observed between the BaTiO{sub 3} grains. A low-temperature hexagonal polymorph that is coherently intergrown with the BaTiO{sub 3} perovskite matrix was also observed as a minor phase. When annealing the AAO templates containing the BaTiO{sub 3} sol in an oxygen atmosphere the presence of the hexagonal polymorph was diminished.

  20. Synthesis of visible light-activated TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst via surface organic modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Dong Xu Yao Hou Bo; Wu Dong; Sun Yuhan

    2007-05-15

    A visible light-activated TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by the surface organic modification to sol-gel-hydrothermal synthesized TiO{sub 2}. The surface hydroxyls of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles reacted with the active -NCO groups of tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) to form a surface complex that was confirmed by the FT-IR and XPS spectra. Due to the existence of surface complex, the absorption edge of as-prepared TDI-modified TiO{sub 2} nanomaterial extended well into visible region. Compared with unmodified TiO{sub 2} and Degussa P25, the TDI-modified TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts showed higher activity for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. - Graphical abstract: A visible light-activated TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by the surface organic modification to TiO{sub 2}. The surface hydroxyls of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles reacted with the active -NCO groups of tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) to form a surface complex. The TDI-modified TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts showed higher activity for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation.

  1. Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} superstructures of cubic titanium monoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gusev, A. I.

    2013-08-15

    A cubic model is proposed for the Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} (Ti{sub 5} Black-Small-Square O{sub 5}{open_square} {identical_to} Ti{sub 90} Black-Small-Square {sub 18}O{sub 90}{open_square}{sub 18}) superstructure of nonstoichiometric titanium monoxide Ti{sub x}O{sub z} with double imperfection. The unit cell of the cubic Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} superstructure has the threefold lattice parameter of the unit cell of the basis disordered B1 structure of Ti{sub x}O{sub z} monoxide and belongs to space group Pm 3-bar m . The channel of the disorder-order transition, i.e., Ti{sub x}O{sub z} (space group Fm 3-bar m)-Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} (space group Pm 3-bar m), includes 75 superstructure vectors of seven stars (k{sub 10}), (k{sub 7}), (k{sub 6(1)}), (k{sub 6(2)}), (k{sub 4(1)}), (k{sub 4(2)}), and (k{sub 1}). The distribution functions of Ti and O atoms over the sites of the cubic Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} superstructure are calculated. A comparison of the X-ray and electron diffraction data obtained for ordered TiO{sub 1.087} monoxide with the theoretical simulation results supports the existence of the cubic Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} superstructure. The cubic (space group Pm 3-bar m) Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} superstructure is shown to be a high-temperature structure relative to the well-known monoclinic (space group C2/m) superstructure of the same type.

  2. A compact, discrete CsI(Tl) scintillator/Si photodiode gamma camera for breast cancer imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruber, Gregory J.

    2000-12-01

    Recent clinical evaluations of scintimammography (radionuclide breast imaging) are promising and suggest that this modality may prove a valuable complement to X-ray mammography and traditional breast cancer detection and diagnosis techniques. Scintimammography, however, typically has difficulty revealing tumors that are less than 1 cm in diameter, are located in the medial part of the breast, or are located in the axillary nodes. These shortcomings may in part be due to the use of large, conventional Anger cameras not optimized for breast imaging. In this thesis I present compact single photon camera technology designed specifically for scintimammography which strives to alleviate some of these limitations by allowing better and closer access to sites of possible breast tumors. Specific applications are outlined. The design is modular, thus a camera of the desired size and geometry can be constructed from an array (or arrays) of individual modules and a parallel hole lead collimator for directional information. Each module consists of: (1) an array of 64 discrete, optically-isolated CsI(Tl) scintillator crystals 3 x 3 x 5 mm{sup 3} in size, (2) an array of 64 low-noise Si PIN photodiodes matched 1-to-1 to the scintillator crystals, (3) an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) that amplifies the 64 photodiode signals and selects the signal with the largest amplitude, and (4) connectors and hardware for interfacing the module with a motherboard, thereby allowing straightforward computer control of all individual modules within a camera.

  3. Quantum-noise-limited interferometric measurement of atomic noise: Towards spin squeezing on the Cs clock transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblak, Daniel; Tittel, Wolfgang; Vershovski, Anton K.; Mikkelsen, Jens K.; Soerensen, Jens L.; Petrov, Plamen G.; Garrido Alzar, Carlos L.; Polzik, Eugene S.

    2005-04-01

    We investigate theoretically and experimentally a nondestructive interferometric measurement of the state population of an ensemble of laser-cooled and trapped atoms. This study is a step toward generation of (pseudo)spin squeezing of cold atoms targeted at the improvement of the cesium clock performance beyond the limit set by the quantum projection noise of atoms. We calculate the phase shift and the quantum noise of a near-resonant optical probe pulse propagating through a cloud of cold {sup 133}Cs atoms. We analyze the figure of merit for a quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement of the collective pseudospin and show that it can be expressed simply as a product of the ensemble optical density and the pulse-integrated rate of the spontaneous emission caused by the off-resonant probe light. Based on this, we propose a protocol for the sequence of operations required to generate and utilize spin squeezing for the improved atomic clock performance via a QND measurement on the probe light. In the experimental part we demonstrate that the interferometric measurement of the atomic population can reach a sensitivity of the order of {radical}(N{sub at}) in a cloud of N{sub at} cold atoms, which is an important benchmark toward the experimental realization of the theoretically analyzed protocol.

  4. Effect of neutron irradiation on defect evolution in Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tallman, Darin J.; He, Lingfeng; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.; Hoffman, Elizabeth N.; Kohse, Gordon; Sindelar, Robert L.; Barsoum, Michel W.

    2015-10-23

    Here, we report on the characterization of defects formed in polycrystalline Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC samples exposed to neutron irradiation – up to 0.1 displacements per atom (dpa) at 350 ± 40 °C or 695 ± 25 °C, and up to 0.4 dpa at 350 ± 40 °C. Black spots are observed in both Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC after irradiation to both 0.1 and 0.4 dpa at 350 °C. After irradiation to 0.1 dpa at 695 °C, small basal dislocation loops, with a Burgers vector of b = 1/2 [0001] are observed in both materials. At 9 ± 3 and 10 ± 5 nm, the loop diameters in the Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC samples, respectively, were comparable. At 1 × 1023 loops/m3, the dislocation loop density in Ti2AlC was ≈1.5 orders of magnitude greater than in Ti3SiC2, at 3 x 1021 loops/m3. After irradiation at 350 °C, extensive microcracking was observed in Ti2AlC, but not in Ti3SiC2. The room temperature electrical resistivities increased as a function of neutron dose for all samples tested, and appear to saturate in the case of Ti3SiC2. The MAX phases are unequivocally more neutron radiation tolerant than the impurity phases TiC and Al2O3. Based on these results, Ti3SiC2 appears to be a more promising MAX phase candidate for high temperature nuclear applications than Ti2AlC.

  5. Characterization of irradiation damage distribution near TiO{sub 2}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces using coherent acoustic phonon interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarotski, Dmitry; Yan Li; Jia Quanxi; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Fu Engang; Wang Yongqiang; Uberuaga, Blas P.

    2012-06-18

    We apply ultrafast coherent acoustic phonon interferometry to characterize the distribution of the radiation damage near the TiO{sub 2}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces. We show that the optical and mechanical properties of anatase TiO{sub 2} remain unaffected by the radiation dosages in the 0.1 Division-Sign 5 dpa (displacements per atom) range, while the degraded optical response indicates a significant defect accumulation in the interfacial region of SrTiO{sub 3} at 0.1 dpa and subsequent amorphization at 3 dpa. Comparison between the theoretical simulations and the experimental results reveals an almost threefold reduction of the sound velocity in the irradiated SrTiO{sub 3} layer with peak damage levels of 3 and 5 dpa.

  6. Reactions of hydrogen with V-Cr-Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiStefano, J.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Chitwood, L.D.; Roehrig, D.H.

    1998-09-01

    In the absence of increases in oxygen concentration, additions of up to 400 ppm hydrogen to V-4 Cr-4 Ti did not result in significant embrittlement as determined by room temperature tensile tests. However, when hydrogen approached 700 ppm after exposure at 325 C, rapid embrittlement occurred. In this latter case, hydride formation is the presumed embrittlement cause. When oxygen was added during or prior to hydrogen exposure, synergistic effects led to significant embrittlement by 100 ppm hydrogen.

  7. LaTiO₃/KTaO₃ interfaces: A new two-dimensional electron gas system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, K.; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Kisslinger, Kim; Shen, Xuan; Su, Dong; Walker, F. J.; Ahn, C. H.

    2015-03-01

    We report a new 2D electron gas (2DEG) system at the interface between a Mott insulator, LaTiO₃, and a band insulator, KTaO₃. For LaTiO₃/KTaO₃ interfaces, we observe metallic conduction from 2 K to 300 K. One serious technological limitation of SrTiO₃-based conducting oxide interfaces for electronics applications is the relatively low carrier mobility (0.5-10 cm²/V s) of SrTiO₃ at room temperature. By using KTaO₃, we achieve mobilities in LaTiO₃/KTaO₃ interfaces as high as 21 cm²/V s at room temperature, over a factor of 3 higher than observed in doped bulk SrTiO₃. By density functional theory, we attribute the higher mobility in KTaO₃ 2DEGs to the smaller effective mass for electrons in KTaO₃.

  8. LaTiO₃/KTaO₃ interfaces: A new two-dimensional electron gas system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zou, K.; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Kisslinger, Kim; Shen, Xuan; Su, Dong; Walker, F. J.; Ahn, C. H.

