Sample records for threshold method lbtm

  1. Methods for threshold determination in multiplexed assays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tammero, Lance F. Bentley; Dzenitis, John M; Hindson, Benjamin J

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for determination of threshold values of signatures comprised in an assay are described. Each signature enables detection of a target. The methods determine a probability density function of negative samples and a corresponding false positive rate curve. A false positive criterion is established and a threshold for that signature is determined as a point at which the false positive rate curve intersects the false positive criterion. A method for quantitative analysis and interpretation of assay results together with a method for determination of a desired limit of detection of a signature in an assay are also described.

  2. USE OF A SPATIALLY ADAPTIVE THRESHOLDING METHOD FOR THE CONDITION MONITORING OF A WIND TURBINE GEARBOX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    USE OF A SPATIALLY ADAPTIVE THRESHOLDING METHOD FOR THE CONDITION MONITORING OF A WIND TURBINE.Antoniadou@sheffield.ac.uk ABSTRACT Condition monitoring of wind turbine gearboxes is an important practice in order to de- termine the state of the wind turbine drivetrain. In this way reparative actions could be taken whenever needed

  3. Organic thin film devices with stabilized threshold voltage and mobility, and method for preparing the devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nastasi, Michael Anthony; Wang, Yongqiang; Fraboni, Beatrice; Cosseddu, Piero; Bonfiglio, Annalisa

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic thin film devices that included an organic thin film subjected to a selected dose of a selected energy of ions exhibited a stabilized mobility (.mu.) and threshold voltage (VT), a decrease in contact resistance R.sub.C, and an extended operational lifetime that did not degrade after 2000 hours of operation in the air.

  4. RESEARCH ARTICLE A novel wavelet-based thresholding method for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vannucci, Marina

    ) and the physical characteristics of the machine (electrical noise), [1­3]. Typically, pre-proces- sing is done study our method on real and simu- lated mass specrometry data and show that it improves on performances and electrical infl

  5. ARM - VAP Product - lbtm3minnis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  6. ARM - VAP Product - lbtm3minnisdar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  7. ARM - VAP Product - lbtm3minnisman

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  8. ARM - VAP Product - lbtm3minnisnau

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  9. ARM - VAP Process - lbtm-minnis

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  10. ARM - Campaign Instrument - lbtm-minnis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  11. Standard Test Method for Measurement of Hydrogen Embrittlement Threshold in Steel by the Incremental Step Loading Technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method establishes a procedure to measure the susceptibility of steel to a time-delayed failure such as that caused by hydrogen. It does so by measuring the threshold for the onset of subcritical crack growth using standard fracture mechanics specimens, irregular-shaped specimens such as notched round bars, or actual product such as fasteners (2) (threaded or unthreaded) springs or components as identified in SAE J78, J81, and J1237. 1.2 This test method is used to evaluate quantitatively: 1.2.1 The relative susceptibility of steels of different composition or a steel with different heat treatments; 1.2.2 The effect of residual hydrogen in the steel as a result of processing, such as melting, thermal mechanical working, surface treatments, coatings, and electroplating; 1.2.3 The effect of hydrogen introduced into the steel caused by external environmental sources of hydrogen, such as fluids and cleaners maintenance chemicals, petrochemical products, and galvanic coupling in an aqueous enviro...

  12. Refining threshold resummations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric Laenen; Lorenzo Magnea

    2006-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe some recent refinements of the techniques of threshold resummation, with emphasis on the usefulness of dimensional regularization when applied to nonabelian exponentiation. Threshold resummation is now under theoretical control for DIS and electroweak annihilation cross sections all the way to the fourth tower of logarithms and up to corrections suppressed by powers of the threshold variable.

  13. On the measurement of laser-induced plasma breakdown thresholds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brieschenk, Stefan [Centre for Hypersonics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072 (Australia)] [Centre for Hypersonics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072 (Australia); Kleine, Harald; O'Byrne, Sean [The University of New South Wales Canberra, The Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra 2600 (Australia)] [The University of New South Wales Canberra, The Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra 2600 (Australia)

    2013-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The breakdown threshold of a gas exposed to intense laser-radiation is a function of gas and laser properties. Breakdown thresholds reported in the literature often vary greatly and these differences can partially be traced back to the method that is typically used to determine breakdown thresholds. This paper discusses the traditional method used to determine breakdown thresholds and the potential errors that can arise using this approach, and presents an alternative method which can yield more accurate data especially when determining breakdown thresholds as functions of gas pressure.

  14. Hard Thresholding Pursuit Algorithms: Number of Iterations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitczenko, Pawel

    algorithms do provide alternative methods. We consider here the hard thresholding pursuit (HTP) algorithm [6 us now recall that (HTP) consists in constructing a sequence (xn) of s-sparse vectors, starting absolute entries of xn-1 + A (y - Axn-1 ),(HTP1) xn := argmin{ y - Az 2, supp(z) Sn },(HTP2) until

  15. Considerations when applying thresholds to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wind erosion thresholds are crossed as gap sizes increase due to grass mortality (often, but not always (wind erosion) or property (gap size) Resilience begins to decline ­ increasing probability (wind erosion) or property (gap size) "THRESHOLD" #12;Probabilityofautogenicrecovery Status of key

  16. Threshold voltage extraction circuit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoon, Siew Kuok

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    =Vos* (point of inflection in t/In-V&s), the drain current flowing in M2 and Ml would correspond to the square-law current equation of In; ? (kp/2);(W/L)i (Vcs; ? Vr) . (17) Thus, 4Im = Im and t/Inz/VIm ? 0. 5. By plotting the graph of ratio t... can also be expressed as VGS2 VGS/ slope = ~ (4) Let 4~ = I then t//t ? 2I, then by equating (3) and (4), Vr can be obtained with a simple expression as Vr = 2Vost ? Vcr. Linear Extrapolation Method This method is similar...

  17. MACHINE MONITORING USING PROBABILITY THRESHOLDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollock, Stephen

    MACHINE MONITORING USING PROBABILITY THRESHOLDS AND SYSTEM OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS Stephen M a discrete-part production machine, with the objective of effectively determining when to shut the machine analysis: a) There is an underlying time interval that characterizes the operation of the machine, most

  18. Fractal Superconductivity near Localization Threshold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fominov, Yakov

    Fractal Superconductivity near Localization Threshold Mikhail Feigel'man Landau Institute, Moscow-electron states are extended but fractal and populate small fraction of the whole volume How BCS theory should be modified to account for eigenstates fractality ? #12;Mean-Field Eq. for Tc #12;#12;3D Anderson model: = 0

  19. Compositional threshold for Nuclear Waste Glass Durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Farooqi, Rahmatullah [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, (Korea, Republic of); Hrma, Pavel R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States), Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the composition space of glasses, a distinct threshold appears to exist that separates "good" glasses, i.e., those which are sufficiently durable, from "bad" glasses of a low durability. The objective of our research is to clarify the origin of this threshold by exploring the relationship between glass composition, glass structure and chemical durability around the threshold region.

  20. Must Kohn-Sham oscillator strengths be accurate at threshold?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Zenghui; Burke, Kieron [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Faassen, Meta van [Department of Theoretical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1083, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The exact ground-state Kohn-Sham (KS) potential for the helium atom is known from accurate wave function calculations of the ground-state density. The threshold for photoabsorption from this potential matches the physical system exactly. By carefully studying its absorption spectrum, we show the answer to the title question is no. To address this problem in detail, we generate a highly accurate simple fit of a two-electron spectrum near the threshold, and apply the method to both the experimental spectrum and that of the exact ground-state Kohn-Sham potential.

  1. Threshold displacement energies and defect formation energies...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energies and defect formation energies in Y2Ti2O7. Abstract: Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to determine both the threshold displacement...

  2. Molecular dynamics simulation of threshold displacement energies...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    experimental estimates in ceramics. Citation: Moreira PA, R Devanathan, J Yu, and WJ Weber.2009."Molecular dynamics simulation of threshold displacement energies in...

  3. CABLE TECHNOLOGY LABORATORIES, INC. DETERMINATION OF THRESHOLD...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CABLE TECHNOLOGY LABORATORIES, INC. DETERMINATION OF THRESHOLD AND MAXIMUM OPERATING ELECTRIC STRESSES FOR SELECTED HIGH VOLTAGE INSULATIONS Investigation of Aged Polymeric...

  4. Beyond Kennicott : perceptions of threshold, conceptions of distance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bull, Steven Keith

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Threshold: The thesis explores descriptions of threshold. Threshold is not an ordinary space. It relates to the here and the there and the understanding of distance. It is the phenomena of distance, no matter how close ...

  5. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 11007: Hydrogen Threshold...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Fuel Cells Program Record 11007: Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 11007: Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation The hydrogen...

  6. Pressure Systems Stored-Energy Threshold Risk Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulsen, Samuel S.

    2009-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Federal Regulation 10 CFR 851, which became effective February 2007, brought to light potential weaknesses regarding the Pressure Safety Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The definition of a pressure system in 10 CFR 851 does not contain a limit based upon pressure or any other criteria. Therefore, the need for a method to determine an appropriate risk-based hazard level for pressure safety was identified. The Laboratory has historically used a stored energy of 1000 lbf-ft to define a pressure hazard; however, an analytical basis for this value had not been documented. This document establishes the technical basis by evaluating the use of stored energy as an appropriate criterion to establish a pressure hazard, exploring a suitable risk threshold for pressure hazards, and reviewing the methods used to determine stored energy. The literature review and technical analysis concludes the use of stored energy as a method for determining a potential risk, the 1000 lbf-ft threshold, and the methods used by PNNL to calculate stored energy are all appropriate. Recommendations for further program improvements are also discussed

  7. Fractal Threshold Behavior in Vacuum Gravitational Collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastian J. Szybka; Tadeusz Chmaj

    2008-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the numerical evidence for fractal threshold behavior in the five dimensional vacuum Einstein equations satisfying the cohomogeneity-two triaxial Bianchi type-IX ansatz. In other words, we show that a flip of the wings of a butterfly may influence the process of the black hole formation.

  8. Threshold LET for SEU induced by low energy ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNulty, P.J.; Roche, P.; Palau, J.M.; Gasiot, J.

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulations to determine the threshold LET as a function of the length of the ion track are consistent with there being two regions of charge collection. In the top layer which contains the depletion region all the charge generated is collected in time to upset the device. In the next layer, 10% to 20% of the charge generated is collected and contributes to upsetting the device. This second layer of partial charge collection may significantly impact the accuracy of SEU predictions involving low-energy neutrons and protons. A simple method of including this contribution in calculations is proposed.

  9. Reducing the color shift of a multidomain vertical alignment liquid crystal display using dual threshold voltages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    threshold voltages Ruibo Lu and Shin-Tson Wua College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida region. As a result, the final gamma curve is a superposition of two different-shaped gamma curves coupled method and two thin-film-transistor TFT method, have been pro- posed to improve the gamma curve

  10. How to identify the structure of near-threshold states from the line shape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo-Ying Chen; Wen-Sheng Huo; Qiang Zhao

    2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We revisit the compositeness theorem proposed by Weinberg in an effective field theory (EFT) and explore criteria which are sensitive to the structure of $S$-wave threshold states. On a general basis, we show that the wave function renormalization constant $Z$, which is the probability of finding an elementary component in the wave function of a threshold state, can be explicitly introduced in the description of the threshold state. As an application of this EFT method, we describe the near-threshold line shape of the $D^{\\ast 0}\\bar D^0$ invariant mass spectrum in $B\\rightarrow D^{\\ast 0}\\bar D^0 K$ and determine a nonvanishing value of $Z$. It suggests that the $X(3872)$ as a candidate of the $D^{\\ast 0}\\bar D^0$ molecule may still contain a small $c\\bar{c}$ core. This elementary component, on the one hand, explains its production in the $B$ meson decay via a short-distance mechanism, and on the other hand, is correlated with the $D^{\\ast 0}\\bar D^0$ threshold enhancement observed in the $D^{\\ast 0}\\bar D^0$ invariant mass distributions. Meanwhile, we also show that if $Z$ is non-zero, the near-threshold enhancement of the $D^{\\ast 0}\\bar D^0$ mass spectrum in the $B$ decay will be driven by the short-distance production mechanism. This conclusion is still true even if the long-distance production is enhanced by some unexpected mechanism.

