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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Lignocellulose Recalcitrance Screening by Integrated High Throughput Hydrothermal Pretreatment and Enzymatic Saccharification  

SciTech Connect

We report a novel 96-well multiplate reactor system for comparative analysis of lignocellulose recalcitrance via integrated hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification. The system utilizes stackable nickel/gold-plated 96-well aluminum reactor plates, a clamping device fit to a standard Parr reactor, and robotics for efficient liquids and solids handling. A capacity of 20 plates allows up to 1,920 separate hydrothermal reactions per run. Direct and rapid analysis of key end-products, glucose and xylose, is facilitated by the use of glucose oxidase/peroxidase and xylose dehydrogenase-linked assays. To demonstrate efficacy, a set of 755 poplar core samples from the US Department of Energy's BioEnergy Science Center was tested. Total sugar release ranged from 0.17 to 0.64 g/g of biomass and correlated strongly with the ratio of syringyl to guaiacyl lignins in the samples. Variance among sample replicates was sufficiently minimal to permit clear assignment of differences in recalcitrance throughout this large sample set.

Selig, M. J.; Tucker, M. P.; Sykes, R. W.; Reichel, K. L.; Brunecky, R.; Himmel, M. E.; Davis, M. F.; Decker, S. R.

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Application of high throughput pretreatment and cohydrolysis...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 Biofuels and Environmental Biotechnology Biotechnology and Bioengineering DOI 10.1002bit.24951 Application of High Throughput Pretreatment and Co-Hydrolysis System to...

3

The fate of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

straw pretreated for bioethanol production. Biotechnologyof woody biomass for bioethanol production. Bioresources

Trajano, Heather L; Engle, Nancy L; Foston, Marcus; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wyman, Charles E

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

High Throughput Pretreatment and Enzyme Hydrolysis of Biomass: Screening Recalcitrance in Large Sample Populations (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Presentation on the execution of the first high-throughput thermochemical pretreatment/enzyme digestion pipeline for screening biomass for recalcitrance.

Decker, S. R.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Hydrothermal pretreatment to prevent scale during liquefaction of certain solid carbonaceous materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by hydrothermal pretreatment. The said pretreatment is believed to convert the scale-forming components to the corresponding carbonate prior to liquefaction. The said pretreatment is accomplished at a total pressure within the range from about 1000 to about 4400 psia. Temperature during said pretreatment will generally be within the range from about 500.degree. to about 700.degree. F.

Stone, John B. (Houston, TX); Floyd, Frank M. (Baytown, TX)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

High-Throughput Pretreatment and Hydrolysis Systems for Screening Biomass Species in Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-throughput High-throughput Pretreatment and Hydrolysis Systems for Screening Biomass Species in Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass Jaclyn D. DeMartini 1,2,3,Ã and Charles E. Wyman 1,2,3 1 Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Riverside, USA 2 Center for Environmental Research and Technology, University of California, Riverside, USA 3 BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, USA 22.1 Introduction: The Need for High-throughput Technologies The primary barrier to low-cost biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to renewable fuels and chemicals is plant recalcitrance, that is to say, resistance of cell walls to deconstruction by enzymes or microbes [1,2]. However, the discovery and use of biomass species with reduced recalcitrance, when com- bined with optimized pretreatment processes and enzyme mixtures, could potentially

7

Engineering of a high-throughput screening system to identify cellulosic biomass, pretreatments, and enzyme formulations that enhance sugar release  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Engineering Engineering of a High-Throughput Screening System to Identify Cellulosic Biomass, Pretreatments, and Enzyme Formulations That Enhance Sugar Release Michael H. Studer, Jaclyn D. DeMartini, Simone Brethauer, Heather L. McKenzie, Charles E. Wyman Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, Center for Environmental Research and Technology, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California Riverside, 1084 Columbia Avenue, Riverside, California 92507; telephone: þ951-781-5791; fax: þ951-781-5790; e-mail: charles.wyman@ucr.edu Received 7 April 2009; revision received 21 August 2009; accepted 31 August 2009 Published online 3 September 2009 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/bit.22527 ABSTRACT: The recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass, the only abundant, sustainable feedstock for making liquid fuels, is a primary

8

Co-hydrolysis of hydrothermal and dilute acid pretreated Populus slurries to support development of a high-throughput pretreatment system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract Background: The BioEnergy Science Center (BESC)production. Background The BioEnergy Science Center (BESC)abbreviations used BESC: BioEnergy Science Center; HT: high-

Studer, Michael H; Brethauer, Simone; DeMartini, Jaclyn D; McKenzie, Heather L; Wyman, Charles E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Co-hydrolysis of hydrothermal and dilute acid pretreated Populus slurries to support development of a high-throughput pretreatment system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

system. Biotechnology for Biofuels 2011 Submit your nextStuder et al. Biotechnology for Biofuels 2011, 4:19 http://Studer et al. Biotechnology for Biofuels 2011, 4:19 http://

Studer, Michael H; Brethauer, Simone; DeMartini, Jaclyn D; McKenzie, Heather L; Wyman, Charles E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 2 - hydrogenative and hydrothermal pretreatments and spectroscopic characterization using pyrolysis-GC-MS, CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and FT-IR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been indicated by DOE COLIRN panel that low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals. As the second volume of the final report, here we summarize our work on spectroscopic characterization of four raw coals including two subbituminous coals and two bituminous coals, tetrahydrofuran (THF)-extracted but unreacted coals, the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been thermally pretreated. in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent, and the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been catalytically pretreated in the presence of a dispersed Mo sulfide catalyst in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent.

Chunshan Song; Hatcher, P.G.; Saini, A.K.; Wenzel, K.A.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Biomass pretreatment  

SciTech Connect

A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

12

Hydrothermal Processing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This chapter is a contribution to a book on Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass being edited by Prof. Robert Brown of Iowa State University. It describes both hydrothermal liquefaction and hydrothermal gasification of biomass to fuels.

Elliott, Douglas C.

2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

13

Application of high throughput pretreatment and cohydrolysis...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

et al., 2005), is recognized as a sustainable source of sugars that can be converted to biofuels and other biomaterials by a number of routes (Himmel et al., 2007). To produce...

14

The fate of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

provided the original work is properly cited. Trajano et al. Biotechnology for Biofuels 2013, 6:110 http:www.biotechnologyforbiofuels.comcontent61110 The primary...

15

The fate of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

et al. Biotechnology for Biofuels 2013, 6:110 http://as a feedstock for biofuels: a review of compositionalcharacteristics. Biofuels Bioprod Bior 2010, 6. Albersheim

Trajano, Heather L; Engle, Nancy L; Foston, Marcus; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wyman, Charles E

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

The fate of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Louis, MO 63130, USA. 6 BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridgeand enzymatic hydrolysis. Bioenergy Research 2013, 6:211Riverside, CA 92507, USA BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge

Trajano, Heather L; Engle, Nancy L; Foston, Marcus; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wyman, Charles E

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

High-Throughput Screening Techniques  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Throughput Throughput Screening Techniques for Biomass Conversion Stephen R. Decker & Roman Brunecky & Melvin P. Tucker & Michael E. Himmel & Michael J. Selig Published online: 14 October 2009 # US Government 2009 Abstract High-throughput (HTP) screening of biomass or biomass-degrading enzymes, regardless of the desired outcome, is fraught with obstacles and challenges not typically faced in more traditional biotechnology. The enzyme systems are complex and synergistic and the substrate is highly heterogeneous, insoluble, and difficult to dispense. Digestions are often carried out for days at temperatures of 50°C or higher, leading to significant challenges regarding evaporation control in small well volumes. Furthermore, it is often desirable to condition or "pretreat" the biomass at extreme temperatures and/or pH to enhance enzyme digestibility.

18

Thermochemical Pretreatment for Anaerobic Digestion of Sorted Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of alkaline hydrothermal pre?treatment for anaerobic digestion of mechanically?sorted municipal solid waste (MSW) and source?sorted waste was studied. Waste was hydrothermally pre?treated in dilute alkali solution. Hydrolysis product was incubated in 500 ml saline bottle to determine methane potential (MP) under mesospheric anaerobic conditions. Optimum reaction condition obtained in the study is 170?C at the dose of 4 g NaOH/100 g solid for one hour. Soluble COD was 13936 mg/L and methane yield was 164 ml/g VS for 6 days incubation at optimum conditions. More than 50% biogas increase was achieved over the control

W. Hao; W. Hongtao

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Pretreatment Technology Plan  

SciTech Connect

This technology plan presents a strategy for the identification, evaluation, and development of technologies for the pretreatment of radioactive wastes stored in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. This strategy includes deployment of facilities and process development schedules to support the other program elements. This document also presents schedule information for alternative pretreatment systems: (1) the reference pretreatment technology development system, (2) an enhanced pretreatment technology development system, and (3) alternative pretreatment technology development systems.

Barker, S.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (US); Thornhill, C.K.; Holton, L.K. Jr. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (US)

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

years: A comparison of carbon dioxide fluxes associated with8.2. Development of carbon dioxide emissions from ethanol8.3. Development of carbon dioxide emissions from gasoline

McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

editors. Handbook on bioethanol: production and utilization.Salix for the production of bioethanol. Bioresource Technol.editor. Handbook on bioethanol: production and utilization.

McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A1 CO 2 from Lignin Combustion A11 Existing Biomass A5 A14from the Combustion of Lignin lb/ton biomass A14 CO 2biomass and soil and the carbon dioxide emitted from farming, conversion to ethanol, and the distribution and combustion

McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2.3. Effects of low pH on biomass solids. of effects of low pH on biomass. .25 2.4. Low pHof low pH biomass reactions. ..46

McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Plant Biomass for Biological and Chemical Conversion torole of biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals. Low pHof Plant Biomass for Biological and Chemical Conversion to

McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy andpotential annual supply of cellulosic biomass is estimated

McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The factors used to determine carbon dioxide emissions arefactors for gasoline production did not consider equivalent carbon dioxides 2 emission factor are also shown. Carbon dioxide emissions

McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

emission factors for gasoline production did not consider equivalent carbon dioxideemission factor. When both inputs increase, the resulting carbon dioxides 2 emission factor are also shown. Carbon dioxide emissions

McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Hydrothermal Reservoirs | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrothermal Reservoirs Hydrothermal Reservoirs Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Hydrothermal Reservoirs Dictionary.png Hydrothermal Reservoir: Hydrothermal Reservoirs are underground zones of porous rock containing hot water and steam, and can be naturally occurring or human-made. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Natural, shallow hydrothermal reservoirs naturally occurring hot water reservoirs, typically found at depths of less than 5 km below the Earth's surface where there is heat, water and a permeable material (permeability in rock formations results from fractures, joints, pores, etc.). Often, hydrothermal reservoirs have an overlying layer that bounds the reservoir and also serves as a thermal insulator, allowing greater heat retention. If hydrothermal reservoirs

29

Pretreatment of microbial sludges  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

Rivard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO); Nagle, Nicholas J. (Louisville, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Pretreatment of microbial sludges  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

1995-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

31

Hydrothermal System | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrothermal System Hydrothermal System (Redirected from Hydrothermal Systems) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Hydrothermal Systems Geothermal Technologies There are many types of Geothermal Technologies that take advantage of the earth's heat: Hydrothermal Systems Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Sedimentary Geothermal Systems Co-Produced Geothermal Systems Geothermal Direct Use Ground Source Heat Pumps Dictionary.png Hydrothermal Systems: A hydrothermal system is one that included fluid, heat, and permeability in a naturally occurring geological formation for the production of electricity. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Geothermal production well at Imperial Valley, California. The drilling of production wells, such as this one in southern California, results in

32

PRETREATING THORIUM FOR ELECTROPLATING  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is presented for pretreating a thorium surface prior to electroplating the surface. The pretreatment steps of the invention comprise cleaning by vapor blasting the surface, anodically pickling in a 5 to 15% by volume aqueous hydrochloric acid bath with a current of 125 to 250 amp/sq ft for 3 to 5 min at room temperature, chemically pickling the surface in a 5 to 15% by volume of aqueous sulfuric acid for 3 to 5 min at room temperature, and rinsing the surface with water.

Beach, J.G.; Schaer, G.R.

1959-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

33

hydrothermal | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

hydrothermal hydrothermal Dataset Summary Description No description given. Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released July 03rd, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated July 03rd, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords biopower csp geothermal hydropower hydrothermal Renewable Energy Technical Potential rooftop United States utility-scale wind Data text/csv icon United States Renewable Energy Technical Potential (csv, 7.7 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL) Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote Usefulness of the dataset Average vote Your vote Ease of access Average vote Your vote Overall rating Average vote Your vote

34

Hazard Analysis for the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) is designed to perform a demonstration on an engineering scale to confirm the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Pretreatment Facility (PTF) leaching and filtration process equipment design and sludge treatment process. The system will use scaled prototypic equipment to demonstrate sludge water wash, caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, and filtration. Unit operations to be tested include pumping, solids washing, chemical reagent addition and blending, heating, cooling, leaching, filtration, and filter cleaning. In addition, the PEP will evaluate potential design changes to the ultrafiltration process system equipment to potentially enhance leaching and filtration performance as well as overall pretreatment throughput. The skid-mounted system will be installed and operated in the Processing Development Laboratory-West at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington.

Sullivan, Robin S.; Geeting, John GH; Lawrence, Wesley E.; Young, Jonathan

2008-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

35

PRETREATMENT OF BIOMASS PRIOR TO LIQUEFACTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

UC-61 PRETREATMENT OF BIOMASS PRIOR TO LIQUEFACTION Larry L.10093 PRETREATMENT OF BIOMASS PRIOR TO LIQUEFACTION Larry L.hydrolytic pretreatment to biomass feedstocks, higher acid

Schaleger, Larry L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Hydrothermal Alteration | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrothermal Alteration Hydrothermal Alteration Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Hydrothermal Alteration Dictionary.png Hydrothermal Alteration: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Opalized rock is often valued for its spectacular colors and it may indicate past hydrothermal activity (reference: https://uwaterloo.ca/earth-sciences-museum/what-earth/what-earth-minerals/what-earth-precious-opal) The heat and minerals of hydrothermal waters may result in the chemical alteration of rocks that it comes in contact with. The minerals that result from this alteration may be evidence of past hydrothermal activity. Opalization - alteration to opal. Argillization- alteration to clay minerals such as smectite, illite, and kaolinite which often form caprocks.

37

Life and hydrothermal vents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Life and hydrothermal vents Life and hydrothermal vents Name: williamh Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: Are there biological communities near hydrothermal vents in the ocean? Is there any life inside the hydrothermal vent? Replies: If the presence of microorganisms in hot springs and geysers are any indication, I am certain there is life inside hydrothermal vents. These heat loving organisms are termed "thermophiles" and thrive where other life dies. They are able to survive in extreme heat due to the unique way their proteins are synthesized. The May 1993 Discover has a special article on thermophiles. wizkid Life at high temperature became very interesting to molecular biologists recently. The enormously useful technique known as PCR, (polymerase chain reaction), by which very small amounts of rare DNA can be amplified to large concentrations (Jurassic Park!), depends on having a DNA polymerase (the enzyme that synthesizes complementary DNA strands during replication of chromosomes), that can work at high temperatures, or at least can survive repeated high temperature cycles. PCR depends on synthesis of DNA followed by forced separation of the daughter strands at high temperature, followed by new synthesis, to amplify DNA exponentially. At any rate, normal bacterial polymerase will not work because the high temperature cycles kill it. Enter the now infamous, patented Taq polymerase, isolated from Thermus aquaticus, a hot spring bacterium, which works after heating to up to 94 C! So knowledge of life at high temperature allowed molecular biologists to get PCR to work, with all its benefits in cloning very rare genes and amplifying small amounts of DNA for forensic work etc.

38

Hydrothermal System | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

(Redirected from Hydrothermal) (Redirected from Hydrothermal) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Hydrothermal Systems Geothermal Technologies There are many types of Geothermal Technologies that take advantage of the earth's heat: Hydrothermal Systems Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Sedimentary Geothermal Systems Co-Produced Geothermal Systems Geothermal Direct Use Ground Source Heat Pumps Dictionary.png Hydrothermal Systems: A hydrothermal system is one that included fluid, heat, and permeability in a naturally occurring geological formation for the production of electricity. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Geothermal production well at Imperial Valley, California. The drilling of production wells, such as this one in southern California, results in one-third to one-half of the cost of a geothermal project. Copyright ©

39

Hydrothermal Deposition | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrothermal Deposition Hydrothermal Deposition Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Hydrothermal Deposition Dictionary.png Hydrothermal Deposition: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Quartz veins indicate ancient fluid flow, possibly the result of a hydrothermal system (reference: http://www.nvcc.edu/home/cbentley/dc_rocks/) Tufa mounds indicate the location of extinct hot springs. In this photo they show the ancient extent of the surface manifestations at Mono Lake, CA (reference: http://news.medill.northwestern.edu/climatechange/page.aspx?id=170704)(photo by Scott Stine) Hydrothermal water carries minerals as it travels through the crust. These minerals are often deposited as pressure decreases as the fluid approaches

40

Biomass Pretreatment for Integrated Steelmaking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Biomass Pretreatment for Integrated Steelmaking. Author(s), Shiju Thomas, Paul Cha, Steven J McKnight, Vincent A Bouma, Andrew L Petrik,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Vertical Pretreatment Reactor System (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

IBRF poster developed for the IBRF showcase. Describes the two-vessel system for primary and secondary pretreatment of biomass solids at different temperatures.

Not Available

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Hydrothermal Energy Conversion Technology  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Hydrothermal Program is to develop concepts which allow better utilization of geothermal energy to reduce the life-cycle cost of producing electricity from liquid-dominated, hydrothermal resources. Research in the program is currently ongoing in three areas: (1) Heat Cycle Research, which is looking at methods to increase binary plant efficiencies; (2) Materials Development, which is developing materials for use in geothermal associated environments; and (3) Advanced Brine Chemistry, with work taking place in both the brine chemistry modeling area and waste disposal area. The presentations during this session reviewed the accomplishments and activities taking place in the hydrothermal energy conversion program. Lawrence Kukacka, Brookhaven National Laboratory, discussed advancements being made to develop materials for use in geothermal applications. This research has identified a large number of potential materials for use in applications from pipe liners that inhibit scale buildup and reduce corrosion to elastomers for downhole use. Carl J. Bliem, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, discussed preparations currently underway to conduct field investigations of the condensation behavior of supersaturated turbine expansions. The research will evaluate whether the projected 8% to 10% improvement in brine utilization can be realized by allowing these expansions. Eugene T. Premuzic, Brookhaven National Laboratory, discussed advancements being made using biotechnology for treatment of geothermal residual waste; the various process options were discussed in terms of biotreatment variables. A treatment scenario and potential disposal costs were presented. John H. Weare, University of California, San Diego, discussed the present capabilities of the brine chemistry model he has developed for geothermal applications and the information it can provide a user. This model is available to industry. The accomplishments from the research projects presented in this session have been many. It is hoped that these accomplishments can be integrated into industrial geothermal power plant sites to assist in realizing the goal of reducing the cost of energy produced from the geothermal resource.

Robertson, David W.; LaSala, Raymond J.

1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

43

Cody hydrothermal system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The hot springs of Colter's Hell are the surface manifestations of a much larger hydothermal system. That system has been studied to define its extent, maximum temperature, and mechanism of operation. The study area covers 2700 km/sup 2/ (1040 mi/sup 2/) in northwest Wyoming. Research and field work included locating and sampling the hot springs, geologic mapping, thermal logging of available wells, measuring thermal conductivities, analyzing over 200 oil and gas well bottom-hole temperatures, and compiling and analyzing hydrologic data. These data were used to generate a model for the hydrothermal system.

Heasler, H.P.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass  

SciTech Connect

Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international collaboration with Canada to investigate kelp (seaweed) as a biomass feedstock. The collaborative project includes process testing of the kelp in HydroThermal Liquefaction in the bench-scale unit at PNNL. HydroThermal Liquefaction at PNNL is performed in the hydrothermal processing bench-scale reactor system. Slurries of biomass are prepared in the laboratory from whole ground biomass materials. Both wet processing and dry processing mills can be used, but the wet milling to final slurry is accomplished in a stirred ball mill filled with angle-cut stainless steel shot. The PNNL HTL system, as shown in the figure, is a continuous-flow system including a 1-litre stirred tank preheater/reactor, which can be connected to a 1-litre tubular reactor. The product is filtered at high-pressure to remove mineral precipitate before it is collected in the two high-pressure collectors, which allow the liquid products to be collected batchwise and recovered alternately from the process flow. The filter can be intermittently back-flushed as needed during the run to maintain operation. By-product gas is vented out the wet test meter for volume measurement and samples are collected for gas chromatography compositional analysis. The bio-oil product is analyzed for elemental content in order to calculate mass and elemental balances around the experiments. Detailed chemical analysis is performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 13-C nuclear magnetic resonance is used to evaluate functional group types in the bio-oil. Sufficient product is produced to allow subsequent catalytic hydroprocessing to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. The product bio-oil from hydrothermal liquefaction is typically a more viscous product compared to fast pyrolysis bio-oil. There are several reasons for this difference. The HTL bio-oil contains a lower level of oxygen because of more extensive secondary reaction of the pyrolysis products. There are less amounts of the many light oxygenates derived from the carbohydrate structures as they have been further reacted to phenolic Aldol condensation products. The bio-oil

Elliott, Douglas C.

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

45

Advances in High Throughput Screening of Biomass Recalcitrance (Poster)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This was a poster displayed at the Symposium. Advances on previous high throughput screening of biomass recalcitrance methods have resulted in improved conversion and replicate precision. Changes in plate reactor metallurgy, improved preparation of control biomass, species-specific pretreatment conditions, and enzymatic hydrolysis parameters have reduced overall coefficients of variation to an average of 6% for sample replicates. These method changes have improved plate-to-plate variation of control biomass recalcitrance and improved confidence in sugar release differences between samples. With smaller errors plant researchers can have a higher degree of assurance more low recalcitrance candidates can be identified. Significant changes in plate reactor, control biomass preparation, pretreatment conditions and enzyme have significantly reduced sample and control replicate variability. Reactor plate metallurgy significantly impacts sugar release aluminum leaching into reaction during pretreatment degrades sugars and inhibits enzyme activity. Removal of starch and extractives significantly decreases control biomass variability. New enzyme formulations give more consistent and higher conversion levels, however required re-optimization for switchgrass. Pretreatment time and temperature (severity) should be adjusted to specific biomass types i.e. woody vs. herbaceous. Desalting of enzyme preps to remove low molecular weight stabilizers and improved conversion levels likely due to water activity impacts on enzyme structure and substrate interactions not attempted here due to need to continually desalt and validate precise enzyme concentration and activity.

Turner, G. B.; Decker, S. R.; Tucker, M. P.; Law, C.; Doeppke, C.; Sykes, R. W.; Davis, M. F.; Ziebell, A.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

High throughput optical scanner  

SciTech Connect

A scanning apparatus is provided to obtain automated, rapid and sensitive scanning of substrate fluorescence, optical density or phosphorescence. The scanner uses a constant path length optical train, which enables the combination of a moving beam for high speed scanning with phase-sensitive detection for noise reduction, comprising a light source, a scanning mirror to receive light from the light source and sweep it across a steering mirror, a steering mirror to receive light from the scanning mirror and reflect it to the substrate, whereby it is swept across the substrate along a scan arc, and a photodetector to receive emitted or scattered light from the substrate, wherein the optical path length from the light source to the photodetector is substantially constant throughout the sweep across the substrate. The optical train can further include a waveguide or mirror to collect emitted or scattered light from the substrate and direct it to the photodetector. For phase-sensitive detection the light source is intensity modulated and the detector is connected to phase-sensitive detection electronics. A scanner using a substrate translator is also provided. For two dimensional imaging the substrate is translated in one dimension while the scanning mirror scans the beam in a second dimension. For a high throughput scanner, stacks of substrates are loaded onto a conveyor belt from a tray feeder.

Basiji, David A. (Seattle, WA); van den Engh, Gerrit J. (Seattle, WA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Summary - WTP Pretreatment Facility  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Block Block D DOE is Immob site's t facilitie purpos techno Facility to be i The as CTEs, Readin * C * C * W * Tr * U * Pu * W * H * Pl The as require The Ele Site: H roject: W Report Date: M ited States Wast Why DOE Diagram of Cesiu s constructing bilization Plant tank wastes. T es including a P se of this asses ology elements y and determin ncorporated in What th ssessment team along with eac ness Level (TR s Nitric Acid Re s Ion Exchang Waste Feed Eva reated LAW Ev ltrafiltration Pro ulse Jet Mixer Waste Feed Rec LW Lag Storag lant Wash and ssessment team ed maturity prio To view the full T http://www.em.doe. objective of a Tech ements (CTEs), usin Hanford/ORP Waste Treatme March 2007 Departmen te Treatm E-EM Did This um Nitric Acid R a Waste Treat (WTP) at Hanf The WTP is com Pretreatment F ssment was to s (CTEs) in the

48

Steam pretreatment for coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

Steam pretreatment is the reaction of coal with steam at temperatures well below those usually used for solubilization. The objective of the proposed work is to test the application of steam pretreatment to coal liquefaction. This quarter, a 300 ml stirred autoclave for liquefaction tests were specified and ordered, procedures for extraction tests were reestablished, and the synthesis of four model compounds was completed. Two of these compounds remain to be purified.

Graff, R.A.; Balogh-Nair, V.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Hydrothermal System | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Hydrothermal Systems Geothermal Technologies There are many types of Geothermal Technologies that take advantage of the earth's heat: Hydrothermal Systems Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Sedimentary Geothermal Systems Co-Produced Geothermal Systems Geothermal Direct Use Ground Source Heat Pumps Dictionary.png Hydrothermal Systems: A hydrothermal system is one that included fluid, heat, and permeability in a naturally occurring geological formation for the production of electricity. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Geothermal production well at Imperial Valley, California. The drilling of production wells, such as this one in southern California, results in one-third to one-half of the cost of a geothermal project. Copyright ©

50

Processes for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass: A review  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper reviews existing and proposed pretreatment processes for biomass. The focus is on the mechanisms by which the various pretreatments act and the influence of biomass structure and composition on the efficacy of particular pretreatment techniques. This analysis is used to identify pretreatment technologies and issues that warrant further research.

McMillan, J.D.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass  

SciTech Connect

This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. 6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high (~50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

2003-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

52

Structural Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability Maintained By Fault Propagation And Interaction Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Structural Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability Maintained By Fault Propagation And Interaction Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Hydrothermal outflow occurs most commonly at the terminations of individual faults and where multiple faults interact. These areas of fault propagation and interaction are sites of elevated stress termed breakdown regions. Here, stress concentrations cause active fracturing and continual re-opening of fluid-flow conduits, permitting long-lived hydrothermal flow despite potential clogging of fractures due to mineral precipitation. As

53

Caloramator sp. Tolerance of Pretreatment Inhibitors from ...  

Biomass and Biofuels Caloramator sp. Tolerance of Pretreatment Inhibitors from Lignocellulosics Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Contact ORNL About This ...

54

Method to Produce Highly Digestible, Pretreated ...  

Method to Produce Highly Digestible, Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Anhydrous Liquid Ammonia Inventors: Shishir Chundawat, Leonardo Sousa, ...

55

Low temperature hydrothermal destruction of organics in Hanford tank wastes  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work is to evaluate and develop a low temperature hydrothermal process (HTP) for the destruction of organics that are present wastes temporarily stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. Organic compounds contribute to tank waste safety issues, such as hydrogen generation. Some organic compounds act as complexants, promoting the solubility of radioactive constituents such as {sup 90}Sr and {sup 241}Am, which is undesirable for waste pretreatment processing. HTP is thermal-chemical autogenous processing method that is typically operated between 250{degrees}C and 375{degrees}C and approximately 200 atm. Testing with simulated tank waste, containing a variety of organics has been performed. The distribution of strontium, cesium and bulk metals between the supernatant and solid phases as a function of the total organic content of the waste simulant will be presented. Test results using simulant will be compared with similar tests conducted using actual radioactive waste.

Orth, R.J.; Elmore, M.R.; Zacher, A.H.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Schmidt, A.J.; Jones, E.O.; Hart, T.R.; Poshusta, J.C.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Comminution employing liquid nitrogen pretreatments  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to develop a methodology that will lead to the establishment of an effective, efficient technique for ultrafine grinding of coal. We believe that the key to successful coal grinding is strongly dependent upon the change of the brittleness of coal under a freezing temperature pretreatment. Furthermore, a cryogenic grinding process may provide the basis for the development of advanced technologies involving the separation of the pyritic minerals from coal. Specific objectives of the program are to: determine the effect of low temperature pretreatments on the microfracture development along the coal/pyrite interface and on the fracture resistance (brittleness) of coal. Specifically, we intend to examine the effect of direct contact of coal with liquid nitrogen, dry ice, and dry-iced acetone. Also, we intend to study pyrite liberation as a result of these treatments; determine the fracture resistance of coal under different low temperature pretreatments; determine the relationships between the fracture resistance of coal and the effectiveness of a grinding process; determine the effect of the frozen coal grinding on the pyrite liberation; evaluate factors which might effect process design, scale-up, and economics; and make a first pass economic assessment of the process. 15 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Yen, S.C. (Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Mechanics); Hippo, E.J. (Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes)

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

High throughput protein production screening  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods, compositions, and kits for the cell-free production and analysis of proteins are provided. The invention allows for the production of proteins from prokaryotic sequences or eukaryotic sequences, including human cDNAs using PCR and IVT methods and detecting the proteins through fluorescence or immunoblot techniques. This invention can be used to identify optimized PCR and WT conditions, codon usages and mutations. The methods are readily automated and can be used for high throughput analysis of protein expression levels, interactions, and functional states.

Beernink, Peter T. (Walnut Creek, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Oakland, CA); Segelke, Brent W. (San Ramon, CA)

2009-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

58

Structural Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

elevated stress termed breakdown regions. Here, stress concentrations cause active fracturing and continual re-opening of fluid-flow conduits, permitting long-lived hydrothermal...

59

Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Oligomers in Hydrothermal Pretreatment Hydrolyzate into Monomers with High Yields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of fossil fuels and carbon dioxide emission. Ethanol95 ix List of Figures Figure 1.1 Biofuels and carbon dioxideGoldemberg 2007).Carbon dioxide is the major greenhouse gas

Tsai, Yueh-Du

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Oligomers in Hydrothermal Pretreatment Hydrolyzate into Monomers with High Yields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

578. Hsu T. 1996. Bioethanol: Production and Utilization.design and costing of bioethanol technology: a tool for9 Bioethanol

Tsai, Yueh-Du

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Oligomers in Hydrothermal Pretreatment Hydrolyzate into Monomers with High Yields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heat and electricity used by conversion process or exported to the grid.heat and power to the production facility with excess left to export to the power grid.

Tsai, Yueh-Du

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Rheological Study of Comingled Biomass and Coal Slurries with HydrothermalPretreatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

entrained flow gasification. Fuel Process. Technol. 2009, inratio is 3:1 when using our gasification process. Thus, withas a feedstock for gasification. Table 3 shows the results

He, W; Park, C S; Norbeck, J N

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Oligomers in Hydrothermal Pretreatment Hydrolyzate into Monomers with High Yields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

via traditional biomass that generates heat by combustion.biomass handing, ethanol recovery, wastewater treatment, solid waste combustion,

Tsai, Yueh-Du

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Rheological Study of Comingled Biomass and Coal Slurries with HydrothermalPretreatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

emissions by substituting biomass for fossil fuels. Energy (entrained flow gasifiers for biomass. Environ. Eng. Sci.r y ment and feeding of biomass for pressurized entrained

He, W; Park, C S; Norbeck, J N

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Oligomers in Hydrothermal Pretreatment Hydrolyzate into Monomers with High Yields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cellulosic biomass to ethanol __________________ 3 Hemicellulose hydrolysis ________________________________________ 5 Thesis objectives _______________________________________________ 6 References ____________________________________________________ 7 Chapter 2 - Literature Review _____________________________________________ 9 Bioethanol Feedstock ___________________________________________feedstock that are inexpensive and abundant(Wyman 1999). In addition, as illustrated in Figure 1.1, cellulosic

Tsai, Yueh-Du

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Rheological Study of Comingled Biomass and Coal Slurries with HydrothermalPretreatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sirkeci, A. A. ; Dincer, H. The effect of coal properties onthe viscosity of coal-water slurries. Fuel 2002, 81, 1855 (H. ; Atesok, G. Effect of coal particle size distribution,

He, W; Park, C S; Norbeck, J N

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Oligomers in Hydrothermal Pretreatment Hydrolyzate into Monomers with High Yields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sugar cane or corn starch, making ethanol from cellulosicdesigned to convert corn stover to ethanol by a series of77 NREL biochemical ethanol conversion process of corn

Tsai, Yueh-Du

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Oligomers in Hydrothermal Pretreatment Hydrolyzate into Monomers with High Yields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lignocellulosic biomass offers lower price, lower chemicalby food price fluctuations. Lignocellulosic biomass such as

Tsai, Yueh-Du

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Land use siting considerations for hydrothermal energy facilities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrothermal resources are described and discussion is focused on some of the land use and social considerations involved in siting hydrothermal power plants. (MHR)

Oakes, K.M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Rhode Island Pretreatment Regulations (Rhode Island)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These regulations set standards for water pretreatment prior to release to Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs), and require effluent data including the identity, amount, frequency, concentration...

71

The Effects of Surfactant Pretreatment and Xylooligomers on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose and Pretreated Biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rich solution was produced by water-only pretreatment ofDP of xylooligomers produced by water-only pretreatment ofXylooligomer mixtures were produced by water-only hydrolysis

Qing, Qing

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

DRILLED HYDROTHERMAL ENERGY Drilling for seawater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technologies to obtain thermal energy (and other benefits) from a large body of water #12;Microgrid Customer ENERGY : Underground Technologies #12;#12;Microgrid Customer Facilities Drilled Hydrothermal Energy Plant;#12;Microgrid Customer Facilities Drilled Hydrothermal Energy Plant Cooling Power Biofuel / H2 Fresh Water

73

Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

Biddy, M.; Davis, R.; Jones, S.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Cyclic coordinate descent in hydrothermal nonsmooth problems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present an algorithm, inspired by the cyclic coordinate descent method, which allows the solution of hydrothermal optimization problems involving pumped-storage plants. The proof of the convergence of the succession generated by the ... Keywords: Coordinate descent, Hydrothermal coordination, Optimal control, Zangwill's theorem

Luis Bayn; Jose M. Grau; Maria M. Ruiz; Pedro M. Surez

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

High-throughput in vivo vertebrate screening  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate a high-throughput platform for cellular-resolution in vivo chemical and genetic screens on zebrafish larvae. The system automatically loads zebrafish from reservoirs or multiwell plates, and positions and ...

Pardo-Martin, Carlos

76

High throughput 3-D tissue cytometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents the ongoing technological development of high throughput 3-D tissue cytometry.and its applications in biomedicine. 3-D tissue cytometry has been developed in our laboratory based on two-photon microscopy ...

Kwon, Hyuk-Sang, 1971-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

What Defines a Separate Hydrothermal System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Separate hydrothermal systems can be defined in a variety of ways. Criteria which have been applied include separation of heat source, upflow, economic resource and geophysical anomaly. Alternatively, connections have been defined by the effects of withdrawal of economically useful fluid and subsidence, effects of reinjection, changes in thermal features, or by a hydrological connection of groundwaters. It is proposed here that: ''A separate hydrothermal system is one that is fed by a separate convective upflow of fluid, at a depth above the brittle-ductile transition for the host rocks, while acknowledging that separate hydrothermal systems can be hydrologically interconnected at shallower levels''.

Lawless, J.V.; Bogie, I.; Bignall, G.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope  

SciTech Connect

A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Boro, Carl O. (Milpitas, CA); Higgins, Steven R. (Laramie, WY); Eggleston, Carrick M. (Laramie, WY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recent development in biomass gasification is the use of a pressurized water processing environment in order that drying of the biomass can be avoided. This paper reviews the research undertaken developing this new option for biomass gasification. This review does not cover wet oxidation or near-atmospheric-pressure steam-gasification of biomass. Laboratory research on hydrothermal gasification of biomass focusing on the use of catalysts is reviewed here, and a companion review focuses on non-catalytic processing. Research includes liquid-phase, sub-critical processing as well as super-critical water processing. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in such a system allows effective operation at lower temperatures, and the issues around the use of catalysts are presented. This review attempts to show the potential of this new processing concept by comparing the various options under development and the results of the research.

Elliott, Douglas C.

2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

80

Definition: Hydrothermal Reservoir | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrothermal Reservoirs are underground zones of porous rock containing hot water and steam, and can be naturally occurring or human-made.1 References x Ret LikeLike...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Biomass reforming processes in hydrothermal media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While hydrothermal technologies offer distinct advantages in being able to process a wide variety of biomass feedstocks, the composition of the feedstock will have a large effect on the processing employed. This thesis ...

Peterson, Andrew A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Mesoporous titania nanocrystals by hydrothermal template growth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mesoporous TiO2 nanocrystals have been synthetized by a classical sol-gel route integrated by an hydrothermal growth step using monomeric (dodecylpyridinium chloride, DPC) or dimeric gemini-like (GS3) surfactants as template directing agents. ...

Giuseppe Cappelletti; Silvia Ardizzone; Francesca Spadavecchia; Daniela Meroni; Iolanda Biraghi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work completed during the fourth quarter of a three year project to study the effects of mild chemical pretreatment on coal dissolution reactivity during low severity liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing. The overall objective of this research is to elucidate changes in the chemical and physical structure of coal by pretreating with methanol or other simple organic solvent and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid and measure the influence of these changes on coal dissolution reactivity. This work is part of a larger effort to develop a new coal liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing scheme consisting of three main process steps: (1) mile pretreatment of the feed coal to enhance dissolution reactivity and dry the coal, (2) low severity thermal dissolution of the pretreated coal to obtain a very reactive coal-derived residual material amenable to upgrading, and (3) catalytic upgrading of the residual products to distillate liquids.

Miller, R.L.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Hydrothermal industrialization: direct heat development. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A description of hydrothermal resources suitable for direct applications, their associated temperatures, geographic distribution and developable capacity are given. An overview of the hydrothermal direct-heat development infrastructure is presented. Development activity is highlighted by examining known and planned geothermal direct-use applications. Underlying assumptions and results for three studies conducted to determine direct-use market penetration of geothermal energy are discussed.

Not Available

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Data Management for High-Throughput Genomics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Today's sequencing technology allows sequencing an individual genome within a few weeks for a fraction of the costs of the original Human Genome project. Genomics labs are faced with dozens of TB of data per week that have to be automatically processed and made available to scientists for further analysis. This paper explores the potential and the limitations of using relational database systems as the data processing platform for high-throughput genomics. In particular, we are interested in the storage management for high-throughput sequence data and in leveraging SQL and user-defined functions for data analysis inside a database system. We give an overview of a database design for high-throughput genomics, how we used a SQL Server database in some unconventional ways to prototype this scenario, and we will discuss some initial findings about the scalability and performance of such a more database-centric approach.

Roehm, Uwe

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

F  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

o r P e e r R e v i e w Journal Name: http:mc.manuscriptcentral.comindbiotech Lignocellulose Recalcitrance Screening by Integrated High Throughput Hydrothermal Pretreatment and...

87

Pretreatment Rules (Ohio) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pretreatment Rules (Ohio) Pretreatment Rules (Ohio) Pretreatment Rules (Ohio) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Ohio Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Ohio Environmental Protection Agency This law lists state requirements and standards regulating the introduction of pollutants into Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) by industrial users. The following substances shall not be introduced into a POTW: (1) Pollutants that create a fire or explosion hazard in the POTW including, but not limited to, wastestreams with a closed cup flashpoint of less than 140 degrees Fahrenheit or 60 degrees; (2) Pollutants that will cause corrosive structural damage to the POTW, but in no case discharges with pH lower than 5.0, unless the POTW is

88

Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion.