    2015-03-01

    We report a new 2D electron gas (2DEG) system at the interface between a Mott insulator, LaTiO₃, and a band insulator, KTaO₃. For LaTiO₃/KTaO₃ interfaces, we observe metallic conduction from 2 K to 300 K. One serious technological limitation of SrTiO₃-based conducting oxide interfaces for electronics applications is the relatively low carrier mobility (0.5-10 cm²/V s) of SrTiO₃ at room temperature. By using KTaO₃, we achieve mobilities in LaTiO₃/KTaO₃ interfaces as high as 21 cm²/V s at room temperature, over a factor of 3 higher than observed in doped bulk SrTiO₃. By density functional theory, we attribute the higher mobilitymore » in KTaO₃ 2DEGs to the smaller effective mass for electrons in KTaO₃.« less

  9. Laser cladding of Ti-6Al-4V with various carbide powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folkes, J.A.; Shibata, K. )

    1994-06-01

    Laser cladding Ti-6Al-4V can be achieved with various weight percentages of different carbide powders. The microstructure and morphology of the clad layer is determined by the cladding powder composition, for a given set of laser parameters, such that 10 and 20 wt% Cr[sub 3]C[sub 2] results in a [beta] + TiC clad microstructure; 10 and 20 wt% WC results in an [alpha] + TiC clad microstructure (plus some original WC); and Mo[sub 2]C gives an [alpha] + [beta] + TiC or [beta] + TiC structure, depending on the weight percentage of Mo[sub 2]C. The morphology of the TiC in all cases is dendritic or feathery, depending on the carbide content. The microstructure observed in all cases agreed well with that theoretically predicted from the energetics of carbide formation and [beta]-stabilizing properties of each element.

  10. Cesium iodide alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Moorhead, Arthur J.

    1992-01-01

    A transparent, strong CsI alloy havign additions of monovalent iodides. Although the perferred iodide is AgI, RbI and CuI additions also contribute to an improved polycrystalline CsI alloy.

  11. Heterojunction band offsets and dipole formation at BaTiO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balaz, Snjezana; Zeng, Zhaoquan; Brillson, Leonard J.; Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff, Columbus, Ohio 43210

    2013-11-14

    We used a complement of photoemission and cathodoluminescence techniques to measure formation of the BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) on SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) heterojunction band offset grown monolayer by monolayer by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) provided core level and valence band edge energies to monitor the valence band offset in-situ as the first few crystalline BTO monolayers formed on the STO substrate. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) measured Fermi level positions within the band gap, work functions, and ionization potentials of the growing BTO film. Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy measured energies and densities of interface states at the buried heterojunction. Kraut-based XPS heterojunction band offsets provided evidence for STO/BTO heterojunction linearity, i.e., commutativity and transitivity. In contrast, UPS and XPS revealed a large dipole associated either with local charge transfer or strain-induced polarization within the BTO epilayer.

  12. Anisotropic swelling and microcracking of neutron irradiated Ti3AlC2-Ti5Al2C3 materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ang, Caen K.; Silva, Chinthaka M.; Shih, Chunghao Phillip; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Katoh, Yutai; Zinkle, Steven J.

    2015-12-17

    Mn + 1AXn (MAX) phase materials based on Ti–Al–C have been irradiated at 400 °C (673 K) with fission neutrons to a fluence of 2 × 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV), corresponding to ~ 2 displacements per atom (dpa). We report preliminary results of microcracking in the Al-containing MAX phase, which contained the phases Ti3AlC2 and Ti5Al2C3. Equibiaxial ring-on-ring tests of irradiated coupons showed that samples retained 10% of pre-irradiated strength. Volumetric swelling of up to 4% was observed. Phase analysis and microscopy suggest that anisotropic lattice parameter swelling caused microcracking. Lastly, variants of titanium aluminum carbide may bemore » unsuitable materials for irradiation at light water reactor-relevant temperatures.« less

  13. Effect Of The Plasma Deposition Parameters On The Properties Of Ti/TiN Multilayers For Hard Coatings Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saoula, N.; Henda, K.; Kesri, R.

    2008-09-23

    In this study, we present the effect of the plasma deposition parameters on the mechanical properties of Ti/TiN multilayers. The elaboration of our films has been carried out by RF-Magnetron Sputtering (13.56 MHz) under nitrogen and argon reactive plasma at low pressure. The film depositions have been done on steel substrates. The first step of our study was the optimization of the depositions conditions in order to obtain good quality films. The amount of nitrogen in the sputtering gases being fixed at 10%. The total pressure was set between 2mTorr to 10mTorr. The deposited multilayers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and micro-indentation.

  14. Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CS-R process; and Exxon Gasification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-06-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  15. Intrinsic quantum anomalous Hall effect in the kagome lattice Cs2LiMn3F12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Gang; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou -Cheng

    2015-10-27

    In a kagome lattice, the time reversal symmetry can be broken by a staggered magnetic flux emerging from ferromagnetic ordering and intrinsic spin-orbit coupling, leading to several well-separated nontrivial Chern bands and intrinsic quantum anomalous Hall effect. Based on this idea and ab initio calculations, we propose the realization of the intrinsic quantum anomalous Hall effect in the single layer Cs2Mn3F12 kagome lattice and on the (001) surface of a Cs2LiMn3F12 single crystal by modifying the carrier coverage on it, where the band gap is around 20 meV. Furthermore, a simplified tight binding model based on the in-plane ddσ antibonding states is constructed to understand the topological band structures of the system.

  16. Soil concentration, vertical distribution and inventory of plutonium, [sup 241]Am, [sup 90]Sr and [sup 137]Cs in the Marche Region of Central Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, G.; Testa, C.; Desideri, D.; Guerra, F.; Meli, M.A.; Roselli, C. . Inst. of General Chemistry); Belli, M.E. )

    1999-07-01

    Soil concentrations of [sup 239+240]Pu, [sup 238]Pu, [sup 241]Am, [sup 90]Sr, and [sup 137]Cs are investigated in the Marche Region of Central Italy. Mean values in uncultivated soils are 3.5--8 times higher than the corresponding values in cultivated soils. Radionuclide inventories and ratios are consistent with values reported by the United nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation for this latitude. This suggests that radiocontamination in this region is mainly due to atmospheric deposition of nuclear weapon test fallout. The vertical distribution of these radionuclides is also studied. The results show that, with the exception of [sup 90]Sr, more than 90% of these radionuclides are contained in the first 20 cm of soil and that mobility follows the order [sup 90]Sr > [sup 241]Am > [sup 239+240]Pu, [sup 238]Pu > [sup 137]Cs.

  17. Individual Radiological Protection Monitoring of Utrok Atoll Residents Based on Whole Body Counting of Cesium-137 (137Cs) and Plutonium Bioassay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, T; Kehl, S; Brown, T; Martinelli, R; Hickman, D; Jue, T; Tumey, S; Langston, R

    2007-06-08

    This report contains individual radiological protection surveillance data developed during 2006 for adult members of a select group of families living on Utrok Atoll. These Group I volunteers all underwent a whole-body count to determine levels of internally deposited cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and supplied a bioassay sample for analysis of plutonium isotopes. Measurement data were obtained and the results compared with an equivalent set of measurement data for {sup 137}Cs and plutonium isotopes from a second group of adult volunteers (Group II) who were long-term residents of Utrok Atoll. For the purposes of this comparison, Group II volunteers were considered representative of the general population on Utrok Atoll. The general aim of the study was to determine residual systemic burdens of fallout radionuclides in each volunteer group, develop data in response to addressing some specific concerns about the preferential uptake and potential health consequences of residual fallout radionuclides in Group I volunteers, and generally provide some perspective on the significance of radiation doses delivered to volunteers (and the general Utrok Atoll resident population) in terms of radiological protection standards and health risks. Based on dose estimates from measurements of internally deposited {sup 137}Cs and plutonium isotopes, the data and information developed in this report clearly show that neither volunteer group has acquired levels of internally deposited fallout radionuclides specific to nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands that are likely to have any consequence on human health. Moreover, the dose estimates are well below radiological protection standards as prescribed by U.S. regulators and international agencies, and are very small when compared to doses from natural sources of radiation in the Marshall Islands and the threshold where radiation health effects could be either medically diagnosed in an individual or epidemiologically discerned in a

  18. Performance of LiAlloy/Ag(2)CrO(4) Couples in Molten CsBr-LiBr-KBr Eutectic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.

    1999-10-18

    The performance of Li-alloy/CsBr-LiBr-KBr/Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} systems was studied over a temperature range of 250 C to 300 C, for possible use as a power source for geothermal borehole applications. Single cells were discharged at current densities of 15.8 and 32.6 mA/cm{sup 2} using Li-Si and Li-Al anodes. When tested in 5-cell batteries, the Li-Si/CsBr-LiBr-KBr/Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} system exhibited thermal runaway. Thermal analytical tests showed that the Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} cathode reacted exothermically with the electrolyte on activation. Consequently, this system would not be practical for the envisioned geothermal borehole applications.

  19. Reversible uptake of COS, CS2 and SO2; Ionic liquids with O-alkylxanthate, O-alkylthiocarbonate, and O-alkylsulfite anions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heldebrant, David J.; Yonker, Clement R.; Jessop, Philip G.; Phan, Lam

    2009-08-14

    Further development of CO2 binding organic liquids to capture and release carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide and sulfur dioxide. This paper investigates a brand new class of ionic liquids which have potential as chemical sensors for acid gas capture. Applications to flue gas scrubbing are discussed with an emphasis on capture and release of COS, CS2 and SO2 with amidine and guanidine bases with alcohols. Formal spectroscopic characterization is presented.