  11. Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandigo, R.L.

    1996-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

  12. Motion thresholds can be predicted from contrast discrimination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Stanley

    and flicker thresholds for suprathreshold sinusoidal gratings are similar. This finding sup- ports the idea are slightly higher than jitter thresholds indicates that the contrast gain control (or satu- rating energy

  13. Threshold resummed spectra in semi-inclusive B decays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giulia Ricciardi

    2006-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    I discuss some aspects of the universality of soft gluon dynamics in semileptonic and radiative decays at the threshold region.

  14. No Evidence of Dioxin Cancer Threshold David Mackie1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Valerie

    1 No Evidence of Dioxin Cancer Threshold David Mackie1 , Junfeng Liu1 , Yeong-Shang Loh2 , Valerie Environmental Institute, Guyot Hall, Princeton University, Princeton NJ 08544 #12;2 No Evidence of Dioxin Cancer Threshold Key Words: Dioxin, TCDD, Cancer, Threshold Acknowledgements: This work was carried out as part

  15. VINYL CHLORIDE ACUTE TOXICITY THRESHOLDS IN THE CONTEXT OF CONTROLLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    . The "irreversible effects threshold" is the maximum concentration of pollutant in the air for a given exposure timeVINYL CHLORIDE ACUTE TOXICITY THRESHOLDS IN THE CONTEXT OF CONTROLLING URBAN DEVELOPMENT OR LAND of vinyl Chloride , the french procedure to set acute toxicity thresholds in the context of controlling

  16. Ionization Thresholds of Small Carbon Clusters: Tunable VUVExperiments and Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belau, Leonid; Wheeler, Steven E.; Ticknor, Brian W.; Ahmed,Musahid; Leone, Stephen R.; Allen, Wesley D.; Schaefer III, Henry F.; Duncan, Michael A.

    2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Small carbon clusters (Cn, n = 2-15) are produced in amolecular beam by pulsed laser vaporization and studied with vacuumultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry. The required VUVradiation in the 8-12 eV range is provided by the Advanced Light Source(ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Mass spectra atvarious ionization energies reveal the qualitative relative abundances ofthe neutral carbon clusters produced. By far the most abundant species isC3. Using the tunability of the ALS, ionization threshold spectra arerecorded for the clusters up to 15 atoms in size. The ionizationthresholds are compared to those measured previously with charge-transferbracketing methods. To interpret the ionization thresholds for differentcluster sizes, new ab initio calculations are carried out on the clustersfor n = 4-10. Geometric structures are optimized at the CCSD(T) levelwith cc-pVTZ (or cc-pVDZ) basis sets, and focal point extrapolations areapplied to both neutral and cation species to determine adiabatic andvertical ionization potentials. The comparison of computed and measuredionization potentials makes it possible to investigate the isomericstructures of the neutral clusters produced in this experiment. Themeasurements are inconclusive for the n = 4-6 species because ofunquenched excited electronic states. However, the data provide evidencefor the prominence of linear structures for the n = 7, 9, 11, 13 speciesand the presence of cyclic C10.

  17. Quark mass thresholds in QCD thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Laine; Y. Schroder

    2006-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss radiative corrections to how quark mass thresholds are crossed, as a function of the temperature, in basic thermodynamic observables such as the pressure, the energy and entropy densities, and the heat capacity of high temperature QCD. The indication from leading order that the charm quark plays a visible role at surprisingly low temperatures, is confirmed. We also sketch a way to obtain phenomenological estimates relevant for generic expansion rate computations at temperatures between the QCD and electroweak scales, pointing out where improvements over the current knowledge are particularly welcome.

  18. The AMS-01 Aerogel Threshold Cherenkov counter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Barancourt; F. Barao; G. Barbier; G. Barreira; M. Buenerd; G. Castellini; E. Choumilov; J. Favier; N. Fouque; A. Gougas; V. Hermel; R. Kossakowski; G. Laborie; G. Laurenti; S. -C. Lee; F. Mayet; B. Meillon; Y. -T. Oyang; V. Plyaskin; V. Pojidaev; C. Rossin; D. Santos; F. Vezzu; J. P. Vialle

    2000-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer in a precursor version (AMS-01), was flown in June 1998 on a 51.6 degrees orbit and at altitudes ranging between 320 and 390 km, on board of the space shuttle Discovery (flight STS-91). AMS-01 included an Aerogel Threshold Cherenkov counter (ATC) to separate antiprotons from electrons and positrons from protons, for momenta below 3.5 GeV/c. This paper presents a description of the ATC counter and reports on its performances during the flight STS-91.

  19. Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy Health andof Energy EmbrittlementFactEducation »Clean Coal »Threshold

  20. Superlinear threshold detectors in quantum cryptography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lydersen, Lars; Maroey, Oystein; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim [Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); University Graduate Center, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Jain, Nitin; Wittmann, Christoffer; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1/Bau 24, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Institut fuer Optik, Information und Photonik, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Staudtstrasse 7/B2, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce the concept of a superlinear threshold detector, a detector that has a higher probability to detect multiple photons if it receives them simultaneously rather than at separate times. Highly superlinear threshold detectors in quantum key distribution systems allow eavesdropping the full secret key without being revealed. Here, we generalize the detector control attack, and analyze how it performs against quantum key distribution systems with moderately superlinear detectors. We quantify the superlinearity in superconducting single-photon detectors based on earlier published data, and gated avalanche photodiode detectors based on our own measurements. The analysis shows that quantum key distribution systems using detector(s) of either type can be vulnerable to eavesdropping. The avalanche photodiode detector becomes superlinear toward the end of the gate. For systems expecting substantial loss, or for systems not monitoring loss, this would allow eavesdropping using trigger pulses containing less than 120 photons per pulse. Such an attack would be virtually impossible to catch with an optical power meter at the receiver entrance.

  1. Upset and latchup thresholds in CD-4000 series CMOS devices. IRT 4337-007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrity, J. W.; Gammill, P. E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A test program designed to verify that neutron irradiation and subsequent anneal is an effective method for suppressing ionization-induced latchup yielded as a byproduct a large body of data covering the upset and latchup thresholds of non-neutron-irradiated bulk CMOS devices. Sixty-six part types in the hardened RCA CD-4000 series and four National Semiconductor part types were tested. Upset levels ranged from 2-200 rad(Si). Latchup was observed in forty of the seventy part types tested. Latchup thresholds ranged from 9 to 708 rad(Si). Latchup currents ranged from 15 mA to 1.9 A.

  2. Heart Rate Variability Analysis Using Threshold of Wavelet Package Coefficients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kheder, G; Massoued, M Ben; Samet, M

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a new efficient feature extraction method based on the adaptive threshold of wavelet package coefficients is presented. This paper especially deals with the assessment of autonomic nervous system using the background variation of the signal Heart Rate Variability HRV extracted from the wavelet package coefficients. The application of a wavelet package transform allows us to obtain a time-frequency representation of the signal, which provides better insight in the frequency distribution of the signal with time. A 6 level decomposition of HRV was achieved with db4 as mother wavelet, and the above two bands LF and HF were combined in 12 specialized frequencies sub-bands obtained in wavelet package transform. Features extracted from these coefficients can efficiently represent the characteristics of the original signal. ANOVA statistical test is used for the evaluation of proposed algorithm.

  3. Human Contrast Threshold and Astronomical Visibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crumey, Andrew

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard visibility model in light pollution studies is the formula of Hecht (1947), as used e.g. by Schaefer (1990). However it is applicable only to point sources and is shown to be of limited accuracy. A new visibility model is presented for uniform achromatic targets of any size against background luminances ranging from zero to full daylight, produced by a systematic procedure applicable to any appropriate data set (e.g Blackwell (1946)), and based on a simple but previously unrecognized empirical relation between contrast threshold and adaptation luminance. The scotopic luminance correction for variable spectral radiance (colour index) is calculated. For point sources the model is more accurate than Hecht's formula and is verified using telescopic data collected at Mount Wilson by Bowen (1947), enabling the sky brightness at that time to be determined. The result is darker than the calculation by Garstang (2004), implying that light pollution grew more rapidly in subsequent decades than has been sup...

  4. Optical ranked-order filtering using threshold decomposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allebach, J.P.; Ochoa, E.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1987-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid optical/electronic system performs median filtering and related ranked-order operations using threshold decomposition to encode the image. Threshold decomposition transforms the nonlinear neighborhood ranking operation into a linear space-invariant filtering step followed by a point-to-point threshold comparison step. Spatial multiplexing allows parallel processing of all the threshold components as well as recombination by a second linear, space-invariant filtering step. An incoherent optical correlation system performs the linear filtering, using a magneto-optic spatial light modulator as the input device and a computer-generated hologram in the filter plane. Thresholding is done electronically. By adjusting the value of the threshold, the same architecture is used to perform median, minimum, and maximum filtering of images. A totally optical system is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  5. Optical ranked-order filtering using threshold decomposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allebach, Jan P. (West Lafayette, IN); Ochoa, Ellen (Pleasanton, CA); Sweeney, Donald W. (Alamo, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid optical/electronic system performs median filtering and related ranked-order operations using threshold decomposition to encode the image. Threshold decomposition transforms the nonlinear neighborhood ranking operation into a linear space-invariant filtering step followed by a point-to-point threshold comparison step. Spatial multiplexing allows parallel processing of all the threshold components as well as recombination by a second linear, space-invariant filtering step. An incoherent optical correlation system performs the linear filtering, using a magneto-optic spatial light modulator as the input device and a computer-generated hologram in the filter plane. Thresholding is done electronically. By adjusting the value of the threshold, the same architecture is used to perform median, minimum, and maximum filtering of images. A totally optical system is also disclosed.

  6. Optimization Online - A Counterexample to Threshold Boolean form ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Luedtke

    2015-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Jan 2, 2015 ... Abstract: Recently, in the paper Threshold Boolean form for joint probabilistic constraints with random technology matrix (Math. Program.

  7. Laser thermoelastic generation in metals above the melt threshold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Every, A. G. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, PO Wits 2050 (South Africa)] [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, PO Wits 2050 (South Africa); Utegulov, Z. N. [Department of Physics, School of Science and Technology, Nazarbayev University, Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan)] [Department of Physics, School of Science and Technology, Nazarbayev University, Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan); Veres, I. A. [RECENDT Research Center for Non-Destructive Testing GmbH, A-4040 Linz (Austria)] [RECENDT Research Center for Non-Destructive Testing GmbH, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An approach is presented for calculating thermoelastic generation of ultrasound in a metal plate exposed to nanosecond pulsed laser heating, sufficient to cause melting but not ablation. Detailed consideration is given to the spatial and temporal profiles of the laser pulse, penetration of the laser beam into the sample, the appearance and subsequent growth and then contraction of the melt pool, and the time dependent thermal conduction in the melt and surrounding solid throughout. The excitation of the ultrasound takes place during and shortly after the laser pulse and occurs predominantly within the thermal diffusion length of a micron or so beneath the surface. It is shown how, because of this, the output of the thermal simulations can be expressed as axially symmetric transient radial and normal surface force distributions. The epicentral displacement response to these force distributions is obtained by two methods, the one based on the elastodynamic Green's functions for plate geometry determined by the Cagniard generalized ray method and the other using a finite element numerical method. The two approaches are in very close agreement. Numerical simulations are reported on the epicentral displacement response of a 3.12 mm thick tungsten plate irradiated with a 4 ns pulsed laser beam with Gaussian spatial profile, at intensities below and above the melt threshold.