Rivard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO); Nagle, Nicholas J. (Broomfield, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus are disclosed for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion. 1 fig.

Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

90

Robust regression for high throughput drug screening  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effective analysis of high throughput screening (HTS) data requires automation of dose-response curve fitting for large numbers of datasets. Datasets with outliers are not handled well by standard non-linear least squares methods, and manual outlier ... Keywords: Agonist activity, Dose-response curve, HTS, IRLS, M-estimation, Robust regression

Igor Fomenko; Mark Durst; David Balaban

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Characterization of advanced preprocessed materials (Hydrothermal)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The initial hydrothermal treatment parameters did not achieve the proposed objective of this effort; the reduction of intrinsic ash in the corn stover. However, liquid fractions from the 170C treatments was indicative that some of the elements routinely found in the ash that negatively impact the biochemical conversion processes had been removed. After reviewing other options for facilitating ash removal, sodium-citrate (chelating agent) was included in the hydrothermal treatment process, resulting in a 69% reduction in the physiological ash. These results indicated that chelation hydrothermal treatment is one possible approach that can be utilized to reduce the overall ash content of feedstock materials and having a positive impact on conversion performance.

Rachel Emerson; Garold Gresham

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Hydrothermal vent complexes associated with sill intrusionsin sedimentarybasins  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. 477 Discussion on structure and evolution of hydrothermal vent complexes in the Karoo Basin, South the paper by Svensen et al. (2006) on South African hydrothermal vents within the Karoo Basin, particularly for their interest in our paper on hydrothermal vent complexes in the Karoo Basin (Svensen et al. 2006). Based

Podladchikov, Yuri

93

Furnace Efficiency Energy and Throughput - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Symposium. Meeting, 2011 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium, Furnace Efficiency Energy and Throughput. Sponsorship, The Minerals...

94

Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work completed during the fifth quarter of a three year project to study the effects of mild chemical pretreatment on coal dissolution reactivity during low severity liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing. The overall objective of this research is to elucidate changes in the chemical and physical structure of coal by pretreating with methanol or other simple organic solvent and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid and measure the influence of these changes on coal dissolution reactivity. Work this quarter focused on analytical characterization of untreated and treated Wyodak subbituminous coal and Illinois {number sign}6 bituminous coal. Mossbauer spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques were used to study the effect of methanol/HCl pretreatment on the composition of each coal's inorganic phase. Results from these studies indicated that calcite is largely removed during pretreatment, but that other mineral species such as pyrite are unaffected. This finding is significant, since calcite removal appears to directly correlate with low severity liquefaction enhancement. Further work will be performed to study this phenomenon in more detail.

Miller, R.L.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogenous catalyst for gasification.

Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

96

Pre-treatment of Dye Wastewater by Electrolysis Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Pre-treatment of Dye Wastewater by Electrolysis Technology .... Application in High Temperature Thermochemical Hydrogen Production.

97

Nanoporous Membranes for Pretreatment of Lignocellulose and Other Applications  

Researchers at ORNL have developed an inorganic membrane element and a flowthrough recycle (FTR) process for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass to ...

98

Waste Treatment and Immobilation Plant Pretreatment Facility  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7 7 Technology Readiness Assessment for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Pretreatment Facility L. Holton D. Alexander M. Johnson H. Sutter August 2007 Prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection Richland, Washington, 99352 07-DESIGN-047 Technology Readiness Assessment for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Pretreatment Facilities L. Holton D. Alexander M. Johnson H. Sutter August 2007 Prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 07-DESIGN-047 iii Summary The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) and the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Project Recovery has completed a Technology Readiness

99

Double-shell tank waste pretreatment  

SciTech Connect

Double-shell tanks contain most of the transuranic/high-level chemical processing waste generated at the Hanford Site in recent years. A small mass fraction of this waste is responsible for its characterization as transuranic/high-level waste. Pretreatment will partition the waste into a small fraction containing most of the transuranic/high-level components and a large fraction that is a low-level waste. The operations for achieving this objective include dissolution of water-soluble salts, dissolution of precipitated metal oxides in acid, clarification of the resulting dissolver liquors, transuranium element removal by solvent extraction and cesium removal by ion exchange. The primary benefit of pretreatment is a reduction in the overall cost of waste disposal.

Orme, R.M.; Appel, J.N.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Colorado's hydrothermal resource base: an assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of its effort to more accurately describe the nations geothrmal resource potential, the US Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy contracted with the Colorado Geological survey to appraise the hydrothermal (hot water) geothermal resources of Colorado. Part of this effort required that the amount of energy that could possibly be contained in the various hydrothermal systems in Colorado be estimated. The findings of that assessment are presented. To make these estimates the geothermometer reservoir temperatures estimated by Barrett and Pearl (1978) were used. In addition, the possible reservoir size and extent were estimated and used. This assessment shows that the total energy content of the thermal systems in Colorado could range from 4.872 x 10{sup 15} BTU's to 13.2386 x 10{sup 15} BTU's.

Pearl, R.H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

Biddy, Mary J.; Davis, Ryan; Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

102

Surficial Extent And Conceptual Model Of Hydrothermal System At Mount  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Surficial Extent And Conceptual Model Of Hydrothermal System At Mount Surficial Extent And Conceptual Model Of Hydrothermal System At Mount Rainier, Washington Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Surficial Extent And Conceptual Model Of Hydrothermal System At Mount Rainier, Washington Details Activities (4) Areas (2) Regions (0) Abstract: A once massive hydrothermal system was disgorged from the summit of Mount Rainier in a highly destructive manner about 5000 years ago. Today, hydrothermal processes are depositing clayey alteration products that have the potential to reset the stage for similar events in the future. Areas of active hydrothermal alteration occur in three representative settings: 1. (1) An extensive area (greater than 12,000 m2) of heated ground and slightly acidic boiling-point fumaroles at 76-82°C at

103

Furnace Efficiency Energy and Throughput - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since throughput and energy efficiency are very closely tied together, this symposium looks to optimize furnace operations in both areas. Specific methods to...

104

High-Throughput Approaches to Optimization of Crystal ...  

high-throughput approaches to optimization of crystal silicon surface passivation and heterojunction solar cells qi wanga, matt page, yanfa yan, and ...

105

Potential of High-Throughput Experimentation with Ammonia Borane...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of High-Throughput Experimentation with Ammonia Borane Solid Hydrogen Storage Materials Jonathan L. Male Pacific Northwest National Laboratory June 26, 2006 US Department of Energy...

106

High Throughput/Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Workshop HIGH THROUGHPUTCOMBINATORIAL SCREENING OF HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIALS June 26, 2007 Tom Boussie Symyx Technologies Symyx develops and applies proprietary high-throughput...

107

A Cellular Automata Breccia Simulator (CABS) and its application to rounding in hydrothermal breccias  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dissolution processes are ubiquitous in surficial and hydrothermal environments. Solution breccias are formed when dissolution processes dominate and are widely observed in hydrothermal systems. Distinct fragment shapes develop during dissolution and ... Keywords: Breccias, Cellular automata, Hydrothermal alteration, Numerical modelling, Simulation

M. Lalonde; G. Tremblay; M. Jbrak

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Relations Of Ammonium Minerals At Several Hydrothermal Systems...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

minerals at known hydrothermal systems is critical for the proper interpretation of remote sensing data and for testing of possible links to mineralization. Submicroscopic...

109

Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrothermal heat discharge in the Cascade Range includes the heat discharged by thermal springs, by "slightly thermal" springs that are only a few degrees warmer than...

110

GEOLOGY AND HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION OF THE RAFT RIVER GEOTHERMAL...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GEOLOGY AND HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION OF THE RAFT RIVER GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM, IDAHO Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: GEOLOGY AND...

111

A Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal System Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: A Helium Isotope...

112

Why Sequence Bacteria in Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bacteria in Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents? The project focuses on using single-cell genomics to sequence nearly a dozen genomes of uncultivated bacteria that are found in...

113

Kinetic Modeling and Assessment of Lime Pretreatment of Poplar Wood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Because of widespread availability, low cost, sustainability, and potential supply far greater than that of food crops, lignocellulosic biomass is one of the most promising feedstocks for producing biofuels through fermentation processes. Among lignocellulose choices, poplar wood is appealing because of high energy potential, above-average carbon mitigation potential, fast growth, and high yields. Lignocellulose structural features limit accessibility of enzymes or microorganisms. To overcome these limitations, pretreatment is required. Among several choices of pretreatment, lime pretreatment is preferred because lime is the cheapest alkali, safest to handle, easy to recover, and compatible with oxidants. The main effect of lime pretreatment is to degrade lignin, which occurs with good carbohydrate preservation and is enhanced with oxidants. Among several choices of oxidant, oxygen and air are preferred because of low cost and widespread availability. This study systematically assesses the effects of lime pretreatment on poplar wood using four different modes: long-term oxidative, long-term non-oxidative, short-term constant pressure, and short-term varying pressure. Long-term pretreatments use temperatures between 25 and 65 C, air if oxidant is used, and last several weeks. Short-term pretreatments use temperatures between 110 and 180 C, pressurized oxygen, and last several minutes to hours. Pretreatment was assessed on the basis of 3-day enzymatic digestibility using enzyme loadings of 15 FPU/g glucan in raw biomass. The results were used to recommend pretreatment conditions based on highest overall yield of glucan (after combined pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis) for each pretreatment mode. For each pretreatment mode, kinetic models for delignification and carbohydrates degradation were obtained and used to determine the conditions (temperature, pressure, and time) that maximize glucan preservation subjected to a target lignin yield. This study led to conclude that the most robust, and selective mode of lime pretreatment is varying pressure.

Sierra Ramirez, Rocio

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Rapid selection and identification of Miscanthus genotypes with enhanced glucan and xylan yields from hydrothermal pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy: In U.S. billion-ton update: biomass supply for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry.Supply for Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry jointly released by DOE and USDA, energy

Zhang, Taiying; Wyman, Charles E; Jakob, Katrin; Yang, Bin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Composition and hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification performance of grasses and legumes from a mixed species prairie  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J, Lehman C: Carbon-negative biofuels from low-input high-hydrolysis. Biotechnol for Biofuels 18. Anderson WF, Dienprairie. Biotechnology for Biofuels 2011 4:52. Submit your

DeMartini, Jaclyn D; Wyman, Charles E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Rapid selection and identification of Miscanthus genotypes with enhanced glucan and xylan yields from hydrothermal pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Science 2005, 3. Kerr RA: Peak oil production may already beoil production might have already reached its peak instead

Zhang, Taiying; Wyman, Charles E; Jakob, Katrin; Yang, Bin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Rapid selection and identification of Miscanthus genotypes with enhanced glucan and xylan yields from hydrothermal pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

U.S. billion-ton update: biomass supply for a bioenergy andU. S. Billion Ton update: Biomass Supply for Bioenergy and

Zhang, Taiying; Wyman, Charles E; Jakob, Katrin; Yang, Bin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Composition and hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification performance of grasses and legumes from a mixed species prairie  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and switchgrass. Biomass & Bioenergy 2006, 30:880-891. 11.to monoculture bioenergy crops [4]. For lignocellulosicof Science through the BioEnergy Science Center (BESC). We

DeMartini, Jaclyn D; Wyman, Charles E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Redistribution of Lignin Caused by Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Biomass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research conducted at NREL has shown that lignin undergoes a phase transition during thermochemical pretreatments conducted above its glass transition temperature. The lignin coalesces within the plant cell wall and appears as microscopic droplets on cell surfaces. It is clear that pretreatment causes significant changes in lignin distribution in pretreatments at all scales from small laboratory reactors to pilot scale reactors. A method for selectively extracting lignin droplets from the surfaces of pretreated cell walls has allowed us to characterize the chemical nature and molecular weight distribution of this fraction. The effect of lignin redistribution on the digestibility of pretreated solids has also been tested. It is clear that removal of the droplets increases the digestibility of pretreated corn stover. The improved digestibility could be due to decreased non-specific binding of enzymes to lignin in the droplets, or because the droplets no longer block access to cellulose.

Johnson, D. K.; Donohoe, B. S.; Katahira, R.; Tucker, M. P.; Vinzant, T. B.; Himmel, M. E.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Review: Clustering of high throughput gene expression data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High throughput biological data need to be processed, analyzed, and interpreted to address problems in life sciences. Bioinformatics, computational biology, and systems biology deal with biological problems using computational methods. Clustering is ... Keywords: Bioinformatics, Clustering, Gene expression data, High throughput data, Microarrays

Harun Pirim; Burak Ek?Io?Lu; Andy D. Perkins; Etin YCeer

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

CO.sub.2 Pretreatment prevents calcium carbonate formation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by pretreatment with carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide pretreatment is believed to convert the scale-forming components to the corresponding carbonate prior to liquefaction. The pretreatment is accomplished at a total pressure within the range from about 14 to about 68 atmospheres and a carbon dioxide partial pressure within the range from about 14 to about 34 atmospheres. Temperature during pretreatment will generally be within the range from about 100.degree. to about 200.degree. C.

Neavel, Richard C. (Baytown, TX); Brunson, Roy J. (Buffalo Grove, IL); Chaback, Joseph J. (Worthington, OH)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Particle swarm optimization technique based short-term hydrothermal scheduling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Particle swarm optimization is applied to determine the optimal hourly schedule of power generation in a hydrothermal power system. A multi-reservoir cascaded hydroelectric system with a nonlinear relationship between water discharge rate, net head and ... Keywords: Cascaded reservoirs, Hydrothermal scheduling, Particle swarm optimization

K. K. Mandal; M. Basu; N. Chakraborty

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Polymer-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of hierarchically arranged hydroxyapatite nanoceramic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flower-like hydroxyapatite (HA) nanostructures were synthesized by a polymer-assisted hydrothermal method. The thickness of the petals/plates decreased from 200 nm to 40 nm as the polymer concentration increased. The thickness also decreased as the hydrothermal ...

A. Joseph Nathanael, Sung Soo Han, Tae Hwan Oh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Property:IdentifiedHydrothermalPotential | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

IdentifiedHydrothermalPotential IdentifiedHydrothermalPotential Jump to: navigation, search Property Name IdentifiedHydrothermalPotential Property Type Quantity Description Conventional hydrothermal electricity generation potential from identified hydrothermal sites, as determined by the USGS 2008 Geothermal Resource Assessment (Williams et al, 2008). Use this property to express potential electric energy generation, such as Nameplate Capacity. The default unit is megawatts (MW). For spatial capacity, use property Volume. Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: 1 MW,MWe,megawatt,Megawatt,MegaWatt,MEGAWATT,megawatts,Megawatt,MegaWatts,MEGAWATT,MEGAWATTS 1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS

125

Property:PotentialGeothermalHydrothermalGeneration | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PotentialGeothermalHydrothermalGeneration PotentialGeothermalHydrothermalGeneration Jump to: navigation, search Property Name PotentialGeothermalHydrothermalGeneration Property Type Quantity Description The estimated potential energy generation from Geothermal Hydrothermal for a particular place. Use this type to express a quantity of energy. The default unit for energy on OpenEI is the Kilowatt hour (kWh), which is 3,600,000 Joules. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unit_of_energy It's possible types are Watt hours - 1000 Wh, Watt hour, Watthour Kilowatt hours - 1 kWh, Kilowatt hour, Kilowatthour Megawatt hours - 0.001 MWh, Megawatt hour, Megawatthour Gigawatt hours - 0.000001 GWh, Gigawatt hour, Gigawatthour Joules - 3600000 J, Joules, joules Pages using the property "PotentialGeothermalHydrothermalGeneration"

126

Relations Of Ammonium Minerals At Several Hydrothermal Systems In The  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Relations Of Ammonium Minerals At Several Hydrothermal Systems In The Relations Of Ammonium Minerals At Several Hydrothermal Systems In The Western Us Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Relations Of Ammonium Minerals At Several Hydrothermal Systems In The Western Us Details Activities (5) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Ammonium bound to silicate and sulfate minerals has recently been located at several major hydrothermal systems in the western U.S. utilizing newly-discovered near-infrared spectral properties. Knowledge of the origin and mineralogic relations of ammonium minerals at known hydrothermal systems is critical for the proper interpretation of remote sensing data and for testing of possible links to mineralization. Submicroscopic analysis of ammonium minerals from two mercury- and gold-bearing

127

Fluid Inclusion Gas Compositions From An Active Magmatic-Hydrothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fluid Inclusion Gas Compositions From An Active Magmatic-Hydrothermal Fluid Inclusion Gas Compositions From An Active Magmatic-Hydrothermal System- A Case Study Of The Geysers Geothermal Field, Usa Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Fluid Inclusion Gas Compositions From An Active Magmatic-Hydrothermal System- A Case Study Of The Geysers Geothermal Field, Usa Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Hydrothermal alteration and the active vapor-dominated geothermal system at The Geysers, CA are related to a composite hypabyssal granitic pluton emplaced beneath the field 1.1 to 1.2 million years ago. Deep drill holes provide a complete transect across the thermal system and samples of the modern-day steam. The hydrothermal system was liquid-dominated prior to formation of the modern vapor-dominated regime at 0.25 to 0.28 Ma. Maximum

128

Property:UndiscoveredHydrothermalPotential | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UndiscoveredHydrothermalPotential UndiscoveredHydrothermalPotential Jump to: navigation, search Property Name UndiscoveredHydrothermalPotential Property Type Quantity Description Estimated conventional hydrothermal electricity generation potential from undiscovered hydrothermal sites, as determined by the USGS 2008 Geothermal Resource Assessment (Williams et al, 2008). Use this property to express potential electric energy generation, such as Nameplate Capacity. The default unit is megawatts (MW). For spatial capacity, use property Volume. Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: 1 MW,MWe,megawatt,Megawatt,MegaWatt,MEGAWATT,megawatts,Megawatt,MegaWatts,MEGAWATT,MEGAWATTS 1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS

129

Fundamentals of Biomass Pretreatment by Fractionation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fundamentals of Biomass Pretreatment by Fractionation Poulomi Sannigrahi 1,2 and Arthur J. Ragauskas 1,2,3 1 BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, USA 2 Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA 3 School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA 10.1 Introduction With the rise in global energy demand and environmental concerns about the use of fossil fuels, the need for rapid development of alternative fuels from sustainable, non-food sources is now well acknowledged. The effective utilization of low-cost high-volume agricultural and forest biomass for the production of transporta- tion fuels and bio-based materials will play a vital role in addressing this concern [1]. The processing of lignocellulosic biomass, especially from mixed agricultural and forest sources with varying composition,

130

Cellulosic Biofuels: Importance, Recalcitrance, and Pretreatment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cellulosic Cellulosic Biofuels: Importance, Recalcitrance, and Pretreatment Lee Lynd 1,2 and Mark Laser 1 1 Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, USA 2 BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, USA 2.1 Our Place in History The two most profound societal transformations in history have been spawned by radical shifts in human- kind's use of natural resources. The agricultural revolution, which spanned about two millennia beginning around 4000 BC, saw hunter-gatherer societies subsisting on wild plants and animals being largely dis- placed by those cultivating the land to produce crops and domesticated livestock. The industrial revolution followed, beginning around 1700 and lasting roughly two hundred years, during which time preindustrial agricultural societies gave way to those harnessing precious metals and fossil energy to develop sophisti- cated economies centered

131

Optimization of steam explosion pretreatment. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Different operating conditions are required to optimize the yield from each of the various fractions in the substrate. Xylose recovery is maximized at short cooking times whereas maximum lignin recovery requires much longer cooking times. Peak glucose yield and rumen digestibility occur at intermediate times. If process conditions are set for maximum glucose yield we have achieved a yield of 68% of the theoretical, based on an average of a dozen substrates tested. Individual results ranged from 46 to 87%. If the process is optimized for maximum total sugars (i.e. glucose plus xylose) we have obtained an average yield of 60%, with a range of 31 to 75%. With rumen microflora, the average value of the in-vitro cellulose digestibility was 82%, with a range of 41 to 90%. The optimum operating conditions for total sugars are a pressure of 500 to 550 psig with a cooking time of 40 to 50 seconds and 35% starting moisture content. Particle size is not a significant factor, nor is pre-steaming or use of a constricting die in the gun nozzle. High quality lignin can be extracted with 80% yield. The Iotech lignin is very soluble, has a low molecular weight and is reactive. The unique properties of the lignin derive from the explosion at the end of the pretreatment. A lignin formaldehyde resin has been successfully formulated and tested. It represents a high value utilization of the lignin byproduct with immediate market potential. A detailed engineering design of the process gives an estimated operating cost of $7.50/OD ton of biomass. At this low cost, the Iotech process achieves many important pretreatment goals in a single step. The substrate has been sterilized; it has been pulverized into a powder; the cellulose has been accessible; and a highly reactive lignin fraction can be recovered and utilized.

Foody, P.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Hydrothermal system at Newberry Volcano, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

Results of recent geological and geophysical studies at Newberry Volcano have been incorporated into conceptual and numerical models of a magma-based hydrothermal system. Numerical simulations begin with emplacement of a small magma body, the presumed source of silicic eruptions at Newberry that began about 10,000 B.P., into a thermal regime representing 100,000 years of cooling of a large underlying intrusion. Simulated flow patterns and thermal histories for three sets of hypothetical permeability values are compatible with data from four geothermal drill holes on the volcano. Meteoric recharge cools the caldera-fill deposits, but thermal water moving up a central conduit representing a permeable volcanic vent produces temperatures close to those observed in drill holes within the caldera. Meteoric recharge from the caldera moves down the flanks and creates a near-isothermal zone that extends several hundred meters below the water table, producing temperature profiles similar to those observed in drill holes on the flanks. The temperatures observed in drill holes on the flanks are not influenced by the postulated Holocene magma body. The elevated temperature gradients measured in the lower portions of these holes may be related to the cumulative effect of older intrusions. The models also indicate that meteoric recharge to the deep hydrothermal system probably originates within or near the caldera. Relatively low fluid velocities at depth suggest that at least a significant fraction of the thermal fluid may be very old.

Sammel, E.A.; Ingebritsen, S.E.; Mariner, R.H.

1988-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

133

Throughput maximization in UWB-based ad-hoc networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, we study the problem of radio resource allocation, both transmission rates and transmission powers, so as to maximize the throughput of UWB wireless ad-hoc networks. Our analysis is based on the packet-success function (PSF), which is defined as the probability of a data packet being successfully received as a function of the receivers signal-to-interference-and-noise-ratio (SINR). We find an optimal link transmission rate, which maximizes the links throughput and is dependent on the all active links transmission powers. If each link transmission rate is adapted to this optimal link transmission rate, then, with single-link operation (i.e., no other interference sources are present), the links throughput is directly proportional to the transmitters power and increases indefinitely with increasing transmission power. However, with multiplelinks operation and interference each other, as each link transmitting power increases, so does the interference level, and the total network throughput approaches a constant other than infinite. Thus, for sufficiently small transmission power, the total network throughput of the multiple-links case exceeds the throughput of the single-link case, but the reverse happens for high power. In addition, this paper reveals that, as the number of concurrently transmitting links increases, regardless of the power level, the maximal total network throughput approaches a constant, with each links throughput approaching zero. To maximize the network throughput, for the case of small maximal transmission power with weak interference levels, the optimal transmission scheduling

Zou Chuanyun; Haas Zygmunt J; Zou Sheng

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Hydrothermal time analysis of seed dormancy in true (botanical) potato seeds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

germination and shoot-radicle elongation of Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Weed Science 47, 557­562. Hydrothermal

Bradford, Kent

135

Long-term lime pretreatment of poplar wood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., poplar wood) provides a unique and sustainable resource for environmentally safe organic fuels and chemicals. The core of this study is the pretreatment step involved in bioconversion processes. Pretreatment is required to realize high yields vital to commercial success. The focus of the pretreatment step is to methodically change key features of the biomass to favor enzymatic hydrolysis. This work assesses the compositional changes due to oxidative and non-oxidative longterm lime pretreatment of poplar wood (up to 4 weeks of pretreatment) at mild temperatures (25C to 65C), and their effect on the enzymatic yield of glucan and xylan. The most important pretreatment yield of lignin was 54 g lignin remaining/100 g lignin in raw biomass, and was accomplished for 4-week lime pretreatment at 65C in oxidative conditions. The corresponding pretreatment yields of glucan and xylan were 85.9 g glucan recovered/100 g glucan in raw biomass and 80.2 g xylan recovered/100 g xylan in raw biomass respectively. For poplar wood oxidatively pretreated with lime for 4 weeks at 65C and enzymatically hydrolyzed with an enzyme loading of 15 FPU/g glucan in raw biomass during a 3-day period, the best overall yields of glucan and xylan, were 80.7 g glucan hydrolyzed/100 g glucan in raw biomass and 66.9 g xylan hydrolyzed/100 g xylan in raw biomass respectively. The corresponding hydrolysis yields were 94.0 g glucan hydrolyzed/100 g glucan in treated biomass and 83.5 g xylan hydrolyzed/100 g xylan in treated biomass respectively. Because there is a previous study of long-term lime pretreatment of corn stover (Kim, 2004), the data obtained in this work show the effect of using woody lignocellulose as substrate. From the comparison, resulted that in the case of poplar wood oxidatively pretreated at 65C for 4 weeks, less lignin was removed and more carbohydrates were solubilized, however the hydrolysis yield of glucan was almost equal and the hydrolysis yield of xylan was higher than the reported by Kim for corn stover oxidatively pretreated at 55C for 4 weeks. The overall yield of glucan resulted lower in the case of poplar wood because of the lower pretreatment yield of glucan. Thus, it is important to complete the mass balances including an analysis on the pretreatment liquor to determine if the solubilized glucan was degraded.

Sierra Ramirez, Rocio

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Horizontal Pretreatment Reactor System (Poster), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Diff Diff erent pretreatment chemistry/ residence time combinations are possible using these multiple horizontal-tube reactors * Each tube is indirectly and directly steam heated to temperatures of 150 0 C to 210 0 C * Residence time is varied by changing the speed of the auger that moves the biomass through each tube reactor * Tubes are used individually or in combination to achieve diff erent pretreatment residence times * Smaller tubes made from Hastelloy, an acid-resistant material, are used with more corrosive chemicals and residence times from 3 to 20 minutes * Larger tubes made from 316 stainless steel are used for residence times from 20 to 120 minutes Horizontal Pretreatment Reactor System Versatile pretreatment system for a wide range of pretreatment chemistries

137

Correlation of hydrothermal sericite composition with permeability and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Correlation of hydrothermal sericite composition with permeability and Correlation of hydrothermal sericite composition with permeability and temperature, Coso Hot Springs geothermal field, Inyo County, California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: Correlation of hydrothermal sericite composition with permeability and temperature, Coso Hot Springs geothermal field, Inyo County, California Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Petrographic and geochemical analyses of cuttings from six wells in the Coso Hot Springs geothermal field show a systematic variation in the occurrence, texture, and composition of sericite that can be correlated with high permeability production zones and temperature. The wells studied intersect rhyolitic dikes and sills in the fractured granitic and dioritic

138

Impact of Corn Stover Composition on Hemicellulose Conversion during Dilute Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Cellulose Digestibility of the Pretreated Solids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study assessed the impact of corn stover compositional variability on xylose conversion yields during dilute acid pretreatment and on enzymatic cellulose digestibility of the resulting pretreated solids. Seven compositionally-different stovers obtained from various locations throughout the United States were pretreated at three different conditions in triplicate in a pilot-scale continuous reactor. At the same pretreatment severity, a 2-fold increase in monomeric xylose yield and a 1.5-fold increase in enzymatic cellulose digestibility from their lowest values were found. Similar results were observed at the other pretreatment conditions. It was found that xylose conversion yields decreased with increasing acid neutralization capacity or soil content of the corn stover. Xylose yields also increased with increasing xylan content. No other significant correlations between corn stover's component concentrations and conversion yields were found.

Weiss, N. D.; Farmer, J. D.; Schell, D. J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Hydraulic characterization of hydrothermally altered Nopal tuff  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the mechanics of variably saturated flow in fractured-porous media is of fundamental importance to evaluating the isolation performance of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository for the Yucca Mountain site. Developing that understanding must be founded on the analysis and interpretation of laboratory and field data. This report presents an analysis of the unsaturated hydraulic properties of tuff cores from the Pena Blanca natural analog site in Mexico. The basic intent of the analysis was to examine possible trends and relationships between the hydraulic properties and the degree of hydrothermal alteration exhibited by the tuff samples. These data were used in flow simulations to evaluate the significance of a particular conceptual (composite) model and of distinct hydraulic properties on the rate and nature of water flow.

Green, R.T.; Meyer-James, K.A. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Rice, G. [George Rice and Associates, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Robust, High-Throughput Analysis of Protein Structures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Robust, High-Throughput Analysis of Protein Structures Print Robust, High-Throughput Analysis of Protein Structures Print Scientists have developed a fast and efficient way to determine the structure of proteins, shortening a process that often takes years into a matter of days. The Structurally Integrated BiologY for Life Sciences (SIBYLS) beamline at the ALS has implemented the world's highest-throughput biological-solution x-ray scattering beamline enabling genomic-scale protein-structure characterization. Coupling brilliant x rays from one of the superconducting bend magnets at the ALS to liquid-handling robotics has enabled the collection of 96 samples in 4 hours. Importantly, the sample format and the amount of material required are practical for most biological problems. The beamline's high-throughput capability is set to have a large impact on many fields that require genomic-scale information, such as Berkeley Lab's bioenergy efforts and cancer biology studies.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Throughput-cost analysis of optical flow switching  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we employ a cost model embodying major sources of capital expenditure (CapEx) to compare the throughput-cost tradeoff offered by optical flow switching to that of more traditional optical network architectures.

Chan, Vincent W. S.

142

High throughput optical sensor arrays for drug screening  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the world of drug discovery, high throughput whole cell assays are a critical step in discovering therapeutically relevant drug compounds [1]. This report details the development of several novel sensor systems capable ...

Harjes, Daniel I

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Outage-based throughput in wireless packet networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the increased competition for the electromagnetic spectrum, it is important to characterize the impact of interference in the performance of a wireless packet network, which is traditionally measured by its throughput. ...

Win, Moe Z.

144

High-throughput vertebrate total analysis/screening platform  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-throughput screening (HTS) is seen as one of the most promising technologies to facilitate biomedical studies and pharmaceutical discoveries. Although large varieties of in vitro HTS technologies have opened great ...

Chang, Tsung-Yao, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

High-Throughput/Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-ThroughputCombinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D Ned Stetson, Larry Blair 1 , Grace Ordaz, Carole Read, George Thomas 2 , and Sunita Satyapal Suite 900,...

146

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: High-Throughput/Combinatorial...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-ThroughputCombinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D On June 26, 2007 the Hydrogen Storage Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) held a one-day...

147

Development and optimization of high-throughput zebrafish screening platform  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The high-throughput zebrafish screening platform is a revolutionary tool that enables subcellular precision in vivo whole animal screening of Danio Rerio. It can perform laser surgery and/or imaging in less than twenty ...

Koo, Bryan Kyo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Formulation, Pretreatment, and Densification Options to Improve Biomass Specifications for Co-Firing High Percentages with Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is a growing interest internationally to use more biomass for power generation, given the potential for significant environmental benefits and long-term fuel sustainability. However, the use of biomass alone for power generation is subject to serious challenges, such as feedstock supply reliability, quality, and stability, as well as comparative cost, except in situations in which biomass is locally sourced. In most countries, only a limited biomass supply infrastructure exists. Alternatively, co-firing biomass alongwith coal offers several advantages; these include reducing challenges related to biomass quality, buffering the system against insufficient feedstock quantity, and mitigating the costs of adapting existing coal power plants to feed biomass exclusively. There are some technical constraints, such as low heating values, low bulk density, and grindability or size-reduction challenges, as well as higher moisture, volatiles, and ash content, which limit the co-firing ratios in direct and indirect co-firing. To achieve successful co-firing of biomass with coal, biomass feedstock specifications must be established to direct pretreatment options in order to modify biomass materials into a format that is more compatible with coal co-firing. The impacts on particle transport systems, flame stability, pollutant formation, and boiler-tube fouling/corrosion must also be minimized by setting feedstock specifications, which may include developing new feedstock composition by formulation or blending. Some of the issues, like feeding, co-milling, and fouling, can be overcome by pretreatment methods including washing/leaching, steam explosion, hydrothermal carbonization, and torrefaction, and densification methods such as pelletizing and briquetting. Integrating formulation, pretreatment, and densification will help to overcome issues related to physical and chemical composition, storage, and logistics to successfully co-fire higher percentages of biomass ( > 40%) with coal.

Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; J Richard Hess; Richard D. Boardman; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Tyler L. Westover

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Chemical and isotopic characteristics of the coso east flank hydrothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

isotopic characteristics of the coso east flank hydrothermal isotopic characteristics of the coso east flank hydrothermal fluids: implications for the location and nature of the heat source Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: Chemical and isotopic characteristics of the coso east flank hydrothermal fluids: implications for the location and nature of the heat source Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Fluids have been sampled from 9 wells and 2 fumaroles from the East Flank of the Coso hydrothermal system with a view to identifying, if possible, the location and characteristics of the heat source inflows into this portion of the geothermal field. Preliminary results show that there has been extensive vapor loss in the system, most probably in response to

150

Direct use of hydrothermal energy: a review of environmental aspects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The potential environmental impacts of the exploration, development, and production of hydrothermal geothermal energy for direct use applications are reviewed and evaluated. Mitigation strategies and research and development needs are included. (MHR)

O'Banion, K.; Layton, D.

1981-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

151

Comparison Of Hydrothermal Alteration Of Carboniferous Carbonate And  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrothermal Alteration Of Carboniferous Carbonate And Hydrothermal Alteration Of Carboniferous Carbonate And Siliclastic Rocks In The Valles Caldera With Outcrops From The Socorro Caldera, New Mexico Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Comparison Of Hydrothermal Alteration Of Carboniferous Carbonate And Siliclastic Rocks In The Valles Caldera With Outcrops From The Socorro Caldera, New Mexico Details Activities (3) Areas (2) Regions (0) Abstract: Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) drill hole VC-2B (total depth 1761.7 m (5780 ft); maximum temperature 295°C) was continuously cored through the Sulphur Springs hydrothermal system in the western ring-fracture zone of the 1.14 Ma Valles caldera. Among other units, the hole penetrated 760.2 m (2494.1 ft) of Paleozoic carbonate and

152

Hydrothermal Exploration Best Practices and Geothermal Knowledge Exchange  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrothermal Exploration Best Practices and Geothermal Knowledge Exchange Hydrothermal Exploration Best Practices and Geothermal Knowledge Exchange on Openei Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Hydrothermal Exploration Best Practices and Geothermal Knowledge Exchange on Openei Abstract Though exploring for hydrothermal resources is not new, advances in exploration technologies and the pursuit of less visible resources have created a need to outline exploration best practices. This multi-year study outlines 21 geothermal exploration regions in the Western United States. These regions were developed based on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) physiographic regions, then adjusted to fit geothermal parameters such as differences in geologic regime, structure, heat source, surface effects

153

Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios were measured for hydrothermal minerals (silica, clay and calcite) from fractures and vugs in altered rhyolite, located between 28 and 129 m below surface (in situ temperatures ranging from 81 to 199°C) in Yellowstone drill holes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of formation of these minerals. The Δ18O values of the thirty-two analyzed silica samples (quartz, chalcedony, α-cristobalite, and β-cristobalite) range from -7.5 to +2.8‰. About one

154

Property:PotentialGeothermalHydrothermalCapacity | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PotentialGeothermalHydrothermalCapacity PotentialGeothermalHydrothermalCapacity Jump to: navigation, search Property Name PotentialGeothermalHydrothermalCapacity Property Type Quantity Description The nameplate capacity technical potential from Geothermal Hydrothermal for a particular place. Use this property to express potential electric energy generation, such as Nameplate Capacity. The default unit is megawatts (MW). For spatial capacity, use property Volume. Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: 1 MW,MWe,megawatt,Megawatt,MegaWatt,MEGAWATT,megawatts,Megawatt,MegaWatts,MEGAWATT,MEGAWATTS 1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS 1000000000 mW,milliwatt,milliwatts,MILLIWATT,MILLIWATTS 0.001 GW,gigawatt,gigawatts,Gigawatt,Gigawatts,GigaWatt,GigaWatts,GIGAWATT,GIGAWATTS

155

Rational control of hydrothermal nanowire synthesis and its applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrothermal nanowire synthesis is a rapidly emerging nanowire discipline that enables low temperature growth and batch process. It has a major impact on the development of novel energy conversion devices, high density ...

Joo, Jaebum

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Fluid Inclusion Gas Compositions From An Active Magmatic-Hydrothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

provide a complete transect across the thermal system and samples of the modern-day steam. The hydrothermal system was liquid-dominated prior to formation of the modern...

157

Forecasting Electricity Prices in an Optimization Hydrothermal Problem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an economic dispatch algorithm in a hydrothermal system within the framework of a competitive and deregulated electricity market. The optimization problem of one firm is described

J. M. Matas; L. Bayn; P. Surez; A. Argelles; J. Taboada

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Base hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing of PBX-9404  

SciTech Connect

Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing has been proposed as an environmentally acceptable alternative to open burning/open detonation for degradation and destruction of high explosives. In this report, the authors examine gaseous and aqueous products of base hydrolysis of the HMX-based plastic bonded explosive, PBX-9404. They also examined products from the subsequent hydrothermal treatment of the base hydrolysate. The gases produced from hydrolysis of PBX-9404 are ammonia, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen. Major aqueous products are sodium formate, acetate, nitrate, and nitrite, but not all carbon products have been identified. Hydrothermal processing of base hydrolysate destroyed up to 98% of the organic carbon in solution, and higher destruction efficiencies are possible. Major gas products detected from hydrothermal processing were nitrogen and nitrous oxide.

Flesner, R.L.; Spontarelli, T.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Sanchez, J.A.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Sources Of Chloride In Hydrothermal Fluids From The Valles Caldera...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sources Of Chloride In Hydrothermal Fluids From The Valles Caldera, New Mexico- A 36Cl Study Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

160

PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM PRECONCEPTUAL CANDIDATE TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTIONS  

SciTech Connect

The Office of River Protection (ORP) has authorized a study to recommend and select options for interim pretreatment of tank waste and support Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) low activity waste (LAW) operations prior to startup of all the WTP facilities. The Interim Pretreatment System (IPS) is to be a moderately sized system which separates entrained solids and 137Cs from tank waste for an interim time period while WTP high level waste vitrification and pretreatment facilities are completed. This study's objective is to prepare pre-conceptual technology descriptions that expand the technical detail for selected solid and cesium separation technologies. This revision includes information on additional feed tanks.

MAY TH

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Unstructured Data Analysis of Streaming Video Using Parallel, High-Throughput Algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the methods, algorithms, and implementation of high-throughput video processing.

Trease, Harold E.; Carlson, Timothy S.; Moony, Ryan; Farber, Robert M.; Trease, Lynn L.

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

162

Methods to enhance the characteristics of hydrothermally prepared slurry fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for enhancing the flow behavior and stability of hydrothermally treated slurry fuels. A mechanical high-shear dispersion and homogenization device is used to shear the slurry fuel. Other improvements include blending the carbonaceous material with a form of coal to reduce or eliminate the flocculation of the slurry, and maintaining the temperature of the hydrothermal treatment between approximately 300.degree. to 350.degree. C.

