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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Application of High Throughput Pretreatment and Co-Hydrolysis System to Thermochemical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions. Although hydrothermal pretreatment is currently being employed in most high were compared to results from hydrothermal pretreatments, providing new insights in understanding their recalcitrance and consolidating processing of enzymes and microorganisms to overcome biomass recalci- trance

California at Riverside, University of

2

Investigation of Lignin Deposition on Cellulose During Hydrothermal Pretreatment, Its Effect on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investigation of Lignin Deposition on Cellulose During Hydrothermal Pretreatment, Its Effect Ridge, Tennessee ABSTRACT: In dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, lignin has been shown formed by hydrothermal pretreatment of a mixture of Avicel cellulose and poplar wood showed that lignin

California at Riverside, University of

3

Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

19 2.3.3. Lignin………………………………………………………. ……………..22 2.3.4.S, Ragauskas A. Pseudo-lignin and pretreatment chemistry.ME, Vinzant TB. Visualizing lignin coalescence and migration

McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Rheological study of comingled biomass and coal slurries with hydrothermal pretreatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasification of comingled biomass and coal feedstock is an effective means of reducing the net life cycle greenhouse gas emissions in the coal gasification process while maintaining its inherent benefits of abundance and high-energy density. However, feeding a comingled biomass and coal feedstock into a pressurized gasification reactor poses a technical problem. Conventional dry feeding systems, such as lock hoppers and pressurized pneumatic transport, are complex and operationally expensive. A slurry formation of comingled biomass and coal feedstock can be easily fed into the gasification reactor but, in normal conditions, only allows for a small portion of biomass in the mixture. This is a consequence of the hydroscopic and hydrophilic nature of the biomass. The College of Engineering Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) at the University of California, Riverside, has developed a process producing high solid content biomass-water slurry using a hydrothermal pretreatment process. In this paper, the systematic investigation of the rheological properties (e.g., shear rate, shear stress, and viscosity) of coal-water slurries, biomass-water slurries, and comingled biomass and coal-water slurries is reported. The solid particle size distribution in the slurry and the initial solid/water ratio were investigated to determine the impact on shear rate and viscosity. This was determined using a rotational rheometer. The experimental results show that larger particle size offers better pumpability. The presence of a high percentage of biomass in solid form significantly decreases slurry pumpability. It is also shown that the solid loading of the biomass-water slurry can be increased to approximately 35 wt % with viscosity of less than 0.7 Pa.s after the pretreatment process. The solid loading increased to approximately 45 wt % when the biomass is comingled with coal. 18 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Wei He; Chan S. Park; Joseph M. Norbeck [University of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Bourns College of Engineering Center for Environmental Research and Technology

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

5

A novel mechanism and kinetic model to explain enhanced xylose yields from dilute sulfuric acid compared to hydrothermal pretreatment of corn stover  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A novel mechanism and kinetic model to explain enhanced xylose yields from dilute sulfuric acid stover Dilute sulfuric acid Hydrothermal pretreatment Kinetic model Xylose a b s t r a c t Pretreatment of corn stover in 0.5% sulfuric acid at 160 °C for 40 min realized a maximum monomeric plus oligomeric

California at Riverside, University of

6

RESEARCH Open Access The fate of lignin during hydrothermal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESEARCH Open Access The fate of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment Heather L Trajano1 lignin removal, relocation, and/or modification during hydrothermal pretreatment. Phase transition, depolymerization/repolymerization, and solubility effects may all influence these lignin changes. To better

California at Riverside, University of

7

Hydrothermal Processing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter is a contribution to a book on Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass being edited by Prof. Robert Brown of Iowa State University. It describes both hydrothermal liquefaction and hydrothermal gasification of biomass to fuels.

Elliott, Douglas C.

2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

8

Biomass pretreatment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

9

The fate of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

adapter (EW-91100-85, Cole Parmer, Vernon Hills, IL). Tableadapter (EW-91100-85, Cole Parmer, Vernon Hills, IL). The

Trajano, Heather L; Engle, Nancy L; Foston, Marcus; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wyman, Charles E

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

The fate of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESEARCH Open Access The fate of lignin during hydrothermalbiomass benefits from lignin removal, relocation, and/ormay all influence these lignin changes. To better understand

Trajano, Heather L; Engle, Nancy L; Foston, Marcus; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wyman, Charles E

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

The fate of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrassEthanol produced by fermentation of sugars contained in cellulose

Trajano, Heather L; Engle, Nancy L; Foston, Marcus; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wyman, Charles E

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Pretreatment Technology Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technology plan presents a strategy for the identification, evaluation, and development of technologies for the pretreatment of radioactive wastes stored in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. This strategy includes deployment of facilities and process development schedules to support the other program elements. This document also presents schedule information for alternative pretreatment systems: (1) the reference pretreatment technology development system, (2) an enhanced pretreatment technology development system, and (3) alternative pretreatment technology development systems.

Barker, S.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (US); Thornhill, C.K.; Holton, L.K. Jr. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (US)

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Patterns in Global Hydrothermal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Patterns in Global Hydrothermal Activity noaa ocean exploration Presenter: Edward T. Baker #12) High-T vents High = hydrothermal discharge Low = active or inactive discharge sites B. Davy, GNS NZ #12 Lc(km) #12;Future Directions Quantify processes: ·Employ or develop new technologies (AUVs, solid

14

RESEARCH Open Access Composition and hydrothermal pretreatment and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

resource that can promise to support large-scale, sustainable production of organic chemicals and liquid, there are concerns that biofuels would compete with food for fertile land, and may also threaten biodiversity if natural lands are dedicated to monoculture bioenergy crops [4]. For lignocellulosic biofuels

California at Riverside, University of

15

Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2.3. Effects of low pH on biomass solids……………………………. ………………of effects of low pH on biomass……………………………. ….25 2.4. Low pHof low pH biomass reactions………………………. ……………..46

McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

less recalcitrant biomass feedstocks and improved enzymes.of less recalcitrant biomass feedstocks and improvedpotential of improved biomass feedstocks and enzymes for the

McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

5.13c. (9) Wyman C. Ethanol Fuel in Encyclopedia of Energy;10): 1865-1871. (6) Wyman C. Ethanol Fuel in Encyclopedia ofscenario for cellulosic ethanol fuel production, and speaks

McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conductivity and heat capacity of saturated liquid water inHeat capacity Material (k, W/m /K) (C p , kJ/kg/K) Sand Air, P atm , 180 o C Water, saturated liquid,

McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EW-91100-85, Cole Parmer, Vernon Hills, IL). 4.4.1.c.adapter (EW-91100- 85, Cole Parmer, Vernon Hills, IL). The

McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3.6. Proposed HTP systems and evaluation…………………………. ………………82Comparison of results of HTP system evaluations…………..……………86score and cost of proposed HTP systems……………86 Chapter 4. A

McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrasshigh ethanol yields from hemicellulose and cellulose in thecellulose degree of polymerization and its relevancy to cellulosic ethanol.

McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

facilities did not operate for long due to numerous technical and commercial difficulties, and ultimately alcohol production from wood was abandoned.

McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Pretreatment of microbial sludges  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

1995-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

24

Pretreatment of microbial sludges  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

Rivard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO); Nagle, Nicholas J. (Louisville, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

GREET Pretreatment Module  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A wide range of biofuels and biochemicals can be produced from biomass via different pretreatment technologies that yield sugars. This report documents the material and energy flows that occur when fermentable sugars from four lignocellulosic feedstocks (corn stover, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar) are produced via dilute acid pretreatment and ammonia fiber expansion. These flows are documented for inclusion in the pretreatment module of the Greenhouses Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. Process simulations of each pretreatment technology were developed in Aspen Plus. Material and energy consumption data from Aspen Plus were then compiled in the GREET pretreatment module. The module estimates the cradle-to-gate fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with producing fermentable sugars. This report documents the data and methodology used to develop this module and the cradle-to-gate FEC and GHG emissions that result from producing fermentable sugars.

Adom, Felix K.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Hazard Analysis for the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) is designed to perform a demonstration on an engineering scale to confirm the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Pretreatment Facility (PTF) leaching and filtration process equipment design and sludge treatment process. The system will use scaled prototypic equipment to demonstrate sludge water wash, caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, and filtration. Unit operations to be tested include pumping, solids washing, chemical reagent addition and blending, heating, cooling, leaching, filtration, and filter cleaning. In addition, the PEP will evaluate potential design changes to the ultrafiltration process system equipment to potentially enhance leaching and filtration performance as well as overall pretreatment throughput. The skid-mounted system will be installed and operated in the Processing Development Laboratory-West at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington.

Sullivan, Robin S.; Geeting, John GH; Lawrence, Wesley E.; Young, Jonathan

2008-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

27

Biomass shock pretreatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Treatability studies on different refinery wastewater samples using high-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Treatability studies on different refinery wastewater samples using high-throughput microbial, University Park, PA 16802, USA h i g h l i g h t s Refinery wastewaters were tested as fuels in MECs effective for treatment or pre-treatment of some refinery wastewaters. The best way to start up MECs

29

Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Technologies  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy Health andofIan KalinResearch,IntroducingIonic Liquid Pretreatment EERE

30

Vertical Pretreatment Reactor System (Poster)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

IBRF poster developed for the IBRF showcase. Describes the two-vessel system for primary and secondary pretreatment of biomass solids at different temperatures.

Not Available

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Cody hydrothermal system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hot springs of Colter's Hell are the surface manifestations of a much larger hydothermal system. That system has been studied to define its extent, maximum temperature, and mechanism of operation. The study area covers 2700 km/sup 2/ (1040 mi/sup 2/) in northwest Wyoming. Research and field work included locating and sampling the hot springs, geologic mapping, thermal logging of available wells, measuring thermal conductivities, analyzing over 200 oil and gas well bottom-hole temperatures, and compiling and analyzing hydrologic data. These data were used to generate a model for the hydrothermal system.

Heasler, H.P.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international collaboration with Canada to investigate kelp (seaweed) as a biomass feedstock. The collaborative project includes process testing of the kelp in HydroThermal Liquefaction in the bench-scale unit at PNNL. HydroThermal Liquefaction at PNNL is performed in the hydrothermal processing bench-scale reactor system. Slurries of biomass are prepared in the laboratory from whole ground biomass materials. Both wet processing and dry processing mills can be used, but the wet milling to final slurry is accomplished in a stirred ball mill filled with angle-cut stainless steel shot. The PNNL HTL system, as shown in the figure, is a continuous-flow system including a 1-litre stirred tank preheater/reactor, which can be connected to a 1-litre tubular reactor. The product is filtered at high-pressure to remove mineral precipitate before it is collected in the two high-pressure collectors, which allow the liquid products to be collected batchwise and recovered alternately from the process flow. The filter can be intermittently back-flushed as needed during the run to maintain operation. By-product gas is vented out the wet test meter for volume measurement and samples are collected for gas chromatography compositional analysis. The bio-oil product is analyzed for elemental content in order to calculate mass and elemental balances around the experiments. Detailed chemical analysis is performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 13-C nuclear magnetic resonance is used to evaluate functional group types in the bio-oil. Sufficient product is produced to allow subsequent catalytic hydroprocessing to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. The product bio-oil from hydrothermal liquefaction is typically a more viscous product compared to fast pyrolysis bio-oil. There are several reasons for this difference. The HTL bio-oil contains a lower level of oxygen because of more extensive secondary reaction of the pyrolysis products. There are less amounts of the many light oxygenates derived from the carbohydrate structures as they have been further reacted to phenolic Aldol condensation products. The bio-oil

Elliott, Douglas C.

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

33

Hydrothermal Systems Rock Deformation and Geodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Update Seminar Process Modelling of Hydrothermal Systems using SHEMAT / Processing SHEMAT 20 - 22 August to develop a process understanding of reactive transport in hydrothermal systems and to make responsible.rwth-academy.com/geophysics.html With contributions from #12;Process Modelling of Hydrothermal Systems using SHEMAT / Processing SHEMAT Hydrothermal

34

DRILLED HYDROTHERMAL ENERGY Drilling for seawater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Hydrothermal Cooling 90% saving over Mechanical cooling Coordination With Offshore OTEC Plant to seep in #12;DRILLED HYDROTHERMAL ENERGY BACKGROUND Not BOTH From the SAME Conduit Investment OFFSHORE Facilities Drilled Hydrothermal Energy Plant Cooling Power Biofuel / H2 Fresh Water DRILLED HYDROTHERMAL

35

Advances in High Throughput Screening of Biomass Recalcitrance (Poster)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This was a poster displayed at the Symposium. Advances on previous high throughput screening of biomass recalcitrance methods have resulted in improved conversion and replicate precision. Changes in plate reactor metallurgy, improved preparation of control biomass, species-specific pretreatment conditions, and enzymatic hydrolysis parameters have reduced overall coefficients of variation to an average of 6% for sample replicates. These method changes have improved plate-to-plate variation of control biomass recalcitrance and improved confidence in sugar release differences between samples. With smaller errors plant researchers can have a higher degree of assurance more low recalcitrance candidates can be identified. Significant changes in plate reactor, control biomass preparation, pretreatment conditions and enzyme have significantly reduced sample and control replicate variability. Reactor plate metallurgy significantly impacts sugar release aluminum leaching into reaction during pretreatment degrades sugars and inhibits enzyme activity. Removal of starch and extractives significantly decreases control biomass variability. New enzyme formulations give more consistent and higher conversion levels, however required re-optimization for switchgrass. Pretreatment time and temperature (severity) should be adjusted to specific biomass types i.e. woody vs. herbaceous. Desalting of enzyme preps to remove low molecular weight stabilizers and improved conversion levels likely due to water activity impacts on enzyme structure and substrate interactions not attempted here due to need to continually desalt and validate precise enzyme concentration and activity.

Turner, G. B.; Decker, S. R.; Tucker, M. P.; Law, C.; Doeppke, C.; Sykes, R. W.; Davis, M. F.; Ziebell, A.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Breakout Session 3A—Conversion Technologies III: Energy from Our Waste—Will we Be Rich in Fuel or Knee Deep in Trash by 2025? Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes James R. Oyler, President, Genifuel Corporation

37

High throughput optical scanner  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A scanning apparatus is provided to obtain automated, rapid and sensitive scanning of substrate fluorescence, optical density or phosphorescence. The scanner uses a constant path length optical train, which enables the combination of a moving beam for high speed scanning with phase-sensitive detection for noise reduction, comprising a light source, a scanning mirror to receive light from the light source and sweep it across a steering mirror, a steering mirror to receive light from the scanning mirror and reflect it to the substrate, whereby it is swept across the substrate along a scan arc, and a photodetector to receive emitted or scattered light from the substrate, wherein the optical path length from the light source to the photodetector is substantially constant throughout the sweep across the substrate. The optical train can further include a waveguide or mirror to collect emitted or scattered light from the substrate and direct it to the photodetector. For phase-sensitive detection the light source is intensity modulated and the detector is connected to phase-sensitive detection electronics. A scanner using a substrate translator is also provided. For two dimensional imaging the substrate is translated in one dimension while the scanning mirror scans the beam in a second dimension. For a high throughput scanner, stacks of substrates are loaded onto a conveyor belt from a tray feeder.

Basiji, David A. (Seattle, WA); van den Engh, Gerrit J. (Seattle, WA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Calcium hydroxide pretreatment of biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HYDROXIDE RECOVERY DATA. . . . . . 135 138 142 . . . . . 148 . . . . . 150 . . . . . 153 156 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Methods used for pretreatment of lignocellulosics. . . . . . . . 15 2. Ammoniation conditions used by previous workers...C-pH diagram for a carbonate solution. 32 12. Flow diagram for continuous calcium hydroxide recovery. . . 13. A tree of possible experimental conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. Sugar yields obtained from ammoniated bagasse...

Nagwani, Murlidhar

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. 6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high (~50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

2003-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

40

Basement Structure and Implications for Hydrothermal Circulation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

collapse. Recent hydrothermal alteration occurs along Discovery fault strands and composite vertical offset of intracaldera volcanic units across the entire fault zone may be...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Structural Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability Maintained By Fault Propagation And Interaction Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

42

Correlation of hydrothermal sericite composition with permeability...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

by abundant fine-grained hydrothermal sericite that exhibits a systematic increase in K and Al and decrease in Si with increasing temperature. Calculated activities of the...

43

Possible Origin of Improved High Temperature Performance of Hydrotherm...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Origin of Improved High Temperature Performance of Hydrothermally Aged CuBeta Zeolite Catalysts. Possible Origin of Improved High Temperature Performance of Hydrothermally Aged...

44

Relations Of Ammonium Minerals At Several Hydrothermal Systems...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Minerals At Several Hydrothermal Systems In The Western Us Abstract Ammonium bound to silicate and sulfate minerals has recently been located at several major hydrothermal systems...

45

AUTOMATED PLANNING FOR HYDROTHERMAL VENT PROSPECTING USING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AUTOMATED PLANNING FOR HYDROTHERMAL VENT PROSPECTING USING AUVS by ZEYN A SAIGOL A thesis submitted of searching the ocean floor for hydrothermal vents, using autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs process (POMDP), but with a very large state space (of the order of 10123 states). This size of problem

Yao, Xin

46

Hydrothermal System | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat Jump to:PhotonHolyName HousingIII WindHybridsCarCalifornia,onHydrothermal

47

Waste Treatment and Immobilation Plant Pretreatment Facility  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

7-DESIGN-047 Technology Readiness Assessment for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Pretreatment Facility L. Holton D. Alexander M. Johnson H. Sutter August 2007...

48

Rhode Island Pretreatment Regulations (Rhode Island)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations set standards for water pretreatment prior to release to Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs), and require effluent data including the identity, amount, frequency, concentration...

49

Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Oligomers in Hydrothermal Pretreatment Hydrolyzate into Monomers with High Yields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

balances, capital and operating cost estimates. Figure 5.1glucose degradation. The estimate of the capital costs forapplied to estimate both capital and operating costs of the

Tsai, Yueh-Du

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Oligomers in Hydrothermal Pretreatment Hydrolyzate into Monomers with High Yields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

16 Figure 2.4 Structure and composition of lignin (Adler,References Adler E. 1977. Lignin chemistry - past, presentRalph J, Baucher M. 2003. Lignin biosynthesis. Annual Review

Tsai, Yueh-Du

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Oligomers in Hydrothermal Pretreatment Hydrolyzate into Monomers with High Yields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 37: 43-52. Saha B.production. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 48:Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 37: 43-52. Saulnier L,

Tsai, Yueh-Du

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Rheological Study of Comingled Biomass and Coal Slurries with HydrothermalPretreatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

entrained flow gasification. Fuel Process. Technol. 2009, inratio is 3:1 when using our gasification process. Thus, withas a feedstock for gasification. Table 3 shows the results

He, W; Park, C S; Norbeck, J N

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

offer distinct advantages in being able to process a wide variety of biomass feedstocks, the composition of the feedstock will have a large effect on the processing...

54

Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Oligomers in Hydrothermal Pretreatment Hydrolyzate into Monomers with High Yields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1998. Biomass for renewable energy, fuels, and chemicals.Elsevier. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory.2003,Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2007.

Tsai, Yueh-Du

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Oligomers in Hydrothermal Pretreatment Hydrolyzate into Monomers with High Yields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

heat and electricity used by conversion process or exported to the grid.heat and power to the production facility with excess left to export to the power grid.

Tsai, Yueh-Du

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Rheological Study of Comingled Biomass and Coal Slurries with HydrothermalPretreatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the development of alternative transportation fuels hasbe a promising alternative resource for transportation fuel

He, W; Park, C S; Norbeck, J N

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Oligomers in Hydrothermal Pretreatment Hydrolyzate into Monomers with High Yields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dioxide emission. Ethanol converted from celluloses andin cellulose and hemicellulose and ferment them to ethanol,cellulose fiber into glucose by enzyme and ferment the xylose and glucose to ethanol

Tsai, Yueh-Du

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Application of High Throughput Pretreatment and Co-Hydrolysis System to Thermochemical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction Sustainable energy sources are needed to supplement petroleum use in light of limited reserves economically, a large number of factors such as feedstock quality, conversion conditions, and catalyst loadings as well as their complex interactions must be better evaluated to identify combina- tions that can

California at Riverside, University of

59

Understanding Substrate Features Influenced by Pretreatments that Limit Biomass Deconstruction by Enzymes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from about 70 min for hydrothermal processing to about 5 minH, Parajo JC: Hydrothermal processing of lignocellulosicH, Parajo JC: Hydrothermal processing of lignocellulosic

Gao, Xiadi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

High throughput protein production screening  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods, compositions, and kits for the cell-free production and analysis of proteins are provided. The invention allows for the production of proteins from prokaryotic sequences or eukaryotic sequences, including human cDNAs using PCR and IVT methods and detecting the proteins through fluorescence or immunoblot techniques. This invention can be used to identify optimized PCR and WT conditions, codon usages and mutations. The methods are readily automated and can be used for high throughput analysis of protein expression levels, interactions, and functional states.

Beernink, Peter T. (Walnut Creek, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Oakland, CA); Segelke, Brent W. (San Ramon, CA)

2009-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A recent development in biomass gasification is the use of a pressurized water processing environment in order that drying of the biomass can be avoided. This paper reviews the research undertaken developing this new option for biomass gasification. This review does not cover wet oxidation or near-atmospheric-pressure steam-gasification of biomass. Laboratory research on hydrothermal gasification of biomass focusing on the use of catalysts is reviewed here, and a companion review focuses on non-catalytic processing. Research includes liquid-phase, sub-critical processing as well as super-critical water processing. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in such a system allows effective operation at lower temperatures, and the issues around the use of catalysts are presented. This review attempts to show the potential of this new processing concept by comparing the various options under development and the results of the research.

Elliott, Douglas C.

2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

62

Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully Implemented at Larger Scale Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Process for Biomass Is Successfully Implemented at Larger Scale...

63

Biomass reforming processes in hydrothermal media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

While hydrothermal technologies offer distinct advantages in being able to process a wide variety of biomass feedstocks, the composition of the feedstock will have a large effect on the processing employed. This thesis ...

Peterson, Andrew A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Understanding Substrate Features Influenced by Pretreatments that Limit Biomass Deconstruction by Enzymes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

high was provided to low temperature pretreatment. In contrast, lignin removal for pretreatment with hot water

Gao, Xiadi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

High Throughput Operando Studies using Fourier Transform Infrared...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Throughput Operando Studies using Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging and Raman Spectroscopy. High Throughput Operando Studies using Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging and Raman...

66

High-Throughput/Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

High-ThroughputCombinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D (presentation) High-ThroughputCombinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D (presentation)...

67

High Throughput/Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Materials: UOP Approaches High ThroughputCombinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials: UOP Approaches Presentation by Adriaan Sachtler from the High Throughput...

68

High-Throughput and Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

High-Throughput and Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) High-Throughput and Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation)...

69

Potential of High-Throughput Experimentation with Ammonia Borane...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of High-Throughput Experimentation with Ammonia Borane Solid Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) Potential of High-Throughput Experimentation with Ammonia Borane Solid...

70

High Throughput/Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

UOP LLC. All rights reserved. High ThroughputCombinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials: UOP Approaches High ThroughputCombinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage...

71

Anhydrite precipitation and the extent of hydrothermal recharge zones at ocean ridge crests  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) and hydrothermal processes; 8135 Tectonophysics: Hydrothermal systems (8424); 3035 Marine Geology and Geophysics: Midocean ridge processes; 4832 Oceanography: Biological and Chemical: Hydrothermal systems; KEYWORDS, and biological processes on Earth. Seafloor hydrothermal systems transport nearly 33% of the global oceanic heat

Manga, Michael

72

The Development of a Hydrothermal Method for Slurry Feedstock Preparation for Gasification Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and J.C. Parajó, Hydrothermal processing of lignocellulosicHydrothermal Equipment. Journal of the Mining and Materials Processing

He, Wei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

REFEREED PAPER PRE-TREATMENT OF REFINERY FINAL RUN-OFF FOR CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the case of a back-end refinery, the final run-off or return syrup of 92-95 % purity and 75 ° brix is generally returned to the raw mill to be combined with raw syrup and boiled in the A-pans. Approximately 8 % of the input raw sugar brix into a refinery is returned, consequently locking up A-pan capacity and, in the case of a factory with marginal pan capacity, cane throughput is restricted. In addition, energy consumption is increased and sugar losses in final molasses are elevated. A number of processes have been considered to eliminate recycling refinery run-off, most of which require pre-treatment and/or high capital investment with a high degree of commercial risk. Test work was undertaken at the Tsb Malalane cane sugar refinery to determine the optimal pre-treatment option for decolorising and softening refinery return syrup. The pre-treatment results indicate that chemical softening, followed by the addition of a cationic colour precipitant and pH adjustment with sulphur dioxide, yields appreciable calcium reduction and modest decolourisation. The overall benefit indicates that the treated final run-off is of suitable quality to apply another crystallisation step and/or alternatively consider for further purification by chromatographic separation and/or resin decolourisation.

Singh I; Stolz Hnp; Ndhlala T

74

Hydrothermal monitoring data from the Cascade Range, northwestern United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrothermal monitoring data from the Cascade Range, northwestern United States By S.E. Ingebritsen., and Evans, W.C., 2014, Hydrothermal monitoring data from the Cascade Range, northwestern United States: U ...................................................................................................................................27 (8) Carbonate springs

75

High-throughput quantification of glycoprotein sialylation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sialic acid can improve qualities of therapeutic glycoproteins, such as circulatory half-life, biological activity, and solubility. In production of therapeutic glycoproteins, a high-throughput method (HTM) is required for ...

Markely, Lam Raga Anggara

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

High Throughput Materials Characterization John M. Gregoire  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Paper for Establishing a User Facility for Synchrotron-based High Throughput Materials Characterization John M. Gregoire 1 , Matthew J. Kramer 2 , Apurva Mehta 3 1 Joint Center for...

77

Characterization of advanced preprocessed materials (Hydrothermal)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial hydrothermal treatment parameters did not achieve the proposed objective of this effort; the reduction of intrinsic ash in the corn stover. However, liquid fractions from the 170°C treatments was indicative that some of the elements routinely found in the ash that negatively impact the biochemical conversion processes had been removed. After reviewing other options for facilitating ash removal, sodium-citrate (chelating agent) was included in the hydrothermal treatment process, resulting in a 69% reduction in the physiological ash. These results indicated that chelation –hydrothermal treatment is one possible approach that can be utilized to reduce the overall ash content of feedstock materials and having a positive impact on conversion performance.

Rachel Emerson; Garold Gresham

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

The BGU/CERN solar hydrothermal reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe a novel solar hydrothermal reactor (SHR) under development by Ben Gurion University (BGU) and the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN. We describe in broad terms the several novel aspects of the device and, by extension, of the niche it occupies: in particular, enabling direct off-grid conversion of a range of organic feedstocks to sterile useable (solid, liquid) fuels, nutrients, products using only solar energy and water. We then provide a brief description of the high temperature high efficiency panels that provide process heat to the hydrothermal reactor, and review the basics of hydrothermal processes and conversion taking place in this. We conclude with a description of a simulation of the pilot system that will begin operation later this year.

Bertolucci, Sergio; Caspers, Fritz; Garb, Yaakov; Gross, Amit; Pauletta, Stefano

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Calibrated Hydrothermal Parameters, Barrow, Alaska, 2013  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

A model-observation-experiment process (ModEx) is used to generate three 1D models of characteristic micro-topographical land-formations, which are capable of simulating present active thaw layer (ALT) from current climate conditions. Each column was used in a coupled calibration to identify moss, peat and mineral soil hydrothermal properties to be used in up-scaled simulations. Observational soil temperature data from a tundra site located near Barrow, AK (Area C) is used to calibrate thermal properties of moss, peat, and sandy loam soil to be used in the multiphysics Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) models. Simulation results are a list of calibrated hydrothermal parameters for moss, peat, and mineral soil hydrothermal parameters.

Atchley, Adam; Painter, Scott; Harp, Dylan; Coon, Ethan; Wilson, Cathy; Liljedahl, Anna; Romanovsky, Vladimir

80

1 INRODUCTION The physico-chemical conditions in hydrothermal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

processes. At present, however, our greatest unknown with respect to hydrothermal systems is time1 INRODUCTION The physico-chemical conditions in hydrothermal systems change through time and have made great progress understanding the physico-chemical conditions that control hydrothermal

Pichler, Thomas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Magma to Microbe: Modeling Hydrothermal Processes at Ocean Spreading Centers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

215 Magma to Microbe: Modeling Hydrothermal Processes at Ocean Spreading Centers Geophysical is very limited. Low-temperature diffuse vent fluids, ubiquitous at hydrothermal systems, provide one microorganisms from diffuse hydrothermal vent fluids and the subseafloor at basalt-hosted mid-ocean ridges

Holden, James F.

82

Hydrothermal systems on Mars:an assessment of present evidence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sources, and hydrothermal processes have alsobeenproposed asamechanism foraquifer rechargeneededtoHydrothermal systems on Mars:an assessment of present evidence Jack D. Farmer NASA Ames ResearchCenter, M S 2 3 9 4 , Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000, U S A Abstract. Hydrothermal processeshavebeen

Farmer, Jack D.

83

Magma to Microbe: Modeling Hydrothermal Processes at Ocean Spreading Centers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

233 Magma to Microbe: Modeling Hydrothermal Processes at Ocean Spreading Centers Geophysical to mixing between #12;234 MIcrOBE MInErAl prOcESSES In SEAflOOr SulfIdES seawater and the hydrothermal of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA Hydrothermal vent sulfides are diverse and dynamic habitats

Holden, James F.

84

ORIGINAL PAPER Hydrothermal process synthesized electrocatalytic multi-walled  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORIGINAL PAPER Hydrothermal process synthesized electrocatalytic multi-walled carbon nanotubes as MWCNTs-Au, have been successfully prepared by a facile hydrothermal pro- cess of gold(III) chloride (Au. Keywords Hydrothermal Á Composites Á Au microparticles Á Multi-walled carbon nanotubes Á Ethanol oxidation

Guo, John Zhanhu

85

Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and apparatus for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion.

Rivard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO); Nagle, Nicholas J. (Broomfield, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and apparatus are disclosed for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion. 1 fig.

Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

87

Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogenous catalyst for gasification.

Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

88

Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James R

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

89

Investigations of Biomass Pretreatment and Submerged Fixed-bed Fermentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To improve the MixAlco process and biomass pretreatment, five studies were conducted. Three studies related to fermentation, whereas the other two investigated the effectiveness of shock tube pretreatment (STP) coupled with oxidative lime...

Meysing, Daniel

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

90

Long-term lime pretreatment of poplar wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., poplar wood) provides a unique and sustainable resource for environmentally safe organic fuels and chemicals. The core of this study is the pretreatment step involved in bioconversion processes. Pretreatment...

Sierra Ramirez, Rocio

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

91

Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

Biddy, Mary J.; Davis, Ryan; Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

92

Iridium material for hydrothermal oxidation environments  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for hydrothermal oxidation of combustible materials in which, during at least a part of the oxidation, corrosive material is present and makes contact with at least a portion of the apparatus over a contact area on the apparatus. At least a portion of the contact surface area comprises iridium, iridium oxide, an iridium alloy, or a base metal overlaid with an iridium coating. Iridium has been found to be highly resistant to environments encountered in the process of hydrothermal oxidation. Such environments typically contain greater than 50 mole percent water, together with oxygen, carbon dioxide, and a wide range of acids, bases and salts. Pressures are typically about 27.5 to about 1000 bar while temperatures range as high as 800.degree. C.

Hong, Glenn T. (Tewksbury, MA); Zilberstein, Vladimir A. (Brookline, MA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Hydrothermal reaction of fly ash. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reactions which occur when fly ash is treated under hydrothermal conditions were investigated. This was done for the following primary reasons. The first of these is to determine the nature of the phases that form to assess the stabilities of these phases in the ambient environment and, finally, to assess whether these phases are capable of sequestering hazardous species. The second reason for undertaking this study was whether, depending on the composition of the ash and the presence of selected additives, it would be possible under hydrothermal conditions to form compounds which have cementitious properties. Formation of four classes of compounds, which bracket likely fly ash compositional ranges, were selected for study. The classes are calcium silicate hydrates, calcium selenates, and calcium aluminosulfates, and silicate-based glasses. Specific compounds synthesized were determined and their stability regions assessed. As part of stability assessment, the extent to which selected hazardous species are sequestered was determined. Finally, the cementing properties of these compounds were established. The results obtained in this program have demonstrated that mild hydrothermal conditions can be employed to improve the reactivity of fly ash. Such improvements in reactivity can result in the formation of monolithic forms which may exhibit suitable mechanical properties for selected applications as building materials. If the ashes involved are considered hazardous, the mechanical properties exhibited indicated the forms could be handled in a manner which facilitates their disposal.

Brown, P.W.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

94

Numerical investigation of transient hydrothermal processes around intrusions: heat-transfer and fluid-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Numerical investigation of transient hydrothermal processes around intrusions: heat the intrusion. Keywords: Hydrothermal processes, numerical modelling, magmatic intrusion, permeability- depth around magmatic intrusions have been obtained through coupled hydrothermal numerical modelling that takes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

95

Development of a Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

eliminating bit wear and drill string fatigue, hydrothermal spallation drilling can transform the costs of geothermal well construction and enable widespread deployment of...

96

active hydrothermal systems: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mars: channelslocatedalongthe margins of impactcrater Farmer, Jack D. 7 Interconnected hydro-thermal systems Models, methods, and applications Computer Technologies and...

97

Robust optimization based self scheduling of hydro-thermal Genco ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dec 29, 2013 ... Abstract: This paper proposes a robust optimization model for optimal self scheduling of a hydro-thermal generating company. The proposed ...

Alireza Soroudi

2013-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

98

active hydrothermal system: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mars: channelslocatedalongthe margins of impactcrater Farmer, Jack D. 7 Interconnected hydro-thermal systems Models, methods, and applications Computer Technologies and...

99

Development of a Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for EGS  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Project objective: Build and demonstrate a working prototype hydrothermal spallation drilling unit that will accelerate commercial deployment of EGS as a domestic energy resource.

100

Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid inclusions from active geothermal systems Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

A Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

A Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal System Abstract Fluids from springs, fumaroles, and wells throughout Dixie Valley, NV were analyzed for noble...

102

Hydrothermal Alteration and Past and Present Thermal Regimes...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Hydrothermal Alteration and Past and Present Thermal Regimes in the Western Moat of Long Valley Caldera Abstract...

103

Energy Densification of Lignocellulosic Biomass via Hydrothermal Carbonization and Torrefaction .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The work presented in this study demonstrated the potential of hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of biomass for the production of carbon-rich solid fuel, known as hydrochar… (more)

Kambo, Harpreet Singh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Altered Tectonic and Hydrothermal Breccias in Corehole VC-1,...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

we will briefly discuss each of the major deep breccias in VC-l, examine the style, intensity and paragenesis of their hydrothermal alteration, and speculate on their...

105

Hydrothermal Circulation At Mount St Helens Determined By Self...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

of the SP field, low surface recharge rate, and magmatic component to fumarole condensates and thermal waters suggest the hydrothermal system is maintained by water vapor...

106

Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

boiling or by isotopic exchange at low waterrock ratios in new fractures. The mineralogy and apparent 18O enrichments of hydrothermal fracture-filling minerals are...

107

E-Print Network 3.0 - apparent hydrothermal vents Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

vents... sites of intense hydrothermal activity, with 370C, highly acidic vent fluids gushing out of towering... fossilisation in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Indeed, these...