  8. A threshold Cherenkov detector for K separation using silica aerogel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magiera, Andrzej

    A threshold Cherenkov detector for Kþ =pþ separation using silica aerogel R. Siudak a,b , A August 2008 Keywords: Threshold Cherenkov detector Silica aerogel Reaction pp ! Kþ ðLp? Kþ =pþ separation in the focal plane of a magnetic spectrograph. Silica aerogel with refractive index of n ¼ 1:05 is applied

  9. Weights of Exact Threshold Functions Laszlo Babai1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babai, László

    , supported by a Villum Kann Rasmussen postdoc fellowship. Partially supported by grant 09-01-00709-a from of China Grant 60553001,60603005 and 60621062 and the National Basic Research Program of China Grant 2007CB807900,2007CB807901. #12;2 weights, and t is a real valued threshold. A threshold function on n Boolean

  10. Innovation and Threshold Effects in Technology Responses to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    Innovation and Threshold Effects in Technology Responses to Climate Change Dennis Anderson and Sarah Winne December 2003 Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research Working Paper 43 #12;1 Innovation, External Benefits and Option Values of Innovation 31 a) Externalities 31 b) Threshold Effects in Marginal

  11. d Original Contribution IDENTIFYING THE INERTIAL CAVITATION THRESHOLD AND SKULL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konofagou, Elisa E.

    d Original Contribution IDENTIFYING THE INERTIAL CAVITATION THRESHOLD AND SKULL EFFECTS IN AVESSEL unknown. To investigate the pressure threshold for inertial cavitation of pre- formed microbubbles during sonication, passive cavitation detection in conjunction with B-mode imaging was used. A cerebral vessel

  12. Optical Damage Threshold of Silicon for Ultrafast Infrared Pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowan, B.; /SLAC

    2006-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    While silicon has several properties making it an attractive material for structure-based laser-driven acceleration, its optical damage threshold, a key parameter for high-gradient acceleration, has been unknown. Here we present measurements of the optical damage threshold of crystalline silicon for ultrafast pulses in the mid-infrared. The wavelengths tested span a range from the telecommunications band at 1550 nm extending longer toward the two-photon absorption threshold at around 2200 nm. We discuss the prevailing theories of ultrafast optical breakdown, describe the experimental setup and preliminary results, and propose a relevant performance parameter for candidate accelerator structures.

  13. Exact Coupling Threshold for Structural Transition in Interconnected Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahneh, Faryad Darabi; Van Mieghem, Piet

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interconnected networks are mathematical representation of systems where two or more simple networks are coupled to each other. Depending on the coupling weight between the two components, the interconnected network can function in two regimes: one where the two networks are structurally distinguishable, and one where they are not. The coupling threshold--denoting this structural transition--is one of the most crucial concepts in interconnected networks. Yet, current information about the coupling threshold is limited. This letter presents an analytical expression for the exact value of the coupling threshold and outlines network interrelation implications.

  14. Near-threshold photodetachment of heavy alkali-metal anions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahrim, C.; Thumm, U.; Khuskivadze, A.A.; Fabrikant, I.I. [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-2604 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Physics, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas 77710-10046 (United States); Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-2604 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0111 (United States)

    2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate near-threshold photodetachment cross sections for Rb{sup -}, Cs{sup -}, and Fr{sup -} using the Pauli equation method with a model potential describing the effective electron-atom interaction. Parameters of the model potential are fitted to reproduce ab initio scattering phase shifts obtained from Dirac R-matrix calculations. Special care is taken to formulate the boundary conditions near the atomic nucleus for solving the Pauli equation, based on the analytic solution of the Dirac equation for a Coulomb potential. We find a {sup 3}P{sub 1}{sup o} resonance contribution to the photodetachment cross section of Rb{sup -}, Cs{sup -}, and Fr{sup -} ions. Our calculated total photodetachment cross sections for Cs agree with experiments after tuning the resonance position by 2.4 meV. For Rb{sup -} and Fr{sup -} the resonance contribution is much smaller than for Cs. We therefore also provide angle-differential cross sections and asymmetry parameters which are much more sensitive to the resonant contribution than total cross sections.

  15. A Threshold Autoregressive Model for Wholesale Electricity Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Threshold Autoregressive Model for Wholesale Electricity Prices B. Ricky Rambharat Carnegie of wholesale electricity soared to an unprecedented $7,500 per megawatt-hour (MwH) (see FERC, 1998). Models

  16. Essays on Voluntary Contribution with Private Information and Threshold Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Hui-Chun

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation concerns individual voluntary contributions in the subscription game with three important model considerations: private information on public good valuations, threshold uncertainty and the timing of the contribution simultaneous...

  17. On the Behavior of the Threshold Operator for Bandlimited Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boche, Holger

    One interesting question is how the good local approximation behavior of the Shannon sampling series for the PaleyWiener space PW[1 over ?] is affected if the samples are disturbed by the non-linear threshold operator. ...

  18. Effect of shrink fits on threshold speeds of rotordynamic instability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mir, MD. Mofazzal Hossain

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 CHAPTER IV TEST APPARATUS . . . . 13 CHAPTER V RESULTS AND DISCUSSION . . . 17 17 30 42 42 47 5. 1 Rap Test. . 5. 2 Running Test 5. 3 Modeling and the Prcdiction of Threshold Speed of Instability.... . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . 5. 3. 1 Matching the Base Case. 5. 3. 2 Gunter's Prediction Using C, q 5. 3. 3 Modeling and Prediction of the Threshold Speed Using the XLTRC Code. . . . 51 5. 4 Prediction of the Onset Speed of Instability for a Tight Inteiference Fit...

  19. Low-energy structure of above-threshold-ionization electron spectra: Role of the Coulomb threshold effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, Shih-I

    2011-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experimental observations of above-threshold ionization of rare gas atoms and diatomic molecules by midinfrared laser fields [C. I. Blaga et al., Nat. Phys. 5, 335 (2009); W. Quan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 093001 ...

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - anisotropy instability thresholds Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fluctuation power near proton temperature anisotropy instability thresholds in the solar... - retical thresholds for pressure anisotropy-driven instabilities. Here we use...

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - acceptance threshold hypothesis Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for threshold... Parametrization of the increase of the aeolian erosion threshold wind friction velocity due to soil... February 1998 Revised: 11 May 1998 Accepted: 25...

  2. Hadron mass scaling near the s-wave threshold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tetsuo Hyodo

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of a two-hadron threshold is studied for the hadron mass scaling with respect to some quantum chromodynamics parameters. A quantum mechanical model is introduced to describe the system with a one-body bare state coupled with a single elastic two-body scattering. The general behavior of the energy of the bound and resonance state near the two-body threshold for a local potential is derived from the expansion of the Jost function around the threshold. It is shown that the same scaling holds for the nonlocal potential induced by the coupling to a bare state. In p or higher partial waves, the scaling law of the stable bound state continues across the threshold describing the real part of the resonance energy. In contrast, the leading contribution of the scaling is forbidden by the nonperturbative dynamics near the s-wave threshold. As a consequence, the bound state energy is not continuously connected to the real part of the resonance energy. This universal behavior originates in the vanishing of the field renormalization constant of the zero-energy resonance in the s wave. A proof is given for the vanishing of the field renormalization constant, together with a detailed discussion.

  3. Nonexponential decay laws in perturbation theory of near threshold eigenvalues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinu, Victor [CAQP, Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, P.O. Box MG 11, RO-077125 Bucharest (Romania); Jensen, Arne [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Aalborg University, Fr. Bajers Vej 7G, DK-9220 Aalborg O (Denmark); Nenciu, Gheorghe [CAQP, Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, P.O. Box MG 11, RO-077125 Bucharest, Romania and Institute of Mathematics of the Romanian Academy, P.O. Box 1-764, RO-014700 Bucharest (Romania)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a two channel model of the form H{sub {epsilon}}=[(H{sub op}/0)(0/E{sub 0})]+{epsilon}[(0/W{sub 12})(W{sub 21}/0)] on H=H{sub op}+C. The operator H{sub op} is assumed to have the properties of a Schroedinger operator in odd dimensions, with a threshold at zero. As the energy parameter E{sub 0} is tuned past the threshold, we consider the survival probability |<{psi}{sub 0},e{sup -itH}{sub {epsilon}}{psi}{sub 0}>|{sup 2}, where {psi}{sub 0} is the eigenfunction corresponding to eigenvalue E{sub 0} for {epsilon}=0. We find nonexponential decay laws for {epsilon} small and E{sub 0} close to zero provided that the resolvent of H{sub op} is not at least Lipschitz continuous at the threshold zero.

  4. Optimal Investment Under Transaction Costs: A Threshold Rebalanced Portfolio Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tunc, Sait

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study optimal investment in a financial market having a finite number of assets from a signal processing perspective. We investigate how an investor should distribute capital over these assets and when he should reallocate the distribution of the funds over these assets to maximize the cumulative wealth over any investment period. In particular, we introduce a portfolio selection algorithm that maximizes the expected cumulative wealth in i.i.d. two-asset discrete-time markets where the market levies proportional transaction costs in buying and selling stocks. We achieve this using "threshold rebalanced portfolios", where trading occurs only if the portfolio breaches certain thresholds. Under the assumption that the relative price sequences have log-normal distribution from the Black-Scholes model, we evaluate the expected wealth under proportional transaction costs and find the threshold rebalanced portfolio that achieves the maximal expected cumulative wealth over any investment period. Our derivations ca...

  5. Design of time delayed chaotic circuit with threshold controller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Srinivasan; I. Raja Mohamed; K. Murali; M. Lakshmanan; Sudeshna Sinha

    2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel time delayed chaotic oscillator exhibiting mono- and double scroll complex chaotic attractors is designed. This circuit consists of only a few operational amplifiers and diodes and employs a threshold controller for flexibility. It efficiently implements a piecewise linear function. The control of piecewise linear function facilitates controlling the shape of the attractors. This is demonstrated by constructing the phase portraits of the attractors through numerical simulations and hardware experiments. Based on these studies, we find that this circuit can produce multi-scroll chaotic attractors by just introducing more number of threshold values.

  6. Threshold resummation for Drell-Yan production: theory and phenomenology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco Bonvini

    2010-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a phenomenological study of Drell-Yan pair production at hadron colliders based on the NNLO fixed order calculation and on NNLL resummation of threshold logarithms. We give an argument to prove that resummation effects are relevant also for values of x=M^2/s far from threshold. We compare different prescriptions for the calculation of resummed quantities, emphasizing the differences coming from subleading terms, which are important when x is small. We present phenomenological predictions for Drell-Yan rapidity distributions at the LHC, we study the ambiguity related to the resummation prescription, and we compare it to that coming from scale variation.

  7. Optical Damage Threshold of Silicon for Ultrafast Infrared Pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowan, Benjamin M.; /Tech-X, Boulder /SLAC

    2007-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We present measurements of the optical damage threshold of crystalline silicon in air for ultrafast pulses in the near infrared. The wavelengths tested span a range from the telecommunications band at 1550 nm, extending to 2260 nm. We discuss the motivation for the measurements and give theoretical context. We then describe the experimental setup, diagnostics, and procedure. The results show a breakdown threshold of 0.2J/cm{sup 2} at 1550 nm and 1.06 ps FWHM pulse duration, and a weak dependence on wavelength.

  8. Low-Threshold Surface-Passivated Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dirk Englund; Hatice Altug; Jelena Vuckovic

    2007-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency and operating range of a photonic crystal laser is improved by passivating the InGaAs quantum well (QW) gain medium and GaAs membrane using an (NH4)S treatment. The passivated laser shows a four-fold reduction in nonradiative surface recombination rate, resulting in a four-fold reduction in lasing threshold. A three-level carrier dynamics model explains the results and shows that lasing threshold is as much determined by surface recombination losses as by the cavity quality factor (Q). Surface passivation therefore appears crucial in operating such lasers under practical conditions.

  9. Threshold current analysis of compressive strain (0-1. 8%) in low-threshold, long-wavelength quantum well lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osinski, J.S.; Grodzinski, P.; Dapkus, D. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Zou, Yao (National Research Council, Ottawa (Canada))

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive study of the effect of compressive strain on the threshold current performance of long-wavelength (1.5 [mu]m) quantum well (QW) lasers is presented. Model predictions of threshold currents in such devices identify QW thickness as a parameter that must be considered in optimizing laser performance when Auger currents are present. A minimum in threshold current density is thus calculated when QW thicknesses are maintained between 70 and 100 [angstrom], presently achieved in strained QW's using InGaAsP, and thereby isolating strain effects from any thickness and energy dependences. Experimental comparisons between strained and unstrained devices thus reveal strain-induced reductions in internal transparency current density per QW from 66 to 40 A/cm[sup 2], an increase in peak differential modal gain from 0.12 to 0.23 cm/A, and evidence for the elimination of intervalence band absorption as compressive strain increases from 0 to 18%. However, most of these improvements arise in the first [approximately]1% of compressive strain. In order to fabricate low-threshold 1.5 [mu]m buried heterostructure BH devices in InP using these trained QW active regions, an optimized design is derived which shows that threshold current is at its lowest when the strip width is approximately 0.6-0.7 [mu]m. Example uncoated BH lasers exhibit room temperature pulsed threshold currents of 5.9 mA in structures without current blocking layers, and 4.1 mA in structures with current blocking layers.