Anderson, Chris M. (Shakopee, MN); Musich, Mark A. (Grand Forks, ND); Mann, Michael D. (Thompson, ND); DeWall, Raymond A. (Grand Forks, ND); Richter, John J. (Grand Forks, ND); Potas, Todd A. (Plymouth, MN); Willson, Warrack G. (Fairbanks, AK)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Vertical Pretreatment Reactor System (Poster), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vertical Pretreatment Reactor System Vertical Pretreatment Reactor System Two-vessel system for primary and secondary pretreatment at diff erent temperatures * Biomass is heated by steam injection to temperatures of 120°C to 210°C in the pressurized mixing tube * Preheated, premixed biomass is retained for specified residence time in vertical holding vessel; material continuously moves by gravity from top to bottom of reactor in plug-fl ow fashion * Residence time is adjusted by changing amount of material held in vertical vessel relative to continuous fl ow of material entering and exiting vessel * Optional additional reactor vessel allows for secondary pretreatment at lower temperatures-120°C to 180°C-with potential to add other chemical catalysts * First vessel can operate at residence

164

Physical and Chemical Features of Pretreated Biomass that Influence...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Physical and Chemical Features of Pretreated Biomass that Influence Macro-Micro-accessibility and Biological Processing Rajeev Kumar 1,3 and Charles E. Wyman 1,2,3 1 Center for...

165

Use of Chemical Pretreatment to Enhance Liquid Waste of Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report details unique chemical pretreatment and processing techniques presently used by utilities in their nuclear plant liquid radwaste treatment programs. It presents specific utility experience from a number of plants employing these processing alternatives.

1999-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

166

Pretreatment of industrial discharges to publicly owned treatment works (POTW)  

SciTech Connect

A discussion covers a brief survey of federal regulations establishing standards for the pretreatment of pollutants discharged into POTW's; the experience of the Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle (Metro) in dealing with the pretreatment of heavy metals in industrial and commercial discharges; a study and analysis by Seattle Metro of organic priority pollutants in wastewater including identification sources; and POTW treatment control technology for organic priority pollutants in Seattle Metro.

Ongerth, J.E.; Dewalle, F.B.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Anaerobic High-Throughput Cultivation Method for Isolation of Thermophiles Using Biomass-Derived Substrates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flow cytometry (FCM) techniques have been developed for sorting mesophilic organisms, but the difficulty increases if the target microbes are thermophilic anaerobes. We demonstrate a reliable, high-throughput method of screening thermophilic anaerobic organisms using FCM and 96-well plates for growth on biomass-relevant substrates. The method was tested using the cellulolytic thermophiles Clostridium ther- mocellum (Topt = 55 C), Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis (Topt = 78 C) and the fermentative hyperthermo- philes, Pyrococcus furiosus (Topt = 100 C) and Thermotoga maritima (Topt = 80 C). Multi-well plates were incubated at various temperatures for approximately 72 120 h and then tested for growth. Positive growth resulting from single cells sorted into individual wells containing an anaerobic medium was verified by OD600. Depending on the growth substrate, up to 80 % of the wells contained viable cultures, which could be transferred to fresh media. This method was used to isolate thermophilic microbes from Rabbit Creek, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming. Substrates for enrichment cultures including crystalline cellulose (Avicel), xylan (from Birchwood), pretreated switchgrass and Populus were used to cultivate organisms that may be of interest to lignocellulosic biofuel production.

Hamilton-Brehm, Scott [ORNL; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Allman, Steve L [ORNL; Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL; Elkins, James G [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Effect of alkaline pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of solid wastes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The introduction of the anaerobic digestion for the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is currently of special interest. The main difficulty in the treatment of this waste fraction is its biotransformation, due to the complexity of organic material. Therefore, the first step must be its physical, chemical and biological pretreatment for breaking complex molecules into simple monomers, to increase solubilization of organic material and improve the efficiency of the anaerobic treatment in the second step. This paper describes chemical pretreatment based on lime addition (Ca(OH){sub 2}), in order to enhance chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization, followed by anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed reactors, 1 L capacity. Optimal conditions for COD solubilization in the first step of pretreatment were 62.0 mEq Ca(OH){sub 2}/L for 6.0 h. Under these conditions, 11.5% of the COD was solubilized. The anaerobic digestion efficiency of the OFMSW, with and without pretreatment, was evaluated. The highest methane yield under anaerobic digestion of the pretreated waste was 0.15 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg volatile solids (VS), 172.0% of the control. Under that condition the soluble COD and VS removal were 93.0% and 94.0%, respectively. The results have shown that chemical pretreatment with lime, followed by anaerobic digestion, provides the best results for stabilizing the OFMSW.

Lopez Torres, M. [National Center for Scientific Researcher (CNIC), Environmental Pollution Department (DECA), Ave. 25 y 158, Cubanacan, Playa, Havana City (Cuba)], E-mail: matilde.lopez@cnic.edu.cu; Espinosa Llorens, Ma. del C. [National Center for Scientific Researcher (CNIC), Environmental Pollution Department (DECA), Ave. 25 y 158, Cubanacan, Playa, Havana City (Cuba)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

169

Evaluation of coal pretreatment prior to co-processing  

SciTech Connect

The Western Research Institute is currently developing a mild gasification process for the recovery of a stabilized char product for use as a fuel. A liquid product of limited value is produced during the mild gasification process that may be suited as a co-processing vehicle for coal-oil co-processing. Research was conducted to evaluate co-processing of this mild gasification liquid with coal. The two major areas of research discussed in this report are: (1) coal pretreatment with a coal-derived liquid to induce coal swelling and promote catalyst dispersion and (2) co-processing coal that has been thermally pretreated in the presence of the mild gasification liquid. The results of the investigation to evaluate co-processing of coal that has been thermally pretreated in the presence of the mild gasification liquid indicate that the thermal pretreatment adversely affected the coal-oil co-processing under hydrogen pressure. Thermally pretreated coals co-processed under a hydrogen atmosphere and without benefit of catalyst exhibited about 86 wt % conversion as compared to 96 wt % for coal that was only thermally dried. The addition of the iron pentacarbonyl catalyst precursor to the thermally pretreated coals did improve the conversion to near that of the dried coal. Results from analysis of the product obtained from co-processing the Illinois No. 6 coal showed it was upgraded in terms of oxygen content and hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio when compared to the mild gasification liquid.

Guffey, F.D.; Barbour, F.A.; Blake, R.F.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Reconnaissance of the hydrothermal resources of Utah  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Geologic factors in the Basin and Range province in Utah are more favorable for the occurrence of geothermal resources than in other areas on the Colorado Plateaus or in the Middle Rocky Mountains. These geologic factors are principally crustal extension and crustal thinning during the last 17 million years. Basalts as young as 10,000 years have been mapped in the area. High-silica volcanic and intrusive rocks of Quaternary age can be used to locate hydrothermal convection systems. Drilling for hot, high-silica, buried rock bodies is most promising in the areas of recent volcanic activity. Southwestern Utah has more geothermal potential than other parts of the Basin and Range province in Utah. The Roosevelt Hot Springs area, the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale area, and the area to the north as far as 60 kilometers from them probably have the best potential for geothermal development for generation of electricity. Other areas with estimated reservoir temperatures greater than 150/sup 0/C are Thermo, Monroe, Red Hill (in the Monroe-Joseph Known Geothermal Resource Area), Joseph Hot Springs, and the Newcastle area. The rates of heat and water discharge are high at Crater, Meadow, and Hatton Hot Springs, but estimated reservoir temperatures there are less than 150/sup 0/C. Additional exploration is needed to define the potential in three additional areas in the Escalante Desert. 28 figs., 18 tabs.

Rush, F.E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Synthesis and characterization of four new metal 5-phosphonoisophthalates discovered by high-throughput experimentation  

SciTech Connect

A new ligand, 5-diethylphosphonoisophthalic acid ((HOOC){sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 3}-PO{sub 3}(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 2}, H{sub 2}Et{sub 2}L), for the hydrothermal synthesis of inorganic-organic hybrid compounds was prepared and characterized by NMR-spectroscopy. Its in situ hydrolysis leads to the corresponding 5-phosphonoisophthalic acid ((HOOC){sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 3}-PO{sub 3}H{sub 2}, H{sub 4}L). Applying high-throughput methods, different di- and trivalent metal salts for the synthesis of crystalline metal phosphonates based on H{sub 2}Et{sub 2}L have been screened. From the resulting discovery library, single-crystals of four new compounds, [Sm{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}(H(OOC){sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 3}-PO{sub 3}){sub 2}].2H{sub 2}O (1), [Cu{sub 3}(H{sub 2}O)(H(OOC){sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 3}-PO{sub 3}){sub 2}].2H{sub 2}O (2), Ca{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)[H(OOC){sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 3}-PO{sub 3}H]{sub 2} (3), and Ba{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}(OOC){sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 3}-PO{sub 3} (4), have been isolated. The single-crystal structure determination of the title compounds shows H{sub 4}L to be a versatile ligand, exhibiting different types of coordination modes between the functional groups and the metal ions. A comparison of the structural features of the title compounds shows a varying degree of M-O-M connectivities. Thus, isolated metal-oxygen clusters (compounds 1 and 2), infinite M-O-M chains (compound 3), and infinite M-O-M layers (compound 4) are observed. The title compounds 1, 2, and 3 were further characterized by IR-spectroscopy, TG-, EDX-, and elemental chemical analysis. - Graphical abstract: Applying high-throughput methods, the new ligand 5-diethylphosphonoisophtalic acid, (HOOC){sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 3}-PO{sub 3}(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 2} (H{sub 2}Et{sub 2}L), was reacted with several di- and trivalent metal salts under hydrothermal conditions. Single-crystals of four new inorganic-organic hybrid compounds were isolated from the discovery library. The single-crystal structure analysis shows a varying M-O-M connectivity.

Bauer, Sebastian [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Christian-Albrechts-University, Otto-Hahn-Platz 6/7, D 24098 Kiel (Germany); Stock, Norbert [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Christian-Albrechts-University, Otto-Hahn-Platz 6/7, D 24098 Kiel (Germany)], E-mail: stock@ac.uni-kiel.de

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

172

Periodic deep?sea hydrothermal vent activities observed by hydrophones at Mariana, Okinawa, and Mid?Atlantic Ridge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deep?sea hydrothermal vent activities were studied done by digital OBS/Hs(Ocean Bottom Seismometer / Hydrophone) at three hydrothermal vent areas

Kasahara Junzo; Sato Toshinori; Nishizawa Azusa; Fujioka Kantaro

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Method and apparatus for gasifying with a fluidized bed gasifier having integrated pretreating facilities  

SciTech Connect

An integral gasifier including a pretreater section and a gasifier section separated by a distribution grid is defined by a single vessel. The pretreater section pretreats coal or other carbon-containing material to be gasified to prevent caking and agglomeration of the coal in the gasifier. The level of the coal bed of the pretreater section and thus the holding or residence time in said bed is selectively regulated by the amount of pretreated coal which is lifted up a lift pipe into the gasifier section. Thus, the holding time in the pretreater section can be varied according to the amount of pretreat necessary for the particular coal to be gasified.

Rice, Louis F. (Arcadia, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Development of a Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for EGS Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for EGS Geothermal Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for EGS Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Development of a Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for EGS Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and Development/Analysis Project Type / Topic 2 Drilling Systems Project Description Potter Drilling has recently demonstrated hydrothermal spallation drilling in the laboratory. Hydrothermal spallation drilling creates boreholes using a focused jet of superheated water, separating individual grains ("spalls") from the rock surface without contact between the rock and the drill head. This process virtually eliminates the need for tripping. Previous tests of flame-jet spallation achieved ROP of 50 ft/hr and higher in hard rock with minimal wear on the drilling assembly, but operating this technology in an air-filled borehole created challenges related to cuttings transport and borehole stability. The Potter Drilling system uses a water based jet technology in a fluid-filled borehole and as a result has the potential to achieve similarly high ROP that is uncompromised by stability or cuttings transport issues.

175

Verification of numerical models for hydrothermal plume water through field measurements at TAG  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrothermal vents discharge superheated, mineral rich water into our oceans, thereby providing a habitat for exotic chemosynthetic biological communities. Hydrothermal fluids are convected upwards until they cool and reach ...

Wichers, Sacha

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Geochemistry of hydrothermal vent fluids from the northern Juan De Fuca Ridge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The presence of aqueous organic compounds derived from sedimentary organic matter has the potential to influence a range of chemical processes in hydrothermal vent environments. For example, hydrothermal alteration experiments ...

Cruse, Anna M. (Anna Marie)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

K-Ar Dates Of Hydrothermal Clays From Core Hole Vc-2B, Valles...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

icon K-Ar Dates Of Hydrothermal Clays From Core Hole Vc-2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico And Their Relation To Alteration In A Large Hydrothermal System Jump to: navigation,...

178

Investigations of Biomass Pretreatment and Submerged Fixed-bed Fermentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To improve the MixAlco process and biomass pretreatment, five studies were conducted. Three studies related to fermentation, whereas the other two investigated the effectiveness of shock tube pretreatment (STP) coupled with oxidative lime pretreatment (OLP). In the first study, the constant-selectivity assumption used in the continuum particle distribution model (CPDM) was determined to be invalid. During a 32-day batch fermentation, selectivity increased from 0.10 to 0.40 g acid/g non-acid volatile solid (NAVS) digested. Future revisions to CPDM should incorporate a non-constant selectivity term. In the second study, a revised procedure was developed to provide a more accurate determination of moisture content. Conventional drying at 105 degrees C allowed product acids to vaporize with water, which introduced errors. Using the revised procedure, calcium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide was added to samples at a concentration of 0.01 g base/g sample, which retained acids in the sample. The mass of additional retained material closely matched that of the additional retained acid. Three related studies involving biomass pretreatment were performed. In the first, recommended parameters for pretreating sugarcane bagasse with OLP and STP were determined. Recommended OLP parameters were 130 degrees C, 6.9-bar O2, and 2-h duration. The effects of solids concentration, liquid fill volume, particle size, type of shotgun shell, number of shocks, and pretreatment order were investigated. Liquid fill volume, particle size, type of shotgun shell, and pretreatment order were significant variables, whereas solids concentration and number of shocks were not. Recommended OLP parameters were used as a basis for an additional experiment. To simulate industrial-scale pile fermentation, fixed-bed batch fermentation of OLP + STP sugarcane bagasse was performed in 1-L PVC fermentors. Rubber mulch was used as a structural support material to prevent filter plugging, which had been reported in previous work. After 42 d, acid concentration reached 8 g/L with yield approximately 0.1 g acid/g NAVS fed. Poor fermentation performance was caused by short solid-liquid contact time and poor pH control. A third biomass pretreatment experiment investigated the potential of pretreated corn stover as a potential ruminant feed. Five samples (raw, OLP, STP, OLP + STP, and STP + OLP) were analyzed for composition and in vitro digestibility. STP followed by OLP increased neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility from 49.3 to 79.0 g NDF digested/100 g NDF fed. On an organic matter basis, STP + OLP corn stover plus water-soluble extractives had a total digestible nutrients (TDN) of 74.9, nearly reaching corn grain at 88.1.

Meysing, Daniel

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Effect of pretreating of host oil on coprocessing. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A petroleum vacuum resid (1,000 F+) was pretreated by catalytic hydrogenation and hydrocracking reactions and the pretreated resids (host oils) were then coprocessed with coal. The fraction of coal converted to soluble products and the yield of pentane-soluble oils were determined after coprocessing. The phenolic oxygen concentration of the oil product provided a means for estimating the fraction of coal liquids in the products; oils originating from coal had much higher concentrations of phenolic oxygen than those originating from petroleum. Resids that were pretreated by mild temperature hydrogenation reactions, where cracking was suppressed, became better host oils; when these pretreated resids were coprocessed with coal, more of the mixture was converted to tetrahydrofuran-soluble products. Depending on the pretreatment, the pentane-soluble oil yields following thermal coprocessing were either significantly lower or slightly higher than the oil yields obtained with untreated resid. The yield of oils was strongly affected by the concentration of coal in the feed. The presence of small amounts, less than 33% of coal, enhanced the conversion of petroleum resid to oils during coprocessing, although the increases were small. 91 refs.

Wender, I.; Tierney, J.W.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Can Delignification Decrease Cellulose Digestibility in Acid Pretreated Corn Stover?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has previously been shown that the improved digestibility of dilute acid pretreated corn stover is at least partially due to the removal of xylan and the consequent increase in accessibility of the cellulose to cellobiohydrolase enzymes. We now report on the impact that lignin removal has on the accessibility and digestibility of dilute acid pretreated corn stover. Samples of corn stover were subjected to dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment with and without simultaneous (partial) lignin removal. In addition, some samples were completely delignified after the pretreatment step using acidified sodium chlorite. The accessibility and digestibility of the samples were tested using a fluorescence-labeled cellobiohydrolase (Trichoderma reesei Cel7A) purified from a commercial cellulase preparation. Partial delignification of corn stover during dilute acid pretreatment was shown to improve cellulose digestibility by T. reesei Cel7A; however, decreasing the lignin content below 5% (g g{sup -1}) by treatment with acidified sodium chlorite resulted in a dramatic reduction in cellulose digestibility. Importantly, this effect was found to be enhanced in samples with lower xylan contents suggesting that the near complete removal of xylan and lignin may cause aggregation of the cellulose microfibrils resulting in decreased cellulase accessibility.

Ishizawa, C. I.; Jeoh, T.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Johnson, D. K.; Davis, M. F.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Breakdown of Cell Wall Nanostructure in Dilute Acid Pretreated Biomass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The generation of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass holds great promise for renewable and clean energy production. A better understanding of the complex mechanisms of lignocellulose breakdown during various pretreatment methods is needed to realize this potential in a cost and energy efficient way. Here, we use small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to characterize morphological changes in switchgrass lignocellulose across molecular to sub-micron length scales resulting from the industrially-relevant dilute acid pretreatment method. Our results demonstrate that dilute acid pretreatment increases the cross-sectional radius of the crystalline cellulose fibril. This change is accompanied by removal of hemicellulose and the formation of Rg ~ 135 lignin aggregates. The structural signature of smooth cell wall surfaces is observed at length scales larger than 1000 , and it remains remarkably invariable during pretreatment. This study elucidates the interplay of the different biomolecular components in the break down process of switchgrass by dilute acid pretreatment. The results are important for the development of efficient strategies of biomass to biofuel conversion.

Pingali, Sai Venkatesh [ORNL; Urban, Volker S [ORNL; Heller, William T [ORNL; McGaughey, Joseph [ORNL; O'Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL; Foston, Marcus B [ORNL; Myles, Dean A A [ORNL; Ragauskas, Arthur J [ORNL; Evans, Barbara R [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Spatial And Temporal Geochemical Trends In The Hydrothermal System Of  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Spatial And Temporal Geochemical Trends In The Hydrothermal System Of Spatial And Temporal Geochemical Trends In The Hydrothermal System Of Yellowstone National Park- Inferences From River Solute Fluxes Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Spatial And Temporal Geochemical Trends In The Hydrothermal System Of Yellowstone National Park- Inferences From River Solute Fluxes Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: We present and analyze a chemical dataset that includes the concentrations and fluxes of HCO3-, SO42-, Cl-, and F- in the major rivers draining Yellowstone National Park (YNP) for the 2002-2004 water years (1 October 2001 - 30 September 2004). The total (molar) flux in all rivers decreases in the following order, HCO3- > Cl- > SO42- > F-, but each river is characterized by a distinct chemical composition, implying large-scale

183

Adventive Hydrothermal Circulation On Stromboli Volcano (Aeolian Islands,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Adventive Hydrothermal Circulation On Stromboli Volcano (Aeolian Islands, Adventive Hydrothermal Circulation On Stromboli Volcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy) Revealed By Geophysical And Geochemical Approaches- Implications For General Fluid Flow Models On Volcanoes Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Adventive Hydrothermal Circulation On Stromboli Volcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy) Revealed By Geophysical And Geochemical Approaches- Implications For General Fluid Flow Models On Volcanoes Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: On March 15th 2007 a paroxysmal explosion occurred at the Stromboli volcano. This event generated a large amount of products, mostly lithic blocks, some of which impacted the ground as far as down to 200 m a.s.l., about 1.5 km far away from the active vents. Two days after the

184

Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern United  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern United States Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern United States Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Hydrothermal heat discharge in the Cascade Range includes the heat discharged by thermal springs, by "slightly thermal" springs that are only a few degrees warmer than ambient temperature, and by fumaroles. Thermal-spring heat discharge is calculated on the basis of chloride-flux measurements and geothermometer temperatures and totals ~ 240 MW in the U.S. part of the Cascade Range, excluding the transient post-1980 discharge

185

GEOLOGY AND HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION OF THE RAFT RIVER GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GEOLOGY AND HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION OF THE RAFT RIVER GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM, GEOLOGY AND HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION OF THE RAFT RIVER GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM, IDAHO Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: GEOLOGY AND HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION OF THE RAFT RIVER GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM, IDAHO Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The Raft River geothermal system is located in southern Idaho, near the Utah-Idaho state boarder in the Raft River Valley. The field, which is owned and operated by U.S. Geothermal, has been selected as an EGS demonstration site by the U. S. Department of Energy. This paper summarizes ongoing geologic and petrologic investigations being conducted in support of this project. The reservoir is developed in fractured Proterozoic schist and quartzite, and Archean quartz monzonite cut by younger diabase

186

A Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal System Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: A Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal System Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Fluids from springs, fumaroles, and wells throughout Dixie Valley, NV were analyzed for noble gas abundances and isotopic compositions. The helium isotopic compositions of fluids produced from the Dixie Valley geothermal field range from 0.70 to 0.76 Ra, are among the highest values in the valley, and indicate that similar to 7.5% of the total helium is derived from the mantle. A lack of recent volcanics or other potential sources requires flow of mantle-derived helium up along the

187

Fractionation of Boron Isotopes in Icelandic Hydrothermal Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Boron isotope ratios have been determined in a variety of different geothermal waters from hydrothermal systems across Iceland. Isotope ratios from the high temperature meteoric water recharged systems reflect the isotope ratio of the host rocks without any apparent fractionation. Seawater recharged geothermal systems exhibit more positive {delta}{sup 11}B values than the meteoric water recharged geothermal systems. Water/rock ratios can be assessed from boron isotope ratios in the saline hydrothermal systems. Low temperature hydrothermal systems also exhibit more positive {delta}{sup 11}B than the high temperature systems, indicating fractionation of boron due to adsorption of the lighter isotope onto secondary minerals. Fractionation of boron in carbonate deposits may indicate the level of equilibrium attained within the systems.

Aggarwal, J.K.; Palmer, M.R.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid inclusions from active geothermal systems Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid inclusions from active geothermal systems Details Activities (4) Areas (4) Regions (0) Abstract: A system for analysis of inclusion gas contents based upon quadrupole mass spectrometry has been designed, assembled and tested during the first 7 months of funding. The system is currently being tested and calibrated using inclusions with known gas contents from active geothermal systems. Analyses are in progress on inclusions from the Salton Sea, Valles Caldera, Geysers, and Coso geothermal systems. Author(s): Mckibben, M. A.

189

New lignocellulose pretreatments using cellulose solvents: a review  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Received: Received: 7 September 2012 Accepted: 13 September 2012 Published online in Wiley Online Library: (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI 10.1002/jctb.3959 New lignocellulose pretreatments using cellulose solvents: a review Noppadon Sathitsuksanoh, a† Anthe George b,c and Y-H Percival Zhang a,d,e∗ Abstract Non-food lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant renewable bioresource as a collectable, transportable, and storable chemical energy that is far from fully utilized. The goal of biomass pretreatment is to improve the enzymatic digestibility of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass. Many substrate factors, such as substrate accessibility, lignin content, particle size and so on, contribute to its recalcitrance. Cellulose accessibility to hydrolytic enzymes is believed to be the most important substrate characteristic limiting enzymatic hydrolysis. Cellulose

190

Area-efficient high-throughput MAP decoder architectures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Iterative decoders such as turbo decoders have become integral components of modern broadband communication systems because of their ability to provide substantial coding gains. A key computational kernel in iterative decoders is the maximum a posteriori ... Keywords: area efficient, block-interleaved pipelining, high throughput, parallel processing, pipeline, symbol-based decoding, turbo decoder, turbo equalizer

Seok-Jun Lee; Naresh R. Shanbhag; Andrew C. Singer

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Throughput and Channel Access Statistics of Generalized Selection Multiuser Scheduling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To provide a near-optimal low-complexity solution to parallel multiuser scheduling in code-division multiple-access (CDMA), we propose generalized selection multiuser diversity (GSMuD) schemes with multi-code channel assignment and analyze their performance. ... Keywords: Multiuser diversity, channel access statistics, fairness, generalized fading channels, multicode CDMA, throughput

Yao Ma; Jinghua Jin; Dongbo Zhang

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Stability of a processor sharing queue with varying throughput  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we present a stability criterion for Processor Sharing queues, in which the throughput may depend on the number of customers in the system (in such cases such as interferences between the users). Such a system is represented by a point measure-valued stochastic recursion keeping track of the remaining processing times of the customers.

Moyal, Pascal

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Directed Enzyme Evolution and High-Throughput Screening  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3 Directed Enzyme Evolution and High-Throughput Screening Michael J. McLachlan,1 Ryan P. Sullivan2, the tailoring of an enzyme can still be accomplished through the second route: directed evolution. Biocatalysis John Wiley & Sons Asia (Pte) Ltd. ISBN: 978-0-470-82314-9 #12;Directed evolution is the general term

Zhao, Huimin

194

Metabolic adaptation for low energy throughput in orangutans  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reflect known differences in life history. Using the doubly labeled water method, we measured daily energy. daily energy expenditure | energetics | life history | doubly labeled water All animals require energy history of orangutans results from decreased energy throughput rather than changes in energy allocation

Pontzer, Herman

195

Scaling up transit priority modelling using high-throughput computing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The optimization of Road Space Allocation (RSA) from a network perspective is computationally challenging. An analogue to the Network Design Problem (NDP), RSA can be classified NP-hard. In large-scale networks when the number of alternatives increases ... Keywords: genetic algorithm, high-performance computing, high-throughput computing, transport modelling

Mahmoud Mesbah, Majid Sarvi, Jefferson Tan, Fateme Karimirad

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Low inlet gas velocity high throughput biomass gasifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention discloses a novel method of operating a gasifier for production of fuel gas from carbonaceous fuels. The process disclosed enables operating in an entrained mode using inlet gas velocities of less than 7 feet per second, feedstock throughputs exceeding 4000 lbs/ft.sup.2 -hr, and pressures below 100 psia.

Feldmann, Herman F. (Worthington, OH); Paisley, Mark A. (Upper Arlington, OH)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Throughput-competitive advance reservation with bounded path dispersion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In response to the high throughput needs of grid and cloud computing applications, several production networks have recently started to support advance reservation of dedicated circuits. An important open problem within this context is to devise advance ... Keywords: approximation algorithms, high-speed networks, routing, scheduling

Reuven Cohen; Niloofar Fazlollahi; David Starobinski

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

A GPU-based high-throughput image retrieval algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the development of Internet and cloud computing, multimedia data, such as images and videos, has become one of the most common data types being processed. As the scale of multimedia data being still increasing, it is vitally important to efficiently ... Keywords: GPU-based, SURF, high throughput, image retrieval

Feiwen Zhu; Peng Chen; Donglei Yang; Weihua Zhang; Haibo Chen; Binyu Zang

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Maximizing Throughput for Queries over Streaming Sensor Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Computer Science The George Washington University Washington, DC, USA Email: {joegomes throughput for sliding window based multi-join queries over con- tinuous sensor data streams. We develop joining two unbounded streams. Therefore it is more sensible and useful to impose window predicates

Choi, Hyeong-Ah

200

An organized effort to develop the hydrothermal energy resource  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As a response to America's need for alternate energy sources, the US Department of Energy has a Geothermal Program. Within this program is a Hydrothermal category. Currently, a wide range of tasks are being addressed as part of the Hydrothermal Program. The tasks include Industrialization, Reservoir Technology, Hard Rock Penetration and Conversion Technology. It is thought that successes already made in this program combined with upcoming successes will increase the likelihood of geothermal energy becoming a contributor to our nation's future energy needs. 4 refs.

Taylor, K.J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

An Organized Effort to Develop the Hydrothermal Energy Resource  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As a response to America's need for Alternate Energy sources, the U.S. Department of Energy has a Geothermal Program. Within this program is a Hydrothermal category. Currently, a wide range of tasks are being addressed as part of the Hydrothermal Program. The tasks include Industrialization, Reservoir Technology, Hard Rock Penetration and Conversion Technology. It is thought that successes already made in this program combined with upcoming successes will increase the likelihood of geothermal energy becoming a contributor to our nations future energy needs.

Taylor, Kenneth J.

1989-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

202

Integration of hydrothermal-energy economics: related quantitative studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A comparison of ten models for computing the cost of hydrothermal energy is presented. This comparison involved a detailed examination of a number of technical and economic parameters of the various quantitative models with the objective of identifying the most important parameters in the context of accurate estimates of cost of hydrothermal energy. Important features of various models, such as focus of study, applications, marked sectors covered, methodology, input data requirements, and output are compared in the document. A detailed sensitivity analysis of all the important engineering and economic parameters is carried out to determine the effect of non-consideration of individual parameters.

Not Available

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Pre-treating Seed to Enhance Germination of Desert Shrubs  

SciTech Connect

Creosotebush [Larrea tridentata (D.C.) Cav.] and white bursage [Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) W.W. Payne] seeds were subjected to pre-treatments of rinsing and soaking in water and thiourea to enhance germination in laboratory experiments. The effects of darkness, temperature, seed source, and soil moisture were also evaluated in the laboratory. The best pre-treatment from the laboratory experiments, rinsing with water for 36 hours followed by drying, was field-tested at Fort Irwin, California. Two sites and two seeding dates (early March and mid April) were determined for each site. Five mulch treatments (no mulch, straw, gravel, chemical stabilizer, and plastic) were evaluated in combination with the seed pre-treatments. Field emergence was greatly enhanced with the seed pre-treatment for white bursage during the March (18-42% increase in germination) and April seedings (16-23% increase in germination). Creosotebush showed poor germination during March (2-5%) when soil temperatures averaged 15 C, but germination increased during the April trials (6-43%) when soil temperatures averaged 23 C. The seed pre-treatment during the April trials increased germination from 16-23%. The plastic mulch treatment increased germination dramatically during both the March and April trials. The plastic mulch increased soil temperatures (8-10 C)and maintained high humidity during germination. Both the chemical stabilizer and the gravel mulches improved germination over the control while the straw mulch decreased germination. These results suggest that seed pre-treatments combined with irrigation and mulch are effective techniques to establish these two dominant Mojave Desert species from seed.

W. K. Ostler; D. C. Anderson; D. J. Hansen

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Measurement of Porosity in Dilute Acid Pretreated Corn Stover  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The conclusions of this report are: (1) pretreated corn stover appeared to have more accessible pore volume than raw corn stover; (2) solute exclusion method--differences in the pore volume were not detectable due to the high variability of the measurements; (3) thermoporosimetry--differences in pore volume between pretreated samples were not observed despite the low variability of the measurement and a good correction was found between unfrozen water at 240K and xylan content; and (4) porosity measurements showed no correlation between ethanol yields and the volume accessible to an enzyme size probe, for this sample set.

Ishizawa, C.; Davis, M. F.; Johnson, D. K.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

NIST Study Finds a Decade of High-Payoff, High-Throughput ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Study Finds a Decade of High-Payoff, High-Throughput Research. For Immediate Release: May 20, 2009. ...

2013-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

206

Effects of catalyst pretreatment for carbon nanotube growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effects of pretreatment of iron catalyst for carbon nanotube (CNT) growth was studied. CNTs were grown on Fe/A1203 (1/10 nm) thin-film catalyst deposited on silicon substrates via exposure to C2H4 in a thermal chemical ...

Morgan, Caitlin D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300.degree. C. before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil.

Miller, Robert N. (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Separations/pretreatment considerations for Hanford privatization phase 2  

SciTech Connect

The Tank Focus Area is funded to develop, demonstrate, and deploy technologies that will assist in the treatment and closure of its nuclear waste tanks. Pretreatment technologies developed to support the privatization effort by the Department of Energy are reviewed. Advancements in evaporation, solid-liquid separation, sludge treatment, solids controls, sodium management, and radionuclide removal are considered.

Hunt, R.D.; McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Tracing element sources of hydrothermal mineral deposits: REE and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

inclusion studies are the only way to obtain direct evidence from these ... and eastern part of the Derbyshire Dome (Fig. 1). The ... calcite is more abundant in the western part of the vein ...... and hydrothermal fluids, it is hard to understand why.

210

Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with carbonate-containing solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with an acidic solution and then a carbonate-containing solution to produce a pretreated cellulosic material are provided. The pretreated material may then be further treated in a pulping process, for example, a soda-anthraquinone pulping process, to produce a cellulose pulp. The pretreatment solutions may be extracted from the pretreated cellulose material and selectively re-used, for example, with acid or alkali addition, for the pretreatment solutions. The resulting cellulose pulp is characterized by having reduced lignin content and increased yield compared to prior art treatment processes.

Francis, Raymond

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

211

High-Throughput Transfer Imprinting for Organic Semiconductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Development of nanoimprint lithography(NIL) has enabled high-throughput and high-resolution patterning over the optical limitation. In recent years, thermal nanoimprint has been used to directly pattern functional materials such as organic semiconductors because heat and pressure used in thermal nanoimprint do not damage functional materials. However, issues such as residual layer removal and mold contamination still limit the application of nanoimprint for organic semiconductor patterning. In this work, nanoimprint-based transfer imprinting of organic semiconductor is studied. In the same time the suggested technique is simulated with COMSOL multi-physics simulator to understand its mechanism. This transfer printing technique utilize thermal nanoimprint scheme to enable residual-layer-free patterning of organic semiconductors without mold contamination. The transfer imprinting technique is amenable to roll-to-roll process for high-throughput patterning of organic semiconductors for low-cost organic electronic applications.

Choo, Gihoon

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Design of a High-Throughput Plasma-Processing System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories has demonstrated significant performance gains in crystalline silicon solar cell technology through the use of plasma-processing for the deposition of silicon nitride by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD), plasma-hydrogenation of the nitride layer, and reactive-ion etching of the silicon surface prior to the deposition to decrease the reflectivity of the surface. One of the major problems of implementing plasma processing into a cell production line is the batch configuration and/or low throughput of the systems currently available. This report describes the concept of a new in-line plasma processing system that could meet the industrial requirements for a high-throughput and cost effective solution for mass production of solar cells.

Darkazalli, Ghazi; Matthei, Keith; Ruby, Douglas S.

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

213

Throughput of Wireless Networks Powered by Energy Harvesting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Designing mobile devices for harvesting ambient energy such as kinetic activities or electromagnetic radiation (EMR) will enable mobile networks to self sustain besides alleviate global warming. The throughput of a mobile ad hoc network powered by energy harvesting is analyzed in this paper using a stochastic-geometry approach. The transmitters powered by energy harvesting are modeled as a Poisson point process (PPP); each transmits to a receiver at an unit distance using either a random-access protocol or the time-hopping multiple access (THMA) and satisfying an outage-probability constraint. Consider non-EMR energy harvesting where energy packets of random sizes arrive at a transmitter following a stationary random process. By applying Mapping Theorem, the network (spatial) throughput for random access and in the limit of a long harvesting interval is derived in simple closed-form functions of the energy-arrival rate, transmitter density and coding rate. These results show that the throughput of a sparse ne...

Huang, Kaibin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Lime pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Renewable energy sources, such as lignocellulosic biomass, are environmentally friendly because they emit less pollution without contributing net carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Among lignocellulosic biomass, corn stover is a very useful feedstock to economically produce environmentally friendly biofuels. Corn stover was pretreated with an excess of calcium hydroxide (0.5 g Ca(OH)2/g raw biomass) in non-oxidative and oxidative conditions at 25, 35, 45, and 55oC. The optimal condition is 55oC for 4 weeks with aeration, determined by yields of glucan and xylan. The overall yields of glucose (g glucan hydrolyzed/100 g original glucan) and xylose (g xylan hydrolyzed/100 g original xylan) were 91.3 and 51.8 at 15 FPU/g cellulose, respectively. Furthermore, when considering the dissolved fragments of glucan and xylan in the pretreatment liquors, the overall yields of glucose and xylose were 93.2 and 79.5 at 15 FPU/g cellulose, respectively. The pretreatment liquor has no inhibitory effect on ethanol fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A. At the recommended condition, only 0.073 g Ca(OH)2 was consumed per g of raw corn stover. Under extensive delignification conditions, 87.5% of the initial lignin was removed. Extensive delignfication required oxidative treatment and additional lime consumption. Deacetylation quickly reached a plateau within 1 week. Delignification highly depended on temperature and the presence of oxygen. Lignin and hemicellulose were selectively removed, but cellulose was not affected by lime pretreatment in mild temperatures (25 ?? 55oC). The delignification kinetic models of corn stover were empirically determined by three simultaneous first-order reactions. The activation energies for the oxidative delignification were estimated as 50.15 and 54.21 kJ/mol in the bulk and residual phases, respectively. Crystallinity slightly increased with delignification because amorphous components (lignin, hemicellulose) were removed. However, the increased crystallinity did not negatively affect the 3-d sugar yield of enzyme hydrolysis. Oxidative lime pretreatment lowered the acetyl and lignin contents to obtain high digestibility, regardless of crystallinity. The enzymatic digestibility of lime-treated biomass was affected by the change of structural features (acetylation, lignification, and crystallization) resulting from the treatment. The non-linear models for 3-d hydrolysis yields of glucan and xylan were empirically established as a function of the residual lignin fraction for the corn stover pretreated with lime and air.

Kim, Se Hoon

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

NREL Breaks New Ground in Plant Pretreatment for Biofuels (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

NREL researchers use imaging technologies to broaden knowledge of plant cell wall structures and identify ideal pretreatment of plant material.

Not Available

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Enzymatic Digestibility of Corn Stover Fractions in Response to Fungal Pretreatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Corn stover fractions (leaves, cobs, and stalks) were studied for enzymatic digestibility after pretreatment with a white rot fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Among the three fractions, leaves had the least recalcitrance to fungal pretreatment and the lignin degradation reached 45% after 30 days of pretreatment. The lignin degradation of stalks and cobs was similar but was significantly lower than that of leaves (p corn cobs.

Cui, Z. F.; Wan, C. X.; Shi, J.; Sykes, R. W.; Li, Y. B.

2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

217

Pretreatment Engineering Platform Phase 1 Final Test Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project, Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to conduct testing to demonstrate the performance of the WTP Pretreatment Facility (PTF) leaching and ultrafiltration processes at an engineering-scale. In addition to the demonstration, the testing was to address specific technical issues identified in Issue Response Plan for Implementation of External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) Recommendations - M12, Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.( ) Testing was conducted in a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of the PTF ultrafiltration system, the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP). Parallel laboratory testing was conducted in various PNNL laboratories to allow direct comparison of process performance at an engineering-scale and a laboratory-scale. This report presents and discusses the results of those tests.

Kurath, Dean E.; Hanson, Brady D.; Minette, Michael J.; Baldwin, David L.; Rapko, Brian M.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Daniel, Richard C.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Huckaby, James L.; Billing, Justin M.; Sundar, Parameshwaran S.; Josephson, Gary B.; Toth, James J.; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Baer, Ellen BK; Barnes, Steven M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Rassat, Scot D.; Brown, Christopher F.; Geeting, John GH; Sevigny, Gary J.; Casella, Amanda J.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Guzman-Leong, Consuelo E.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Sundaram, S. K.; Pires, Richard P.; Wells, Beric E.; Bredt, Ofelia P.

2009-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

218

Pretreatment of neutralized cladding removal waste sludge: Status Report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the status of process development for pretreating Hanford neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) sludge, of which [approximately] 3.3 [times] 10[sup 6] L is stored in Tanks 103-AW and 105-AW at the Hanford Site. The initial baseline process chosen for pretreating NCRW sludge is to dissolve the sludge in nitric acid and extract the -transuranic (MU) elements from the dissolved sludge solution with octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoyl methyl phosphine oxide (CNWO). This process converts the NCRW sludge into a relatively large volume of low-level waste (LLW) to be disposed of as grout, leaving only a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) requiring vitrification in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP).