108

New hydrocracking catalysts increase throughput, run length  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An improved, second-stage hydrocracking catalyst has been developed by combining stabilized Y zeolites with amorphous silica alumina cracking components. A commercial application of this catalyst, along with a new, first-stage zeolitic hydrocracking catalyst, resulted in increased unit throughput and cycle length. The paper discusses the hydrocracking process, first-stage catalysts, second-stage catalysts, hydrogenation process, commercial results, and product properties.

Huizinga, T. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Mij., The Hague (Netherlands); Theunissen, J.M.H. [Rayong Refinery Co. Ltd., Rayong (Thailand); Minderhoud, H.; Veen, R. van [Koninklijke/Shell-Lab., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

1995-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

109

Hydrothermally grown nanostructured WO films and their electrochromic characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrothermally grown nanostructured WO 3 films and their electrochromic characteristics.1088/0022-3727/43/28/285501 Hydrothermally grown nanostructured WO3 films and their electrochromic characteristics Zhihui Jiao1 , Xiao Wei and their electrochromic characteristics. Plate-like monoclinic WO3 nanostructures were grown directly on fluorine

Demir, Hilmi Volkan

110

Synthesis of a Se0 /Calcite Composite Using Hydrothermal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Synthesis of a Se0 /Calcite Composite Using Hydrothermal Carbonation of Ca(OH)2 Coupled in a batch system by hydrothermal carbonation of calcium hydroxide under high CO2-Ar pressure (90 bar. The carbonate matrix was constituted by nano- to microrhombohedral crystals (

Montes-Hernandez, German

111

MICROBIAL AMMONIA OXIDATION IN DEEP-SEA HYDROTHERMAL PLUMES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MICROBIAL AMMONIA OXIDATION IN DEEP-SEA HYDROTHERMAL PLUMES A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED;ABSTRACT Autotrophic ammonia oxidation has been documented for the first time in deep- sea hydrothermal autotrophic ammonia oxidation at ~ 91 nM d-1 , and potentially produces de novo organic carbon at a rate (0

Luther, Douglas S.

112

Synthesis of a Se0 /calcite composite using hydrothermal1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Synthesis of a Se0 /calcite composite using hydrothermal1 carbonation of Ca(OH)2 coupled800141p #12;2 Abstract1 2 In this study, the hydrothermal carbonation of calcium hydroxide under high CO2 "crystalline elemental selenium" (carbonate matrix was constituted

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

113

Hydrothermal Activity and Travertine Deposits in Valles Caldera Paul Withers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrothermal Activity and Travertine Deposits in Valles Caldera Paul Withers Valles Caldera for the Valles Caldera hydrothermal system [fig]. Some fluids escape in acid springs and mud pits (Sulphur mineral deposits as they cool, specifically travertine. Travertine is a freshwater, calcium carbonate

Withers, Paul

114

Experimental investigation of single carbon compounds under hydrothermal conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental investigation of single carbon compounds under hydrothermal conditions Jeffrey S; accepted in revised form 8 September 2005 Abstract The speciation of carbon in subseafloor hydrothermal reactant during the abiotic synthesis of reduced carbon compounds via Fischer­Tropsch-type processes

Rhoads, James

115

A Serpentinite-Hosted Ecosystem: The Lost City Hydrothermal Field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Serpentinite-Hosted Ecosystem: The Lost City Hydrothermal Field Deborah S. Kelley,1 * Jeffrey A. Baross,1 Roger E. Summons,7 Sean P. Sylva4 The serpentinite-hosted Lost City hydrothermal field is a remarkable submarine ecosystem in which geological, chemical, and biological processes are intimately

Gilli, Adrian

116

Hydrothermal plume dynamics on Europa: Implications for chaos formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrothermal plume dynamics on Europa: Implications for chaos formation Jason C. Goodman,1 Geoffrey December 2003; accepted 12 January 2004; published 20 March 2004. [1] Hydrothermal plumes may a liquid ocean to the base of its ice shell. This process has been implicated in the formation of chaos

Pierrehumbert, Raymond

117

Automated Planning for Hydrothermal Vent Prospecting Using AUVs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Automated Planning for Hydrothermal Vent Prospecting Using AUVs Zeyn A Saigol A thesis submitted of searching the ocean floor for hydrothermal vents, using autonomous under- water vehicles (AUVs decision process (POMDP), but with a very large state space (of the order of 10123 states). This size

Yao, Xin

118

Hydrothermal Photo Library | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy Health andof EnergyHydrogen-Powered Buses BrochureEnergyHydrothermal

119

Redistribution of Lignin Caused by Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research conducted at NREL has shown that lignin undergoes a phase transition during thermochemical pretreatments conducted above its glass transition temperature. The lignin coalesces within the plant cell wall and appears as microscopic droplets on cell surfaces. It is clear that pretreatment causes significant changes in lignin distribution in pretreatments at all scales from small laboratory reactors to pilot scale reactors. A method for selectively extracting lignin droplets from the surfaces of pretreated cell walls has allowed us to characterize the chemical nature and molecular weight distribution of this fraction. The effect of lignin redistribution on the digestibility of pretreated solids has also been tested. It is clear that removal of the droplets increases the digestibility of pretreated corn stover. The improved digestibility could be due to decreased non-specific binding of enzymes to lignin in the droplets, or because the droplets no longer block access to cellulose.

Johnson, D. K.; Donohoe, B. S.; Katahira, R.; Tucker, M. P.; Vinzant, T. B.; Himmel, M. E.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Determination of Insoluble Solids in Pretreated Biomass Material...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Determination of Insoluble NRELTP-510-42627 Solids in Pretreated Biomass March 2008 Material Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: 03212008 A. Sluiter, D. Hyman, C....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Pretreated Slurries; Issue Date: August 2010; Revision Date:...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biomass Material." This LAP is used to determine the fraction of insoluble solids (FIS) that is present in the pretreated slurry. It describes the detailed measurement of...

122

Rapid selection and identification of Miscanthus genotypes with enhanced glucan and xylan yields from hydrothermal pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sugar yields with various biomass feedstocks, such as cornand other selected biomass feedstocks Biomass Composition (%

Zhang, Taiying; Wyman, Charles E; Jakob, Katrin; Yang, Bin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Rapid selection and identification of Miscanthus genotypes with enhanced glucan and xylan yields from hydrothermal pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrolysis. Biotechnology for Biofuels 2012 5:56. Submitproductivity and processing. Biofuels Bioprod Biorefining-Zhang et al. Biotechnology for Biofuels 2012, 5:56 http://

Zhang, Taiying; Wyman, Charles E; Jakob, Katrin; Yang, Bin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Rapid selection and identification of Miscanthus genotypes with enhanced glucan and xylan yields from hydrothermal pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry” jointly released by DOE and USDA, energy crops were predicted to become domin- ant at prices

Zhang, Taiying; Wyman, Charles E; Jakob, Katrin; Yang, Bin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Rapid selection and identification of Miscanthus genotypes with enhanced glucan and xylan yields from hydrothermal pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of new energy crops and testing of cultivation conditions.energy crop. Biomass Bioenergy 2000, 8. Pude R: New cultivation

Zhang, Taiying; Wyman, Charles E; Jakob, Katrin; Yang, Bin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Rapid selection and identification of Miscanthus genotypes with enhanced glucan and xylan yields from hydrothermal pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

x giganteus using the ethanol organosolv process for ethanolpretreatment [14], etha- nol organosolv processing [17],at 70°C for 4 h ethanol organosolv process diluted acid

Zhang, Taiying; Wyman, Charles E; Jakob, Katrin; Yang, Bin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Hydrothermal reactions of fly ash. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The emphasis of the work done has been to determine the reactivities of two ashes believed to be representative of those generated. A bituminous ash and a lignitic ash have been investigated. The reactions of these ashes undergo when subjected to mild hydrothermal conditions were explored. The nature of the reactions which the ashes undergo when alkaline activators, calcium hydroxide and calcium sulfate are present was also investigated. It was determined that calcium silicate hydrate, calcium aluminate hydrate, and the calcium sulfoaluminate hydrate ettringite form under these conditions. It appears 3CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}3CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}32H{sub 2}O (ettringite) formation needs to be considered in ashes which contain significant amounts of sulfate. Therefore the stability region for ettringite was established. It was also determined that calcium silicate hydrate, exhibiting a high internal surface area, will readily form with hydrothermal treatment between 50{degrees} and 100{degrees}C. This phase is likely to have a significant capacity to take up heavy metals and oxyanions and this ability is being explored.

Brown, P.W.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

128

High throughput chemical munitions treatment system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new High-Throughput Explosive Destruction System is disclosed. The new system is comprised of two side-by-side detonation containment vessels each comprising first and second halves that feed into a single agent treatment vessel. Both detonation containment vessels further comprise a surrounding ventilation facility. Moreover, the detonation containment vessels are designed to separate into two half-shells, wherein one shell can be moved axially away from the fixed, second half for ease of access and loading. The vessels are closed by means of a surrounding, clam-shell type locking seal mechanisms.

Haroldsen, Brent L. (Manteca, CA); Stofleth, Jerome H. (Albuquerque, NM); Didlake, Jr., John E. (Livermore, CA); Wu, Benjamin C-P (San Ramon, CA)

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

High Throughput/Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Materials (presentation) High ThroughputCombinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen Storage Meeting...

130

High Throughput Combinatorial Screening of Biometic Metal-Organic...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

High Throughput Combinatorial Screening of Biometic Metal-Organic Materials for Military Hydrogen-Storage Materials (New Joint Miami UNREL DoDDLA Project) (presentation) High...

131

High Throughput/Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

technologies and software to increase R&D efficiency in chemical, energy, electronics, pharmaceutical and academic labs. * Pioneer of High Throughput Research (HTR) for...

132

Formulation, Pretreatment, and Densification Options to Improve Biomass Specifications for Co-Firing High Percentages with Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is a growing interest internationally to use more biomass for power generation, given the potential for significant environmental benefits and long-term fuel sustainability. However, the use of biomass alone for power generation is subject to serious challenges, such as feedstock supply reliability, quality, and stability, as well as comparative cost, except in situations in which biomass is locally sourced. In most countries, only a limited biomass supply infrastructure exists. Alternatively, co-firing biomass alongwith coal offers several advantages; these include reducing challenges related to biomass quality, buffering the system against insufficient feedstock quantity, and mitigating the costs of adapting existing coal power plants to feed biomass exclusively. There are some technical constraints, such as low heating values, low bulk density, and grindability or size-reduction challenges, as well as higher moisture, volatiles, and ash content, which limit the co-firing ratios in direct and indirect co-firing. To achieve successful co-firing of biomass with coal, biomass feedstock specifications must be established to direct pretreatment options in order to modify biomass materials into a format that is more compatible with coal co-firing. The impacts on particle transport systems, flame stability, pollutant formation, and boiler-tube fouling/corrosion must also be minimized by setting feedstock specifications, which may include developing new feedstock composition by formulation or blending. Some of the issues, like feeding, co-milling, and fouling, can be overcome by pretreatment methods including washing/leaching, steam explosion, hydrothermal carbonization, and torrefaction, and densification methods such as pelletizing and briquetting. Integrating formulation, pretreatment, and densification will help to overcome issues related to physical and chemical composition, storage, and logistics to successfully co-fire higher percentages of biomass ( > 40%) with coal.

Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; J Richard Hess; Richard D. Boardman; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Tyler L. Westover

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

The Hydrothermal Outflow Plume of Valles Caldera, New Mexico...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Plume of Valles Caldera, New Mexico, and a Comparison with Other Outflow Plumes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: The Hydrothermal...

134

Self-excited hydrothermal waves in evaporating sessile drops   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pattern formation driven by the spontaneous evaporation of sessile drops of methanol, ethanol, and FC-72 using infrared thermography is observed and, in certain cases, interpreted in terms of hydrothermal waves. Both methanol and ethanol drops...

Sefiane K.; Moffat J.R.; Matar O.K.; Craster R.V.

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Sources Of Chloride In Hydrothermal Fluids From The Valles Caldera...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Of Chloride In Hydrothermal Fluids From The Valles Caldera, New Mexico- A 36Cl Study Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Sources Of...

136

Base hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing of PBX-9404  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing has been proposed as an environmentally acceptable alternative to open burning/open detonation for degradation and destruction of high explosives. In this report, the authors examine gaseous and aqueous products of base hydrolysis of the HMX-based plastic bonded explosive, PBX-9404. They also examined products from the subsequent hydrothermal treatment of the base hydrolysate. The gases produced from hydrolysis of PBX-9404 are ammonia, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen. Major aqueous products are sodium formate, acetate, nitrate, and nitrite, but not all carbon products have been identified. Hydrothermal processing of base hydrolysate destroyed up to 98% of the organic carbon in solution, and higher destruction efficiencies are possible. Major gas products detected from hydrothermal processing were nitrogen and nitrous oxide.

Flesner, R.L.; Spontarelli, T.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Sanchez, J.A.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Hydrothermal Syntheses of Colloidal Carbon Spheres from Cyclodextrins...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

from aqueous alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrin (CD) solutions in closed systems under hydrothermal conditions at 160 oC. Both liquid and solid-state 13C NMR spectra taken for...

138

Seismic Evidence For A Hydrothermal Layer Above The Solid Roof...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

roof is overlain by a 150-200-m-thick low-velocity zone that may correspond to a fracture zone that hosts the hydrothermal circulation, and the roof itself may be the...

139

Rational control of hydrothermal nanowire synthesis and its applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrothermal nanowire synthesis is a rapidly emerging nanowire discipline that enables low temperature growth and batch process. It has a major impact on the development of novel energy conversion devices, high density ...

Joo, Jaebum

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction: 2014 State of Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the base case yields and operating conditions for converting whole microalgae via hydrothermal liquefaction and upgrading to liquid fuels. This serves as the basis against which future technical improvements will be measured.

Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Anderson, Daniel; Hallen, Richard T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.

2014-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Geochemistry and stable isotope constraints on high-temperature activity from sediment cores of the Saldanha hydrothermal field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrothermal processes occur, including reactions of the hydrothermal fluids with mafic and ultramafic rocks of seafloor hydrothermal processes. The focus on these ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal systems has increased, i of the Saldanha hydrothermal field Á.S. Dias a, ,1 , G.L. Früh-Green b,1 , S.M. Bernasconi c,1 , F.J.A.S. Barriga

Gilli, Adrian

142

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Combining high-throughput sequencing with fruit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Combining high-throughput sequencing with fruit body surveys reveals contrasting communities were mostly confined to fruit bodies, whereas mycelial interactions were studied in the laboratory. Here we combine high-throughput sequencing with a fruit body inventory to study simultaneously mycelial

Bruns, Tom

143

Microfluidic Technologies for High-Throughput Screening Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microfluidic Technologies for High-Throughput Screening Applications Thesis by Todd Thorsen, patiently giving me advice on a large variety of subjects, ranging from microfluidics to optics of microfluidic devices for high-throughput screening applications, such as mutant enzyme libraries expressed

Quake, Stephen R.

144

PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM PRECONCEPTUAL CANDIDATE TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Office of River Protection (ORP) has authorized a study to recommend and select options for interim pretreatment of tank waste and support Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) low activity waste (LAW) operations prior to startup of all the WTP facilities. The Interim Pretreatment System (IPS) is to be a moderately sized system which separates entrained solids and 137Cs from tank waste for an interim time period while WTP high level waste vitrification and pretreatment facilities are completed. This study's objective is to prepare pre-conceptual technology descriptions that expand the technical detail for selected solid and cesium separation technologies. This revision includes information on additional feed tanks.

MAY TH

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

145

Ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) pretreatment of municipal solid waste components  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

enzymatic reactivity. Concluding the project will be a study designed to separate the effect of the physical disruption and ammoniation caused by the ~ pretreatment. 1. 2 LIGNOCELLULOSE STRUCTURE The enzymatic conversion of lignocellulose to soluble...

Lundeen, Joseph Eric

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Method and apparatus for gasifying with a fluidized bed gasifier having integrated pretreating facilities  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An integral gasifier including a pretreater section and a gasifier section separated by a distribution grid is defined by a single vessel. The pretreater section pretreats coal or other carbon-containing material to be gasified to prevent caking and agglomeration of the coal in the gasifier. The level of the coal bed of the pretreater section and thus the holding or residence time in said bed is selectively regulated by the amount of pretreated coal which is lifted up a lift pipe into the gasifier section. Thus, the holding time in the pretreater section can be varied according to the amount of pretreat necessary for the particular coal to be gasified.

Rice, Louis F. (Arcadia, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

The hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of olivines and related compounds for electrochemical applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of olivines and related compounds at a low cost is also required. Hydrothermal reactions are one such possibility. A number of pure. When conductive carbons are added to the reaction medium, excellent electrochemical behavior

Suzuki, Masatsugu

148

Reproductive traits of pioneer gastropod species colonizing deep-see hydrothermal vents after an eruption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The colonization dynamics and life histories of pioneer species are vital components in understanding the early succession of nascent hydrothermal vents. The reproductive ecology of pioneer species at deep-sea hydrothermal ...

Bayer, Skylar (Skylar Rae)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Hydrothermal calcite in the Elephant Moraine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the course of geologic mapping of the Elephant Moraine on the east antarctic ice sheet, Faure and Taylor (1985) collected several specimens of black botryoidal calcite, composed of radiating acicular crystals that resemble stromatolites. Calcite from this and other specimens is significantly enriched in strontium-87 (the strontium-87/strontium-86 ratio equals 0.71417 +/- 0.00002), carbon-12 (delta carbon-13 equals -22.9 parts per thousand, PDB standard) and oxygen-16 (delta oxygen-18 equals -21.1 parts per thousand, standard mean ocean water) compared with calcite of marine origin. The enrichment in carbon-12 is similar to that of calcite associated with coal in the Allan Hills. The enrichment in oxygen-16 indicates that the calcite from the Elephant Moraine could only have precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with glacial melt water. Therefore, the temperature at which the black calcite precipitated from water of that isotope composition was about 85/sup 0/C. A temperature of this magnitude implies that the black calcite formed as a result of volcanic activity under the east antarctic ice sheet. The enrichment of the black calcite in carbon-12 suggests that it formed in part from carbon dioxide derived from the coal seams of the Weller Formation in the Beacon Supergroup. The isotopic composition of strontium in the black calcite is similar to that of carbonate beds and concretions in the Beacon rocks of southern Victoria Land. A volcanic-hydrothermal origin is also consistent with the very low total organic carbon content of 0.15% in the calcite.

Faure, G.; Taylor, K.S.; Jones, L.M.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

High-Throughput/Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Storage (New DoDDLA Project), Ali T-Raissi, University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center High-Throughput Methodology for Discovery of Metal-Organic Frameworks...

151

Throughput-cost analysis of optical flow switching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we employ a cost model embodying major sources of capital expenditure (CapEx) to compare the throughput-cost tradeoff offered by optical flow switching to that of more traditional optical network architectures.

Chan, Vincent W. S.

152

High-Throughput/Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

ThroughputCombinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D Ned Stetson, Larry Blair 1 , Grace Ordaz, Carole Read, George Thomas 2 , and Sunita Satyapal Suite 900, 7475...

153

Temperature response of the ultra-high throughput mutational spectrometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Ultra-High Throughput Mutational Spectrometer is an instrument designed to separate mutant from wild type DNA through capillary electrophoresis. Since this technique uses the melting point of the molecule to distinguish ...

Suen, Timothy W. (Timothy Wu)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

New Tools for High Throughput Chemistry and Biology   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New strategies for the high-throughput determination of protease substrate specificity using a dual colour microarray based format with a small library of FRET-based peptides were developed. Integral to this process was ...

Galveia, Luciano Paulo Rosa

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

High throughput optical sensor arrays for drug screening  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the world of drug discovery, high throughput whole cell assays are a critical step in discovering therapeutically relevant drug compounds [1]. This report details the development of several novel sensor systems capable ...

Harjes, Daniel I

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Maximizing the throughput of large ad hoc wireless networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

multi-input, single-output (MISO) protocol. During eachthe maximum throughput of the MISO protocol, in bits-meters/s/ Hz/node, is C MISO = (n ? 1) A log 2 1 + 2n P T ? h

Hua, Y; Huang, Y; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J J

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Development and optimization of high-throughput zebrafish screening platform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The high-throughput zebrafish screening platform is a revolutionary tool that enables subcellular precision in vivo whole animal screening of Danio Rerio. It can perform laser surgery and/or imaging in less than twenty ...

Koo, Bryan Kyo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

High-throughput vertebrate total analysis/screening platform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-throughput screening (HTS) is seen as one of the most promising technologies to facilitate biomedical studies and pharmaceutical discoveries. Although large varieties of in vitro HTS technologies have opened great ...

Chang, Tsung-Yao, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Hydro-thermal flow in a rough fracture EC Contract SES6-CT-2003-502706  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydro-thermal flow in a rough fracture EC Contract SES6-CT-2003-502706 PARTICIPANT ORGANIZATION NAME: CNRS Synthetic 2nd year report Related with Work Package............ HYDRO-THERMAL FLOW in the influence of a realistic geometry of the fracture on its hydro-thermal response. Several studies have

Schmittbuhl, Jean

160

Are spatial variations in the diets of hydrothermal fauna linked to local environmental conditions?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are considered to be the main energy-acquisition path- ways of carbon fixation in hydrothermal systems (Conway etAre spatial variations in the diets of hydrothermal fauna linked to local environmental conditions conditions Hydrothermal springs Food webs Mid-Atlantic Ridge Lucky Strike (37117.290 N 32116.450 W) a b s t r

Long, Bernard

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Microbemetal interactions in marine hydrothermal environments James F Holden and Michael W W Adams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the scope of carbon cycling in hydrothermal environments. The advent of genome sequences and new molecularMicrobe­metal interactions in marine hydrothermal environments James F Holden and Michael W W Adams� Marine hydrothermal microorganisms respond rapidly to changes in the concentrations and availability

Holden, James F.

162

Sulfur in peridotites and gabbros at Lost City (30N, MAR): Implications for hydrothermal alteration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

minerals in samples from near the base of hydrothermal carbonate towers at Lost City show d34 S valuesSulfur in peridotites and gabbros at Lost City (30°N, MAR): Implications for hydrothermal of serpentinized peridotites and gabbros beneath the Lost City Hydrothermal Field at the southern face

Gilli, Adrian

163

Seaoor hydrothermal alteration at an Archaean mid-ocean ridge K. KITAJIMA,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-to-boiling point curve for a ¯uid. The carbonation due to high-XCO2 hydrothermal ¯uids occurred near the ridgeSea¯oor hydrothermal alteration at an Archaean mid-ocean ridge K. KITAJIMA,1 S. MARUYAMA,1 S Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA ABSTRACT A hydrothermally metamorphosed

Utsunomiya, Satoshi

164

Simultaneous precipitation of magnesite and lizardite from hydrothermal alteration of olivine under high-carbonate alkalinity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

alteration High-carbonate alkalinity Magnesite Lizardite Crystal growth Hydrothermal systems The present and carbonation of olivine with relevance in Earth systems (e.g. functioning of hydrothermal fieldsSimultaneous precipitation of magnesite and lizardite from hydrothermal alteration of olivine under

Montes-Hernandez, German

165

Cite this: CrystEngComm, 2013, 15, Calcite formation by hydrothermal carbonation of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cite this: CrystEngComm, 2013, 15, 3392 Calcite formation by hydrothermal carbonation by hydrothermal carbonation of calcium hydroxide by a simulation strategy, in which both the chemical evolution calcite formation by hydrothermal carbonation of portlandite. Calcite is an important ubiquitous mineral

Montes-Hernandez, German

166

Submeter bathymetric mapping of volcanic and hydrothermal features on the East Pacific Rise crest at 9500  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of bathymetric changes associated with active volcanic, hydrothermal and tectonic processes. Components: 15Submeter bathymetric mapping of volcanic and hydrothermal features on the East Pacific Rise crest to produce submeter resolution bathymetric maps of five hydrothermal vent areas at the East Pacific Rise (EPR

Whitcomb, Louis L.

167

Controls on Martian hydrothermal systems: Application to valley network and magnetic anomaly formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

circulation can quantify limits to the role of hydrothermal activity in Martian crustal processes. We present the viability of hydrothermal circulation as the primary process responsible for the broad spatial correlationControls on Martian hydrothermal systems: Application to valley network and magnetic anomaly

Harrison, Keith

168

Ultrafast Microwave Hydrothermal Synthesis of BiFeO3 Nanoplates Riad Nechache,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrothermal processes while requiring significantly less time and energy. In addition, we show that microwaveUltrafast Microwave Hydrothermal Synthesis of BiFeO3 Nanoplates Shun Li, Riad Nechache,§ Ivan and very rapid (1­2 min) microwave-assisted hydrothermal approach. We show that the microwave treatment

169

Geological Society of America Magmatic-hydrothermal leaching and origin of late to post-tectonic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0E8, Canada ABSTRACT Magmatic-hydrothermal processes produced significant metasomatic near the margins of the granite plu- ton. Later low-temperature hydrothermal processes mobilized silica High-temperature hydrothermal processes have long been recognized within the Adirondack Highlands

Soja, Constance M.

170

Physical response of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems to local earthquakes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Heat flow (benthic) and hydrothermal processes; 3035 Marine Geology and Geophysics: Midocean ridge processes; 8135 Tectonophysics: Hydrothermal systems (8424). Received 23 January 2004; Revised 9 July 2004Physical response of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems to local earthquakes William S. D

Wilcock, William

171

Hydrothermal synthesis, off-axis electron holography and magnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-sized Fe3O4 have been prepared by various methods such as sol­ gel processing, hydrothermal synthesisHydrothermal synthesis, off-axis electron holography and magnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles Jülich, Germany. Abstract. The hydrothermal synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) (

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

172

STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF HYDROTHERMAL PROCESS CONDITIONS ON PASTA QUALITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF HYDROTHERMAL PROCESS CONDITIONS ON PASTA QUALITY Authors: Z. Maache Science 41, 3 (2005) 267-275" DOI : 10.1016/j.jcs.2004.10.008 #12;Abstract. Effect of hydrothermal. The Instantaneous Controlled Pressure Drop (DIC) treatment is defined as a hydrothermal treatment that involves

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

173

Permeability changes due to mineral diagenesis in fractured crust: implications for hydrothermal circulation at  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The hydrothermal processes at ridge crests have been extensively studied during the last two decades. NeverthelessPermeability changes due to mineral diagenesis in fractured crust: implications for hydrothermal, the reasons why hydrothermal fields are only occasionally found along some ridge segments remain a matter

Manga, Michael

174

Interconnected hydro-thermal systems Models, methods, and applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interconnected hydro-thermal systems Models, methods, and applications Magnus Hindsberger Kgs. Lyngby 2003 IMM-PHD-2003-112 Interconnected hydro-thermalsystems #12;Technical University of Denmark 45882673 reception@imm.dtu.dk www.imm.dtu.dk IMM-PHD-2003-112 ISSN 0909-3192 #12;Interconnected hydro

175

Hydrothermal Dolomites in the Early Albian (Cretaceous) Platform Carbonates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrothermal Dolomites in the Early Albian (Cretaceous) Platform Carbonates (NW Spain): Nature carbonates de la plate-forme albienne précoce (Crétacé; NO de l'Espagne): nature et origine des dolomies et trouvent dans les carbonates albiens, déposés dans le bassin Basque-Cantabrique suite à une subsidence

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

176

The Ranero Hydrothermal Dolomites (Albian, Karrantza Valley, Northwest Spain)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Ranero Hydrothermal Dolomites (Albian, Karrantza Valley, Northwest Spain): Implications Recherche Développement, Carbonate Sedimentology Group, avenue Larribau s/n, 64018 Pau Cedex - France e'Espagne) sont présentées dans cette étude. Les corps dolomitiques sont encaissés dans des carbonates de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

177

POWER SCHEDULING IN A HYDRO-THERMAL SYSTEM UNDER UNCERTAINTY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

POWER SCHEDULING IN A HYDRO-THERMAL SYSTEM UNDER UNCERTAINTY C.C. Car e1, M.P. Nowak2, W. Romisch2 Forschungsgemeinschaft. leads to a tremendous increase in the complex- ity of the traditional power optimization mod- els-burning) thermal units, pumped-storage hydro plants and delivery con- tracts and describe an optimization model

Römisch, Werner

178

POWER SCHEDULING IN A HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEM UNDER UNCERTAINTY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

POWER SCHEDULING IN A HYDRO­THERMAL SYSTEM UNDER UNCERTAINTY C.C. Carøe 1 , M.P. Nowak 2 , W. R in the complex­ ity of the traditional power optimization mod­ els. The remedy we propose is decomposition which­storage hydro plants and delivery con­ tracts and describe an optimization model for its least­cost operation

Römisch, Werner

179

Hydro-Thermal Scheduling (HTS) 1.0 Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Hydro-Thermal Scheduling (HTS) 1.0 Introduction From an overall systems view, the single most, relative to that of thermal plants, are very small. There are three basic types of hydroelectric plants;2 Pump-storage This kind of hydro plant is a specialized reservoir-type plant which has capability to act

McCalley, James D.

180

Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with carbonate-containing solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with an acidic solution and then a carbonate-containing solution to produce a pretreated cellulosic material are provided. The pretreated material may then be further treated in a pulping process, for example, a soda-anthraquinone pulping process, to produce a cellulose pulp. The pretreatment solutions may be extracted from the pretreated cellulose material and selectively re-used, for example, with acid or alkali addition, for the pretreatment solutions. The resulting cellulose pulp is characterized by having reduced lignin content and increased yield compared to prior art treatment processes.

Francis, Raymond

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Review of Alternative Technologies for Pretreatment of Accumulated HLW  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accumulated liquid high-level wastes (HLW) from nuclear centers in Russia and the United States (U. S.) contain great amounts of nonradioactive salts; it is prudent to vitrify not the entire volume of these wastes, but only the concentrates of radionuclides recovered from them. For this purpose, different pretreatment technologies based on liquid-liquid extraction are under development.

Romanovsky, V.; Rimski-Korsakov, A.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

182

Effects of catalyst pretreatment for carbon nanotube growth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effects of pretreatment of iron catalyst for carbon nanotube (CNT) growth was studied. CNTs were grown on Fe/A1203 (1/10 nm) thin-film catalyst deposited on silicon substrates via exposure to C2H4 in a thermal chemical ...

Morgan, Caitlin D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Separations/pretreatment considerations for Hanford privatization phase 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Tank Focus Area is funded to develop, demonstrate, and deploy technologies that will assist in the treatment and closure of its nuclear waste tanks. Pretreatment technologies developed to support the privatization effort by the Department of Energy are reviewed. Advancements in evaporation, solid-liquid separation, sludge treatment, solids controls, sodium management, and radionuclide removal are considered.

Hunt, R.D.; McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300.degree. C. before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil.

Miller, Robert N. (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

NREL Breaks New Ground in Plant Pretreatment for Biofuels (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NREL researchers use imaging technologies to broaden knowledge of plant cell wall structures and identify ideal pretreatment of plant material.

Not Available

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Instabilities during liquid migration into superheated hydrothermal systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrothermal systems typically consist of hot permeable rock which contains either liquid or liquid and saturated steam within the voids. These systems vent fluids at the surface through hot springs, fumaroles, mud pools, steaming ground and geysers. They are simultaneously recharged as meteoric water percolates through the surrounding rock or through the active injection of water at various geothermal reservoirs. In a number of geothermal reservoirs from which significant amounts of hot fluid have been extracted and passed through turbines, superheated regions of vapor have developed. As liquid migrates through a superheated region of a hydrothermal system, some of the liquid vaporizes at a migrating liquid-vapor interface. Using simple physical arguments, and analogue laboratory experiments we show that, under the influence of gravity, the liquid-vapor interface may become unstable and break up into fingers.

Fitzgerald, Shaun D.; Woods, Andrew W.

1995-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

187

Hydrothermal Processing of Macroalgal Feedstocks in Continuous-Flow Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wet macroalgal slurries can be converted into a biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). High levels of carbon conversion to gravity-separable oil product were accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 ?C) in a pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa). As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace mineral components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties. In addition, catalytic hydrothermal gasification was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup and fuel gas production from water soluble organics. As a result, high conversion of macroalgae to liquid and gas fuel products was found with low levels of organic contamination in byproduct water. Both process steps were accomplished in continuous-flow reactor systems such that design data for process scale-up was generated.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Roesijadi, Guritno; Zacher, Alan H.; Magnuson, Jon K.

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

188

Agenda from the U.S. Department of Energy's High Throughput Screening...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

from the U.S. Department of Energy's High Throughput Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials Workshop on June 26, 2007 Agenda from the U.S. Department of Energy's High Throughput...

189

High-Throughput, High-Precision Hot Testing Tool for High-Brightness...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Throughput, High-Precision Hot Testing Tool for High-Brightness Light-Emitting Diode Testing High-Throughput, High-Precision Hot Testing Tool for High-Brightness Light-Emitting...

190

High throughput lessons from the LHC experience.Johnston.TNC2013  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

both ends (typically a GPS- based clock, or comparable). These tools are OWAMP 22 and HADES 23. Throughput is measured with BWCTL (a wrapper and controller for iperf throughput...

191

Hydrothermal system in Southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Southern Grass Valley is a fairly typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163 to 176/sup 0/C. Results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations are discussed in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system.

Welch, A.H.; Sorey, M.L.; Olmsted, F.H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Colorado's hydrothermal resource base---an assessment | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergyCTBarreisVolcanicPowerRaft RiverInformation hydrothermal

193

Property:PotentialGeothermalHydrothermalCapacity | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy ResourcesLoadingPenobscotInformation MaxPotentialGeothermalHydrothermalCapacity Jump to: navigation,

194

Property:PotentialGeothermalHydrothermalGeneration | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy ResourcesLoadingPenobscotInformation MaxPotentialGeothermalHydrothermalCapacity Jump to:

195

Applying Speculative Technique to Improve TCP Throughput over Lossy Links  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

@ou.edu Abstract-- The throughput degradation of Transport Control Protocol (TCP) over lossy links due performance due to control hazards in CPU design. First, two types of loss events in networks with lossy links links are involved in TCP connections. The objective of this paper is to propose a protocol

Atiquzzaman, Mohammed

196

Reliability and Throughput in Future Automotive Communication Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reliability and Throughput in Future Automotive Communication Networks John Liu, Timothy TaltyStar. This action created a new industry called automotive telematics, helping to save lives and providing, the automotive telematics industry has experienced a healthy growth in North America. During the current economic

Rajkumar, Ragunathan "Raj"

197

Research Focus High-throughput screens for fluorescent dye discovery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Research Focus High-throughput screens for fluorescent dye discovery Vebjorn Ljosa and Anne E of a combinatorial library of fluorescent compounds discovered fluorescent dyes that were able to distinguish myoblasts from differentiated myotubes. New fluorescent dyes that respond to biologically relevant changes

Carpenter, Anne E.

198

Dynamic Power Allocation For Maximizing Throughput in Energy Harvesting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Dynamic Power Allocation For Maximizing Throughput in Energy Harvesting Communication System general case of arbitrarily varying energy arrivals is considered, where neither the future energy arrival strategy that invests available energy uniformly over all remaining slots until the next energy arrival

Vaze, Rahul

199

Automatic Memory Partitioning and Scheduling for Throughput and Power Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- matic memory partitioning technique which can efficiently improve throughput and reduce energy to tackle this problem is to increase memory ports in the final memory imple- mentations. However, recent research in [16] shows that the size of memory cells increases almost quadratically with port number N

Cong, Jason "Jingsheng"

200

Low inlet gas velocity high throughput biomass gasifier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention discloses a novel method of operating a gasifier for production of fuel gas from carbonaceous fuels. The process disclosed enables operating in an entrained mode using inlet gas velocities of less than 7 feet per second, feedstock throughputs exceeding 4000 lbs/ft.sup.2 -hr, and pressures below 100 psia.