  10. Effect of shrink fits on threshold speeds of rotordynamic instability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Baz, Khalid A

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this thesis is to study the effect of shrink fits on the threshold speeds of rotor instability. Shrink or press fit components in built-up rotors are known sources of internal friction damping. The internal friction damping increases...

  11. A Threshold Autoregressive Model for Wholesale Electricity Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Threshold Autoregressive Model for Wholesale Electricity Prices B. Ricky Rambharat, Department, 2003 Abstract We introduce a discrete-time model for electricity prices, which accounts for both spikes Introduction The study of electricity price dynamics has attracted significant attention from researchers

  12. Polymer Collapse, Protein Folding, and the Percolation Threshold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meirovitch, Hagai

    Polymer Collapse, Protein Folding, and the Percolation Threshold HAGAI MEIROVITCH University (Macromolecules 1989, 22, 3986­3997) to study protein folding, where H and P are the hydrophobic and polar amino; computer simulation; collapse transition; protein folding Introduction The behavior of dilute polymer

  13. Pay What You Want as Threshold Public Good Provision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mak, Vincent; Zwick, Rami; Rao, Akshay R.; Pattaratanakun, Jake A.

    2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ; feedback; market information PAY WHAT YOU WANT 2 Pay What You Want as Threshold Public Good Provision In a recent post on the Wikimedia Foundation website, Jimmy Wales, co-founder of Wikipedia, pleaded with users to donate to the website so...

  14. Threshold error rates for the toric and surface codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. S. Wang; A. G. Fowler; A. M. Stephens; L. C. L. Hollenberg

    2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The surface code scheme for quantum computation features a 2d array of nearest-neighbor coupled qubits yet claims a threshold error rate approaching 1% (NJoP 9:199, 2007). This result was obtained for the toric code, from which the surface code is derived, and surpasses all other known codes restricted to 2d nearest-neighbor architectures by several orders of magnitude. We describe in detail an error correction procedure for the toric and surface codes, which is based on polynomial-time graph matching techniques and is efficiently implementable as the classical feed-forward processing step in a real quantum computer. By direct simulation of this error correction scheme, we determine the threshold error rates for the two codes (differing only in their boundary conditions) for both ideal and non-ideal syndrome extraction scenarios. We verify that the toric code has an asymptotic threshold of p = 15.5% under ideal syndrome extraction, and p = 7.8 10^-3 for the non-ideal case, in agreement with prior work. Simulations of the surface code indicate that the threshold is close to that of the toric code.

  15. Energy Complexity and Entropy of Threshold Kei Uchizawa1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maass, Wolfgang

    The active outputs of neurons are stereotypical electrical pulses (action poten- tials, or "spikes gate. In fact, historically and even currently, threshold circuits are commonly viewed as abstract output a "1" during any computation. Common ab- stract measures for the energy consumption of electronic

  16. Low dimensional model of heart rhythm dynamics as a tool for diagnosing the anaerobic threshold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anosov, O.L. [Institute of Physiology, Charite Humboldt-University at Berlin, Berlin, D-10117 (Germany)] [Regional. Cardio Center, Vladimir, (Russia); Butkovskii, O.Y. [Vladimir State Technical University, 87, Gorki St., Vladimir, 600026 (Russia); Kadtke, J. [Institute for Pure and Applied Physical Science University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0360 (United States); Kravtsov, Y.A. [Space Research Institute of RAS, 84/32 Profsoyuznaja St., Moscow, 117810 (Russia); Protopopescu, V. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6364 (United States)

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report preliminary results on describing the dependence of the heart rhythm variability on the stress level by using qualitative, low dimensional models. The reconstruction of macroscopic heart models yielding cardio cycles (RR-intervals) duration was based on actual clinical data. Our results show that the coefficients of the low dimensional models are sensitive to metabolic changes. In particular, at the transition between aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic metabolism, there are pronounced extrema in the functional dependence of the coefficients on the stress level. This strong sensitivity can be used to design an easy indirect method for determining the anaerobic threshold. This method could replace costly and invasive traditional methods such as gas analysis and blood tests. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Lowering the threshold in the DAMA dark matter detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelso, Chris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We look at two improvements related to the DAMA/LIBRA dark matter detector. We show how using a more optimized binning scheme of the current data can lead to significantly tighter contraints on the compatible regions of the WIMP parameter space. In addition, the PMTs of the detector were upgraded in 2010, allowing the low energy threshold to be lowered from 2 keVee to 1 keVee. We examine the implications for the dark matter interpretion of the DAMA modulation with data in this new energy region. Specifically, we focus on how well the degeneracy between the low mass and high mass regions can be removed by this new data. We find that the lower threshold data should rule out one of the two mass ranges in the spin-independent case at a minimum of the 2.6? level in the worst case scenario.

  18. Intrashell Electron Interaction Mediated Photoformation of Hollow Atoms near Threshold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houtari, S.; Kao, C.; Hamalainen, K.; Diamant, R.; Sharon, R.; Deutsch, M.

    2008-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Double photoionization (DPI) of an atom by a single photon is a direct consequence of electron-electron interactions within the atom. We have measured the evolution of the K-shell DPI from threshold up in transition metals by high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy of the K{sup h}a hypersatellites, photoexcited by monochromatized synchrotron radiation. The measured evolution of the single-to-double photoionization cross-section ratio with excitation energy was found to be universal. Theoretical fits suggest that near threshold DPI is predominantly a semiclassical knockout effect, rather than the purely quantum-mechanical shake-off observed at the infinite photon energy limit.

  19. Predicting threshold and location of laser damage on optical surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siekhaus, Wigbert (Berkeley, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus useful in the prediction of the damage threshold of various optical devices, the location of weak spots on such devices and the location, identification, and elimination of optical surface impurities comprising, a focused and pulsed laser, an photo electric detector/imaging means, and a timer. The weak spots emit photoelectrons when subjected to laser intensities that are less than the intensity actually required to produce the damage. The weak spots may be eliminated by sustained exposure to the laser beam.

  20. Performance Results of the AMS-01 Aerogel Threshold Cherenkov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Mayet

    2000-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) was flown in june 1998 on board of the space shuttle Discovery (flight STS-91) at an altitude ranging between 320 and 390 km. This preliminary version of AMS included an Aerogel Threshold Cherenkov detector (ATC) to separate antiprotons from electron background, for momenta less than 3.5 GeV/c. In this paper, the design and physical principles of ATC will be discussed briefly, then the performance results of the ATC will be presented.

  1. Threshold Corrections to the Bottom Quark Mass Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Archana Anandakrishnan; B. Charles Bryant; Stuart Raby

    2015-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Threshold corrections to the bottom quark mass are often estimated under the approximation that tan$\\beta$ enhanced contributions are the most dominant. In this work we revisit this common approximation made to the estimation of the supersymmetric threshold corrections to the bottom quark mass. We calculate the full one-loop supersymmetric corrections to the bottom quark mass and survey a large part of the phenomenological MSSM parameter space to study the validity of considering only the tan$\\beta$ enhanced corrections. Our analysis demonstrates that this approximation underestimates the size of the threshold corrections by $\\sim$12.5% for most of the considered parameter space. We discuss the consequences for fitting the bottom quark mass and for the effective couplings to Higgses. We find that it is important to consider the additional contributions when fitting the bottom quark mass but the modifications to the effective Higgs couplings are typically $\\mathcal{O}$(few)% for the majority of the parameter space considered.

  2. Investigation of the Cause of Low Blister Threshold Temperatures in the RERTR-12 and AFIP-4 Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell K Meyer

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Blisterthreshold testing of fuel plates is a standard method through which the safety margin for operation of plate-type in research and test reactors is assessed. The blister-threshold temperature is indicative of the ability of fuel to operate at high temperatures for short periods of time (transient conditions) without failure. This method of testing was applied to the newly developed U-Mo monolithic fuel system. Blister annealing studies on the U-Mo monolithic fuel plates began in 2007, with the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR)-6 experiment, and they have continued as the U-Mo fuel system has evolved through the research and development process. Blister anneal threshold temperatures from early irradiation experiments (RERTR-6 through RERTR-10) ranged from 400 to 500C. These temperatures were projected to be acceptable for NRC-licensed research reactors and the high-power Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) based on current safety-analysis reports (SARs). Initial blister testing results from the RERTR-12 experiment capsules X1 and X2 showed a decrease in the blister-threshold temperatures. Blister threshold temperatures from this experiment ranged from 300 to 400C. Selected plates from the AFIP-4 experiment, which was fabricated using a process similar to that used to fabricate the RERTR-12 experiment, also underwent blister testing to determine whether results would be similar. The measured blister-threshold temperatures from the AFIP-4 plates fell within the same blister-threshold temperature range measured in the RERTR-12 plates. Investigation of the cause of this decrease in bister threshold temperature is being conducted under the guidance of Idaho National Laboratory PLN-4155, Analysis of Low Blister Threshold Temperatures in the RERTR-12 and AFIP-4 Experiments, and is driven by hypotheses. The main focus of the investigation is in the following areas: 1. Fabrication variables 2. Pre-irradiation characterization 3. Irradiation conditions 4. Post-irradiation examination 5. Additional blister testing 6. Mechanical modeling This report documents the preliminary results of this investigation. Several hypotheses can be dismissed as a result of this investigation. Two primary categories of causes remain. The most prominent theory, supported by the data, is that low blister-threshold temperature is the result of mechanical energy imparted on the samples during the fabrication process (hot and cold rolling) without adequate post processing (annealing). The mechanisms are not clearly understood and require further investigation, but can be divided into two categories: Residual Stress Undesirable interaction boundary and/or U-Mo microstructure change A secondary theory that cannot be dismissed with the information that is currently available is that a change in the test conditions has resulted in a statistically significant downward shift of measured blister temperature. This report outlines the results of the forensic investigations conducted to date. The data and conclusions presented in this report are preliminary. Definitive cause and effect relationships will be established by future experimental programs.

  3. Threshold model and the latest NA50 data on $J/?$ suppression in Pb+Pb collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. K. Chaudhuri

    2003-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the QGP motivated threshold model, where all the $J/\\psi$'s are suppressed above a threshold density, we have analyzed the latest version of the NA50 data on the centrality dependence of the $J/\\psi$ over Drell-Yan ratio. The data are not well explain in the model, unless the threshold density is largely smeared. Large smeared threshold density effectively excludes creation of any deconfined medium in the collision.

  4. Measurement of the generalized form factors near threshold via ?*p ? n?+ at high Q2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Park, K; Adhikari, K P; Adikaram, D; Anghinolfi, M; Baghdasaryan, H; Ball, J; Battaglieri, M; Batourine, V; Bedlinskiy, I; Bennett, R P; Biselli, A S; Bookwalter, C; Boiarinov, S; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Charles, G; Cole, P L; Contalbrigo, M; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; El Alaoui, A; El Fassi, L; Euginio, P; Fedotov, G; Fradi, A; Gabrielyan, M Y; Gevorgyan, N; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gohn, W; Golovatch, E; Graham, L; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Heddle, D; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Jenkins, D; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Khandaker, M; Khertarpal, P; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, F J; Kubarovsky, A; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Kvaltine, N D; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, J D; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McKinnon, B; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mineeva, T; Mirazita, M; Mokeev, V; Moutarde, H; Munevar, E; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Paolone, M; Pappalardo, L; Paremuzyan, R; Park, S; Anefalos Pereira, S; Phelps, E; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Pozdniakov, S; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Y; Ricco, G; Rimal, D; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabati ee, F; Saini, M S; Salgado, C; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Seraydaryan, H; Sharabian, Y G; Smith, E S; Smith, G D; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Tang, W; Taylor, C E; Tian, Y; Tkachenko, S; Trivedi, A; Ungaro, M; Vernarsky, B; Vlassov, A V; Voutier, E; Watts, D P; Weygand, D P; Wood, M H; Zachariou, N; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z W

    2012-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the first extraction of the pion-nucleon multipoles near the production threshold for the n?+ channel at relatively high momentum transfer (Q2 up to 4.2 GeV2). The dominance of the s-wave transverse multipole (E0+), expected in this region, allowed us to access the generalized form factor G1 within the light-cone sum rule (LCSR) framework as well as the axial form factor GA. The data analyzed in this work were collected by the nearly 4? CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) using a 5.754-GeV electron beam on a proton target. The differential cross section and the ?-N multipole E0+/GD were measured using two different methods, the LCSR and a direct multipole fit. The results from the two methods are found to be consistent and almost Q2 independent.