  20. Preliminary flowsheet: Ion exchange process for the separation of cesium from Hanford tank waste using Duolite{trademark} CS-100 resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eager, K.M.; Penwell, D.L.; Knutson, B.J.

    1994-12-01

    This preliminary flowsheet document describes an ion exchange process which uses Duolite{trademark} CS-100 resin to remove cesium from Hanford Tank waste. The flowsheet describes one possible equipment configuration, and contains mass balances based on that configuration with feeds of Neutralized Current Acid Waste, and Double Shell Slurry Feed. Process alternatives, unresolved issues, and development needs are discussed which relate to the process.

  1. Spin and orbital Ti magnetism at LaMnO3/SrTiO3 interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcial-Barriocanal, J; Cezar, J. C.; Bruno, F. Y.; Thakur, P.; Brookes, N. B.; Utfeld, C.; Riviera-Calzada, A.; Giblin, S. R.; Taylor, J. W.; Duffy, J. A.; Dugdale, S. B.; Nakamura, T.; Kodama, K.; Leon, C.; Okamoto, Satoshi; Santamaria, J.

    2010-01-01

    In systems with strong electron-lattice coupling, such as manganites, orbital degeneracy is lifted, what causes a null expectation value of the orbital moment. Magnetic structure is thus determined by spin-spin superexchange. In titanates, however, with much smaller Jahn-Teller distortions, orbital degeneracy might allow non-zero values of the orbital magnetic moment. Accordingly, novel forms of ferromagnetic superexchange interaction unique to t2g electrons systems have been theoretically predicted, although their experimental observation has remained elusive. Here we report a new kind of Ti3+ ferromagnetism at LaMnO3/SrTiO3 epitaxial interfaces. It results from charge transfer to the empty conduction band of the titanate and has spin and orbital contributions evidencing the role played by orbital degeneracy. The possibility of tuning magnetic alignment (ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic) of Ti and Mn moments by structural parameters is demonstrated. This result will provide important clues for the understanding of the effects of orbital degeneracy in superexchange coupling.

  2. Self-assembled Ni/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite anodes synthesized...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ni(core)TiOsub 2(shell) nanocomposite anodes were fabricated on three-dimensional, self-assembled nanotemplates of Tobacco mosaic virus using atomic layer deposition, exhibiting ...

  3. Large oriented arrays and continuous films of TiO2 based nanotubes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Huifang; Liu, Jun; Voigt, James A.; Tian, Zhengrong Ryan; McKenzie, Bonnie Beth

    2003-08-01

    We report for the first time a one-step, templateless method to directly prepare large arrays of oriented TiO{sub 2}-based nanotubes and continuous films. These titania nanostructures can also be easily prepared as conformal coatings on a substrate. The nanostructured films were formed on a Ti substrate seeded with TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. SEM and TEM results suggested that a folding mechanism of sheetlike structures was involved in the formation of the nanotubes. The oriented arrays of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, continuous films, and coatings are expected to have potentials for applications in catalysis, filtration, sensing, photovoltaic cells, and high surface area electrodes.

  4. Impact of symmetry on the ferroelectric properties of CaTiO3...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    properties of CaTiO3 thin films Citation Details ... Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA Department of Materials Science ...

  5. Mechanisms of Oriented Attachment of TiO2 Nanocrystals in Vacuum...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mechanisms of Oriented Attachment of TiO2 Nanocrystals in Vacuum and Humid Environments: Reactive Molecular Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanisms of ...

  6. Synthesis of Highly Ordered TiO2 Nanotubes Using Ionic Liquids for Photovoltaics Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-04-01

    This factsheet describes a study that deals with a new, green approach of synthesizing highly ordered TiO2 nanotubes using ionic liquids for photovoltaics (PV) applications.

  7. A nano lamella NbTi–NiTi composite with high strength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Jiang; Jiang, Daqiang; Hao, Shijie; Yu, Cun; Zhang, Junsong; Ren, Yang; Lu, Deping; Xie, Shifang; Cui, Lishan

    2015-05-01

    A hypereutectic Nb60Ti24Ni16 (at%) alloy was prepared by vacuum induction melting, and a nano lamellae NbTi-NiTi composite was obtained by hot-forging and wire-drawing of the ingot Microscopic analysis showed that NbTi and NiTi nano lamellae distributed alternatively in the composite, and aligned along the wire axial direction, with a high volume fraction (similar to 70%) of NbTi nano lamellae. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that stress induced martensitic transformation occurred upon loading, which would effectively weaken the stress concentration at the interface and avoid the introduction of defects into the nano reinforced phase. Then the embedded NbTi nano lamellae exhibited a high elastic strain up to 2.72%, 1.5 times as high as that of the Nb nanowires embedded in a conventional plastic matrix, and the corresponding stress carried by NbTi was evaluated as 2.53 GPa. The high volume fraction of NbTi nano lamellae improved the translation of high strength from the nano reinforced phase into bulk properties of the composite, with a platform stress of similar to 1.7 GPa and a fracture strength of similar to 1.9 GPa. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. QUANTIFYING COMPOSITIONAL HOMOGENEITY IN Pb(ZrTi)O3 USING ATOM...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: QUANTIFYING COMPOSITIONAL HOMOGENEITY IN Pb(ZrTi)O3 USING ATOM PROBE TOMOGRAPHY. Abstract not provided. Authors: Ihlefeld, Jon F. ; Kotula, Paul Gabriel ; Brennecka, ...

  9. Investigation of carbon-coated lithiated Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and capacity retention. * TiOsub 2 nanoparticles and carbon coating are necessary for ... LITHIUM OXIDES; LITHIUM TITANATES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOSTRUCTURES; STABILITY; SYNTHESIS; ...

  10. Epitaxial Cr on n-SrTiO3(001)An ideal Ohmic contact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capan, Cigdem; Sun, Guangyuan; Bowden, Mark E.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2012-01-30

    Epitaxial Cr metallizations grown on n-SrTiO3(001) by molecular beam epitaxy are shown to result in an ordered interface with Cr bound to O in the terminal TiO2 layer, no reduction of the SrTiO3, and a near-perfect Ohmic contact. Cr/n-SrTiO3(001) thus constitutes an ideal interface between a pure metal and wide gap oxide in which interface redox chemistry does not occur, and the Fermi level remains unpinned.

  11. Epitaxial Cr on n-SrTiO{sub 3}(001) - An ideal Ohmic contact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capan, C.; Sun, G. Y.; Bowden, M. E.; Chambers, S. A.

    2012-01-30

    Epitaxial Cr metallizations grown on n-SrTiO{sub 3}(001) by molecular beam epitaxy are shown to result in an ordered interface with Cr bound to O in the terminal TiO{sub 2} layer, no reduction of the SrTiO{sub 3}, and a near-perfect Ohmic contact. Cr/n-SrTiO{sub 3}(001) thus constitutes an ideal interface between a pure metal and wide gap oxide in which interface redox chemistry does not occur, and the Fermi level remains unpinned.

  12. Features of a priori heavy doping of the n-TiNiSn intermetallic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romaka, V. A.; Rogl, P.; Romaka, V. V.; Hlil, E. K.; Stadnyk, Yu. V.; Budgerak, S. M.

    2011-07-15

    The crystal structure, the distribution of electron density, and the energy, kinetic, and magnetic properties of the n-TiNiSn intermetallic semiconductor are investigated. It is shown that a priori doping of n-TiNiSn with donors originates from partial, up to 0.5 at %, redistribution of Ti and Ni atoms in crystallographic sites of Ti atoms. The correlation is established between the donor concentration, amplitude of modulation of the continuous energy bands, and degree of filling of low-scale fluctuation potential wells with charge carriers. The results obtained are discussed within the Shklovskii-Efros model of a heavily doped and compensated semiconductor.

  13. Magnetic excitations in the spin-1/2 triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Cs2CuBr4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zvyagin, S. A.; Ozerov, M.; Kamenskyi, D.; Wosnitza, J.; Krzystek, J.; Yoshizawa, D.; Hagiwara, M.; Hu, Rongwei; Ryu, Hyejin; Petrovic, C.; Zhitomirsky, M. E.

    2015-11-27

    We present on high- field electron spin resonance (ESR) studies of magnetic excitations in the spin- 1/2 triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Cs2CuBr4. Frequency- field diagrams of ESR excitations are measured for different orientations of magnetic fields up to 25 T. We show that the substantial zero- field energy gap, Δ ≈ 9.5 K, observed in the low-temperature excitation spectrum of Cs2CuBr4 [Zvyagin et al:, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 077206 (2014)], is present well above TN. Noticeably, the transition into the long-range magnetically ordered phase does not significantly affect the size of the gap, suggesting that even below TN the high-energy spin dynamics in Cs2CuBr4 is determined by short-range-order spin correlations. The experimental data are compared with results of model spin-wave-theory calculations for spin-1/2 triangle-lattice antiferromagnet.

  14. I/S and C/S mixed layers, some indicators of recent physical-chemical changes in active geothermal systems: The case study of Chipilapa (El Salvador)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaufort, D.; Papapanagiotou, P.; patrier, P.; Fouillac, A.M.; Traineau, H.

    1996-01-24

    I/S and C/S mixed layers from the geothermal field of Chipilapa (El Salvador) have been studied in details in order to reevaluate their potential use as indicator of the thermodynamic conditions in which they were formed. It is funded that overprinting of clay bearing alteration stages is common. For a given alteration stage, the spatial variation of I/S and C/S mixed layer ininerals is controlled by kinetics of mixed layer transformation and not only by temperature. Clay geo-thermometers cannot give reliable results because the present crystal-chemical states of the I/S and C/S mixed layers is not their initial state, it was aquired during the overall hydrothermal history which post dated the nucleation of smectitic clay material at high temperature. Occurrences of smectites or smectite-rich mixed layers at high temperature in reservoirs is a promising guide for reconstruct the zones in which boiling or mixing of non isotherinal fluids occurred very recently or still presently.