Feldmann, Herman F. (Worthington, OH); Paisley, Mark A. (Upper Arlington, OH)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

High Throughput Spectrum-aware Routing for Cognitive Radio Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High Throughput Spectrum-aware Routing for Cognitive Radio Networks Ashwin Sampath, Lei Yang, Lili, wireless nodes equipped with cognitive radios [11] do not operate on statically as- signed spectrum who own the spectrum, e.g. analog TV broadcast stations. Such flexibility means cognitive radios can

Zhao, Ben Y.

202

Throughput Enhancing Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Strategies for Cognitive Radios  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Throughput Enhancing Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Strategies for Cognitive Radios Kyounghwan Lee growth of wireless services continues to accelerate the exhaustion of usable radio spectrum. The radio channels licensed to the primary users. A main chal- lenge in this case is to design a spectrum sensing

Yener, Aylin

203

High Throughput Spectrumaware Routing for Cognitive Radio Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High Throughput Spectrum­aware Routing for Cognitive Radio Networks Ashwin Sampath, Lei Yang, Lili, wireless nodes equipped with cognitive radios [11] do not operate on statically as­ signed spectrum. Instead, they identify and use locally unused licensed spectrum while avoiding disruptions to legacy users

Zhao, Ben Y.

204

Optimizing Throughput and Energy in Online Deadline Scheduling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of all jobs. An optimal schedule is expected to maximize the throughput, and furthermore, its energy a scheduling algorithm, one has to face the dilemma of selecting more jobs and being conservative in energy jobs; O(1)-competitive online algorithms with respect to energy usage have been known [Yao et al. 1995

Wong, Prudence W.H.

205

Hydrothermal processing of Hanford tank wastes: Process modeling and control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) hydrothermal process, waste streams are first pressurized and heated as they pass through a continuous flow tubular reactor vessel. The waste is maintained at reaction temperature of 300--550 C where organic destruction and sludge reformation occur. This report documents LANL activities in process modeling and control undertaken in FY94 to support hydrothermal process development. Key issues discussed include non-ideal flow patterns (e.g. axial dispersion) and their effect on reactor performance, the use and interpretation of inert tracer experiments, and the use of computational fluid mechanics to evaluate novel hydrothermal reactor designs. In addition, the effects of axial dispersion (and simplifications to rate expressions) on the estimated kinetic parameters are explored by non-linear regression to experimental data. Safety-related calculations are reported which estimate the explosion limits of effluent gases and the fate of hydrogen as it passes through the reactor. Development and numerical solution of a generalized one-dimensional mathematical model is also summarized. The difficulties encountered in using commercially available software to correlate the behavior of high temperature, high pressure aqueous electrolyte mixtures are summarized. Finally, details of the control system and experiments conducted to empirically determine the system response are reported.

Currier, R.P. [comp.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Engineering of a High-Throughput Screening System to Identify Cellulosic Biomass,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- grated high-throughput (HTP) screening pipeline. Herein, we report on the engineering of a novel HTP

California at Riverside, University of

207

Summary of Findings from the Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation (CAFI): Corn Stover Pretreatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation, with members from Auburn University, Dartmouth College, Michigan State University, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Purdue University, Texas A&M University, the University of British Columbia, and the University of California at Riverside, has developed comparative data on the conversion of corn stover to sugars by several leading pretreatment technologies. These technologies include ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment, ammonia recycle percolation pretreatment, dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment, flowthrough pretreatment (hot water or dilute acid), lime pretreatment, controlled pH hot water pretreatment, and sulfur dioxide steam explosion pretreatment. Over the course of two separate USDA- and DOE-funded projects, these pretreatment technologies were applied to two different corn stover batches, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the remaining solids from each pretreatment technology using identical enzyme preparations, enzyme loadings, and enzymatic hydrolysis assays. Identical analytical methods and a consistent material balance methodology were employed to develop comparative sugar yield data for each pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Although there were differences in the profiles of sugar release, with the more acidic pretreatments releasing more xylose directly in the pretreatment step than the alkaline pretreatments, the overall glucose and xylose yields (monomers + oligomers) from combined pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis process steps were very similar for all of these leading pretreatment technologies. Some of the water-only and alkaline pretreatment technologies resulted in significant amounts of residual xylose oligomers still remaining after enzymatic hydrolysis that may require specialized enzyme preparations to fully convert xylose oligomers to monomers.

Elander, R. T.; Dale, B. E.; Holtzapple, M.; Ladisch, M. R.; Lee, Y. Y.; Mitchinson, C.; Saddler, J. N.; Wyman, C. E.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Results of the WFPC2 SM3a Lyman-Throughput Check (proposals 8492, 8494,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and F122M filters, are designed to monitor the far-UV throughput for any signs of degradation which may and I. Heyer March 16, 2000 ABSTRACT The far-UV throughput of WFPC2 was monitored during December 1999 and January 2000 for any signs of unexpected throughput degradation following Servicing Mission 3a

Sirianni, Marco

209

Grid Workflow Software for a High-Throughput Proteome Annotation Pipeline  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Grid Workflow Software for a High-Throughput Proteome Annotation Pipeline Adam Birnbaum1 , James-Throughput Proteome 69 Protein Data Bank [9]. Despite the advent of high throughput crystallization pipelines [25 Annotation Pipeline (iGAP) [28]. iGAP, which incorporates a number of well established bioinformatics

Bourne, Philip E.

210

Pretreatment Engineering Platform Phase 1 Final Test Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project, Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to conduct testing to demonstrate the performance of the WTP Pretreatment Facility (PTF) leaching and ultrafiltration processes at an engineering-scale. In addition to the demonstration, the testing was to address specific technical issues identified in Issue Response Plan for Implementation of External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) Recommendations - M12, Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.( ) Testing was conducted in a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of the PTF ultrafiltration system, the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP). Parallel laboratory testing was conducted in various PNNL laboratories to allow direct comparison of process performance at an engineering-scale and a laboratory-scale. This report presents and discusses the results of those tests.

Kurath, Dean E.; Hanson, Brady D.; Minette, Michael J.; Baldwin, David L.; Rapko, Brian M.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Daniel, Richard C.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Huckaby, James L.; Billing, Justin M.; Sundar, Parameshwaran S.; Josephson, Gary B.; Toth, James J.; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Baer, Ellen BK; Barnes, Steven M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Rassat, Scot D.; Brown, Christopher F.; Geeting, John GH; Sevigny, Gary J.; Casella, Amanda J.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Sundaram, S. K.; Pires, Richard P.; Wells, Beric E.; Bredt, Ofelia P.

2009-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

211

Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300 C before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil. 1 fig.

Miller, R.N.

1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

212

E-Print Network 3.0 - assisted hydrothermal synthesis Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Physics 53 Hydrothermally grown nanostructured WO films and their electrochromic characteristics Summary: -doped tin oxide glass substrates by a simple and...

213

Utilization of aqueous product generated by hydrothermal carbonization of waste biomass.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermochemical treatment process that allows for the conversion of relatively dilute biomass slurries into value added products which are hydrochar… (more)

Vozhdayev, Georgiy Vladimirovich

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial hydrothermal system Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of oxidized, S-rich mafic magmas for giant Cu mineralization: Evidence from Pinatubo, Bingham Canyon and El Teniente Summary: and overlying acid-sulphate hydrothermal systems....

215

Metatranscriptomics reveal differences in in situ energy and nitrogen metabolism among hydrothermal vent snail symbionts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Despite the ubiquity of chemoautotrophic symbioses at hydrothermal vents, our understanding of the influence of environmental chemistry on symbiont metabolism is limited. Transcriptomic analyses are useful for linking ...

Sanders, J. G.

216

A Sr-Isotopic Comparison Between Thermal Waters, Rocks, And Hydrotherm...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sr-Isotopic Comparison Between Thermal Waters, Rocks, And Hydrothermal Calcites, Long Valley Caldera, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

217

Hydrothermal energy extraction, Auburn, New York: Final report: Volume 2, Chapters 6-10  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses a hydrothermal energy extraction system in detail. General topics covered are: Reservoir circulation loop; HVAC buffer loop; and automatic temperature control system. (LSP)

Castor, T.P.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Gasification performance of switchgrass pretreated with torrefaction and densification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to investigate gasification performance of four switchgrass pretreatments (torrefaction at 230 and 270 °C, densification, and combined torrefaction and densification) and three gasification temperatures (700, 800 and 900 °C). Gasification was performed in a fixed-bed externally heated reactor with air as an oxidizing agent. Switchgrass pretreatment and gasification temperature had significant effects on gasification performance such as gas yields, syngas lower heating value (LHV), and carbon conversion and cold gas efficiencies. With an increase in the gasification temperature, yields of H2 and CO, syngas LHV, and gasifier efficiencies increased whereas CH4, CO2 and N2 yields decreased. Among all switchgrass pretreatments, gasification performance of switchgrass with combined torrefaction and densification was the best followed by that of densified, raw and torrefied switchgrass. Gasification of combined torrefied and densified switchgrass resulted in the highest yields of H2 (0.03 kg/kg biomass) and CO (0.72 kg/kg biomass), highest syngas LHV (5.08 MJ m-3), CCE (92.53%), and CGE (68.40%) at the gasification temperature of 900 °C.

Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Various

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Optical Multiplexing for High-Throughput Spectroscopic Analysis.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in optical biosensor testing as it provides greater throughput and scalability while being an economical and compact solution. v NOMENCLATURE MFPF Multi Frequency Phase Fluorometer MUX Multiplexer LED Light Emitting Diode DIO Digital Input... oxidase in hybrid silicate microsphere that is coated with nanofilm and reference dye (RITC) (Fig. 1) [2]. The phosphorescent dye is excited by a green light from a LED (light emitting diode) to emit luminescence, the intensity of which is dependent...

Ahmed, Saadiah

2012-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

220

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS 1 Nash-Cournot Equilibria in Hydrothermal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS 1 Nash-Cournot Equilibria in Hydrothermal Electricity Markets the market clearance prices within a hydrothermal power exchange market that incorporates network constraints. An analysis is made of the degree of market power exerted by the various agents. The Nash-Cournot equilibrium

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

HYDROTHERMAL ACTIVITY AND CARBON-DIOXIDE DISCHARGE AT SHRUB AND UPPER KLAWASI MUD VOLCANOES,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HYDROTHERMAL ACTIVITY AND CARBON-DIOXIDE DISCHARGE AT SHRUB AND UPPER KLAWASI MUD VOLCANOES and July 1973 at Shrub and Upper Klawasi mud volcanoes 8 ii #12;HYDROTHERMAL ACTIVITY AND CARBON. Map of diffuse carbon dioxide flow from soils near the summit of Shrub mud volcano 9 TABLES 1

222

Involvement of Intermediate Sulfur Species in Biological Reduction of Elemental Sulfur under Acidic, Hydrothermal Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Hydrothermal Conditions Eric S. Boyd,a Gregory K. Druschelb Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana in size, a rate which was influenced by the pH of the me- dium and the presence of organic carbon. Thus, S to serve as a growth-promoting TEA for A. sulfurireducens. Terrestrial and hydrothermal spring source

Ahmad, Sajjad

223

The discovery of chemoautotrophic symbionts in the hydrothermal vent tubeworm Riftia pachyptila expanded our  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The discovery of chemoautotrophic symbionts in the hydrothermal vent tubeworm Riftia pachyptila, the bacteria fix inorganic carbon and oxidize reduced inorganic substrates, such as reduced sulfur compounds at hydrothermal vents, hydrocarbon seeps and other chemically reduced deep-sea environments, exhibit a suite

Girguis, Peter R.

224

Hydrothermal dolomites in SW Sardinia (Italy): evidence for a widespread late-Variscan fluid flow event  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrothermal dolomites in SW Sardinia (Italy): evidence for a widespread late-Variscan fluid flow, the Cambrian carbonates underwent ductile deformation and greenschist facies metamorphism. The same is true-temperature metamorphic rocks within the overlying nappes. It is assumed that a late-Variscan hydrothermal event, which

Boni, Maria

225

Dynamics of hydrothermal seeps from the Salton Sea geothermal system (California, USA) constrained by temperature monitoring  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamics of hydrothermal seeps from the Salton Sea geothermal system (California, USA) constrained-, and petroleum-bearing seeps are part of the Salton Sea geothermal system (SSGS) in southern California. Carbon likely reflect a combination of hydrothermal flux variations from the SSGS and the local temporal changes

Svensen, Henrik

226

Linking Hydrothermal Geochemistry to Organismal Physiology: Physiological Versatility in Riftia pachyptila  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Linking Hydrothermal Geochemistry to Organismal Physiology: Physiological Versatility in Riftia and oxygen to generate energy for carbon fixation, and the symbiont's nitrate reduction to ammonia for energy in the EPR and the Guaymas basin, a sedimented, hydrothermal vent field. We observed marked differences

Girguis, Peter R.

227

Sources of organic nitrogen at the serpentinite-hosted Lost City hydrothermal field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sources of organic nitrogen at the serpentinite-hosted Lost City hydrothermal field S. Q. LANG,1 G environment, the Lost City hydrothermal field (30°N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge). Total hydrolizable amino acid (THAA carbon (2.5­15.1%). The amino acid distributions, and the relative concentrations of these compounds

Gilli, Adrian

228

Carbon geochemistry of serpentinites in the Lost City Hydrothermal System (30N, MAR)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon geochemistry of serpentinites in the Lost City Hydrothermal System (30°N, MAR) Ade May 2008 Abstract The carbon geochemistry of serpentinized peridotites and gabbroic rocks recovered at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF) and drilled at IODP Hole 1309D at the central dome of the Atlantis

Gilli, Adrian

229

Introduction The deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities were discovered in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

312 Introduction The deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities were discovered in 1977 and immediately (a monospecific genus) must have high rates of carbon fixation to support their growth. The physiological functioning of hydrothermal vent species, especially R. pachyptila, was studied intensively

Girguis, Peter R.

230

Effect of Microwave Frequency on Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanocrystalline Tetragonal Barium Titanate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of Microwave Frequency on Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanocrystalline Tetragonal Barium) with particle sizes ranging from 30 to 100 nm were synthesized via microwave-hydrothermal routes at various, but increased gradually with extended aging time in variable frequency (3-5.5 GHz to 1 s) processing

Dutta, Prabir K.

231

INFLUENCE OF HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENT ON RHEOLOGICAL AND COOKING CHARACTERISTICS OF FRESH EGG PASTA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

0 INFLUENCE OF HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENT ON RHEOLOGICAL AND COOKING CHARACTERISTICS OF FRESH EGG PASTA@univ-lr.fr Keywords: D.I.C. Hydrothermal treatment; Fresh egg pasta; Mechanical properties; Apparent density; Cooking (2008) 283­291" DOI : 10.1016/j.jcs.2007.04.014 #12;1 Abstract. The effect of D.I.C. processing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

232

Research paper Nanostructured calcite precipitated under hydrothermal conditions in the presence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This has relevance for geological processes in diverse environments, such as hydrothermal systems along midResearch paper Nanostructured calcite precipitated under hydrothermal conditions in the presence, Département MCMF, CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble, France e Physics of Geological Processes

233

EFFECT OF HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENT ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL1 PROPERTIES OF WHEAT, WAXY AND STANDARD MAIZE STARCHES2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 EFFECT OF HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENT ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL1 PROPERTIES OF WHEAT, WAXY AND STANDARD MAIZE.10.005 #12;2 ABSTRACT18 Standard maize (SMS), waxy maize (WMS) and wheat (WTS) starches were19 hydrothermally treated at three pressure levels. Effects of D.I.C. processing conditions20 on thermal characteristics

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

234

Solving net constrained hydrothermal Nash-Cournot equilibrium problems via the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solving net constrained hydrothermal Nash-Cournot equilibrium problems via the proximal decades, the electric power industry has experienced deregulation processes in most of the countries markets are presented. Bilevel optimization is proposed in [8, 15] to model a hydrothermal coordination

Solodov, Mikhail V.

235

Hydrothermal transport and deposition of the rare earth elements by fluorine-bearing aqueous liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARTICLE Hydrothermal transport and deposition of the rare earth elements by fluorine environmental concerns, have created a great demand for the rare earth elements (REE), and focused considerable Hydrothermal concentration of the rare earth elements (REE) to economic and potentially economic levels has

236

Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe U.S. Department of Energy andHydrothermal Processing ofvia

237

Solubility of Plutonium (IV) Oxalate During Americium/Curium Pretreatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Approximately 15,000 L of solution containing isotopes of americium and curium (Am/Cm) will undergo stabilization by vitrification at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Prior to vitrification, an in-tank pretreatment will be used to remove metal impurities from the solution using an oxalate precipitation process. Material balance calculations for this process, based on solubility data in pure nitric acid, predict approximately 80 percent of the plutonium in the solution will be lost to waste. Due to the uncertainty associated with the plutonium losses during processing, solubility experiments were performed to measure the recovery of plutonium during pretreatment and a subsequent precipitation process to prepare a slurry feed for a batch melter. A good estimate of the plutonium content of the glass is required for planning the shipment of the vitrified Am/Cm product to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).The plutonium solubility in the oxalate precipitation supernate during pretreatment was 10 mg/mL at 35 degrees C. In two subsequent washes with a 0.25M oxalic acid/0.5M nitric acid solution, the solubility dropped to less than 5 mg/mL. During the precipitation and washing steps, lanthanide fission products in the solution were mostly insoluble. Uranium, and alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metal impurities were soluble as expected. An elemental material balance for plutonium showed that greater than 94 percent of the plutonium was recovered in the dissolved precipitate. The recovery of the lanthanide elements was generally 94 percent or higher except for the more soluble lanthanum. The recovery of soluble metal impurities from the precipitate slurry ranged from 15 to 22 percent. Theoretically, 16 percent of the soluble oxalates should have been present in the dissolved slurry based on the dilution effects and volumes of supernate and wash solutions removed. A trace level material balance showed greater than 97 percent recovery of americium-241 (from the beta dec ay of plutonium-241) in the dissolved precipitate, a value consistent with the recovery of europium, the americium surrogate.In a subsequent experiment, the plutonium solubility following an oxalate precipitation to simulate the preparation of a slurry feed for a batch melter was 21 mg/mL at 35 degrees C. The increase in solubility compared to the value measured during the pretreatment experiment was attributed to the increased nitrate concentration and ensuing increase in plutonium complexation. The solubility of the plutonium following a precipitant wash with 0.1M oxalic acid was unchanged. The recovery of plutonium from the precipitate slurry was greater than 97 percent allowing an estimation that approximately 92 percent of the plutonium in Tank 17.1 will report to the glass. The behavior of the lanthanides and soluble metal impurities was consistent with the behavior seen during the pretreatment experiment. A trace level material balance showed that 99.9 percent of the americium w as recovered from the precipitate slurry. The overall recovery of americium from the pretreatment and feed preparation processes was greater than 97 percent, which was consistent with the measured recovery of the europium surrogate.

Rudisill, T.S.

1999-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

238

Journal of Crystal Growth 310 (2008) 29462953 Textural properties of synthetic nano-calcite produced by hydrothermal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-calcite produced by hydrothermal carbonation of calcium hydroxide G. Montes-Hernandeza,�, A. Ferna´ ndez. Hydrothermal crystal growth; B1. Minerals; B1. Nanomaterials 1. Introduction Calcium carbonate is an inorganic February 2008 Communicated by S. Veesler Available online 19 February 2008 Abstract The hydrothermal

Montes-Hernandez, German

239

The Behaviour of Base Metals in Arc-Type Magmatic-Hydrothermal Systems Insights from Merapi Volcano,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

zone stratovolcanoes provide important windows on the magmatic-hydrothermal processes at playThe Behaviour of Base Metals in Arc-Type Magmatic- Hydrothermal Systems ­ Insights from Merapi systems include a shallow magmatic reservoir (the porphyry stock), an overlying hydrothermal cell, its

Barnes, Sarah-Jane

240

GEOCHEMISTRY, GEOPHYSICS, GEOSYSTEMS, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Flow Rate Perturbations in a Black Smoker Hydrothermal1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of aque-21 ous fluids within mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems and mechanical processes22 between mid-35 ocean ridge hydrothermal fluid flow and mechanical processes, there have been no36 direct in a Black Smoker Hydrothermal1 Vent In Response to a Mid-Ocean Ridge Earthquake Swarm2 Timothy J. Crone

Wilcock, William

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

A numerical model of hydrothermal cooling and crustal accretion at a fast spreading mid-ocean ridge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: 7360 words, 11 figures. Keywords: Mid-ocean ridge processes; hydrothermal cooling; numerical modelA numerical model of hydrothermal cooling and crustal accretion at a fast spreading mid-ocean ridge present a steady state numerical representation of the sill model that explicitly includes hydrothermal

Toomey, Doug

242

Physical properties of upper oceanic crust: Ocean Drilling Program Hole 801C and the waning of hydrothermal circulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Marine Geology and Geophysics: Heat flow (benthic) and hydrothermal processes; 7220 Seismology: Oceanic of hydrothermal circulation Richard D. Jarrard,1 Lewis J. Abrams,2 Robert Pockalny,3 Roger L. Larson,3 and Tetsuro 2003. [1] The hydrologic evolution of oceanic crust, from vigorous hydrothermal circulation in young

Abrams, Lewis J.

243

Magnetic fabrics and fluid flow directions in hydrothermal systems. A case study in the Chaillac BaFFe deposits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) to describe the mineralizing process in hydrothermal systems. BaMagnetic fabrics and fluid flow directions in hydrothermal systems. A case study in the Chaillac Ba hydrothermal textures and tectonic structures have been described in veins, sinters, and sandstone cemented

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

244

PII S0016-7037(98)00209-9 Gold solubility and speciation in hydrothermal solutions: Experimental study of the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and deposition of gold in ore-forming processes. The most important ligands in hydrothermal gold-bearing soPII S0016-7037(98)00209-9 Gold solubility and speciation in hydrothermal solutions: Experimental Science Ltd 1. INTRODUCTION Field and mineralogical studies of hydrothermal gold deposits demonstrate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

245

HYDROTHERMAL PROCESSING OF BaTiO 3/POLYMER FILMS Elliott B. Slamovich and Ilhan A. Aksay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HYDROTHERMAL PROCESSING OF BaTiO 3/POLYMER FILMS Elliott B. Slamovich and Ilhan A. Aksay Department temperature used in hydrothermal processing. BACKGROUND Over the last decade efforts have increased to develop hydrothermal processing not only to fabricate ceramics, but also to form thin film composites containing

Aksay, Ilhan A.

246

Hydrothermal Synthesis of Dy-Doped BaTiO3 Powders ERSIN E. OREN and A. CUNEYT TAS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Hydrothermal processing sis method used and temperature, may exhibit four different of BaTiO3 powders has) are "ferroelectric." hydrothermal processing required a pH 12 in the aqueous BaTiO3 is of the tetragonal symmetryHydrothermal Synthesis of Dy-Doped BaTiO3 Powders ERSIN E. OREN and A. CUNEYT TAS Submicron

Tas, A. Cuneyt

247

Synthesis of FeNi3 Alloyed Nanoparticles by Hydrothermal Reduction Qilong Liao,, Rina Tannenbaum, and Zhong Lin Wang*,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

method.12 The hydrothermal process appears to be a very effective method for preparing alloyedSynthesis of FeNi3 Alloyed Nanoparticles by Hydrothermal Reduction Qilong Liao,, Rina Tannenbaum paper presents a facile and low-cost hydrothermal method to synthesize stoichiometric FeNi3 alloy

Wang, Zhong L.

248

Understanding Substrate Features Influenced by Pretreatments that Limit Biomass Deconstruction by Enzymes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC), and the Joint BioEnergywere determined by GLBRC using their novel high throughputmaximize sugar yields by GLBRC using their high throughput

Gao, Xiadi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Caustic-Side Solvent-Extraction Modeling for Hanford Interim Pretreatment System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this work is to examine the applicability of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process for the removal of cesium from Hanford tank-waste supernatant solutions in support of the Hanford Interim Pretreatment System (IPS). The Hanford waste types are more challenging than those at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in that they contain significantly higher levels of potassium, the chief competing ion in the extraction of cesium. It was confirmed by use of the CSSX model that the higher levels of potassium depress the cesium distribution ratio (DCs), as validated by measurement of DCs values for four of eight specified Hanford waste-simulant compositions. The model predictions were good to an apparent standard error of ±11%. It is concluded from batch distribution experiments, physical-property measurements, equilibrium modeling, flowsheet calculations, and contactor sizing that the CSSX process as currently employed for cesium removal from alkaline salt waste at the SRS is capable of treating similar Hanford tank feeds. For the most challenging waste composition, 41 stages would be required to provide a cesium decontamination factor (DF) of 5000 and a concentration factor (CF) of 5. Commercial contacting equipment with rotor diameters of 10 in. for extraction and 5 in. for stripping should have the capacity to meet throughput requirements, but testing will be required to confirm that the needed efficiency and hydraulic performance are actually obtainable. Markedly improved flowsheet performance was calculated for a new solvent formulation employing the more soluble cesium extractant BEHBCalixC6 used with alternative scrub and strip solutions, respectively 0.1 M NaOH and 10 mM boric acid. The improved system can meet minimum requirements (DF = 5000 and CF = 5) with 17 stages or more ambitious goals (DF = 40,000 and CF = 15) with 19 stages. Potential benefits of further research and development are identified that would lead to reduced costs, greater adaptability of the process to DOE alkaline salt wastes, and greater readiness for implementation. Such benefits accrue from optimal sizing of centrifugal contactors for application of the CSSX process for the IPS; more accurate modeling of cesium extraction with greater flexibility and applicability to a variety of feeds and flowsheet conditions; and further improving and optimizing the alternative CSSX solvent and scrub/strip system.

Moyer, B.A.; Birdwell, J.F.; Delmau, L. H.; McFarlane, J.

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Final Report - "Foaming and Antifoaming and Gas Entrainment in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization Processes"  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford site are in the process of stabilizing millions of gallons of radioactive waste slurries remaining from production of nuclear materials for the Department of Energy (DOE). The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS is currently vitrifying the waste in borosilicate glass, while the facilities at the Hanford site are in the construction phase. Both processes utilize slurry-fed joule-heated melters to vitrify the waste slurries. The DWPF has experienced difficulty during operations. The cause of the operational problems has been attributed to foaming, gas entrainment and the rheological properties of the process slurries. The rheological properties of the waste slurries limit the total solids content that can be processed by the remote equipment during the pretreatment and meter feed processes. Highly viscous material can lead to air entrainment during agitation and difficulties with pump operations. Excessive foaming in waste evaporators can cause carryover of radionuclides and non-radioactive waste to the condensate system. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the surface phenomena, suspension rheology and bubble generation of interactions that lead to foaming and air entrainment problems in the DOE High Level and Low Activity Radioactive Waste separation and immobilization processes were pursued under this project. The first major task accomplished in the grant proposal involved development of a theoretical model of the phenomenon of foaming in a three-phase gas-liquid-solid slurry system. This work was presented in a recently completed Ph.D. thesis (9). The second major task involved the investigation of the inter-particle interaction and microstructure formation in a model slurry by the batch sedimentation method. Both experiments and modeling studies were carried out. The results were presented in a recently completed Ph.D. thesis. The third task involved the use of laser confocal microscopy to study the effectiveness of three slurry rheology modifiers. An effective modifier was identified which resulted in lowering the yield stress of the waste simulant. Therefore, the results of this research have led to the basic understanding of the foaming/antifoaming mechanism in waste slurries as well as identification of a rheology modifier, which enhances the processing throughput, and accelerates the DOE mission. The objectives of this research effort were to develop a fundamental understanding of the physico-chemical mechanisms that produced foaming and air entrainment in the DOE High Level (HLW) and Low Activity (LAW) radioactive waste separation and immobilization processes, and to develop and test advanced antifoam/defoaming/rheology modifier agents. Antifoams/rheology modifiers developed from this research ere tested using non-radioactive simulants of the radioactive wastes obtained from Hanford and the Savannah River Site (SRS).

Wasan, Darsh T.

2007-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

251

In Situ Type Study of Hydrothermally Prepared Titanates and Silicotitanates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the most vexing problems facing the nuclear industry and countries with nuclear weapons is the safe disposal of the generated nuclear waste. Huge quantities of nuclear waste arising from weapons manufacture are stored at the Hanford and Savannah River sites in the USA. The general method of remediation involves the removal of Cs-137, Sr-90 and actinides from a huge quantity of salts, principally NaNO{sub 3}, organics and complexing agents. It has been found that a sodium silicotitanate is able to remove Cs{sup +} selectively from the waste and certain sodium titanates remove Sr{sup 2+} and actinides. These compounds have been prepared by ex-situ hydrothermal methods. We have studied the In situ growth of these materials at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory. In addition we will describe the mechanism of ion exchange in the titanosilicate as observed by In situ methods and how the combination of these techniques coupled with an intimate knowledge of the structure of the solids is helping to solve the remediation process. In general, the In situ method allows the investigator to follow the nucleation and crystal growth or phase transformations occurring in hydrothermal reactions.

Clearfield,A.; Tripathi, A.; Medvedev, D.; Celestian, A.; Parise, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid pretreated corn Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Vision Summary: then be fermented. 2. Pretreatment Steam and acid separate the shredded biomass into three components: cellulose... Platforms Thermochemical (pyrolysis;...

253

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline peroxide pretreated Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Grant Western Regional Center Summary: performed tests on Douglas fir and hybrid poplar biomass to identify the effect of pretreatment conditions... of alkaline elements and a...

254

E-Print Network 3.0 - alternative truex-based pretreatment Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

converts raw biomass to ethanol in high yields. The process was developed... biomass feedstocks such as corn stover, agricultural waste, and energy crops. The pretreatment...

255

E-Print Network 3.0 - alternative pretreatment modalities Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

converts raw biomass to ethanol in high yields. The process was developed... biomass feedstocks such as corn stover, agricultural waste, and energy crops. The pretreatment...

256

Determination of saccharides and ethanol from biomass conversion using Raman spectroscopy: Effects of pretreatment and enzyme composition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This dissertation focuses on the development of facile and rapid quantitative Raman spectroscopy measurements for the determination of conversion products in producing bioethanol from corn stover. Raman spectroscopy was chosen to determine glucose, xylose and ethanol in complex hydrolysis and fermentation matrices. Chapter 1 describes the motives and main goals of this work, and includes an introduction to biomass, commonly used pretreatment methods, hydrolysis and fermentation reactions. The principles of Raman spectroscopy, its advantages and applications related to biomass analysis are also illustrated. Chapter 2 and 3 comprise two published or submitted manuscripts, and the thesis concludes with an appendix. In Chapter 2, a Raman spectroscopic protocol is described to study the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by measuring the main product in hydrolysate, glucose. Two commonly utilized pretreatment methods were investigated in order to understand their effect on glucose measurements by Raman spectroscopy. Second, a similar method was set up to determine the concentration of ethanol in fermentation broth. Both of these measurements are challenged by the presence of complex matrices. In Chapter 3, a quantitative comparison of pretreatment protocols and the effect of enzyme composition are studied using systematic methods. A multipeak fitting algorithm was developed to analyze spectra of hydrolysate containing two analytes: glucose and xylose. Chapter 4 concludes with a future perspective of this research area. An appendix describes a convenient, rapid spectrophotometric method developed to measure cadmium in water. This method requires relatively low cost instrumentation and can be used in microgravity, such as space shuttles or the International Space Station. This work was performed under the supervision of Professor Marc Porter while at Iowa State University. Research related to producing biofuel from bio-renewable resources, especially bioethanol from biomass, has grown significantly in the past decade due to the high demand and rising costs of fossil fuels. More than 3 percent of the energy consumption in the U.S. is derived from renewable biomass, mostly through industrial heat and steam production by the pulp and paper industry, and electricity generation from municipal solid waste (MSW) and forest industry residues. The utilization of food-based biomass to make fuels has been widely criticized because it may increase food shortages throughout the world and raise the cost of food. Thus, nonfood-based and plentiful lignocellulosic feedstocks, such as corn stover, perennial grass, bagasse, sorghum, wheat/rice straw, herbaceous and woody crops, have great potential to be new bio-renewable sources for energy production. Given that many varieties of biomass are available, there is need for a rapid, simple, high-throughput method to screen the conversion of many plant varieties. The most suitable species for each geographic region must be determined, as well as the optimal stage of harvest, impacts of environmental conditions (temperature, soil, pH, etc.). Various genetically modified plants should be studied in order to establish the desired biomass in bioethanol production. The main screening challenge, however, is the complexity of plant cell wall structures that make reliable and sensitive analysis difficult. To date, one of the most popular methods to produce lignocellulosic ethanol is to perform enzymatic hydrolysis followed by fermentation of the hydrolysate with yeast. There are several vital needs related to the field of chemistry that have been suggested as primary research foci needed to effectively improve lignocellulosic ethanol production. These topics include overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass, the pervasiveness of pretreatment, advanced biological processing and better feedstocks. In this thesis, a novel approach using Raman spectroscopy has been developed to address important issues related to bioethanol generation, which will aid the research aimed to solve the topics m

Shih, Chien-Ju

2010-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

257

Soft inertial microfluidics for high throughput separation of bacteria from human blood cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soft inertial microfluidics for high throughput separation1 Introduction Microfluidics has gained significant advancesof mammalian cells using microfluidics 3,4 , there have been

Wu, Zhigang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

automating high-throughput blast: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to electron transfer dissoci- ation (ETD) mass spectrometry Shorter, James 15 Using High Throughput Screening to Acquire Promising Drug Candidates Against Mycobacterium...

259

Inch-Scale High Throughput Metrology of Graphene and Patterned Graphene Oxide.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Abstract Inch-Scale High Throughput Metrology of Graphene and Patterned Graphene Oxide by Dennis Pleskot Master of Science, Graduate Program in Materials Science and Engineering University… (more)

Pleskot, Dennis

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

The Development of a Hydrothermal Method for Slurry Feedstock Preparation for Gasification Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

behavior, etc. ; 4. HTP of other renewable feedstocks, suchHydro-Thermal Pretreatment (HTP) process that will result inof a laboratory scale HTP process. Four carbonaceous

He, Wei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Hydrothermal research and development assessment. Task Force report: projections for direct-heat applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low and moderate temperature hydrothermal resources suitable for direct-heat applications have been identified in 37 states. The extent to which three resources might be used over the next 20 years were evaluated and the probable impact of Federal programs on hydrothermal resource utilization was assessed. The use types that comprise the bulk of the market were determined. Representative firms and municipalities were interviewed to determine their willingness to use hydrothermal energy, and to determine the investment decision criteria that would influence their actions. (MHR)

Not Available

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Comparative assessment of five potential sites for hydrothermal magma systems: geochemistry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A brief discussion is given of the geochemical objectives and questions that must be addressed in such an evaluation. A summary of the currently published literature that is pertinent in answering these questions is presented for each of the five areas: The Geysers-Clear Lake region, Long Valley, Rio Grand Rift, Roosevelt Hot Springs, and the Salton Trough. The major geochemical processes associated with proposed hydrothermal sites are categorized into three groups for presentation: geochemistry of magma and associated volcanic rocks, geochemistry of hydrothermal solutions, and geochemistry of hydrothermal alteration. (MHR)

White, A.F.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Inhibition of aortic wall calcification in bioprosthetic heart valves by ethanol pretreatment: Biochemical and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inhibition of aortic wall calcification in bioprosthetic heart valves by ethanol pretreatment 16 September 1997; 20 February 1998 Abstract: The effectiveness of ethanol pretreatment on pre was previously demonstrated, and the mechanism of action of ethanol was attributed in part to both lipid removal

Zand, Robert

264

PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY SELECTION SUMMARY DECISION REPORT AND RECOMMENDATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides the conclusions of the tank farm interim pretreatment technology decision process. It documents the methodology, data, and results of the selection of cross-flow filtration and ion exchange technologies for implementation in project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This selection resulted from the evaluation of specific scope criteria using quantitative and qualitative analyses, group workshops, and technical expert personnel.