  5. Fatigue threshold R-curves for predicting reliability of ceramics under cyclic loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    Fatigue threshold R-curves for predicting reliability of ceramics under cyclic loading J.J. Kruzic for the prediction of reliability in bridging ceramics under cyclic loading conditions based on a fatigue threshold R-curve threshold R-curve may express this crack-size dependence, analogous to the traditional fracture toughness R-curve

  6. A Thesis for the Degree of Master of Science Provably Secure Threshold Blind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Kwangjo

    A Thesis for the Degree of Master of Science Provably Secure Threshold Blind Signature Scheme Using Secure Threshold Blind Signature Scheme Using Pairings #12;Provably Secure Threshold Blind Signature and Communications University A thesis submitted to the faculty of Information and Commu- nications University

  7. Qualitative and analytical results of the bifurcanion thresholds to halo orbits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sara Bucciarelli; Marta Ceccaroni; Alessandra Celletti; Giuseppe Pucacco

    2015-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the dynamics in the neighborhood of the collinear Lagrangian points in the spatial, circular, restricted three--body problem. We consider the case in which one of the primaries is a radiating body and the other is oblate (although the latter is a minor effect). Beside having an intrinsic mathematical interest, this model is particularly suited for the description of a mission of a spacecraft (e.g., a solar sail) to an asteroid. The aim of our study is to investigate the occurrence of bifurcations to halo orbits, which take place as the energy level is varied. The estimate of the bifurcation thresholds is performed by analytical and numerical methods: we find a remarkable agreement between the two approaches. As a side result, we also evaluate the influence of the different parameters, most notably the solar radiation pressure coefficient, on the dynamical behavior of the model. To perform the analytical and numerical computations, we start by implementing a center manifold reduction. Next, we estimate the bifurcation values using qualitative techniques (e.g. Poincar\\'e surfaces, frequency analysis, FLIs). Concerning the analytical approach, following \\cite{CPS} we implement a resonant normal form, we transform to suitable action-angle variables and we introduce a detuning parameter measuring the displacement from the synchronous resonance. The bifurcation thresholds are then determined as series expansions in the detuning. Three concrete examples are considered and we find in all cases a very good agreement between the analytical and numerical results.

  8. Qualitative and analytical results of the bifurcation thresholds to halo orbits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sara Bucciarelli; Marta Ceccaroni; Alessandra Celletti; Giuseppe Pucacco

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the dynamics in the neighborhood of the collinear Lagrangian points in the spatial, circular, restricted three--body problem. We consider the case in which one of the primaries is a radiating body and the other is oblate (although the latter is a minor effect). Beside having an intrinsic mathematical interest, this model is particularly suited for the description of a mission of a spacecraft (e.g., a solar sail) to an asteroid. The aim of our study is to investigate the occurrence of bifurcations to halo orbits, which take place as the energy level is varied. The estimate of the bifurcation thresholds is performed by analytical and numerical methods: we find a remarkable agreement between the two approaches. As a side result, we also evaluate the influence of the different parameters, most notably the solar radiation pressure coefficient, on the dynamical behavior of the model. To perform the analytical and numerical computations, we start by implementing a center manifold reduction. Next, we estimate the bifurcation values using qualitative techniques (e.g. Poincar\\'e surfaces, frequency analysis, FLIs). Concerning the analytical approach, following \\cite{CPS} we implement a resonant normal form, we transform to suitable action-angle variables and we introduce a detuning parameter measuring the displacement from the synchronous resonance. The bifurcation thresholds are then determined as series expansions in the detuning. Three concrete examples are considered and we find in all cases a very good agreement between the analytical and numerical results.

  9. Threshold Stress Creep Behavior of Alloy 617 at Intermediate Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.K. Benz; L.J. Carroll; J.K. Wright; R.N. Wright; T. Lillo

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Creep of Alloy 617, a solid solution Ni-Cr-Mo alloy, was studied in the temperature range of 1023 K to 1273 K (750 C to 1000 C). Typical power-law creep behavior with a stress exponent of approximately 5 is observed at temperatures from 1073 K to 1273 K (800 C to 1000 C). Creep at 1023 K (750 C), however, exhibits threshold stress behavior coinciding with the temperature at which a low volume fraction of ordered coherent y' precipitates forms. The threshold stress is determined experimentally to be around 70 MPa at 1023 K (750 C) and is verified to be near zero at 1173 K (900 C)temperatures directly correlating to the formation and dissolution of y' precipitates, respectively. The y' precipitates provide an obstacle to continued dislocation motion and result in the presence of a threshold stress. TEM analysis of specimens crept at 1023 K (750 C) to various strains, and modeling of stresses necessary for y' precipitate dislocation bypass, suggests that the climb of dislocations around the y' precipitates is the controlling factor for continued deformation at the end of primary creep and into the tertiary creep regime. As creep deformation proceeds at an applied stress of 121 MPa and the precipitates coarsen, the stress required for Orowan bowing is reached and this mechanism becomes active. At the minimum creep rate at an applied stress of 145 MPa, the finer precipitate size results in higher Orowan bowing stresses and the creep deformation is dominated by the climb of dislocations around the y' precipitates.

  10. Threshold irradiation dose for amorphization of silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snead, L.L.; Zinkle, S.J.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The amorphization of silicon carbide due to ion and electron irradiation is reviewed with emphasis on the temperature-dependent critical dose for amorphization. The effect of ion mass and energy on the threshold dose for amorphization is summarized, showing only a weak dependence near room temperature. Results are presented for 0.56 MeV silicon ions implanted into single crystal 6H-SiC as a function of temperature and ion dose. From this, the critical dose for amorphization is found as a function of temperature at depths well separated from the implanted ion region. Results are compared with published data generated using electrons and xenon ions as the irradiating species. High resolution TEM analysis is presented for the Si ion series showing the evolution of elongated amorphous islands oriented such that their major axis is parallel to the free surface. This suggests that surface or strain effects may be influencing the apparent amorphization threshold. Finally, a model for the temperature threshold for amorphization is described using the Si ion irradiation flux and the fitted interstitial migration energy which was found to be {approximately}0.56eV. This model successfully explains the difference in the temperature dependent amorphization behavior of SiC irradiated with 0.56 MeV Si{sup +} at 1 x 10{sup -3} dpa/s and with fission neutrons irradiated at 1 x 10{sup -6} dpa/s irradiated to 15 dpa in the temperature range of {approximately}340{+-}10K.

  11. Predicting threshold and location of laser damage on optical surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siekhaus, W.

    1985-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an apparatus useful in the prediction of the damage threshold of various optical devices, the location of weak spots on such devices and the location, identification, and elimination of optical surface impurities. The apparatus comprises a focused and pulsed laser, a photo electric detector/imaging means, and a timer. The weak spots emit photoelectrons when subjected to laser intensities that are less than the intensity actually required to produce the damage. The weak spots may be eliminated by sustained exposure to the laser beam.

  12. Deuteron-deuteron scattering above four-nucleon breakup threshold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deltuva, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deuteron-deuteron elastic scattering and transfer reactions in the energy regime above four-nucleon breakup threshold are described by solving exact four-particle equations for transition operators. Several realistic nuclear interaction models are used, including the one with effective many-nucleon forces generated by the explicit $\\Delta$-isobar excitation; the Coulomb force between protons is taken into account as well. Differential cross sections, deuteron analyzing powers, outgoing nucleon polarization, and deuteron-to-neutron polarization transfer coefficients are calculated at 10 MeV deuteron energy. Overall good agreement with the experimental data is found. The importance of breakup channels is demonstrated.

  13. Electron Rescattering in Above-Threshold Photodetachment of Negative Ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gazibegovic-Busuladzic, A. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Milosevic, D. B. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Strasse 2a, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Becker, W. [Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Strasse 2a, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Bergues, B.; Hultgren, H.; Kiyan, I. Yu. [Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We present experimental and theoretical results on photodetachment of Br{sup -} and F{sup -} in a strong infrared laser field. The observed photoelectron spectra of Br{sup -} exhibit a high-energy plateau along the laser polarization direction, which is identified as being due to the rescattering effect. The shape and the extension of the plateau is found to be influenced by the depletion of negative ions during the interaction with the laser pulse. Our findings represent the first observation of electron rescattering in above-threshold photodetachment of an atomic system with a short-range potential.

  14. Near-threshold production of the multi-strange $?^-$ hyperon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Chung; N. N. Ajitanand; J. M. Alexander; M. Anderson; D. Best; F. P. Brady; T. Case; W. Caskey; D. Cebra; J. L. Chance; B. Cole; K. Crowe; A. C. Das; J. E. Draper; M. L. Gilkes; S. Gushue; M. Heffner; A. S. Hirsch; E. L. Hjort; W. Holzmann; L. Huo; M. Issah; M. Justice; M. Kaplan; D. Keane; J. C. Kintner; J. Klay; D. Krofcheck; R. A. Lacey; J. Lauret; M. A. Lisa; H. Liu; Y. M. Liu; J. Milan; R. McGrath; Z. Milosevich; G. Odyniec; D. L. Olson; S. Panitkin; N. T. Porile; G. Rai; H. G. Ritter; J. L. Romero; R. Scharenberg; B. Srivastava; N. T. B Stone; T. J. M. Symons; A. Taranenko; J. Whitfield; T. Wienold; R. Witt; L. Wood; W. N. Zhang; H. Oeschler

    2003-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The yield for the multi-strange $\\Xi^{-}$ hyperon has been measured in 6 AGeV Au+Au collisions via reconstruction of its decay products $\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Lambda$, the latter also being reconstructed from its daughter tracks of $\\pi^{-}$ and p. The measurement is rather close to the threshold for $\\Xi^{-}$ production and therefore provides an important test of model predictions. The measured yield for $\\Xi^{-}$ and $\\Lambda$ are compared for several centralities. In central collisions the $\\Xi^{-}$ yield is found to be in excellent agreement with statistical and transport model predictions, suggesting that multi-strange hadron production approaches chemical equilibrium in high baryon density nuclear matter.

  15. Damage thresholds of fluoride multilayers at 355 nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, R.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Loomis, G.E.; Rainer, F.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluoride multilayer coatings were evaluated for use in 355 nm high reflector applications. The LaF[sub 3]/Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], NdF[sub 3]/Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6] and GdF[sub 3]/Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6] multilayers had laser damage thresholds of 20, 17.9 and 7.4 (measured at 10-ns pulsewidths), respectively. High tensile stresses in the coatings restricted this evaluation to only 5-layer-pair partial reflectors (49--52%).The LaF[sub 3]/Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], NdF[sub 3]/Na[sub 3]Al[sub 6] and GdF[sub 3]/Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6] multilayers had tensile stresses of [approximately] 1.1 [times] 109, 1.3 [times] 109 and 9.3 [times] 10[sup 8] dynes/cm[sup 2], respectively. Substrate material and glow-discharge processing of the substrates were found to influence the density of stress-induced coating fractures and damage thresholds in some cases. If stress fracturing and scatter can be controlled, these fluoride material combinations are suited for 3[omega] applications.