  15. Scintillation properties and electronic structure of the intrinsic and extrinsic mixed elpasolites Cs2 Na RBr3I3 (R = La, Y)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wei, Hua; Du, Mao -Hua; Stand, Luis; Zhao, Zhao; Zhuravleva, Mariya; Melcher, Charles L.; Shi, Hongliang

    2016-02-19

    Scintillators attract wide research interest for their distinct applications in radiation detection. Elpasolite halides are among the most promising scintillators due to their high structural symmetry and good scintillation performance. A better understanding of their underlying scintillation mechanism opens up possibilities in scintillator development. In this work, we employ a variety of experimental techniques to study the two mixed-anion elpasolites Cs2NaRBr3I3 (R = La, Y). The emission of intrinsic Cs2NaRBr3I3 with a light yield ranging from 20 000 to 40 000 ph / MeV is dominant by self-trapped exciton emission. Partial substitution of R with Ce introduces a competing emission,more » the Ce3+ 5d-to-4f radiative transition. Ab initio calculations are performed to investigate the electronic structures as well as the binding energies of polarons in Cs2NaRBr6. The calculated large self-trapped exciton binding energies are consistent with the observed high light yield due to self-trapped exciton (STE) emission. The unique electronic structure of halide elpasolites as calculated enhances the STE stability and the STE emission. The highly tunable scintillation properties of mixed-anion elpasolites underscore the role of their complex scintillation mechanism. Furthermore, our study provides guidance for the design of elpasolite scintillators with exceptional energy resolution and light yield desirable for applications.« less

  16. Scintillation properties and electronic structure of the intrinsic and extrinsic mixed elpasolites Cs2 Na REBr3I3 (R = La, Y)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wei, Hua; Du, Mao -Hua; Stand, Luis; Zhao, Zhao; Zhuravleva, Mariya; Melcher, Charles L.; Shi, Hongliang

    2016-02-19

    Scintillators attract wide research interest for their distinct applications in radiation detection. Elpasolite halides are among the most promising scintillators due to their high structural symmetry and good scintillation performance. A better understanding of their underlying scintillation mechanism opens up possibilities in scintillator development. In this work, we employ a variety of experimental techniques to study the two mixed-anion elpasolites Cs2 Na REBr3I3 (R = La, Y). The emission of intrinsic Cs2Na RBr3I3 with a light yield ranging from 20 000 to 40 000 ph / MeV is dominant by self-trapped exciton emission. Partial substitution of R with Ce introducesmore » a competing emission, the Ce3+ 5d-to-4f radiative transition. Ab initio calculations are performed to investigate the electronic structures as well as the binding energies of polarons in Cs2 Na RBr6. The calculated large self-trapped exciton binding energies are consistent with the observed high light yield due to self-trapped exciton (STE) emission. The unique electronic structure of halide elpasolites as calculated enhances the STE stability and the STE emission. The highly tunable scintillation properties of mixed-anion elpasolites underscore the role of their complex scintillation mechanism. Furthermore, our study provides guidance for the design of elpasolite scintillators with exceptional energy resolution and light yield desirable for applications.« less

  17. Cationic coordination compound Cs{sub 2}Hg{sub 3}I{sub 8} for IR NLO material: Synthesis, crystal growth and characterizations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathiskumar, S.; Kathiravan, P.; Balakrishnan, T.

    2015-06-24

    Single crystals Cs{sub 2}Hg{sub 3}I{sub 8} of dimensions 5 × 3 × 4   mm{sup 3} were grown by solution growth method at room temperature and structurally characterized by single crystal X – ray diffraction. Cs{sub 2}Hg{sub 3}I{sub 8} compound crystallizes in a noncentrosymmetric space group Cm with the crystal data of a = 7.4415 Å, b = 21.6629 Å, c = 7.6726 Å, α, β = 90°, γ = 108.05° and Z = 2. The grown crystals were characterized by powder X – ray diffraction analysis and the various diffraction planes are indexed. The presence of functional groups was identified qualitatively by Fourier transform infrared and FT – Raman spectral analyses. Ultraviolet – visible spectral analyses shows that the crystal has low UV cut off at 388 nm combined with very good transparency of 98 % in a wide range. The optical band gap was estimated to be 3 eV. Mechanical hardness of the grown crystal Cs{sub 2}Hg{sub 3}I{sub 8} was determined. The dielectric response of the crystal with varying frequencies was studied. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis shows that the grown crystal has very good thermal stability up to 97.5°C.

  18. Temperature and pressure shift of the Cs clock transition in the presence of buffer gases: Ne, N{sub 2}, Ar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozlova, Olga; Guerandel, Stephane; Clercq, Emeric de

    2011-06-15

    The ground-state hyperfine resonance line of alkali-metal atoms is frequency shifted in the presence of noble or molecular gases. The buffer gases used in vapor-cell atomic clocks thus induce a temperature-dependent shift of the clock transition frequency. We report on measurements of the pressure and temperature dependence of the Cs clock transition frequency in the presence of Ne, Ar, and N{sub 2} buffer gases. The pressure in the sealed glass vapor cells is measured by means of the shift of the Cs D{sub 1} line. We have also investigated the temperature dependence of the optical shift. From these measurements, we infer the pressure and temperature coefficients of the hyperfine frequency shift. It is then possible to predetermine gas mixture ratios that cancel the temperature sensitivity at a given temperature. This prediction is confirmed experimentally for Ar-N{sub 2} mixtures. These results can be useful for improving the long-term frequency stability of Cs vapor-cell clocks.

  19. Mechanical environmental transport of actinides and ¹³⁷Cs from an arid radioactive waste disposal site

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Snow, Mathew S.; Clark, Sue B.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Watrous, Matthew G.; Olson, John E.; Snyder, Darin C.

    2015-10-01

    Particulate transport represents an important mechanism for actinides and fission products at the Earth's surface; soil samples taken in the early 1970's near the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) provide a case study for examining the mechanisms and characteristics of actinide transport under arid conditions. Transuranic waste was disposed via shallow land burial at the SDA until shortly after a flooding event that occurred in 1969. In this study we analyze soils collected in the early 1970's for ¹³⁷Cs, ²⁴¹Am, and Pu using a combination of radiometric and mass spectrometric techniques. Two distinct ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu isotopic ratiosmore » are observed for contamination from the SDA, with values ranging from at least 0.059 to 0.069. ²⁴¹Am concentrations are observed to increase only slightly in 0-4 cm soils over the ~40 year period since soil sampling, contrary to Markham's previous hypothesis that ²⁴¹Pu is principally associated with the 0-4 cm soil fractions (Markham 1978). The lack of statistical difference in ²⁴¹Am/²³⁹⁺²⁴⁰Pu ratios with depth suggests mechanical transport and mixing discrete contaminated particles under arid conditions. Occasional samples beyond the northeastern corner are observed to contain anomalously high Pu concentrations with corresponding low ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu atoms ratios, suggesting the occurrence of "hot particles;" application of a background Pu subtraction results in calculated Pu atom ratios for the "hot particles" which are statistically similar to those observed in the northeastern corner. Taken together, our data suggests that flooding resulted in mechanical transport of contaminated particles into the area between the SDA and the flood containment dike in the northeastern corner, following which subsequent contamination spreading resulted from wind transport of discrete particles.« less

  20. Assessing the use of reflectance spectroscopy in determining CsCl stress in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Martinez, N. E.; Sharp, J. L.; Kuhne, W. W.; Johnson, T. E.; Stafford, C. T.; Duff, M. C.

    2015-11-23

    Here, reflectance spectroscopy is a rapid and non-destructive analytical technique that may be used for assessing plant stress, and has potential applications for use in remediation. Changes in reflectance such as that due to metal stress may occur before damage is visible, and existing studies have shown that metal stress does cause changes in plant reflectance. To further investigate the potential use of reflectance spectroscopy as a method for assessing metal stress in plants, an exploratory study was conducted in which Arabidopsis thaliana plants were treated twice weekly in a laboratory setting with varying levels (0, 0.5, or 5 mMmore » (millimolar)) of caesium chloride (CsCl) solution, and reflectance spectra were collected every week for three weeks using an Analytical Spectral Devices FieldSpec Pro spectroradiometer with both a contact probe (CP) and a field of view (FOV) probe at 36.8 and 66.7 cm, respectively, above the plant. Plants were harvested each week after spectra collection for determination of relative water content and chlorophyll content. A visual assessment of the plants was also conducted using point observations on a uniform grid of 81 points. A mixed-effects model analysis was conducted for each vegetation index (VI) considered to determine the effects of length of treatment, treatment level, view with which spectra were acquired, and the interactions of these terms. Two-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were performed on the aforementioned endpoints (e.g. chlorophyll content) to determine the significance of the effects of treatment level and length of treatment. Multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to develop a predictive model for each endpoint, considering VI acquired at each view (CP, high FOV, and low FOV). Of the 14 VI considered, 8 were included in the MLR models. Contact probe readings and FOV readings differed significantly, but FOV measurements were generally consistent at each height.« less

  1. MEASURING THE ULTIMATE HALO MASS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS: REDSHIFTS AND MASS PROFILES FROM THE HECTOSPEC CLUSTER SURVEY (HeCS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rines, Kenneth; Geller, Margaret J.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Diaferio, Antonaldo E-mail: diaferio@ph.unito.it

    2013-04-10

    The infall regions of galaxy clusters represent the largest gravitationally bound structures in a {Lambda}CDM universe. Measuring cluster mass profiles into the infall regions provides an estimate of the ultimate mass of these halos. We use the caustic technique to measure cluster mass profiles from galaxy redshifts obtained with the Hectospec Cluster Survey (HeCS), an extensive spectroscopic survey of galaxy clusters with MMT/Hectospec. We survey 58 clusters selected by X-ray flux at 0.1 < z < 0.3. The survey includes 22,680 unique MMT/Hectospec redshifts for individual galaxies; 10,145 of these galaxies are cluster members. For each cluster, we acquired high signal-to-noise spectra for {approx}200 cluster members and a comparable number of foreground/background galaxies. The cluster members trace out infall patterns around the clusters. The members define a very narrow red sequence. We demonstrate that the determination of velocity dispersion is insensitive to the inclusion of bluer members (a small fraction of the cluster population). We apply the caustic technique to define membership and estimate the mass profiles to large radii. The ultimate halo mass of clusters (the mass that remains bound in the far future of a {Lambda}CDM universe) is on average (1.99 {+-} 0.11)M{sub 200}, a new observational cosmological test in essential agreement with simulations. Summed profiles binned in M{sub 200} and in L{sub X} demonstrate that the predicted Navarro-Frenk-White form of the density profile is a remarkably good representation of the data in agreement with weak lensing results extending to large radius. The concentration of these summed profiles is also consistent with theoretical predictions.