CONRAD EA

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

265

Breakdown of Cell Wall Nanostructure in Dilute Acid Pretreated Sai Venkatesh Pingali,*,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for renewable and clean energy production. A better understanding of the complex mechanisms of lignocellulose, production of seeds, and adapt- ability to poor soils.3,4 All lignocellulosic biomass is largely composed deconstruction of the plant cell walls by mechanical and chemical pretreatment. Typically, biomass pretreatment

266

Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of switchgrass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic Dilute sulfuric acid Sulfur dioxide Biofuels Switchgrass a b s t r a c t Dacotah switchgrass was pretreated with sulfuric acid concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 wt.% at 140, 160, and 180 °C and with 1

California at Riverside, University of

267

Access of Cellulase to Cellulose and Lignin for Poplar Solids Produced by Leading Pretreatment Technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Access of Cellulase to Cellulose and Lignin for Poplar Solids Produced by Leading Pretreatment and adsorption of b-glucosidase for lignin left after enzymatic digestion of the solids from these pretreatments effectiveness was determined. Furthermore, Avicel hydrolysis inhibition by enzymatic and acid lignin of poplar

California at Riverside, University of

268

Methods and apparatus for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Continuous processing of wet biomass feedstock by catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent separation of sulfur contaminants, or combinations thereof. Treatment further includes separating the precipitates out of the wet feedstock, removing sulfur contaminants, or both using a solids separation unit and a sulfur separation unit, respectively. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfur that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Butner, Robert Scott; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Hart, Todd R.

2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

269

Pretreatment of americium/curium solutions for vitrification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to the heavy isotope programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Prior to vitrification, an in-tank oxalate precipitation and a series of oxalic/nitric acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Pretreatment development experiments were performed to understand the behavior of the lanthanides and the metal impurities during the oxalate precipitation and properties of the precipitate slurry. The results of these experiments will be used to refine the target glass composition allowing optimization of the primary processing parameters and design of the solution transfer equipment.

Rudisill, T.S. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1996-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

270

Technical Basis of Scaling Relationships for the Pretreatment Engineering Platform  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities. The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) is being designed and constructed as part of a plan to respond to an issue raised by the WTP External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) entitled “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” and numbered M12. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching process using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The approach for scaling PEP performance data to predict WTP performance is critical to the successful resolution of the EFRT issue. This report describes the recommended PEP scaling approach, PEP data interpretation and provides recommendations on test conduct and data requirements.

Kuhn, William L.; Arm, Stuart T.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Rassat, Scot D.

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

271

Sulfur gas geochemical detection of hydrothermal systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether a system of exploration using sulfur gases was capable of detecting convecting hydrothermal systems. Three surveying techniques were used at the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA in Utah. These were (a) a sniffing technique, capable of instantaneous determinations of sulfur gas concentration, (b) an accumulator technique, capable of integrating the sulfur gas emanations over a 30 day interval, and (c) a method of analyzing the soils for vaporous sulfur compounds. Because of limitations in the sniffer technique, only a limited amount of surveying was done with this method. The accumulator and soil sampling techniques were conducted on a 1000 foot grid at Roosevelt Hot Springs, and each sample site was visited three times during the spring of 1980. Thus, three soil samples and two accumulator samples were collected at each site. The results are shown as averages of three soil and two accumulator determinations of sulfur gas concentrations at each site. Soil surveys and accumulator surveys were conducted at two additional KGRA's which were chosen based on the state of knowledge of these hydrothermal systems and upon their differences from Roosevelt Hot Springs in an effort to show that the exploration methods would be effective in detecting geothermal reservoirs in general. The results at Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah show that each of the three surveying methods was capable of detecting sulfur gas anomalies which can be interpreted to be related to the source at depth, based on resistivity mapping of that source, and also correlatable with major structural features of the area which are thought to be controlling the geometry of the geothermal reservoir. The results of the surveys at Roosevelt did not indicate that either the soil sampling technique or the accumulator technique was superior to the other.

Rouse, G.E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building throughput study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hazardous waste/mixed waste HW/MW Treatment Building (TB) is the specified treatment location for solid hazardous waste/mixed waste at SRS. This report provides throughput information on the facility based on known and projected waste generation rates. The HW/MW TB will have an annual waste input for the first four years of approximately 38,000 ft{sup 3} and have an annual treated waste output of approximately 50,000 ft{sup 3}. After the first four years of operation it will have an annual waste input of approximately 16,000 ft{sup 3} and an annual waste output of approximately 18,000 ft. There are several waste streams that cannot be accurately predicted (e.g. environmental restoration, decommissioning, and decontamination). The equipment and process area sizing for the initial four years should allow excess processing capability for these poorly defined waste streams. A treatment process description and process flow of the waste is included to aid in understanding the computations of the throughput. A description of the treated wastes is also included.

England, J.L.; Kanzleiter, J.P.

1991-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

273

Laboratory and field-based investigations of subsurface geochemical processes in seafloor hydrothermal systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents the results of four discrete investigations into processes governing the organic and inorganic chemical composition of seafloor hydrothermal fluids in a variety of geologic settings. Though Chapters 2 ...

Reeves, Eoghan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

E-Print Network 3.0 - acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

results for: acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 GTQ, Chemistry 212, Dr. Glaser, FS96 --1 --GTQ on Lactones. (30 points, reaction chem., mechanistic...

275

Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of intense research for the last two decades, including studies of the chemistry and mineralogy of very small particles streaming from hydrothermal vents in the global mid-ocean...

276

Rare Earth Oxide Fluoride Nanoparticles And Hydrothermal Method For Forming Nanoparticles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles of a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine has been discovered. Nanoparticles comprising a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine are also described. These nanoparticles can exhibit excellent refractory properties as well as remarkable stability in hydrothermal conditions. The nanoparticles can exhibit excellent properties for numerous applications including fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites, catalyst supports, and corrosion resistant coatings for high-temperature aqueous solutions.

Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA); Hoffmann, Markus M. (Richland, WA)

2003-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

277

Rare earth oxide fluoride nanoparticles and hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles of a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine has been discovered. Nanoparticles comprising a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine are also described. These nanoparticles can exhibit excellent refractory properties as well as remarkable stability in hydrothermal conditions. The nanoparticles can exhibit excellent properties for numerous applications including fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites, catalyst supports, and corrosion resistant coatings for high-temperature aqueous solutions.

Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Hoffmann, Markus M. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

2001-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

278

Experimental hydrothermal alteration of feldspar: the influence of solid composition on alteration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EXPERIMENTAL HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION OF FELDSPAR: THE INFLUENCE OF SOLID COMPOSITION ON ALTERATION A Thesis by MICHAEL JOSEPH PAOLINI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the reguirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1985 Major Subject: Geology EXPERIMENTAL HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION OF FELDSPAR: THE INFLUENCE OF SOLID COMPOSITION ON ALTERATION A Thesis by MICHAEL JOSEPH PAOLINZ Approved as to style and content by: Andre Ha...

Paolini, Michael Joseph

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

279

Hydrothermal metamorphism and low-temperature alteration on the Mid-Atlantic ridge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

inferred hydrothermal fluid vent sites. The style of alteration of these rocks ranges from weathering at ambient ocean floor temperatures to metamorphism at greenshist facies conditions, The alteration products associated with the weathered ba- salts... collected from the hydrothermal vent site exhibit chemistries similar to those expected for rocks weathered at low temperatures. These rocks have lost Mg, Si, Ca and S and have gained K, Mn, H 0 and 2 possibly Pe. The greenschist facies rocks...

Peron, Philippe Raymond

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

280

Maximizing Throughput of UAV-Relaying Networks with the Load-Carry-and-Deliver Paradigm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Maximizing Throughput of UAV-Relaying Networks with the Load-Carry-and-Deliver Paradigm Chen Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to relay messages between two distant ground nodes. For delay-tolerant applications like latency-insensitive bulk data transfer, we seek to maximize throughput by having a UAV load

Kung, H. T.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Improving TCP Throughput over Lossy Links Using Protocol-Level Speculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Improving TCP Throughput over Lossy Links Using Protocol-Level Speculations Haowei Bai Honeywell@ou.edu Abstract-- The degradation of Transport Control Protocol (TCP) throughput in networks with lossy links. This is very similar to processor performance degradation due to control hazards in CPU design. First, two

Minnesota, University of

282

HIGH-THROUGHPUT/COMBINATORIAL TECHNIQUES IN HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIALS R&D WORKSHOP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HIGH-THROUGHPUT/COMBINATORIAL TECHNIQUES IN HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIALS R&D WORKSHOP U.S. Department 26, 2007, DOE's Hydrogen Storage Program held a one-day High- Throughput/Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D meeting to identify how to better implement high

283

High throughput energy efficient multi-FFT architecture on FPGAs (Draft)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

computing, High throughput FFT, Energy efficient design I. INTRODUCTION As FPGAs are programmed specifically in spread spec- trum receiver [4]. In the design of high throughput FFT architectures, energy-efficient design techniques can be used to maximize performance under power dissipation constraints. The power

Prasanna, Viktor K.

284

FastForward: High-Throughput Dual-Radio Streaming Gholamhossein Ekbatanifard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

amount of data at high throughput and/or low latency. For example, structural health of the Golden Gate end-to-end throughput is limited to 1/2 the radio capacity. To bridge this performance gap we present Bridge was sampled at 1 KHz in [1]. Brimon, a railway monitoring system, generates about 7 KB in each

Kuzmanov, Georgi

285

High-throughput generation of hydrogel microbeads with varying elasticity for cell encapsulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-throughput generation of hydrogel microbeads with varying elasticity for cell encapsulation a microfluidic approach for high-throughput generation of 3D microenvironments with different elasticity for studies of cell fate. The generation of agarose microgels with different elastic moduli was achieved by (i

Zandstra, Peter W.

286

High-throughput metal nanoparticle catalysis by pulsed laser ablation Selim Senkan a,*, Michael Kahn a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-throughput metal nanoparticle catalysis by pulsed laser ablation Selim Senkan a,*, Michael online 18 July 2006 Abstract A high-throughput pulsed laser ablation (HT-PLA) system was developed-TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, respectively. The supported nanoparticles created by HT

Senkan, Selim M.

287

Parallel Interleaver Architecture with New Scheduling Scheme for High Throughput Configurable Turbo Decoder  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Parallel Interleaver Architecture with New Scheduling Scheme for High Throughput Configurable Turbo}@rice.edu, yuanbinguo@huawei.com Abstract--Parallel architecture is required for high throughput turbo decoder to meet also shows great flexibility and scalability compared to prior work. Index Terms--VLSI, turbo decoder

Mellor-Crummey, John

288

High-throughput analysis of thin-film stresses using arrays of micromachined cantilever beams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-throughput analysis of thin-film stresses using arrays of micromachined cantilever beams Hyun-throughput residual stress measurements on thin films by means of micromachined cantilever beams and an array of parallel laser beams. In this technique, the film of interest is deposited onto a silicon substrate

289

Determination of Monomethylhydrazine with a High-Throughput, All-Fiber Near-Infrared  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Determination of Monomethylhydrazine with a High-Throughput, All-Fiber Near-Infrared Spectrometer-throughput near-infrared spectrophotometer has been successfully constructed by synergistic use of this integrated and wide spectral band- width in the near-infrared region from 1500 to 1600 nm. This spectral region

Reid, Scott A.

290

CONTINUOUS ROLL-TO-ROLL SERPENTINE DEPOSITION FOR HIGH THROUGHPUT a-Si PV MANUFACTURING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a number of advantages in a fully automated high throughput PV module production plant [l-18--a significant problem in many glass substrate amorphous silicon alloy PV module manufacturing plants. ECDCONTINUOUS ROLL-TO-ROLL SERPENTINE DEPOSITION FOR HIGH THROUGHPUT a-Si PV MANUFACTURING M. Izu, H

Deng, Xunming

291

Comparative data on effects of leading pretreatments and enzyme loadings and formulations on sugar yields from different switchgrass sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water (LHW), soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), and lime pretreatments eased comparisons. All pretreatments enhanced sugar recovery from pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic production. The high world con- sumption of fossil energy also drives up accumulation of carbon dioxide

California at Riverside, University of

292

Preservation of iron(II) by carbon-rich matrices in a hydrothermal plume  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrothermal venting associated with mid-ocean ridge volcanism is globally widespread. This venting is responsible for a dissolved iron flux to the ocean that is approximately equal to that associated with continental riverine runoff. For hydrothermal fluxes, it has long been assumed that most of the iron entering the oceans is precipitated in inorganic forms. However, the possibility of globally significant fluxes of iron escaping these mass precipitation events and entering open-ocean cycles is now being debated, and two recent studies suggest that dissolved organic ligands might influence the fate of hydrothermally vented metals. Here we present spectromicroscopic measurements of iron and carbon in hydrothermal plume particles at the East Pacific Rise mid-ocean ridge. We show that organic carbon-rich matrices, containing evenly dispersed iron(II)-rich materials, are pervasive in hydrothermal plume particles. The absence of discrete iron(II) particles suggests that the carbon and iron associate through sorption or complexation. We suggest that these carbon matrices stabilize iron(II) released from hydrothermal vents in the region, preventing its oxidation and/or precipitation as insoluble minerals. Our findings have implications for deep-sea biogeochemical cycling of iron, a widely recognized limiting nutrient in the oceans.

Toner, Brandy M.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Manganini, Steven J.; Santelli, Cara M.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Moffett, James W.; Rouxel, Olivier; German, Christopher R.; Edwards, Katrina J.

2008-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

293

Netest: A Tool to Measure the Maximum Burst Size, Available Bandwidth and Achievable Throughput  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Distinguishing available bandwidth and achievable throughput is essential for improving network applications' performance. Achievable throughput is the throughput considering a number of factors such as network protocol, host speed, network path, and TCP buffer space, where as available bandwidth only considers the network path. Without understanding this difference, trying to improve network applications' performance is like ''blind men feeling the elephant'' [4]. In this paper, we define and distinguish bandwidth and throughput, and debate which part of each is achievable and which is available. Also, we introduce and discuss a new concept - Maximum Burst Size that is crucial to the network performance and bandwidth sharing. A tool, netest, is introduced to help users to determine the available bandwidth, and provides information to achieve better throughput with fairness of sharing the available bandwidth, thus reducing misuse of the network.

Jin, Guojun; Tierney, Brian

2003-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

294

EFFECT OF ANATOMICAL FRACTIONATION ON THE ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF ACID AND ALKALINE PRETREATED CORN STOVER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to concerns with biomass collection systems and soil sustainability there are opportunities to investigate the optimal plant fractions to collect for conversion. An ideal feedstock would require low severity pretreatment to release a maximum amount of sugar during enzymatic hydrolysis. Corn stover fractions were separated by hand and analyzed for glucan, xylan, acid soluble lignin, acid insoluble lignin, and ash composition. The stover fractions were also pretreated with either 0, 0.4, or 0.8% NaOH for 2 hours at room temperature, washed, autoclaved and saccharified. In addition, acid pretreated samples underwent simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to ethanol. In general, the two pretreatments produced similar trends with cobs, husks, and leaves responding best to the pretreatments, the tops of stalks responding slightly less, and the bottom of the stalks responding the least. For example, corn husks pretreated with 0.8% NaOH released over 90% (standard error of 3.8%) of the available glucan, while only 45% (standard error of 1.1%) of the glucan was produced from identically treated stalk bottoms. Estimates of the theoretical ethanol yield using acid pretreatment followed by SSF were 65% (standard error of 15.9%) for husks and 29% (standard error of 1.8%) for stalk bottoms. This suggests that integration of biomass collection systems to remove sustainable feedstocks could be integrated with the processes within a biorefinery to minimize overall ethanol production costs.

K. B. Duguid; M. D. Montross; C. W. Radtke; C. L. Crofcheck; L. M. Wendt; S. A. Shearer

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

A microfluidic platform for high-throughput multiplexed protein quantitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a high-throughput microfluidic platform capable of quantitating up to 384 biomarkers in 4 distinct samples by immunoassay. The microfluidic device contains 384 unit cells, which can be individually programmed with pairs of capture and detection antibody. Samples are quantitated in each unit cell by four independent MITOMI detection areas, allowing four samples to be analyzed in parallel for a total of 1,536 assays per device. We show that the device can be pre-assembled and stored for weeks at elevated temperature and we performed proof-of-concept experiments simultaneously quantitating IL-6, IL-1\\b{eta}, TNF-{\\alpha}, PSA, and GFP. Finally, we show that the platform can be used to identify functional antibody combinations by screening 64 antibody combinations requiring up to 384 unique assays per device.

Volpetti, Francesca; Maerkl, Sebastian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Influence of mechanical-biological waste pre-treatment methods on the gas formation in landfills  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to minimise emissions and environmental impacts, only pre-treated waste should be disposed of. For the last six years, a series of continuous experiments has been conducted at the Institute WAR, TU Darmstadt, in order to determine the emissions from pre-treated waste. Different kinds of pre-treated waste were incubated in several reactors and various data, including production and composition of the gas and the leachate, were collected. In this paper, the interim results of gas production and the gas composition from different types of waste after a running time of six years are presented and discussed.

Bockreis, A. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt University of Technology, Institute for Water Supply and Groundwater Protection, Wastewater Technology, Waste Management, Industrial Material Flows and Environmental Planning (Institute WAR), Chair of Waste Management and Waste Technology, Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: a.bockreis@iwar.tu-darmstadt.de; Steinberg, I. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt University of Technology, Institute for Water Supply and Groundwater Protection, Wastewater Technology, Waste Management, Industrial Material Flows and Environmental Planning (Institute WAR), Chair of Waste Management and Waste Technology, Darmstadt (Germany)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Hydrothermal processing of chlorinated hydrocarbons in a titanium reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments are reported on the oxidative hydrothermal destruction of chlorinated organics in a corrosion-resistant titanium reactor. Oxidation reaction conditions were 250-500 {degree}C near 650 bar and reaction times of 30-100 s in a continuous-flow reactor. Trichloroacetic acid, trichloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane behaved similarly. The organic concentration was approximately 1.5 wt%; hydrogen peroxide was the oxidizer; sodium bicarbonate was added to achieve neutral pH. Hydrolysis occurs at low temperature, producing chloride ion and secondary organics. Carbon dioxide is the sole carbon product at 500 {degree}C. Sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite were also found to be effective oxidizers. Corrosion of the titanium was found to be slight (<0.038 mm/yr). The reaction mixture is likely not a single phase at these conditions. The destruction efficiency for trichloroethylene was estimated as 99.96% at 450 {degree}C and 60 s, with <0.02% conversion to volatile chlorinated organic byproducts. 33 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

Foy, B.R.; Waldthausen, K.; Sedillo, M.A.; Buelow, S.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Effect of Acid, Alkali, and Steam Explosion Pretreatments on Characteristics of Bio-Oil Produced from Pinewood  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bio-oil produced from pinewood by fast pyrolysis has the potential to be a valuable substitute for fossil fuels. Pretreatment prior to the fast pyrolysis process has been shown to alter the structure and chemical composition of biomass. To determine the influence of biomass pretreatments on bio-oil produced during fast pyrolysis, we tested three pretreatment methods: dilute acid, dilute alkali, and steam explosion. Bio-oils were produced from untreated and pretreated pinewood feedstocks in an auger reactor at 450 C. The bio-oils�¢���� physical properties including pH, water content, acid value, density, viscosity, and heating value were measured. Chemical characteristics of the bio-oils were determined by gas chromatographymass spectrometry. Results showed that bio-oil yield and composition were influenced by biomass pretreatment. Of the three pretreatment methods, 1%H2SO4 pretreatment resulted in the highest bio-oil yield and best bio-oil quality.

Wang, Hui; Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; Yu, Fei; Steele, Philip; Li, Qi; Mitchell, Brian

2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

299

Enzymatic Digestibility of Corn Stover Fractions in Response to Fungal Pretreatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Corn stover fractions (leaves, cobs, and stalks) were studied for enzymatic digestibility after pretreatment with a white rot fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Among the three fractions, leaves had the least recalcitrance to fungal pretreatment and the lignin degradation reached 45% after 30 days of pretreatment. The lignin degradation of stalks and cobs was similar but was significantly lower than that of leaves (p < 0.05). For all fractions, xylan and glucan degradation followed a pattern similar to lignin degradation, with leaves having a significantly higher percentage of degradation (p < 0.05). Hydrolytic enzyme activity also revealed that the fungus was more active in the degradation of carbohydrates in leaves. As a result of fungal pretreatment, the highest sugar yield, however, was obtained with corn cobs.

Cui, Z. F.; Wan, C. X.; Shi, J.; Sykes, R. W.; Li, Y. B.

2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

300

Computer simulation and economic analysis for ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) pretreatment process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ammonia fiber explosion (AFFECT) process is a promising new pretreatment for enhancing the reactivity of lignocerulose materials with many advantages over existing processes. The material is soaked in high-pressure liquid ammonia for a few...

Wang, Lin

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

A high throughput (>90%), large compensation range, single-prism femtosecond pulse compressor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate a high throughput, large compensation range, single-prism femtosecond pulse compressor, using a single prism and two roof mirrors. The compressor has zero angular dispersion, zero spatial dispersion, zero pulse-front tilt, and unity magnification. The high efficiency is achieved by adopting two roof mirrors as the retroreflectors. We experimentally achieved ~ -14500 fs2 group delay dispersion (GDD) with 30 cm of prism tip-roof mirror prism separation, and ~90.7% system throughput with the current implementation. With better components, the throughput can be even higher.

Kong, Lingjie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

The Hydrothermal Chemistry of Gold, Arsenic, Antimony, Mercury and Silver  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A comprehensive thermodynamic database based on the Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equation of state was developed for metal complexes in hydrothermal systems. Because this equation of state has been shown to accurately predict standard partial molal thermodynamic properties of aqueous species at elevated temperatures and pressures, this study provides the necessary foundation for future exploration into transport and depositional processes in polymetallic ore deposits. The HKF equation of state parameters for gold, arsenic, antimony, mercury, and silver sulfide and hydroxide complexes were derived from experimental equilibrium constants using nonlinear regression calculations. In order to ensure that the resulting parameters were internally consistent, those experiments utilizing incompatible thermodynamic data were re-speciated prior to regression. Because new experimental studies were used to revise the HKF parameters for H2S0 and HS-1, those metal complexes for which HKF parameters had been previously derived were also updated. It was found that predicted thermodynamic properties of metal complexes are consistent with linear correlations between standard partial molal thermodynamic properties. This result allowed assessment of several complexes for which experimental data necessary to perform regression calculations was limited. Oxygen fugacity-temperature diagrams were calculated to illustrate how thermodynamic data improves our understanding of depositional processes. Predicted thermodynamic properties were used to investigate metal transport in Carlin-type gold deposits. Assuming a linear relationship between temperature and pressure, metals are predicted to predominantly be transported as sulfide complexes at a total aqueous sulfur concentration of 0.05 m. Also, the presence of arsenic and antimony mineral phases in the deposits are shown to restrict mineralization within a limited range of chemical conditions. Finally, at a lesser aqueous sulfur concentration of 0.01 m, host rock sulfidation can explain the origin of arsenic and antimony minerals within the paragenetic sequence.

Bessinger, Brad; Apps, John A.

2003-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

303

Attendees list from the U.S. Department of Energy's High Throughput...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Attendees list from the U.S. Department of Energy's High Throughput Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials Workshop on June 26, 2007 Attendees list from the U.S. Department of...

304

Molecular display of synthetic oligonucleotide libraries and their analysis with high throughput DNA sequencing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High throughput methods in molecular biology have changed the landscape of biomedical research. In particular, advances in massively parallel DNA sequencing and synthesis technologies are defining our genomes and the ...

Larman, Harry Benjamin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

VLPW: The Very Long Packet Window Architecture for High Throughput Network-On-Chip Router Designs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-chip routers and the ideal interconnect fabric. To improve throughput, VLPW optimizes Switch Allocation (SA) efficiency. Existing SA normally applies Round-Robin scheduling to arbitrate among the packets targeting the same output port. However, this simple...

Gu, Haiyin

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

306

An instrument for high-throughput measurements of fiber mechanical properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, an instrument is designed and constructed for the purpose of measuring the mechanical properties of single fibers. The instrument is intended to provide high throughput measurement of single fiber geometric ...

Kristofek, Grant William, 1980-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Methods and technologies for high-throughput and high-content small animal screening  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-throughput and high-content screening (HTS and HCS) of whole animals requires their immobilization for high-resolution imaging and manipulation. Here we present methods to enable HTS and HCS of the nematode Caenorhabditis ...

Rohde, Christopher, 1979-

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Discovery and High-Throughput Screening of Heteroleptic Iridium Complexes for Photoinduced Hydrogen Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

high-throughput photophysical techniques, to identify six potential photosensitizers for use researchers. Simple solar devices focus or collect sunlight, harnessing radiation in order to heat dwellings or drive turbines. Photovoltaic cells can convert solar radiation directly to electrical current

Bernhard, Stefan

309

The Materials genome : rapid materials screening for renewable energy using high-throughput density functional theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis relates to the emerging field of high-throughput density functional theory (DFT) computation for materials design and optimization. Although highthroughput DFT is a promising new method for materials discovery, ...

Jain, Anubhav, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

E-Print Network 3.0 - alphascreen high-throughput assay Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Session Chair: James F. Leary 3:20-4:05 James F. Leary, "High throughput cell analysis... French and Jiyan Chen Long Lifetime Measurements in High ... Source: Xu, X. Nancy -...

311

Using High Throughput Screening to Acquire Promising Drug Candidates Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

infection. High Throughput Screening can be used to both find and analyze promising drug candidates. Using automation, thousands of compounds can be tested against an attenuated strain of Tuberculosis and separate the promising compounds from the ineffective...

LaiHing, Steven 1983-

2011-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

312

Combined Catalysis and Optical Screening for High Throughput Discovery of Solar Fuels Catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combined Catalysis and Optical Screening for High Throughput Discovery of Solar Fuels Catalysts J,b a Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA b Engineering Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720

Faraon, Andrei

313

Development of High-Throughput Microfluidic Impedance Spectroscopy Platform for Analyzing Microdroplets in Droplet Microfluidic System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents the development of a high-throughput microfluidic impedance spectroscopy platform for electrically detecting analyzing impedance measurements of non-contact and label free microdroplets. This microfluidic impedance spectroscopy...

Sobahi, Nebras MohammedKamal A.

2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

314

A microfluidic device for high throughput bacterial biofilm studies Jeongyun Kim,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A microfluidic device for high throughput bacterial biofilm studies Jeongyun Kim,a Manjunath Hegde of biofilm community formation. Here, we describe the development of a PDMS-based two-layer microfluidic flow

Wood, Thomas K.

315

Cell bioprinting as a potential high-throughput method for fabricating cell-based biosensors (CBBs)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cell-based biosensors (CBBs) are becoming an important tool for biosecurity applications and rapid diagnostics. For current CBBs technology, cell immobilization and high throughput fabrication are the main challenges. To ...

Xu, F.

316

The potential for photosynthesis in hydrothermal vents: a new avenue for life in the Universe?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We perform a quantitative assessment for the potential for photosynthesis in hydrothermal vents in the deep ocean. The photosynthetically active radiation in this case is from geothermal origin: the infrared thermal radiation emitted by hot water, at temperatures ranging from 473 up to 673 K. We find that at these temperatures the photosynthetic potential is rather low in these ecosystems for most known species. However, species which a very high efficiency in the use of light and which could use infrared photons till 1300nm, could achieve good rates of photosynthesis in hydrothermal vents. These organisms might also thrive in deep hydrothermal vents in other planetary bodies, such as one of the more astrobiologically promising Jupiter satellites: Europa.

Perez, Noel; Martin, Osmel; Leiva-Mora, Michel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Hydrothermal Growth of Mesoporous SBA-15 Silica in the Presence of PVP-Stabilized Pt Nanoparticles: Synthesis,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrothermal Growth of Mesoporous SBA-15 Silica in the Presence of PVP-Stabilized Pt Nanoparticles hydrothermal synthesis. Characterization of the Pt/SBA-15 catalysts suggests that Pt particles are located are responsible for ethane decomposition to surface carbon. The ability to design catalytic structures

Yang, Peidong

318

PII S0016-7037(01)00878-X Effect of fluidsediment reaction on hydrothermal fluxes of major elements,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PII S0016-7037(01)00878-X Effect of fluid­sediment reaction on hydrothermal fluxes of major of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, reaction between upwelling basement fluid and sediment alters hydrothermal fluxes Fe(III)-(hydr)oxide, and precipitation of calcite, carbonate fluorapatite, and amorphous Fe

Fisher, Andrew

319

INFLUENCE OF D.I.C HYDROTHERMAL PROCESS CONDITIONS ON THE GELATINIZATION PROPERTIES OF STANDARD MAIZE STARCH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INFLUENCE OF D.I.C HYDROTHERMAL PROCESS CONDITIONS ON THE GELATINIZATION PROPERTIES OF STANDARD ABSTRACT Standard maize starch was hydrothermally treated at residual moisture content (~12 %) by Instantaneous Controlled Pressure Drop for various pressure levels and processing times. In order to examine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

320

Synthesis and Characterization of Ag-or Sb-Doped ZnO Nanorods by a Facile Hydrothermal Route  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Synthesis and Characterization of Ag- or Sb-Doped ZnO Nanorods by a Facile Hydrothermal Route Oleg Stefan Cel Mare BouleVard, MD-2004 Chisinau, Republic of MoldoVa, AdVanced Materials Processing ZnO nanorods doped with Ag and Sb have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal technique. Crystal

Kik, Pieter

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a preliminary analysis of the costs associated with converting whole wet algal biomass into primarily diesel fuel. Hydrothermal liquefaction converts the whole algae into an oil that is then hydrotreated and distilled. The secondary aqueous product containing significant organic material is converted to a medium btu gas via catalytic hydrothermal gasification.

Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Anderson, Daniel B.; Hallen, Richard T.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Hart, Todd R.; Butcher, Mark G.; Drennan, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Davis, Ryan; Kinchin, Christopher

2014-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

322

J. Phys. III France 6 (1996) 843-852 JULY 1996, PAGE 843 Dielectric Properties of Hydrothermal Nickel-Zinc Ferrites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

knowledge, no study of the dielectric behavior of ferrites obtained by hydrothermal process has been by hydrothermal process and sintered these powders without any sinter- ing aids. A detailed investigationJ. Phys. III France 6 (1996) 843-852 JULY 1996, PAGE 843 Dielectric Properties of Hydrothermal

Boyer, Edmond

323

A facile hydrothermal route to the large-scale synthesis of CoWO4 nanorods Liang Zhen a,, Wen-Shou Wang a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fabrication [8,9]. Many recent studies have demonstrated that hydrothermal process is an effectiveA facile hydrothermal route to the large-scale synthesis of CoWO4 nanorods Liang Zhen a,, Wen by a hydrothermal method using only CoCl2 and Na2WO4 as reaction reagents and distilled water as solvents

Qin, Lu-Chang

324

Hydrothermal formation of Clay-Carbonate alteration assemblages in the Nili Fossae region of Mars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) has returned observations of the Nili Fossae region indicating the presence of Mg- carbonate in small (carbonate-bearing units. We applied absorption band mapping techniques to investigate a range of possible phyllosilicate and carbonate minerals that could be present in the Nili Fossae region. We also describe a clay-carbonate hydrothermal alteration mineral assemblage in the Archean Warrawoona Group of Western Australia that is a potential Earth analog to the Nili Fossae carbonate-bearing rock units. We discuss the geological and biological implications for hydrothermal processes on Noachian Mars.

Brown, Adrian J; Baldridge, Alice M; Crowley, James K; Bridges, Nathan T; Thomson, Bradley J; Marion, Giles M; Filho, Carlos R de Souza; Bishop, Janice L

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Hydrothermal alteration at the Panorama Formation, North Pole Dome, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An airborne hyperspectral remote sensing dataset was obtained of the North Pole Dome region of the Pilbara Craton in October 2002. It has been analyzed for indications of hydrothermal minerals. Here we report on the identification and mapping of hydrothermal minerals in the 3.459 Ga Panorama Formation and surrounding strata. The spatial distribution of a pattern of subvertical pyrophyllite rich veins connected to a pyrophyllite rich palaeohorizontal layer is interpreted to represent the base of an acid-sulfate epithermal system that is unconformably overlain by the stromatolitic 3.42 Ga Strelley Pool Chert.

Brown, Adrian J; Walter, Malcolm R

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Case studies of low-to-moderate temperature hydrothermal energy development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Six development projects are examined that use low- (less than 90/sup 0/C (194/sup 0/F)) to-moderate (90 to 150/sup 0/C (194 to 302/sup 0/F)) temperature geothermal resources. These projects were selected from 22 government cost-shared projects to illustrate the many facets of hydrothermal development. The case studies describe the history of this development, its exploratory methods, and its resource definition, as well as address legal, environmental, and institutional constraints. A critique of procedures used in the development is also provided and recommendations for similar future hydrothermal projects are suggested.

Not Available

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Hydrothermally treated coals for pulverized coal injection. Technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is investigating the suitability of hydrothermally dried low-rank coals for pulverized fuel injection into blast furnaces in order to reduce coke consumption. Coal samples from the Beluga coal field and Usibelli Coal Mine, Alaska, are being used for the study. Crushed coal samples were hydrothermally treated at three temperatures, 275, 300 and 325{degrees}C, for residence times ranging from 10 to 120 minutes. Products have been characterized to determine their suitability for pulverized coal injection. Characterization includes proximate and ultimate analyses, vitrinite reflectance, TGA reactivity and thermochemical modeling. A literature survey has been conducted.

Walsh, D.E.; Rao, P.D.; Ogunsola, O.; Lin, H.K.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Effect of pelleting on the recalcitrance and bioconversion of dilute-acid pretreated corn stover  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Background: Knowledge regarding the performance of densified biomass in biochemical processes is limited. The effects of densification on biochemical conversion are explored here. Methods: Pelleted corn stover samples were generated from bales that were milled to 6.35 mm. Low-solids acid pretreatment and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation were performed to evaluate pretreatment efficacy and ethanol yields achieved for pelleted and ground stover (6.35 mm and 2 mm) samples. Both pelleted and 6.35-mm ground stover were evaluated using a ZipperClave® reactor under high-solids, process-relevant conditions for multiple pretreatment severities (Ro), followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the washed, pretreated solids. Results: Monomeric xylose yields were significantly higher for pellets (approximately 60%) than for ground formats (approximately 38%). Pellets achieved approximately 84% of theoretical ethanol yield (TEY); ground stover formats had similar profiles, reaching approximately 68% TEY. Pelleting corn stover was not detrimental to pretreatment efficacy for both low- and high-solids conditions, and even enhanced ethanol yields.

Allison E Ray; Amber Hoover; Gary Gresham

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Maintenance of Parent Strategies is Associated with Pre-Treatment Parent Fidelity, Treatment Assignment, and Post Treatment Community Services  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuller, A. (2011). JASPER: Interventionist workshops atjoint attention intervention (JASPER) in which the specificlevel of naturally occurring JASPER fidelity pre-treatment.