  16. New VLSI complexity results for threshold gate comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beiu, V.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper overviews recent developments concerning optimal (from the point of view of size and depth) implementations of COMPARISON using threshold gates. We detail a class of solutions which also covers another particular solution, and spans from constant to logarithmic depths. These circuit complexity results are supplemented by fresh VLSI complexity results having applications to hardware implementations of neural networks and to VLSI-friendly learning algorithms. In order to estimate the area (A) and the delay (T), as well as the classical AT{sup 2}, we shall use the following {open_quote}cost functions{close_quote}: (i) the connectivity (i.e., sum of fan-ins) and the number-of-bits for representing the weights and thresholds are used as closer approximations of the area; while (ii) the fan-ins and the length of the wires are used for closer estimates of the delay. Such approximations allow us to compare the different solutions-which present very interesting fan-in dependent depth-size and area-delay tradeoffs - with respect to AT{sup 2}.

  17. $J/?$ suppression in the threshold model and QGP formation time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. K. Chaudhuri

    2007-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In the QGP motivated threshold model, in addition to the normal nuclear absorption, $J/\\psi$'s are subjected to an additional "anomalous" suppression. We have analysed the recently published PHENIX data on the participant number dependence of the nuclear modification factor for $J/\\psi$'s in Au+Au collisions and extracted the anomalous suppression required to explain the data. At mid rapidity $J/\\psi$'s are anomalously suppressed only above a threshold density $n_c$=3.73 fm$^{-2}$. The forward rapidity data on the otherhand require that $J/\\psi$'s are continuously "anomalously" suppressed. The analysis strongly indicate that in mid rapidity $J/\\psi$'s are suppressed in a deconfined medium. Using the PHENIX data on the participant number dependence of the Bjorken energy density, we have also estimated the QGP formation time. For critical temperature $T_c$=192 MeV, estimated QGP formation time ranges between 0.06-0.08 fm/c.

  18. Femtosecond pulse damage thresholds of dielectric coatings in vacuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michelle D. Shinn, Duy N. Nguyen, Luke A. Emmert ,Paul Schwoebel, Dinesh Patel, Carmen S. Menoni, Wolfgang Rudolph

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At 10-7 Torr, the multiple femtosecond pulse damage threshold, F(?), is about 10% of the single pulse damage fluence F(1) for hafnia and silica films compared to about 65% and 50%, respectively, at 630 Torr. In contrast, the single-pulse damage threshold is pressure independent. The decrease of F(?) with decreasing air pressure correlates with the water vapor and oxygen content of the ambient gas with the former having the greater effect. The decrease in F(?) is likely associated with an accumulation of defects derived from oxygen deficiency, for example vacancies. From atmospheric air pressure to pressures of {approx}3 x 10{sup -6} Torr, the damage 'crater' starts deterministically at the center of the beam and grows in diameter as the fluence increases. At pressure below 3x10-6 Torr, damage is initiated at random 'sites' within the exposed area in hafnia films, while the damage morphology remains deterministic in silica films. A possible explanation is that absorbing centers are created at predisposed sample sites in hafnia, for example at boundaries between crystallites, or crystalline and amorphous phases.

  19. Threshold hyperon production in proton-proton collisions at COSY-11

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rozek, T; Budzanowski, A; Czyzykiewicz, R; Grzonka, D; Janusz, M; Jarczyk, L; Kamys, B; Khoukaz, A; Kilian, K; Klaja, P; Kowina, P; Moskal, P; Oelert, W; Piskor-Ignatowicz, C; Przerwa, J; Ritman, J; Sefzick, T; Siemaszko, M; Smyrski, J; Tschner, A; Winter, P; Wolke, M; Wstner, P; Zhang, Z; Zipper, W

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sigma+ hyperon production was measured at the COSY-11 spectrometer via the p p --> n K+ Sigma+ reaction at excess energies of Q = 13 MeV and Q = 60 MeV. These measurements continue systematic hyperon production studies via the p p --> p K+ Lambda/Sigma0 reactions where a strong decrease of the cross section ratio close-to-threshold was observed. In order to verify models developed for the description of the Lambda and Sigma0 production we have performed the measurement on the Sigma+ hyperon and found unexpectedly that the total cross section is by more than one order of magnitude larger than predicted by all anticipated models. After the reconstruction of the kaon and neutron four momenta, the Sigma+ is identified via the missing mass technique. Details of the method and the measurement will be given and discussed in view of theoretical models.

  20. Nanowire-based ternary transistor by threshold-voltage manipulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Junebeom; Lim, Taekyung; Bong, Jihye; Seo, Keumyoung; Ju, Sanghyun, E-mail: shju@kgu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do 443-760 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sunkook [Department of Electronics and Radio Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on a ternary device consisting of two nanowire channels that have different threshold voltage (V{sub th}) values and show that three current stages can be produced. A microscale laser-beam shot was utilized to selectively anneal the nanowire channel area to be processed, and the amount of V{sub th} shift could be controlled by adjusting the laser wavelength. Microscale laser annealing process could control V{sub th} of the individual nanowire transistors while maintaining the other parameters the constant, such as the subthreshold slope, onoff current ratio, and mobility. This result could provide a potential for highly integrated and high-speed ternary circuits.

  1. Triple photoionization of Ne and Ar near threshold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bluett, J.B.; Wehlitz, R. [Synchrotron Radiation Center, UW-Madison, Stoughton, Wisconsin 53589 (United States); Lukic, D. [Institute of Physics, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The triple-photoionization cross section of neon and argon near threshold has been investigated by ion time-of-flight spectrometry. We applied the Wannier power law to our data and confirmed the theoretical Wannier exponent in the cases of Ne and Ar. Our data also agree with previous findings regarding the Wannier exponent and its range of validity for Ne. However, the Wannier power law exhibits a much smaller range of validity of 2 eV for Ar compared to 5 eV for Ne. Also, in contrast to a previous experiment, we do not find a 'second' power law but a gradual decrease of the exponent above the range of validity of the Wannier power law.

  2. Threshold Verification Technique for Network Intrusion Detection System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faizal, M A; Shahrin, S; Robiah, Y; Rahayu, S Siti; Nazrulazhar, B

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Internet has played a vital role in this modern world, the possibilities and opportunities offered are limitless. Despite all the hype, Internet services are liable to intrusion attack that could tamper the confidentiality and integrity of important information. An attack started with gathering the information of the attack target, this gathering of information activity can be done as either fast or slow attack. The defensive measure network administrator can take to overcome this liability is by introducing Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) in their network. IDS have the capabilities to analyze the network traffic and recognize incoming and on-going intrusion. Unfortunately the combination of both modules in real time network traffic slowed down the detection process. In real time network, early detection of fast attack can prevent any further attack and reduce the unauthorized access on the targeted machine. The suitable set of feature selection and the correct threshold value, add an extra advantage for I...

  3. V-uniform ergodicity of threshold autoregressive nonlinear time series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boucher, Thomas Richard

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    intervals. Each threshold autoregressive model can be embedded in a Markov chain on Rp. For specifics, if we write Xt = (yt,yt-1,...,yt-p+1)prime the TAR(p) model introduced in (1.1) can be expressed as the following: Xt = AiXt-1 +nut, Xt-1 element Ri (1... ... 0 0 0 1 0 ... 0 ... 0 ... 0 0 0 .. ... 1 0 1 CC CC CC CC CC A 3 and nut = xit(1,0,...,0)prime . Since the distribution of Xt given X0,...,Xt-1 depends upon Xt-1 only, Xt is a Markov chain. The transition measure of Xt is singular w.r.t. Lebesgue...

  4. The pp->K+ n Sigma+ reaction near threshold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. Valdau; V. Koptev; S. Barsov; M. Bscher; S. Dymov; M. Hartmann; A. Kacharava; S. Merzliakov; S. Mikirtychyants; A. Mussgiller; M. Nekipelov; R. Schleichert; H. Strher; C. Wilkin

    2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Inclusive K+ production in proton-proton collisions has been measured at a beam energy of 2.16 GeV using the COSY-ANKE magnetic spectrometer. The resulting spectrum, as well as those corresponding to K+ p and K+ pi+ correlated pairs, can all be well described using consistent values of the total cross sections for the pp->K+ p Lambda, pp->K+ p Sigma0, and pp->K+ n Sigma+ reactions. While the resulting values for Lambda and Sigma0 production are in good agreement with world data, our value for the total Sigma+ production cross section, sigma(pp->K+ n Sigma+) = 2.5+/-0.6(stat)+/-0.4(syst) mkb at an excess energy of epsilon=129 MeV, could only be reconciled with other recently published data if there were a highly unusual near--threshold behaviour.

  5. Bulk optical damage thresholds for doped and undoped, crystalline and ceramic yttrium aluminum garnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Do, Binh T.; Smith, Arlee V.

    2009-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We measured the bulk optical damage thresholds of pure and Nd-doped ceramic yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG), and of pure, Nd-doped, Cr-doped, and Yb-doped crystalline YAG. We used 9.9 ns, 1064 nm, single-longitudinal mode, TEM00 pulses, to determine that the breakdown thresholds are deterministic, with multiple-pulse thresholds ranging from 1.1 to 2.2 kJ/cm{sup 2}.

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - absolute threshold technique Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Computing (1995) 5, 265-273 Application of wavelets to the Summary: theory. In Section 3, we discuss available techniques for thresholding the coefficients of a...

  7. Observed Minimum Illuminance Threshold for Night Market Vendors in Kenya who use LED Lamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnstone, Peter

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    business use by night market vendors and shopkeepers. OurThreshold for Night Market Vendors in Kenya who use LEDthreshold for night market vendors who use LED lighting

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - auditory threshold Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    . Sininger YS, Abdala C. Hearing threshold as measured by auditory brain stem response in human neonates. Ear... Development Trainor LJ Using Electroencephalography (EEG) to...

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - atoms two-photon above-threshold Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    created, which can be considered above threshold ionization ATI . Unlike in the seminal atomic ATI studies... absorption of four laser photons, equivalent to 20 eV excitation...

  10. Observed Minimum Illuminance Threshold for Night Market Vendors in Kenya who use LED Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan; Radecsky, Kristen

    2009-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Creation of light for work, socializing, and general illumination is a fundamental application of technology around the world. For those who lack access to electricity, an emerging and diverse range of LED based lighting products hold promise for replacing and/or augmenting their current fuel-based lighting sources that are costly and dirty. Along with analysis of environmental factors, economic models for total cost-ofownership of LED lighting products are an important tool for studying the impacts of these products as they emerge in markets of developing countries. One important metric in those models is the minimum illuminance demanded by end-users for a given task before recharging the lamp or replacing batteries. It impacts the lighting service cost per unit time if charging is done with purchased electricity, batteries, or charging services. The concept is illustrated in figure 1: LED lighting products are generally brightest immediately after the battery is charged or replaced and the illuminance degrades as the battery is discharged. When a minimum threshold level of illuminance is reached, the operational time for the battery charge cycle is over. The cost to recharge depends on the method utilized; these include charging at a shop at a fixed price per charge, charging on personal grid connections, using solar chargers, and purchasing dry cell batteries. This Research Note reports on the observed"charge-triggering" illuminance level threshold for night market vendors who use LED lighting products to provide general and task oriented illumination. All the study participants charged with AC power, either at a fixed-price charge shop or with electricity at their home.

  11. Phenomenology of the $ppK^+K^-$ system near threshold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Silarski

    2014-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article studies of the near threshold $pp\\to ppK^+K^-$ reaction conducted with the COSY-11 and the ANKE detectors are reviewed. In particular recent investigations on the $K^+K^-$ final state interaction are revisited taking into account updated cross sections of the COSY-11 experiment. These studies resulted in the new value of $K^+K^-$ effective range amounting to: $\\mathrm{Re}(b_{K^{+}K^{-}}) = -0.2^{+0.8_{stat}~+0.4_{sys}}_{-0.6_{stat}~-0.4_{sys}}~\\mathrm{fm}$ and $\\mathrm{Im}(b_{K^{+}K^{-}}) = 1.2^{~+0.5_{stat}~+0.3_{sys}}_{~-0.3_{stat}~-0.3_{sys}}~\\mathrm{fm}$. The determined real and imaginary parts of the $K^+K^-$ scattering length were estimated to be: $\\left|\\mathrm{Re}(a_{K^{+}K^{-}})\\right| = 10^{~+17_{stat}}_{~-10_{stat}}~\\mathrm{fm}$ and $\\mathrm{Im}(a_{K^{+}K^{-}}) = 0^{~+37_{stat}}_{~-10_{stat}}~\\mathrm{fm}$.