  2. Mechanical environmental transport of actinides and ¹³⁷Cs from an arid radioactive waste disposal site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snow, Mathew S.; Clark, Sue B.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Watrous, Matthew G.; Olson, John E.; Snyder, Darin C.

    2015-10-01

    Particulate transport represents an important mechanism for actinides and fission products at the Earth's surface; soil samples taken in the early 1970's near the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) provide a case study for examining the mechanisms and characteristics of actinide transport under arid conditions. Transuranic waste was disposed via shallow land burial at the SDA until shortly after a flooding event that occurred in 1969. In this study we analyze soils collected in the early 1970's for ¹³⁷Cs, ²⁴¹Am, and Pu using a combination of radiometric and mass spectrometric techniques. Two distinct ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu isotopic ratios are observed for contamination from the SDA, with values ranging from at least 0.059 to 0.069. ²⁴¹Am concentrations are observed to increase only slightly in 0-4 cm soils over the ~40 year period since soil sampling, contrary to Markham's previous hypothesis that ²⁴¹Pu is principally associated with the 0-4 cm soil fractions (Markham 1978). The lack of statistical difference in ²⁴¹Am/²³⁹⁺²⁴⁰Pu ratios with depth suggests mechanical transport and mixing discrete contaminated particles under arid conditions. Occasional samples beyond the northeastern corner are observed to contain anomalously high Pu concentrations with corresponding low ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu atoms ratios, suggesting the occurrence of "hot particles;" application of a background Pu subtraction results in calculated Pu atom ratios for the "hot particles" which are statistically similar to those observed in the northeastern corner. Taken together, our data suggests that flooding resulted in mechanical transport of contaminated particles into the area between the SDA and the flood containment dike in the northeastern corner, following which subsequent contamination spreading resulted from wind transport of discrete particles.

  3. Differences in chemical doping matter: Superconductivity in Ti1-xTaxSe2 but not in Ti1-xNbxSe2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Luo, Huixia; Zhu, Yimei; Xie, Weiwei; Tao, Jing; Pletikosic, Ivo; Valla, Tonica; Sahasrabudhe, Girija S.; Osterhoudt, Gavin; Sutton, Eric; Burch, Kenneth S.; et al

    2016-02-21

    We report that 1T-TiSe2, an archetypical layered transition metal dichalcogenide, becomes superconducting when Ta is substituted for Ti but not when Nb is substituted for Ti. This is unexpected because Nb and Ta should be chemically equivalent electron donors. Superconductivity emerges near x = 0.02 for Ti1–xTaxSe2, while, for Ti1–xNbxSe2, no superconducting transitions are observed above 0.4 K. The equivalent chemical nature of the dopants is confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. ARPES and Raman scattering studies show similarities and differences between the two systems, but the fundamental reasons why the Nb and Ta dopants yield such different behavior are unknown.more » We present a comparison of the electronic phase diagrams of many electron-doped 1T-TiSe2 systems, showing that they behave quite differently, which may have broad implications in the search for new superconductors. Here, we propose that superconducting Ti0.8Ta0.2Se2 will be suitable for devices and other studies based on exfoliated crystal flakes.« less

  4. The role of double TiO2 layers at the interface of FeSe/SrTiO3 superconductors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zou, Ke; Bozovic, Ian; Mandal, Subhasish; Albright, Stephen; Peng, Rui; Kumah, Divine; Simon, Georg; Dagdeviren, Omur; He, Xi; Schwarz, Udo; et al

    2016-05-16

    Here, we determine the surface reconstruction of SrTiO3 used to achieve superconducting FeSe films in experiments, which is different from the 1×1 TiO2-terminated SrTiO3 assumed by most previous theoretical studies. In particular, we identify the existence of a double TiO2 layer at the FeSe/SrTiO3 interface that plays two important roles. First, it facilitates the epitaxial growth of FeSe. Second, ab initio calculations reveal a strong tendency for electrons to transfer from an oxygen deficient SrTiO3 surface to FeSe when the double TiO2 layer is present. The double layer helps to remove the hole pocket in the FeSe at the Γmore » point of the Brillouin zone and leads to a band structure characteristic of superconducting samples. The characterization of the interface structure presented here is a key step towards the resolution of many open questions about this superconductor.« less

  5. In situ investigation of the early stage of TiO{sub 2} epitaxy on (001) SrTiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radovic, M.; Salluzzo, M.; Vaglio, R.; Granozio, F. Miletto; Ristic, Z.; Di Capua, R.; Lampis, N.

    2011-07-21

    We report on a systematic study of the growth of epitaxial TiO{sub 2} films deposited by pulsed laser deposition on Ti-terminated SrTiO{sub 3} (001) single crystals. By using in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction, low energy electron diffraction, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and scanning probe microscopy, we show that the stabilization of the anatase (001) phase is preceded by the growth of a few nanometers thick pseudomorphic Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 2+y} (x, y < 1) intermediate layer. The data demonstrate that the formation of this intermediate phase is related to the activation of a long range Sr migration from the SrTiO{sub 3} substrate into the film. Our results enrich the phase diagram of the Sr-Ti-O system under epitaxial strain opening a route for the study of the electronic and dielectric properties of the reported Sr-deficient SrTiO{sub 3} phase.

  6. SF6432-CS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SCR and SDR (if one is identified in the contract,) within 72 hours of the Contractor's learning of the situation. The Contractor shall cooperate with Sandia and provide...

  7. Ts&Cs FP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    furnished to the SDR or to the Requester if no Control : SF 6432-FP Title: Standard Terms and Conditions for Firm-Fixed Price Contracts Owner: Procurement Policy & Quality Dept...

  8. Ts&Cs FP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and vehicles entering or leaving Sandia's KAFB or Government's premises are subject to search. (e) Contractor will promptly notify Sandia and provide a report of any accidents or...

  9. SF6432-CS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), Standard of Mechanical Control : SF ... APPLY TO CONTRACTS AT ANY VALUE FAR 52.203-99 Prohibition on Contracting with Entities ...

  10. Ts&Cs FP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... prior to any attempts to enter a government site as shown ... SF 6432-FP Title: Standard Terms and Conditions for ... premises are subject to search. (e) Contractor will ...

  11. Ts&Cs FP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... prior to any attempts to enter a government site as shown ... premises are subject to search. (e) Contractor will ... (10-09) Title: Standard Terms and Conditions for ...

  12. Ts&Cs FP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... prior to any attempts to enter a government site as shown ... premises are subject to search. (e) Contractor will ... Control : SF 6432-FP (11-03-2010) Title: Standard Terms and ...

  13. Ts&Cs FP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the electronic document to ensure you are using the correct version. FP15 - PERFORMANCE EVALUATION PROGRAM In keeping with Sandia's goals of continuous improvement, and promoting...

  14. A novel 3D structure composed of strings of hierarchical TiO{sub 2} spheres formed on TiO{sub 2} nanobelts with high photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Yongjian; Li, Meicheng; Song, Dandan; Li, Xiaodan; Yu, Yue

    2014-03-15

    A novel hierarchical titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) composite nanostructure with strings of anatase TiO{sub 2} hierarchical micro-spheres and rutile nanobelts framework (TiO{sub 2} HSN) is successfully synthesized via a one-step hydrothermal method. Particularly, the strings of hierarchical spheres are assembled by very thin TiO{sub 2} nanosheets, which are composed of highly crystallized anatase nanocrystals. Meanwhile, the HSN has a large surface area of 191 m{sup 2}/g, which is about 3 times larger than Degussa P25. More importantly, the photocatalytic activity of HSN and P25 were evaluated by the photocatalytic oxidation decomposition of methyl orange (MO) under UV light illumination, and the TiO{sub 2} HSN shows enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with Degussa P25, as result of its continuous hierarchical structures, special conductive channel and large specific surface area. With these features, the hierarchical TiO{sub 2} may have more potential applications in the fields of dye-sensitized solar cells and lithium ion batteries. -- Graphical abstract: Novel TiO{sub 2} with anatase micro-spheres and rutile nanobelts is synthesized. Enhanced photocatalysis is attributed to hierarchical structures (3D spheres), conductive channel (1D nanobelts) and large specific surface area (2D nanosheet). Highlights: • The novel TiO{sub 2} nanostructure (HSN) is fabricated for the first time. • HSN is composed of strings of anatase hierarchical spheres and rutile nanobelt. • HSN presents a larger S{sub BET} of 191 m{sup 2}/g, 3 times larger than the Degussa P25 (59 m{sup 2}/g). • HSN owns three kinds of dimensional TiO{sub 2} (1D, 2D and 3D) simultaneously. • HSN exhibits better photocatalytic performance compared with Degussa P25.