Fuller, Amy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Modification of alkaline pulping to facilitate the isolation of aliphatic acids. Part 1. Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of pine wood  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pretreating pine chips (Pinus sylvestris) with sodium hydroxide prior to the alkaline delignification kraft, kraft-anthraquinone, and soda-anthraquinone) can facilitate the recovery of the carbohydrate degradation products from alkaline pulping liquors. Under suitable pretreatment conditions large amounts of carbohydrate degradation products (alipahtic acids) were formed relative to lignin. The lignin fraction was composed of comparatively low-molecular-weight fragments. Although the delignification was considerably retarded and the yield (based on wood) was decreased by 1-3%, the properties of the resulting pulp were essentially maintained despite pretreatment. Finally, data are given for the composition of aliphatic acids in liquors resulting from pretreatments.

Alen, R.; Niemelae, K.; Sjoestroem, E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Effect of pretreating of host oil on coprocessing. Quarterly progress report, January 1--March 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principal objective of this research is to gain information on the role that host petroleum-derived oils (1000{degrees} F+), as well as that of catalytically treated host oils, play when used as liquefaction solvents in coprocessing with coal. The host oil will be extensively characterized and then pretreated in a number of ways which involve catalytic reactions such as hydrogenation, hydrocracking, and isomerization. The pretreated oils will then be characterized by elemental analysis, catalytic dehydrogenation, distillation, GC-MS, and NMR. The effect of the host oil on coprocessing with coal will be compared to that obtained using catalytically modified host oils. When appropriate, model compounds will be used to study specific reactions brought about by the pretreatments.

Wender, I.; Tierney, J.W.

1994-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

332

Hanford tank waste simulants specification and their applicability for the retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A wide variety of waste simulants were developed over the past few years to test various retrieval, pretreatment and waste immobilization technologies and unit operations. Experiments can be performed cost-effectively using non-radioactive waste simulants in open laboratories. This document reviews the composition of many previously used waste simulants for remediation of tank wastes at the Hanford reservation. In this review, the simulants used in testing for the retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification processes are compiled, and the representative chemical and physical characteristics of each simulant are specified. The retrieval and transport simulants may be useful for testing in-plant fluidic devices and in some cases for filtration technologies. The pretreatment simulants will be useful for filtration, Sr/TRU removal, and ion exchange testing. The vitrification simulants will be useful for testing melter, melter feed preparation technologies, and for waste form evaluations.

GR Golcar; NG Colton; JG Darab; HD Smith

2000-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

333

PROJECT W-551 SUMMARY INFORMATION FOR EARLY LAW INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM SELECTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides summary data for use by the decision board to assess and select the final technology for project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This project will provide early pretreated low activity waste feed to the Waste Treatment Plant to allow Waste Treatment Plan Low Activity Waste facility operation prior to construction completion of the Pretreatment and High Level Waste facilities. The candidate solids separations technologies are rotary microfiltration and crossflow filtration, and the candidate cesium separation technologies are fractional crystallization, caustic-side solvent extraction, and ion-exchange using spherical resorcinol-fonnaldebyde resin. This document provides a summary of comparative data against prior weighted criteria to support technology selection. Supporting details and background for this summary are documented in the separate report, RPP-RPT-37741.

TEDESCHI AR

2008-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

334

PROJECT W-551 DETERMINATION DATA FOR EARLY LAW INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM SELECTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides the detailed assessment forms and data for selection of the solids separation and cesium separation technology for project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This project will provide early pretreated low activity waste feed to the Waste Treatment Plant to allow Waste Treatment Plan Low Activity Waste facility operation prior to construction completion of the Pretreatment and High Level Waste facilities. The candidate solids separations technologies are rotary microfiltration and crossflow filtration, and the candidate cesium separation technologies are fractional crystallization, caustic-side solvent extraction, and ion-exchange using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde resin. This data was used to prepare a cross-cutting technology summary, reported in RPP-RPT-37740.

TEDESCHI AR

2008-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

335

Synthesis of ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles by hydrothermal treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zirconium oxide (zirconia, ZrO{sub 2}) is the most common material used for electrolyte of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Zirconia has attracted attention for applications in optical coatings, buffer layers for growing superconductors, thermal-shield, corrosion resistant coatings, ionic conductors, and oxygen sensors, and for potential applications including transparent optical devices and electrochemical capacitor electrodes, fuel cells, catalysts, and advanced ceramics. In this work, zirconia particles were synthesized from ZrCl{sub 4} precursor with hydrothermal treatment in a batch reactor. Hydrothermal treatment may allow obtaining nanoparticles and sintered materials with controlled chemical and structural characteristics. Hydrothermal treatment was carried out at temperatures of 150 – 200°C with precursor concentration of 0.1 – 0.5 M. Zirconia particles obtained from this treatment were analyzed by using SEM, PSD and XRD to characterize the morphology, particle size distribution, and crystallinity, respectively. Based on the analysis, the size of zirconia particles were around 200 nm and it became smaller with decreasing precursor concentration. The increasing temperature caused the particles formed having uniform size. Zirconia particles formed by hydrothermal treatment were monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic crystal.

Machmudah, Siti, E-mail: machmudah@chem-eng.its.ac.id; Widiyastuti, W., E-mail: machmudah@chem-eng.its.ac.id; Prastuti, Okky Putri, E-mail: machmudah@chem-eng.its.ac.id; Nurtono, Tantular, E-mail: machmudah@chem-eng.its.ac.id; Winardi, Sugeng, E-mail: machmudah@chem-eng.its.ac.id [Chemical Engineering Department, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia); Wahyudiono,; Kanda, Hideki; Goto, Motonobu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

336

Hydrothermal method of synthesis of rare-earth tantalates and niobates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A hydrothermal method of synthesis of a family of rare-earth Group 5 oxides, where the Group 5 oxide is a niobate or tantalate. The rare-earth Group 5 oxides can be doped with suitable emitter ions to form nanophosphors.

Nyman, May D; Rohwer, Lauren E.S.; Martin, James E

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

337

John G. Hinchey Ke iko H. Hattori Magmatic mineralization and hydrothermal enrichment of the High Grade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARTICLE John G. Hinchey � Ke´ iko H. Hattori Magmatic mineralization and hydrothermal enrichment; millerite + siegenite ± chalcopyrite ± pyrite co-existing with hornblende + plagioclase ± quartz ± carbonate, and pyrite ± chalcopyrite with chlorite + actinolite ± albite ± quartz ± carbonate. The ore is high in Pd

338

Record of archaeal activity at the serpentinite-hosted Lost City Hydrothermal Field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Record of archaeal activity at the serpentinite-hosted Lost City Hydrothermal Field S. M EHAY,1 of young, outer surfaces of brucite­carbonate deposits from the ultramafic-hosted Lost City hydro- thermal field were analyzed for DNA and lipid biomarker distributions and for carbon and hydrogen stable isotope

Gilli, Adrian

339

PRIMAL AND DUAL METHODS FOR UNIT COMMITMENT IN A HYDRO-THERMAL POWER SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PRIMAL AND DUAL METHODS FOR UNIT COMMITMENT IN A HYDRO-THERMAL POWER SYSTEM R. Gollmer1 , A. Moller comprising thermal and pumped-storage hydro units a large-scale mixed-integer optimization model is developed aims at the cost optimal scheduling of on/o decisions and output levels for generating units. The power

Römisch, Werner

340

Hydrothermal synthesis, structure and thermal stability of diamine templated layered uranyl-vanadates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

crystal structure and thermal behavior are reported herein. Experimental Synthesis Uranyl nitrate (UO2(NO31 Hydrothermal synthesis, structure and thermal stability of diamine templated layered uranyl. Murielle.rivenet@ensc-lille.fr Running Title : Diamine templated layered uranyl-vanadates. Figure for table

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

A mixed-valence copper coordination polymer generated by hydrothermal metal/ligand redox reactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A mixed-valence copper coordination polymer generated by hydrothermal metal/ligand redox reactions A novel coordination polymer of mixed-valence copper(I,II) with 4,4A-bipyridine and in situ oxidized and crystallographically char- acterized to be a laminated structure via weak copper(II)­ oxygen interactions. Extended

Li, Jing

342

Hydrothermal venting in magma deserts: The ultraslow-spreading Gakkel and Southwest Indian Ridges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and direct cooling of the upper mantle, and nonmagmatic heat supplied by exothermic serpentinization of spreading rate, establish a robust linear trend (Fs = 0.98 + 0.015us), implying that the long-term heat supply is the first-order control on the global distribution of hydrothermal activity. Normalizing Fs

Langmuir, Charles H.

343

The Development of a Hydrothermal Method for Slurry Feedstock Preparation for Gasification Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrothermal gasification of biomass and organic wastes. Thewaste, and organic waste from anaerobic wastewater digester and black liquid from paper pulping process have been investigated in the supercritical water gasificationgasification normally exceeds 22MPa [131]. Flowable feedstocks, such as woody waste,

He, Wei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Anaerobic methane oxidation in metalliferous hydrothermal sediments: influence on carbon flux and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anaerobic methane oxidation in metalliferous hydrothermal sediments: influence on carbon flux of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-3636, USA. Summary The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is a glo- bally significant sink that regulates methane flux from sediments into the oceans and atmosphere. Here we examine

Girguis, Peter R.

345

Z .Marine Chemistry 64 1999 229252 The chemical composition of shallow-water hydrothermal fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; accepted 1 September 1998 Abstract Z .Submarine, hydrothermal venting occurs at Tutum Bay in shallow 5­10 m in Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea and their effect on ambient seawater Thomas Pichler a,) , Jan Veizer a,b , Gwendy E.M. Hall c a Ottawa-Carleton Geoscience Centre, Uni�ersity of Ottawa, Ottawa

Pichler, Thomas

346

Energy for biologic sulfate reduction in a hydrothermally formed ocean on Europa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy for biologic sulfate reduction in a hydrothermally formed ocean on Europa Mikhail Y. Zolotov, chemical energy is suggested as a more likely source for oceanic life [Jakosky and Shock, 1998; Mc of chemical energy in the ocean [e.g., McCollom, 1999; Kargel et al., 2000; Chyba and Phillips, 2001; Schulze

Rhoads, James

347

Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity. Final technical report, September 1990--February 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent research efforts in direct coal liquefaction are focused on lowering the level of reaction severity, identification and determination of the causes of retrogressive reactions, and improving the economics of the process. Ambient pretreatment of coals using methanol and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid was extensively studied in connection with low severity coal liquefaction. Ambient pretreatment of eight Argonne coals using methanol/HCl improved THF-soluble conversions 24.5 wt % (maf basis) for Wyodak subbituminous coal and 28.4 wt % for Beulah-Zap lignite with an average increase of 14.9 wt % for the eight Argonne coals at 623 K (350{degrees}C) reaction temperature and 30 minutes reaction time. Optimal pretreatment conditions were determined using Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coals. Acid concentration was the most important pretreatment variable studied; liquefaction reactivity increased with increasing acid concentration up to 2 vol %. The FTIR spectra of treated and untreated Wyodak coal samples demonstrated formation of carboxylic functional groups during pretreatment, a result of divalent (Ca, Mg) cationic bridge destruction. The extent of liquefaction reactivity directly correlated with the amount of calcium removed during pretreatment, and results from calcium ``addback`` experiments supported the observation that calcium adversely affected coal reactivity at low severity reaction conditions. Model compound studies using benzyl phenyl ether demonstrated that calcium cations catalyzed retrogressive reactions, inhibited hydrogenation reactions at low severity reaction conditions, and were more active at higher reaction temperatures. Based on kinetic data, mechanisms for hydrogenation-based inhibition and base-catalyzed retrogressive reactions are proposed. The base-catalyzed retrogressive reactions are shown to occur via a hydrogen abstraction mechanism where hydrogenation inhibition reactions are shown to take place via a surface quenching mechanism.

Miller, R.L.; Shams, K.G.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Pretreatment process for forming a smooth surface diamond film on a carbon-coated substrate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is disclosed for the pretreatment of a carbon-coated substrate to provide a uniform high density of nucleation sites thereon for the subsequent deposition of a continuous diamond film without the application of a bias voltage to the substrate. The process comprises exposing the carbon-coated substrate, in a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system, to a mixture of hydrogen-methane gases, having a methane gas concentration of at least about 4% (as measured by partial pressure), while maintaining the substrate at a pressure of about 10 to about 30 Torr during the pretreatment.

Feng, Zhu (Albany, CA); Brewer, Marilee (Goleta, CA); Brown, Ian (Berkeley, CA); Komvopoulos, Kyriakos (Orinda, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Pretreatment process for forming a smooth surface diamond film on a carbon-coated substrate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is disclosed for the pretreatment of a carbon-coated substrate to provide a uniform high density of nucleation sites thereon for the subsequent deposition of a continuous diamond film without the application of a bias voltage to the substrate. The process comprises exposing the carbon-coated substrate, in a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system, to a mixture of hydrogen-methane gases, having a methane gas concentration of at least about 4% (as measured by partial pressure), while maintaining the substrate at a pressure of about 10 to about 30 Torr during the pretreatment. 6 figures.

Feng, Z.; Brewer, M.; Brown, I.; Komvopoulos, K.

1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

350

Effect of Catalyst Pre-Treatment on Chirality-Selective Growth of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that catalyst pre-treatment conditions can have a profound effect on the chiral distribution in single-walled carbon nanotubes chemical vapor deposition. Using a SiO2-supported Cobalt model catalyst and pre-treatment in NH3, we obtain a...

Fouquet, Martin; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Thomsen, Christian; Hofmann, Stephan; Robertson, John

2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

351

Comparing different pre-treatment methods for strongly compacted organic sediments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-sieving: a case study on Roman waterlogged deposits Patricia Vandorpe and Stefanie Jacomet Four preComparing different pre-treatment methods for strongly compacted organic sediments prior to wet of the experiment was to find out which pre- treatment method facilitates the sieving process without destroying

Jacomet, Stefanie

352

Impact of surfactants on pretreatment of corn stover Qing Qing, Bin Yang 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

glycol 4000 during water-only or dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover at 140­220 °C were evaluated energy security, trade deficit, environmental, and economic issues that are becoming more urgent in light of declining petroleum reserves and increasing international demand for transportation fuels. However

California at Riverside, University of

353

De-oiling and Pre-treatments for High-Quality Potato Chips  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A de-oiling step using a centrifuge ensures oil content reduction and improves the quality of fried snacks. A commercial deep-fat fryer with the basket loaded with potatoes and a sample holder was used to fry potato slices, non-pretreated, blanched...

Kim, Tae Hoon

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

354

Functions and requirements for Project W-236B, Initial Pretreatment Module: Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hanford Site tank waste supernatants will be pretreated to separate the low-level and high-level fractions. The low-level waste fraction, containing the bulk of the chemical constituents, must be processed into a vitrified waste product which will be disposed of onsite, in a safe, environmentally sound, and cost effective manner. The high-level waste fraction separated during supernatant pretreatment (primarily cesium) will be recombined with an additional high-level waste fraction generated from pretreatment of the tank waste sludges and solids. This combined high-level waste fraction will be immobilized as glass and disposed in a geological repository. The purpose of this document is to establish the functional requirements baseline for Project W-236B, Initial Pretreatment Module, by defining the level 5 and 6 functions and requirements for the project. A functional analysis approach has been used to break down the program functions and associated physical requirements that each function must meet. As the systems engineering process evolves, the design requirements document will replace this preliminary functions and requirements document. The design requirements document (DRD) will identify key decisions and associated uncertainties that impact the project. A revision of this document to a DRD is not expected to change the performance requirements or open issues. However, additional requirements and issues may be identified.

Swanson, L.M.

1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

355

2007 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd Pretreatment: the key to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

presents important opportunities to achieve very low costs, pretreatment of naturally resistant cellulosic materials is essential if we are to achieve high yields from biological operations; this operation biological, chemical, physical, and thermal approaches have been investigated over the years, but only those

California at Riverside, University of

356

Effect of Xylan and Lignin Removal by Batch and Flowthrough Pretreatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of Xylan and Lignin Removal by Batch and Flowthrough Pretreatment on the Enzymatic understand these trade-offs, comparative data are reported on xylan and lignin removal and enzymatic with just water enhanced the xylan dissolution rate, more than doubled total lignin removal, and increased

California at Riverside, University of

357

Chemical cleaning of coal by molten caustic leaching after pretreatment by low-temperature devolatilization  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Pretreatment of coal by devolatization at temperatures ranging from about 420.degree. C. to about 450.degree. C. for from about 10 minutes to about 30 minutes before leaching with molten caustic leads to a significant reduction in carbonate formation, greatly reducing the cost of cleaning coal on a per ton basis.

Chriswell, Colin D. (Slater, IA); Kaushik, Surender M. (Socorro, NM); Shah, Navin D. (Houston, TX); Markuszewski, Richard (Ames, IA)

1989-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

358

Laboratory Demonstration of the Pretreatment Process with Caustic and Oxidative Leaching Using Actual Hanford Tank Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the bench-scale pretreatment processing of actual tank waste materials through the entire baseline WTP pretreatment flowsheet in an effort to demonstrate the efficacy of the defined leaching processes on actual Hanford tank waste sludge and the potential impacts on downstream pretreatment processing. The test material was a combination of reduction oxidation (REDOX) tank waste composited materials containing aluminum primarily in the form of boehmite and dissolved S saltcake containing Cr(III)-rich entrained solids. The pretreatment processing steps tested included • caustic leaching for Al removal • solids crossflow filtration through the cell unit filter (CUF) • stepwise solids washing using decreasing concentrations of sodium hydroxide with filtration through the CUF • oxidative leaching using sodium permanganate for removing Cr • solids filtration with the CUF • follow-on solids washing and filtration through the CUF • ion exchange processing for Cs removal • evaporation processing of waste stream recycle for volume reduction • combination of the evaporated product with dissolved saltcake. The effectiveness of each process step was evaluated by following the mass balance of key components (such as Al, B, Cd, Cr, Pu, Ni, Mn, and Fe), demonstrating component (Al, Cr, Cs) removal, demonstrating filterability by evaluating filter flux rates under various processing conditions (transmembrane pressure, crossflow velocities, wt% undissolved solids, and PSD) and filter fouling, and identifying potential issues for WTP. The filterability was reported separately (Shimskey et al. 2008) and is not repeated herein.

Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Microbial Manganese(II) oxidation : biogeochemistry of a deep-sea hydrothermal plume, enzymatic mechanism, and genomic perspectives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2738. Cowen J. P. and Bruland K. W. (1985) Metal depositsLanding W. M. and Bruland K. W. (1987) The contrastingopen ocean (Landing and Bruland, 1987) or some hydrothermal

Dick, Gregory J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Geochemical tracers of processes affecting the formation of seafloor hydrothermal fluids and deposits in the Manus back-arc basin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Systematic differences in trace element compositions (rare earth element (REE), heavy metal, metalloid concentrations) of seafloor vent fluids and related deposits from hydrothermal systems in the Manus back-arc basin ...

Craddock, Paul R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Biotic and abiotic interactions of deep-sea hydrothermal vent-endemic fish on the East Pacific Rise  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A study of the ecology of fish endemic to hydrothermal vents on the East Pacific Rise was undertaken utilizing a variety of techniques, focusing on the bythitid Thermichthys hollisi. Stable isotope and gut content analyses ...

Buckman, Kate Lynn

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Spatial and temporal population genetics at deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the East Pacific Rise and Galápagos Rift  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ecological processes at deep-sea hydrothermal vents on fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges are punctuated by frequent physical disturbance. Larval dispersal among disjunct vent sites facilitates the persistence of sessile ...

Fusaro, Abigail Jean

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

2005 International Conference on Wireless Networks, Communications and Mobile Computing Improving TCP Throughput over Lossy Links Using  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TCP Throughput over Lossy Links Using Protocol-Level Speculations Haowei Bai Honeywell Labs 3660- The degradation of Transport Control Protocol (TCP) throughput in networks with lossy links is mainly due to processor performance degradation due to control hazards in CPU design. First, two types of loss events

Atiquzzaman, Mohammed

364

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 84, 014103 (2011) Screening for high-performance piezoelectrics using high-throughput density functional theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-throughput density functional theory Rickard Armiento,1 Boris Kozinsky,2 Marco Fornari,3 and Gerbrand Ceder1 1-scale density functional theory (DFT) investigation of the ABO3 chemical space in the perovskite crystal-throughput density functional theory19,20 calculations. The last decades have seen a rapid increase of computational

Ceder, Gerbrand

365

Sonochemical and hydrothermal synthesis of PbTe nanostructures with the aid of a novel capping agent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PbTe nanostructures were prepared with the aid of Schiff-base compound. • Sonochemical and hydrothermal methods were employed to fabricate PbTe nanostrucrues. • The effect of preparation parameters on the morphology of PbTe was investigated. - Abstract: In this work, a new Schiff-base compound derived from 1,8-diamino-3,6-dioxaoctane and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde marked as (2-HyNa)-(DaDo) was synthesized, characterized, and then used as capping agent for the preparation of PbTe nanostructures. To fabricate PbTe nanostructures, two different synthesis methods; hydrothermal and sonochemical routes, were applied. To further investigate, the effect of preparation parameters like reaction time and temperature in hydrothermal synthesis and sonication time in the presence of ultrasound irradiation on the morphology and purity of the final products was tested. The products were analyzed with the aid of SEM, TEM, XRD, FT-IR, and EDS. Based on the obtained results, it was found that pure cubic phased PbTe nanostructures have been obtained by hydrothermal and sonochemical approaches. Besides, SEM images showed that cubic-like and rod-like PbTe nanostructures have been formed by hydrothermal and sonochemical methods, respectively. Sonochemical synthesis of PbTe nanostructures was favorable, because the synthesis time of sonochemical method was shorter than that of hydrothermal method.

Fard-Fini, Shahla Ahmadian [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-3697, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salavati-Niasari, Masoud, E-mail: salavati@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohandes, Fatemeh [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

366

Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical performance of NiO microspheres with different nanoscale building blocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NiO microspheres were successfully obtained by calcining the Ni(OH){sub 2} precursor, which were synthesized via the hydrothermal reaction of nickel chloride, glucose and ammonia. The products were characterized by TGA, XRD and SEM. The influences of glucose and reaction temperature on the morphologies of NiO samples were investigated. Moreover, the possible growth mechanism for the spherical morphology was proposed. The charge/discharge test showed that the as-prepared NiO microspheres composed of nanoparticles can serve as an ideal electrode material for supercapacitor due to the spherical hollow structure. -- Graphical Abstract: Fig. 5 is the SEM image of NiO that was prepared in the different hydrothermal reaction temperatures. It showed that reaction temperature played a crucial role for the morphology of products.

Wang Ling; Hao Yanjing; Zhao Yan [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Lai Qiongyu, E-mail: laiqy5@hotmail.co [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Xu Xiaoyun [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

367

Aqueous geochemistry of the Thermopolis hydrothermal system, southern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, U.S.A.  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

The Thermopolis hydrothermal system is located in the southern portion of the Bighorn Basin, in and around the town of Thermopolis, Wyoming. It is the largest hydrothermal system in Wyoming outside of Yellowstone National Park. The system includes hot springs, travertine deposits, and thermal wells; published models for the hydrothermal system propose the Owl Creek Mountains as the recharge zone, simple conductive heating at depth, and resurfacing of thermal waters up the Thermopolis Anticline. The geochemistry of the thermal waters of three active hot springs, Big Spring, White Sulfur Spring, and Teepee Fountain, is similar in composition; the geochemistry is characteristic of carbonate or carbonate-bearing siliciclastic aquifers. Previous studies of the Thermopolis hydrothermal system postulate that the thermal waters are a mixture of waters from Paleozoic formations. Major element geochemical analyses available for waters from these formations is not of sufficient quality to determine whether the thermal waters are a mixture of the Paleozoic aquifers. In the time frame of this study (1 year), the geochemistry of all three springs was constant through all four seasons, spanning spring snowmelt and recharge as well as late summer and fall dryness. This relationship is consistent with a deep source not influenced by shallow, local hydrogeology. Anomalies are evident in the historic dataset for the geochemistry of Big Spring. We speculate that anomalies occurring between 1906 and 1926 suggest mixing of source waters of Big Spring with waters from a siliciclastic formation, and that anomalies occurring between 1926 and 1933 suggest mixing with waters from a formation containing gypsum or anhydrite. Decreased concentrations measured in our study, relative to concentrations measured between 1933 and 1976, may reflect mixing of thermal waters with more dilute waters. Current data is not sufficient to rigorously test these suggestions, and events of sufficient scale taking place in these timeframes have not been identified.

Kaszuba, John P. [University of Wyoming; Sims, Kenneth W.W. [University of Wyoming; Pluda, Allison R.

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Exploiting concurrency to improve latency and throughput in a hybrid storage system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Exploiting concurrency to improve latency and throughput in a hybrid storage system Xiaojian Wu, A the problem of how to improve the performance of hybrid storage system employing solid state disks and hard parallelism in the storage system effectively to improve through- put and latency simultaneously. We

Reddy, Narasimha

369

Droplet microfluidic technology for single-cell high-throughput screening  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Droplet microfluidic technology for single-cell high-throughput screening Eric Brouzesa,b,1 (received for review March 31, 2009) We present a droplet-based microfluidic technology that enables high our droplet microfluidic platform is modular, robust, uses no moving parts, and has a wide range

Perrimon, Norbert

370

Area and Throughput Trade-Offs in the Design of Pipelined Discrete Wavelet Transform Architectures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Area and Throughput Trade-Offs in the Design of Pipelined Discrete Wavelet Transform Architectures wavelet transform (DWT) as a linear space-to-frequency transform of the image domain in an irreversible compression. This irreversible discrete wavelet transform is implemented by FIR filter using 9/7 Daubechies

Boyer, Edmond

371

Optical microplates for high-throughput screening of photosynthesis in lipid-producing algae{,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical microplates for high-throughput screening of photosynthesis in lipid- producing algae-producing algae of interest in 2nd generation biofuels. By conducting 96 experiments in parallel, photoirradiance the study of photosynthesis in algae. Societal challenges in energy sustainability have renewed interest

Basu, Amar S.

372

Applied Catalysis A: General 254 (2003) 97106 Photoionization detection (PID) as a high throughput  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Applied Catalysis A: General 254 (2003) 97­106 Photoionization detection (PID) as a high throughput 2002 Abstract A versatile photoionization detection (PID) system has been developed to rapidly screen libraries of catalytic materials. The PID approach involves the use of an appropriately selected dc

Senkan, Selim M.

373

Throughput and Ergodic Capacity of Wireless Energy Harvesting Based DF Relaying Network  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-to-point communication systems and studied rate-energy trade-off assuming single-input-single-output (SISO) [1], [3Throughput and Ergodic Capacity of Wireless Energy Harvesting Based DF Relaying Network Ali A-and-forward (DF) relaying network based on wireless energy harvesting. The energy constrained relay node first

Zhou, Xiangyun "Sean"

374

MIMO Ad Hoc Networks: Medium Access Control, Saturation Throughput and Optimal Hop Distance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 MIMO Ad Hoc Networks: Medium Access Control, Saturation Throughput and Optimal Hop Distance Ming in mobile ad hoc networks. Specifically, we focus on ad hoc networks where the spa- tial diversity technique technique can enhance the performance of mobile ad hoc networks significantly. Key words: ad hoc networks

Reisslein, Martin

375

Cherish every Joule: Maximizing throughput with an eye on network-wide energy consumption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cherish every Joule: Maximizing throughput with an eye on network-wide energy consumption Canming: {jcm, yshi, thou, wjlou}@vt.edu Abstract Conserving network-wide energy consumption is becoming of wireless networks, the concern of energy consumption is becoming in- creasingly important for network

Hou, Y. Thomas

376

ORIGINAL ARTICLE GeoChip 3.0 as a high-throughput tool for analyzing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

significantly changed with the plant species diversity. As expected, GeoChip 3.0 is a high-throughput powerful Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA and 8 Virtual Institute Keywords: microarray; functional genes; microbial community; plant diversity Introduction Microorganisms

Hazen, Terry

377

ORIGINAL ARTICLE GeoChip 3.0 as a high-throughput tool for analyzing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

significantly changed with the plant species diversity. As expected, GeoChip 3.0 is a high-throughput powerful Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA and 8 Virtual Institute in microbial ecology Keywords: microarray; functional genes; microbial community; plant diversity Introduction

Weiblen, George D

378

On Throughput Maximization of Time Division Multiple Access with Energy Harvesting Users  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 On Throughput Maximization of Time Division Multiple Access with Energy Harvesting Users Juan Liu a multiple access channel, where multiple users equipped with energy harvesting batteries com- municate assumed that the users' energy harvesting processes and storage status are known to all the users before

Dai, Huaiyu

379

High-throughput imaging of heterogeneous cell organelles with an X-ray laser  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Preprocessed detector images that were used for the paper "High-throughput imaging of heterogeneous cell organelles with an X-ray laser". The CXI file contains the entire recorded data - including both hits and blanks. It also includes down-sampled images and LCLS machine parameters. Additionally, the Cheetah configuration file is attached that was used to create the pre-processed data.

Hantke, Max, F.

380

Short-Term Throughput Maximization for Battery Limited Energy Harvesting Nodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for energy recharge. Under the assumption of an increasing concave power-rate relationship, the short completion time of a given amount of data were found for an energy harvesting node under the assumptionShort-Term Throughput Maximization for Battery Limited Energy Harvesting Nodes Kaya Tutuncuoglu

Yener, Aylin

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

A High-Throughput Method to Examine Protein-Nucleotide Interactions Identifies Targets of the Bacterial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A High-Throughput Method to Examine Protein- Nucleotide Interactions Identifies Targets can easily be applied to examine multiple protein-protein, protein-nucleotide and nucleotide-nucleotide Protein-Nucleotide Interactions Identifies Targets of the Bacterial Transcriptional Regulatory Protein Fur

382

High-Throughput Contention-Free Concurrent Interleaver Architecture for Multi-Standard Turbo Decoder  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-Throughput Contention-Free Concurrent Interleaver Architecture for Multi-Standard Turbo paral- lel turbo decoder architectures have been developed. However, the interleaver has become a major that can efficiently solve the memory conflict problem for parallel turbo decoders with very high

Mellor-Crummey, John

383

Industrial Implementation of a Coordinator MPC for Maximizing Throughput at a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

offshore fields. This set high demands, not only to the plant efficiency and its regularity, but alsoIndustrial Implementation of a Coordinator MPC for Maximizing Throughput at a Large-Scale Gas Plant°arstø gas plant is described. The "coordinator MPC" coordinates the flows through the network

Skogestad, Sigurd

384

A Framework for Throughput and Energy Efficiency in Mobile ad Hoc Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

throughput and energy consumption - while maintaining connectivity. As an application, we evaluate two well on exhaustible power sources, such as batteries, and hence have strict requirements on the energy consumption networks which allows us to compare the average energy and time cost of different networks but exhibiting

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

385

High-Throughput Screening of Gene Function in Stem Cells Using Clonal Microarrays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-Throughput Screening of Gene Function in Stem Cells Using Clonal Microarrays RANDOLPH S. ASHTON,a JOSEPH PELTIER,b CHRISTOPHER A. FASANO,c ANALEAH O'NEILL,b JOSHUA LEONARD,b SALLY TEMPLE,c DAVID. Sox2 transcription factor · Akt1 · Neural progenitor cells · Soft lithography ABSTRACT We describe

Schaffer, David V.

386

Minimizing the Energy Cost of Throughput in a Linear Pipeline by Opportunistic Time Borrowing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Minimizing the Energy Cost of Throughput in a Linear Pipeline by Opportunistic Time Borrowing a technique to optimize the energy-delay product of a synchronous linear pipeline circuit with dynamic error and clock frequency of the design by exploiting slacks that are present in various stages of the pipeline

Pedram, Massoud

387

HIGH-THROUGHPUT CELL AND PARTICLE CHARACTERIZATION USING ISO-DIELECTRIC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HIGH-THROUGHPUT CELL AND PARTICLE CHARACTERIZATION USING ISO-DIELECTRIC SEPARATION Michael D. Vahey conductivity. Using a re- cently developed separation method - iso-dielectric separation (IDS) - we character for developing new screens. THEORY We recently developed a separa- tion method, called iso-dielectric sepa

Voldman, Joel

388

Grid Portal Interface for Interactive Use and Monitoring of High-Throughput Proteome  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Grid Portal Interface for Interactive Use and Monitoring of High-Throughput Proteome Annotation software on a high performance computing platform such as the grid. The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) project application to drive grid software development. It is a flagship application for the TeraGrid project [3

Bourne, Philip E.

389

Joint Power Control and Link Scheduling in Wireless Networks for Throughput Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Joint Power Control and Link Scheduling in Wireless Networks for Throughput Optimization Liqun Fu formulate the general joint link scheduling and power control problem as an in- teger linear programming optimality. Index Terms--scheduling, power control, SINR constraints. I. INTRODUCTION Due to their unconfined

Huang, Jianwei

390

HIGH-THROUGHPUT COOPERATIVE TRANSMISSIONS USING ADAPTIVE COMPLEX-FIELD NETWORK CODING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HIGH-THROUGHPUT COOPERATIVE TRANSMISSIONS USING ADAPTIVE COMPLEX-FIELD NETWORK CODING Guobing Li1 , Alfonso Cano2 , and Georgios B. Giannakis2 1 School of Elect. and Info. Engr., Xi'an Jiaotong University. In this pa- per, a novel cooperation protocol is developed based on adap- tive complex-field wireless network

Pleite, Alfonso Cano

391

Synthesis of lithium cobalt oxide by single-step soft hydrothermal method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lithium cobalt double oxide LiCoO{sub 2} was synthesized at 220 Degree-Sign C by soft hydrothermal method using Co(OH){sub 2} and LiOH as precursors, LiOH/NaOH as mineralizers and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as oxidant. The soft hydrothermal synthesis method offers the dual advantage of a much lower synthesis time and a higher purity in comparison with other synthesis methods. The compound was identified by X-ray diffraction and its purity was checked by magnetic and electron magnetic resonance measurements. The grain morphology was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy and an exponential growth of particle size with synthesis time was observed. - Graphical abstract: Concave cuboctohedrons obtained after 60 h reaction time. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An optimized soft hydrothermal method for a fast synthesis of high purity LiCoO{sub 2} compound is reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both lamellar and cuboctahedral particles could be stabilized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary phases content is lower than 0.1%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Close to surface defects were evidenced using EMR.

Kumar Bokinala, Kiran [National Institute for R and D in Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Timisoara 30024 (Romania) [National Institute for R and D in Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Timisoara 30024 (Romania); CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608 (France); Universitatea Politehnica, Timisoara (Romania); Pollet, M., E-mail: pollet@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608 (France); Artemenko, A. [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608 (France)] [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608 (France); Miclau, M., E-mail: marinela.miclau@gmail.com [National Institute for R and D in Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Timisoara 30024 (Romania); Grozescu, I [National Institute for R and D in Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Timisoara 30024 (Romania) [National Institute for R and D in Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Timisoara 30024 (Romania); Universitatea Politehnica, Timisoara (Romania)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

392

Comparative assessment of five potential sites for hydrothermal-magma systems: energy transport  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A comparative assessment of five sites is being prepared as part of a Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) review of thermal regimes for the purpose of scoping areas for future research and drilling activities. This background report: discusses the various energy transport processes likely to be encountered in a hydrothermal-magma system, reviews related literature, discusses research and field data needs, and reviews the sites from an energy transport viewpoint. At least three major zones exist in the magma-hydrothermal transport system: the magma zone, the hydrothermal zone, and the transition zone between the two. Major energy transport questions relate to the nature and existence of these zones and their evolution with time. Additional energy transport questions are concerned with the possible existence of critical state and super-critical state permeable convection in deep geothermal systems. A review of thermal transport models emphasizes the fact that present transport models and computational techniques far outweigh the scarcity and quality of deep field data.