Lumetta, G J; Swanson, J L

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300 C before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil. 1 fig.

Miller, R.N.

1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

220

Mapping Hydrothermal Upwelling and Outflow Zones: Preliminary Results from  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

form form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Mapping Hydrothermal Upwelling and Outflow Zones: Preliminary Results from Two-Meter Temperature Data and Geologic Analysis at Lee Allen Springs and Salt Wells Basin Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Mapping Hydrothermal Upwelling and Outflow Zones: Preliminary Results from Two-Meter Temperature Data and Geologic Analysis at Lee Allen Springs and Salt Wells Basin Abstract Two-meter temperature surveys have been conducted at Salt Wells Basin and Lee-Allen Springs geothermal areas with the objective of distinguishing and

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Hydrothermal alteration mineral mapping using hyperspectral imagery in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

alteration mineral mapping using hyperspectral imagery in alteration mineral mapping using hyperspectral imagery in Dixie Valley, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Hydrothermal alteration mineral mapping using hyperspectral imagery in Dixie Valley, Nevada Abstract Hyperspectral (HyMap) data was used to map the location ofoutcrops of high temperature, hydrothermally alterated minerals(including alunite, pyrophyllite, and hematite) along a 15 kmswath of the eastern front of the Stillwater Mountain Range inDixie Valley, Nevada. Analysis of this data set reveals that severaloutcrops of these altered minerals exist in the area, and thatone outcrop, roughly 1 square kilometer in area, shows abundanthigh temperature alteration. Structural analysis of the alteredregion using a

222

Lectures on geochemical interpretation of hydrothermal waters | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

form form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Lectures on geochemical interpretation of hydrothermal waters Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Lectures on geochemical interpretation of hydrothermal waters Abstract The alkali carbonates, Na, K, and Li, are relatively soluble at all temperatures and generally precipitate only where there is extreme evapora- tion. In contrast, the alkaline earth carbonates. Ca. Ht, Sr, and Ba, are moderately to sparingly soluble and commonly precipitate in bydrothecmal systems. Calcite is by far the most abundant and important carbonate found

223

Why Sequence Thermoacidophiles of deep-sea hydrothermal vents?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermoacidophiles of Thermoacidophiles of deep-sea hydrothermal vents? Bacteria that live in hydrothermal vents on land and deep underwater need to be able to tolerate high temperatures and harsh, nutrient-poor environments with high concentrations of metals. As a result of living in such environments, however, these bacteria have enzymes that are stable at high temperatures, which could be useful for producing alternative fuels. Thermoacidophiles Photo: University of Delaware Aquificales bacteria are often found in thermal streams and associated with sulfide precipitation. Sequencing some of these bacterial genomes -- specifically, Thermocrinis ruber, S. rodmanii and S. kristjansonnii -- could provide researchers with so-called "anchor genomes" that would be applied in turn to studies already being done on microbial communities in

224

Mechanochemical-hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of fluoridated hydroxyapatite  

SciTech Connect

Fluoridated hydroxyapatite (FHAp) was successfully synthesized from the starting materials of CaCO{sub 3}, CaHPO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O, and CaF{sub 2} via a mechanochemical-hydrothermal route. X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, surface area measurements, and scanning electron microscopy identified the resultant powders as FHAp nanocrystals with the specific surface areas of up to 114.72 m{sup 2}/g. The mechanism study revealed that under such mechanochemical-hydrothermal conditions the formation reactions of FHAp were completed in two stages. The starting materials firstly reacted into a poorly crystallized calcium-deficient apatite and the complete incorporation of fluoride ions into apatite occurred in the second stage.

Zhang Huigang [Multiphase Reaction Laboratory, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 353, Beijing 100080 (China); Zhu Qingshan [Multiphase Reaction Laboratory, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 353, Beijing 100080 (China)]. E-mail: qszhu@home.ipe.ac.cn; Xie Zhaohui [Multiphase Reaction Laboratory, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 353, Beijing 100080 (China)

2005-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

225

Instabilities during liquid migration into superheated hydrothermal systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrothermal systems typically consist of hot permeable rock which contains either liquid or liquid and saturated steam within the voids. These systems vent fluids at the surface through hot springs, fumaroles, mud pools, steaming ground and geysers. They are simultaneously recharged as meteoric water percolates through the surrounding rock or through the active injection of water at various geothermal reservoirs. In a number of geothermal reservoirs from which significant amounts of hot fluid have been extracted and passed through turbines, superheated regions of vapor have developed. As liquid migrates through a superheated region of a hydrothermal system, some of the liquid vaporizes at a migrating liquid-vapor interface. Using simple physical arguments, and analogue laboratory experiments we show that, under the influence of gravity, the liquid-vapor interface may become unstable and break up into fingers.

Fitzgerald, Shaun D.; Woods, Andrew W.

1995-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

226

Flow and permeability structure of the Beowawe, Nevada hydrothermal system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A review of past geologic, geochemical, hydrological, pressure transient, and reservoir engineering studies of Beowawe suggests a different picture of the reservoir than previously presented. The Beowawe hydrothermal contains buoyant thermal fluid dynamically balanced with overlying cold water, as shown by repeated temperature surveys and well test results. Thermal fluid upwells from the west of the currently developed reservoir at the intersection of the Malpais Fault and an older structural feature associated with mid-Miocene rifting. A tongue of thermal fluid rises to the east up the high permeability Malpais Fault, discharges at the Geysers area, and is in intimate contact with overlying cooler water. The permeability structure is closely related to the structural setting, with the permeability of the shallow hydrothermal system ranging from 500 to 1,000 D-ft, while the deeper system ranges from 200 to 400 D-ft.

Faulder, D.D. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Johnson, S.D.; Benoit, W.R. [Oxbow Power Services, Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Hydrothermal system in Southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Southern Grass Valley is a fairly typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163 to 176/sup 0/C. Results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations are discussed in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system.

Welch, A.H.; Sorey, M.L.; Olmsted, F.H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

High-temperature hydrothermal systems in West Yunnan Province, China  

SciTech Connect

There are more than 660 thermal springs in West Yunnan Province, 30 of which are high-temperature hydrothermal systems with reservoir temperatures above 150/sup 0/C. All thermal springs in West Yunnan are under the control of tectonics, most of them distributed at anticlinoria of metamorphic rocks and granites. This paper discusses the relationship between thermal areas and tectonics, the correlation between thermal springs in West Yunnan and North Thailand, and the geothermal prospects in West Yunnan.

Laio, Z.; Tong, W.; Liu, S.; Zhao, F.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Results of acid treatments in hydrothermal direct heat experiment wells  

SciTech Connect

Matrix acid treatments have been employed in two low-to-moderate temperature hydrothermal wells with successful results. These two wells showed flow rate increases of 40% and 50%. The increased flow reduced the payback periods for the heating systems to nearly one-half of what they were before acidization. It is recommended that well designs in certain areas consider accommodating such acid stimulation techniques, if testing suggests they are warranted as a well completion tool.

Strawn, J.A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Hydrothermal processing of Hanford tank wastes: Process modeling and control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) hydrothermal process, waste streams are first pressurized and heated as they pass through a continuous flow tubular reactor vessel. The waste is maintained at reaction temperature of 300--550 C where organic destruction and sludge reformation occur. This report documents LANL activities in process modeling and control undertaken in FY94 to support hydrothermal process development. Key issues discussed include non-ideal flow patterns (e.g. axial dispersion) and their effect on reactor performance, the use and interpretation of inert tracer experiments, and the use of computational fluid mechanics to evaluate novel hydrothermal reactor designs. In addition, the effects of axial dispersion (and simplifications to rate expressions) on the estimated kinetic parameters are explored by non-linear regression to experimental data. Safety-related calculations are reported which estimate the explosion limits of effluent gases and the fate of hydrogen as it passes through the reactor. Development and numerical solution of a generalized one-dimensional mathematical model is also summarized. The difficulties encountered in using commercially available software to correlate the behavior of high temperature, high pressure aqueous electrolyte mixtures are summarized. Finally, details of the control system and experiments conducted to empirically determine the system response are reported.

Currier, R.P. [comp.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Water geochemistry of hydrothermal systems, Wood River District, Idaho  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrothermal systems of the Wood River District, central Idaho, have been studied by geologic mapping of thermal spring areas and geochemical investigations of thermal and non-thermal waters. This report summarizes the new geochemical data gathered during the study. Integration of the results of geological and geochemical studies has led to development of a target model for hydrothermal resources on the margin of the Idaho Batholith. Warfield Hot Springs, with temperatures up to 58/sup 0/C, flow from a major shear zone along the margin of an apophysis of the batholith. Hailey Hot Springs, with temperatures up to 60/sup 0/C, occur in an area of multiple thrust faults and newly recognized, closely spaced normal faults in the Paleozoic Milligen and Wood River Formations, 2.5 km from a highly brecciated batholith contact. Other Wood River district hydrothermal systems also occur along the margins of batholith apophyses or in adjacent highly fractured Paleozoic rocks, where there are indications of batholith rocks at shallow depths (100 to 300 m) in water wells.

Zeisloft, J.; Foley, D.; Blackett, R.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Pretreatment of solid carbonaceous material with dicarboxylic aromatic acids to prevent scale formation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by pretreatment with a pretreating agent selected from the group consisting of phthalic acid, phthalic anhydride, pyromellitic acid and pyromellitic anhydride. The pretreatment is believed to convert the scale-forming components to the corresponding phthalate and/or pyromellitate prior to liquefaction. The pretreatment is accomplished at a total pressure within the range from about 1 to about 2 atmospheres. Temperature during pretreatment will generally be within the range from about 5.degree. to about 80.degree. C.

Brunson, Roy J. (Buffalo Grove, IL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Impact of thermal pretreatment on the fast pyrolysis conversion of Southern Pine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Background: Thermal pretreatment of biomass ranges from simple (nondestructive) drying to more severe treatments that cause devolatization, depolymerization and carbonization. These pretreatments have demonstrated promise for transforming raw biomass into feedstock material that has improved milling, handling, storage and conversion properties. In this work, southern pine material was pretreated at 120, 180, 230 and 270 degrees C, and then subjected to pyrolysis tests in a continuous-feed bubbling-fluid bed pyrolysis system. Results: High pretreatment temperatures were associated with lower specific grinding energies, higher grinding rates and lower hydrogen and oxygen contents. Higher pretreatment temperatures were also correlated with increased char production, decreased total acid number and slight decrease in the oxygen content of the pyrolysis liquid fraction. Conclusion: Thermal pretreatment has both beneficial and detrimental impacts on fast pyrolysis conversion of pine material to bio-oil, and the effect of thermal pretreatment on upgrading of pyrolysis bio-oil requires further attention.

Tyler L. Westover; Manunya Phanphanich; Micael L. Clark; Sharna R. Rowe; Steven E. Egan; Christopher T Wright; Richard D. Boardman; Alan H. Zacher

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

High Xylose Yields from Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Corn Stover Under Process-Relevant Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Pretreatment experiments were carried out to demonstrate high xylose yields at high solids loadings in two different batch pretreatment reactors under process-relevant conditions. Corn stover was pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid using a 4-l Steam Digester and a 4-l stirred ZipperClave{reg_sign} reactor. Solids were loaded at 45% dry matter (wt/wt) after sulfuric acid catalyst impregnation using nominal particle sizes of either 6 or 18 mm. Pretreatment was carried out at temperatures between 180 and 200 C at residence times of either 90 or 105 s. Results demonstrate an ability to achieve high xylose yields (>80%) over a range of pretreatment conditions, with performance showing little dependence on particle size or pretreatment reactor type. The high xylose yields are attributed to effective catalyst impregnation and rapid rates of heat transfer during pretreatment.

Weiss, N. D.; Nagle, N. J.; Tucker, M. P.; Elander, R. T.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Massive sulfide deposits and hydrothermal solutions: incremental reaction modeling of mineral precipitation and sulfur isotopic evolution  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Incremental reaction path modeling of chemical and sulfur isotopic reactions occurring in active hydrothermal vents on the seafloor, in combination with chemical and petrographic data from sulfide samples from the seafloor and massive sulfide ore deposits, allows a detailed examination of the processes involved. This paper presents theoretical models of reactions of two types: (1) adiabatic mixing between hydrothermal solution and seawater, and (2) reaction of hydrothermal solution with sulfide deposit materials. In addition, reaction of hydrothermal solution with sulfide deposit minerals and basalt in feeder zones is discussed.

Janecky, D.R.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Geothermal hydrothermal direct heat use: US market size and market penetration estimates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study estimates the future regional and national market penetration path of hydrothermal geothermal direct heat applications in the United States. A Technology Substitution Model (MARPEN) is developed and used to estimate the energy market shares captured by low-temperature (50 to 150/sup 0/C) hydrothermal geothermal energy systems over the period 1985 to 2020. The sensitivity of hydrothermal direct heat market shares to various government hydrothermal commercialization policies is examined. Several substantive recommendations to help accelerate commercialization of geothermal direct heat utilization in the United States are indicated and possible additional analyses are discussed.

El Sawy, A.H.; Entingh, D.J.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

The value of rolling horizon policies for risk-averse hydro-thermal ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oct 7, 2010 ... Abstract: We consider the optimal management of a hydro-thermal power system in the mid and long terms. From the optimization point of view,...

238

A Sr-Isotopic Comparison Between Thermal Waters, Rocks, And Hydrotherm...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sr-Isotopic Comparison Between Thermal Waters, Rocks, And Hydrothermal Calcites, Long Valley Caldera, California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home...

239

Hydrothermal energy extraction, Auburn, New York: Final report: Volume 2, Chapters 6-10  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper discusses a hydrothermal energy extraction system in detail. General topics covered are: Reservoir circulation loop; HVAC buffer loop; and automatic temperature control system. (LSP)

Castor, T.P.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Summary of Findings from the Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation (CAFI): Corn Stover Pretreatment  

SciTech Connect

The Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation, with members from Auburn University, Dartmouth College, Michigan State University, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Purdue University, Texas A&M University, the University of British Columbia, and the University of California at Riverside, has developed comparative data on the conversion of corn stover to sugars by several leading pretreatment technologies. These technologies include ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment, ammonia recycle percolation pretreatment, dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment, flowthrough pretreatment (hot water or dilute acid), lime pretreatment, controlled pH hot water pretreatment, and sulfur dioxide steam explosion pretreatment. Over the course of two separate USDA- and DOE-funded projects, these pretreatment technologies were applied to two different corn stover batches, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the remaining solids from each pretreatment technology using identical enzyme preparations, enzyme loadings, and enzymatic hydrolysis assays. Identical analytical methods and a consistent material balance methodology were employed to develop comparative sugar yield data for each pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Although there were differences in the profiles of sugar release, with the more acidic pretreatments releasing more xylose directly in the pretreatment step than the alkaline pretreatments, the overall glucose and xylose yields (monomers + oligomers) from combined pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis process steps were very similar for all of these leading pretreatment technologies. Some of the water-only and alkaline pretreatment technologies resulted in significant amounts of residual xylose oligomers still remaining after enzymatic hydrolysis that may require specialized enzyme preparations to fully convert xylose oligomers to monomers.

Elander, R. T.; Dale, B. E.; Holtzapple, M.; Ladisch, M. R.; Lee, Y. Y.; Mitchinson, C.; Saddler, J. N.; Wyman, C. E.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Effects of physical and chemical pretreatments on the crystallinity of bagasse  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass conversion technologies are receiving increasing attention due to global climate change and most recently plans from the President of the United States to reduce fossil fuel consumption. The MixAlco process converts a variety of feedstocks, such as agricultural residues, municipal solid waste, and sewage sludge, into mixed alcohols via microbial fermentation, which can then be used as fuel additives or independently as an alternative fuel. Optimizing the pretreatment step of this process is critical to improving product yields. The process uses lime pretreatment, which can be enhanced using new decrystallization pretreatment methods, namely hydrodynamic cavitation and shock tube pretreatment.Previous studies on biomass decrystallization showed an increase in biomass digestibility when hydrodynamic cavitation was utilized as a pretreatment step. This previous work was expanded by studying both acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to model the cavitator to improve its efficiency. The crystallinity before and after pretreatment was analyzed. A new laboratory-scale MixAlco lime-pretreatment system was developed to produce greater quantities of lime-pretreated biomass that could be subjected to decrystallization experiments. The length of pretreatment, water loading, and bagasse loadings were varied for the shock tube experiments. After each pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis was performed, and the equivalent glucose yield was measured by the DNS (dinitrosalicylic acid) assay. Additionally, mixed-acid fermentation was performed to show the benefits of reduced crystallinity on the MixAlco fermentation. The acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation pretreatments had a modest effect on crystallinity. In contrast, the shock tube pretreatment shows greater promise as an effective decrystallization pretreatment, even for lime-treated bagasse. Repeated shocks had little effect on digestibility and the crystallinity; however, the water temperature used in shock tube pretreatment played an important role in bagasse digestibility and crystallinity.

Jones, Maxine Janette

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

The Development of a Hydrothermal Method for Slurry Feedstock Preparation for Gasification Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was measured by heating water and wood wastes mixture in theFinally, the heating value of pretreated wood particles wasFinally, the heating value of pretreated wood particles is

He, Wei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Critically loaded queueing models that are throughput suboptimal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper introduces and analyzes the notion of throughput suboptimality for many-server queueing systems in heavy traffic. The queueing model under consideration has multiple customer classes, indexed by a finite set $\\mathcal{I}$, and heterogenous, exponential servers. Servers are dynamically chosen to serve customers, and buffers are available for customers waiting to be served. The arrival rates and the number of servers are scaled up in such a way that the processes representing the number of class-$i$ customers in the system, $i\\in\\mathcal{I}$, fluctuate about a static fluid model, that is assumed to be critically loaded in a standard sense. At the same time, the fluid model is assumed to be throughput suboptimal. Roughly, this means that the servers can be allocated so as to achieve a total processing rate that is greater than the total arrival rate. We show that there exists a dynamic control policy for the queueing model that is efficient in the following strong sense: Under this policy, for every f...

Atar, Rami; 10.1214/08-AAP551

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Cellulase Accessibility of Dilute-Acid Pretreated Corn Stover  

SciTech Connect

The conclusions of this presentation are: (1) The dilute-acid pretreatment reduces xylan content in corn stover. This reduction in xylan content appears to render the substrate less recalcitrant. Below {approx}8%, xylan content is no longer the dominant factor in biomass recalcitrance. (2) Decreasing xylan content of corn stover also created more binding sites for Cel7A, but no strong correlation with actual xylan content. (3) We found no correlation between bound Cel7A concentration and lignin content. Maybe lignin is blocking the way for Cel7A? The contribution of lignin to biomass recalcitrance requires further investigation.

Jeoh, T.; Johnson, D. K.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Caustic-Side Solvent-Extraction Modeling for Hanford Interim Pretreatment System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this work is to examine the applicability of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process for the removal of cesium from Hanford tank-waste supernatant solutions in support of the Hanford Interim Pretreatment System (IPS). The Hanford waste types are more challenging than those at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in that they contain significantly higher levels of potassium, the chief competing ion in the extraction of cesium. It was confirmed by use of the CSSX model that the higher levels of potassium depress the cesium distribution ratio (DCs), as validated by measurement of DCs values for four of eight specified Hanford waste-simulant compositions. The model predictions were good to an apparent standard error of 11%. It is concluded from batch distribution experiments, physical-property measurements, equilibrium modeling, flowsheet calculations, and contactor sizing that the CSSX process as currently employed for cesium removal from alkaline salt waste at the SRS is capable of treating similar Hanford tank feeds. For the most challenging waste composition, 41 stages would be required to provide a cesium decontamination factor (DF) of 5000 and a concentration factor (CF) of 5. Commercial contacting equipment with rotor diameters of 10 in. for extraction and 5 in. for stripping should have the capacity to meet throughput requirements, but testing will be required to confirm that the needed efficiency and hydraulic performance are actually obtainable. Markedly improved flowsheet performance was calculated for a new solvent formulation employing the more soluble cesium extractant BEHBCalixC6 used with alternative scrub and strip solutions, respectively 0.1 M NaOH and 10 mM boric acid. The improved system can meet minimum requirements (DF = 5000 and CF = 5) with 17 stages or more ambitious goals (DF = 40,000 and CF = 15) with 19 stages. Potential benefits of further research and development are identified that would lead to reduced costs, greater adaptability of the process to DOE alkaline salt wastes, and greater readiness for implementation. Such benefits accrue from optimal sizing of centrifugal contactors for application of the CSSX process for the IPS; more accurate modeling of cesium extraction with greater flexibility and applicability to a variety of feeds and flowsheet conditions; and further improving and optimizing the alternative CSSX solvent and scrub/strip system.

Moyer, B.A.; Birdwell, J.F.; Delmau, L. H.; McFarlane, J.

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Products of an Artificially Induced Hydrothermal System at Yucca Mountain  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Studies of mineral deposition in the recent geologic past at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, address competing hypotheses of hydrothermal alteration and deposition from percolating groundwater. The secondary minerals being studied are calcite-opal deposits in fractures and lithophysal cavities of ash-flow tuffs exposed in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), a 7.7-km tunnel excavated by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project within Yucca Mountain. An underground field test in the ESF provided information about the minerals deposited by a short-lived artificial hydrothermal system and an opportunity for comparison of test products with the natural secondary minerals. The heating phase lasted nine months, followed by a nine-month cooling period. Natural pore fluids were the only source of water during the thermal test. Condensation and reflux of water driven away from the heater produced fluid flow in certain fractures and intersecting boreholes. The mineralogic products of the thermal test are calcite-gypsum aggregates of less than 4-micrometer crystals and amorphous silica as glassy scale less than 0.2 mm thick and as mounds of tubules with diameters less than 0.7 micrometers. The minute crystal sizes of calcite and gypsum from the field test are very different from the predominantly coarser calcite crystals (up to cm scale) in natural secondary-mineral deposits at the site. The complex micrometer-scale textures of the amorphous silica differ from the simple forms of opal spherules and coatings in the natural deposits, even though some natural spherules are as small as 1 micrometer. These differences suggest that the natural minerals, especially if they were of hydrothermal origin, may have developed coarser or simpler forms during subsequent episodes of dissolution and redeposition. The presence of gypsum among the test products and its absence from the natural secondary-mineral assemblage may indicate a higher degree of evaporation during the test than during the deposition of natural calcite-opal deposits.

S. Levy

2000-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

247

Potential benefits of geothermal electrical production from hydrothermal resources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The potential national benefits of geothermal electric energy development from the hydrothermal resources in the West are estimated for several different scenarios. The U.S. electrical economy is simulated by computer using a linear programming optimization technique. Under most of the scenarios, benefits are estimated at $2 to $4 billion over the next 50 years on a discounted present value basis. The electricity production from hydrothermal plants reaches 2 to 4 percent of the national total, which will represent 10 to 20 percent of the installed capacity in the West. Installed geothermal capacity in 1990 is estimated to be 9,000 to 17,000 Mw(e). The geothermal capacity should reach 28,000 to 65,000 Mw(e) by year 2015. The ''most likely'' scenario yields the lower values in the above ranges. Under this scenario geothermal development would save the utility industry $11 billion in capital costs (undiscounted); 32 million separative work units; 64,000 tons of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/; and 700 million barrels of oil. The most favorable scenario for geothermal energy occurs when fossil fuel prices are projected to increase at 5 percent/year. The benefits of geothermal energy then exceed $8 billion on a discounted present value basis. Supply curves were developed for hydrothermal resources based on the recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) resource assessment, resource characteristics, and projected power conversion technology and costs. Geothermal plants were selected by the optimizing technique to fill a need for ''light load'' plants. This infers that geothermal plants may be used in the future primarily for load-following purposes.

Bloomster, C.H.; Engel, R.L.

1976-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

A new hydrothermal scenario for the 2006 Lusi eruption, Indonesia. Insights from gas geochemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

acquired a wide set of data of molecular and isotopic composition of gas sampled in several Lusi vents, in the surrounding mud volcanoes, in the closest natural gas field (Wunut), and in the hydrothermal ventsA new hydrothermal scenario for the 2006 Lusi eruption, Indonesia. Insights from gas geochemistry

Mazzini, Adriano

249

Design of novel hybrid controller for automatic generation control of hydrothermal system under open market scenario  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the analysis of Automatic generation control (AGC) of a two-area hydrothermal system under open market scenario by considering a novel hybrid controller which combines the principles of variable structure controller (VSC) and conventional ... Keywords: AGC, VSC, deregulated system, hybrid controller, hydrothermal system, open market system

C. Srinivasa Rao; S. Siva Nagaraju; P. Sangameswara Raju

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Modeling of the fault-controlled hydrothermal ore-forming systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A necessary precondition for the formation of hydrothermal ore deposits is a strong focusing of hydrothermal flow as fluids move from the fluid source to the site of ore deposition. The spatial distribution of hydrothermal deposits favors the concept that such fluid flow focusing is controlled, for the most part, by regional faults which provide a low resistance path for hydrothermal solutions. Results of electric analog simulations, analytical solutions, and computer simulations of the fluid flow, in a fault-controlled single-pass advective system, confirm this concept. The influence of the fluid flow focusing on the heat and mass transfer in a single-pass advective system was investigated for a simplified version of the metamorphic model for the genesis of greenstone-hosted gold deposits. The spatial distribution of ore mineralization, predicted by computer simulation, is in reasonable agreement with geological observations. Computer simulations of the fault-controlled thermoconvective system revealed a complex pattern of mixing hydrothermal solutions in the model, which also simulates the development of the modern hydrothermal systems on the ocean floor. The specific feature of the model considered, is the development under certain conditions of an intra-fault convective cell that operates essentially independently of the large scale circulation. These and other results obtained during the study indicate that modeling of natural fault-controlled hydrothermal systems is instructive for the analysis of transport processes in man-made hydrothermal systems that could develop in geologic high-level nuclear waste repositories.

Pek, A.A.; Malkovsky, V.I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Hydrothermal industrialization electric-power systems development. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The nature of hydrothermal resources, their associated temperatures, geographic locations, and developable capacity are described. The parties involved in development, required activities and phases of development, regulatory and permitting requirements, environmental considerations, and time required to complete development activities ae examined in detail. These activities are put in proper perspective by detailing development costs. A profile of the geothermal industry is presented by detailing the participants and their operating characteristics. The current development status of geothermal energy in the US is detailed. The work on market penetration is summarized briefly. Detailed development information is presented for 56 high temperature sites. (MHR)

Not Available

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Potential impact of R and D on hydrothermal energy cost  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The potentital impact of the DOE/Geothermal Technology Development programs on the cost of geothermal power has been estimated using the computer program IMGEO.300. Results indicate a potential 30 to 40% cost reduction for hydrothermal systems with a 40 to 50% cost reduction potential for binary systems. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate the use of IMGEO. The initial results are tentative because the R and D goals have not been finalized and the code has not been completely validated.

Traeger, R.K.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Inferences On The Hydrothermal System Beneath The Resurgent Dome In Long  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Inferences On The Hydrothermal System Beneath The Resurgent Dome In Long Inferences On The Hydrothermal System Beneath The Resurgent Dome In Long Valley Caldera, East-Central California, Usa, From Recent Pumping Tests And Geochemical Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Inferences On The Hydrothermal System Beneath The Resurgent Dome In Long Valley Caldera, East-Central California, Usa, From Recent Pumping Tests And Geochemical Sampling Details Activities (6) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Quaternary volcanic unrest has provided heat for episodic hydrothermal circulation in the Long Valley caldera, including the present-day hydrothermal system, which has been active over the past 40 kyr. The most recent period of crustal unrest in this region of east-central California began around 1980 and has included periods of

254

K-Ar Dates Of Hydrothermal Clays From Core Hole Vc-2B, Valles Caldera, New  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » K-Ar Dates Of Hydrothermal Clays From Core Hole Vc-2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico And Their Relation To Alteration In A Large Hydrothermal System Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: K-Ar Dates Of Hydrothermal Clays From Core Hole Vc-2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico And Their Relation To Alteration In A Large Hydrothermal System Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Seventeen K/Ar dates were obtained on illitic clays within Valles caldera (1.13 Ma) to investigate the impact of hydrothermal alteration on Quaternary to Precambrian intracaldera and pre-caldera rocks in a large,

255

An Oxygen Isotope Study Of Hydrothermal Alteration In The Lake City  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Isotope Study Of Hydrothermal Alteration In The Lake City Isotope Study Of Hydrothermal Alteration In The Lake City Caldera, San Juan Mountains, Colorado Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: An Oxygen Isotope Study Of Hydrothermal Alteration In The Lake City Caldera, San Juan Mountains, Colorado Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: A 23-m.y.-old, fossil meteoric-hydrothermal system in the Lake City caldera (11 _ 14 km) has been mapped out by measuring Δ 18O values of 300 rock and mineral samples. Δ 18O varies systematically throughout the caldera, reaching values as low as -2. Great topographic relief, regional tilting, and variable degrees of erosion within the caldera all combine to give us a very complete section through the hydrothermal system, from the

256

Evolution Of Hydrothermal Waters At Mount St Helens, Washington, Usa | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evolution Of Hydrothermal Waters At Mount St Helens, Washington, Usa Evolution Of Hydrothermal Waters At Mount St Helens, Washington, Usa Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Evolution Of Hydrothermal Waters At Mount St Helens, Washington, Usa Details Activities (4) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Hydrothermal water samples at Mount St. Helens collected between 1985 and 1989 and in 1994 are used to identify water types and describe their evolution through time. Two types of low temperature hydrothermal systems are associated with the 1980 eruptions and were initiated soon after emplacement of shallow magma and pyroclastic flows. The Loowit hot spring system is located in the breach zone and is associated with the magma conduit and nearby avalanche deposits, whereas the Pumice Plain (PP)

257

HIGH-THROUGHPUT/COMBINATORIAL TECHNIQUES IN HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIALS R&D WORKSHOP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HIGH-THROUGHPUT/COMBINATORIAL TECHNIQUES IN HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIALS R&D WORKSHOP U.S. Department of Energy Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies June 26, 2007 Bethesda, MD On June 26, 2007, DOE's Hydrogen Storage Program held a one-day High- Throughput/Combinatorial Techniques

258

Throughput Optimal Scheduling in the presence of Heavy-Tailed Traffic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Throughput Optimal Scheduling in the presence of Heavy-Tailed Traffic Krishna Jagannathan, Mihalis of the steady-state queue occupancies under throughput optimal scheduling in the presence of heavy of the queues receives traffic that is heavy-tailed (the "heavy queue"), and the other receives light

Tsitsiklis, John

259

Chemical Pretreatment And Enzymatic Hydrolysis Of Mixed Source-Separated Organic (SSO) And Wood Waste.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This paper examines the effectiveness of two pretreatments on Source-Separated Organic waste (SSO) mixed with wood wastes: long term lime for SSO mixed with forestry (more)

Faye, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Effect of Pretreatment on the Strength and Formability of Vehicle Hot ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Comparing with the traditional hot-forming HSS, the microstructure obtained in the pretreated samples ... Multi-Scale Design of Open-Cell Aluminum Alloy Foam.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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261

Understanding Substrate Features Influenced by Pretreatments that Limit Biomass Deconstruction by Enzymes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and enzymatic hydrolysis for corn stover. In BookEnzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover (Editor ed. ^eds. ).acid pretreatment of corn stover followed by enzymatic

Gao, Xiadi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

How Wood Chip Size Affects Pretreatment Effectiveness of Woody Biomass for Biological Processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

acid pretreatment of biomass. Biotechnol. Bioeng. Symp. 15,that limit enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass. Appl. Biochem.hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. Biofuels 2(4):421-450.

Tam, Jerry

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Understanding Substrate Features Influenced by Pretreatments that Limit Biomass Deconstruction by Enzymes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

145. Wyman C, Huber G: Biomass and America's energy futuredevelopment of leading biomass pretreatment technologies.U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and

Gao, Xiadi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

A Comparison of Chemical Pretreatment Methods for Converting Cotton Stalks to Ethanol.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone pretreatments for conversion of cotton stalks (more)

Silverstein, Rebecca Anne

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

How Wood Chip Size Affects Pretreatment Effectiveness of Woody Biomass for Biological Processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

explosion pretreatment of wood: effect of chip size, acid,In: Soltes, E.J. (Ed. ), Wood and Agriculture Residues D. , Wegener, G. , 1984. Wood: Chemistry, Ultrastructure,

Tam, Jerry

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Evaluation of Cellruptor pre-treatment on biogas yield from various substrates.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? In this thesis work, Cellruptor pre-treatment was evaluated in order to increase biogas yield. Initially, the effects of residence time (30, 60, 90, 120 (more)

Thiruvenkadam, Selvakumar

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Determination of saccharides and ethanol from biomass conversion using Raman spectroscopy: Effects of pretreatment and enzyme composition  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation focuses on the development of facile and rapid quantitative Raman spectroscopy measurements for the determination of conversion products in producing bioethanol from corn stover. Raman spectroscopy was chosen to determine glucose, xylose and ethanol in complex hydrolysis and fermentation matrices. Chapter 1 describes the motives and main goals of this work, and includes an introduction to biomass, commonly used pretreatment methods, hydrolysis and fermentation reactions. The principles of Raman spectroscopy, its advantages and applications related to biomass analysis are also illustrated. Chapter 2 and 3 comprise two published or submitted manuscripts, and the thesis concludes with an appendix. In Chapter 2, a Raman spectroscopic protocol is described to study the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by measuring the main product in hydrolysate, glucose. Two commonly utilized pretreatment methods were investigated in order to understand their effect on glucose measurements by Raman spectroscopy. Second, a similar method was set up to determine the concentration of ethanol in fermentation broth. Both of these measurements are challenged by the presence of complex matrices. In Chapter 3, a quantitative comparison of pretreatment protocols and the effect of enzyme composition are studied using systematic methods. A multipeak fitting algorithm was developed to analyze spectra of hydrolysate containing two analytes: glucose and xylose. Chapter 4 concludes with a future perspective of this research area. An appendix describes a convenient, rapid spectrophotometric method developed to measure cadmium in water. This method requires relatively low cost instrumentation and can be used in microgravity, such as space shuttles or the International Space Station. This work was performed under the supervision of Professor Marc Porter while at Iowa State University. Research related to producing biofuel from bio-renewable resources, especially bioethanol from biomass, has grown significantly in the past decade due to the high demand and rising costs of fossil fuels. More than 3 percent of the energy consumption in the U.S. is derived from renewable biomass, mostly through industrial heat and steam production by the pulp and paper industry, and electricity generation from municipal solid waste (MSW) and forest industry residues. The utilization of food-based biomass to make fuels has been widely criticized because it may increase food shortages throughout the world and raise the cost of food. Thus, nonfood-based and plentiful lignocellulosic feedstocks, such as corn stover, perennial grass, bagasse, sorghum, wheat/rice straw, herbaceous and woody crops, have great potential to be new bio-renewable sources for energy production. Given that many varieties of biomass are available, there is need for a rapid, simple, high-throughput method to screen the conversion of many plant varieties. The most suitable species for each geographic region must be determined, as well as the optimal stage of harvest, impacts of environmental conditions (temperature, soil, pH, etc.). Various genetically modified plants should be studied in order to establish the desired biomass in bioethanol production. The main screening challenge, however, is the complexity of plant cell wall structures that make reliable and sensitive analysis difficult. To date, one of the most popular methods to produce lignocellulosic ethanol is to perform enzymatic hydrolysis followed by fermentation of the hydrolysate with yeast. There are several vital needs related to the field of chemistry that have been suggested as primary research foci needed to effectively improve lignocellulosic ethanol production. These topics include overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass, the pervasiveness of pretreatment, advanced biological processing and better feedstocks. In this thesis, a novel approach using Raman spectroscopy has been developed to address important issues related to bioethanol generation, which will aid the research aimed to solve the topics m

Shih, Chien-Ju

2010-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

268

The hydrothermal system in central Twin Falls County, Idaho  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a study to define the areal extent and thickness of the hydrothermal reservoir in Twin Falls County and to propose a generalized conceptual model of the system. Specific objectives of the study, done in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Water Resources, were to evaluate the existing resource as to its volume, temperature, pressure, and water chemistry, and to determine the effects of present development on the resource. The study was limited to Twin Falls County. Some geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic data for the hydrothermal system were available from earlier studies. However, information about the subsurface at depths greater than 1000 feet was sparse. One well for which data were available was drilled to 2525 feet; several others were drilled to depths between 1200 and 2200 feet. Direct-current electrical resistivity soundings conducted during the summer of 1985 as part of the study provided valuable information about the subsurface at depths less than about 6000 feet. Interpretation of computer-generated subsurface profiles constructed from the soundings provided the basis for determining the thickness of the Idavada Volcanics over much of the study area. 42 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Lewis, R.E.; Young, H.W.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Testing geochemical modeling codes using New Zealand hydrothermal systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrothermal systems in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, North Island, New Zealand are being used as field-based modeling exercises for the EQ3/6 geochemical modeling code package. Comparisons of the observed state and evolution of selected portions of the hydrothermal systems with predictions of fluid-solid equilibria made using geochemical modeling codes will: (1) ensure that we are providing adequately for all significant processes occurring in natural systems; (2) determine the adequacy of the mathematical descriptions of the processes; (3) check the adequacy and completeness of thermodynamic data as a function of temperature for solids, aqueous species and gases; and (4) determine the sensitivity of model results to the manner in which the problem is conceptualized by the user and then translated into constraints in the code input. Preliminary predictions of mineral assemblages in equilibrium with fluids sampled from wells in the Wairakei geothermal field suggest that affinity-temperature diagrams must be used in conjunction with EQ6 to minimize the effect of uncertainties in thermodynamic and kinetic data on code predictions. The kinetics of silica precipitation in EQ6 will be tested using field data from silica-lined drain channels carrying hot water away from the Wairakei borefield.

Bruton, C.J.; Glassley, W.E.; Bourcier, W.L.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Technical Basis of Scaling Relationships for the Pretreatment Engineering Platform  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities. The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) is being designed and constructed as part of a plan to respond to an issue raised by the WTP External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) entitled Undemonstrated Leaching Processes and numbered M12. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching process using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The approach for scaling PEP performance data to predict WTP performance is critical to the successful resolution of the EFRT issue. This report describes the recommended PEP scaling approach, PEP data interpretation and provides recommendations on test conduct and data requirements.

Kuhn, William L.; Arm, Stuart T.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Rassat, Scot D.

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

271

PROJECT W-551 INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY SELECTION SUMMARY DECISION REPORT AND RECOMMENDATION  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the conclusions of the tank farm interim pretreatment technology decision process. It documents the methodology, data, and results of the selection of cross-flow filtration and ion exchange technologies for implementation in project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This selection resulted from the evaluation of specific scope criteria using quantitative and qualitative analyses, group workshops, and technical expert personnel.