  12. High-energy above-threshold detachment from negative ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gazibegovic-Busuladzic, A.; Milosevic, D.B. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Becker, W. [Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Strasse 2a, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Above-threshold detachment of electrons from negative ions by an elliptically polarized laser field is analyzed within the strong-field approximation. The low-energy part of the spectrum, that is, its structure and its apparent cutoff, strongly depends on the orbital quantum number l of the initial ground state. The high-energy part is characterized by the usual extended plateau caused by rescattering, which is essentially independent of the ground state. The potential that the returning electron experiences during rescattering is modeled by the sum of a polarization potential and a static potential. This rescattering potential does not have much effect on the shape of the plateau, but it does on its height. For H{sup -} (l=0), the yield of rescattered electrons is five orders of magnitude below the direct electrons, while for I{sup -} (l=1) the yields only differ by a factor of 40. We also analyze the dependence of the angle-resolved energy spectrum on the ellipticity of the laser field and confirm general symmetry properties. An angle-integrated elliptic dichroism parameter is introduced and analyzed.

  13. Ultra Low Power 2-tier 3D Stacked Sub-threshold H.264 Intra Frame Encoder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Sung Kyu

    longer battery life and do not demand a fast frequency of operation. Sub-threshold cir- cuits beneficial to such unattended sensor networks by extending their battery life. Sub- threshold design helps us in-house tools to handle TSVs and 3D stacking. The standard cells were sized with Cadence Virtuoso

  14. Investigating the Effect of Freeway Congestion Thresholds on Decision-making Inputs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qu, Tongbin

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    . The rankings of congestion measures for freeway segments hold steady across the congestion thresholds ranging from 60 mph to 30 mph and across the congestion measures. From an investment point of view, the congestion threshold speed used is not a concern...

  15. Lake-level changes in central Patagonia (Argentina): crossing environmental thresholds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Lake-level changes in central Patagonia (Argentina): crossing environmental thresholds, Argentina 5 CONICET/Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia Austral, Ri´o Gallegos, Santa Cruz, Argentina-level changes in central Patagonia (Argentina): crossing environmental thresholds for Lateglacial and Holocene

  16. UNCORRECTEDPROOF 1 Fecundity determines the extinction threshold in a Canadian assemblage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Jeffrey

    suggested to have negative effects on forest species. We determined 13 the extinction threshold for 12, species caught moving outside forest habitat had lower extinction thresholds than 19 species not caught habitat loss affects the 39extinction risk of different species is therefore an 40important part

  17. Profit Sharing with Thresholds and Non-monotone Player Utilities Elliot Anshelevich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anshelevich, Elliot

    Profit Sharing with Thresholds and Non-monotone Player Utilities Elliot Anshelevich John Postl July that the player utility is monotone in the number of participants working on their project, we consider non-monotone player utilities. Such utilities could result, for example, from "threshold" or "phase transition

  18. Two-photon above-threshold ionization of magnesium F. Martin,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, R. Stephen

    Two-photon above-threshold ionization of magnesium A. Reber,1 F. Marti´n,2 H. Bachau,3 and R. S to understanding the photoionization properties of magnesium 1­8 , the problem of above- threshold ionization ATI

  19. A New Technique To Determine The Upper Threshold for Finite Length Turbo Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaturvedi, A K

    A New Technique To Determine The Upper Threshold for Finite Length Turbo Codes A.Rajeshand A in finite frame length turbo codes. These thresholds depend on the component encoder as well as the frame to indecisive and unequivocal fixed points respectively, for finiteframe length turbo codes. Concurrently, Gamal

  20. In vivo transcranial cavitation threshold detection during ultrasound-induced bloodbrain barrier opening in mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konofagou, Elisa E.

    In vivo transcranial cavitation threshold detection during ultrasound-induced blood­brain barrier cavitation threshold detection during ultrasound-induced blood­brain barrier opening in mice Yao-Sheng Tung1 cavitation response associated with blood­brain barrier (BBB) opening as induced by transcranial focused

  1. Threshold Concepts and Their Use in Rangeland Management and Restoration: The Good,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    management via potential-based land classification sys- tems and associated state-and-transition models (STMsThreshold Concepts and Their Use in Rangeland Management and Restoration: The Good, the Bad properties in time or space. In rangeland management, thresholds reflect changes in vegetation and soils

  2. Node-Replacement Policies to Maintain Threshold-Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vokkarane, Vinod M.

    1 Node-Replacement Policies to Maintain Threshold-Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks Sachin the sensing coverage falls below the minimum threshold-coverage. We develop three node-replacement policies failed sensor node for replacement. Based on different performance criteria, every time a sensor node

  3. An Improved Lagrangian Relaxation Method for VLSI Combinational Circuit Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yi-Le

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Gate sizing and threshold voltage (Vt) assignment are very popular and useful techniques in current very large scale integration (VLSI) design flow for timing and power optimization. Lagrangian relaxation (LR) is a common method for handling multi...

  4. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ON PEAK POWER CLIPPING THRESHOLDS IN MICROGRIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paderborn, Universität

    the utility grid. This kind of operating strategy is called e.g. "peak load shaving", "peak power reduction. This method is broadly applicable to similar applications, e.g. for peak-shaving of PV power to limit" or just "peak shaving" and is applied to diverse applications and systems. This paper presents a method

  5. STATISTICAL METHODS STATISTICAL METHODS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delorme, Arnaud

    STATISTICAL METHODS 1 STATISTICAL METHODS Arnaud Delorme, Swartz Center for Computational@salk.edu. Keywords: statistical methods, inference, models, clinical, software, bootstrap, resampling, PCA, ICA Abstract: Statistics represents that body of methods by which characteristics of a population are inferred

  6. Low-energy-threshold analysis of the Phase I and Phase II data sets of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monroe, Jocelyn

    Results are reported from a joint analysis of Phase I and Phase II data from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. The effective electron kinetic energy threshold used is Teff=3.5 MeV, the lowest analysis threshold yet achieved ...

  7. Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA)

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

  8. Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA)

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

  9. Measurement Of Transverse Instability Thresholds In Low And high Emittance optics At The Photon Factory Storage Ring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakanaka, S; Kamiya, Yu; Katoh, M; Kobayakawa, H

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement Of Transverse Instability Thresholds In Low And high Emittance optics At The Photon Factory Storage Ring

  10. Increased Resilience in Threshold Cryptography Sharing a Secret with Devices That Cannot Store Shares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -mail, authorise bank transactions or access social network sites. As a consequence, personal devices are used more of battery power. These weaknesses can be mitigated by introducing threshold cryptography. The aim

  11. Long-Range Validity of Threshold Laws in Inner-Shell Photodetachment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the ALS, and Denison University has now shown that the threshold laws for inner-shell photodetachment of negative ions are not only obeyed but can extend over a much...

  12. Soft pneumatic artificial muscles with low threshold pressures for a cardiac compression device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obiajulu, Steven (Steven C.)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, I present the design, fabrication and characterization of fully soft pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) with low threshold pressures that are intended for direct cardiac compression (DCC). McKibben type ...

  13. Influence of microstructure on near-threshold fatigue-crack propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    in turbine rotor shafts 1 and acoustic fatigue of welds in gas ducts in magnox reactors.1, 2 The application behaviour at higher growth rates. A semi- quantitative model is developed to rationalize near- threshold

  14. Hair cell regeneration and recovery of auditory thresholds following aminoglycoside ototoxicity in Bengalese nches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubel, Edwin

    Hair cell regeneration and recovery of auditory thresholds following aminoglycoside ototoxicity Birds regenerate auditory hair cells when original hair cells are lost. Regenerated hair cells become innervated and restore hearing function. Functional recovery during hair cell regeneration is particularly

  15. An analysis of the threshold necessary to sustain rural Texas retail outlets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adcock, Donna P

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN ANALYSIS OF THE THRESHOLD NECESSARY TO SUSTAIN RURAL TEXAS RETAIL OUTLETS A Thesis by DONNA PFLUGER ADCOCK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1992 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics AN ANALYSIS OF THE THRESHOLD NECESSARY TO SUSTAIN RURAL TEXAS RETAIL OUTLETS A Thesis by DONNA PFLUGER ADCOCK Approved as to style and content by: Dennis U. Fisher (Chair...

  16. Identification of threshold levels for Warner-Bratzler shear force of beef value cuts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sitka, LeeAnn

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    IDENTIFICATION OF THRESHOLD LEVELS FOR WARNER-BRATZLER SHEAR FORCE OF BEEF VALUE CUTS A Thesis by LEEANN SITKA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2007 Major Subject: Animal Science IDENTIFICATION OF THRESHOLD LEVELS FOR WARNER-BRATZLER SHEAR FORCE OF BEEF VALUE CUTS A Thesis by LEEANN SITKA Submitted to the Office...

  17. Influence of the backward propagating waves on the threshold in planar nematic liquid crystal films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitry O. Krimer; Andrey E. Miroshnichenko; Etienne Brasselet

    2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze theoretically the influence of backward propagating waves on the primary threshold when a linearly polarized light impinges at normal incidence on a planarly aligned nematic liquid crystal films. We show, that the primary threshold, as a function of the phase delay induced by the nematic layer, exhibits oscillations. The amplitude of oscillations depends strongly on the drop of the refractivity indices of the nematic and outer media at the boundaries.

  18. Effect of taurine on chemoshock seizure thresholds in lead-exposed animals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huxtable, R.J.; Shindo, S.; Nakagawa, K.

    1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The high levels of taurine found in developing brain have led to postulates that taurine is involved in brain maturation. The authors have examined the effect of taurine on the chemoshock threshold of rats reared in the presence of the environmental toxin, lead. Within 24 h of giving birth, dams were placed on one of four regimens: Group P received 0.4% lead acetate in the drinking water; Group T received 3% taurine in drinking water; Group PT received both taurine and lead acetate; and Group C received distilled water. The pups were weaned at 21 days, but maintained on the same treatments. Pentylene tetrazole seizure thresholds were determined at 42 days. Thresholds in Group P were significantly depressed relative to Group C (56.0 mg/kg v 79.9 mg/kg). Taurine supplementation had no effect on threshold (T = 72.7 mg/kg). However, thresholds in Group PT were significantly higher than those of Group P (PT = 85.2 mg/kg). These data show that whereas taurine was without effect on the threshold of animals not stressed by exposure to lead, it had a protective effect on exposed animals. As human neonates are unable to synthesize taurine, the findings reinforce the concept of taurine being a conditionally essential nutrient in developing humans.

  19. Comparison of the "method of limits" and "alternate choice" methods in vibrometry testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, Eloise Carlton

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are the "method of limits" and "alternate choice" techniques. This investigation evaluated and compared these two techniques. The primary purpose of this investigation was to determine if these testing methods obtain the same vibration threshold... and to invesugate the relationship between the methods. The methods were used to test male and female populations for their vibration sensitivity in the median nerve (index finger) and the ulnar nerve (little finger) of both hands. This study utilized...

  20. Supporting Online Material Materials and Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Cecily J.

    1 Supporting Online Material Materials and Methods (15) For all possible earthquake pairs. The parameters chosen for window length, filter bandpass, negative sidelobe identification, and cross-correlation threshold are appropriate for high-frequency earthquakes. In order to remove false positives or poor data

  1. Threshold velocity for environmentally-assisted cracking in low alloy steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wire, G.L.; Kandra, J.T.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC) in low alloy steels is generally believed to be activated by dissolution of MnS inclusions at the crack tip in high temperature LWR environments. EAC is the increase of fatigue crack growth rate of up to 40 to 100 times the rate in air that occurs in high temperature LWR environments. A steady state theory developed by Combrade, suggested that EAC will initiate only above a critical crack velocity and cease below this same velocity. A range of about twenty in critical crack tip velocities was invoked by Combrade, et al., to describe data available at that time. This range was attributed to exposure of additional sulfides above and below the crack plane. However, direct measurements of exposed sulfide densities on cracked specimens were performed herein and the results rule out significant additional sulfide exposure as a plausible explanation. Alternatively, it is proposed herein that localized EAC starting at large sulfide clusters reduces the calculated threshold velocity from the value predicted for a uniform distribution of sulfides. Calculations are compared with experimental results where the threshold velocity has been measured, and the predicted wide range of threshold values for steels of similar sulfur content but varying sulfide morphology is observed. The threshold velocity decreases with the increasing maximum sulfide particle size, qualitatively consistent with the theory. The calculation provides a basis for a conservative minimum velocity threshold tied directly to the steel sulfur level, in cases where no details of sulfide distribution are known.