  15. Solar photocatalytic activities of porous Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} microspheres by coupling with tungsten oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kou, Yanqiang; Yang, Jikai; Li, Bing; Fu, Shencheng

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: Nb-TiO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3} was prepared by USP method combined impregnation method. Nb-doping extend the spectral absorption of TiO{sub 2} into visible spectrum. Nb-TiO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3} has a similar optical band gap as Nb-TiO{sub 2}. PL spectra indicate WO{sub 3} can accept the photoexcited electrons from Nb-TiO{sub 2}. Nb-TiO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3} shows higher activity than TiO{sub 2} and Nb-TiO{sub 2} under solar light. - Abstract: Nb doped TiO{sub 2} microspheres modified with WO{sub 3} (Nb-TiO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3}) was prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method combined with impregnation method. The microspheres were characterized with SEM, TEM, XRD, BET, photoluminescence and UVvis absorption spectra. The Nb-doping was observed to extend the spectral absorption of TiO{sub 2} into visible spectrum, and the absorption onset was red-shifted for about 88 nm compared to pristine TiO{sub 2} microspheres. Nb-TiO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3} microspheres do not display a red-shifted absorption edge compared with Nb doped TiO{sub 2} microspheres. Under solar irradiation, Nb-TiO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3} microspheres showed higher photocatalytic activity for methylene blue degradation compared with that of pure TiO{sub 2} microspheres and Nb doped TiO{sub 2} microspheres, which could be ascribed to the extended light absorption range and the suppression of electron-hole pair recombination.

  16. Preparation and characterization of magnetic CsH{sub 2}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}/Fe–SiO{sub 2} nanocatalysts for biodiesel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feyzi, Mostafa; Nourozi, Leila; Zakarianezhad, Mohammad

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: In this study, a series of magnetic CsH{sub 2}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}/Fe–SiO{sub 2} nanocatalysts were prepared and tested for biodiesel production. The best operational conditions were CH3OH/oil = 12/1 at 60 °C with mechanical stirring, the biodiesel yield reaches to 81% in 4 h. Also notably, recovery of the catalyst can be achieved easily with the help of an external magnet with no need for expensive ultracentrifugation. - Highlights: • Effects of preparation conditions for biodiesel production were studied. • The CsH{sub 2}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}/Fe–SiO{sub 2} catalyst is efficient catalyst for biodiesel production. • The reaction conditions were found methanol/oil = 12/1, T = 60 °C. - Abstract: The magnetic CsH{sub 2}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}/Fe–SiO{sub 2} nanocatalysts were prepared via combination of sol–gel and impregnation methods. The effects of different H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}/(Fe–SiO{sub 2}) weight percentage, loading of Cs as a promotor and calcination conditions on the catalytic performance has been studied. It was found that the catalyst with H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}/Fe–SiO{sub 2} = 4 wt.% and Cs = 2 wt.% is an optimal catalyst for biodiesel production. The activity of optimal catalyst was studied in different operational conditions. The best operational conditions were CH{sub 3}OH/oil = 12/1 at 60 °C with mechanical stirring rate of 500 rpm and the biodiesel yield reaches to 81% in 4 h. Characterization of catalysts was carried out by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption measurements methods, Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

  17. Structural and spectroscopic properties of high temperature prepared ZrO₂–TiO₂ mixed oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gionco, Chiara; Battiato, Alfio; Vittone, Ettore; Paganini, Maria Cristina; Giamello, Elio

    2013-05-01

    ZrO₂-TiO₂ mixed oxides of various composition, with the molar fraction of TiO₂ ranging from 0.1% to 15%, have been prepared via sol-gel synthesis and then calcined at 1273 K to check both their thermal stability and physicochemical properties. These solids are usually employed in photocatalytic processes and as active phase supports in heterogeneous catalysis. As indicated by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, solid solutions based on Ti ions diluted in the ZrO₂ matrix are formed in the whole range of Ti molar fraction examined. Materials with low Ti loading (0.1%–1%) are basically constituted by the monoclinic phase of ZrO₂ while the tetragonal phase becomes prevalent at 15% of TiO₂ molar fraction. The presence of Ti ions modify the electronic structure of the solid as revealed by investigation of the optical properties. The typical band gap transition of ZrO₂ undergoes, in fact, a red shift roughly proportional to the Ti loading which reach the remarkable value of 1.6 eV for the sample with 10% of molar Ti concentration. Comparing chemical analysis of the solids with XPS data it has been put into evidence that the titanium ions distribution into the solid is not uniform and the concentration of Ti⁴⁺ tend to be higher in subsurface layers than in the crystal bulk. The introduction of titanium ions in the structure increases the reducibility of the solid. Annealing under vacuum at various temperatures causes oxygen depletion with consequent reduction of the solid which shows up mainly in terms of formation of Ti³⁺ reduced centres which are characterized by a typical EPR signal. Ti³⁺ defects forms, as also forecast by theoretical modelling of the solid, as their energy is lower than that of other possible reduced defective centers. The reduced solids are able to transfer electrons to adsorbed oxygen molecules in mild condition resulting in the formation of surface superoxide anions (O₂⁻) which are stabilized on surface Zr

  18. Effect of different processes and Ti/Zn molar ratios on the structure, morphology, and enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performance of Ti3+ self-doped titanium–zinc hybrid oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Rongrong; Wang, Qingyao; Gao, shanmin; Wang, Zeyan; Huang, Baibiao; Dai, Ying; Lu, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Ti3+ self-doped titanium–zinc hybrid oxides with different phase compositions and morphologies were successfully synthesized using Zn powder as the reductant and Zn source by a chemical-reduction precipitation method with subsequent thermal treatment. The fabricated Ti3+ self-doped TiO2(A)/TiO2(R), TiO2(A)/TiO2(R)/ZnTiO3, and TiO2(A)/ZnO heterojunctions were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The effects of various Ti/Zn molar ratios and preparation processes on the structural, morphological, optical, photocurrent and photocatalytic properties of the resultant samples were investigated systematically. Results reveal that Ti3+ self-doping enhances the photoabsorption capability of titanium–zinc hybrid oxides in the visible-light region. Moreover, different processes and Ti/Zn molar ratios play great influences on the structure, morphology, optical, photocurrent and photocatalytic properties of the final products. Ti3+ self-doped titanium–zinc hybrid oxides exhibit excellent photocurrent and photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2 and ZnTiO3 under visible-light irradiation (λ ≥ 400 nm). The most active Ti3+ self-doped titanium–zinc hybrid oxides photoanode presents significantly improved water splitting performance. The synergistic effect between the Ti3+ self-doped and heterojunctions is responsible for the enhanced performance of these materials.

  19. High-Pressure Single-Crystal Neutron Scattering Study of Magnetic and Fe Vacancy Orders in (Tl,Rb)2 Fe4 Se5 Superconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Feng; Bao, Wei; Chi, Song-Xue; Santos, Antonio M. dos; Molaison, Jamie J.; Fang, Ming-Hu; Wang, Hang-Dong; Mao, Qian-Hui; Wang, Jin-Chen; Liu, Juan-Juan; Sheng, Jie-Ming

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the magnetic and iron vacancy orders in superconducting (Tl,Rb)2Fe4Se5 single-crystals by using a high-pressure neutron diffraction technique. Similar to the temperature effect, the block antiferromagnetic order gradually decreases upon increasing pressure while the Fe vacancy superstructural order remains intact before its precipitous disappearance at the critical pressure Pc = 8.3 GPa. Combined with previously determined Pc for superconductivity, our phase diagram under pressure reveals the concurrence of the block AFM order, the √5 × √5 iron vacancy order and superconductivity for the 245 superconductor. Lastly, a synthesis of current experimental data in a coherent physical picture is attempted.

  20. Visible light photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol using vanadium and nitrogen co-doped TiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaiswal, R.; Kothari, D. C.; Patel, N.; Miotello, A.

    2013-02-05

    Vanadium and Nitrogen were codoped in TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst by Sol-gel method to utilize visible light more efficiently for photocatalytic reactions. A noticeable shift of absorption edge to visible light region was obtained for the singly-doped namely V-TiO{sub 2}, N-TiO{sub 2} and codoped V-N-TiO{sub 2} samples in comparison with undoped TiO{sub 2}, with smallest band gap obtained with codoped-TiO{sub 2}. The photocatalytic activities for all TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were tested by 4-chlorophenol (organic pollutant) degradation under visible light irradiation. It was found that codoped TiO{sub 2} exhibits the best photocatalytic activity, which could be attributed to the synergistic effect produced by V and N dopants.

  1. Epitaxial single-crystal thin films of MnxTi1-xO2-δ grown on...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on (rutile)TiO2 substrates with pulsed laser deposition: Experiment and theory Citation ... on (rutile)TiO2 substrates with pulsed laser deposition: Experiment and theory ...

  2. High temperature tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Stevens, C.O.

    1998-09-01

    Tensile tests have been performed on V-4Cr-4Ti at 750 and 800 C in order to extend the data base beyond the current limit of 700 C. From comparison with previous measurements, the yield strength is nearly constant and tensile elongations decrease slightly with increasing temperature between 300 and 800 C. The ultimate strength exhibits an apparent maximum near 600 C (attributable to dynamic strain aging) but adequate strength is maintained up to 800 C. The reduction in area measured on tensile specimens remained high ({approximately}80%) for test temperatures up to 800 C, in contrast to previous reported results.