CONRAD EA

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

272

Hydrothermal research and development assessment. Task Force report: projections for direct-heat applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Low and moderate temperature hydrothermal resources suitable for direct-heat applications have been identified in 37 states. The extent to which three resources might be used over the next 20 years were evaluated and the probable impact of Federal programs on hydrothermal resource utilization was assessed. The use types that comprise the bulk of the market were determined. Representative firms and municipalities were interviewed to determine their willingness to use hydrothermal energy, and to determine the investment decision criteria that would influence their actions. (MHR)

Not Available

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Comparative assessment of five potential sites for hydrothermal magma systems: geochemistry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A brief discussion is given of the geochemical objectives and questions that must be addressed in such an evaluation. A summary of the currently published literature that is pertinent in answering these questions is presented for each of the five areas: The Geysers-Clear Lake region, Long Valley, Rio Grand Rift, Roosevelt Hot Springs, and the Salton Trough. The major geochemical processes associated with proposed hydrothermal sites are categorized into three groups for presentation: geochemistry of magma and associated volcanic rocks, geochemistry of hydrothermal solutions, and geochemistry of hydrothermal alteration. (MHR)

White, A.F.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

GRR/Section 18-ID-c - Wastewater Pretreatment Permit | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

8-ID-c - Wastewater Pretreatment Permit 8-ID-c - Wastewater Pretreatment Permit < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 18-ID-c - Wastewater Pretreatment Permit 18IDCWastewaterPretreatmentPermit.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 18IDCWastewaterPretreatmentPermit.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Flowchart Narrative Industrial wastewater permits are issued at the local level. If wastewater is not discharged into a municipal sewer system, the nonpoint source and NPDES permit inquiries are sufficient. A common approach to wastewater treatment is to treat on-site. See Idaho's

275

Hydrothermal electric and direct heat. Commercialization Phase III planning  

SciTech Connect

Nine environmental concerns have been identified: airborne effluents, waterborne effluents, noise, subsidence, enhanced seismicity, water use conflicts, land use, socioeconomic impacts, and system safety and occupational health. Resolution of these issues is expected to occur at staggered intervals over the next 8 to 10 years. Of these concerns, airborne emissions and water use conflicts are judged to have a medium likelihood of having research findings adverse to commercialization. Waterborne effluents and subsidence are also judged to have a medium likelihood. The other concerns--noise, enhanced seismicity, land use, socioeconomic impacts and system safety and occupational health--are judged to have a low likelihood of adverse findings. The overall environmental research and development plan related to hydrothermal electric and direct heat includes funds to assess the adequacy of candidate control technology options. However, it does not include the resource requirements to fully develop and demonstrate commercial control hardware, process modifications, and for strategies. The conclusions, stated as probabilities, are given.

Clusen, R.C.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Integration of hydrothermal energy economics related quantitative studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An evaluation of the existing hydrothermal energy economics related quantitative studies is provided. The objective is to present the similarities and differences in methodology and assumptions, and explain the impact of these differences on the energy price estimates. A brief summary of the study categories, economic evaluation methodology, technical and economic assumptions and major outputs of the studies is presented. The relative importance and the likely effects of the most important technical and economic factors on the cost of energy are discussed. The sensitivity analysis results provided are useful in judging the credibility as well as the relative weaknesses and strengths of the various cost of energy estimation studies. The major conclusions of the evaluation and the recommendations for future research are presented.

Not Available

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Impacts of Deacetylation Prior to Dilute Acid Pretreatment on the Bioethanol Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dilute acid pretreatment is a promising pretreatment technology for the biochemical production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. During dilute acid pretreatment, xylan depolymerizes to form soluble xylose monomers and oligomers. Because the xylan found in nature is highly acetylated, the formation of xylose monomers requires two steps: (1) cleavage of the xylosidic bonds, and (2) cleavage of covalently bonded acetyl ester groups. Results: In this study, we show that the latter may be the rate limiting step for xylose monomer formation. Furthermore, acetyl groups are also found to be a cause of biomass recalcitrance and hydrolyzate toxicity. While the removal of acetyl groups from native corn stover by alkaline de-esterification prior to pretreatment improves overall process yields, the exact impact is highly dependent on the corn stover variety in use. Xylose monomer yields in pretreatment generally increases by greater than 10%. Compared to pretreated corn stover controls, the deacetylated corn stover feedstock is approximately 20% more digestible after pretreatment. Finally, by lowering hydrolyzate toxicity, xylose utilization and ethanol yields are further improved during fermentation by roughly 10% and 7%, respectively. In this study, several varieties of corn stover lots were investigated to test the robustness of the deacetylation-pretreatment-saccharification-fermentation process. Conclusions: Deacetylation shows significant improvement on glucose and xylose yields during pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, but it also reduces hydrolyzate toxicity during fermentation, thereby improving ethanol yields and titer. The magnitude of effect is dependent on the selected corn stover variety, with several varieties achieving improvements of greater than 10% xylose yield in pretreatment, 20% glucose yield in low solids enzymatic hydrolysis and 7% overall ethanol yield.

Chen, X.; Shekiro, J.; Franden, M. A.; Wang, W.; Johnson, D. K.; Zhang, M.; Kuhn, E.; Tucker, M. P.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

High Throughput, Continuous, Mass Production of Photovoltaic Modules  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

AVA Solar has developed a very low cost solar photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing process and has demonstrated the significant economic and commercial potential of this technology. This I & I Category 3 project provided significant assistance toward accomplishing these milestones. The original goals of this project were to design, construct and test a production prototype system, fabricate PV modules and test the module performance. The original module manufacturing costs in the proposal were estimated at $2/Watt. The objectives of this project have been exceeded. An advanced processing line was designed, fabricated and installed. Using this automated, high throughput system, high efficiency devices and fully encapsulated modules were manufactured. AVA Solar has obtained 2 rounds of private equity funding, expand to 50 people and initiated the development of a large scale factory for 100+ megawatts of annual production. Modules will be manufactured at an industry leading cost which will enable AVA Solar's modules to produce power that is cost-competitive with traditional energy resources. With low manufacturing costs and the ability to scale manufacturing, AVA Solar has been contacted by some of the largest customers in the PV industry to negotiate long-term supply contracts. The current market for PV has continued to grow at 40%+ per year for nearly a decade and is projected to reach $40-$60 Billion by 2012. Currently, a crystalline silicon raw material supply shortage is limiting growth and raising costs. Our process does not use silicon, eliminating these limitations.

Kurt Barth

2008-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

279

Pretreatment and Fermentation of Sugarcane Trash to Carboxylic Acids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The rising price of oil is hurting consumers all over the world. There is growing interest in producing biofuels from non-food crops, such as sugarcane trash. Lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., sugarcane trash) is an abundant, inexpensive, and renewable resource. The patented MixAlco process is a cost-effective solution, which does not require sterility or the addition of expensive enzymes to convert lignocellulosic biomass to transportation fuels and valuable chemicals. In this study, the MixAlco process was used to convert sugarcane trash to carboxylic acids under thermophilic conditions. Lime-treated sugarcane trash (80%) and chicken manure (20%) was used as the feedstock in rotary 1-L fermentors. Ammonium bicarbonate buffer was used to mitigate the effects of product (carboxylic acid) inhibition. Marine inoculum was used because of the high adaptability of the mixed culture of microorganisms present. Iodoform solution was added to inhibit methanogenesis. Preliminary batch studies over a 20-day period produced 19.7 g/L of carboxylic acids. Sugarcane trash had the highest average yield (0.31 g total acid/g VS fed) and highest average conversion (0.70 g VS digested/g VS fed) among the three substrates compared. Countercurrent fermentations were performed at various volatile solid loading rates (VSLR) and liquid residence times (LRT). The highest acid productivity of 1.40 g/(L?d) was at a total acid concentration of 29.9 g/L. The highest conversion and yield were 0.64 g VS digested/g VS fed and 0.36 g total acid/g VS fed, respectively. The continuum particle distribution model (CPDM) was used to predict acid concentration at various VSLR and LRT. The average error in between the predicted and experimental acid concentration and conversion were 4.62% and 1.42%, respectively. The effectiveness of several pretreatment methods was evaluated using the CPDM method. The best-performing method was short-term, no-wash, oxidative lime pretreatment with ball milling. At an industrial-scale solids loading of 300 g VS/L liquid, the CPDM ?map? predicts a total acid concentration of 64.0 g/L at LRT of 30 days, VSLR of 7 g/(L?d), and conversion of 57%. Also high conversion of 76% and high acid concentration of 52 g/L are achieved at a VSLR of 4 g/(L?d) and LRT of 30 days.

Nachiappan, Balasubraman

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Practical Guide to Vegetable Oil ProcessingChapter 3 Crude Oil De-gumming and Acid Pre-treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Practical Guide to Vegetable Oil Processing Chapter 3 Crude Oil De-gumming and Acid Pre-treatment Processing eChapters Processing Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 3 Crude Oil De-gumming and Acid Pre-treatment fro

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Influence of Physico-Chemical Changes on Enzymatic Digestibility of Ionic Liquid and AFEX pretreated Corn Stover  

SciTech Connect

Ionic liquid (IL) and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatments were studied to develop the first direct side-by-side comparative assessment on their respective impacts on biomass structure, composition, process mass balance, and enzymatic saccharification efficiency. AFEX pretreatment completely preserves plant carbohydrates, whereas IL pretreatment extracts 76% of hemicellulose. In contrast to AFEX, the native crystal structure of the recovered corn stover from IL pretreatment was significantly disrupted. For both techniques, more than 70% of the theoretical sugar yield was attained after 48 h of hydrolysis using commercial enzyme cocktails. IL pretreatment requires less enzyme loading and a shorter hydrolysis time to reach 90% yields. Hemicellulase addition led to significant improvements in the yields of glucose and xylose for AFEX pretreated corn stover, but not for IL pretreated stover. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of IL and AFEX pretreatment, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each.

Li, Chenlin [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Cheng, Gang [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Kent, Michael S [ORNL; Ong, Markus [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Balan, Venkatesh [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Dale, Bruce E. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Simmons, Blake [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

New Evidence On The Hydrothermal System In Long Valley Caldera, California,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

New Evidence On The Hydrothermal System In Long Valley Caldera, California, New Evidence On The Hydrothermal System In Long Valley Caldera, California, From Wells, Fluid Sampling, Electrical Geophysics, And Age Determinations Of Hot-Spring Deposits Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: New Evidence On The Hydrothermal System In Long Valley Caldera, California, From Wells, Fluid Sampling, Electrical Geophysics, And Age Determinations Of Hot-Spring Deposits Abstract Data collected since 1985 from test drilling, fluid sampling, and geologic and geophysical investigations provide a clearer definition of the hydrothermal system in Long Valley caldera than was previously available. This information confirms the existence of high-temperature (> 200°C) reservoirs within the volcanic fill in parts of the west moat. These

283

Hydrothermal Circulation At Mount St Helens Determined By Self-Potential  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Hydrothermal Circulation At Mount St Helens Determined By Self-Potential Measurements Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Hydrothermal Circulation At Mount St Helens Determined By Self-Potential Measurements Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The distribution of hydrothermal circulation within active volcanoes is of importance in identifying regions of hydrothermal alteration which may in turn control explosivity, slope stability and sector collapse. Self-potential measurements, indicative of fluid circulation, were made within the crater of Mount St. Helens in 2000 and

284

Hydrothermal synthesis of Sb2S3nanorods using iodine via redox mechanism  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crystalline antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) with nanorods morphology was successfully prepared via hydrothermal method by the reaction of elemental sulfur, antimony, and iodine as starting materials with high yield at 180C for 24 ...

Abdolali Alemi; Sang Woo Joo; Younes Hanifehpour; Aliakbar Khandar; Ali Morsali; Bong-Ki Min

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

A Handheld Sampler for Collecting Organic Samples from Shallow Hydrothermal Vents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe here a new handheld sampler, specially designed to be deployed by SCUBA divers, to collect fluid samples from shallow hydrothermal vents. The new sampler utilizes a syringe-like titanium sampling bottle with regulated filling rate to ...

Shi-Jun Wu; Can-Jun Yang; Chen-Tung Arthur Chen

286

Mapping of hydrothermally altered rocks by the EO-1 Hyperion sensor, Northern Danakil Depression, Eritrea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An EO-1 Hyperion scene was used to identify and map hydrothermally altered rocks and a Precambrian metamorphic sequence at and around the Alid volcanic dome, at the northern Danakil Depression, Eritrea. Mapping was coupled with laboratory analyses, including ...

Ronen Gersman; Eyal Ben-Dor; Michael Beyth; Dov Avigad; Michael Abraha; Alem Kibreab

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

A Handheld Sampler for Collecting Organic Samples from Shallow Hydrothermal Vents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study describes a new handheld sampler, specially designed to be deployed by scuba divers, to collect fluid samples from shallow hydrothermal vents. The new sampler utilizes a syringe-like titanium sampling bottle with a regulated filling ...

Shi-Jun Wu; Can-Jun Yang; Chen-Tung Arthur Chen

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Laboratory and field-based investigations of subsurface geochemical processes in seafloor hydrothermal systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents the results of four discrete investigations into processes governing the organic and inorganic chemical composition of seafloor hydrothermal fluids in a variety of geologic settings. Though Chapters 2 ...

Reeves, Eoghan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Seismic Evidence For A Hydrothermal Layer Above The Solid Roof Of The Axial  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evidence For A Hydrothermal Layer Above The Solid Roof Of The Axial Evidence For A Hydrothermal Layer Above The Solid Roof Of The Axial Magma Chamber At The Southern East Pacific Rise Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Seismic Evidence For A Hydrothermal Layer Above The Solid Roof Of The Axial Magma Chamber At The Southern East Pacific Rise Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: A full-waveform inversion of two-ship, wide-aperture, seismic reflection data from a ridge-crest seismic line at the southern East Pacific Rise indicates that the axial magma chamber here is about 50 m thick, is embedded within a solid roof, and has a solid floor. The 50-60-m-thick roof is overlain by a 150-200-m-thick low-velocity zone that may correspond to a fracture zone that hosts the hydrothermal circulation,

290

Methods and technologies for high-throughput and high-content small animal screening  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-throughput and high-content screening (HTS and HCS) of whole animals requires their immobilization for high-resolution imaging and manipulation. Here we present methods to enable HTS and HCS of the nematode Caenorhabditis ...

Rohde, Christopher, 1979-

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

The Materials genome : rapid materials screening for renewable energy using high-throughput density functional theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis relates to the emerging field of high-throughput density functional theory (DFT) computation for materials design and optimization. Although highthroughput DFT is a promising new method for materials discovery, ...

Jain, Anubhav, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

First principles high throughput screening of oxynitrides for water-splitting photocatalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we present a first principles high throughput screening system to search for new water-splitting photocatalysts. We use the approach to screen through nitrides and oxynitrides. Most of the known photocatalytic ...

Wu, Yabi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Evaluation of the National Throughput Benefits of the Civil Tilt Rotor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the capacity and throughput effects of implementing the Civil Tiltrotor Aircraft on a national scale. The CTR has the unique operating characteristic of being able to take off and land like a rotorcraft (VTOL capability) but cruises ...

Johnson Jesse; Stouffer Virginia; Long Dou; Gribko Joana

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Cell bioprinting as a potential high-throughput method for fabricating cell-based biosensors (CBBs)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cell-based biosensors (CBBs) are becoming an important tool for biosecurity applications and rapid diagnostics. For current CBBs technology, cell immobilization and high throughput fabrication are the main challenges. To ...

Xu, F.

295

Throughput Optimal Scheduling in the Presence of Heavy-Tailed Traffic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the tail behavior of the steady-state queue occupancies under throughput optimal scheduling in the presence of heavy-tailed traffic. We consider a system consisting of two parallel queues, served by a single ...

Jagannathan, Krishna Prasanna

296

An instrument for high-throughput measurements of fiber mechanical properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, an instrument is designed and constructed for the purpose of measuring the mechanical properties of single fibers. The instrument is intended to provide high throughput measurement of single fiber geometric ...

Kristofek, Grant William, 1980-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Surface-discharging hydrothermal systems at Yucca Mountain: Examining the evidence  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper discusses exposures of altered rock that have been thought to form by recent discharge of water from depth. They were examined to address a concern that hydrothermal processes could compromise the isolation capability of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Suspected hot-spring and hydrothermal-vent deposits are more likely the products of infiltration of meteoric water into newly deposited and still-hot pyroclastic flows >12 Myr ago.

Levy, S.S.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Rare Earth Oxide Fluoride Nanoparticles And Hydrothermal Method For Forming Nanoparticles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles of a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine has been discovered. Nanoparticles comprising a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine are also described. These nanoparticles can exhibit excellent refractory properties as well as remarkable stability in hydrothermal conditions. The nanoparticles can exhibit excellent properties for numerous applications including fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites, catalyst supports, and corrosion resistant coatings for high-temperature aqueous solutions.

Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA); Hoffmann, Markus M. (Richland, WA)

2003-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

299

DotDFS: A Grid-based high-throughput file transfer system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DotGrid platform is a Grid infrastructure integrated with a set of open and standard protocols recently implemented on the top of Microsoft .NET in Windows and MONO .NET in UNIX/Linux. DotGrid infrastructure along with its proposed protocols provides ... Keywords: Concurrent systems, Data grids, Event-driven architecture, File transfer protocols, Grid computing, Grid security, High throughput file transfer, Modeling parallel TCP throughput

Alireza Poshtkohi; M. B. Ghaznavi-Ghoushchi

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

EFFECT OF ANATOMICAL FRACTIONATION ON THE ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF ACID AND ALKALINE PRETREATED CORN STOVER  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to concerns with biomass collection systems and soil sustainability there are opportunities to investigate the optimal plant fractions to collect for conversion. An ideal feedstock would require low severity pretreatment to release a maximum amount of sugar during enzymatic hydrolysis. Corn stover fractions were separated by hand and analyzed for glucan, xylan, acid soluble lignin, acid insoluble lignin, and ash composition. The stover fractions were also pretreated with either 0, 0.4, or 0.8% NaOH for 2 hours at room temperature, washed, autoclaved and saccharified. In addition, acid pretreated samples underwent simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to ethanol. In general, the two pretreatments produced similar trends with cobs, husks, and leaves responding best to the pretreatments, the tops of stalks responding slightly less, and the bottom of the stalks responding the least. For example, corn husks pretreated with 0.8% NaOH released over 90% (standard error of 3.8%) of the available glucan, while only 45% (standard error of 1.1%) of the glucan was produced from identically treated stalk bottoms. Estimates of the theoretical ethanol yield using acid pretreatment followed by SSF were 65% (standard error of 15.9%) for husks and 29% (standard error of 1.8%) for stalk bottoms. This suggests that integration of biomass collection systems to remove sustainable feedstocks could be integrated with the processes within a biorefinery to minimize overall ethanol production costs.

K. B. Duguid; M. D. Montross; C. W. Radtke; C. L. Crofcheck; L. M. Wendt; S. A. Shearer

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Preservation of iron(II) by carbon-rich matrices in a hydrothermal plume  

SciTech Connect

Hydrothermal venting associated with mid-ocean ridge volcanism is globally widespread. This venting is responsible for a dissolved iron flux to the ocean that is approximately equal to that associated with continental riverine runoff. For hydrothermal fluxes, it has long been assumed that most of the iron entering the oceans is precipitated in inorganic forms. However, the possibility of globally significant fluxes of iron escaping these mass precipitation events and entering open-ocean cycles is now being debated, and two recent studies suggest that dissolved organic ligands might influence the fate of hydrothermally vented metals. Here we present spectromicroscopic measurements of iron and carbon in hydrothermal plume particles at the East Pacific Rise mid-ocean ridge. We show that organic carbon-rich matrices, containing evenly dispersed iron(II)-rich materials, are pervasive in hydrothermal plume particles. The absence of discrete iron(II) particles suggests that the carbon and iron associate through sorption or complexation. We suggest that these carbon matrices stabilize iron(II) released from hydrothermal vents in the region, preventing its oxidation and/or precipitation as insoluble minerals. Our findings have implications for deep-sea biogeochemical cycling of iron, a widely recognized limiting nutrient in the oceans.

Toner, Brandy M.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Manganini, Steven J.; Santelli, Cara M.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Moffett, James W.; Rouxel, Olivier; German, Christopher R.; Edwards, Katrina J.

2008-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

302

Possible Origin of Improved High Temperature Performance of Hydrothermally Aged Cu/Beta Zeolite Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The hydrothermal stability of Cu/beta NH3 SCR catalysts are explored here. In particular, this paper focuses on the interesting ability of this catalyst to maintain and even enhance high-temperature performance for the "standard" SCR reaction after modest (900 C, 2 hours) hydrothermal aging. Characterization of the fresh and aged catalysts was performed with an aim to identify possible catalytic phases responsible for the enhanced high temperature performance. XRD, TEM and 27Al NMR all showed that the hydrothermally aging conditions used here resulted in almost complete loss of the beta zeolite structure between 1 and 2 hours aging. While the 27Al NMR spectra of 2 and 10 hour hydrothermally-aged catalysts showed significant loss of a peak associated with tetrahedrally-coordinated Al species, no new spectral features were evident. Two model catalysts, suggested by these characterization data as possible mimics of the catalytic phase formed during hydrothermal aging of Cu/beta, were prepared and tested for their performance in the "standard" SCR and NH3 oxidation reactions. The similarity in their reactivity compared to the 2 hour hydrothermally-aged Cu/beta catalyst suggests possible routes for preparing multi-component catalysts that may have wider temperature windows for optimum performance than those provided by current Cu/zeolite catalysts.

Peden, Charles HF; Kwak, Ja Hun; Burton, Sarah D.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Kim, Do Heui; Lee, Jong H.; Jen, H. W.; Cavattaio, Giovanni; Cheng, Yisun; Lambert, Christine

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

303

Process chemistry for the pretreatment of Hanford tank wastes  

SciTech Connect

Current guidelines for disposing radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site call for the vitrification of high-level waste in borosilicate glass and disposal of the glass canisters in a deep geologic repository. Low-level waste is to be cast in grout and disposed of on site in shallow burial vaults. Because of the high cost of vitrification and geologic disposal, methods are currently being developed to minimize the volume of high-level waste requiring disposal. Two approaches are being considered for pretreating radioactive tank sludges: (1) leaching of selected components from the sludge and (2) acid dissolution of the sludge followed by separation of key radionuclides. The leaching approach offers the advantage of simplicity, but the acid dissolution/radionuclide extraction approach has the potential to produce the least number of glass canisters. Four critical components (Cr, P, S, and Al) were leached from an actual Hanford tank waste-Plutonium Finishing Plant sludge. The Al, P, and S were removed from the sludge by digestion of the sludge with 0.1 M NaOH at 100{degrees}C. The Cr was leached by treating the sludge with alkaline KMnO{sub 4} at 100{degrees}C. Removing these four components from the sludge will dramatically lower the number of glass canisters required to dispose of this waste. The transuranic extraction (TRUEX) solvent extraction process has been demonstrated at a bench scale using an actual Hanford tank waste. The process, which involves extraction of the transuranic elements with octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO), separated 99.9% of the transuranic elements from the bulk components of the waste. Several problems associated with the TRUEX processing of this waste have been addressed and solved.

Lumetta, G.J.; Swanson, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Barker, S.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Changes in lignocellulosic supramolecular and ultrastructure during dilute acid pretreatment of Populus and switchgrass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

lignocellulosic lignocellulosic supramolecular and ultrastructure during dilute acid pretreatment of Populus and switchgrass Marcus Foston, Art J. Ragauskas* BioEnergy Science Center, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, 500 10th St., Atlanta, GA 30332, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 23 March 2009 Received in revised form 17 July 2010 Accepted 23 July 2010 Available online xxx Keywords: Dilute acid pretreatment Cellulose Supramolecular structure Populus Switchgrass a b s t r a c t Dilute acid pretreatment (DAP) is commonly employed prior to enzymatic deconstruction of cellulose to increase overall sugar and subsequent ethanol yields from downstream bioconversion processes. Typically optimization of pretreatment is evaluated by deter- mining hemicellulose removal, subsequent reactivity towards

305

Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity. Quarterly technical progress report, June--August 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work completed during the fourth quarter of a three year project to study the effects of mild chemical pretreatment on coal dissolution reactivity during low severity liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing. The overall objective of this research is to elucidate changes in the chemical and physical structure of coal by pretreating with methanol or other simple organic solvent and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid and measure the influence of these changes on coal dissolution reactivity. This work is part of a larger effort to develop a new coal liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing scheme consisting of three main process steps: (1) mile pretreatment of the feed coal to enhance dissolution reactivity and dry the coal, (2) low severity thermal dissolution of the pretreated coal to obtain a very reactive coal-derived residual material amenable to upgrading, and (3) catalytic upgrading of the residual products to distillate liquids.

Miller, R.L.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

306

Ultrastructure and Sugar Yields from Three Different Pretreatments of Corn Stover  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the Joint BioEnergy Institute ( JBEI) are collaborating to understand how biomass pretreatments with much different deconstruction patterns impact the chemical and ultrastructural features of biomass and its biological conversion to sugars. Dilute sulfuric acid (DA), ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), and ionic liquid (IL) pretreatments are applied to the same source of corn stover by the BESC, GLBRC, and JBEI, respectively. Common sources of cellulase and other accessory enzymes are then employed to release sugars from the solids left after each pretreatment. The GLBRC applies material balances to each overall pretreatment-hydrolysis system to determine the fates of key biomass constituents and also optimizes enzyme formulations for each substrate using their microplate saccharification system. The BESC

Genomic Science Awardee; Usda-doe Plant; Feedstock Genomics; Charles E. Wyman; Xiadi Gao; Leonardo Da; Costa Sousa; Shishir P. S. Chundawat; Bruce E. Dale

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Contact zones and hydrothermal systems as analogues to repository conditions  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive waste isolation efforts in the US are currently focused on examining basalt, tuff, salt, and crystalline rock as candidate rock types to encompass waste repositories. As analogues to near-field conditions, the distributions of radio- and trace-elements have been examined across contacts between these rocks and dikes and stocks that have intruded them. The intensive study of the Stripa quartz monzonite has also offered the opportunity to observe the distribution of uranium and its daughters in groundwater and its relationship to U associated with fracture-filling and alteration minerals. Investigations of intrusive contact zones to date have included (1) a tertiary stock into Precambrian gneiss, (2) a stock into ash flow tuff, (3) a rhyodacite dike into Columbia River basalt, and (4) a kimberlite dike into salt. With respect to temperature and pressure, these contact zones may be considered "worst-case scenario" analogues. Results indicate that there has been no appreciable migration of radioelements from the more radioactive intrusives into the less radioactive country rocks, either in response to the intrusions or in the fracture-controlled hydrological systems that developed following emplacement. In many cases, the radioelements are locked up in accessory minerals, suggesting that artificial analogues to these would make ideal waste forms. Emphasis should now shift to examination of active hydrothermal systems, studying the distribution of key elements in water, fractures, and alteration minerals under pressure and temperature conditions most similar to those expected in the near-field environment of a repository. 14 refs.

Wollenberg, H.A.; Flexser, S.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Comparative Sugar Recovery and Fermentation Data Following Pretreatment of Poplar Wood by Leading Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Through a Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation among Auburn University, Dartmouth College, Michigan State University, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Purdue University, Texas A&M University, the University of British Columbia, and the University of California at Riverside, leading pretreatment technologies based on ammonia fiber expansion, aqueous ammonia recycle, dilute sulfuric acid, lime, neutral pH, and sulfur dioxide were applied to a single source of poplar wood, and the remaining solids from each technology were hydrolyzed to sugars using the same enzymes. Identical analytical methods and a consistent material balance methodology were employed to develop comparative performance data for each combination of pretreatment and enzymes. Overall, compared to data with corn stover employed previously, the results showed that poplar was more recalcitrant to conversion to sugars and that sugar yields from the combined operations of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis varied more among pretreatments. However, application of more severe pretreatment conditions gave good yields from sulfur dioxide and lime, and a recombinant yeast strain fermented the mixed stream of glucose and xylose sugars released by enzymatic hydrolysis of water washed solids from all pretreatments to ethanol with similarly high yields. An Agricultural and Industrial Advisory Board followed progress and helped steer the research to meet scientific and commercial needs.

Wyman, C. E.; Dale, B. E.; Elander, R. T.; Holtzapple, M.; Ladisch, M. R.; Lee, Y. Y.; Mitchinson, C.; Saddler, J. N.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Are there significant hydrothermal resources in the US part of the Cascade Range?  

SciTech Connect

The Cascade Range is a geothermal dichotomy. On the one hand, it is an active volcanic arc above a subducting plate and is demonstrably an area of high heat flow. On the other hand, the distribution of hydrothermal manifestations compared to other volcanic arcs is sparse, and the hydrothermal outflow calculated from stream chemistry is low. Several large estimates of undiscovered geothermal resources in the U.S. part of the Cascade Range prepared in the 1970s and early 1980s were based fundamentally on two models of the upper crust. One model assumed that large, partly molten, intrusive bodies exist in the upper 10 km beneath major volcanic centers and serve as the thermal engines driving overlying hydrothermal systems. The other model interpreted the coincident heat-flow and gravity gradients west of the Cascade crest in central Oregon to indicate a partly molten heat source at 10 {+-} 2 km depth extending {approx}30 km west from the axis of the range. Investigations of the past ten years have called both models into question. Large long-lived high-temperature hydrothermal systems at depths <3 km in the U.S. part of the Cascade Range appear to be restricted to silicic domefields at the Lassen volcanic center, Medicine Lake volcano, Newberry volcano, and possibly the Three Sisters. Federal land-use restrictions further reduce this list to Medicine Lake and Newberry. Dominantly andesitic stratocones appear to support only small transitory hydrothermal systems related to small intrusive bodies along the volcanic conduits. The only young caldera, at Crater Lake, supports only low- to intermediate-temperature hydrothermal systems. Most of the Cascade Range comprises basaltic andesites and has little likelihood for high-level silicic intrusions and virtually no potential for resultant large high-temperature hydrothermal systems. Undiscovered hydrothermal resources of the Cascade Range of the United States are substantially lower than previous estimates. The range does have potential for intermediate-temperature hot dry rock and localized low- to intermediate-temperature hydrothermal systems.

Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Guffanti, Marianne

1995-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

310

Fundamental Chemistry And Thermodynamics Of Hydrothermal Oxidation Processes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrothermal oxidation (HTO) is a promising technology for the treatment of aqueous-fluid hazardous and mixed waste streams. Waste streams identified as likely candidates for treatment by this technology are primarily aqueous fluids containing hazardous organic compounds, and often containing inorganic compounds including radioisotopes (mixed wastes). These wastes are difficult and expensive to treat by conventional technologies (e.g. incineration) due to their high water content; in addition, incineration can lead to concerns related to stack releases. An especially attractive potential advantage of HTO over conventional treatment methods is the total containment of all reaction products within the overall system. The potential application of hydrothermal oxidation (HTO) technology for the treatment of DOE hazardous or mixed wastes has been uncertain due to concerns about safe and efficient operation of the technology. In principle, aqueous DOE wastes, including hazardous an d mixed waste, can be treated with this technology. Oxidation reactions are carried out in the aqueous phase at high temperatures ({approx}600 C), effectively converting organic waste constituents to nonhazardous materials (e.g., CO2). Inorganic materials which become insoluble in supercritical water may precipitate as scales adhering to components of the reactor, limiting reactor availability and necessitating frequent cleaning of the system. Also, most hazardous organic compounds contain heteroatoms (other than carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen). These heteroatoms, including halides (F, Cl, Br, I), sulfur, phosphorus, and some nitrogen groups, form strong mineral acids on oxidation of the organic compounds, resulting in a solution having low pH and high oxidation potential. This combination, in conjunction with the high temperatures and high fluid densities attained in both the heating and cooling regions of an HTO reactor, can lead to corrosion of structural materials (usually metal s) anticipated for use in HTO reactor construction. Methods have been suggested for mitigating the problems arising from the production of mineral acids and insoluble solids in HTO processes (Barnes et al., 1993). Previous work in this Laboratory centered on the problems arising from the presence of corrosive or insoluble inorganic compounds in HTO fluids (Simonson et al., 1993, 1994, 1995). However, significant gaps in our knowledge of process chemistry remained at the initiation of this project. It was not possible to determine accurately the properties of coexisting fluid phases; the solubilities of radioactive components of mixed wastes were unknown at high temperatures; and molecular level understanding of interparticle interactions was needed for reliable extrapolation of phenomenological equations for solution behavior beyond the range of experimental results. The present project was undertaken to address these deficiencies. The project was undertaken to provide fundamental information needed to support deployment decisions related to HTO technology, and no innovations in the technology per se were anticipated. Rather, the innovations of this project involved applying new or existing experimental and modeling approaches to studies of aqueous inorganic reactions and properties under the rigorous anticipated HTO operating conditions. This work was made possible in part through the support of researchers at ORNL and the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy. This support has allowed significant, unique experimental and 2 computational resources to be developed for studies of aqueous solution chemistry at high temperatures and pressures.

Simonson, J.M.

2001-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

311

The Hydrothermal Chemistry of Gold, Arsenic, Antimony, Mercury and Silver  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A comprehensive thermodynamic database based on the Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equation of state was developed for metal complexes in hydrothermal systems. Because this equation of state has been shown to accurately predict standard partial molal thermodynamic properties of aqueous species at elevated temperatures and pressures, this study provides the necessary foundation for future exploration into transport and depositional processes in polymetallic ore deposits. The HKF equation of state parameters for gold, arsenic, antimony, mercury, and silver sulfide and hydroxide complexes were derived from experimental equilibrium constants using nonlinear regression calculations. In order to ensure that the resulting parameters were internally consistent, those experiments utilizing incompatible thermodynamic data were re-speciated prior to regression. Because new experimental studies were used to revise the HKF parameters for H2S0 and HS-1, those metal complexes for which HKF parameters had been previously derived were also updated. It was found that predicted thermodynamic properties of metal complexes are consistent with linear correlations between standard partial molal thermodynamic properties. This result allowed assessment of several complexes for which experimental data necessary to perform regression calculations was limited. Oxygen fugacity-temperature diagrams were calculated to illustrate how thermodynamic data improves our understanding of depositional processes. Predicted thermodynamic properties were used to investigate metal transport in Carlin-type gold deposits. Assuming a linear relationship between temperature and pressure, metals are predicted to predominantly be transported as sulfide complexes at a total aqueous sulfur concentration of 0.05 m. Also, the presence of arsenic and antimony mineral phases in the deposits are shown to restrict mineralization within a limited range of chemical conditions. Finally, at a lesser aqueous sulfur concentration of 0.01 m, host rock sulfidation can explain the origin of arsenic and antimony minerals within the paragenetic sequence.

Bessinger, Brad; Apps, John A.

2003-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

312

Workshop on magma/hydrothermal drilling and instrumentation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The discussions, conclusions, and recommendations of the Magma/Hydrothermal Drilling and Instrumentation Workshop, Albuquerque, NM, May 31--June 2, 1978 are summarized. Three working groups were organized as follows: Drilling Location and Environment, Drilling and Completion Technology, and Logging and Instrumentation Technology. The first group discussed potential drilling sites and the environment that could be expected in drilling to magma depth at each site. Sites suggested for early detailed evaluation as candidate drilling sites were The Geysers-Clear Lake, CA, Kilauea, HI, Long Valley-Mono Craters, CA, and Yellowstone, WY. Magma at these sites is expected to range from 3 to 10 km deep with temperatures of 800 to 1100{sup 0}C. Detailed discussions of the characteristics of each site are given. In addition, a list of geophysical measurements desired for the hole is presented. The Drilling and Completion Group discussed limitations on current rotary drilling technology as a function of depth and temperature. The group concluded that present drilling systems can be routinely used to temperatures of 200{sup 0}C and depths to 10 km; drilling to 350{sup 0}C can be accomplished with modifications of present techniques, drilling at temperatures from 350{sup 0}C to 1100{sup 0}C will require the development of new drilling techniques. A summary of the limiting factors in drilling systems is presented, and recommendations for a program directed at correcting these limitations is described. The third group discussed requirements for instrumentation and established priorities for the development of the required instruments. Of highest priority for development were high resolution temperature tools, sampling techniques (core, formation fluids), chemical probes, and communications techniques. A description of instrumentation requirements for the postulated hole is given, and the tasks necessary to develop the required devices are delineated.

Varnado, S.G.; Colp, J.L. (eds.)

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process- This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals in the subsequent liquefaction. This report describes the recent progress of our work. Substantial progress has been made in the spectroscopic characterization of structure and pretreatment-liquefaction reactions of a Montana subbituminous Coal (DECS-9), and thermochemical analysis of three mw and reacted bituminous coals. Temperature programmed liquefaction has been performed on three low-rank coals both in the presence and absence of dispersed molybdenum sulfide catalyst. We also performed a detailed study of the effects of mild thermal pretreatment -- drying in air and in vacuum -- on thermal and catalytic liquefaction of a Wyodak subbituminous coal. Important information on structure and structure transformation during thermal pretreatment and liquefaction reactions of low-rank coals has been derived by applying solid-state CPMAS [sup 13]C NMR and flash pyrolysis-GC-MS (Py-GC-MS) for characterization of the macromolecular network of a Montana subbituminous coal and its residues from temperature-programmed and nonprogrammed liquefaction (TPL and N-PL) at final temperatures ranging from 300 to 425[degree]C in H-donor and non-donor solvents. The results revealed that this coal contains significant quantities of oxygen-bearing structures, corresponding to about 18 O-bound C per 100 C atoms and one O-bound C per every 5 to 6 aromatic C.

Song, C.; Saini, A.K.; Huang, L.; Wenzel, K.; Hou, L.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Daily combined economic emission scheduling of hydrothermal systems with cascaded reservoirs using self organizing hierarchical particle swarm optimization technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Daily optimum economic emission scheduling of hydrothermal systems is an important task in the operation of power systems. Many heuristic techniques such as differential evolution, and particle swarm optimization have been applied to solve this problem ... Keywords: Cascaded reservoirs, Combined economic emission scheduling (CEES), Hydrothermal systems, Self-organizing particle swarm optimization with time-varying acceleration coefficients (SOHPSO_TVAC)

K. K. Mandal; N. Chakraborty

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Low temperature hydrothermally synthesized nanocrystalline orthorhombic LiMnO2 cathode material for lithium-ion cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanocrystalline orthorhombic LiMnO2 particles with an average particle size of about 35 nm in diameter were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal process at 160-180 C from trimanganese tetroxide (Mn3O4) prepared ... Keywords: hydrothermal process, lithium ion battery, nanocrystalline, orthorhombic LiMnO2, solvothermal process

Mengqiang Wu; Ai Chen; Rongqing Xu; Yue Li

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Nitrogen geochemistry as a tracer of fluid flow in a hydrothermal vent complex in the Karoo Basin, South Africa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nitrogen geochemistry as a tracer of fluid flow in a hydrothermal vent complex in the Karoo Basin and hydrothermal vent complexes (HVC) in the Karoo Basin in South Africa. The HVC formed during phreatic eruptions from the lower stratigraphic units of the Karoo Basin shows that the vitrinite reflectance and d15 N

Svensen, Henrik

317

Abstract--A stochastic dynamic programming hydrothermal dispatch model to simulate a bid-based market is  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on dynamic programming that optimizes and validates the bid prices strategies for each power plant in a hydro-thermal, and simulating them as if they were a single power plant. In a hydro-thermal system as the one simulated several plants. Emphasis is given to hydro reservoir modeling and to the assessment of their market power

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

318

A Sr-Isotopic Comparison Between Thermal Waters, Rocks, And Hydrothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » A Sr-Isotopic Comparison Between Thermal Waters, Rocks, And Hydrothermal Calcites, Long Valley Caldera, California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: A Sr-Isotopic Comparison Between Thermal Waters, Rocks, And Hydrothermal Calcites, Long Valley Caldera, California Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The 87Sr/86Sr values of thermal waters and hydrothermal calcites of the Long Valley caldera geothermal system are more radiogenic than those of young intracaldera volcanic rocks. Five thermal waters display 87Sr/86Sr

319

Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System, Roosevelt Hot  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System, Roosevelt Hot Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System, Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal Area, Utah Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System, Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal Area, Utah Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Chemical interaction of thermal fluids with reservoir rock in the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Utah, has resulted in the development of characteristic trace-element dispersion patterns. Multielement analyses of surface rock samples, soil samples and drill cuttings from deep exploration wells provide a three-dimensional perspective of chemical redistribution within this structurally-controlled hot-water geothermal system. Five distinctive elemental suites of chemical enrichment are

320

Sources Of Chloride In Hydrothermal Fluids From The Valles Caldera, New  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sources Of Chloride In Hydrothermal Fluids From The Valles Caldera, New Sources Of Chloride In Hydrothermal Fluids From The Valles Caldera, New Mexico- A 36Cl Study Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Sources Of Chloride In Hydrothermal Fluids From The Valles Caldera, New Mexico- A 36Cl Study Abstract The Valles caldera in New Mexico hosts a high-temperature geothermal system, which is manifested in a number of hot springs discharging in and around the caldera. In order to determine the fluid pathways and the origin of chloride in this system, we measured 36Cl/Cl ratios in waters from high-temperature drill holes and from surface springs in this region. The waters fall into two general categories: recent meteoric water samples with low Cl- concentrations (< 10 mg/L) and relatively high 36Cl/Cl ratios

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321

A comparison of hydrothermal reservoirs of the Western United States. Topical Report 3  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents a portion of the results from a one-year feasibility study sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute to assess the feasibility of constructing a 25 to 50 MWe geothermal power plant using low salinity hydrothermal fluids as the energy source. It contains the results of a comparative study of sixteen hydrothermal reservoirs in the US. The reservoirs were selected for comparison on the basis of available data, development potential, and representativeness of known hydrothermal reservoirs in the US. Six reservoir and fluid criteria were considered the most important in determining the development and power conversion potential: depth and lithology, reservoir temperature, tested flow rate per well, fluid chemistry, magnitude of the reserve and reinjection potential. These criteria were evaluated for each of the selected reservoirs.