Hardee, H.C.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Uranium Transport in a High-Throughput Electrorefiner for EBR-II Blanket Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A unique high-throughput Mk-V electrorefiner is being used in the electrometallurgical treatment of the metallic sodium-bonded blanket fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II. Over many cycles, it transports uranium back and forth between the anodic fuel dissolution baskets and the cathode tubes until, because of imperfect adherence of the dendrites, it all ends up in the product collector at the bottom. The transport behavior of uranium in the high-throughput electrorefiner can be understood in terms of the sticking coefficients for uranium adherence to the cathode tubes in the forward direction and to the dissolution baskets in the reverse direction. The sticking coefficients are inferred from the experimental voltage and current traces and are correlated in terms of a single parameter representing the ratio of the cell current to the limiting current at the surface acting as the cathode. The correlations are incorporated into an engineering model that calculates the transport of uranium in the different modes of operation. The model also uses the experimentally derived electrorefiner operating maps that describe the relationship between the cell voltage and the cell current for the three principal transport modes. It is shown that the model correctly simulates the cycle-to-cycle variation of the voltage and current profiles. The model is used to conduct a parametric study of electrorefiner throughput rate as a function of the principal operating parameters. The throughput rate is found to improve with lowering of the basket rotation speed, reduction of UCl{sub 3} concentration in salt, and increasing the maximum cell current or cut-off voltage. Operating conditions are identified that can improve the throughput rate by 60 to 70% over that achieved at present.

Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Hua, Thanh Q.; Vaden, DeeEarl [Argonne National Laboratory (United States)

2004-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

394

TECHNICAL COMPARISON OF CANDIDATE ION EXCHANGE MEDIA FOR SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE (SCIX) APPLICATIONS IN SUPPORT OF SUPPLEMENTAL LAW PRETREATMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At-tank supplemental pretreatment including both filtration and small column ion exchange is currently under evaluation to facilitate salt waste retrieval and processing in the Hanford tank farms. Spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) resin is the baseline ion exchange resin for use in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). This document provides background and technical rationale to assist in determining whether spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) is also the appropriate ion exchange resin for supplemental LAW pretreatment processes and compares sRF with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) as potential supplemental pretreatment ion exchange media.

RAMSEY AA; THORSON MR

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

395

A high-throughput infrastructure for density functional theory calculations Anubhav Jain, Geoffroy Hautier, Charles J. Moore, Shyue Ping Ong, Christopher C. Fischer,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A high-throughput infrastructure for density functional theory calculations Anubhav Jain, Geoffroy-throughput computation Density functional theory Materials screening GGA Formation enthalpies a b s t r a c t The use of high-throughput density functional theory (DFT) calculations to screen for new materials and conduct

Ceder, Gerbrand

396

Structural carbohydrate availability with electrochemical ozonation and ammonia pressurization / depressurization pre-treatment technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

biomass into available and /or soluble sugars and organic acids (i. e. uronic acid esters etc. ). The chemical linkages between hemicellulose and lignin may be affected by ammoniation pre-treatment. The significance of this fact is that heavily cross... by Turner et al (1995) demonstrated a significant increase in the available energy and crude protein of NH3 treated maize. Ammoniation of rice straw (Pradhan et al, 1997) bound residual ammonia to fiber and yielded an increase in the level of crude...

Williams, James Jason

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Cogasification/cofiring of Biomass and Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Utilization of biomass as a co-feed in coal and biomass co-firing and co-gasification requires size reduction of the biomass. Reducing biomass to below 0.2 mm without pretreatment is difficult and costly because biomass is fibrous and compressible. Torrefaction is a promising thermal pretreatment process and has the advantages of increasing energy density, improving grindability, producing fuels with more homogenous compositions and hydrophobic behavior. Temperature is the most important factor for the torrefaction process. Biomass grindability is related to cell wall structure, thickness and composition. Thermal treatment such as torrefaction can cause chemical changes that significantly affect the strength of biomass. The objectives of this study are to understand the mechanism by which torrefaction improves the grindability of biomass and discuss suitable temperatures for thermal pretreatment for co-gasification/cofiring of biomass and coal. Wild cherry wood was selected as the model for this study. Samples were prepared by sawing a single tangential section from the heartwood and cutting it into eleven pieces. The samples were consecutively heated at 220, 260, 300, 350, 450 and 550oC for 0.5 hr under flowing nitrogen in a tube furnace. Untreated and treated samples were characterized for physical properties (color, dimensions and weight), microstructural changes by SEM, and cell wall composition changes and thermal behaviors by TGA and DSC. The morphology of the wood remained intact through the treatment range but the cell walls were thinner. Thermal treatments were observed to decompose the cell wall components. Hemicellulose decomposed over the range of ~200 to 300oC and resulted in weakening of the cell walls and subsequently improved grindability. Furthermore, wood samples treated above 300oC lost more than 39% in mass. Therefore, thermal pretreatment above the hemicelluloses decomposition temperature but below 300oC is probably sufficient to improve grindability and retain energy value.

Wang, Ping; Howard, Bret; Hedges, Sheila; Morreale, Bryan; Van Essendelft, Dirk; Berry, David

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

398

Method for aqueous gold thiosulfate extraction using copper-cyanide pretreated carbon adsorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gold thiosulfate leaching process uses carbon to remove gold from the leach liquor. The activated carbon is pretreated with copper cyanide. A copper (on the carbon) to gold (in solution) ratio of at least 1.5 optimizes gold recovery from solution. To recover the gold from the carbon, conventional elution technology works but is dependent on the copper to gold ratio on the carbon.

Young, Courtney; Melashvili, Mariam; Gow, Nicholas V

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

399

HANFORD MEDIUM & LOW CURIE WASTE PRETREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 LAB REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fractional crystallization (FC) process is being developed to supplement tank waste pretreatment capabilities provided by the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). FC can process many tank wastes, separating wastes into a low-activity fraction (LAW) and high-activity fraction (HLW). The low-activity fraction can be immobilized in a glass waste form by processing in the bulk vitrification (BV) system.

HAMILTON, D.W.

2006-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

400

Hanford Waste Treatment Plant places first complex piping module in Pretreatment Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Crews at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant, also known as the "Vit Plant," placed a 19-ton piping module inside the Pretreatment Facility. The module was lifted over 98-foot-tall walls and lowered into a space that provided less than two inches of clearance on each side and just a few feet on each end. It was set 56 feet above the ground.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Improved Multivariate Calibration Models for Corn Stover Feedstock and Dilute-Acid Pretreated Corn Stover  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied rapid calibration models to predict the composition of a variety of biomass feedstocks by correlating near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic data to compositional data produced using traditional wet chemical analysis techniques. The rapid calibration models are developed using multivariate statistical analysis of the spectroscopic and wet chemical data. This work discusses the latest versions of the NIR calibration models for corn stover feedstock and dilute-acid pretreated corn stover. Measures of the calibration precision and uncertainty are presented. No statistically significant differences (p = 0.05) are seen between NIR calibration models built using different mathematical pretreatments. Finally, two common algorithms for building NIR calibration models are compared; no statistically significant differences (p = 0.05) are seen for the major constituents glucan, xylan, and lignin, but the algorithms did produce different predictions for total extractives. A single calibration model combining the corn stover feedstock and dilute-acid pretreated corn stover samples gave less satisfactory predictions than the separate models.

Wolfrum, E. J.; Sluiter, A. D.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Tank Waste Remediation System tank waste pretreatment and vitrification process development testing requirements assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A multi-faceted study was initiated in November 1993 to provide assurance that needed testing capabilities, facilities, and support infrastructure (sampling systems, casks, transportation systems, permits, etc.) would be available when needed for process and equipment development to support pretreatment and vitrification facility design and construction schedules. This first major report provides a snapshot of the known testing needs for pretreatment, low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification, and documents the results of a series of preliminary studies and workshops to define the issues needing resolution by cold or hot testing. Identified in this report are more than 140 Hanford Site tank waste pretreatment and LLW/HLW vitrification technology issues that can only be resolved by testing. The report also broadly characterizes the level of testing needed to resolve each issue. A second report will provide a strategy(ies) for ensuring timely test capability. Later reports will assess the capabilities of existing facilities to support needed testing and will recommend siting of the tests together with needed facility and infrastructure upgrades or additions.

Howden, G.F.

1994-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

403

Laboratory Tests on Post-Filtration Precipitation in the WTP Pretreatment Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, "Undemonstrated Leaching Processes," of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes et al. 2006). The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. A simplified flow diagram of the PEP system is shown in Figure 1.1. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP; and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF).

Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Crum, Jarrod V.

2009-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

404

Method and apparatus for maximizing throughput of indirectly heated rotary kilns  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for achieving improved throughput capacity of indirectly heated rotary kilns used to produce pyrolysis products such as shale oils or coal oils that are susceptible to decomposition by high kiln wall temperatures is disclosed. High throughput is achieved by firing the kiln such that optimum wall temperatures are maintained beginning at the point where the materials enter the heating section of the kiln and extending to the point where the materials leave the heated section. Multiple high velocity burners are arranged such that combustion products directly impact on the area of the kiln wall covered internally by the solid material being heated. Firing rates for the burners are controlled to maintain optimum wall temperatures.

Coates, Ralph L; Smoot, L. Douglas; Hatfield, Kent E

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

405

Increasing throughput of multiplexed electrical bus in pipe-lined architecture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Techniques are disclosed for increasing the throughput of a multiplexed electrical bus by exploiting available pipeline stages of a computer or other system. For example, a method for increasing a throughput of an electrical bus that connects at least two devices in a system comprises introducing at least one signal hold stage in a signal-receiving one of the two devices, such that a maximum frequency at which the two devices are operated is not limited by a number of cycles of an operating frequency of the electrical bus needed for a signal to propagate from a signal-transmitting one of the two devices to the signal-receiving one of the two devices. Preferably, the signal hold stage introduced in the signal-receiving one of the two devices is a pipeline stage re-allocated from the signal-transmitting one of the two devices.

Asaad, Sameh; Brezzo, Bernard V; Kapur, Mohit

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

406

A simple packet retransmission strategy for throughput and delay enhancement on power line communication channels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new, simple, and effective communication protocol is developed and evaluated for use on power line distribution networks. The protocol involves retransmission of unacknowledged packets, which are sent in either single or multiple (N) copies in accordance with estimates of communication link quality. Multiple packet copies can be code combined at the receiver, using majority voting on each bit position, to reduce packet error rates. Adaptive link quality estimates are based on the receipt or absence of positive acknowledgements. Information throughput efficiency is calculated and N optimized in terms of system variables. Performance benefits of code combining are clearly demonstrated. The algorithm was implemented and tested using a five-station intrabuilding power line communications network operating at 1.2, 2.4, 4.8 and 9.6 kbit/s data rate. Substantial throughput and delay improvement occurred on poor quality links, without degrading performance on good links.

Onunga, J.O. (Kenya Posts and Telecommunications Corp., Nairobi (Kenya)); Donaldson, R.W. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

High Throughput Computing Impact on Meta Genomics (Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation includes a brief background on High Throughput Computing, correlating gene transcription factors, optical mapping, genotype to phenotype mapping via QTL analysis, and current work on next gen sequencing.

Gore, Brooklin [Morgridge Institute for Research] [Morgridge Institute for Research

2011-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

408

A High-Throughput Screen for Wnt/?-Catenin Signaling Pathway Modulators in Human iPSC-Derived Neural Progenitors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wnt/?-catenin signaling has emerged as a central player in pathways implicated in the pathophysiology and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify potential novel therapeutics for these disorders, high-throughput ...

Zhao, Wen-Ning

409

Evaluation of Tavorite-Structured Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries Using High-Throughput Computing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cathode materials with structure similar to the mineral tavorite have shown promise for use in lithium-ion batteries, but this class of materials is relatively unexplored. We use high-throughput density-functional-theory ...

Mueller, Tim

410

High-throughput data mined prediction of inorganic compounds and computational discovery of new lithium-ion battery cathode materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ability to computationally predict the properties of new materials, even prior to their synthesis, has been made possible due to the current accuracy of modern ab initio techniques. In some cases, high-throughput ...

Hautier, Geoffroy (Geoffroy T. F.)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

High Throughput Computing Impact on Meta Genomics (Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

This presentation includes a brief background on High Throughput Computing, correlating gene transcription factors, optical mapping, genotype to phenotype mapping via QTL analysis, and current work on next gen sequencing.

Gore, Brooklin [Morgridge Institute for Research

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

412

Advances in high-throughput speed, low-latency communication for embedded instrumentation ( 7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Scott Jordan on "Advances in high-throughput speed, low-latency communication for embedded instrumentation" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Jordan, Scott [Physik Instrumente

2013-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

413

High Throughput Plasmid Sequencing with Illumina and CLC Bio (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Ajay Athavale (Monsanto) presents "High Throughput Plasmid Sequencing with Illumina and CLC Bio" at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

Athavale, Ajay [Monsanto

2013-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

414

High Throughput Synthesis of Uniform Biocompatible Polymer Beads with High Quantum Dot Loading Using Microfluidic Jet-Mode Breakup  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Uniform polymer microbeads with highly loaded quantum dots (QDs) are produced using high-throughput coherent jet breakup of a biocompatible poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) prepolymer resin, followed by in-line ...

Lee, Seung-Kon

415

Fabrication of hollow mesoporous NiO hexagonal microspheres via hydrothermal process in ionic liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors were synthesized in ionic liquid and water solution by hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were prepared by thermal treatment of Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were self-assembled by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals with high specific surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mesoporous structure is stable at 773 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ionic liquid absorbed on the O-terminate surface of the crystals to form hydrogen bond and played key roles in determining the final shape of the NiO novel microstructure. -- Abstract: The novel NiO hexagonal hollow microspheres have been successfully prepared by annealing Ni(OH){sub 2}, which was synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The results show that the hollow NiO microstructures are self-organized by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals. The mesoporous structure possessed good thermal stability and high specific surface area (ca. 83 m{sup 2}/g). The ionic liquid 1-butyl-3methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF{sub 4}]) was found to play a key role in controlling the morphology of NiO microstructures during the hydrothermal process. The special hollow mesoporous architectures will have potential applications in many fields, such as catalysts, absorbents, sensors, drug-delivery carriers, acoustic insulators and supercapacitors.

Zhao, Jinbo, E-mail: zhaojinb@gmail.com [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China) [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); Wu, Lili, E-mail: wulili@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China) [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); Zou, Ke, E-mail: zouk2005@163.com [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China) [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

416

Hydrothermal Testing of K Basin Sludge and N Reactor Fuel at Sludge Treatment Project Operating Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed for the U. S. DOE by Fluor Hanford (FH), was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from K Basin sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The STP process uses high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. Under nominal process conditions, the sludge will be heated in pressurized water at 185°C for as long as 72 hours to assure the complete reaction (corrosion) of up to 0.25-inch diameter uranium metal pieces. Under contract to FH, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted bench-scale testing of the STP hydrothermal process in November and December 2006. Five tests (~50 ml each) were conducted in sealed, un-agitated reaction vessels under the hydrothermal conditions (e.g., 7 to 72 h at 185°C) of the STP corrosion process using radioactive sludge samples collected from the K East Basin and particles/coupons of N Reactor fuel also taken from the K Basins. The tests were designed to evaluate and understand the chemical changes that may be occurring and the effects that any changes would have on sludge rheological properties. The tests were not designed to evaluate engineering aspects of the process. The hydrothermal treatment affected the chemical and physical properties of the sludge. In each test, significant uranium compound phase changes were identified, resulting from dehydration and chemical reduction reactions. Physical properties of the sludge were significantly altered from their initial, as-settled sludge values, including, shear strength, settled density, weight percent water, and gas retention.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Thornton, Brenda M.

2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

417

Hydrothermal alteration in research drill hole Y-2, Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Y-2, a US Geological Survey research diamond-drill hole in Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, was drilled to a depth of 157.4 meters. The hole penetrated interbedded siliceous sinter and travertine to 10.2 m, glacial sediments of the Pinedale Glaciation interlayered with pumiceous tuff from 10.2 to 31.7 m, and rhyolitic lavas of the Elephant Back flow of the Central Plateau Member and the Mallard Lake Member of the Pleistocene Plateau Rhyolite from 31.7 to 157.4 m. Hydrothermal alteration is pervasive in most of the nearly continuous drill core. Rhyolitic glass has been extensively altered to clay and zeolite minerals (intermediate heulandite, clinoptilolite, mordenite, montmorillonite, mixed-layer illite-montmorillonite, and illite) in addition to quartz and adularia. Numerous veins, vugs, and fractures in the core contain these and other minerals: silica minerals (opal, ..beta..-cristobalite, ..cap alpha..-cristobalite, and chalcedony), zeolites (analcime, wairakite, dachiardite, laumontite, and yugawaralite), carbonates (calcite and siderite), clay (kaolinite and chlorite), oxides (hematite, goethite, manganite, cryptomelane, pyrolusite, and groutite), and sulfides (pyrhotite and pyrite) along with minor aegirine, fluorite, truscottite, and portlandite. Interbedded travertine and siliceous sinter in the upper part of the drill core indicate that two distinct types of thermal water are responsible for precipitation of the surficial deposits, and further that the water regime has alternated between the two thermal waters more than once since the end of the Pinedale Glaciation (approx. 10,000 years B.P.). Alternation of zones of calcium-rich and sodium- and potassium-rich hydrothermal minerals also suggests that the calcium-rich and sodium- and potassium-rich hydrothermal minerals also suggests that the water chemistry in this drill hole varies with depth.

Bargar, K.E.; Beeson, M.H.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Template-free hydrothermal derived cobalt oxide nanopowders: Synthesis, characterization, and removal of organic dyes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of the products obtained by hydrothermal treatment at 160 °C for 24 h, and at different [Co{sup 2+}]/[CO{sub 3}{sup 2?}] ratios: (a) 1:6, (b) 1:3, (c) 1:1.5, (d) 1:1, (e) 1:0.5. Highlights: ? Spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles with different morphologies were prepared by hydrothermal approach. ? The optical characteristics of the as-prepared cobalt oxide revealed the presence of two band gaps. ? Adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was investigated and the percent uptake was found to be >99% in 24 h. -- Abstract: Pure spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles were prepared through hydrothermal approach using different counter ions. First, the pure and uniform cobalt carbonate (with particle size of 21.8–29.8 nm) were prepared in high yield (94%) in an autoclave in absence unfriendly organic surfactants or solvents by adjusting different experimental parameters such as: pH, reaction time, temperature, counter ions, and (Co{sup 2+}:CO{sub 3}{sup 2?}) molar ratios. Thence, the spinel Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} (with mean particle size of 30.5–47.35 nm) was produced by thermal decomposition of cobalt carbonate in air at 500 °C for 3 h. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and thermal analysis (TA). Also, the optical characteristics of the as-prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles revealed the presence of two band gaps (1.45–1.47, and 1.83–1.93 eV). Additionally, adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was investigated and the uptake% was found to be >99% in 24 h.

Nassar, Mostafa Y. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt)] [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt); Ahmed, Ibrahim S., E-mail: isahmed2010@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

419

Influence of the regional topography on the remote emplacement of hydrothermal systems with examples of Ticsani and Ubinas volcanoes, Southern Peru.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and temperature of the hot springs together with the water table position given by self-potential data can be used-volcanic hydrothermal systems. Keywords: self-potential mapping, hydrothermal system, hot springs, temperature 1 by fu- marolic activity and hot springs on the flanks of the edifice, high electric conductivity

420

Dissolved inorganic carbon isotopic composition of low-temperature axial and ridge-flank hydrothermal fluids of the Juan de Fuca Ridge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon isotopic composition of low-temperature axial and ridge-flank hydrothermal fluids of the Juan deDissolved inorganic carbon isotopic composition of low-temperature axial and ridge-flank hydrothermal fluids of the Juan de Fuca Ridge Brett D. Walker a,, Matthew D. McCarthy a , Andrew T. Fisher b

Fisher, Andrew

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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421

A Facile and Template-Free Hydrothermal Synthesis of Mn3O4 Nanorods on Graphene Sheets for Supercapacitor Electrodes with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/Mn3O4 composites were prepared by a simple hydrothermal process from KMnO4 using ethylene glycolA Facile and Template-Free Hydrothermal Synthesis of Mn3O4 Nanorods on Graphene Sheets in Faradaic electron-transfer processes of a metal oxide or conducting poly- mer.3 It is also possible

422

Hydrothermal synthesis and catalytic properties of {alpha}- and {beta}-MnO{sub 2} nanorods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One-dimensional {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} and {beta}-MnO{sub 2} single-crystalline nanostructures were prepared by hydrothermal process. The products were characterized in detail by multiform techniques: X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Experimental results indicate that the temperature plays important roles in determining produce {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} and {beta}-MnO{sub 2} nanorods. In addition, the as-prepared {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} and {beta}-MnO{sub 2} nanorods showed excellent catalytic performance in the Fenton-like reaction.

Cao, Guangsheng, E-mail: daqingcgs@163.com [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Oil and Gas Recovery of Ministry of Education, Daqing Petroleum Institute, Daqing 163318 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Oil and Gas Recovery of Ministry of Education, Daqing Petroleum Institute, Daqing 163318 (China); Su, Ling; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Li, Hui [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Oil and Gas Recovery of Ministry of Education, Daqing Petroleum Institute, Daqing 163318 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Oil and Gas Recovery of Ministry of Education, Daqing Petroleum Institute, Daqing 163318 (China)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

423

Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Lignin-Rich Biorefinery Residues and Algae Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results of the work performed by PNNL using feedstock materials provided by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, KL Energy and Lignol lignocellulosic ethanol pilot plants. Test results with algae feedstocks provided by Genifuel, which provided in-kind cost share to the project, are also included. The work conducted during this project involved developing and demonstrating on the bench-scale process technology at PNNL for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of lignin-rich biorefinery residues and algae. A technoeconomic assessment evaluated the use of the technology for energy recovery in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Jones, Susanne B.; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.

2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

424

Yttrium and rare earth elements in fluids from various deep-sea hydrothermal systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rare earth element (REE) and yttrium (Y) concentrations were measured in fluids collected from deep-sea hydrothermal systems including the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), i.e., Menez Gwen, Lucky Strike, TAG, and Snakepit; the East Pacific Rise (EPR), i.e., 13{degree}N and 17--19{degree}S; and the Lau (Vai Lili) and Manus (Vienna Woods, PacManus, Desmos) Back-arc Basins (BAB) in the South-West Pacific. In most fluids, Y is trivalent and behaves like Ho. Chondrite normalized Y-REE (Y-REE{sub N}) concentrations of fluids from MAR, EPR, and two BAB sites, i.e., Vai Lili and Vienna Woods, showed common patterns with LREE enrichment and positive Eu anomalies. REE analysis of plagioclase collected at Lucky Strike strengthens the idea that fluid REE contents, are controlled by plagioclase phenocrysts. Other processes, however, such as REE complexation by ligands (Cl{sup {minus}}, F{sup {minus}}, So{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}), secondary phase precipitation, and phase separation modify REE distributions in deep-sea hydrothermal fluids. REE speciation calculations suggest that aqueous REE are mainly complexed by Cl{sup {minus}} ions in hot acidic fluids from deep-sea hydrothermal systems. REE concentrations in the fluid phases are, therefore, influenced by temperature, pH, and duration of rock-fluid interaction. Unusual Y-REE{sub N} patterns found in the PacManus fluids are characterized by depleted LREE and a positive Eu anomaly. The Demos fluid sample shows a flat Y-REE{sub N} pattern, which increases regularly from LREE to HREE with no Eu anomaly. These Manus Basin fluids also have an unusual major element chemistry with relatively high Mg, So{sub 4}, H{sub 2}S, and F contents, which may be due to the incorporation of magmatic fluids into heated seawater during hydrothermal circulation. REE distribution in PacManus fluids may stem from a subseafloor barite precipitation and the REE in Demos fluids are likely influenced by the presence of sulfate ions.

Douville, E. [Univ. Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France). Dept. de Chimie] [Univ. Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France). Dept. de Chimie; [IFREMER Centre de Brest, Plouzane (France); Appriou, P. [Univ. Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France)] [Univ. Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France); Bienvenu, P. [CEA Cadarache, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France). Lab. d`Analyses Radiochimiques et Chimiques] [CEA Cadarache, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France). Lab. d`Analyses Radiochimiques et Chimiques; Charlou, J.L.; Donval, J.P.; Fouquet, Y. [IFREMER Centre de Brest, Plouzane (France)] [IFREMER Centre de Brest, Plouzane (France); Gamo, Toshitaka [Univ. of Tokyo, Nakano, Tokyo (Japan). Ocean Research Inst.] [Univ. of Tokyo, Nakano, Tokyo (Japan). Ocean Research Inst.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Hydrothermal Processing of Biomass Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe U.S. Department of Energy andHydrothermal Processing of

426

Chemical Rearrangement under Hydrothermal Conditions: Formation of Polymeric Chains (CuX)2(dpiz) and (CuX)3(dpiz) (X ) Cl, Br; dpiz ) Dipyrido[1,2-a:2,3-d]imidazole) and Crystal Structures of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rearrangement during the hydrothermal self- assembly process in forming copper dipyrido[1,2-a:2,3-d]imi- dazoleChemical Rearrangement under Hydrothermal Conditions: Formation of Polymeric Chains (CuX)2(dpiz the hydrothermal method7 has been widely applied in the synthesis and crystal growth of many inorganic compounds

Li, Jing

427

A review on biomass classification and composition, cofiring issues and pretreatment methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Presently around the globe there is a significant interest in using biomass for power generation as power generation from coal continues to raise environmental concerns. Biomass alone can be used for generation of power which can bring lot of environmental benefits. However the constraints of using biomass alone can include high investments costs for biomass feed systems and also uncertainty in the security of the feedstock supply due to seasonal variations and in most of the countries biomass is dispersed and the infrastructure for biomass supply is not well established. Alternatively cofiring biomass along with coal offer advantages like (a) reducing the issues related to biomass quality and buffers the system when there is insufficient feedstock quantity and (b) costs of adapting the existing coal power plants will be lower than building new systems dedicated only to biomass. However with the above said advantages there exists some technical constrains including low heating and energy density values, low bulk density, lower grindability index, higher moisture and ash content to successfully cofire biomass with coal. In order to successfully cofire biomass with coal, biomass feedstock specifications need to be established to direct pretreatment options that may include increasing the energy density, bulk density, stability during storage and grindability. Impacts on particle transport systems, flame stability, pollutant formation and boiler tube fouling/corrosion must also be minimized by setting feedstock specifications including composition and blend ratios if necessary. Some of these limitations can be overcome by using pretreatment methods. This paper discusses the impact of feedstock pretreatment methods like sizing, baling, pelletizing, briquetting, washing/leaching, torrefaction, torrefaction and pelletization and steam explosion in attainment of optimum feedstock characteristics to successfully cofire biomass with coal.

Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Richard D. Boardman

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Pretreatment of neutralized cladding removal waste sludge: Results of the second design basis experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For several years, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been investigating methods to pretreat Hanford neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) sludge. In the past, Zircaloy-clad metallic U fuel was chemically decladded using the Zirflex process; NCRW sludge was formed when the decladding solution was neutralized for storage in carbon-steel tanks. This sludge, which is currently stored in Tanks 103-AW and 105-AW on the Hanford Site, primarily consists of insoluble Zr hydroxides and/or oxides and NaF. Significant quantities of Al, La, U, as well as other insoluble minor constituents are present in the sludge, along with sodium and potassium nitrates, nitrites, and hydroxides in the interstitial liquid. The sludge contains about 2,000 nCi of transuranic (TRU) material per gram of dry sludge, and mixed fission products. Therefore, the sludge must be handled as high-level waste (HLW). The NCRW sludge must be pretreated before treatment (e.g., vitrification) and disposal, so that the overall cost of disposal can be minimized. The NCRW pretreatment flowsheet was designed to achieve the following objectives: (a) to separate Am and Pu from the major sludge constituents (Na, Zr). (b) to separate Am and Pu from U. (c) to concentrate Am and Pu in a small volume for immobilization in borosilicate glass, based on Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The flowsheet involves: (1) sludge washing, (2) sludge dissolution, (3) extraction of U with tributyl phosphate (TBP), and (4) extraction of TRUs with octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutlycarbamoylmethyl-phosphine oxide (CMPO). As presented in the flowsheet, the NCRW sludge is first washed with 0.I M NaOH to remove interstitial liquid and soluble salts from the sludge including sodium and potassium fluorides, carbonates, hydroxides, nitrates, and nitrites. The washed sludge is then subjected to two dissolution steps to achieve near complete dissolution of Zr.

Lumetta, G.J.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Process Development for Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Algae Feedstocks in a Continuous-Flow Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wet algae slurries can be converted into an upgradeable biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). High levels of carbon conversion to gravity-separable biocrude product were accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 ?C) in a continuous-flow, pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa). As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause process difficulties. High conversions were obtained even with high slurry concentrations of up to 35 wt% of dry solids. Catalytic hydrotreating was effectively applied for hydrodeoxygenation, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrodesulfurization of the biocrude to form liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Catalytic hydrothermal gasification was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup and fuel gas production from water soluble organics, allowing the water to be considered for recycle of nutrients to the algae growth ponds. As a result, high conversion of algae to liquid hydrocarbon and gas products was found with low levels of organic contamination in the byproduct water. All three process steps were accomplished in bench-scale, continuous-flow reactor systems such that design data for process scale-up was generated.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Hallen, Richard T.; Holladay, Johnathan E.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Pencil-like zinc oxide micro/nano-scale structures: Hydrothermal synthesis, optical and photocatalytic properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Zinc oxide micro/nanopencils have been synthesized hydrothermally. • Photocatalytic activity has been evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation. • ZnO nanopencils exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity than the commercial ZnO. - Abstract: Zinc oxide micro/nanopencils have been successfully synthesized by hydrothermal process using zinc acetate and diamines as structure-directing agents. The morphology, the structure, the crystallinity and the composition of the materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The optical properties of synthesized ZnO were investigated by UV–vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the material has been evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. As a result, after the lapse of 150 min, around 82% bleaching was observed, with ZnO nanopencils yielding more photodegradation compared to that of commercial ZnO (61%)

Moulahi, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée, IPEIT, Université de Tunis, 2 rue Jawaher Lel Nehru 1008, B. P. 229 Montfleury (Tunisia); Sediri, F., E-mail: faouzi.sediri@ipeit.rnu.tn [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée, IPEIT, Université de Tunis, 2 rue Jawaher Lel Nehru 1008, B. P. 229 Montfleury (Tunisia); Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université de Tunis El Manar, 2092 El Manar (Tunisia)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

431

Ionic liquid assisted hydrothermal fabrication of hierarchically organized ?-AlOOH hollow sphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? The ?-AlOOH hollow spheres were synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal treatment. ? Ionic liquid plays an important role in the morphology of the product. ? Ionic liquid can be easily removed from the product and reused in next experiment. ? A “aggregation–solution–recrystallization” formation mechanism may occur in the system. -- Abstract: Hierarchically organized ?-AlOOH hollow spheres with nanoflake-like porous surface texture have been successfully synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal synthesis method in citric acid monohydrate (CAMs). It was found that ionic liquid [bmim]{sup +}Cl{sup ?} played an important role in the morphology of the product due to its strong interactions with reaction particles. The samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The results show that the product has narrow particle size distribution (500–900 nm particle diameter range), high specific surface area (240.5 m{sup 2}/g) and large pore volume (0.61 cm{sup 3}/g). The corresponding ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hollow spheres can be obtained by calcining it at 550 °C for 3 h. The proposed formation mechanism and other influencing factors of the ?-AlOOH hollow sphere material, such as reaction temperature, reaction duration, CAMs and urea, have also been investigated.

Tang, Zhe, E-mail: tangzhe1983@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China); Liu, Yunqi, E-mail: liuyq@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China); Li, Guangci, E-mail: liguangci1984@yahoo.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China); Hu, Xiaofu, E-mail: hjj19850922@126.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China); Liu, Chenguang, E-mail: cgliu@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

432

A direct steam heat option for hydrothermal treatment of municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A conceptual process for producing a gasifiable slurry from raw municipal solid waste (MSW) using direct steam heating is outlined. The process is based on the hydrothermal decomposition of the organic matter in the MSW, which requires the MSW to be heated to 300-350{degrees}C in the presence of water. A process model is developed and it is shown, based on preliminary estimates of the hydrothermal reaction stoichiometry, that a process using multiple pressure vessels, which allows recovery of waste heat, results in a process capable of producing a product slurry having a 40 wt % solids content with no waste water emissions. Results for a variety of process options and process parameters are presented. It is shown that the addition of auxiliary feedstock to the gasifier, along with the MSW derived slurry, results in more efficient gasification. It is estimated that 2.6 kmol/s of hydrogen can be produced from 30 kg/s (2600 tonne/day) of MSW and 16 kg/s of heavy oil. Without the additional feedstock, heavy oil in this case, only 0.49 kmol/s of hydrogen would be produced.

Thorsness, C.B.

1995-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

433

Hydrothermal alteration in the EPF replacement wells, Olkaria Geothermal field, Kenya  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Olkaria Geothermal area is located in the central sector of the Kenya, Rift Valley. A 45MW Geothermal power station has been operational at Olkaria since 1985 supplied by 22 of the 26 wells drilled in the Eastern production field (EPF). Between 1988 and 1993, eight more wells referred to as {open_quote}replacement wells{close_quote} were drilled in the same field to boost steam supply to the station. Petrographic analyses of the drill cuttings is usually done to determine detail stratigraphy of the field, extends of hydrothermal activity, subsurface structures and other parameters which may influence production potential of a well. Analyses of the drill cuttings from the EPF wells show that: Variations in the whole rock alteration intensities correlate with differences in rocktypes. Permeable horizons, especially the productive feeder zones are well marked by enhanced hydrothermal minerals depositions, mainly quartz, calcite, pyrite and epidote. Other aspects of state of reservoir like boiling are signified by presence of bladed calcite.

Mungania, J. [Kenya Power & Lighting Co. Ltd., Naivasha (Kenya)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

434

Initial studies of pretreatment methods for neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is performing conceptual and experimental studies for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) aimed at determining the effectiveness of various pretreatment methods for the neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) sludge currently being stored at the Hanford Site of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of such pretreatment methods is to separate the transuranic (TRU) elements and the bulk components of the waste (primarily zirconium, sodium, fluoride, and hydroxide) to a level low enough that the bulk components can be disposed of as low-level waste (LLW), with only a small volume, TRU-containing fraction requiring geologic disposal. This objective is driven primarily by the large cost differential projected between LLW and geologic disposal procedures. This report contains the results of the first three years (1987, 1988, and 1989) of the program. These results were earlier reported informally in letter reports; they are here compiled in appendix form in this formal report to be more readily available to other workers and the public. The results of work done in 1990 and in following years will be reported in separate formal reports.

Swanson, J L

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Abstract--A stochastic dynamic programming hydrothermal dispatch model to simulate a bid-based market is  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on dynamic programming that optimizes and validates the bid prices strategies for each power plant in a hydro-thermal several plants. Emphasis is given to hydro reservoir modeling and to the assessment of their market power market power is detected, focalized on main reservoir plants and implicating important increases

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

436

Simultaneous precipitation of magnesite and lizardite from1 hydrothermal alteration of olivine under high-carbonate alkalinity2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Simultaneous precipitation of magnesite and lizardite from1 hydrothermal alteration of olivine under high-carbonate alkalinity2 3 Romain Lafaya, b , German Montes-Hernandeza, *, Emilie Janotsb experiments in order to investigate the simultaneous25 serpentinization and carbonation of olivine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

437

The tube-worm Riftia pachyptila Jones, 1981 is one of the most prominent members of the hydrothermal vent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the hydrothermal vent community. This organism harbours chemolithoautotrophic bacteria deep within its body production and inorganic carbon fixation. As a consequence of its morphology, the tube- worm must provide its symbionts with the compounds required for autotrophy (e.g. inorganic carbon and sulphide). Recent studies

Girguis, Peter R.