  3. Injection mode-locking Ti-sapphire laser system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hovater, James Curtis; Poelker, Bernard Matthew

    2002-01-01

    According to the present invention there is provided an injection modelocking Ti-sapphire laser system that produces a unidirectional laser oscillation through the application of a ring cavity laser that incorporates no intracavity devices to achieve unidirectional oscillation. An argon-ion or doubled Nd:YVO.sub.4 laser preferably serves as the pump laser and a gain-switched diode laser serves as the seed laser. A method for operating such a laser system to produce a unidirectional oscillating is also described.

  4. HNF-SD-WM-TI-740, Rev. OA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    84045. HNF-SD-WM-TI-740, Rev. OA Standard Inventories of Chemicals and Radionuclides in Hanford Site Ta nk Wastes M. J. Kupfer, A. L. Boldt, B. A. Higley, K. M. Hodgson, L. W. Shelton, B. C. Simpson, and R. A. Watrous (LMHC); M. 0. LeClair (SAIC); G. 1. Borsheim (BA); R. T. Winward (MA); R. M. Orme (NHC); N. 6. Colton (PNNL); S. 1. Lambert and D. E. Place (SESC); and W. W. SchulZ (W 2 S) Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation, Richland, WA 99352 U.S. Department of Energy Contract DE-AC06-96RL13200

  5. HNF-SD-WM-TI-740, Rev. OC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    84047 HNF-SD-WM-TI-740, Rev. OC Standard Inventories of Chemicals and Radionuclides in Hanford Site Tank Wastes M. J. Kupfer, A. L. Boldt, K. N. Hodgson, L. W. Shelton, B. C. Simpson, and R. A. Watrous (LMHC); M. D. LeClair (SAIC); G. 1. Borsheim (BA); R. T. Winward (MA); B. A. Higley and R. M. Orme (NHC); N. G. Colton (PNNL); S. L. Lambert and D. E. Place (Cogema); and W. W. Schulz (112S) Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation, Richland, WA 99352 U.S. Department of Energy Contract

  6. Stable atomic structure of NiTi austenite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarkevich, Nikolai A; Johnson, Duane D

    2014-08-01

    Nitinol (NiTi), the most widely used shape-memory alloy, exhibits an austenite phase that has yet to be identified. The usually assumed austenitic structure is cubic B2, which has imaginary phonon modes, hence it is unstable. We suggest a stable austenitic structure that on average has B2 symmetry (observed by x-ray and neutron diffraction), but it exhibits finite atomic displacements from the ideal B2 sites. The proposed structure has a phonon spectrum that agrees with that from neutron scattering, has diffraction spectra in agreement with x-ray diffraction, and has an energy relative to the ground state that agrees with calorimetry data.

  7. Ferroelectric-like response from the surface of SrTiO₃ crystals at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jyotsna, Shubhra; Arora, Ashima; Sekhon, Jagmeet S.; Sheet, Goutam

    2014-09-14

    Since SrTiO₃ has a high dielectric constant, it is used as a substrate for a large number of complex physical systems for electrical characterization. Since SrTiO₃ crystals are known to be non-ferroelectric/non-piezoelectric at room temperature and above, SrTiO₃ has been believed to be a good choice as a substrate/base material for PFM (Piezoresponse Force Microscopy) on novel systems at room temperature. In this paper, from PFM-like measurement using an atomic force microscope on bare crystals of (110) SrTiO₃ we show that ferroelectric and piezoelectric-like response may originate from bare SrTiO₃ at remarkably high temperatures up to 420 K. Electrical domain writing and erasing are also possible using a scanning probe tip on the surface of SrTiO₃ crystals. This observation indicates that the role of the electrical response of SrTiO₃ needs to be revisited in the systems where signature of ferroelectricity/piezoelectricity has been previously observed with SrTiO₃ as a substrate/base material.

  8. Preparation and properties of ce-doped TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Ningning; Zhu, Zhongqi; Zhang, Jin; Zhao, Zongyan; Liu, Qingju

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ? The cerium ion doped TiO{sub 2} (Ce-TiO{sub 2}) powders were prepared and characterized. ? The spectrum absorption region of Ce-TiO{sub 2} is red-shifted to visible light. ? The recombination of photo-generated electron-hole pairs of Ce-TiO{sub 2} is inhibited. ? The photocatalytic activity was effected by Ce ion content and greatly improved. -- Abstract: TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles doped with different content of Ce ion were prepared by solgel method. The samples were characterized by XRD, XPS, TEM, UVVis, and PL, the photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) under the irradiation of fluorescent lamp. The results indicate that Ce ion is incorporated into the lattice of TiO{sub 2}, which can restrain the increase of grain size, broaden the absorption region to visible light, and inhibit the recombination of the photo-generated electron and hole pairs. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity of Ce-TiO{sub 2} in MB degradation is evidently enhanced. The MB degradation rate of the sample with Ce:Ti = 0.33% (molar ratio) in 8 h is 90.03%, which is much higher than that of P25 (68.19%).

  9. An Experimental and Theoretical Multi-Mbar Study of Ti-6Al-4V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegner, B E; Macleod, S G; CYNN, H; Proctor, J; Evans, W J; McMahon, M I; Ackland, G J

    2011-04-13

    We report results from an experimental and theoretical study of the room temperature (RT) compression of the ternary alloy Ti-6Al-4V. In this work, we have extended knowledge of the equation of state (EOS) from 40 GPa to 221 GPa, and observed a different sequence of phase transitions to that reported previously for pure Ti.

  10. Stoichiometric growth of SrTiO3 films by sequential pulsed laser deposition from SrO and TiO2 targets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Herklotz, A; Dorr, Kathrin; Biegalski, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    We report the growth of stoichiometric SrTiO3 films by sequential pulsed laser deposition from SrO and TiO2 targets. In-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction is used to control the growth and achieve films with excellent structural quality. The growth shows similarities to the case of molecular beam epitaxy of SrTiO3 from Sr and Ti sources. In order to further demonstrate the capability of the approach, we grow artificial Srn+1TinO3n+1 Ruddlesden-Popper phases with n = 2 and 3. Our result has potential to be extendable to other perovskite-type oxides, enabling one to grow epitaxial films with improved structural quality and electronic functionality.

  11. Enhanced hardness in epitaxial TiAlScN alloy thin films and rocksalt TiN/(Al,Sc)N superlattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saha, Bivas; Lawrence, Samantha K.; Bahr, David F.; Schroeder, Jeremy L.; Birch, Jens; Sands, Timothy D.

    2014-10-13

    High hardness TiAlN alloys for wear-resistant coatings exhibit limited lifetimes at elevated temperatures due to a cubic-AlN to hexagonal-AlN phase transformation that leads to decreasing hardness. We enhance the hardness (up to 46 GPa) and maximum operating temperature (up to 1050 °C) of TiAlN-based coatings by alloying with scandium nitride to form both an epitaxial TiAlScN alloy film and epitaxial rocksalt TiN/(Al,Sc)N superlattices on MgO substrates. The superlattice hardness increases with decreasing period thickness, which is understood by the Orowan bowing mechanism of the confined layer slip model. These results make them worthy of additional research for industrial coating applications.

  12. Structural properties of Ge on SrTiO{sub 3} (001) surface and Ge/SrTiO{sub 3} interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pu, Long; Wang, Jianli Tang, Gang; Zhang, Junting

    2015-03-14

    Germanium−perovskite oxide heterostructures have a strong potential for next-generation low-voltage and low-leakage metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors. We investigated the atomic structure and electronic properties of Ge on perfect and defective (001) SrTiO{sub 3} by first-principle calculations. The specific adsorption sites at the initial growth stage and the atomic structure of Ge on the SrTiO{sub 3} (001) substrate have been systematically investigated. The surface grand potential was calculated and compared as a function of the relative chemical potential. The complete surface phase diagram was presented. The energetically favorable interfaces were pointed out among the atomic arrangements of the Ge/SrTiO{sub 3} (001) interfaces. The atomic structure and electronic properties of the intrinsic point defects were calculated and analyzed for the Ge/SrTiO{sub 3} (001) interfaces.

  13. TiO{sub 2} nanorods branched on fast-synthesized large clearance TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays for dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Anzheng; Li Haina; Jia Zhiyong; Xia Zhengcai

    2011-11-15

    A large clearance TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (LTAs) has been synthesized by a not more than 12 h anodization duration and based on this a branched TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (BLTs) has been achieved through TiO{sub 2} nanorods branch-like grown on the LTAs. Some key factors and probable mechanisms of the fabrication processes on two novel nanoarchitectures are discussed. Exhilaratingly, it is found that the obtained LTAs has demonstrated large pore diameter and void spaces (pore diameter {approx}350 nm; void spaces {approx}160 nm; and tube length {approx}3.5 {mu}m), and the synthesized hierarchical BLTs, compared with conventional TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays, has shown a much stronger dye absorption performance and an approximately double of the solar cell efficiency (in our case from 1.62% to 3.18% under simulated AM 1.5 conditions). - Graphical Abstract: The schematic diagram of synthesis process for LTAs and BLTs is on the above and the corresponding FESEM images of obtained photoanodes samples are shown below. Highlights: > Large clearance TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (LTAs) was synthesized by a fast anodization process of 12 h. > Anodization time of 12 h is just 10% of about 120 h reported in the previous references. > Branch-like TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (BLTs) was achieved by growing TiO{sub 2} nanorods on the LTAs. > Obtained BLTs and LTAs show impressive morphology and noticeable improvement of surface area. > BLTs shows about more than 1 times higher solar cell efficiency than that of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays.