Meidav, H. Tsvi; Sanyal, Subir

1976-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Conceptual geologic model and native state model of the Roosevelt Hot Springs hydrothermal system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A conceptual geologic model of the Roosevelt Hot Springs hydrothermal system was developed by a review of the available literature. The hydrothermal system consists of a meteoric recharge area in the Mineral Mountains, fluid circulation paths to depth, a heat source, and an outflow plume. A conceptual model based on the available data can be simulated in the native state using parameters that fall within observed ranges. The model temperatures, recharge rates, and fluid travel times are sensitive to the permeability in the Mineral Mountains. The simulation results suggests the presence of a magma chamber at depth as the likely heat source. A two-dimensional study of the hydrothermal system can be used to establish boundary conditions for further study of the geothermal reservoir.

Faulder, D.D.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Conceptual geologic model and native state model of the Roosevelt Hot Springs hydrothermal system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A conceptual geologic model of the Roosevelt Hot Springs hydrothermal system was developed by a review of the available literature. The hydrothermal system consists of a meteoric recharge area in the Mineral Mountains, fluid circulation paths to depth, a heat source, and an outflow plume. A conceptual model based on the available data can be simulated in the native state using parameters that fall within observed ranges. The model temperatures, recharge rates, and fluid travel times are sensitive to the permeability in the Mineral Mountains. The simulation results suggests the presence of a magma chamber at depth as the likely heat source. A two-dimensional study of the hydrothermal system can be used to establish boundary conditions for further study of the geothermal reservoir. 33 refs., 9 figs.

Faulder, D.D.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

The potential for photosynthesis in hydrothermal vents: a new avenue for life in the Universe?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We perform a quantitative assessment for the potential for photosynthesis in hydrothermal vents in the deep ocean. The photosynthetically active radiation in this case is from geothermal origin: the infrared thermal radiation emitted by hot water, at temperatures ranging from 473 up to 673 K. We find that at these temperatures the photosynthetic potential is rather low in these ecosystems for most known species. However, species which a very high efficiency in the use of light and which could use infrared photons till 1300nm, could achieve good rates of photosynthesis in hydrothermal vents. These organisms might also thrive in deep hydrothermal vents in other planetary bodies, such as one of the more astrobiologically promising Jupiter satellites: Europa.

Perez, Noel; Martin, Osmel; Leiva-Mora, Michel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Benefit-cost analysis of DOE's Current Federal Program to increase hydrothermal resource utilization. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The impact of DOE's Current Federal Program on the commercialization of hydrothermal resources between 1980 and 2000 is analyzed. The hydrothermal resources of the United States and the types of DOE activities used to stimulate the development of these resources for both electric power and direct heat use are described briefly. The No Federal Program and the Current Federal Program are then described in terms of funding levels and the resultant market penetration estimates through 2000. These market penetration estimates are also compared to other geothermal utilization forecasts. The direct benefits of the Current Federal Program are next presented for electric power and direct heat use applications. An analysis of the external impacts associated with the additional hydrothermal resource development resulting from the Current Federal Program is also provided. Included are environmental effects, national security/balance-of-payments improvements, socioeconomic impacts and materials requirements. A summary of the analysis integrating the direct benefits, external impacts and DOE program costs concludes the report.

Not Available

1981-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

326

Lithology and hydrothermal alteration determination from well logs for the Cerro Prieto Wells, Mexico  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to examine the characteristics of geophysical well logs against the sand-shale series of the sedimentary column of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Mexico. The study shows that the changes in mineralogy of the rocks because of hydrothermal alteration are not easily detectable on the existing logs. However, if the behavior of clay minerals alone is monitored, the onset of the hydrothermally altered zones may be estimated from the well logs. The effective concentration of clay-exchange cations, Q/sub v/, is computed using the data available from conventional well logs. Zones indicating the disappearance of low-temperature clays are considered hydrothermally altered formations with moderate to high-permeability and temperature, and suitable for completion purposes.

Ershaghi, I.; Ghaemian, S.; Abdassah, D.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Two-Stage Fungal Pre-Treatment for Improved Biogas Production from Sisal Leaf Decortication Residues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Sisal leaf decortications residue (SLDR) is amongst the most abundant agroindustrial residues in Tanzania and is a good feedstock for biogas production. Pretreatment of the residue prior to its anaerobic digestion (AD) was investigated using a twostage pre-treatment approach with two fungal strains, CCHT-1 and Trichoderma reesei in succession in anaerobic batch bioreactors. AD of the pre-treated residue with CCTH-1 at 10 % (wet weight inoculum/SLDR) inoculum concentration incubated for four days followed by incubation for eight days with 25 % (wet weight inoculum/SLDR) of T. reesei gave a methane yield of 0.292 0.04 m 3 CH4/kg volatile solids (VS)added. On reversing the pre-treatment succession of the fungal inocula using the same parameters followed by AD, methane yield decreased by about 55%. Generally, an increment in the range of 30101% in methane yield in comparison to the un-treated SLDR was obtained. The results confirmed the potential of CCHT-1 followed by Trichoderma reesei fungi pre-treatment prior to AD to achieve significant improvement in biogas production from SLDR.

Mutemi Muthangya; Anthony Manoni Msh; Amelia Kajumulo Kivaisi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Moessbauer studies of pretreated ultrafine iron oxide catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Moessbauer spectroscopy indicates that a 24 hour-pretreatment in CO at 260{degrees}C and 8 atm. in a tetralin solvent almost completely converts uftrafine iron oxide (about 3 nm) to iron carbide. However, pretreatment in hydrogen under the same conditions resulted in reduction of about 33% of the iron to metallic Fe; the remainder was Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Exposure of the CO pretreated catalyst to a 1:1 HDCO synthesis gas resulted in the gradual reoxidation of the carbides to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. During the first 2 hours of exposure of the H{sub 2} pretreated sample to synthesis gas,.the metallic Fe was converted to iron carbides. Further exposure of the H{sub 2} pretreatment sample to synthesis gas did not result in a composition change of the catalyst. Therefore, it is concluded that iron carbides with different oxidation characteristics were formed in these two cases.

Chenshi Huang; Davis, B.H. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research); Rao, K.R.P.M.; Huffman, G.P.; Huggins, F.E. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Inst. for Mining and Minerals Research)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Effect of pelleting on the recalcitrance and bioconversion of dilute-acid pretreated corn stover  

SciTech Connect

Background: Knowledge regarding the performance of densified biomass in biochemical processes is limited. The effects of densification on biochemical conversion are explored here. Methods: Pelleted corn stover samples were generated from bales that were milled to 6.35 mm. Low-solids acid pretreatment and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation were performed to evaluate pretreatment efficacy and ethanol yields achieved for pelleted and ground stover (6.35 mm and 2 mm) samples. Both pelleted and 6.35-mm ground stover were evaluated using a ZipperClave reactor under high-solids, process-relevant conditions for multiple pretreatment severities (Ro), followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the washed, pretreated solids. Results: Monomeric xylose yields were significantly higher for pellets (approximately 60%) than for ground formats (approximately 38%). Pellets achieved approximately 84% of theoretical ethanol yield (TEY); ground stover formats had similar profiles, reaching approximately 68% TEY. Pelleting corn stover was not detrimental to pretreatment efficacy for both low- and high-solids conditions, and even enhanced ethanol yields.

Allison E Ray; Amber Hoover; Gary Gresham

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Case studies of low-to-moderate temperature hydrothermal energy development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Six development projects are examined that use low- (less than 90/sup 0/C (194/sup 0/F)) to-moderate (90 to 150/sup 0/C (194 to 302/sup 0/F)) temperature geothermal resources. These projects were selected from 22 government cost-shared projects to illustrate the many facets of hydrothermal development. The case studies describe the history of this development, its exploratory methods, and its resource definition, as well as address legal, environmental, and institutional constraints. A critique of procedures used in the development is also provided and recommendations for similar future hydrothermal projects are suggested.

Not Available

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Evaluation of hydrothermal resources of North Dakota. Phase I, Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

This evaluation is based on an analysis of existing data on file with the North Dakota Geological Survey (NDGS) and other state and federal agencies. The principle source of data used was the oil and gas well files maintained by the NDGS. A computer library was created containing all the necessary oil and gas well data in the North Dakota Geological Survey oil and gas well files. Stratigraphic data, bottomhole-temperature data, and chemical data are presented in map form to show the geothermal gradient, temperature, and depth of potential hydrothermal aquifers and the chemical characteristics of potential hydrothermal aquifers.

Harris, K.L.; Winczewski, L.M.; Umphrey, H.R.; Anderson, S.B.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Abstract--Design aspects of a minimally invasive high-throughput automation system for radiation biodosimetry are  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for radiation exposure. Only those showing both internal and external contamination were examined usingAbstract--Design aspects of a minimally invasive high- throughput automation system for radiation was supported by grant number U19 AI067773, the Center for High-Throughput Minimally Invasive Radiation

333

PIP: a connection-oriented, multi-hop, multi-channel TDMA-based MAC for high throughput bulk transfer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we consider the goal of achieving high throughput in a wireless sensor network. Our work is set in the context of those wireless sensor network applications which collect and transfer bulk data. We present PIP (Packets in Pipe), a MAC ... Keywords: MAC, TDMA, bulk data transfer, pipelining, throughput optimization, wireless sensor network applications

Bhaskaran Raman; Kameswari Chebrolu; Sagar Bijwe; Vijay Gabale

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Conversion for Avicel and AFEX pretreated corn stover by Clostridium thermocellum and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation: Insights into microbial conversion of pretreated cellulosic biomass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for for Avicel and AFEX pretreated corn stover by Clostridium thermocellum and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation: Insights into microbial conversion of pretreated cellulosic biomass Xiongjun Shao a , Mingjie Jin b,c , Anna Guseva a , Chaogang Liu d , Venkatesh Balan b,c , David Hogsett d , Bruce E. Dale b,c , Lee Lynd a,d,⇑ a Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College, 8000 Cummings Hall, Hanover, NH 03755, USA b Biomass Conversion Research Laboratory (BCRL), Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, MBI Building, 3900 Collins Road, Lansing, MI 48910, USA c Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA d Mascoma Corporation, 67 Etna Road, Suite 300, Lebanon, NH 03766, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 8 March 2011 Received in revised form 6 May 2011 Accepted

335

Statement of work for architect-engineer services, initial pretreatment module  

SciTech Connect

This Statement of Work describes the Architect-Engineer services to be provided by Raytheon/BNFL in providing a conceptual design (Contract TGW-SVV-063869) for the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM), Project W-236B, at the Hanford site, Richland, Washington. The IPM Project, a radiochemical process facility, will be designed and constructed for an initial phase of waste pretreatment, which will be for the removal of cesium from supernatant wastes to produce a Low-level waste (LLW) stream to a vitrification facility. The design shall also accommodate side streams of High-Level Waste (HLW) fractions that will be directed to suitable, existing storage tanks where they will be recombined with an additional high-activity waste fraction generated from pretreatment of the tank waste sludges and solids. This combined high-activity waste fraction will be immobilized as glass and disposed in a geological repository.

Sowa, K.B.

1994-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

PROJECT W-551 SUMMARY INFORMATION FOR EARLY LAW INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM SELECTION  

SciTech Connect

This report provides summary data for use by the decision board to assess and select the final technology for project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This project will provide early pretreated low activity waste feed to the Waste Treatment Plant to allow Waste Treatment Plan Low Activity Waste facility operation prior to construction completion of the Pretreatment and High Level Waste facilities. The candidate solids separations technologies are rotary microfiltration and crossflow filtration, and the candidate cesium separation technologies are fractional crystallization, caustic-side solvent extraction, and ion-exchange using spherical resorcinol-fonnaldebyde resin. This document provides a summary of comparative data against prior weighted criteria to support technology selection. Supporting details and background for this summary are documented in the separate report, RPP-RPT-37741.

TEDESCHI AR

2008-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

337

PROJECT W-551 DETERMINATION DATA FOR EARLY LAW INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM SELECTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides the detailed assessment forms and data for selection of the solids separation and cesium separation technology for project W-551, Interim Pretreatment System. This project will provide early pretreated low activity waste feed to the Waste Treatment Plant to allow Waste Treatment Plan Low Activity Waste facility operation prior to construction completion of the Pretreatment and High Level Waste facilities. The candidate solids separations technologies are rotary microfiltration and crossflow filtration, and the candidate cesium separation technologies are fractional crystallization, caustic-side solvent extraction, and ion-exchange using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde resin. This data was used to prepare a cross-cutting technology summary, reported in RPP-RPT-37740.

TEDESCHI AR

2008-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

338

Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstock using aqueous ammonia pretreatment and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF): process development and optimization.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??An integrated bioconversion process, which incorporated soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) pretreatment and two-phase simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (TPSSF), was investigated. The TPSSF process consists (more)

Li, Xuan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Some further investigation on maximum throughput: does network coding really help?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Network coding has been shown to be the solution that allows to reach the theoretical maximum throughput in a capacitated telecommunication network [1]. It has also been shown to be a very appealing and practical alternative to routing-based approaches ...

Eric Gourdin; Yuhui Wang

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

High-Throughput Asynchronous Pipelines for Fine-Grain Dynamic Datapaths  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper introduces several new asynchronous pipeline designs which offer high throughput as well as low latency. The designs target dynamic datapaths, both dualrail as well as single-rail. The new pipelines are latchfree and therefore are particularly well-suited for fine-grain pipelining, i.e., where each pipeline stage is only a single gate deep. The pipelines employ new control structures and protocols aimed at reducing the handshaking delay, the principal impediment to achieving high throughput in asynchronous pipelines. As a test vehicle, a 4-bit FIFO was designed using 0.6 micron technology. The results of careful HSPICE simulations of the FIFO designs are very encouraging. The dualrail designs deliver a throughput of up to 860 million data items per second. This performance represents an improvement by a factor of 2 over a widely-used comparable approach by Williams [16]. The new single-rail designs deliver a throughput of up to 1208 million data items per second.

Montek Singh; Steven M. Nowick

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Throughput and PER estimates harnessing link-layer measurements for indoor 802.11n WLAN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The research work reported in this paper investigates if a Markov chain can model the throughput and packet error rate (PER) performance of off-the-shelf IEEE 802.11n wireless LAN network interface cards (NICs). We draw together uplink -downlink information ... Keywords: 802.11n, Markov, Measurement, WLAN

Bryan Ng; Y. F. Tan; S. W. Tan; S. W. Lee

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Achievable throughput and service delay for imperfect cooperative retransmission MAC protocols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooperative retransmission medium access control protocols may be used in a cellular uplink setting to achieve a higher throughput than, say, slotted Aloha, while retaining the advantages of random channel access. When multiple nodes contend for channel ... Keywords: aloha, cooperative retransmission, medium access control

Steven Weber; Ananth V. Kini; Athina P. Petropulu

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

High-Throughput Compression of FASTQ Data with SeqDB  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Compression has become a critical step in storing next-generation sequencing (NGS) data sets because of both the increasing size and decreasing costs of such data. Recent research into efficiently compressing sequence data has focused largely on improving ... Keywords: Throughput,Arrays,Bandwidth,Libraries,Bioinformatics,Instruction sets,Genomics,FASTQ,Compression,data storage,next-generation sequencing

Mark Howison

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Modeling throughput sampling size for a cloud-hosted data scheduling and optimization service  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As big-data processing and analysis dominates the usage of the Cloud systems, the need for Cloud-hosted data scheduling and optimization services increases. One key component for such a service is to provide available bandwidth and achievable throughput ... Keywords: Distributed applications, Distributed systems, Network protocols, Optimization

Esma Yildirim, Jangyoung Kim, Tevfik Kosar

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

A data throughput prediction and optimization service for widely distributed many-task computing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a network throughput prediction and optimization service for many-task computing in widely distributed environments. This service uses multiple parallel TCP streams to improve the end-to-end ... Keywords: Stork, many-task computing, modeling, optimization, parallel TCP streams, prediction, scheduling

Dengpan Yin; Esma Yildirim; Tevfik Kosar

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Empirical Bayesian analysis of paired high-throughput sequencing data with a beta-binomial distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-throughput sequencing experiments. We examine the performance of this method on simulated and real data in a variety of scenarios. Our methods are implemented as part of the RbaySeq package (versions 1.11.6 and greater) available from Bioconductor (http...

Hardcastle, Thomas J; Kelly, Krystyna A

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

347

A Throughput Model of IEEE 802.11aa Intra-Access Category Prioritization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the first saturation throughput model of an IEEE 802.11 network is presented, which includes the intra-access category prioritization introduced in the recently approved IEEE 802.11aa standard. This new feature was proposed to support finer ... Keywords: Audio video streaming, IEEE 802.11aa, Intra-access category prioritization, QoS

Katarzyna Kosek-Szott

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Analyzing throughput of power and thermal-constraint multicore processor under NBTI effect  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NBTI (Negative Bias Temperature Instability) which can degrade the switching speed of PMOS transistors has become a major reliability challenge. In this paper, we investigate the throughput impact of NBTI on power and thermal-constraint multicore processors ... Keywords: NBTI, multicore processor, negative bias temperature instability, process variation

Shi-Qun Zheng; Ing-Chao Lin; Yen-Han Lee

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Energy-efficient mechanisms for managing thread context in throughput processors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modern graphics processing units (GPUs) use a large number of hardware threads to hide both function unit and memory access latency. Extreme multithreading requires a complicated thread scheduler as well as a large register file, which is expensive to ... Keywords: energy-efficiency, multi-threading, register file organization, throughput computing

Mark Gebhart; Daniel R. Johnson; David Tarjan; Stephen W. Keckler; William J. Dally; Erik Lindholm; Kevin Skadron

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Pretreatment process for forming a smooth surface diamond film on a carbon-coated substrate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for the pretreatment of a carbon-coated substrate to provide a uniform high density of nucleation sites thereon for the subsequent deposition of a continuous diamond film without the application of a bias voltage to the substrate. The process comprises exposing the carbon-coated substrate, in a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system, to a mixture of hydrogen-methane gases, having a methane gas concentration of at least about 4% (as measured by partial pressure), while maintaining the substrate at a pressure of about 10 to about 30 Torr during the pretreatment.

Feng, Zhu (Albany, CA); Brewer, Marilee (Goleta, CA); Brown, Ian (Berkeley, CA); Komvopoulos, Kyriakos (Orinda, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

The effect of pretreatments on surfactin production from potato process effluent by Bacillus subtilis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pretreatment of low-solids (LS) potato process effluent was tested for potential to increase surfactin yield. Pretreatments included heat, removal of starch particulates, and acid hydrolysis. Elimination of contaminating vegetative cells was necessary for surfactin production. After autoclaving, 0.40 g/L of surfactin was produced from the effluent in 72 h, versus 0.24 g/L in the purified potato starch control. However, surfactin yields per carbon consumed were 76% lower from process effluent. Removal of starch particulates had little effect on the culture. Acid hydrolysis decreased growth and surfactant production, except 0.5 wt% acid, which increased the yield by 25% over untreated effluent.

D. N. Thompson; S. L. Fox; G. A. Bala

2000-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

352

Selection of Pretreatment Processes for Removal of Radionuclides from Hanford Tank Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's), Office of River Protection (ORP) located at Hanford Washington has established a contract (1) to design, construct, and commission a new Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that will treat and immobilize the Hanford tank wastes for ultimate disposal. The WTP is comprised of four major elements, pretreatment, LAW immobilization, HLW immobilization, and balance of plant facilities. This paper describes the technologies selected for pretreatment of the LAW and HLW tank wastes, how these technologies were selected, and identifies the major technology testing activities being conducted to finalize the design of the WTP.

Carreon, R.; Mauss, B. M.; Johnson, M. E.; Holton, L. K.; Wright, G. T.; Peterson, R. A.; Rueter, K. J.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

353

Hydrothermal method of synthesis of rare-earth tantalates and niobates  

SciTech Connect

A hydrothermal method of synthesis of a family of rare-earth Group 5 oxides, where the Group 5 oxide is a niobate or tantalate. The rare-earth Group 5 oxides can be doped with suitable emitter ions to form nanophosphors.

Nyman, May D; Rohwer, Lauren E.S.; Martin, James E

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

354

Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in the sea is primarily incorporated as Fe(III) into inorganic minerals that lack both the mobility to circulate over long distance and bioavailability to sea life as an essential nutrient. Now, a collaboration led by researchers from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution has reported that the hydrothermal plumes emerging from the vents actually contain iron in both Fe(II) and Fe(III) oxidation states associated with organic material from nearby flora and fauna. The collaboration suggests that the organic matrices prevent oxidation and precipitation of the Fe(II), perhaps increasing both its circulation through the world's oceans and its bioavailability as a deep-sea nutrient.

355

Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in the sea is primarily incorporated as Fe(III) into inorganic minerals that lack both the mobility to circulate over long distance and bioavailability to sea life as an essential nutrient. Now, a collaboration led by researchers from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution has reported that the hydrothermal plumes emerging from the vents actually contain iron in both Fe(II) and Fe(III) oxidation states associated with organic material from nearby flora and fauna. The collaboration suggests that the organic matrices prevent oxidation and precipitation of the Fe(II), perhaps increasing both its circulation through the world's oceans and its bioavailability as a deep-sea nutrient.

356

Understanding the Formation and Evolution of Ceria Nanoparticles Under Hydrothermal Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The formation and evolution of ceria nanoparticles during hydrothermal synthesis was investigated by in-situ total scattering and powder diffraction. The nucleation of pristine crystalline ceria nanoparticles originated from previously unknown cerium dimer complexes. The nanoparticle growth was highly accelerated under supercritical conditions.

Tyrsted, Christoffer; rnsbjerg; #8197; Jensen, Kirsten Marie; Bjesen, Espen Drath; Lock, Nina; Christensen, Mogens; Billinge, Simon J.L.; Brummerstedt; #8197; Iversen, Bo (Aarhus); (Columbia)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

357

Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013  

SciTech Connect

This report provides detailed reactor designs and capital costs, and operating cost estimates for the hydrothermal liquefaction reactor system, used for biomass-to-biofuels conversion, under development at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Five cases were developed and the costs associated with all cases ranged from $22 MM/year - $47 MM/year.

Knorr, D.; Lukas, J.; Schoen, P.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENT OF WHEAT STRAW ON PILOT PLANT SCALE Anders Thygesena  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solid material is one of the most important factors for production of bioethanol. Conversion for production of sugars for bio ethanol and an alkali free solid material for combustion in an incineration). After combined hydrothermal treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis the maximum sugar, yields were 30 g

359

Duration of hydrothermal activity at Steamboat Springs, Nevada, from ages of spatially associated volcanic rocks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Steamboat Springs is a presently active equivalent of epithermal gold-silver ore-forming systems. Hot-spring sinter deposits contain small amounts of gold, silver, mercury, antimony, and arsenic. Hot-spring activity probably started before extrusion of the basaltic andesite of Steamboat Springs. Old sinter from the Steamboat Springs system occurs in gravels above and below the basaltic andesite. Intense hydrothermal alteration, including almost complete replacement by hydrothermal potassium-feldspar, has affected the basaltic andesite. Three plagioclase separates of differing potassium content from fresh basaltic andesite yielded potassium-argon ages of 2.52 to 2.55 m.y. Basaltic andesite almost completely replaced by potassium-feldspar yielded an age of 1.1 m.y. The source of energy for the thermal convection system is probably a large rhyolitic magma chamber that supplied the pumice and from which the rhyolite domes were emplaced. Sanidine and obsidian from four of the rhyolite domes yielded potassium-argon ages of 1.15 to 1.52 m.y. and obsidian from one of the northeastern domes yielded apparent ages of 2.97 and 3.03 m.y. The data indicate that hydrothermal activity has occurred at Steamboat Springs, possibly intermittently, for more than 2-1/2 m.y. These data agree with other radiogenic age studies indicating 1- and 2-m.y. lifetimes for the hydrothermal systems that generate epithermal gold-silver deposits.

Silberman, M.L.; White, D.E.; Keith, T.E.C.; Dockter, R.D.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Recently developed well test insrumentation for low-to-moderate temperature hydrothermal reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The engineering drawings, assembly instructions, and recommended usage for several of the instruments developed for low and moderate temperature (< 150/sup 0/C) hydrothermal well testing are presented. Included are the drawings for: a downhole pressure and temperature instrument, a multi-conductor cablehead, a line driver to be used with the downhole pressure and temperature instrument, and a fluid-level detector.

Solbau, R.; Goranson, C.B.; Benson, S.M.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Hydrothermal alteration in Oregon's Newberry Volcano No. 2: fluid chemistry and secondary-mineral distribution  

SciTech Connect

Newberry 2 was drilled in the caldera floor of Newberry Volcano, Oregon, by the US Geological Survey during 1979-81. The maximum temperature measured was 265C at the bottom of the hole, 932 m below the surface. Rocks recovered fr9om the drill hole are divided into three intervals on the basis of hydrothermal alteration and mineral deposition: (1) 0-290 m consists of unaltered, largely glassy volcanic material, with present temperatures ranging from 20 to 40C; (2) 290-700 m consists of permeable tuff layers, tuff breccia units, and brecciated and fractured rhyodacitic to dacitic lava flows, with temperatures ranging from 40 to 100C; (3) 700-932 m consists of impermeable andesitic to basaltic lava flows that generally show little effect of alteration, interlayered with permeable hydrothermally altered flow breccia, with temperatures gradually increasing from 100 at 700 m to 265C at 932 m. Hydrothermal alteration throughout the system is controlled by rock permeability, temperature, composition of geothermal fluids, and composition and crystallinity of host rocks. Rock alteration consists mainly of replacement of glass by clay minerals and, locally, zeolites, partial replacement of plagioclase phenocrysts by calcite +/- epidote +/- illite, and whole-rock leaching adjacent to fluids channels. Open-space deposition of hydrothermal minerals in fractures, vesicles, and interbreccia pore space is far more abundant than replacement. A cooling shallow convection system in the upper 700 m is indicated by the occurrence of hydrothermal minerals that were deposited in a slightly higher temperature environment than presently exists. Below 700 m, the heat flow is conductive, and fluid flow is controlled by horizontal lava flows. Homogenization temperatures of secondary quartz fluid inclusions were as high as 370C.

Keith, T.E.C.; Mariner, R.H.; Bargar, K.E.; Evans, W.C.; Presser, T.S.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Supply of geothermal power from hydrothermal sources: A study of the cost of power in 20 and 40 years  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study develops estimates for the amount of hydrothermal geothermal power that could be on line in 20 and 40 years. This study was intended to represent a snapshot'' in 20 and 40 years of the hydrothermal energy available for electric power production should a market exist for this power. This does not represent the total or maximum amount of hydrothermal power, but is instead an attempt to estimate the rate at which power could be on line constrained by the exploration, development and support infrastructure available to the geothermal industry, but not constrained by the potential market for power.

Petty, S. (Petty (Susan) Consulting, Solano Beach, CA (United States)); Livesay, B.J. (Livesay Consultants, Inc., Encinitas, CA (United States)); Long, W.P. (Carlin Gold Co., Inc., Grass Valley, CA (United States)); Geyer, J. (Geyer (John) and Associates, Vancouver, WA (United States))

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Residence Time Distribution Measurement and Analysis of Pilot-Scale Pretreatment Reactors for Biofuels Production: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Measurement and analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) data is the focus of this study where data collection methods were developed specifically for the pretreatment reactor environment. Augmented physical sampling and automated online detection methods were developed and applied. Both the measurement techniques themselves and the produced RTD data are presented and discussed.

Sievers, D.; Kuhn, E.; Tucker, M.; Stickel, J.; Wolfrum, E.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Laboratory Demonstration of the Pretreatment Process with Caustic and Oxidative Leaching Using Actual Hanford Tank Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the bench-scale pretreatment processing of actual tank waste materials through the entire baseline WTP pretreatment flowsheet in an effort to demonstrate the efficacy of the defined leaching processes on actual Hanford tank waste sludge and the potential impacts on downstream pretreatment processing. The test material was a combination of reduction oxidation (REDOX) tank waste composited materials containing aluminum primarily in the form of boehmite and dissolved S saltcake containing Cr(III)-rich entrained solids. The pretreatment processing steps tested included caustic leaching for Al removal solids crossflow filtration through the cell unit filter (CUF) stepwise solids washing using decreasing concentrations of sodium hydroxide with filtration through the CUF oxidative leaching using sodium permanganate for removing Cr solids filtration with the CUF follow-on solids washing and filtration through the CUF ion exchange processing for Cs removal evaporation processing of waste stream recycle for volume reduction combination of the evaporated product with dissolved saltcake. The effectiveness of each process step was evaluated by following the mass balance of key components (such as Al, B, Cd, Cr, Pu, Ni, Mn, and Fe), demonstrating component (Al, Cr, Cs) removal, demonstrating filterability by evaluating filter flux rates under various processing conditions (transmembrane pressure, crossflow velocities, wt% undissolved solids, and PSD) and filter fouling, and identifying potential issues for WTP. The filterability was reported separately (Shimskey et al. 2008) and is not repeated herein.

Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Effect of a surface pre-treatment on graphene growth using a SiC substrate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study reports surface pre-treatment techniques for the formation of a high-quality graphene layer on a SiC surface. It is demonstrated that silicon passivation of SiC surface using a silane flow and subsequent sacrificial oxidation can significantly ... Keywords: Graphene, Sacrificial oxidation, Silane treatment, Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), Surface passivation

Jun-Ho Seo; Byung-Jin Kang; Jeong Hun Mun; Sung-Kyu Lim; Byung Jin Cho

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Research on Turbidity Removal and Byproduct Magnesium Hydroxide in Alkalify Flocculation Desalination Pretreatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The reverse osmosis desalination is becoming an effective approach in seawater desalination to solve the shortage of freshwater resource. Since reverse osmosis desalination plants depend on high quality feed water to ensure. Turbidity is the most important ... Keywords: Alkalify Flocculation, Desalination Pretreatment

Liuhe Yishouzhi; Wuyan Wujiaquan

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM WET OXIDSED CORN STOVER USING PRE-TREATED MANURE AS A NUTRIENT SOURCE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM WET OXIDSED CORN STOVER USING PRE-TREATED MANURE AS A NUTRIENT SOURCE E (sugar-, and starch-containing) raw materials represent the major part of the total production cost- linked, rigid lignocellulose complex. This structure severely limits the biological conversion; therefore

368

Underground storage tank integrated demonstration: Evaluation of pretreatment options for Hanford tank wastes  

SciTech Connect

Separation science plays a central role inn the pretreatment and disposal of nuclear wastes. The potential benefits of applying chemical separations in the pretreatment of the radioactive wastes stored at the various US Department of Energy sites cover both economic and environmental incentives. This is especially true at the Hanford Site, where the huge volume (>60 Mgal) of radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks could be partitioned into a very small volume of high-level waste (HLW) and a relatively large volume of low-level waste (LLW). The cost associated with vitrifying and disposing of just the HLW fraction in a geologic repository would be much less than those associated with vitrifying and disposing of all the wastes directly. Futhermore, the quality of the LLW form (e.g., grout) would be improved due to the lower inventory of radionuclides present in the LLW stream. In this report, we present the results of an evaluation of the pretreatment options for sludge taken from two different single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site-Tanks 241-B-110 and 241-U-110 (referred to as B-110 and U-110, respectively). The pretreatment options examined for these wastes included (1) leaching of transuranic (TRU) elements from the sludge, and (2) dissolution of the sludge followed by extraction of TRUs and {sup 90}Sr. In addition, the TRU leaching approach was examined for a third tank waste type, neutralized cladding removal waste.

Lumetta, G.J.; Wagner, M.J.; Colton, N.G.; Jones, E.O.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

High throughput lessons from the LHC experience.Johnston.TNC2013  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

high throughput in widely distributed data high throughput in widely distributed data management and analysis systems: Lessons from the LHC William E. Johnston ESnet, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory e-mail: wej@es.net Eli Dart ESnet, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory e-mail: dart@es.net Michael Ernst RHIC and ATLAS Computing Facility, Brookhaven National Laboratory e-mail: mernst@bnl.gov Brian Tierney ESnet, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory e-mail: bltierney@es.net Paper type Technical paper Abstract Today's large-scale science projects all involve world-wide collaborations that must routinely move 10s of petabytes per year between international sites in order to be successful. This is true for the two largest experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN - ATLAS and CMS - and for the climate science

370

A simple packet retransmission strategy for throughput and delay enhancement on power line communication channels  

SciTech Connect

A new, simple, and effective communication protocol is developed and evaluated for use on power line distribution networks. The protocol involves retransmission of unacknowledged packets, which are sent in either single or multiple (N) copies in accordance with estimates of communication link quality. Multiple packet copies can be code combined at the receiver, using majority voting on each bit position, to reduce packet error rates. Adaptive link quality estimates are based on the receipt or absence of positive acknowledgements. Information throughput efficiency is calculated and N optimized in terms of system variables. Performance benefits of code combining are clearly demonstrated. The algorithm was implemented and tested using a five-station intrabuilding power line communications network operating at 1.2, 2.4, 4.8 and 9.6 kbit/s data rate. Substantial throughput and delay improvement occurred on poor quality links, without degrading performance on good links.

Onunga, J.O. (Kenya Posts and Telecommunications Corp., Nairobi (Kenya)); Donaldson, R.W. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

High-throughput screening assay of hepatitis C virus helicase inhibitors using fluorescence-quenching phenomenon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have developed a novel high-throughput screening assay of hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) helicase inhibitors using the fluorescence-quenching phenomenon via photoinduced electron transfer between fluorescent dyes and guanine bases. We prepared double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) with a 5'-fluorescent-dye (BODIPY FL)-labeled strand hybridized with a complementary strand, the 3'-end of which has guanine bases. When dsDNA is unwound by helicase, the dye emits fluorescence owing to its release from the guanine bases. Our results demonstrate that this assay is suitable for quantitative assay of HCV NS3 helicase activity and useful for high-throughput screening for inhibitors. Furthermore, we applied this assay to the screening for NS3 helicase inhibitors from cell extracts of microorganisms, and found several cell extracts containing potential inhibitors.

Tani, Hidenori [Department of Life Science and Medical Bio-Science, Waseda University, 2-2 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480 (Japan); Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi [Radioisotope Center, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Fujita, Osamu; Matsuda, Yasuyoshi [Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Department of Life Science and Medical Bio-Science, Waseda University, 2-2 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480 (Japan); Miyata, Ryo [Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Tsuneda, Satoshi [Department of Life Science and Medical Bio-Science, Waseda University, 2-2 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480 (Japan); Igarashi, Masayuki [Microbial Chemistry Research Center, 3-14-23 Kamiosaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0021 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Yuji [Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Noda, Naohiro [Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Department of Life Science and Medical Bio-Science, Waseda University, 2-2 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480 (Japan)], E-mail: noda-naohiro@aist.go.jp

2009-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

372

Robust, high-throughput solution structural analyses by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an efficient pipeline enabling high-throughput analysis of protein structure in solution with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Our SAXS pipeline combines automated sample handling of microliter volumes, temperature and anaerobic control, rapid data collection and data analysis, and couples structural analysis with automated archiving. We subjected 50 representative proteins, mostly from Pyrococcus furiosus, to this pipeline and found that 30 were multimeric structures in solution. SAXS analysis allowed us to distinguish aggregated and unfolded proteins, define global structural parameters and oligomeric states for most samples, identify shapes and similar structures for 25 unknown structures, and determine envelopes for 41 proteins. We believe that high-throughput SAXS is an enabling technology that may change the way that structural genomics research is done.

Hura, Greg L.; Menon, Angeli L.; Hammel, Michal; Rambo, Robert P.; Poole II, Farris L.; Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Jenney Jr, Francis E.; Classen, Scott; Frankel, Kenneth A.; Hopkins, Robert C.; Yang, Sungjae; Scott, Joseph W.; Dillard, Bret D.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Tainer, John A.

2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

373

Method and apparatus for maximizing throughput of indirectly heated rotary kilns  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for achieving improved throughput capacity of indirectly heated rotary kilns used to produce pyrolysis products such as shale oils or coal oils that are susceptible to decomposition by high kiln wall temperatures is disclosed. High throughput is achieved by firing the kiln such that optimum wall temperatures are maintained beginning at the point where the materials enter the heating section of the kiln and extending to the point where the materials leave the heated section. Multiple high velocity burners are arranged such that combustion products directly impact on the area of the kiln wall covered internally by the solid material being heated. Firing rates for the burners are controlled to maintain optimum wall temperatures.

Coates, Ralph L; Smoot, L. Douglas; Hatfield, Kent E

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

374

Experimental and theoretical investigation of the production of HCl and some metal chlorides in magmatic/hydrothermal systems. Progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrothermal experiments on the partitioning of HCl and copper chloride in the system silicate melt-hydrosaline liquid-aqueous vapor are described. Modelling of the aqueous phase evolution process is discussed. (MHR)

Not Available

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

375

Geochemical tracers of processes affecting the formation of seafloor hydrothermal fluids and deposits in the Manus back-arc basin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Systematic differences in trace element compositions (rare earth element (REE), heavy metal, metalloid concentrations) of seafloor vent fluids and related deposits from hydrothermal systems in the Manus back-arc basin ...

Craddock, Paul R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Biotic and abiotic interactions of deep-sea hydrothermal vent-endemic fish on the East Pacific Rise  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A study of the ecology of fish endemic to hydrothermal vents on the East Pacific Rise was undertaken utilizing a variety of techniques, focusing on the bythitid Thermichthys hollisi. Stable isotope and gut content analyses ...

Buckman, Kate Lynn

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Prospecting for Hydrothermal Vents Using Moored Current and Temperature Data: Axial Volcano on the Juan de Fuca Ridge, Northeast Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tidal and inertial currents and profuse hydrothermal discharge at recently erupted Axial Volcano, Juan de Fuca Ridge, cause relatively large and rapid temperature (T) changes in the near-bottom water column. Measurements show short-term T ...

J. W. Lavelle; M. A. Wetzler; E. T. Baker; R. W. Embley

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Baculovirus expression system and method for high throughput expression of genetic material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides novel recombinant baculovirus expression systems for expressing foreign genetic material in a host cell. Such expression systems are readily adapted to an automated method for expression foreign genetic material in a high throughput manner. In other aspects, the present invention features a novel automated method for determining the function of foreign genetic material by transfecting the same into a host by way of the recombinant baculovirus expression systems according to the present invention.