438

Controls on the genesis of hydrothermal cobalt mineralization: insights from the mineralogy and geochemistry of the Bou Azzer deposits, Morocco  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Controls on the genesis of hydrothermal cobalt mineralization: insights from the mineralogy,Ni,Fe) arsenides and sulpharsenides, with accessory sulphides and gold in a quartz-carbonate gangue. The ore-Ni-Fe, avec des quantités mineures de sulphures et de l'or dans une gangue de quartz- carbonate. Les minerais

439

1256 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 18, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2003 Short-Term Hydrothermal Generation Scheduling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

long and mid-term models, have been used to optimize the amount of hydro energy to be used during1256 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 18, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2003 Short-Term Hydrothermal are obtained for each of both hydro and thermal units. Future cost curves of hydro generation, obtained from

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

440

Effect of pretreating of host oil on coprocessing. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principal objective of this research is to gain information on the role that host petroleum-derived oils (1000F+), as well as that of catalytically treated host oils, play when used as liquefaction solvents in coprocessing with coal. The host oil will be extensively characterized and then pretreated in a number of ways which involve catalytic reactions such as hydrogenation, hydrocracking, and isomerization. The pretreated oils will then be characterized by elemental analysis, catalytic dehydrogenation, distillation, GC-MS, and NMR. The effects of the host oil on coprocessing with coal will be compared to those obtained using catalytically modified heavy oils. When appropriate, model compounds will be used to study specific reactions brought about by the pretreatments.

Wender, I.; Tierney, J.W.

1993-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

ENHANCED DOE HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER THROUGHPUT STUDIES: SRNL GLASS SELECTION STRATEGY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy has authorized a team of glass formulation and processing experts at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) at Catholic University of America to develop a systematic approach to increase high level waste melter throughput (by increasing waste loading with minimal or positive impacts on melt rate). This task is aimed at proof-of-principle testing and the development of tools to improve waste loading and melt rate, which will lead to higher waste throughput. Four specific tasks have been proposed to meet these objectives (for details, see WSRC-STI-2007-00483): (1) Integration and Oversight, (2) Crystal Accumulation Modeling (led by PNNL)/Higher Waste Loading Glasses (led by SRNL), (3) Melt Rate Evaluation and Modeling, and (4) Melter Scale Demonstrations. Task 2, Crystal Accumulation Modeling/Higher Waste Loading Glasses is the focus of this report. The objective of this study is to provide supplemental data to support the possible use of alternative melter technologies and/or implementation of alternative process control models or strategies to target higher waste loadings (WLs) for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)--ultimately leading to higher waste throughputs and a reduced mission life. The glass selection strategy discussed in this report was developed to gain insight into specific technical issues that could limit or compromise the ability of glass formulation efforts to target higher WLs for future sludge batches at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These technical issues include Al-dissolution, higher TiO{sub 2} limits and homogeneity issues for coupled-operations, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility, and nepheline formation. To address these technical issues, a test matrix of 28 glass compositions has been developed based on 5 different sludge projections for future processing. The glasses will be fabricated and characterized based on the protocols outlined in the SRNL Task and Quality Assurance (QA) plan.

Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

2008-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

442

Getter sputtering system for high-throughput fabrication of composition spreads  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a sputtering system that can deposit composition spreads in an effectively UHV environment but which does not require the high-throughput paradigm to be compromised by a long pump down each time a target is changed. The system deploys four magnetron sputter guns in a cryoshroud (getter sputtering) which allows elements such as Ti and Zr to be deposited with minimal contamination by oxygen or other reactive background gases. The system also relies on custom substrate heaters to give rapid heating and cool down. The effectiveness of the gettering technique is evaluated, and example results obtained for catalytic activity of a pseudoternary composition spread are presented.

Gregoire, John M.; Dover, R. B. van; Jin Jing; Di Salvo, Francis J.; Abruna, Hector D. [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States) and Cornell Fuel Cell Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States) and Cornell Fuel Cell Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States) and Cornell Fuel Cell Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

443

High-throughput, single-worm tracking and analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

significantly impact worm phenotype. An assessment of the statistical ? indicates that, for popular behavioral features, roughly 10 worms discriminate a mean difference of two standard deviations from wild-type behavior with well over 90% power and, 20 worms... Measu remen ts Enviro nment al Restri ctions Other Benef its Table 2.1: Single-Worm Tracker Comparison High-Throughput, Single-Worm Tracking and Analysis in C. elegans 20 Figure 2.1: WT1 Tracking Hardware A picture of the WT1 hardware...

Yemini, Eviatar

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

444

Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate-assisted synthesis through a hydrothermal reaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: Reaction of a SeCl{sub 4} aqueous solution with a NiCl{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O aqueous solution in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as capping agent and hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O) as reductant, produces nanosized nickel selenide through a hydrothermal method. The effect of temperature, reaction time and amounts of reductant on the morphology, particle sizes of NiSe nanostructures has been investigated. Highlights: ? NiSe nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method. ? A novel Se source was used to synthesize NiSe. ? SDBS as capping agent plays a crucial role on the morphology of products. ? A mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe was prepared in the presence of 2 ml hydrazine. ? A pure phase of NiSe was prepared in the presence of 4 or 6 ml hydrazine. -- Abstract: The effects of the anionic surfactant on the morphology, size and crystallization of NiSe precipitated from NiCl{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O and SeCl{sub 4} in presence of hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O) as reductant were investigated. The products have been successfully synthesized in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as surfactant via an improved hydrothermal route. A variety of synthesis parameters, such as reaction time and temperature, capping agent and amount of reducing agent have a significant effect on the particle size, phase purity and morphology of the obtained products. The sample size became bigger with decreasing reaction temperature and increasing reaction time. In the presence of 2 ml hydrazine, the samples were found to be the mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe. With increasing the reaction time and amount of hydrazine a pure phase of hexagonal NiSe was obtained. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images indicate phase, particle size and morphology of the products. Chemical composition and purity of the products were characterized by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Photoluminescence (PL) was used to study the optical properties of NiSe samples.

Sobhani, Azam [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317–51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317–51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salavati-Niasari, Masoud, E-mail: salavati@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317–51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317–51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317–51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

445

Direct dose to water dosimetry for pretreatment IMRT verification using a modified EPID  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) are high resolution systems that produce electronic dose maps with minimal time required for equipment setup, and therefore potentially present a time-saving alternative for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) pretreatment verification. A modified commercial EPID was investigated operated with an opaque sheet blocking the optical signal produced in the phosphor layer as a precursor to a switched mode dual dosimetry-imaging EPID system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using this system for direct dose to water dosimetry for pretreatment IMRT verification. Methods: A Varian amorphous silicon EPID was modified by placing an opaque sheet between the Gd{sub 2}S{sub 2}O:Tb phosphor layer and the photodiode array to block the optical photons. The EPID was thus converted to a direct-detecting system (dEPID), in which the high energy radiation deposits energy directly in the photodiode array. The copper build-up was replaced with d{sub max} solid water. Sixty-one IMRT beams of varying complexity were delivered to the EPID, to EDR2 dosimetric film and to a 2D ion chamber array (MapCheck). EPID data was compared to film and MapCheck data using gamma analysis with 3%, 3mm pass criteria. Results: The fraction of points that passed the gamma test was on average 98.1% and 98.6%, for the EPID versus film and EPID versus MapCheck comparisons, respectively. In the case of comparison with film, the majority of observed discrepancies were associated with problems related to film sensitivity or processing. Conclusions: The very close agreement between EPID and both film and MapCheck data demonstrates that the modified EPID is suitable for direct dose to water measurement for pretreatment IMRT verification. These results suggest a reconfigured EPID could be an efficient and accurate dosimeter. Alternatively, optical switching methods could be developed to produce a dual-mode EPID with both dosimetry and imaging capabilities.

Gustafsson, Helen; Vial, Philip; Kuncic, Zdenka; Baldock, Clive; Denham, James W.; Greer, Peter B. [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney 2006 (Australia) and Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney 2065 (Australia); Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney 2006 (Australia) and Department of Medical Physics, Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Sydney 2170 (Australia); Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney 2006 (Australia); School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle 2308 (Australia) and Radiation Oncology Department, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle 2310 (Australia); School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle 2308 (Australia) and Radiation Oncology Department, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle 2310 (Australia)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

446

Hydrothermal synthesis and infrared emissivity property of flower-like SnO{sub 2} particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The flower-like SnO{sub 2} particles are synthesized through a simple hydrothermal process. The microstructure, morphology and the infrared emissivity property of the as-prepared products are characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and infrared spectroradio meter (ISM) respectively. The results show that the as-prepared SnO{sub 2} products are all indexed to tetragonal cassiterite phase of SnO{sub 2}. The different molarity ratios of the OH{sup ?} concentration to Sn{sup 4+} concentration ([OH{sup ?}]:[Sn{sup 4+}]) and the polyacrylamide (PAM) lead to the different morphological structures of SnO{sub 2}, which indicates that both the [OH{sup ?}]:[Sn{sup 4+}] and the PAM play an important role in the morphological evolution respectively. The infrared emissivities of the as-prepared SnO{sub 2} products are discussed.

Tian, J. X. [Institute of Photonics and Photon-Technology, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069 (China) [Institute of Photonics and Photon-Technology, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069 (China); Beijing Institute of Environmental Features, Beijing, 100854 (China); Zhang, Z. Y., E-mail: zhangzy@nwu.edu.cn [Institute of Photonics and Photon-Technology, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069 (China); School of Information Science and Technology, Northwest University, Xi'an 710127 (China); Yan, J. F.; Ruan, X. F.; Yun, J. N.; Zhao, W.; Zhai, C. X. [School of Information Science and Technology, Northwest University, Xi'an 710127 (China)] [School of Information Science and Technology, Northwest University, Xi'an 710127 (China)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

447

Fabrication of indium sulfide nanofibers via a hydrothermal method assisted by AAO template  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

{beta}-In{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanofibers were successfully synthesized via a hydrothermal method with AAO membrane as a template at 150 deg. C for 15 h. XRD patterns indicated the perfect crystallization of {beta}-In{sub 2}S{sub 3}. SEM images showed that the {beta}-In{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanofibers grew up from the channel ends of the AAO template. TEM images confirmed that the nanofibers had a high aspect ratio of ca. 40-50 and diameters of about 10 nm. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the {beta}-In{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanofibers indicated its potential applications in light-emission devices.

Zhu Xiaoyi [Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China); Ma Junfeng [Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China) and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China)]. E-mail: majf@mail.ouc.edu.cn; Wang Yonggang [Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China); Tao Jiantao [Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China); Zhou Jun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China); Zhao Zhongqiang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China); Xie Lijin [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China); Tian Hua [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China)

2006-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

448

Hydrothermal synthesis and characteristics of anions-doped calcium molybdate red powder phosphors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Four anion-doped CaMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} red phosphors were prepared by hydrothermal approach. • Some samples exhibit nearly spherical morphology and well-distributed fine particles. • The red luminescence can be obviously enhanced after certain amount of anion doping. • The improved phosphor system is a potential candidate for white LED applications. - Abstract: Applying hydrothermal and subsequent heat-treatment process, CaMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} was doped with four anions (SiO{sub 3}{sup 2?}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3?}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2?} and ClO{sub 3}{sup ?}) to prepare fine red powder phosphors. The introduction of small amount of anions into the host had little influence on the structure, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns. The anion-doped phosphor samples (except SiO{sub 3}{sup 2?}) exhibited nearly spherical morphology, and the particle sizes were in the range of 0.3–0.4 ?m for SO{sub 4}{sup 2?}-doped samples, and 0.8–1.2 ?m for PO{sub 4}{sup 3?} and ClO{sub 3}{sup ?}-doped samples. Excited with 395 nm near-UV light, all samples showed typical Eu{sup 3+} red emission at 615 nm, and PO{sub 4}{sup 3?}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2?} and ClO{sub 3}{sup ?}-doped samples enhanced the red luminescence as compared with the individual CaMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} sample. In particular, relative emission intensity for optimum ClO{sub 3}{sup ?}-doped phosphors reached more than 6-fold that of the commercial red phosphor, which is highly desirable for the powder phosphors used in the solid-state lighting industry.

Shi, Shikao, E-mail: ssk02@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Zhang, Yan; Liu, Qing [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Zhou, Ji [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

449

High-Throughput Thin Film Approach for Screening of Temperature-Pressure-Composition Phase Space  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many solar energy technologies, for example CIGS and CdTe photovoltaics, utilize materials in thin film form. The equilibrium phase diagrams for these and other more novel solar energy materials are not known or are irrelevant because of the non-equilibrium character of the thin film growth processes. We demonstrate a high-throughput thin film approach for screening of temperature-pressure-composition phase diagrams and phase spaces. The examples in focus are novel solar absorbers Cu-N, Cu-O and p-type transparent conductors in the Cr2O3-MnO system. The composition axis of the Cr2O3-MnO phase diagram was screened using a composition spread method. The temperature axis of the Mn-O phase diagram was screened using a temperature spread method. The pressure axes of the Cu-N and Cu-O phase diagrams were screened using rate spread method with the aid of non-equilibrium growth phenomena. Overall these three methods constitute an approach to high-throughput screening of inorganic thin film phase diagrams. This research is supported by U.S. Department of Energy as a part of two NextGen Sunshot projects and an Energy Frontier Research Center.

Zakutayev, A.; Subramaniyan, A.; Caskey, C. M.; Ndione, P. F.; Richards, R. M.; O'Hayre, R.; Ginley, D. S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Generalized schemes for high throughput manipulation of the Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough genome  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability to conduct advanced functional genomic studies of the thousands of sequenced bacteria has been hampered by the lack of available tools for making high- throughput chromosomal manipulations in a systematic manner that can be applied across diverse species. In this work, we highlight the use of synthetic biological tools to assemble custom suicide vectors with reusable and interchangeable DNA “parts” to facilitate chromosomal modification at designated loci. These constructs enable an array of downstream applications including gene replacement and creation of gene fusions with affinity purification or localization tags. We employed this approach to engineer chromosomal modifications in a bacterium that has previously proven difficult to manipulate genetically, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, to generate a library of over 700 strains. Furthermore, we demonstrate how these modifications can be used for examining metabolic pathways, protein-protein interactions, and protein localization. The ubiquity of suicide constructs in gene replacement throughout biology suggests that this approach can be applied to engineer a broad range of species for a diverse array of systems biological applications and is amenable to high-throughput implementation.

Chhabra, S.R.; Butland, G.; Elias, D.; Chandonia, J.-M.; Fok, V.; Juba, T.; Gorur, A.; Allen, S.; Leung, C.-M.; Keller, K.; Reveco, S.; Zane, G.; Semkiw, E.; Prathapam, R.; Gold, B.; Singer, M.; Ouellet, M.; Sazakal, E.; Jorgens, D.; Price, M.; Witkowska, E.; Beller, H.; Hazen, T.C.; Biggin, M.; Auer, M.; Wall, J.; Keasling, J.

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

451

A Warm Near-Infrared High-Resolution Spectrograph with Very High Throughput (WINERED)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WINERED is a newly built high-efficiency (throughput$ > 25-30\\%$) and high-resolution spectrograph customized for short NIR bands at 0.9-1.35 ${\\rm \\mu}$m. WINERED is equipped with ambient temperature optics and a cryogenic camera using a 1.7 ${\\rm \\mu}$m cut-off HgCdTe HAWAII-2RG array detector. WINERED has two grating modes: one with a conventional reflective echelle grating (R$\\sim$28,300), which covers 0.9-1.35 $\\mu$m simultaneously, the other with ZnSe or ZnS immersion grating (R$\\sim$100,000). We have completed the development of WINERED except for the immersion grating, and started engineering and science observations at the Nasmyth platform of the 1.3 m Araki Telescope at Koyama Astronomical Observatory of Kyoto-Sangyo University in Japan. We confirmed that the spectral resolution ($R\\sim$ 28,300) and the throughput ($>$ 40\\% w/o telescope/atmosphere/array QE) meet our specifications. We measured ambient thermal backgrounds (e.g., 0.06 ${\\rm [e^{-}/sec/pixel]}$ at 287 K), which are roughly consistent ...

Kondo, Sohei; Kobayashi, Naoto; Yasui, Chikako; Mito, Hiroyuki; Fukue, Kei; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Kawanishi, Takafumi; Nakaoka, Tetsuya; Otsubo, Shogo; Kinoshita, Masaomi; Kitano, Ayaka; Hamano, Satoshi; Mizumoto, Misaki; Yamamoto, Ryo; Izumi, Natsuko; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Kawakita, Hideyo

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Development of a high-throughput microfluidic integrated microarray for the detection of chimeric bioweapons.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The advancement of DNA cloning has significantly augmented the potential threat of a focused bioweapon assault, such as a terrorist attack. With current DNA cloning techniques, toxin genes from the most dangerous (but environmentally labile) bacterial or viral organism can now be selected and inserted into robust organism to produce an infinite number of deadly chimeric bioweapons. In order to neutralize such a threat, accurate detection of the expressed toxin genes, rather than classification on strain or genealogical decent of these organisms, is critical. The development of a high-throughput microarray approach will enable the detection of unknowns chimeric bioweapons. The development of a high-throughput microarray approach will enable the detection of unknown bioweapons. We have developed a unique microfluidic approach to capture and concentrate these threat genes (mRNA's) upto a 30 fold concentration. These captured oligonucleotides can then be used to synthesize in situ oligonucleotide copies (cDNA probes) of the captured genes. An integrated microfluidic architecture will enable us to control flows of reagents, perform clean-up steps and finally elute nanoliter volumes of synthesized oligonucleotides probes. The integrated approach has enabled a process where chimeric or conventional bioweapons can rapidly be identified based on their toxic function, rather than being restricted to information that may not identify the critical nature of the threat.

Sheppod, Timothy; Satterfield, Brent; Hukari, Kyle W.; West, Jason A. A.; Hux, Gary A.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Phase I high-level waste pretreatment and feed staging plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides the preliminary planning basis for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to provide a sufficient quantity of high-level waste feed to the privatization contractor during Phase I. By this analysis of candidate high-level waste feed sources, the initial quantity of high-level waste feed totals more than twice the minimum feed requirements. The flexibility of the current infrastructure within tank farms provides a variety of methods to transfer the feed to the privatization contractor`s site location. The amount and type of pretreatment (sludge washing) necessary for the Phase I processing can be tailored to support the demonstration goals without having a significant impact on glass volume (i.e., either inhibited water or caustic leaching can be used).

Manuel, A.F.

1996-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

454

Impact of Mixed Feedstocks and Feedstock Densification on Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Efficiency  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Background: Lignocellulosic biorefineries must be able to efficiently process the regional feedstocks that are available at cost-competitive prices year round. These feedstocks typically have low energy densities and vary significantly in composition. One potential solution to these issues is blending and/or densifying the feedstocks in order to create a uniform feedstock. Results/discussion: We have mixed four feedstocks - switchgrass, lodgepole pine, corn stover, and eucalyptus - in flour and pellet form and processed them using the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Sugar yields from both the mixed flour and pelletized feedstocks reach 90% within 24 hours of saccharification. Conclusions: Mixed feedstocks, in either flour or pellet form, are efficiently processed using this pretreatment process, and demonstrate that this approach has significant potential.

Jian Shi; Vicki S. Thompson; Neal A. Yancey; Vitalie Stavila; Blake A. Simmons; Seema Singh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

A NEW PROCESS DEVELOPED FOR SEPARATION OF LIGNIN FROM AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE PRETREATMENT SOLUTIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is described for separating lignin from liquid solutions resulting from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials such as switchgrass with ammonium hydroxide. The method involves a sequence of steps including acidification, evaporation, and precipitation or centrifugation that are performed under defined conditions, and results in a relatively pure, solid lignin product. The method is tested on ammonium hydroxide solutions containing lignin extracted from switchgrass. Experimental results show that the method is capable of recovering between 66-95% of dissolved lignin as a precipitated solid. Cost estimates of pilot-scale and industrial-scale expressions of the process indicate that breakeven lignin prices of $2.36/kg and $0.78/kg, respectively, may be obtainable with this recovery method.

Sherman, S.; Gorensek, M.; Milliken, C.

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

456

The role of oxalic acid on the dissolution of granitic sand: an experimental investigation in a hydrothermal flow-through system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE ROLE OF OXALIC ACID ON THE DISSOLUTION OF GRANITIC SAND: AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION IN A HYDROTHERMAL FLOW-THROUGH SYSTEM A Thesis by CHRISTY LYNN REED Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Geology THE ROLE OF OXALIC ACID ON THE DISSOLUTION OF GRANITIC SAND: AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION IN A HYDROTHERMAL FLOW-THROUGH SYSTEM A Thesis...

Reed, Christy Lynn

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

A high-throughput, high-resolution spectrometer for mapping the heliopause and 3-D Solar Wind using He+ 30.4nm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A high-throughput, high-resolution spectrometer for mapping the heliopause and 3-D Solar Wind using Entrance slit farm with ~ 1000 slits Photon counting imager Concave grating used near normal incidence >> Need a higher throughput diffuse EUV spectrometer solar wind respond to coronal

California at Berkeley, University of

458

Hydrothermal synthesis of nanocubes of sillenite type compounds for photovoltaic applications and solar energy conversion of carbon dioxide to fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to formation of nanocubes of sillenite type compounds, such as bismuth titanate, i.e., Bi.sub.12TiO.sub.20, nanocubes, via a hydrothermal synthesis process, with the resulting compound(s) having multifunctional properties such as being useful in solar energy conversion, environmental remediation, and/or energy storage, for example. In one embodiment, a hydrothermal method is disclosed that transforms nanoparticles of TiO.sub.2 to bismuth titanate, i.e., Bi.sub.12TiO.sub.20, nanocubes, optionally loaded with palladium nanoparticles. The method includes reacting titanium dioxide nanotubes with a bismuth salt in an acidic bath at a temperature sufficient and for a time sufficient to form bismuth titanate crystals, which are subsequently annealed to form bismuth titanate nanocubes. After annealing, the bismuth titanate nanocubes may be optionally loaded with nano-sized metal particles, e.g., nanosized palladium particles.

Subramanian, Vaidyanathan; Murugesan, Sankaran

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

459

Hydrothermal synthesis of flowerlike SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles and their application for lithium ion battery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that the as-prepared flowerlike SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles consist of tetragonal nanorods with size readily tunable. Their electrochemical properties and application as anode for lithium-ion battery were evaluated by galvanostatic discharge–charge testing and cycle voltammetry. SnO{sub 2} nanorod flowers possess improved discharge capacity of 694 mA h g{sup ?1} up to 40th cycle at 0.1 C. - Highlights: ? The flowerlike SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. ? SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles with tunable size by controlling concentration of SnCl{sub 4}. ? A probable formation mechanism of SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles has been proposed.

Wen, Zhigang, E-mail: xh168688@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qiannan Normal College for Nationalities, Duyun 558000 (China); Zheng, Feng, E-mail: fzheng@mail.csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Yu, Hongchun; Jiang, Ziran [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Kanglian [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qiannan Normal College for Nationalities, Duyun 558000 (China)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

460

Integrated crystal mounting and alignment system for high-throughput biological crystallography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for the transportation, remote and unattended mounting, and visual alignment and monitoring of protein crystals for synchrotron generated x-ray diffraction analysis. The protein samples are maintained at liquid nitrogen temperatures at all times: during shipment, before mounting, mounting, alignment, data acquisition and following removal. The samples must additionally be stably aligned to within a few microns at a point in space. The ability to accurately perform these tasks remotely and automatically leads to a significant increase in sample throughput and reliability for high-volume protein characterization efforts. Since the protein samples are placed in a shipping-compatible layered stack of sample cassettes each holding many samples, a large number of samples can be shipped in a single cryogenic shipping container.

Nordmeyer, Robert A.; Snell, Gyorgy P.; Cornell, Earl W.; Kolbe, William; Yegian, Derek; Earnest, Thomas N.; Jaklevic, Joseph M.; Cork, Carl W.; Santarsiero, Bernard D.; Stevens, Raymond C.

2005-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Integrated crystal mounting and alignment system for high-throughput biological crystallography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for the transportation, remote and unattended mounting, and visual alignment and monitoring of protein crystals for synchrotron generated x-ray diffraction analysis. The protein samples are maintained at liquid nitrogen temperatures at all times: during shipment, before mounting, mounting, alignment, data acquisition and following removal. The samples must additionally be stably aligned to within a few microns at a point in space. The ability to accurately perform these tasks remotely and automatically leads to a significant increase in sample throughput and reliability for high-volume protein characterization efforts. Since the protein samples are placed in a shipping-compatible layered stack of sample cassettes each holding many samples, a large number of samples can be shipped in a single cryogenic shipping container.

Nordmeyer, Robert A. (San Leandro, CA); Snell, Gyorgy P. (Richmond, CA); Cornell, Earl W. (Antioch, CA); Kolbe, William F. (Moraga, CA); Yegian, Derek T. (Oakland, CA); Earnest, Thomas N. (Berkeley, CA); Jaklevich, Joseph M. (Lafayette, CA); Cork, Carl W. (Walnut Creek, CA); Santarsiero, Bernard D. (Chicago, IL); Stevens, Raymond C. (La Jolla, CA)

2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

462

Nanoelectrospray ion generation for high-throughput mass spectrometry using a micromachined ultrasonic ejector array  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultrasonic electrospray ionization (ESI) for high-throughput mass spectrometry is demonstrated using a silicon micromachined microarray. The device uses a micromachined ultrasonic atomizer operating in the 900 kHz-2.5 MHz range for droplet generation and a metal electrode in the fluid cavity for ionization. Since the atomization and ionization processes are separated, the ultrasonic ESI source shows the potential for operation at low voltages with a wide range of solvents in contrast with conventional capillary ESI technology. This is demonstrated using the ultrasonic ESI microarray to obtain the mass spectrum of a 10 {mu}M reserpine sample on a time of flight mass spectrometer with 197:1 signal-to-noise ratio at an ionization potential of 200 V.

Aderogba, S.; Meacham, J.M.; Degertekin, F.L.; Fedorov, A.G.; Fernandez, F.M. [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

463

Development and operation of a high-throughput accurate-wavelength lens-based spectrometer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high-throughput spectrometer for the 400–820 nm wavelength range has been developed for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy or general spectroscopy. A large 2160 mm{sup ?1} grating is matched with fast f/1.8 200 mm lenses, which provide stigmatic imaging. A precision optical encoder measures the grating angle with an accuracy ?0.075 arc sec. A high quantum efficiency low-etaloning CCD detector allows operation at longer wavelengths. A patch panel allows input fibers to interface with interchangeable fiber holders that attach to a kinematic mount at the entrance slit. Computer-controlled hardware allows automated control of wavelength, timing, f-number, automated data collection, and wavelength calibration.

Bell, Ronald E., E-mail: rbell@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

464

Development and Operation of High-throughput Accurate-wavelength Lens-based Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high-throughput spectrometer for the 400-820 nm wavelength range has been developed for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy or general spectroscopy. A large 2160 mm-1 grating is matched with fast f /1.8 200 mm lenses, which provide stigmatic imaging. A precision optical encoder measures the grating angle with an accuracy < 0.075 arc seconds. A high quantum efficiency low-etaloning CCD detector allows operation at longer wavelengths. A patch panel allows input fibers to interface with interchangeable fiber holders that attach to a kinematic mount behind the entrance slit. Computer-controlled hardware allows automated control of wavelength, timing, f-number, automated data collection, and wavelength calibration.

Bell, Ronald E

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Heterogeneous High Throughput Scientific Computing with APM X-Gene and Intel Xeon Phi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrical power requirements will be a constraint on the future growth of Distributed High Throughput Computing (DHTC) as used by High Energy Physics. Performance-per-watt is a critical metric for the evaluation of computer architectures for cost- efficient computing. Additionally, future performance growth will come from heterogeneous, many-core, and high computing density platforms with specialized processors. In this paper, we examine the Intel Xeon Phi Many Integrated Cores (MIC) co-processor and Applied Micro X-Gene ARMv8 64-bit low-power server system-on-a-chip (SoC) solutions for scientific computing applications. We report our experience on software porting, performance and energy efficiency and evaluate the potential for use of such technologies in the context of distributed computing systems such as the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG).

David Abdurachmanov; Brian Bockelman; Peter Elmer; Giulio Eulisse; Robert Knight; Shahzad Muzaffar

2014-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

466

Analysis of the obstacles to financing geothermal hydrothermal commercialization projects and the government programs designed to remove them  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The risks associated with geothermal hydrothermal commercialization are broken down into five categories: resource risk; technological risk; regulatory risk; investment parity risks; and institutional risk aversion. The impact of each risk upon geothermal financing is assessed. The federal government's programs to provide financial incentives for geothermal development are presented as follows: tax incentives; indirect financial incentives programs; direct grant/cost-sharing programs; and attempts at reducing regulatory risk through the enactment of legal and institutional reforms. (MHR)

Not Available

1981-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

467

Utility Maximization for Resolving Throughput/Reliability Trade-offs in an Unreliable Network with Multipath Routing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Utility Maximization for Resolving Throughput/Reliability Trade-offs in an Unreliable Network can be characterized by some utility function, the goal of balancing competing requirements for each user as well as across different users is to maximize the aggregate utility. The framework assumes

468

An infrared imaging method for high-throughput combinatorial investigation of hydrogenation-dehydrogenation and new phase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An infrared imaging method for high-throughput combinatorial investigation of hydrogenation Received 9 April 2009; accepted 30 June 2009; published online 30 July 2009 We have developed an infrared imaging setup enabling in situ infrared images to be acquired, and expanded on capabilities of an infrared

Rubloff, Gary W.

469

PIPA: A High-Throughput Pipeline for Protein Function Annotation Chenggang Yu, Valmik Desai, Nela Zavaljevski, and Jaques Reifman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PIPA: A High-Throughput Pipeline for Protein Function Annotation Chenggang Yu, Valmik Desai, Nela of multisource predictions. We developed Pipeline for Protein Annotation (PIPA), a genome-wide protein function annotation pipeline that runs in a high-performance computing environment. PIPA integrates different tools

470

PIPELINED PARALLEL ARCHITECTURE FOR HIGH THROUGHPUT MAP DETECTORS Ruwan Ratnayake, Gu-Yeon Wei and Aleksandar Kavcic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PIPELINED PARALLEL ARCHITECTURE FOR HIGH THROUGHPUT MAP DETECTORS Ruwan Ratnayake, Gu-Yeon Wei performance close to the channel capacity limits. Deep pipelined architecture for the forward only method, where as FB-BCJR only allow sequential state metric computations. Parallelism facilitates pipelining, re

Kavcic, Aleksandar

471

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL IMAGING, VOL. 32, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2013 1791 DevStaR: High-Throughput Quantification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of C. elegans embryonic viability in high-throughput (HTP) applications. A leading genetic model organism for the study of animal development and behavior, C. elegans is particularly amenable to HTP the algorithmic design of the DevStaR system and demonstrate its performance in scoring image data acquired in HTP

Sontag, Eduardo

472

A Cross-Referencing-Based Droplet Manipulation Method for High-Throughput and Pin-Constrained Digital Microfluidic Arrays*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Constrained Digital Microfluidic Arrays* Tao Xu and Krishnendu Chakrabarty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA {tx, krish}@ee.duke.edu Abstract Digital microfluidic. As high-throughput bioassays are mapped to digital microfluidic platforms, the need for design automation

Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

473

Effect of reductant and PVP on morphology and magnetic property of ultrafine Ni powders prepared via hydrothermal route  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: The ultrafine Ni powders with the shapes including sphere, pearl-string, leaf, fish-bone, hexagonal sheet and silknet were prepared through one-step hydrothermal reduction using different reductants. Their saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercivity sequentially increase, and the coercivity of hexagonal sheet-like Ni powders increases by 25% compared with the Ni bulk counterpart. - Highlights: • The ultrafine Ni powders with various shapes of sphere, fish-bone, hexagonal sheet, etc. • Facile and one-step hydrothermal reduction using three reductants and PVP additive was developed. • Magnetic properties of the ultrafine Ni powders with different shapes were measured. • Compared with bulk Ni material, coercivity of hexagonal sheet Ni increases by 25%. • The formation mechanism of the shapes was suggested. - Abstract: The ultrafine nickel particles with different shapes including sphere, pearl-string, leaf, fish-bone, hexagonal sheet and silknet were prepared through one-step hydrothermal reduction using hydrazine hydrate, sodium hypophosphite and ethylene glycol as reductants, polyvinylpyrrolidone as structure-directing agent. It has been verified with the characterization of X-ray powder diffraction and transmission/scanning electronic microscopy that as-prepared products belong to face-centered cubic structure of nickel microcrystals with high purity and fine dispersity. The magnetic hysteresis loops measured at room temperature reveal that the values of saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercivity rise sequentially from silknet, sphere to hexagonal sheet. In comparison with nickel bulk counterpart, the coercivity of the hexagonal sheet nickel powders increases by 25%.

Zhang, Jun, E-mail: j-zhang@126.com; Wang, Xiucai; Li, Lili; Li, Chengxuan; Peng, Shuge

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

474

Recovery of solid fuel from municipal solid waste by hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water was studied to recover solid fuel from MSW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More than 75% of carbon in MSW was recovered as char. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heating value of char was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyvinyl chloride was decomposed at 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa and was removed by washing. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatments using subcritical water (HTSW) such as that at 234 Degree-Sign C and 3 MPa (LT condition) and 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa (HT condition) were investigated to recover solid fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW). Printing paper, dog food (DF), wooden chopsticks, and mixed plastic film and sheets of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene were prepared as model MSW components, in which polyvinylchloride (PVC) powder and sodium chloride were used to simulate Cl sources. While more than 75% of carbon in paper, DF, and wood was recovered as char under both LT and HT conditions, plastics did not degrade under either LT or HT conditions. The heating value (HV) of obtained char was 13,886-27,544 kJ/kg and was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Higher formation of fixed carbon and greater oxygen dissociation during HTSW were thought to improve the HV of char. Cl atoms added as PVC powder and sodium chloride to raw material remained in char after HTSW. However, most Cl originating from PVC was found to converse into soluble Cl compounds during HTSW under the HT condition and could be removed by washing. From these results, the merit of HTSW as a method of recovering solid fuel from MSW is considered to produce char with minimal carbon loss without a drying process prior to HTSW. In addition, Cl originating from PVC decomposes into soluble Cl compound under the HT condition. The combination of HTSW under the HT condition and char washing might improve the quality of char as alternative fuel.

Hwang, In-Hee, E-mail: hwang@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060 8628 (Japan); Aoyama, Hiroya; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Nakagishi, Tatsuhiro; Matsuo, Takayuki [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060 8628 (Japan)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

475

EVALUATION OF SUPPLEMENTAL PRE-TREATMENT DEVELOPMENT REQUIREMENTS TO MEET TRL 6 ROTARY MICROFILTRATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In spring 2011, the Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) for the Supplemental Treatment Project (RPP-PLAN-49827, Rev. 0), Technology Maturation Plan for the Treatment Project (T4S01) was developed. This plan contains all identified actions required to reach technical maturity for a field-deployable waste feed pretreatment system. The supplemental pretreatment system has a filtration and a Cs-removal component. Subsequent to issuance of the TMP, rotary microfiltration (RMF) has been identified as the prime filtration technology for this application. The prime Cs-removal technology is small column ion exchange (ScIX) using spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) as the exchange resin. During fiscal year 2011 (FY2011) some of the tasks identified in the TMP have been completed. As of September 2011, the conceptual design package has been submitted to DOE as part of the critical decision (CD-1) process. This document describes the remaining tasks identified in the TMP to reach technical maturity and evaluates the validity of the proposed tests to fill the gaps as previously identified in the TMP. The potential vulnerabilities are presented and the completed list of criteria for the DOE guide DOE G 413.3-4 different technology readiness levels are added in an attachment. This evaluation has been conducted from a technology development perspective - all programmatic and manufacturing aspects were excluded from this exercise. Compliance with the DOE G 413.3-4 programmatic and manufacturing requirements will be addressed directly by the Treatment Project during the course of engineering design. The results of this evaluation show that completion of the proposed development tasks in the TMP are sufficient to reach TRL 6 from a technological point of view. The tasks involve actual waste tests using the current baseline configuration (2nd generation disks, 40 psi differential pressure, 30 C feed temperature) and three different simulants - the PEP, an AP-Farm and an S-saltcake. Based on FY2011 dollars used in the TMP, these tests will have ROM costs of $950K and require up to 10 months to complete. Completion of the simulant testing will satisfy the TRL 5 and TRL 6 criteria that are related to system testing with materials that represent the full range of properties in a relevant environment.