  14. TiN/VN composites with core/shell structure for supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Shanmu; Chen, Xiao; Gu, Lin; Zhou, Xinhong; Wang, Haibo; Liu, Zhihong; Han, Pengxian; Yao, Jianhua; Wang, Li; Cui, Guanglei; Chen, Liquan; Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Vanadium and titanium nitride nanocomposite with core-shell structure was prepared. {yields} TiN/VN composites with different V:Ti molar ratios were obtained. {yields} TiN/VN composites can provide promising electronic conductivity and favorable capacity storage. -- Abstract: TiN/VN core-shell composites are prepared by a two-step strategy involving coating of commercial TiN nanoparticles with V{sub 2}O{sub 5}.nH{sub 2}O sols followed by ammonia reduction. The highest specific capacitance of 170 F g{sup -1} is obtained when scanned at 2 mV s{sup -1} and a promising rate capacity performance is maintained at higher voltage sweep rates. These results indicate that these composites with good electronic conductivity can deliver a favorable capacity performance.

  15. Nanocrystalline BaTiO3 powder via ambient conditions sol process (Prop.2001-071)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payzant, E Andrew; Wang, X.; Hu, Michael Z.; Blom, Douglas Allen

    2005-01-01

    Nanocrystalline BaTiO{sub 3} particles have been prepared by ambient condition sol (ACS) process starting from soluble precursors of barium and titanium yielding a mixed oxide/hydroxide gel. The gel was peptized and crystallized in water under a refluxing condition. Higher initial pH and Ba/Ti ratio led to smaller crystallite sizes of BaTiO{sub 3} powders. Organic mineralizer, tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), can adsorb on the BaTiO{sub 3} nuclei and inhibited further growth of the particles. Adding a polymer during BaTiO{sub 3} synthesis led to a smaller particle size and increased redispersibility of the particles in water.

  16. Structural Study And Optical Properties Of TiO{sub 2} Thin Films Elaborated By Thermal Oxidation Of RF Magnetron Sputtered Ti Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guitoume, D.; Achour, S.; Guittoum, A.; Abaidia, S. E. H.

    2008-09-23

    We report on the effect of thickness on the structural and optical properties of TiO{sub 2} thin films obtained by direct exposure of Ti metal film to thermal oxidation. Ti thin films with thicknesses ranging from 87 nm to 484 nm were deposited onto glass substrate by RF magnetron sputtering. Thereafter, the as-deposited Ti films were annealed in air at temperature equal to 520 deg. C. The structural evolution and optical properties of obtained TiO{sub 2} films were studied by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The films thicknesses were extracted from RBS spectra. From X-ray diffraction spectra, we can see that all the films present three TiO{sub 2} phases (anatase, rutile and Brookite). The anatase and rutile phases exhibit a strong preferred orientation along (004) and (210) planes respectively. The grain sizes, D (nm), did not change much with increasing thickness. The average value of (nm) was equal to 29 nm for anatase and 26 nm for rutile. The micrographs taken from SEM experiments indicate that the films present a dense micro structure with very small grains. Transmittance spectra show that all the films present a good transparency in the visible region. The dependence of transmittance, optical band gap and refractive index on the thickness of the films was also studied.

  17. Active wear and failure mechanisms of TiN-coated high speed steel and TiN-coated cemented carbide tools when machining powder metallurgically made stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, L.; Haenninen, H.; Paro, J.; Kauppinen, V.

    1996-09-01

    In this study, active wear and failure mechanisms of both TiN-coated high speed steel and TiN-coated cemented carbide tools when machining stainless steels made by powder metallurgy in low and high cutting speed ranges, respectively, have been investigated. Abrasive wear mechanisms, fatigue-induced failure, and adhesive and diffusion wear mechanisms mainly affected the tool life of TiN-coated high speed steel tools at cutting speeds below 35 m/min, between 35 and 45 m/min, and over 45 m/min, respectively. Additionally, fatigue-induced failure was active at cutting speeds over 45 m/min in the low cutting speed range when machining powder metallurgically made duplex stainless steel 2205 and austenitic stainless steel 316L. In the high cutting speed range, from 100 to 250 m/min, fatigue-induced failure together with diffusion wear mechanism, affected the tool life of TiN-coated cemented carbide tools when machining both 316L and 2205 stainless steels. It was noticed that the tool life of TiN-coated high speed steel tools used in the low cutting speed range when machining 2205 steel was longer than that when machining 316L steel, whereas the tool life of TiN-coated cemented carbide tools used in the high cutting speed range when machining 316L steel was longer than that when machining 2205 steel.

  18. Revealing the atomic and electronic structure of a SrTiO{sub 3}/LaNiO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} heterostructure interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zaoli; Soltan, S.; Schmid, H.; Habermeier, H.-U.; Keimer, B.; Kaiser, U.

    2014-03-14

    The atomic structures of SrTiO{sub 3} (STO)/LaNiO{sub 3} (LNO)/STO heterostructure interfaces were investigated by spherical aberration-corrected (C{sub S}) (scanning) transmission electron microscopy. Atomic displacement and lattice distortion measurements and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to quantitatively analyze the distortion of the interfacial octahedra and the bond length at the interfaces. Combined with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy analyses, two distinct interfacial atomic terminating layers are unambiguously determined. Ensuing quantitative HRTEM measurements revealed that the Ni-O bond length in the interfacial octahedral is elongated at the bottom interface (NiO{sub 2}-SrO). Atomic displacement shows structural relaxation effects when crossing the interfaces and lattice distortions across the interface is more pronounced in LNO than in STO. The Ti/O atomic ratio, La and Ti relative atomic ratio as derived by EELS quantification indicate non-stoichiometric composition at the interfaces. Distinct fine structures of Ti-L{sub 2,3} edge and O-K edge at the bottom and top interfaces are observed. By comparison, we are able to estimate Ti valency at both interfaces. Combining the structural distortions and Ti valency, the polar discontinuity and charge transfer at the interfaces are discussed.

  19. Preparation and lithium intercalation behavior of TiO{sub 2} in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yunjiao, E-mail: yunjiaoli6601@hotmail.com; Li, Lin; Chen, Lingpeng; Wang, Xuanyu; Xu, Cang

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: The poor crystalline anatase phase or amorphous TiO{sub 2} was prepared by TiCl{sub 4} hydrolysis under different pH conditions. Phase transition behavior and lithium intercalation ability of the obtained TiO{sub 2} were found to be related to TiO{sub 2} property. The results indicate that TiO{sub 2} products obtained from TiCl{sub 4} hydrolysis at lower pH are favorable for lithium intercalation. - Abstract: The low crystalline or amorphous TiO{sub 2} was prepared by TiCl{sub 4} hydrolysis in aqueous solutions under different pH conditions at 45 C. The products obtained at lower pH (1.233.10) appear to be nano-sized particles with poor crystalline anatase structure and an uniform particle size distribution, while the product prepared at pH 4.10 presents in a poor crystalline anatase structure and the regular morphology starts to disappear, and the products obtained at higher pH (>6.00) are amorphous and irregular morphology. The hydrolysis products obtained at pH 2.60 and 8.80 were heat-treated at 300, 400, 600, 700 and 800 C for 3 h, respectively, to figure out the phase transition. The differences in phase transition process were observed, which verified the properties difference. The lithium intercalation abilities of the obtained TiO{sub 2} were studied. The results indicated that the TiO{sub 2} obtained at lower pH are more favorable for lithium intercalation and are better precursors.

  20. Synthesis, crystal structure, and vibrational spectroscopic and UV-visible studies of Cs{sub 2}MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaoua, Saida; Krimi, Saida; Pechev, Stanislav; Gravereau, Pierre; Chaminade, Jean-Pierre; Couzi, Michel; El Jazouli, Abdelaziz

    2013-02-15

    A new member of the A{sub 2}MP{sub 2}O{sub 7} diphosphate family, Cs{sub 2}MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The crystal structure was determined by single crystal X-Ray diffraction. Cs{sub 2}MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7} crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group Pnma ( Music-Sharp-Sign 62), with the unit cell parameters a=16.3398(3), b=5.3872(1), c=9.8872(2) A, Z=4 and V=870.33(3) A{sup 3}. The structure parameters were refined to a final R{sub 1}/wR{sub 2}=0.0194/0.0441 for 1650 observed reflections. The 2D framework of Cs{sub 2}MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7} structure consists of P{sub 2}O{sub 7} and MnO{sub 5} units. The corner-shared MnO{sub 5} and P{sub 2}O{sub 7} units are alternately arranged along the b axis to form [(MnO)P{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sub {infinity}} chains. These chains are interconnected by an oxygen atom to form sheets parallel to the (b, c) plane. The cesium atoms are located between the sheets in 9- and 10-fold coordinated sites. The infrared and Raman vibrational spectra have been investigated. A factor group analysis leads to the determination of internal modes of (P{sub 2}O{sub 7}) groups. UV-visible spectrum consists of weak bands, between 340 and 700 nm, assigned to the forbidden d-d transitions of Mn{sup 2+} ion, and of a strong band around 250 nm, attributed to the O--Mn charge transfer. - Graphical abstract: Structure of Cs{sub 2}MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7}: The 2D structure of Cs{sub 2}MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7} is built from P{sub 2}O{sub 7} diphosphate groups and MnO{sub 5} square pyramids which share corners and form [(MnO)P{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sub {infinity}} chains along b axis. These chains are interconnected by an oxygen atom to form wavy (MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sup 2-} sheets parallel to the (b, c) plane. The cesium ions are located between these sheets in the inter-layers space, in zigzag positions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new diphosphate, Cs{sub 2}MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, has been synthesized and structurally