Clark, Robin (Benecia, CA); Davies, Anthony (Mill Valley, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Ionic liquid pretreatment of poplar wood at room temperature: swelling and incorporation of nanoparticles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lignocellulosic biomass represents a potentially sustainable source of liquid fuels and commodity chemicals. It could satisfy the energy needs for transportation and electricity generation, while contributing substantially to carbon sequestration and limiting the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Potential feedstocks are abundant and include crops, agricultural wastes, forest products, grasses, and algae. Among those feedstocks, wood is mainly constituted of three components: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The conversion process of lignocellulosic biomass typically consists of three steps: (1) pretreatment; (2) hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars; and (3) fermentation of the sugars into liquid fuels (ethanol) and other commodity chemicals. The pretreatment step is necessary due to the complex structure of the plant cell wall and the chemical resistance of lignin. Most current pretreatments are energy-intensive and/or polluting. So it is imperative to develop new pretreatments that are economically viable and environmentally friendly. Recently, ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest, due to their ability to dissolve biopolymers, such as cellulose, lignin, native switchgrass, and others. Ionic liquids are also considered green solvents, since they have been successfully recycled at high yields for further use with limited efficiency loss. Also, a few microbial cellulases remain active at high ionic liquid concentration. However, all studies on the dissolution of wood in ionic liquids have been conducted so far at high temperatures, typically above 90 C. Development of alternative pretreatments at room temperature is desirable to eliminate the additional energy cost. In this study, thin sections of poplar wood were swollen at room temperature by a 3 h ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate or EMIMAc) pretreatment. The pretreated sample was then exposed to an aqueous suspension of nanoparticles that resulted in the sample contraction and the deposition of nanoparticles onto the surface and embedded into the cell wall. To date, both silver and gold particles ranging in size from 40-100 nm have been incorporated into wood. Penetration of gold nanoparticles of 100 nm diameter in the cell walls was best confirmed by near-infrared confocal Raman microscopy, since the deposition of gold nanoparticles induces a significant enhancement of the Raman signal from the wood in their close proximity, an enhancement attributed to the surface-enhanced Raman effect (SERS). After rinsing with water, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman images of the same areas show that most nanoparticles remained on the pretreated sample. Raman images at different depths reveal that a significant number of nanoparticles were incorporated into the wood sample, at depths up to 4 {micro}m, or 40 times the diameter of the nanoparticles. Control experiments on an untreated wood sample resulted in the deposition of nanoparticles only at the surface and most nanoparticles were removed upon rinsing. This particle incorporation process enables the development of new pretreatments, since the nanoparticles have a high surface-to-volume ratio and could be chemically functionalized. Other potential applications for the incorporated nanoparticles include isotope tracing, catalysis, imaging agents, drug-delivery systems, energy-storage devices, and chemical sensors.

Lucas, Marcel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Macdonald, Brian A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wagner, Gregory L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Joyce, Steven A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rector, Kirk D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Policies for Increasing Throughput and Decreasing Power Consumption in Bluetooth MAC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bluetooth is a fast emerging standard for indoor pico-cellular wireless networks. Power is at a premium in typical Bluetooth devices like palmtops, PDAs, laptops and mobile phones. The Bluetooth standard defines various modes for reducing power consumption of the devices by reducing their transmission and reception activities. System throughput can be increased by keeping Bluetooth devices in low power mode in case of low data rates at those devices, by avoiding unnecessary polling packets. In this paper we propose policies for scheduling and switching of power modes of Bluetooth devices for increasing throughput and decreasing power consumption. All the proposed schemes, along with a policy where all the devices are always in active mode, and a policy with previous information of packet arrival times are implemented on a Bluetooth simulator for comparing their performance. Performance of the policies is compared for different traffic models and actual traffic traces. The policies are found to perform well in terms of power savings and throughput enhancement.

Indraneel Chakraborty; Abhishek Kashyap; Anupam Rastogi; Huzur Saran; Rajeev Shorey; Apurva Kumar

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

High-throughput data mined prediction of inorganic compounds and computational discovery of new lithium-ion battery cathode materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ability to computationally predict the properties of new materials, even prior to their synthesis, has been made possible due to the current accuracy of modern ab initio techniques. In some cases, high-throughput ...

Hautier, Geoffroy (Geoffroy T. F.)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Evaluation of Tavorite-Structured Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries Using High-Throughput Computing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cathode materials with structure similar to the mineral tavorite have shown promise for use in lithium-ion batteries, but this class of materials is relatively unexplored. We use high-throughput density-functional-theory ...

Mueller, Tim

383

Advances in high-throughput speed, low-latency communication for embedded instrumentation ( 7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scott Jordan on "Advances in high-throughput speed, low-latency communication for embedded instrumentation" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Jordan, Scott [Physik Instrumente

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

High Throughput Plasmid Sequencing with Illumina and CLC Bio (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ajay Athavale (Monsanto) presents "High Throughput Plasmid Sequencing with Illumina and CLC Bio" at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

Athavale, Ajay [Monsanto

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

High Throughput Computing Impact on Meta Genomics (Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This presentation includes a brief background on High Throughput Computing, correlating gene transcription factors, optical mapping, genotype to phenotype mapping via QTL analysis, and current work on next gen sequencing.

Gore, Brooklin [Morgridge Institute for Research

2011-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

386

Coev2Net: a computational framework for boosting confidence in high-throughput protein-protein interaction datasets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Improving the quality and coverage of the protein interactome is of tantamount importance for biomedical research, particularly given the various sources of uncertainty in high-throughput techniques. We introduce a ...

Hosur, Raghavendra

387

Throughput and delay analysis for hybrid radio-frequency and free-space-optical (RF/FSO) networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the per-node throughput and end-to-end delay of randomly deployed (i.e. ad-hoc) hybrid radio frequency - free space optics (RF/FSO) networks are studied. The hybrid RF/FSO network consists of an RF ad hoc network of n nodes, f(n) ... Keywords: Ad hoc networks, Delay, Free space optics, Hybrid networks, Throughput capacity

Di Wang; Alhussein A. Abouzeid

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Oxygen Isotope Evidence For Past And Present Hydrothermal Regimes Of Long  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Oxygen Isotope Evidence For Past And Present Hydrothermal Regimes Of Long Valley Caldera, California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Oxygen Isotope Evidence For Past And Present Hydrothermal Regimes Of Long Valley Caldera, California Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Whole-rock oxygen isotope compositions of cores and cuttings from Long Valley exploration wells show that the Bishop Tuff has been an important reservoir for both fossil and active geothermal systems within the caldera. The deep Clay Pit-1 and Mammoth-1 wells on the resurgent dome

389

Comparative assessment of five potential sites for hydrothermal-magma systems: summary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A comparative assessment of five potential hydrothermal-magma sites for this facet of the Thermal Regimes part of the CSDP has been prepared for the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The five sites are: The Geysers-Clear Lake, CA, Long Valley, CA, Rio Grande Rift, NM, Roosevelt Hot Springs, UT, and Salton Trough, CA. This site assessment study has drawn together background information (geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and energy transport) on the five sites as a preliminary stage to site selection. Criteria for site selection are that potential sites have identifiable, or likely, hydrothermal systems and associated magma sources, and the important scientific questions can be identified and answered by deep scientific holes. Recommendations were made.

Luth, W.C.; Hardee, H.C.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Using toughreact to model reactive fluid flow and geochemical transport in hydrothermal systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The interaction between hydrothermal fluids and the rocks through which they migrate alters the earlier formed primary minerals and leads to the formation of secondary minerals, resulting in changes in the physical and chemical properties of the system. We have developed a comprehensive numerical simulator, TOUGHREACT, which considers nonisothermal multi-component chemical transport in both liquid and gas phases. A variety of subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes is considered under a wide range of conditions of pressure, temperature, water saturation, and ionic strength. The code can be applied to problems in fundamental analysis of the hydrothermal systems and in the exploration of geothermal reservoirs including chemical evolution, mineral alteration, mineral scaling, changes of porosity and permeability, and mineral recovery from geothermal fluids.

Xu, Tianfu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten

2003-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

391

Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical performance of NiO microspheres with different nanoscale building blocks  

SciTech Connect

NiO microspheres were successfully obtained by calcining the Ni(OH){sub 2} precursor, which were synthesized via the hydrothermal reaction of nickel chloride, glucose and ammonia. The products were characterized by TGA, XRD and SEM. The influences of glucose and reaction temperature on the morphologies of NiO samples were investigated. Moreover, the possible growth mechanism for the spherical morphology was proposed. The charge/discharge test showed that the as-prepared NiO microspheres composed of nanoparticles can serve as an ideal electrode material for supercapacitor due to the spherical hollow structure. -- Graphical Abstract: Fig. 5 is the SEM image of NiO that was prepared in the different hydrothermal reaction temperatures. It showed that reaction temperature played a crucial role for the morphology of products.

Wang Ling; Hao Yanjing; Zhao Yan [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Lai Qiongyu, E-mail: laiqy5@hotmail.co [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Xu Xiaoyun [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

392

Acid-Base Behavior in Hydrothermal Processing of Wastes - Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A major obstacle to development of hydrothermal oxidation technology has been a lack of scientific knowledge of chemistry in hydrothermal solution above 350 C, particularly acid-base behavior, and transport phenomena, which is needed to understand corrosion, metal-ion complexation, and salt precipitation and recovery. Our objective has been to provide this knowledge with in situ UV-visible spectroscopic measurements and fully molecular computer simulation. Our recent development of relatively stable organic UV-visible pH indicators for supercritical water oxidation offers the opportunity to characterize buffers and to monitor acid-base titrations. These results have important implications for understanding reaction pathways and yields for decomposition of wastes in supercritical water.

Johnston, K.; Rossky, P.

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Exploration strategy for high-temperature hydrothermal systems in Basin and Range province  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A 15-phase strategy of exploration for high-temperature convective hydrothermal resources in the Basin and Range province features a balanced mix of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, hydrologic, and drilling activities. The strategy, based on a study of data submitted under the Department of Energy's Industry Coupled Case Study Program, provides justification for inclusion or exclusion of all pertinent exploration methods. With continuing research on methods of exploration for, and modeling of, convective hydrothermal systems, this strategy is expected to change and become more cost-effective with time. The basic strategy may vary with the geology or hydrology. Personal preferences, budgetary constraints, time and land position constraints, and varied experience may cause industrial geothermal exploration managers to differ with our strategy. For those just entering geothermal exploration, the strategy should be particularly useful; many of its elements may apply in other geologic settings.

Ward, S.H.; Ross, H.P.; Nielson, D.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Strategy of exploration for high temperature hydrothermal systems in the basin and range province  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A fifteen phase strategy of exploration for high temperature convective hydrothermal resources in the basin and range province, recommended herein, features a balanced mix of geological, geochemical, geophysical, hydrological, and drilling activities. The strategy is based on a study of data submitted under the Department of Energy's Industry Coupled Case Study Program. Justification for inclusion in or exclusion from the strategy of all pertinent geoscientific methods is given. With continuing research on methods of exploration for and modeling of convective hydrothermal systems, this strategy is expected to change and become more cost-effective with time. Variations on the basic strategy are to be expected where the geology or hydrology requires it. Personal preferences, budgetary constraints, time and land position constraints, and varied experience may cause industrial geothermal exploration managers to differ with our strategy. For those just entering geothermal exploration, the strategy is expected to be particularly useful.

Ward, S.H.; Ross, H.P.; Nielson, D.L.

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Field-based tests of geochemical modeling codes using New Zealand hydrothermal systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrothermal systems in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, North Island, New Zealand are being used as field-based modeling exercises for the EQ3/6 geochemical modeling code package. Comparisons of the observed state and evolution of the hydrothermal systems with predictions of fluid-solid equilibria made using geochemical modeling codes will determine how the codes can be used to predict the chemical and mineralogical response of the environment to nuclear waste emplacement. Field-based exercises allow us to test the models on time scales unattainable in the laboratory. Preliminary predictions of mineral assemblages in equilibrium with fluids sampled from wells in the Wairakei and Kawerau geothermal field suggest that affinity-temperature diagrams must be used in conjunction with EQ6 to minimize the effect of uncertainties in thermodynamic and kinetic data on code predictions.

Bruton, C.J.; Glassley, W.E.; Bourcier, W.L.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Deep Borehole Measurements for Characterizing the Magma/Hydrothermal System at Long Valley Caldera, CA  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Magma Energy Program of the Geothermal Technology Division is scheduled to begin drilling a deep (6 km) exploration well in Long Valley Caldera, California in 1989. The drilling site is near the center of the caldera which is associated with numerous shallow (5-7 km) geophysical anomalies. This deep well will present an unparalleled opportunity to test and validate geophysical techniques for locating magma as well as a test of the theory that magma is still present at drillable depths within the central portion of the caldera. If, indeed, drilling indicates magma, the geothermal community will then be afforded the unique possibility of examining the coupling between magmatic and hydrothermal regimes in a major volcanic system. Goals of planned seismic experiments that involve the well include the investigation of local crustal structure down to depths of 10 km as well as the determination of mechanisms for local seismicity and deformation. Borehole electrical and electromagnetic surveys will increase the volume and depth of rock investigated by the well through consideration of the conductive structure of the hydrothermal and underlying regimes. Currently active processes involving magma injection will be studied through observation of changes in pore pressure and strain. Measurements of in situ stress from recovered cores and hydraulic fracture tests will be used in conjunction with uplift data to determine those models for magmatic injection and inflation that are most applicable. Finally, studies of the thermal regime will be directed toward elucidating the coupling between the magmatic source region and the more shallow hydrothermal system in the caldera fill. To achieve this will require careful logging of borehole fluid temperature and chemistry. In addition, studies of rock/fluid interactions through core and fluid samples will allow physical characterization of the transition zone between hydrothermal and magmatic regimes.

Carrrigan, Charles R.

1989-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

397

Isotope and fluid inclusion studies of geological and hydrothermal processes, northern Peru  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Mineralization in the Hualgayoc district of northern Peru occurs in altered Miocene felsic intrusions and in mid-Cretaceous platform sedimentary rocks of the Goyllarisquizga, Inca, and Chulec formations. The ores occur both as stratiform and stratabound pyritiferous base-metal deposits (mantos), and as steeply dipping, sedimentary and intrusive rock-hosted base-metal veins. Igneous rocks in the district are affected by propylytic, sericitic-argillic, sericitic, potassic, and acid-sulfate alteration. K-Ar and Rb-Sr dating and geological evidence indicate multiple stages of intrusive activity and hydrothermal alteration, including close spatial emplacement of two or more separate Miocene magmatic-hydrothermal systems. K-Ar dates on sericite, hydrothermal biotite, and alunite indicate that the most important hydrothermal episodes in the district took place {approx}13.24 and 12.4 Ma. Other K-Ar dates on altered rocks in the district may reflect various amounts of resetting by the emplacement of the 9.05 {+-} 0.2 Ma Hualgayoc rhyodacite. A five-point Rb-Sr isochron for the San Miguel intrusion at Cerro Coymolache yields an age of 45 {+-} 3.4 Ma, which indicates much earlier magmatic activity in this area than recognized previously. Fluid inclusion and paragenetic studies reveal a clear temporal evolution of fluid temperature and chemistry in the San Agustin area at Hualgayoc. Gradually, ore formation shifted to precipitation of vein minerals in the brittle fractures as the mantos became less permeable and were sealed off. Vein formation continued from progressively cooler and more diluted fluids (down to {approx}150{degrees}C and 4.3 wt% NaCl equivalent) as the system waned. No evidence for phase separation is observed in the fluids until the very last paragenetic stage, which contributed no economic mineralization. 53 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

MacFarlane, A.W. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Prol-Ledesma, R.M. [Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan (Mexico); Conrad, M.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Hydrothermal cements for use in the completion of geothermal wells. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A research program to develop an improved cement for use in high-temperature geothermal wells was carried out. The work involved in the selection and evaluation of an aluminum hydroxide-cured cement from the SwRI family of hydrothermal cements for this use are described. The physical testing program is described; the topics discussed include placement ability, compressive and bond strengths, permeability to water, compatibility to drilling muds, corrosion properties, and thermal properties.

Not Available

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Acidization of a Direct Heat Hydrothermal Well and its Potential in Developing Additional Direct Heat Projects  

SciTech Connect

A matrix acid treatment on a limestone formation in a low temperature hydrothermal production well in South Dakota has resulted in a 40% increase in heat (BTU) available for use in space heating a hospital. The results of this experimental treatment on the Madison Limestone suggest a significant potential may exist for similar applications, particularly throughout the western United States. This paper presents the results of the acid treatment, suggests other possible areas for similar application, and analyzes the economics for successful treatments.

Dolenc, M.R.; Strawn, J. A.; Prestwich, S.M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Structural changes in switchgrass lignin and hemicelluloses during pretreatments by NMR analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

changes changes in switchgrass lignin and hemicelluloses during pretreatments by NMR analysis Reichel Samuel a, c , Marcus Foston a, c , Nan Jiang a, c , Lenong Allison a, c , Arthur J. Ragauskas a, b, c, * a School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA b Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA c BioEnergy Science Center, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 14 May 2011 Received in revised form 13 August 2011 Accepted 25 August 2011 Available online xxx Keywords: Switchgrass Pretreatment HSQC NMR analysis Lignin a b s t r a c t Switchgrass is currently being developed as a sustainable bio-energy crop due to its broad adaptability, high mass yield and low agricultural input. Its current conversion to biofuels is detrimentally impacted by its native recalcitrance which is typically addressed using

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Role of Liquid Waste Pretreatment Technologies in Solving the DOE Clean-up Mission  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Role of Liquid Waste Pretreatment Technologies in Role of Liquid Waste Pretreatment Technologies in Solving the DOE Clean-up Mission W. R. Wilmarth March 5 2009 March 5, 2009 HLW Corporate Board Phoenix AZ HLW Corporate Board, Phoenix, AZ Co-authors M. E. Johnson, CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company G. Lumetta, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory N Machara DOE Office of Engineering and Technology N. Machara, DOE Office of Engineering and Technology M. R. Poirier, Savannah River National Laboratory P C S DOE S h Ri P. C. Suggs, DOE Savannah River M. C. Thompson, Savannah River National Laboratory, Retired Retired 2 Background Separations is a fundamental business within DOE. The role of separations today is to expedite waste retrieval The role of separations today is to expedite waste retrieval, processing and closure. Recognized as part of E&T Roadmap

402

Activation of catalyst for gas-phase combustion by electrochemical pretreatment  

SciTech Connect

The catalytic activity of an IrO{sub 2} catalyst used as an electrode on a YSZ solid electrolyte cell for the gas-phase combustion of ethylene can be increased by electrochemical pretreatment. Thus, the polarization of the IrO{sub 2} electrode during 90 min at 300 {micro}A, relative to a gold electrode, both deposited on YSZ, increases the activity of the IrO{sub 2} catalyst after current interruption by a factor of 3. In situ catalyst work function measurements showed that after the electrochemical pretreatment the IrO{sub 2} catalyst obtains higher work function. The activation of the catalyst is explained through the formation of a higher oxide, IrO{sub 2+{delta}}.

Nicole, J.; Wodiunig, S.; Comninellis, C. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Lausanne (Switzerland). Inst. of Chemical Engineering; Tsiplakides, D. [Univ. of Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Exploratory benefit-cost analysis of environmental controls on hydrothermal energy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study of the value of environmental benefits generated by environmental regulation of hydrothermal sites was initiated to compare these benefits with the estimated costs of regulation. Primary objectives were to 1) evaluate the environmental damages caused by unregulated hydrothermal resource development, 2) use existing environmental and economic data to estimate the dollar value of preventing expected environmental damages at two sites, and 3) compare the benefits and costs of preventing the damages. The sites chosen for analyses were in the Imperial Valley at Heber and Niland, California. Reasons for this choice were 1) there is a high level of commercial interest in developing the Heber known geothermal resource area (KGRA) and the Salton Sea KGRA; 2) the potential for environmental damage is high; 3) existing data bases for these two sites are more comprehensive than at other sites. The primary impacts analyzed were those related to hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) emissions and those related to disposal of spent hydrothermal brine. (MHR)

Scott, M.J.; Wells, K.D.; Currie, J.W.; King, M.J.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Comparative assessment of five potential sites for hydrothermal-magma systems: energy transport  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A comparative assessment of five sites is being prepared as part of a Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) review of thermal regimes for the purpose of scoping areas for future research and drilling activities. This background report: discusses the various energy transport processes likely to be encountered in a hydrothermal-magma system, reviews related literature, discusses research and field data needs, and reviews the sites from an energy transport viewpoint. At least three major zones exist in the magma-hydrothermal transport system: the magma zone, the hydrothermal zone, and the transition zone between the two. Major energy transport questions relate to the nature and existence of these zones and their evolution with time. Additional energy transport questions are concerned with the possible existence of critical state and super-critical state permeable convection in deep geothermal systems. A review of thermal transport models emphasizes the fact that present transport models and computational techniques far outweigh the scarcity and quality of deep field data.

Hardee, H.C.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

TECHNICAL COMPARISON OF CANDIDATE ION EXCHANGE MEDIA FOR SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE (SCIX) APPLICATIONS IN SUPPORT OF SUPPLEMENTAL LAW PRETREATMENT  

SciTech Connect

At-tank supplemental pretreatment including both filtration and small column ion exchange is currently under evaluation to facilitate salt waste retrieval and processing in the Hanford tank farms. Spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) resin is the baseline ion exchange resin for use in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). This document provides background and technical rationale to assist in determining whether spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) is also the appropriate ion exchange resin for supplemental LAW pretreatment processes and compares sRF with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) as potential supplemental pretreatment ion exchange media.

RAMSEY AA; THORSON MR

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

406

Review of technologies for the pretreatment of retrieved single-shell tank waste at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the study reported here was to identify and evaluate innovative processes that could be used to pretreat mixed waste retrieved from the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) on the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford site. The information was collected as part of the Single Shell Tank Waste Treatment project at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The project is being conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company under their SST Disposal Program.

Gerber, M.A.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Review of technologies for the pretreatment of retrieved single-shell tank waste at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the study reported here was to identify and evaluate innovative processes that could be used to pretreat mixed waste retrieved from the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) on the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site. The information was collected as part of the Single Shell Tank Waste Treatment project at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The project is being conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company under their SST Disposal Program.

Gerber, M.A.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Method for aqueous gold thiosulfate extraction using copper-cyanide pretreated carbon adsorption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A gold thiosulfate leaching process uses carbon to remove gold from the leach liquor. The activated carbon is pretreated with copper cyanide. A copper (on the carbon) to gold (in solution) ratio of at least 1.5 optimizes gold recovery from solution. To recover the gold from the carbon, conventional elution technology works but is dependent on the copper to gold ratio on the carbon.

Young, Courtney; Melashvili, Mariam; Gow, Nicholas V

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

409

Program on Technology Innovation: Gasification Testing of Various Biomasses in Untreated and Pretreated (Leached) Forms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Leaching of biomass to remove/eliminate troublesome constituents, such as alkali metals, chlorine, sulfur, and phosphorus, presents the opportunity to solve many of the problems found when firing and/or cofiring low-cost and low-grade agricultural biomasses, grasses, and waste materials for energy or production of biofuels. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has fostered projects for the development and testing of this potential game-changing biomass pretreatment technology since 2010. As part ...

2012-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

410

Alternatives generation and analysis for the phase 1 high-level waste pretreatment process selection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report evaluates the effects of enhanced sludge washing and sludge washing without caustic leaching during the preparation of the Phase 1 high-level waste feeds. The pretreatment processing alternatives are evaluated against their ability to satisfy contractual, cost minimization, and other criteria. The information contained in this report is consistent with, and supplemental to, the Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan (Kirkbride et al. 1997).

Manuel, A.F.

1997-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

411

Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

This work is a fundamental study of catalytic pretreatments as a potential preconversion step to low-severity liquefaction. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide the basis for the design of an improved liquefaction process and to facilitate our understanding of those processes that occur when coals are initially dissolved. The main objectives of this project are to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on the subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank and influence of solvent will be examined. We have made significant progress in the following four aspects during this quarterly period: (1) influence of drying and oxidation of coal on the conversion and product distribution in catalytic liquefaction of Wyodak subbituminous coal using a dispersed catalyst; (2) spectroscopic characterization of dried and oxidized Wyodak coal and the insoluble residues from catalytic and thermal liquefaction; (3) the structural alteration of low-rank coal in low-severity liquefaction with the emphasis on the oxygen-containing functional groups; and (4) effects of solvents and catalyst dispersion methods in temperature-programmed and non-programmed liquefaction of three low-rank coals.

Song, C.; Saini, A.K.; Wenzel, K.; Huang, L.; Hatcher, P.G.; Schobert, H.H.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Pretreatment status report on the identification and evaluation of alternative processes. Milestone Report No. C064  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to support the development and demonstration of a pretreatment system that will (1) destroy organic materials and ferrocyanide in tank wastes so that the wastes can be stored safely, (2) separate the high-activity and low-activity fractions, (3) remove radionuclides and remove or destroy hazardous chemicals in LLW as necessary to meet waste form feed requirements, (4) support development and demonstration of vitrification technology by providing representative feeds to the bench-scale glass melter, (5) support full-scale HLW vitrification operations, including near-term operation, by providing feed that meets specifications, and (6) design and develop pretreatment processes that accomplish the above objectives and ensure compliance with environmental regulations. This report is a presentation of candidate technologies for pretreatment of Hanford Site tank waste. Included are descriptions of studies by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory of Battelle Memorial Institute; Science Applications International Corporation, an independent consultant; BNFL, Inc. representing British technologies; Numatec, representing French technologies; and brief accounts of other relevant activities.

Sutherland, D.G. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Brothers, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Beary, M.M.; Nicholson, G.A. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Improved Multivariate Calibration Models for Corn Stover Feedstock and Dilute-Acid Pretreated Corn Stover  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have studied rapid calibration models to predict the composition of a variety of biomass feedstocks by correlating near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic data to compositional data produced using traditional wet chemical analysis techniques. The rapid calibration models are developed using multivariate statistical analysis of the spectroscopic and wet chemical data. This work discusses the latest versions of the NIR calibration models for corn stover feedstock and dilute-acid pretreated corn stover. Measures of the calibration precision and uncertainty are presented. No statistically significant differences (p = 0.05) are seen between NIR calibration models built using different mathematical pretreatments. Finally, two common algorithms for building NIR calibration models are compared; no statistically significant differences (p = 0.05) are seen for the major constituents glucan, xylan, and lignin, but the algorithms did produce different predictions for total extractives. A single calibration model combining the corn stover feedstock and dilute-acid pretreated corn stover samples gave less satisfactory predictions than the separate models.

Wolfrum, E. J.; Sluiter, A. D.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Radioactive waste tank Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM) technology development and selection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The processing of nuclear materials at the Hanford Site has resulted in the accumulation of radioactive wastes stored in 177 single- and double-shell tanks (SSTs and DSTs). Fifty-four of the 177 tanks are currently on a tank watch list because organic chemicals and ferrocyanide compounds in the tanks present a potential fire or explosion hazard. In addition, one additional SST is under consideration for placement on the watch list because of high organic concentration. Seventeen of the watch list tanks require pretreatment, and two DST complexant concentrate waste tanks not on the watch list may also need pretreatment. The proposed Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM) is expected to resolve the safety concerns by destroying the organics and ferrocyanide compounds in the tank wastes. The primary objective of the IPM is to destroy or modify constituents that cause safety concerns in the watch list tanks. A secondary objective is to enhance the cost effectiveness of processing the wastes by performing additional processing. Overall, IPM will achieve organic/ferrocyanide destruction (the primary goal) and will assist in the separation of cesium, strontium, and technetium from the tank wastes.

Beeman, G.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hansrote, G. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Tank Waste Remediation System tank waste pretreatment and vitrification process development testing requirements assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multi-faceted study was initiated in November 1993 to provide assurance that needed testing capabilities, facilities, and support infrastructure (sampling systems, casks, transportation systems, permits, etc.) would be available when needed for process and equipment development to support pretreatment and vitrification facility design and construction schedules. This first major report provides a snapshot of the known testing needs for pretreatment, low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification, and documents the results of a series of preliminary studies and workshops to define the issues needing resolution by cold or hot testing. Identified in this report are more than 140 Hanford Site tank waste pretreatment and LLW/HLW vitrification technology issues that can only be resolved by testing. The report also broadly characterizes the level of testing needed to resolve each issue. A second report will provide a strategy(ies) for ensuring timely test capability. Later reports will assess the capabilities of existing facilities to support needed testing and will recommend siting of the tests together with needed facility and infrastructure upgrades or additions.

Howden, G.F.

1994-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

416

High-Throughput Thin Film Approach for Screening of Temperature-Pressure-Composition Phase Space  

SciTech Connect

Many solar energy technologies, for example CIGS and CdTe photovoltaics, utilize materials in thin film form. The equilibrium phase diagrams for these and other more novel solar energy materials are not known or are irrelevant because of the non-equilibrium character of the thin film growth processes. We demonstrate a high-throughput thin film approach for screening of temperature-pressure-composition phase diagrams and phase spaces. The examples in focus are novel solar absorbers Cu-N, Cu-O and p-type transparent conductors in the Cr2O3-MnO system. The composition axis of the Cr2O3-MnO phase diagram was screened using a composition spread method. The temperature axis of the Mn-O phase diagram was screened using a temperature spread method. The pressure axes of the Cu-N and Cu-O phase diagrams were screened using rate spread method with the aid of non-equilibrium growth phenomena. Overall these three methods constitute an approach to high-throughput screening of inorganic thin film phase diagrams. This research is supported by U.S. Department of Energy as a part of two NextGen Sunshot projects and an Energy Frontier Research Center.

Zakutayev, A.; Subramaniyan, A.; Caskey, C. M.; Ndione, P. F.; Richards, R. M.; O'Hayre, R.; Ginley, D. S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Optima MDxt: A high throughput 335 keV mid-dose implanter  

SciTech Connect

The continuing demand for both energy purity and implant angle control along with high wafer throughput drove the development of the Axcelis Optima MDxt mid-dose ion implanter. The system utilizes electrostatic scanning, an electrostatic parallelizing lens and an electrostatic energy filter to produce energetically pure beams with high angular integrity. Based on field proven components, the Optima MDxt beamline architecture offers the high beam currents possible with singly charged species including arsenic at energies up to 335 keV as well as large currents from multiply charged species at energies extending over 1 MeV. Conversely, the excellent energy filtering capability allows high currents at low beam energies, since it is safe to utilize large deceleration ratios. This beamline is coupled with the >500 WPH capable endstation technology used on the Axcelis Optima XEx high energy ion implanter. The endstation includes in-situ angle measurements of the beam in order to maintain excellent beam-to-wafer implant angle control in both the horizontal and vertical directions. The Optima platform control system provides new generation dose control system that assures excellent dosimetry and charge control. This paper will describe the features and technologies that allow the Optima MDxt to provide superior process performance at the highest wafer throughput, and will provide examples of the process performance achievable.

Eisner, Edward; David, Jonathan; Justesen, Perry; Kamenitsa, Dennis; McIntyre, Edward; Rathmell, Robert; Ray, Andrew; Rzeszut, Richard [Axcelis Technologies, Inc., 108 Cherry Hill Drive, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States)

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

418

Development of a high-throughput microfluidic integrated microarray for the detection of chimeric bioweapons.  

SciTech Connect

The advancement of DNA cloning has significantly augmented the potential threat of a focused bioweapon assault, such as a terrorist attack. With current DNA cloning techniques, toxin genes from the most dangerous (but environmentally labile) bacterial or viral organism can now be selected and inserted into robust organism to produce an infinite number of deadly chimeric bioweapons. In order to neutralize such a threat, accurate detection of the expressed toxin genes, rather than classification on strain or genealogical decent of these organisms, is critical. The development of a high-throughput microarray approach will enable the detection of unknowns chimeric bioweapons. The development of a high-throughput microarray approach will enable the detection of unknown bioweapons. We have developed a unique microfluidic approach to capture and concentrate these threat genes (mRNA's) upto a 30 fold concentration. These captured oligonucleotides can then be used to synthesize in situ oligonucleotide copies (cDNA probes) of the captured genes. An integrated microfluidic architecture will enable us to control flows of reagents, perform clean-up steps and finally elute nanoliter volumes of synthesized oligonucleotides probes. The integrated approach has enabled a process where chimeric or conventional bioweapons can rapidly be identified based on their toxic function, rather than being restricted to information that may not identify the critical nature of the threat.

Sheppod, Timothy; Satterfield, Brent; Hukari, Kyle W.; West, Jason A. A.; Hux, Gary A.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Generalized Schemes for High Throughput Manipulation of the Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough Genome.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ability to conduct advanced functional genomic studies of the thousands of 38 sequenced bacteria has been hampered by the lack of available tools for making high39 throughput chromosomal manipulations in a systematic manner that can be applied across 40 diverse species. In this work, we highlight the use of synthetic biological tools to 41 assemble custom suicide vectors with reusable and interchangeable DNA parts to 42 facilitate chromosomal modification at designated loci. These constructs enable an array 43 of downstream applications including gene replacement and creation of gene fusions with 44 affinity purification or localization tags. We employed this approach to engineer 45 chromosomal modifications in a bacterium that has previously proven difficult to 46 manipulate genetically, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, to generate a library of 47 662 strains. Furthermore, we demonstrate how these modifications can be used for 48 examining metabolic pathways, protein-protein interactions, and protein localization. The 49 ubiquity of suicide constructs in gene replacement throughout biology suggests that this 50 approach can be applied to engineer a broad range of species for a diverse array of 51 systems biological applications and is amenable to high-throughput implementation.

Chhabra, Swapnil [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Butland, Gareth [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL; Chandonia, John-Marc [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Fok, Olivia [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Juba, tom [University of Missouri; Gorur, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Allen, S. [University of California, San Francisco; Leung, C. M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Keller, Kim [University of Missouri; Reveco, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Zane, Mr. Grant M. [University of Missouri, Columbia; Semkiw, Elizabeth M. [University of Missouri; Prathapam, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Gold, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Singer, Mary [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Ouellet, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Sazakal, E. D. [University of California, San Francisco; Jorgens, Dominique [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Price, Morgan N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Witkowska, Ewa [University of California, San Francisco; Beller, Harry R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Hazen, Terry [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Biggin, Mark D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Auer, Dr. Manfred [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Wall, Judy D. [University of Missouri; Keasling, Jay [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Design philosophy for high-resolution rate and throughput spectroscopy systems  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes the philosophy behind the design of a pulse processing system used in a semiconductor detector x-ray spectrometer to be used for plasma diagnostics at the Princeton TFTR facility. This application presents the unusual problems of very high counting rates and a high-energy neutron background while still requiring excellent resolution. To meet these requirements three specific new advances are included in the design: (i) A symmetrical triangular pulse shape is employed in the main pulse-processing channel. A new simple method of generating a close approximation to the symmetrical triangle has been developed. (ii) To cope with the very wide dynamic range of signals while maintaining a constant fast resolving time, approximately symmetical triangular pulse shaping is also used in the fast pulse pile-up inspection channel. (iii) The demand for high throughput has resulted in a re-examination of the operation of pile-up rejectors and pulse stretchers. As a result a technique has been developed that, for a given total pulse shaping time, permits approximately a 40% increase in throughput in the system. Performance results obtained using the new techniques are presented.

Goulding, F.S.; Landis, D.A.; Madden, N.W.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Argonne's HigH THrougHpuT reseArcH LAborATory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

accelerating materials innovation accelerating materials innovation Argonne's HigH THrougHpuT reseArcH LAborATory The conventional "one-at-a-time" sequential approach for synthesizing, characterizing and evaluating new materials typically provides only incremental improvements; it is both labor- and resource-intensive as well as very expensive. T h e d is c o v e r y a n d s y n t h e s is o f n e w m a t e r ia ls a r e c r it ic a l b o t t le n e c k s in t h e s e a r c h f o r a lt e r n a t iv e e n e r g y s o u r c e s . Argonne nATionAL LAborATory's High Throughput research Laboratory accelerates the discovery and optimization of new materials, leading to "quantum jump" improvements and fast-tracked marketplace entry. Argonne's HTR provides highly automated and parallel approaches to materials development. This allows scientists to

422

Pretreatment of neutralized cladding removal waste sludge: Results of the second design basis experiment  

SciTech Connect

For several years, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been investigating methods to pretreat Hanford neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) sludge. In the past, Zircaloy-clad metallic U fuel was chemically decladded using the Zirflex process; NCRW sludge was formed when the decladding solution was neutralized for storage in carbon-steel tanks. This sludge, which is currently stored in Tanks 103-AW and 105-AW on the Hanford Site, primarily consists of insoluble Zr hydroxides and/or oxides and NaF. Significant quantities of Al, La, U, as well as other insoluble minor constituents are present in the sludge, along with sodium and potassium nitrates, nitrites, and hydroxides in the interstitial liquid. The sludge contains about 2,000 nCi of transuranic (TRU) material per gram of dry sludge, and mixed fission products. Therefore, the sludge must be handled as high-level waste (HLW). The NCRW sludge must be pretreated before treatment (e.g., vitrification) and disposal, so that the overall cost of disposal can be minimized. The NCRW pretreatment flowsheet was designed to achieve the following objectives: (a) to separate Am and Pu from the major sludge constituents (Na, Zr). (b) to separate Am and Pu from U. (c) to concentrate Am and Pu in a small volume for immobilization in borosilicate glass, based on Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The flowsheet involves: (1) sludge washing, (2) sludge dissolution, (3) extraction of U with tributyl phosphate (TBP), and (4) extraction of TRUs with octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutlycarbamoylmethyl-phosphine oxide (CMPO). As presented in the flowsheet, the NCRW sludge is first washed with 0.I M NaOH to remove interstitial liquid and soluble salts from the sludge including sodium and potassium fluorides, carbonates, hydroxides, nitrates, and nitrites. The washed sludge is then subjected to two dissolution steps to achieve near complete dissolution of Zr.

Lumetta, G.J.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

A review on biomass classification and composition, cofiring issues and pretreatment methods  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Presently around the globe there is a significant interest in using biomass for power generation as power generation from coal continues to raise environmental concerns. Biomass alone can be used for generation of power which can bring lot of environmental benefits. However the constraints of using biomass alone can include high investments costs for biomass feed systems and also uncertainty in the security of the feedstock supply due to seasonal variations and in most of the countries biomass is dispersed and the infrastructure for biomass supply is not well established. Alternatively cofiring biomass along with coal offer advantages like (a) reducing the issues related to biomass quality and buffers the system when there is insufficient feedstock quantity and (b) costs of adapting the existing coal power plants will be lower than building new systems dedicated only to biomass. However with the above said advantages there exists some technical constrains including low heating and energy density values, low bulk density, lower grindability index, higher moisture and ash content to successfully cofire biomass with coal. In order to successfully cofire biomass with coal, biomass feedstock specifications need to be established to direct pretreatment options that may include increasing the energy density, bulk density, stability during storage and grindability. Impacts on particle transport systems, flame stability, pollutant formation and boiler tube fouling/corrosion must also be minimized by setting feedstock specifications including composition and blend ratios if necessary. Some of these limitations can be overcome by using pretreatment methods. This paper discusses the impact of feedstock pretreatment methods like sizing, baling, pelletizing, briquetting, washing/leaching, torrefaction, torrefaction and pelletization and steam explosion in attainment of optimum feedstock characteristics to successfully cofire biomass with coal.

Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Richard D. Boardman

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Hydrothermal Testing of K Basin Sludge and N Reactor Fuel at Sludge Treatment Project Operating Conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed for the U. S. DOE by Fluor Hanford (FH), was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from K Basin sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The STP process uses high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. Under nominal process conditions, the sludge will be heated in pressurized water at 185C for as long as 72 hours to assure the complete reaction (corrosion) of up to 0.25-inch diameter uranium metal pieces. Under contract to FH, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted bench-scale testing of the STP hydrothermal process in November and December 2006. Five tests (~50 ml each) were conducted in sealed, un-agitated reaction vessels under the hydrothermal conditions (e.g., 7 to 72 h at 185C) of the STP corrosion process using radioactive sludge samples collected from the K East Basin and particles/coupons of N Reactor fuel also taken from the K Basins. The tests were designed to evaluate and understand the chemical changes that may be occurring and the effects that any changes would have on sludge rheological properties. The tests were not designed to evaluate engineering aspects of the process. The hydrothermal treatment affected the chemical and physical properties of the sludge. In each test, significant uranium compound phase changes were identified, resulting from dehydration and chemical reduction reactions. Physical properties of the sludge were significantly altered from their initial, as-settled sludge values, including, shear strength, settled density, weight percent water, and gas retention.

Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Thornton, Brenda M.

2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

425

Reactive Separations via a Hydrothermally Stable Hydrogen Selective Membrane. Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this SBIR Phase I program, we have successfully completed the fabrication of SiC-based hydrogen selective membranes suitable for use as a membrane reactor for steam-methane reforming applications. Hydrothermal stability was performed for selected membrane to demonstrate their stability for appx. 50 hours under the proposed reforming condition. In addition, several mechanistic study was conducted to elucidate the SiC membrane formation mechanism. This understanding will facilitate membrane optimization work to be proposed for the Phase II study. The reaction study was postponed to the Phase II study.

Ciora, R. J.; Liu, P. KT.

2002-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

426

Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Lignin-Rich Biorefinery Residues and Algae Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the results of the work performed by PNNL using feedstock materials provided by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, KL Energy and Lignol lignocellulosic ethanol pilot plants. Test results with algae feedstocks provided by Genifuel, which provided in-kind cost share to the project, are also included. The work conducted during this project involved developing and demonstrating on the bench-scale process technology at PNNL for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of lignin-rich biorefinery residues and algae. A technoeconomic assessment evaluated the use of the technology for energy recovery in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Valkenburg, Corinne; Jones, Susanne B.; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.

2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

427

Discernment of two opposing reports on the hydrological effects of a hydrothermal power plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two evaluations to determine the hydrological effects of a 50-megawatt hydrothermal power plant in the Jemez Mountains give dramatically different results. One shows little effect; the other, a large one. The treatments agree on some thermal-zone water supplies to the Jemez River but not on the expected changes in these flows. The primary areas of disagreement appear to be the total volume of water in the reservoir and the movement of this water to the point of withdrawal. The author (a nonhydrologist) has compared these reports but leaves final judgment of the accuracy of either evaluation for some erudite hydrologists, as some experimental data and model development are needed.

Williams, J.M.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Comparative assessment of five potential sites for magma: hydrothermal systems - geophysics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of a comparative assessment for the Continental Scientific Drilling Program, geophysical data were used, to characterize and evaluate potential magma-hydrothermal targets at five drill sites in the western United States. The sites include Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah, the Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico, and The Geysers-Clear Lake, Long Valley, and Salton Trough areas, California. This summary discusses the size, depth, temperature, and setting of each potential target, as well as relvant scientific questions about their natures and the certainty of their existence.

Kasameyer, P.

1980-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

429

A High-Throughput 3-D X-ray Microtomography System with Real-Time 3-D  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Throughput 3-D X-ray Microtomography System with Real-Time 3-D Throughput 3-D X-ray Microtomography System with Real-Time 3-D Reconstruction A high-throughput x-ray microtomography system (XMS) that can acquire, reconstruct, and interactively display rendered 3-D images of a sample at micrometer-scale resolution within minutes has been developed at Advanced Photon Source (APS) beamline 2-BM, which is managed by the Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation Collaborative Access Team (SRI-CAT). This system could bring better understanding of an array of scientific and technological problems, ranging from failure in microelectronic devices to structures in biological samples. A rendered image from a three-dimensional tomographic reconstruction of a cricket, obtained with the x-ray microtomography system. The image has been digitally cut at different planes to show the internal structures of the cricket's head.

430

Sulfuric Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Photoperiod Sensitvie Sorghum for Ethanol Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Photoperiod sensitive (PS) sorghum, with high soluble sugar content, high mass yield and high drought tolerance in dryland environments, has great potential for bioethanol production. The effect of diluted sulfuric acid pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. Hydrolysis efficiency increased from 78.9 to 94.4% as the acid concentration increased from 0.5 to 1.5%. However, the highest total glucose yield (80.3%) occurred at the 1.0% acid condition because of the significant cellulose degradation at the 1.5% concentration. Synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction was used to study changes of the degree of crystallinity. With comparison of cellulosic crystallinity and adjusted cellulosic crystallinity, the crystalline cellulose decreased after low acidic concentration (0.5%) applied, but did not change significantly, as the acid concentration increased. Scanning electron microscopy was also employed to understand how the morphological structure of PS sorghum changed after pretreatment. Under current processing conditions, the total ethanol yield is 74.5% (about 0.2 g ethanol from 1 g PS sorghum). A detail mass balance was also provided.

F Xu; Y Shi; X Wu

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

431

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Moessbauer studies of pretreated ultrafine iron oxide catalysts. Partial quarterly progress report, April--June 1992  

SciTech Connect

Moessbauer spectroscopy indicates that a 24 hour-pretreatment in CO at 260{degrees}C and 8 atm. in a tetralin solvent almost completely converts uftrafine iron oxide (about 3 nm) to iron carbide. However, pretreatment in hydrogen under the same conditions resulted in reduction of about 33% of the iron to metallic Fe; the remainder was Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Exposure of the CO pretreated catalyst to a 1:1 HDCO synthesis gas resulted in the gradual reoxidation of the carbides to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. During the first 2 hours of exposure of the H{sub 2} pretreated sample to synthesis gas,.the metallic Fe was converted to iron carbides. Further exposure of the H{sub 2} pretreatment sample to synthesis gas did not result in a composition change of the catalyst. Therefore, it is concluded that iron carbides with different oxidation characteristics were formed in these two cases.

Chenshi Huang; Davis, B.H. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Rao, K.R.P.M.; Huffman, G.P.; Huggins, F.E. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Inst. for Mining and Minerals Research

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Effect of Lignin Removal by Alkaline Peroxide Pretreatment on the Susceptibility of Corn Stover to Purified Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Enzymes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pretreatment of corn stover with alkaline peroxide (AP) at pH 11.5 resulted in reduction of lignin content in the residual solids as a function of increasing batch temperature. Scanning electron microscopy of these materials revealed notably more textured surfaces on the plant cell walls as a result of the delignifying pretreatment. As expected, digestion of the delignified samples with commercial cellulase preparations showed an inverse relationship between the content of lignin present in the residual solids after pretreatment and the extent of both glucan and xylan conversion achievable. Digestions with purified enzymes revealed that decreased lignin content in the pretreated solids did not significantly impact the extent of glucan conversion achievable by cellulases alone. Not until purified xylanolytic activities were included with the cellulases were significant improvements in glucan conversion realized. In addition, an inverse relationship was observed between lignin content after pretreatment and the extent of xylan conversion achievable in a 24-h period with the xylanolytic enzymes in the absence of the cellulases. This observation, coupled with the direct relationship between enzymatic xylan and glucan conversion observed in a number of cases, suggests that the presence of lignins may not directly occlude cellulose present in lignocelluloses but rather impact cellulase action indirectly by its association with xylan.

Selig, M. J.; Vinzant, T. B.; Himmel, M. E.; Decker, S. R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Heat flow in relation to hydrothermal activity in the southern Black Rock Desert, Nevada  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of an investigation of the Gerlach NE KGRA (Known Geothermal Resource Area) a number of heat-flow measurements were made in playa sediments of the southern Black Rock Desert, northwestern Nevada. These data together with additional previously unpublished heat-flow values reveal a complex pattern of heat flow with values ranging between 1.0 to 5.0 HFU (40 to 100 mWm/sup -2/) outside of the hot springs area. The mean heat flow for the 13 reported sites in the southern Black Rock Desert is 1.8 +- 0.15 HFU (75 +- 6 mWm/sup -2/). The complexity of the pattern of heat flow is believed to arise from hydrothermal circulation supporting the numerous hot springs throughout the region. The fact that the lowest observed heat flow occurs in the deepest part of the basin strongly suggests that fluid movement within the basin represents part of the recharge for the hydrothermal system. A thermal balance for the system incorporating both anomalous conductive heat loss and convective heat loss from the spring systems indicate a total energy loss of about 8.0 Mcal/sec or 34 megawatts over an estimated 1000 km/sup 2/ region. Consideration of this additional heat loss yields a mean regional heat flow of 2.5 + HFU (100 + mWm/sup -2/) and warrants inclusion of this region in the Battle Mountain heat-flow high (Lachenbruch and Sass, 1977, 1978).

Sass, J.H.; Zoback, M.L.; Galanis, S.P. Jr.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Hydrothermal alteration at Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA: DDH 1976-1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hot waters of the Roosevelt Thermal Area, Utah, have altered granitic rocks and detritus of the Mineral Range pluton, Utah. Alteration and mineral deposition recognized in a 200' drill core from DDH 1-76 is most intense in the upper 100 feet which consists of altered alluvium and opal deposits; the lower 100 feet is weakly altered quartz monzonite. Petrographic, x-ray, and chemical methods were used to characterize systematic changes in chemistry and mineralogy. Comparison of the alteration mineral assemblages with known water chemistry and equilibrium activity diagrams suggests that a simple solution equilibrium model cannot account for the alteration. A model is proposed in which upward moving thermal water supersaturated with respect to quartz and a downward moving cool water undersaturated with respect to quartz produces the observed alteration. An estimate of the heat flow contributions from hydrothermal alteration was made by calculating reaction enthalpies for alteration reactions at each depth. The estimated heat flow varied from .02 HFU (for 200' depth, 400,000 yr duration, and no sulfur oxidation) to 67 HFU (for 5,000' depth, 1,000 yr duration, and all sulfur oxidized from sulfide). Heat flow contributions from hydrothermal alteration are comparable with those from a cooling granitic magma.

Bryant, N.L.; Parry, W.T.

1977-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Faults and gravity anomalies over the East Mesa hydrothermal-geothermal system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Detailed interpretations of gravity anomalies over geothermal systems may be extremely useful for mapping the fracture or fault systems that control the circulation of the thermal waters. This approach seems to be particularly applicable in areas like the Salton Trough where reactions between the thermal waters and the porous sediments produce authigenic-hydrothermal minerals in sufficient quantity to cause distinct gravity anomalies at the surface. A 3-D inversion of the residual Bouguer gravity anomaly over the East Mesa geothermal field was made to examine the densified volume of rock. We show that the data not only resolve a north-south and an intersecting northwest structure, but that it may be possible to distinguish between the active present-day hydrothermal system and an older and cooler part of the system. The densified region is compared spatially to self-potential, thermal and seismic results and we find a good concordance between the different geophysical data sets. Our results agree with previous studies that have indicated that the main feeder fault recharging the East Mesa reservoir dips steeply to the west.

Goldstein, N.E.; Carle, S.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Hydrothermal research and development assessment. Task force report: projections for electric systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is estimated that high temperature (greater than 150/sup 0/C or 300/sup 0/F) hydrothermal resources in the western United States have the potential for producing about 140,000 megawatts of electric power for 30 years. The objectives of the present analysis were to realistically evaluate the extent to which these resources might be utilized over the next 20 years, and to assess the probably impact of Federal programs on that utilization. The R and D assessment team interviewed industry personnel to determine the nature and the relative significance of investment decision criteria for developers and utilities. The results of these interviews were used to develop a probabilistic model to simulate the investment decision behavior of these two groups toward hydrothermal resources. Estimations of the characteristics of anticipated available resources (e.g., temperature, salinity, depth) and predictions of the geographic distribution of new resource discoveries were based upon the characteristics and distribution of known reservoirs. The impact of a minimal R and D program and the impact of expanded R and D program were estimated on the basis of its effect upon industry investment decision criteria (e.g., the cost of power). The Task Force estimates comparing three different scenarios: (1) no program, (2) minimal R and D, and (3) expanded R and D are presented.

Not Available

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Integrated crystal mounting and alignment system for high-throughput biological crystallography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for the transportation, remote and unattended mounting, and visual alignment and monitoring of protein crystals for synchrotron generated x-ray diffraction analysis. The protein samples are maintained at liquid nitrogen temperatures at all times: during shipment, before mounting, mounting, alignment, data acquisition and following removal. The samples must additionally be stably aligned to within a few microns at a point in space. The ability to accurately perform these tasks remotely and automatically leads to a significant increase in sample throughput and reliability for high-volume protein characterization efforts. Since the protein samples are placed in a shipping-compatible layered stack of sample cassettes each holding many samples, a large number of samples can be shipped in a single cryogenic shipping container.

Nordmeyer, Robert A. (San Leandro, CA); Snell, Gyorgy P. (Richmond, CA); Cornell, Earl W. (Antioch, CA); Kolbe, William F. (Moraga, CA); Yegian, Derek T. (Oakland, CA); Earnest, Thomas N. (Berkeley, CA); Jaklevich, Joseph M. (Lafayette, CA); Cork, Carl W. (Walnut Creek, CA); Santarsiero, Bernard D. (Chicago, IL); Stevens, Raymond C. (La Jolla, CA)

2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

438

Routing and packet scheduling for throughput maximization in ieee 802.16 mesh networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract This paper considers the problem of maximizing the system throughput in IEEE 802.16 broadband access networks with mesh topology, and the following results are presented. We first consider a simplified linear network with only uplink traffic and provide an optimal scheduling algorithm and establish an analytical result on the length of the schedule. We then consider the problem of routing and packet scheduling in general topology, and show its NPcompleteness. We also provide an ILP formulation for this problem. Based on our optimal algorithm for linear networks, we propose algorithms that find routes and schedules of packet transmissions in general mesh topologies. The performance of our proposed algorithms is analyzed using the NS-2 simulator. The results show that the suggested algorithms perform significantly better than other existing algorithms.

Fanchun Jin; Amrinder Arora; Jinho Hwang; Hyeong-ah Choi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste combining two pretreatment modalities, high temperature microwave and hydrogen peroxide  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microwave and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pretreatment were studied to enhance anaerobic digestion of organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The whole waste pretreated at 115 Degree-Sign C or 145 Degree-Sign C had the highest biogas production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biogas production of the whole waste decreased at 175 Degree-Sign C due to formation of refractory compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pretreatment to 145 Degree-Sign C and 175 Degree-Sign C were the best when considering only the free liquid fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pretreatment had a lag phase and the biogas production was not higher than MW pretreated samples. - Abstract: In order to enhance anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), pretreatment combining two modalities, microwave (MW) heating in presence or absence of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) were investigated. The main pretreatment variables affecting the characteristics of the OFMSW were temperature (T) via MW irradiation and supplemental water additions of 20% and 30% (SWA20 and SW30). Subsequently, the focus of this study was to evaluate mesophilic batch AD performance in terms of biogas production, as well as changes in the characteristics of the OFMSW post digestion. A high MW induced temperature range (115-175 Degree-Sign C) was applied, using sealed vessels and a bench scale MW unit equipped with temperature and pressure controls. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted on the whole OFMSW as well as the liquid fractions. The whole OFMSW pretreated at 115 Degree-Sign C and 145 Degree-Sign C showed 4-7% improvement in biogas production over untreated OFMSW (control). When pretreated at 175 Degree-Sign C, biogas production decreased due to formation of refractory compounds, inhibiting the digestion. For the liquid fraction of OFMSW, the effect of pretreatment on the cumulative biogas production (CBP) was more pronounced for SWA20 at 145 Degree-Sign C, with a 26% increase in biogas production after 8 days of digestion, compared to the control. When considering the increased substrate availability in the liquid fraction after MW pretreatment, a 78% improvement in biogas production vs. the control was achieved. Combining MW and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} modalities did not have a positive impact on OFMSW stabilization and enhanced biogas production. In general, all samples pretreated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} displayed a long lag phase and the CBP was usually lower than MW irradiated only samples. First order rate constant was calculated.

Shahriari, Haleh, E-mail: haleh.shahriari@gmail.com [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur St., P.O. Box 450, Stn. A, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Warith, Mostafa [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur St., P.O. Box 450, Stn. A, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Hamoda, Mohamed [Department of Environmental Technology and Management, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait); Kennedy, Kevin J. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur St., P.O. Box 450, Stn. A, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

440

Effects of Dilute Acid Pretreatment on Cellulose DP and the Relationship Between DP Reduction and Cellulose Digestibility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The degree of polymerization(DP) of cellulose is considered to be one of the most important properties affecting the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Various pure cellulosic and biomass materials have been used in a study of the effect of dilute acid treatment on cellulose DP. A substantial reduction in DP was found for all pure cellulosic materials studied even at conditions that would be considered relatively mild for pretreatment. The effect of dilute acid pretreatment on cellulose DP in biomass samples was also investigated. Corn stover pretreated with dilute acid under the most optimal conditions contained cellulose with a DPw in the range of 1600{approx}3500, which is much higher than the level-off DP(DPw 150{approx}300) obtained with pure celluloses. The effect of DP reduction on the saccharification of celluloses was also studied. From this study it does not appear that cellulose DP is a main factor affecting cellulose saccharification.

Wang, W.; Chen, X.; Tucker, M.; Himmel, M. E.; Johnson, D. K.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Combined Dilute Acid and Solvent Based Pretreatment of Agricultural Wastes for Efficient Lignocellulosic Fractionation and Biofuels Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A true biorefinery for processing lignocellulosic biomass should achieve maximum utilization of all major constituents (cellulose, hemicellulose, & lignin) within the feedstock. In this work a combined pretreatment process of dilute acid (DA) and N-methyl morpholine N-oxide (NMMO) is described that allows for both fractionation and subsequent complete hydrolysis of the feedstocks (corn stover and sugarcane bagasse). During this multi-step processing, the dilute acid pretreatment solubilizes the majority (>90%) of the hemicellulosic fraction, while the NMMO treatment yields a cellulosic fraction that is completely digestible within 48 hours at low enzyme loadings. With both the cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions being converted into separate, dissolved sugar fractions, the remaining portion is nearly pure lignin. When used independently, DA and NMMO pretreatments are only able to achieve ~80% and ~45% cellulosic conversion, respectively. Mass balance calculations along with experimental results are used to illustrate the feasibility of separation and recycling of NMMO.

Brodeur, G.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Wilson, C.; Telotte, J.; Collier, J.; Stickel, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Mapping out the structural changes of natural and pretreated plant cell wall surfaces by atomic force microscopy single molecular recognition imaging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and fractionation of corn stover by ammonia recyclethe enzymic hydrolysis of corn stover. Biomass Bioenergyafter steam pretreatment of corn stover with or without the

Zhang, Mengmeng; Chen, Guojun; Kumar, Rajeev; Xu, Bingqian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Supplementation with xylanase and beta-xylosidase to reduce xylo-oligomer and xylan inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and pretreated corn stover  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pretreatment technologies to corn stover. Bioresourcerelationship to features of corn stover solids produced byexplosion treatment of corn stover. Appl Biochem Biotech

Qing, Qing; Wyman, Charles E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Performance and scalability of OpenMP programs on the sun FireTM e25k throughput computing server  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Sun FireTM K is the first generation of high-end servers built to the Throughput Computing strategy of Sun Microsystems. The server can scale up to 72 UltraSPARC IV processors with Chip MultiThreading (CMT) technology, and execute ...

Myungho Lee; Brian Whitney; Nawal Copty

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

PIPA: A High-Throughput Pipeline for Protein Function Annotation Chenggang Yu, Valmik Desai, Nela Zavaljevski, and Jaques Reifman  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PIPA: A High-Throughput Pipeline for Protein Function Annotation Chenggang Yu, Valmik Desai, Nela of multisource predictions. We developed Pipeline for Protein Annotation (PIPA), a genome-wide protein function annotation pipeline that runs in a high-performance computing environment. PIPA integrates different tools

446

PIPELINED PARALLEL ARCHITECTURE FOR HIGH THROUGHPUT MAP DETECTORS Ruwan Ratnayake, Gu-Yeon Wei and Aleksandar Kavcic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PIPELINED PARALLEL ARCHITECTURE FOR HIGH THROUGHPUT MAP DETECTORS Ruwan Ratnayake, Gu-Yeon Wei performance close to the channel capacity limits. Deep pipelined architecture for the forward only method, where as FB-BCJR only allow sequential state metric computations. Parallelism facilitates pipelining, re

Kavcic, Aleksandar

447

Evaluating the impact of network density, hidden nodes and capture effect for throughput guarantee in multi-hop wireless networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To optimize the performance of wireless networks, one needs to consider the impact of key factors such as interference from hidden nodes, the capture effect, the network density and network conditions (saturated versus non-saturated). In this research, ... Keywords: Capture effect, Hidden nodes, Multi-hop wireless networks, Throughput guarantee

Haitao Zhao; Emiliano Garcia-Palacios; Shan Wang; Jibo Wei; Dongtang Ma

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Economic and engineering studies for hydrothermal electric power plants. Final technical report, September 15, 1980-December 31, 1981  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Seven pre-conceptual designs of small hydrothermal power plants are presented covering resource temperature of 341/sup 0/F, 405/sup 0/F, and 515/sup 0/F and considering both flashed steam and binary cycle approaches for each temperature. These design studies are presented in six reports. A separate abstract was prepared for each report. (MHR)

Pitts, D.R.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Cellulose solventbased biomass pretreatment breaks highly ordered hydrogen bonds in cellulose fibers of switchgrass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solvent-Based Solvent-Based Biomass Pretreatment Breaks Highly Ordered Hydrogen Bonds in Cellulose Fibers of Switchgrass Noppadon Sathitsuksanoh, 1,2 Zhiguang Zhu, 1 Sungsool Wi, 3 Y.-H. Percival Zhang 1,2,4 1 Biological Systems Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), 210-A Seitz Hall, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061; telephone: 540-231-7414, fax: 540-231-3199; e-mail: ypzhang@vt.edu 2 Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science (ICTAS), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 3 Chemistry Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 4 DOE BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), Oak Ridge, Tennessee Received 25 June 2010; revision received 23 August 2010; accepted 4 October 2010 Published online 21 October 2010 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com).

450

The Zymomonas mobilis regulator hfq contributes to tolerance against multiple lignocellulosic pretreatment inhibitors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Yang et al. BMC Microbiology 2010, 10:135 Yang et al. BMC Microbiology 2010, 10:135 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2180/10/135 Open Access R E S E A R C H A R T I C L E BioMed Central © 2010 Yang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Research article The Zymomonas mobilis regulator hfq contributes to tolerance against multiple lignocellulosic pretreatment inhibitors Shihui Yang 1,2 , Dale A Pelletier 1 , Tse-Yuan S Lu 1 and Steven D Brown* 1,2 Abstract Background: Zymomonas mobilis produces near theoretical yields of ethanol and recombinant strains are candidate

451

Preliminary design requirements document (DRD) for Project W-236B, ``Initial Pretreatment Module``  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this Design Requirements Document (DRD) is to identify and define the functions, with associated requirements, which must be performed to separate Hanford Site tank waste supernatants into low-level and high-level fractions. This documents sets forth function requirements, performance requirements, and design constraints necessary to begin conceptual design for the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM). System and physical interfaces between the IPM project and the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) are identified. The constraints, performance requirements, and transfer of information and data across a technical interface will be documented in an Interface Control Document. Supplemental DRDs will be prepared to provide more detailed requirements specific to systems described in the DRD.

Swanson, L.M.

1995-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

452

A NEW PROCESS DEVELOPED FOR SEPARATION OF LIGNIN FROM AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE PRETREATMENT SOLUTIONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method is described for separating lignin from liquid solutions resulting from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials such as switchgrass with ammonium hydroxide. The method involves a sequence of steps including acidification, evaporation, and precipitation or centrifugation that are performed under defined conditions, and results in a relatively pure, solid lignin product. The method is tested on ammonium hydroxide solutions containing lignin extracted from switchgrass. Experimental results show that the method is capable of recovering between 66-95% of dissolved lignin as a precipitated solid. Cost estimates of pilot-scale and industrial-scale expressions of the process indicate that breakeven lignin prices of $2.36/kg and $0.78/kg, respectively, may be obtainable with this recovery method.

Sherman, S.; Gorensek, M.; Milliken, C.

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

453

The Role of Pretreatment FDG-PET in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Pretreatment with 2- [{sup 18}F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET) was evaluated as a predictor of local failure-free survival (LFFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) in patients with nonkeratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) alone or concurrently with chemotherapy (CCRT). Patients and Methods: Seventy-five M0 NPC patients who received FDG-PET before treatment were analyzed. The primary tumor FDG uptake was measured as the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). The LFFS, DFS, and OS were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the differences were evaluated on log-rank test. The prognostic significance was assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Eighteen patients received IMRT alone and 57 received CCRT. The mean SUVmax was significantly higher in 12 patients with locoregional or distant failure than in those without failure (p 5) indicates poor outcome in patients with NPC.

Liu, Wen-Shan [School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University and Department of Radiation Oncology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Fang [School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University and Division of Medical Oncology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Hsien-Chun [School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University and Department of Radiation Oncology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Liu, Jung-Tung [School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University and Department of Surgery, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Weng, Jui-Hung [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Li, Yueh-Chun [School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University and Department of Radiation Oncology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jong-Kang, E-mail: jongkanglee@hotmail.com [School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Impact of Mixed Feedstocks and Feedstock Densification on Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Background: Lignocellulosic biorefineries must be able to efficiently process the regional feedstocks that are available at cost-competitive prices year round. These feedstocks typically have low energy densities and vary significantly in composition. One potential solution to these issues is blending and/or densifying the feedstocks in order to create a uniform feedstock. Results/discussion: We have mixed four feedstocks - switchgrass, lodgepole pine, corn stover, and eucalyptus - in flour and pellet form and processed them using the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Sugar yields from both the mixed flour and pelletized feedstocks reach 90% within 24 hours of saccharification. Conclusions: Mixed feedstocks, in either flour or pellet form, are efficiently processed using this pretreatment process, and demonstrate that this approach has significant potential.

Jian Shi; Vicki S. Thompson; Neal A. Yancey; Vitalie Stavila; Blake A. Simmons; Seema Singh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

SPONTANEOUS CATALYTIC WET AIR OXIDATION DURING PRE-TREATMENT OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE SLUDGE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR) operates the Defense Waste Processing Facility for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Savannah River Site. This facility immobilizes high-level radioactive waste through vitrification following chemical pretreatment. Catalytic destruction of formate and oxalate ions to carbon dioxide has been observed during qualification testing of non-radioactive analog systems. Carbon dioxide production greatly exceeded hydrogen production, indicating the occurrence of a process other than the catalytic decomposition of formic acid. Statistical modeling was used to relate the new reaction chemistry to partial catalytic wet air oxidation of both formate and oxalate ions driven by the low concentrations of palladium, rhodium, and/or ruthenium in the waste. Variations in process conditions led to increases or decreases in the total oxidative destruction, as well as partially shifting the preferred species undergoing destruction from oxalate ion to formate ion.

Koopman, D.; Herman, C.; Pareizs, J.; Bannochie, C.; Best, D.; Bibler, N.; Fellinger, T.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Evaluation of solid-based separation materials for the pretreatment of radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Separation science will play an important role in pretreating nuclear wastes stored at various US Department of Energy Sites. The application of separation processes offers potential economic and environmental benefits with regards to remediating these sites. For example, at the Hanford Site, the sizeable volume of radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks could be partitioned into a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) and a relatively large volume of low-level waste (LLW). After waste separation, only the smaller volume of HLW would require costly vitrification and geologic disposal. Furthermore, the quality of the remaining LLW form (e.g., grout) would be improved due to the lower inventory of radionuclides present in the LLW stream. This report investigates extraction chromatography as a possible separation process for Hanford wastes.

Lumetta, G.J.; Wagner, M.J.; Wester, D.W.; Morrey, J.R.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Evaluation of hydrothermal resources of North Dakota. Phase II. Final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This evaluation of the hydrothermal resources of North Dakota is based on existing data on file with the North Dakota Geological Survey (NDGS) and other state and federal agencies, and field and laboratory studies conducted. The principal sources of data used during the Phase II study were WELLFILE, the computer library of oil and gas well data developed during the Phase I study, and WATERCAT, a computer library system of water well data assembled during the Phase II study. A field survey of the shallow geothermal gradients present in selected groundwater observation holes was conducted. Laboratory determinations of the thermal conductivity of core samples is being done to facilitate heat-flow calculations on those hole-of-convenience cased.

Harris, K.L.; Howell, F.L.; Winczewski, L.M.; Wartman, B.L.; Umphrey, H.R.; Anderson, S.B.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Evaluation of hydrothermal resources of North Dakota. Phase III final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The hydrothermal resources of North Dakota were evaluated. This evaluation was based on existing data on file with the North Dakota Geological Survey (NDGS) and other state and federal agencies, and field and laboratory studies conducted. The principal sources of data used during the study were WELLFILE, the computer library of oil and gas well data developed during the Phase I study, and WATERCAT, a computer library system of water well data assembled during the Phase II study. A field survey of the shallow geothermal gradients present in selected groundwater observation holes was conducted. Laboratory determinations of the thermal conductivity of core samples were done to facilitate heat-flow calculations on those holes-of-convenience cased.

Harris, K.L.; Howell, F.L.; Wartman, B.L.; Anderson, S.B.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Hydrothermal Alteration Mineral Mapping Using Hyperspectral Imagery in Dixie Valley, Nevada  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hyperspectral (HyMap) data was used to map the location of outcrops of high temperature, hydrothermally alterated minerals (including alunite, pyrophyllite, and hematite) along a 15 km swath of the eastern front of the Stillwater Mountain Range in Dixie Valley, Nevada. Analysis of this data set reveals that several outcrops of these altered minerals exist in the area, and that one outcrop, roughly 1 square kilometer in area, shows abundant high temperature alteration. Structural analysis of the altered region using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) suggests that this outcrop is bounded on all sides by a set of cross-cutting faults. This fault set lies within the Dixie Valley Fault system (Caskey et al. 1996). Both the intense alteration in this area and the presence of cross-cutting faults indicate a high probability of recent hot fluid escape.

Kennedy-Bowdoin, T; Martini, B A; Silver, E A; Pickles, W L

2004-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

460

The use of air as a natural tracer infractured hydrothermal systems, Los Azufres, Mexico, case study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Injection of atmospheric air mixed with cold water has been occurring since 1982 at the Los Azufres geothermal field. Several chemical and thermodynamical evidences show that air injection into this fractured hydrothermal system could be considered as a long term natural tracer test. Nitrogen and Argon separated from the air mixture migrate, under the action of the induced injection-extraction gradient, from reinjection sectors to production zones following preferential paths closely related to high permeability conduits. A coarse numerical estimation of the average permeability tensor existing at Tejamaniles, the southern sector, explains the unsuccessful recovery of the artificial tracer tests performed in past years: the anisotropic nature of the fractured volcanic rock would demand considerably quantities of tracer in order to be detected at the producing wells, especially when fluid extraction was low. At the same time concentrations of calcium, cesium, chloride, potassium, rubidium and sodium, are increasing in the liquid produced by the oldest wells of this field's sector.

Mario Cesar Sudrez Arriaga; Hector Gutierrez Puente, Josefina Moreno Ochoa

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "throughput hydrothermal pretreatment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Possible evidence for fluid-rock oxygen isotope disequilibrium in hydrothermal systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There is ample evidence from geothermal systems that isotope temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope fractionation between alteration phases and coexisting aquifer fluids agree closely with measured bore-hole temperatures. Similar, but limited evidence is found in epithermal vein deposits where isotopes temperature agree well with fluid inclusion homogenization temperature. Conversely, many hydrothermal systems exhibit varying degrees of fluid-rock oxygen isotope equilibration. There appears to be a crude relationship between increasing degree of equilibrium and increasing temperature and salinity. The observed variations in the degree of exchange may have resulted from local, self-sealing of the fracture network prior to equilibration. The ability for fracture to remain open or to propogate allowing continued fluid flow may be the deciding factor in the attainment of isotopic equilibration.

Cole, D.R.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Possible evidence for fluid-rock oxygen isotope disequilibrium in hydrothermal systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There is ample evidence from geothermal systems that isotope temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope fractionation between alteration phases and coexisting aquifer fluids agree closely with measured bore-hole temperatures. Similar, but limited evidence is found in epithermal vein deposits where isotopes temperature agree well with fluid inclusion homogenization temperature. Conversely, many hydrothermal systems exhibit varying degrees of fluid-rock oxygen isotope equilibration. There appears to be a crude relationship between increasing degree of equilibrium and increasing temperature and salinity. The observed variations in the degree of exchange may have resulted from local, self-sealing of the fracture network prior to equilibration. The ability for fracture to remain open or to propogate allowing continued fluid flow may be the deciding factor in the attainment of isotopic equilibration.

Cole, D.R.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Differences on the conversion of celestite in solutions bearing monovalent ions under hydrothermal conditions  

SciTech Connect

The replacement of SO{sub 4} {sup 2-} ions by monovalent ions in mineral SrSO{sub 4} crystals was investigated under hydrothermal conditions by using aqueous solutions bearing F{sup -} and OH{sup -} ions. Experiments were conducted at various temperatures (150-250 {sup o}C) for different reaction intervals (1-96 h), with M {sup -}/SO{sub 4} {sup 2-} molar ratios of 1, 5 and 10, where M {sup -}=F{sup -} or OH{sup -}. The celestite crystals were completely converted into SrF{sub 2} crystals, at 200 {sup o}C using a F{sup -}/SO{sub 4} {sup 2-} molar ratio=5 for 24 h. The morphology of the converted SrF{sub 2} crystals indicated that the heteroionic conversion proceeded by a pseudomorphic replacement process, because the transformed crystals maintained their original shape and dimensions. In contrast, the SrSO{sub 4} crystals were instantaneously converted into the Sr(OH){sub 2} phase by a bulk dissolution-recrystallization mechanism, resulting in the formation of large transparent acicular Sr(OH){sub 2} crystals. The differences on the conversion process are mainly associated with the chemical interaction between the mineral crystal and the hydrothermal fluid. In addition, the chemical stability of the converted phase with low solubility is also essential for the heteroionic conversion to proceed by the pseudomorphic replacement process. - Graphical abstract: Typical SEM image of the reaction interface determined on partially converted SrSO{sub 4} crystals obtained at 250 {sup o}C after 6 h in a NaF solution with a F{sup -}/SO{sub 4} {sup 2-} molar ratio=10.

Rendon-Angeles, J.C. [Research Center for Advanced Studies of the NPI, Saltillo-Campus, Ramos Arizpe, 25900, Coah. (Mexico)]. E-mail: jcarlos.rendon@cinvestav.edu.mx; Pech-Canul, M.I. [Research Center for Advanced Studies of the NPI, Saltillo-Campus, Ramos Arizpe, 25900, Coah. (Mexico); Lopez-Cuevas, J. [Research Center for Advanced Studies of the NPI, Saltillo-Campus, Ramos Arizpe, 25900, Coah. (Mexico); Research Center for Applied Chemistry, Saltillo, 25253, Coah. (Mexico); Matamoros-Veloza, Z. [Saltillo Institute of Technology, Department Metal-Mecanica, Saltillo, 25820, Coah. (Mexico); Yanagisawa, K. [Research Laboratory of Hydrothermal Chemistry, Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

464

Biomolecule-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of silver bismuth sulfide with nanostructures  

SciTech Connect

Silver bismuth sulfide (AgBiS{sub 2}) nanostructures were successfully prepared via a simple biomolecule-assisted hydrothermal synthesis at 200 Degree-Sign C for 12-72 h. Silver nitrate, bismuth nitrate and L-cysteine were used as starting materials. Here, the biomolecule, L-cysteine, was served as the sulfide source and a complexing agent. The products, characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), were cubic AgBiS{sub 2} nanoparticles with a diameter range of about 20-75 nm. It was found that their crystallinity and particle size increased with increasing reaction time. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometry (ICP-OES) analyses were used to confirm the stoichiometry of AgBiS{sub 2}. The optical band gap of the AgBiS{sub 2} nanoparticles, calculated from UV-vis spectra, was 3.0 eV which indicated a strong blue shift because of the quantum confinement effect. A possible formation mechanism of the AgBiS{sub 2} nanoparticles was also discussed. - Graphical abstract: The optical band gap of the as-prepared AgBiS{sub 2} nanoparticles displays a strong blue shift comparing to the 2.46 eV of bulk AgBiS{sub 2} caused by the quantum confinement effects. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple biomolecule-assisted hydrothermal method is developed to prepare AgBiS{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Cysteine is served as the sulfide source and a complexing agent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase in band gap of the AgBiS{sub 2} nanoparticles attributes to the quantum confinement effects.

Kaowphong, Sulawan, E-mail: sulawank@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

465

Evaluation of a New Remote Handling Design for High Throughput Annular Centrifugal Contactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advanced designs of nuclear fuel recycling plants are expected to include more ambitious goals for aqueous based separations including; higher separations efficiency, high-level waste minimization, and a greater focus on continuous processes to minimize cost and footprint. Therefore, Annular Centrifugal Contactors (ACCs) are destined to play a more important role for such future processing schemes. Previous efforts defined and characterized the performance of commercial 5 cm and 12.5 cm single-stage ACCs in a cold environment. The next logical step, the design and evaluation of remote capable pilot scale ACCs in a hot or radioactive environment was reported earlier. This report includes the development of remote designs for ACCs that can process the large throughput rates needed in future nuclear fuel recycling plants. Novel designs were developed for the remote interconnection of contactor units, clean-in-place and drain connections, and a new solids removal collection chamber. A three stage, 12.5 cm diameter rotor module has been constructed and evaluated for operational function and remote handling in highly radioactive environments. This design is scalable to commercial CINC ACC models from V-05 to V-20 with total throughput rates ranging from 20 to 650 liters per minute. The V-05R three stage prototype was manufactured by the commercial vendor for ACCs in the U.S., CINC mfg. It employs three standard V-05 clean-in-place (CIP) units modified for remote service and replacement via new methods of connection for solution inlets, outlets, drain and CIP. Hydraulic testing and functional checks were successfully conducted and then the prototype was evaluated for remote handling and maintenance suitability. Removal and replacement of the center position V-05R ACC unit in the three stage prototype was demonstrated using an overhead rail mounted PaR manipulator. This evaluation confirmed the efficacy of this innovative design for interconnecting and cleaning individual stages while retaining the benefits of commercially reliable ACC equipment for remote applications in the nuclear industry. Minor modifications and suggestions for improved manual remote servicing by the remote handling specialists were provided but successful removal and replacement was demonstrated in the first prototype.

David H. Meikrantz; Troy G. Garn; Jack D. Law; Lawrence L. Macaluso

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

High throughput low power decoder architectures for low density parity check codes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A high throughput scalable decoder architecture, a tiling approach to reduce the complexity of the scalable architecture, and two low power decoding schemes have been proposed in this research. The proposed scalable design is generated from a serial architecture by scaling the combinational logic; memory partitioning and constructing a novel H matrix to make parallelization possible. The scalable architecture achieves a high throughput for higher values of the parallelization factor M. The switch logic used to route the bit nodes to the appropriate checks is an important constituent of the scalable architecture and its complexity is high with higher M. The proposed tiling approach is applied to the scalable architecture to simplify the switch logic and reduce gate complexity. The tiling approach generates patterns that are used to construct the H matrix by repeating a fixed number of those generated patterns. The advantages of the proposed approach are two-fold. First, the information stored about the H matrix is reduced by onethird. Second, the switch logic of the scalable architecture is simplified. The H matrix information is also embedded in