HUBER HJ

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

476

One-step synthesis of titanium oxide nanocrystal- rutile by hydrothermal method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pure rutile phase titanium oxides (TiO{sub 2}) nanocrystals were synthesized via hydrothermal method with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl{sub 4}) and water (H{sub 2}O) treated in an autoclave. The particle size and phase assemblages were characterized using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. Band gap energy (E{sub g}) of the nanocrystals was estimated from the Ultra violet – visible light (UV-vis) absorption spectra. It was demonstrated that TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals can be prepared through increasing of temperature and period of treatment. It is believed that the presence of acid chloride (HCl) as by-product during the hydrolysis played an important role in controlling the growth of morphology and crystal structures. The E{sub g} of the samples were estimated from the plot of modified Kubelka-Munk function were in the range of 3.04 – 3.26eV for the samples synthesized at temperature ranging from 50 to 200°C for 16 hours.

Yan, Evyan Yang Chia [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Department of Applied Science, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Nilai University, Persiaran Universiti, P (Malaysia); Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

477

Hydrothermal synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of Pu(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reaction between PuO{sub 2} and SeO{sub 2} under mild hydrothermal conditions results in the formation of Pu(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2} as brick-red prisms. This compound adopts the Ce(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2} structure type, and consists of one-dimensional chains of edge-sharing [PuO{sub 8}] distorted bicapped trigonal prisms linked by [SeO{sub 3}] units into a three-dimensional network. Crystallographic data: Pu(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2}, monoclinic, space group P2{sub 1}/n, a=6.960(1) A, b=10.547(2) A, c=7.245(1) A, {beta}=106.880(9){sup o}, V=508.98(17) A{sup 3}, Z=4 (T=193 K), R(F)=2.92% for 83 parameters with 1140 reflections with I>2{sigma}(I). Magnetic susceptibility data for Pu(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2} are linear from 35 to 320 K and yield an effective moment of 2.71(5) {mu}{sub B} and a Weiss constant of -500(5) K. - Graphical abstract: A depiction of the three-dimensional structure of Pu(SeO{sub 3}){sub 2} formed from the interconnection of one-dimensional chains of edge-sharing PuO{sub 8} dodecahedra by selenite anions.

Bray, Travis H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Center for Actinide Science, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Skanthakumar, S.; Soderholm, L. [Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Sykora, Richard E. [Department of Chemistry, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688 (United States); Haire, Richard G. [Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Center for Actinide Science, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)], E-mail: albreth@auburn.edu

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

478

Yttrium-succinates coordination polymers: Hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structure and thermal decomposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New polymeric yttrium-succinates, Y{sub 2}(C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}.6H{sub 2}O and Y{sub 2}(C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}, have been synthesized, and their structures (solved by single crystal XRD) are compared with that of Y{sub 2}(C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O. Three compounds were obtained as single phases, and their thermal behaviour is described. - Graphical abstract: In the field of coordination polymers or MOF's, few studies report on the polymorphs of Ln(III)-succinic acid. Here, we describe the hydrothermal synthesis and structural characterization of two novel yttrium-succinates coordination polymers, respectively 2D and 3D, Y{sub 2}(C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}.6H{sub 2}O and Y{sub 2}(C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}.

Amghouz, Zakariae; Roces, Laura; Garcia-Granda, Santiago [Departamentos de Quimica Fisica y Analitica y Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Garcia, Jose R., E-mail: jrgm@uniovi.e [Departamentos de Quimica Fisica y Analitica y Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Souhail, Badredine [Departement de Chimie, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Abdelmalek Essaadi, 93002 Tetouan, Maroc (Morocco); Mafra, Luis; Shi, Fa-nian; Rocha, Joao [Department of Chemistry, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

479

Textural properties of synthetic nano-calcite produced by hydrothermal carbonation of calcium hydroxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The hydrothermal carbonation of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) at high pressure of CO2 (initial PCO2 1/4 55 bar) and moderate to high temperature (30 and 90 1C) was used to synthesize fine particles of calcite. This method allows a high carbonation efficiency (about 95% of Ca(OH)2-CaCO3 conversion), a significant production rate (48 kg/m3 h) and high purity of product (about 96%). However, the various initial physicochemical conditions have a strong influence on the crystal size and surface area of the synthesized calcite crystals. The present study is focused on the estimation of the textural properties of synthesized calcite (morphology, specific surface area, average particle size, particle size distribution and particle size evolution with reaction time), using Rietveld refinements of X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations. This study demonstrate that the pressure, the temperatu...

Montes-Hernandez, German; Charlet, L; Tisserand, Delphine; Renard, F

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Internal Technical Report, Hydrothermal Injection Program - East Mesa 1983-84 Test Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents a test data index and a data plots for a series of 12 drawdown and tracer injection-withdrawal tests in porous-media aquifers at the East Mesa Geothermal Field located in the Imperial Valley near El Centro, California. Test and instrumentation summaries are also provided. The first 10 of these tests were completed during July and August 1983. The remaining 2 tests were completed in February 1984, after a 6-month quiescent period, in which tracers were left in the reservoir. The test wells used were 56-30 and 56-19, with 38-30 supplying water for the injection phase and 52-29 used as a disposal well during the backflowing of the test wells. Six other wells in the surrounding area were measured periodically for possible hydrologic effects during testing. It is not the intent of this report to supply analyzed data, but to list the uninterpreted computer stored data available for analysis. The data have been examined only to the extent to ensure that they are reasonable and internally consistent. This data is stored on permanent files at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Cyber Computer Complex. The main processors for this complex are located at the Computer Science Center (CSC) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The Hydrothermal Injection Test program, funded by the Department of Energy, was a joint effort between EG and G Idaho, Inc., the University of Utah Research Institute (UURI) and Republic Geothermal, Inc. (RGI) of Santa Fe Springs, California.

Freiburger, R.M.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

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481

Effect of calcination temperature on the photocatalytic reduction and oxidation processes of hydrothermally synthesized titania nanotubes.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Titania nanotubes having diameters 8 to 12 nm and lengths of 50-300 nm were prepared using a hydrothermal method. Further, the titania nanotubes were calcined over the temperature range 200-800 C in order to enhance their photocatalytic properties by altering their morphology. The calcined titania nanotubes were characterized by using X-ray diffraction and surface area analysis and their morphological features were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Nanotubes calcined at 400 C showed the maximum extent of photocatalyitc reduction of carbon dioxide to methane, whereas samples calcined at 600 C produced maximum photocatalytic oxidation of acetaldehyde. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to interrogate the effects of nanotube structure on the charge separation and trapping as a function of calcination temperature. EPR results indicated that undercoordinated titania sites are associated with maximum CO{sub 2} reduction occurring in nanotubes calcined at 400 C. Despite the collapse of the nantube structure to form nanorods and the concomitant loss of surface area, the enhanced charge separation associated with increased crystallinity promoted high rates of oxidation of acetaldehyde in titania materials calcined at 600 C. These results illustrate that calcination temperature allows us to tune the morphological and surface features of the titania nanostructures for particular photocatalytic reactions.

Viayan, B.; Dimitrijevic, N. M.; Rajh, T.; Gray, K.; Northwestern Univ.

2010-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

482

Shallow hydrothermal regime of the East Brawley and Glamis known geothermal resource areas, Salton Trough, California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal gradients and thermal conductivities were obtained in real time using an in situ heat-flow technique in 15 shallow (90 to 150 m) wells drilled between Brawley and Glamis in the Imperial Valley, Southern California. The in situ measurements were supplemented by follow-up conventional temperature logs in seven of the wells and by laboratory measurements of thermal conductivity on drill cuttings. The deltaic sedimentary material comprising the upper approx. 100 m of the Salton Trough generally is poorly sorted and high in quartz resulting in quite high thermal conductivities (averaging 2.0 Wm/sup -1/ K/sup -1/ as opposed to 1.2 to 1.7 for typical alluvium). A broad heat-flow anomaly with maximum of about 200 mWm/sup -2/ (approx. 5 HFU) is centered between Glamis and East Brawley and is superimposed on a regional heat-flow high in excess of 100 mWm/sup -2/ (> 2.5 HFU). The heat-flow high corresponds with a gravity maximum and partially with a minimum in electrical resistivity, suggesting the presence of a hydrothermal system at depth in this area.

Mase, C.W.; Sass, J.H.; Brook, C.A.; Munroe, R.J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Completing Pre-Pilot Tasks To Scale Up Biomass Fractionation Pretreatment Apparatus From Batch To Continuous  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) was the recipient of a $200,000 Invention and Innovations (I&I) grant from the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) to complete prepilot tasks in order to scale up its patented biomass fractionation pretreatment apparatus from batch to continuous processing. The initial goal of the I&I program, as detailed in PureVision's original application to the DOE, was to develop the design criteria to build a small continuous biomass fractionation pilot apparatus utilizing a retrofitted extruder with a novel screw configuration to create multiple reaction zones, separated by dynamic plugs within the reaction chamber that support the continuous counter-flow of liquids and solids at elevated temperature and pressure. Although the ultimate results of this 27-month I&I program exceeded the initial expectations, some of the originally planned tasks were not completed due to a modification of direction in the program. PureVision achieved its primary milestone by establishing the design criteria for a continuous process development unit (PDU). In addition, PureVision was able to complete the procurement, assembly, and initiate shake down of the PDU at Western Research Institute (WRI) in Laramie, WY during August 2003 to February 2004. During the month of March 2004, PureVision and WRI performed initial testing of the continuous PDU at WRI.

Dick Wingerson

2004-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

484

PRETREATMENT OF TC CONTAINING WASTE AND ITS EFFECT ON 99 TC LEACHING FROM GROUTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A salt solution (doped with Tc-99), that simulates the salt waste stream to be processed at the Saltstone Production Facility, was immobilized in grout waste forms with and without (1) ground granulated blast furnace slag and (2) pretreatment with iron salts. The degree of immobilization of Tc-99 was measured through monolithic and crushed grout leaching tests. Although Fe (+2) was shown to be effective in reducing Tc-99 to the +4 state, the strong reducing nature of the blast furnace slag present in the grout formulation dominated the reduction of Tc-99 in the cured grouts. An effective diffusion coefficient of 4.75 x 10{sup -12} (Leach Index of 11.4) was measured using the ANSI/ANS-16.1 protocol. The leaching results show that, even in the presence of a concentrated salt solution, blast furnace slag can effectively reduce pertechnetate to the immobile +4 oxidation state. The measured diffusivity was introduced into a flow and transport model (PORFLOW) to calculate the release of Tc-99 from a Saltstone Vault as a function of hydraulic conductivity of the matrix.

Harbour, J

2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

485

Pretreatment of Tc-Containing Waste and Its Effect on Tc-99 Leaching From Grouts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A salt solution (doped with Tc-99), that simulates the salt waste stream to be processed at the Saltstone Production Facility, was immobilized in grout waste forms with and without (1) ground granulated blast furnace slag and (2) pretreatment with iron salts. The degree of immobilization of Tc-99 was measured through monolithic and crushed grout leaching tests. Although Fe (+2) was shown to be effective in reducing Tc-99 to the +4 state, the strong reducing nature of the blast furnace slag present in the grout formulation dominated the reduction of Tc-99 in the cured grouts. An effective diffusion coefficient of 4.75 x 10{sup -12} (Leach Index of 11.4) was measured using the ANSI/ANS-16.1 protocol. The leaching results show that, even in the presence of a concentrated salt solution, blast furnace slag can effectively reduce pertechnetate to the immobile +4 oxidation state. The measured diffusivity was introduced into a flow and transport model (PORFLOW) to calculate the release of Tc-99 from a Saltstone Vault as a function of hydraulic conductivity of the matrix. (authors)

Aloy, Albert; Kovarskaya, Elena N. [RosAtom, 'V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute' (KRI), 2-nd Murinsky str., 28, Saint Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Harbour, John R.; Langton, Christine A.; Holtzscheiter, E. William [Savannah River National Laboratory, Washington Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Laboratory Report on Performance Evaluation of Key Constituents during Pre-Treatment of High Level Waste Direct Feed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The analytical capabilities of the 222-S Laboratory are tested against the requirements for an optional start up scenario of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant on the Hanford Site. In this case, washed and in-tank leached sludge would be sent directly to the High Level Melter, bypassing Pretreatment. The sludge samples would need to be analyzed for certain key constituents in terms identifying melter-related issues and adjustment needs. The analyses on original tank waste as well as on washed and leached material were performed using five sludge samples from tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AZ-102, 241-AN-106, 241-AW-105, and 241-SY-102. Additionally, solid phase characterization was applied to determine the changes in mineralogy throughout the pre-treatment steps.

Huber, Heinz J.

2013-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

487

Effect of pretreating of host oil on coprocessing. Quarterly progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principal objective of this research is to gain information on the role that host petroleum-derived oils (1000 F+), as well as that of catalytically treated host oils, play when used as liquefaction solvents in coprocessing with coal. The host oil will be extensively characterized and then pretreated in a number of ways which involve catalytic reactions such as hydrogenation, hydrocracking, and isomerization. The pretreated oils will then be characterized by elemental analysis, catalytic dehydrogenation, distillation, GC-MS, and NMR. The effects of the host oil on coprocessing with coal will be compared to those obtained using catalytically modified heavy oils. When appropriate, model compounds will be used to study specific reactions brought about by the pretreatments. In the progress report for January, 1993--March, 1993, we concluded that the dispersed iron based catalysts were not effective in hydrotreating the AMOCO VTR at 400{degree}C. During the second quarter of this year, several pretreatment runs were conducted at 440{degree}C using molybdenum naphthenate, a known active hydrotreatment catalyst. The reaction time was increased from one hour to two hours, during which time the reaction pressure leveled off. hen Mo naphthenate was added at a concentration of 500 ppM of Mo, coke production was drastically reduced, to less than 3%. Gas production was also reduced which resulted in higher oil (pentane soluble) yields. At a higher catalyst loading of 2,000 ppM of Mo there was little change to the products, the asphaltene content decreasing slightly. This indicates that a catalyst loading of 500 ppM of Mo is probably sufficient for hydrotreating the AMOCO VTR, and there is little benefit in increasing the loading to 2000 ppM.

Wender, I.; Tierney, J.W.

1993-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

488

Effects of temperature and acidic pre-treatment on Fenton-driven oxidation of MTBE-spent granular activated carbon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of temperature and acidic pretreatment on Fenton-driven chemical oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-spent granular activated carbon (GAC, derived from bituminous coal) were investigated. Limiting factors in MTBE removal in GAC include the heterogeneous distribution of amended Fe, and slow intraparticle diffusive transport of MTBE and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) into the 'reactive zone'. Acid pretreatment of GAC before Fe amendment altered the surface chemistry of the GAC, lowered the pH point of zero charge, and resulted in greater penetration and more uniform distribution of Fe in GAC. This led to a condition where Fe, MTBE, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} coexisted over a larger volume of the GAC contributing to greater MTBE oxidation and removal. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reaction and MTBE removal in GAC increased with temperature. Modeling H{sub 2}O{sub 2} transport and reaction in GAC indicated that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} penetration was inversely proportional with temperature and tortuosity, and occurred over a larger fraction of the total volume of small GAC particles (0.3 mm diameter) relative to large particles (1.2 mm diameter). Acidic pretreatment of GAC, Fe-amendment, elevated reaction temperature, and use of small GAC particles are operational parameters that improve Fenton-driven oxidation of MTBE in GAC. 29 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Kan, E.; Huling, S.G. [Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center, Ada, OK (United States)

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Combined filtered cathodic arc etching pretreatment-magnetron sputter deposition of highly adherent CrN films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CrN films were prepared on steel substrates by a hybrid method utilizing filtered cathodic arc for Cr ion pretreatment and magnetron sputtering for coating deposition. During pretreatment the substrates were biased to -1200 V and exposed to filtered chromium plasma. The substrate-coating interface formed during the pretreatment contained a Cr-enriched modified layer with composition that was strongly influenced by the temperature of the substrate as observed by scanning transmission electron microscopy--energy dispersive spectroscopy. The modified layer had a nanocrystalline morphology and thickness of 15 nm. The path of formation of the layer is linked to the combined action of implantation, diffusion, and resputtering. The resulting adhesion of 3 {mu}m thick CrN films was very high with scratch test critical load values of 83 N. The morphology of the films was smooth without large scale defects and the microstructure was columnar. The coatings behaved well in dry sliding tests with very low wear coefficients of 2.3x10{sup -16} m{sup 3} N{sup -1} m{sup -1}, which can be linked to the high adhesion and defect-free microstructure. The smooth coatings also had a high resistance to corrosion as demonstrated by potentiodynamic tests with particularly high pitting potentials of +800 mV.

Ehiasarian, A. P.; Anders, A.; Petrov, I. [Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Howard St., Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

490

Evaluation of a New Remote Handling Design for High Throughput Annular Centrifugal Contactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advanced designs of nuclear fuel recycling plants are expected to include more ambitious goals for aqueous based separations including; higher separations efficiency, high-level waste minimization, and a greater focus on continuous processes to minimize cost and footprint. Therefore, Annular Centrifugal Contactors (ACCs) are destined to play a more important role for such future processing schemes. Previous efforts defined and characterized the performance of commercial 5 cm and 12.5 cm single-stage ACCs in a “cold” environment. The next logical step, the design and evaluation of remote capable pilot scale ACCs in a “hot” or radioactive environment was reported earlier. This report includes the development of remote designs for ACCs that can process the large throughput rates needed in future nuclear fuel recycling plants. Novel designs were developed for the remote interconnection of contactor units, clean-in-place and drain connections, and a new solids removal collection chamber. A three stage, 12.5 cm diameter rotor module has been constructed and evaluated for operational function and remote handling in highly radioactive environments. This design is scalable to commercial CINC ACC models from V-05 to V-20 with total throughput rates ranging from 20 to 650 liters per minute. The V-05R three stage prototype was manufactured by the commercial vendor for ACCs in the U.S., CINC mfg. It employs three standard V-05 clean-in-place (CIP) units modified for remote service and replacement via new methods of connection for solution inlets, outlets, drain and CIP. Hydraulic testing and functional checks were successfully conducted and then the prototype was evaluated for remote handling and maintenance suitability. Removal and replacement of the center position V-05R ACC unit in the three stage prototype was demonstrated using an overhead rail mounted PaR manipulator. This evaluation confirmed the efficacy of this innovative design for interconnecting and cleaning individual stages while retaining the benefits of commercially reliable ACC equipment for remote applications in the nuclear industry. Minor modifications and suggestions for improved manual remote servicing by the remote handling specialists were provided but successful removal and replacement was demonstrated in the first prototype.

David H. Meikrantz; Troy G. Garn; Jack D. Law; Lawrence L. Macaluso

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Hydrothermal synthesis of yttria stabilized ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles in subcritical and supercritical water using a flow reaction system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Yttria stabilized zirconia nanoparticles have been prepared by hydrothermal flow reaction system under subcritical and supercritical conditions. ZrO(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}/Y(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} mixed solutions were used as starting materials. Reaction temperature was 300-400 deg. C. Reaction time was adjusted to 0.17-0.35 s. Based on the residual Zr and Y concentrations, the complete conversion of zirconium was achieved irrespective of pH and hydrothermal temperature, whereas the conversion of yttrium increased with an increase in pH and hydrothermal temperature. Stoichiometric solid solution was achieved at pH>8. XRD results revealed that tetragonal zirconia can be formed regardless of yttrium content, where the tetragonality was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. The average particle size estimated from BET surface area was around 4-6 nm. Dynamic light scattering particle size increased with the solution pH owing to the aggregation of primary particles. TG-DTA analyses revealed that weight losses for adsorbed water and hydroxyl groups decreased with hydrothermal temperature. - Graphical abstract: Nanoparticles of YSZ can be synthesized in subcritical and supercritical water using a hydrothermal flow reaction system. Given is the TEM image of YSZ nanoparticles.

Hayashi, Hiromichi, E-mail: h-hayashi@aist.go.j [Research Center for Compact Chemical Process, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Nigatake 4-2-1, Miyagino-ku, Sendai 983-8551 (Japan); Ueda, Akiko; Suino, Atsuko; Hiro, Kyoko; Hakuta, Yukiya [Research Center for Compact Chemical Process, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Nigatake 4-2-1, Miyagino-ku, Sendai 983-8551 (Japan)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

492

A NOVEL APPROACH TO MINERAL CARBONATION: ENHANCING CARBONATION WHILE AVOIDING MINERAL PRETREATMENT PROCESS COST  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. Herein, we report our first year progress in exploring a novel approach that offers the potential to substantially enhance carbonation reactivity while bypassing pretreatment activation. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly-stirred/circulating carbonation. We are exploring the mechanisms that govern carbonation reactivity and the impact that (1) modeling/controlling the slurry fluid-flow conditions, (2) varying the aqueous ion species/size and concentration (e.g., Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Rb{sup +}, Cl{sup -}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}), and (3) incorporating select sonication offer to enhance exfoliation and carbonation. Thus far, we have succeeded in nearly doubling the extent of carbonation observed compared with the optimum procedure previously developed by the Albany Research Center. Aqueous carbonation reactivity was found to be a strong function of the ionic species present and their aqueous activities, as well as the slurry fluid flow conditions incorporated. Synergistic control of these parameters offers the potential for further improvements in carbonation reactivity. A new sonication exfoliation system incorporating a novel sealing system was developed to carry out the sonication studies. Our initial studies that incorporate controlled sonication have not yet lead to a significant improvement in the extent of carbonation observed. Year 2 studies will emphasize those approaches that offer the greatest potential to cost effectively enhance carbonation, as well as combined approaches that may further enhance carbonation. Mechanistic investigations indicate incongruent dissolution results in the observed silica-rich passivating layer formation. Observations of magnesite nanocrystals within the passivating layers that form indicate the layers can exhibit significant permeability to the key reactants present (e.g., Mg{sup 2+}, H{sup +}, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, and HCO{sub 3} -). Atomistic modeling supports the observation of robust passivating layers that retain significant permeability to the key reaction species involved. Studies in Year 2 will emphasize the impact that controlled aqueous speciation and activity and slurry-flow dynamics have on the mechanisms that control carbonation reactivity and the potential they offer to substantially reduce olivine mineral sequestration process cost.

Michael J. McKelvy; Andrew V.G. Chizmeshya; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamadallah Bearat

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

A Novel Approach To Mineral Carbonation: Enhancing Carbonation While Avoiding Mineral Pretreatment Process Cost  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. Herein, we report our second year progress in exploring a novel approach that offers the potential to substantially enhance carbonation reactivity while bypassing pretreatment activation. As our second year progress is intimately related to our earlier work, the report is presented in that context to provide better overall understanding of the progress made. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly-stirred/circulating carbonation. We are exploring the mechanisms that govern carbonation reactivity and the impact that (i) modeling/controlling the slurry fluid-flow conditions, (ii) varying the aqueous ion species/size and concentration (e.g., Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Rb{sup +}, Cl{sup -}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}), and (iii) incorporating select sonication offer to enhance exfoliation and carbonation. We have succeeded in nearly doubling the extent of carbonation observed compared with the optimum procedure previously developed by the Albany Research Center. Aqueous carbonation reactivity was found to be a strong function of the ionic species present and their aqueous activities, as well as the slurry fluid flow conditions incorporated. High concentration sodium, potassium, and sodium/potassium bicarbonate aqueous solutions have been found to be the most effective solutions for enhancing aqueous olivine carbonation to date. Slurry-flow modeling using Fluent indicates that the slurry-flow dynamics are a strong function of particle size and mass, suggesting that controlling these parameters may offer substantial potential to enhance carbonation. Synergistic control of the slurry-flow and aqueous chemistry parameters offers further potential to improve carbonation reactivity, which is being investigated during the no-cost extension period. During the first project year we developed a new sonication exfoliation system with a novel sealing system to carry out the sonication studies. We also initiated(Abstract truncated).

Michael J. McKelvy; Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamdallah Bearat

2006-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

494

TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FOR TANK WASTE PRETREATMENT AT THE DOE HANFORD SITE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radioactive wastes from one hundred seventy-seven underground storage tanks in the 200 Area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State will be retrieved, treated and stored either on site or at an approved off-site repository. DOE is currently planning to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, which would be treated and permanently disposed in separate facilities. A significant volume of the wastes in the Hanford tanks is currently classified as medium Curie waste, which will require separation and treatment at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). Because of the specific challenges associated with treating this waste stream, DOE EM-21 funded a project to investigate the feasibility of using fractional crystallization as a supplemental pretreatment technology. The two process requirements for fractional crystallization to be successfully applied to Hanford waste include: (1) evaporation of water from the aqueous solution to enrich the activity of soluble {sup 137}Cs, resulting in a higher activity stream to be sent to the WTP, and (2) separation of the crystalline salts that are enriched in sodium, carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate and sufficiently depleted in {sup 137}Cs, to produce a second stream to be sent to Bulk Vitrification. Phase I of this project has just been completed by COGEMA/Georgia Institute of Technology. The purpose of this report is to document an independent expert review of the Phase I results with recommendations for future testing. A team of experts with significant experience at both the Hanford and Savannah River Sites was convened to conduct the review at Richland, Washington the week of November 14, 2005.

HAMILTON, D.W.

2006-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

495

Pretreatment Nomogram to Predict the Risk of Acute Urinary Retention After I-125 Prostate Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Acute urinary retention (AUR) after iodine-125 (I-125) prostate brachytherapy negatively influences long-term quality of life and therefore should be prevented. We aimed to develop a nomogram to preoperatively predict the risk of AUR. Methods: Using the preoperative data of 714 consecutive patients who underwent I-125 prostate brachytherapy between 2005 and 2008 at our department, we modeled the probability of AUR. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the predictive ability of a set of pretreatment predictors and the additional value of a new risk factor (the extent of prostate protrusion into the bladder). The performance of the final model was assessed with calibration and discrimination measures. Results: Of the 714 patients, 57 patients (8.0%) developed AUR after implantation. Multivariate analysis showed that the combination of prostate volume, IPSS score, neoadjuvant hormonal treatment and the extent of prostate protrusion contribute to the prediction of AUR. The discriminative value (receiver operator characteristic area, ROC) of the basic model (including prostate volume, International Prostate Symptom Score, and neoadjuvant hormonal treatment) to predict the development of AUR was 0.70. The addition of prostate protrusion significantly increased the discriminative power of the model (ROC 0.82). Calibration of this final model was good. The nomogram showed that among patients with a low sum score (<18 points), the risk of AUR was only 0%-5%. However, in patients with a high sum score (>35 points), the risk of AUR was more than 20%. Conclusion: This nomogram is a useful tool for physicians to predict the risk of AUR after I-125 prostate brachytherapy. The nomogram can aid in individualized treatment decision-making and patient counseling.

Roeloffzen, Ellen M., E-mail: e.m.a.roeloffzen@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Vulpen, Marco van; Battermann, Jan J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Roermund, Joep G. van [Department of Urology, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Saibishkumar, Elantholi P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Monninkhof, Evelyn M. [Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands)

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Transportability Class of Americium in K Basin Sludge under Ambient and Hydrothermal Processing Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report establishes the technical bases for using a ''slow uptake'' instead of a ''moderate uptake'' transportability class for americium-241 (241Am) for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP) dose consequence analysis. Slow uptake classes are used for most uranium and plutonium oxides. A moderate uptake class has been used in prior STP analyses for 241Am based on the properties of separated 241Am and its associated oxide. However, when 241Am exists as an ingrown progeny (and as a small mass fraction) within plutonium mixtures, it is appropriate to assign transportability factors of the predominant plutonium mixtures (typically slow) to the Am241. It is argued that the transportability factor for 241Am in sludge likewise should be slow because it exists as a small mass fraction as the ingrown progeny within the uranium oxide in sludge. In this report, the transportability class assignment for 241Am is underpinned with radiochemical characterization data on K Basin sludge and with studies conducted with other irradiated fuel exposed to elevated temperatures and conditions similar to the STP. Key findings and conclusions from evaluation of the characterization data and published literature are summarized here. Plutonium and 241Am make up very small fractions of the uranium within the K Basin sludge matrix. Plutonium is present at about 1 atom per 500 atoms of uranium and 241Am at about 1 atom per 19000 of uranium. Plutonium and americium are found to remain with uranium in the solid phase in all of the {approx}60 samples taken and analyzed from various sources of K Basin sludge. The uranium-specific concentrations of plutonium and americium also remain approximately constant over a uranium concentration range (in the dry sludge solids) from 0.2 to 94 wt%, a factor of {approx}460. This invariability demonstrates that 241Am does not partition from the uranium or plutonium fraction for any characterized sludge matrix. Most of the K Basin sludge characterization data is derived spent nuclear fuel corroded within the K Basins at 10-15?C. The STP process will place water-laden sludges from the K Basin in process vessels at {approx}150-180 C. Therefore, published studies with other irradiated (uranium oxide) fuel were examined. From these studies, the affinity of plutonium and americium for uranium in irradiated UO2 also was demonstrated at hydrothermal conditions (150 C anoxic liquid water) approaching those proposed for the STP process and even for hydrothermal conditions outside of the STP operating envelope (e.g., 150 C oxic and 100 C oxic and anoxic liquid water). In summary, by demonstrating that the chemical and physical behavior of 241Am in the sludge matrix is similar to that of the predominant species (uranium and for the plutonium from which it originates), a technical basis is provided for using the slow uptake transportability factor for 241Am that is currently used for plutonium and uranium oxides. The change from moderate to slow uptake for 241Am could reduce the overall analyzed dose consequences for the STP by more than 30%.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmitt, Bruce E.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Influence of EDTA{sup 2-} on the hydrothermal synthesis of CdTe nanocrystallites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transformation from Te nanorods to CdTe nanoparticles was achieved with the assistance of EDTA as a ligand under hydrothermal conditions. Experimental results showed that at the beginning of reaction Te nucleated and grew into nanorods. With the proceeding of reaction, CdTe nucleus began to emerge on the surface, especially on the tips of Te nanorods. Finally, nearly monodispersed hexagonal CdTe nanoparticles with diameters of about 200 nm were obtained. The effects of EDTA on the morphology and formation of CdTe nanoparticles were discussed in consideration of the strong ligand-effect of EDTA, which greatly decreased the concentration of Cd{sup 2+}. Furthermore, the possible formation process of CdTe nanoparticles from Te nanorods was further proposed. The crystal structure and morphology of the products were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). - Graphical Abstract: Firstly, Te nucleated and grew into nanorods in the presence of EDTA{sup 2-}. Then CdTe nucleus began to emerge on Te nanorods and finally monodispersed CdTe nanoparticles were obtained. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EDTA serves as a strong ligand with Cd{sup 2+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The existence of EDTA constrains the nucleation of CdTe and promotes the formation of Te nanorods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the proceeding of reaction, CdTe nucleus began to emerge on the surface, especially on the tips of Te nanorods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nearly monodispersed hexagonal CdTe nanoparticles with diameters of about 200 nm were finally obtained.

Gong Haibo [Center of Bio and Micro/nano Functional Materials, State Key Lab of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Hao Xiaopeng, E-mail: xphao@sdu.edu.cn [Center of Bio and Micro/nano Functional Materials, State Key Lab of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wu Yongzhong [Center of Bio and Micro/nano Functional Materials, State Key Lab of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Cao Bingqiang; Xu Hongyan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Xu Xiangang [Center of Bio and Micro/nano Functional Materials, State Key Lab of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

498

A search model for topological insulators with high-throughput robustness descriptors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Topological insulators (TI) are becoming one of the most studied classes of novel materials because of their great potential for applications ranging from spintronics to quantum computers. To fully integrate TI materials in electronic devices, high-quality epitaxial single-crystalline phases with sufficiently large bulk bandgaps are necessary. Current efforts have relied mostly on costly and time-consuming trial-and-error procedures. Here we show that by defining a reliable and accessible descriptor {cflx X}TI, which represents the topological robustness or feasibility of the candidate, and by searching the quantum materials repository aflowlib.org, we have automatically discovered 28 TIs (some of them already known) in five different symmetry families. These include peculiar ternary halides, Cs{l_brace}Sn,Pb,Ge{r_brace}{l_brace}Cl,Br,I{r_brace}{sub 3}, which could have been hardly anticipated without high-throughput means. Our search model, by relying on the significance of repositories in materials development, opens new avenues for the discovery of more TIs in different and unexplored classes of systems.

Yang, Kesong; Setyawan, Wahyu; Wang, Shidong; Nardelli, Marco B.; Curtarolo, Stephano

2012-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

499

Integrated Controlling System and Unified Database for High Throughput Protein Crystallography Experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An integrated controlling system and a unified database for high throughput protein crystallography experiments have been developed. Main features of protein crystallography experiments (purification, crystallization, crystal harvesting, data collection, data processing) were integrated into the software under development. All information necessary to perform protein crystallography experiments is stored (except raw X-ray data that are stored in a central data server) in a MySQL relational database. The database contains four mutually linked hierarchical trees describing protein crystals, data collection of protein crystal and experimental data processing. A database editor was designed and developed. The editor supports basic database functions to view, create, modify and delete user records in the database. Two search engines were realized: direct search of necessary information in the database and object oriented search. The system is based on TCP/IP secure UNIX sockets with four predefined sending and receiving behaviors, which support communications between all connected servers and clients with remote control functions (creating and modifying data for experimental conditions, data acquisition, viewing experimental data, and performing data processing). Two secure login schemes were designed and developed: a direct method (using the developed Linux clients with secure connection) and an indirect method (using the secure SSL connection using secure X11 support from any operating system with X-terminal and SSH support). A part of the system has been implemented on a new MAD beam line, NW12, at the Photon Factory Advanced Ring for general user experiments.

Gaponov, Yu.A.; Igarashi, N.; Hiraki, M.; Sasajima, K.; Matsugaki, N.; Suzuki, M.; Kosuge, T.; Wakatsuki, S. [Structural Biology Research Center, Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba (Japan)

2004-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

500

FBI Fingerprint Image Capture System High-Speed-Front-End throughput modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has undertaken a major modernization effort called the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFISS). This system will provide centralized identification services using automated fingerprint, subject descriptor, mugshot, and document processing. A high-speed Fingerprint Image Capture System (FICS) is under development as part of the IAFIS program. The FICS will capture digital and microfilm images of FBI fingerprint cards for input into a central database. One FICS design supports two front-end scanning subsystems, known as the High-Speed-Front-End (HSFE) and Low-Speed-Front-End, to supply image data to a common data processing subsystem. The production rate of the HSFE is critical to meeting the FBI`s fingerprint card processing schedule. A model of the HSFE has been developed to help identify the issues driving the production rate, assist in the development of component specifications, and guide the evolution of an operations plan. A description of the model development is given, the assumptions are presented, and some HSFE throughput analysis is performed.

Rathke, P.M.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z