  2. Ultra-low threshold, electrically pumped quantum dot photonic crystal nanocavity laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan Ellis; Marie Mayer; Gary Shambat; Tomas Sarmiento; James Harris; Eugene Haller; Jelena Vuckovic

    2011-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient, low threshold, and compact semiconductor laser sources are being investigated for many applications in high-speed communications, information processing, and optical interconnects. The best edge-emitting and vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) have thresholds on the order of 100 \\muA[1,2] but dissipate too much power to be practical for many applications, particularly optical interconnects[3]. Optically pumped photonic crystal (PC) nanocavity lasers represent the state of the art in low-threshold lasers[4,5]; however, in order to be practical, techniques to electrically pump these structures must be developed. Here we demonstrate a quantum dot photonic crystal nanocavity laser in gallium arsenide pumped by a lateral p-i-n junction formed by ion implantation. Continuous wave lasing is observed at temperatures up to 150 K. Thresholds of only 181 nA at 50 K and 287 nA at 150 K are observed - the lowest thresholds ever observed in any type of electrically pumped laser.

  3. A refined threshold theorem for (1+2)-dimensional wave maps into surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew Lawrie; Sung-Jin Oh

    2015-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The recently established threshold theorem for energy critical wave maps states that wave maps with energy less than that of the ground state (i.e., a minimal energy nontrivial harmonic map) are globally regular and scatter on (1+2)-dimensional Minkowski space. In this note we give a refinement of this theorem when the target is a closed orientable surface by taking into account an additional invariant of the problem, namely the topological degree. We show that the sharp energy threshold for global regularity and scattering is in fact twice the energy of the ground state for wave maps with degree zero, whereas wave maps with nonzero degree necessarily have at least the energy of the ground state. We also give a discussion on the formulation of a refined threshold conjecture for the energy critical $SU(2)$ Yang-Mills equation on (1+4)-dimensional Minkowski space.

  4. A Hierarchy of Linear Threshold Models for the Spread of Political Revolutions on Social Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lang, John C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a linear threshold agent-based model (ABM) for the spread of political revolutions on social networks using empirical network data. We propose new techniques for building a hierarchy of simplified ordinary differential equation (ODE) based models that aim to capture essential features of the ABM, including effects of the actual networks, and give insight in the parameter regime transitions of the ABM. We relate the ABM and the hierarchy of models to a population-level compartmental ODE model that we proposed previously for the spread of political revolutions [1], which is shown to be mathematically consistent with the proposed ABM and provides a way to analyze the global behaviour of the ABM. This consistency with the linear threshold ABM also provides further justification a posteriori for the compartmental model of [1]. Extending concepts from epidemiological modelling, we define a basic reproduction number $R_0$ for the linear threshold ABM and apply it to predict ABM behaviour on empirical networ...

  5. Probing nuclear symmetry energy with the sub-threshold pion production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang Zhang; Yang Liu; Gao-Chan Yong; Wei Zuo

    2012-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the framework of semiclassical Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) transport model, we investigated the effects of symmetry energy on the sub-threshold pion using the isospin MDI interaction with the stiff and soft symmetry energies in the central collision of $^{48}$Ca + $^{48}$Ca at the incident beam energies of 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 MeV/nucleon, respectively. We find that the ratio of $\\pi^{-}/\\pi^{+}$ of sub-threshold charged pion production is greatly sensitive to the symmetry energy, particularly around 100 MeV/nucleon energies. Large sensitivity of sub-threshold charged pion production to nuclear symmetry energy may reduce uncertainties of probing nuclear symmetry energy via heavy-ion collision.

  6. Adapting to a Changing Environment: Non-obvious Thresholds in Multi-Scale Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clare Perryman; Sebastian Wieczorek

    2014-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Many natural and technological systems fail to adapt to changing external conditions and move to a different state if the conditions vary too fast. Such "non-adiabatic" processes are ubiquitous, but little understood. We identify these processes with a new nonlinear phenomenon---an intricate threshold where a forced system fails to adiabatically follow a changing stable state. In systems with multiple time-scales such thresholds are generic, but non-obvious, meaning they cannot be captured by traditional stability theory. Rather, the phenomenon can be analysed using concepts from modern singular perturbation theory: folded singularities and canard trajectories, including composite canards. Thus, non-obvious thresholds should explain the failure to adapt to a changing environment in a wide range of multi-scale systems including: tipping points in the climate system, regime shifts in ecosystems, excitability in nerve cells, adaptation failure in regulatory genes, and adiabatic switching in technology.

  7. Threshold law for electron impact ionization in the model of Temkin and Poet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macek, J.H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The angle-Sturmian theory is used to derive the threshold law for ionization of atomic hydrogen by electron impact in the model of Temkin and Poet. In this model, the exact electron-electron interaction is replaced by its monopole term. As for Wannier`s theory with the real interaction, ionization occurs only for electrons that start out nearly equidistant from the proton. Because there is a high propensity for one electron to be captured into a bound state, ionization is strongly suppressed, giving rise to a threshold law of the form {sigma} {proportional_to} exp[{minus}aE{sup {minus}1/6} + bE{sup 1/6}], where a and b are constants. The exponential law appears to be the quantal counterpart of the classical offset of the ionization threshold. Relative energy distribution are computed and found to favor configurations with unequal energy sharing.

  8. Improving noise threshold for optical quantum computing with the EPR photon source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Z.-H. [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Physics and MCTP, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Han, Y.-J.; Duan, L.-M. [Department of Physics and MCTP, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Oh, C. H. [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the noise threshold for optical quantum computing obtained by Varnava et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 060502 (2008)] can be significantly improved by replacing the single-photon source with the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) type of photon source. In this implementation, for an EPR source that emits either nothing (a vacuum state) or a perfect EPR state with probability {eta}{sub s}, the detector efficiency {eta}{sub d} is required to be larger than 50% and the source efficiency {eta}{sub s} can be an arbitrarily small positive number. We also present the error threshold for a more general noise model including additional photon absorption and show that the threshold still compares favorably with the previous results. We discuss several physical setups for realization of the required EPR photon source, including a photon emitter in a single-atom cavity.

  9. High Energy Thresholds in SUSY GUTs - A refined analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Katsikatsou

    2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In a previous paper we have developed a novel method in order to parametrize the effect of the large number of HETs into as fewer parameters as possible. Apart from its obvious advantages this parametrization serves as a vehicle for the examination of the validity of a minimal SO(10) model concerning a series of constraints. Among them is demand for unification of the gauge couplings, the experimental values of the strong coupling constant and lower experimental bound of the proton lifetime. All of these claims lead to preferred regions both in the soft the superheavy parameter space. In this paper we give the necessary updates of our results which stem mainly from the recent experimental measurements. We also include some additions in our analysis involving the universal trilinear coupling A_0 and the rate x, which is related to superheavy vevs. Finally we cross-check the preferred regions of the parameter space and narrow the even more by applying new constraints based on the results of the LHC experiment for the mass of the Higgs particle and the supersymmetry exclusion limits.

  10. Analysis and estimation of the threshold for a microwave "pellicle mirror" parametric oscillator, via energy conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiao, Raymond Y

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experiment is proposed to observe the dynamical Casimir effect by means of two tandem, high Q, superconducting microwave cavities, which are separated from each other by only a very thin wall consisting of a flexible superconducting membrane that can be driven into motion by means of resonant "pump" microwaves injected into the left cavity. Degenerate "signal" and "idler" microwave signals can then be generated by the exponential amplification of vacuum fluctuations in the initially empty right cavity, above a certain threshold. The purpose of this paper is calculate the threshold for this novel kind of opto-mechanical parametric oscillation, using energy considerations.

  11. Very Stable Electron Field Emission From Strontium Titanate Coated Carbon Nanotube Matrices With Low Emission Thresholds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandey, Archana; Prasad, Abhishek; Moscatello, Jason; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Chong M.; Yap, Yoke K.

    2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    PMMA-STO-CNT matrices were created by opened-tip vertically-aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) with conformal coating of strontium titanate and Poly(methyl methacrylate). Emission threshold of 0.8 V/?m was demonstrated, about five-fold lower than that of the as-grown VAMWCNTs. Theoretical simulation and modeling suggest that PMMA-STO-CNT matrices have suppressed screening effects and Coulombs repulsion forces between electrons in adjacent CNTs, leading to low emission threshold, high emission density, and prolong emission stability. These findings are important for practical application of VA-MWCNTs in field emission devices.

  12. Bounds on the map threshold of iterative decoding systems with erasure noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chia-Wen

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    BOUNDS ON THE MAP THRESHOLD OF ITERATIVE DECODING SYSTEMS WITH ERASURE NOISE A Thesis by CHIA-WEN WANG Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 2008 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering BOUNDS ON THE MAP THRESHOLD OF ITERATIVE DECODING SYSTEMS WITH ERASURE NOISE A Thesis by CHIA-WEN WANG Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment...

  13. Drell-Yan Production at Threshold to Third Order in QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taushif Ahmed; Maguni Mahakhud; Narayan Rana; V. Ravindran

    2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent computation on the full threshold contributions to Higgs boson production at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N$^3$LO) in QCD contains valuable information on the soft gluons resulting from virtual and real emission partonic subprocesses. We use those from the real emissions to obtain the corresponding soft gluon contributions to Drell-Yan production and determine the missing $\\delta(1-z)$ part of the N$^3$LO. The numerical impact of threshold effects demonstrates the importance of our results in the precision study with the Drell-Yan process at the LHC.

  14. Improving noise threshold for optical quantum computing with the EPR photon source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. -H. Wei; Y. -J. Han; C. H. OH; L. -M. Duan

    2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the noise threshold for optical quantum computing can be significantly improved by using the EPR-type of photon source. In this implementation, the detector efficiency $\\eta_{d}$ is required to be larger than 50%, and the source efficiency $\\eta_{s}$ can be an arbitrarily small positive number. This threshold compares favorably with the implementation using the single-photon source, where one requires the combined efficiency $\\eta_{d}\\eta_{s}>2/3$. We discuss several physical setups for realization of the required EPR photon source, including the photon emitter from a single-atom cavity.

  15. Threshold law for the triplet state for electron-impact ionization in the Temkin-Poet model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ihra, W.; Mota-Furtado, F.; OMahony, P.F. [Department of Mathematics, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW200EX (United Kingdom)] [Department of Mathematics, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW200EX (United Kingdom); Macek, J.H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-1501 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-1501 (United States); [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Post Office Box 2009 Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the analytical threshold behavior for the triplet cross section for electron-impact ionization in the Temkin-Poet model. The analytical results indicate that the most recent numerical calculations may fail to reproduce the correct threshold behavior in an energy regime below about E=0.1 a.u. We also present an analytical expression for the energy distribution of the two electrons near threshold. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Experimental study on GaP surface damage threshold induced by a high repetition rate femtosecond laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Yi; Liu Feng; Li Yanfeng; Chai Lu; Xing Qirong; Hu Minglie; Wang Chingyue

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The surface damage threshold of undoped bulk <110> GaP induced by a high repetition rate femtosecond pulse at 1040 nm with a duration of 61 fs was studied. The threshold value was obtained by a linear fit of the incident single pulse fluence and was confirmed with a breakdown test around the threshold level. The result will be useful in high intensity, high repetition rate laser applications and ultrafast processes.

  17. Adaptive Threshold Spike Detection using Stationary Wavelet Transform for Neural Recording Implants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mason, Andrew

    to optimize power consumption. The system was designed in 130nm CMOS and shown to occupy 0.082 mm2. Such a system must operate with very low power and occupy minimal area in order to facilitate implantationAdaptive Threshold Spike Detection using Stationary Wavelet Transform for Neural Recording Implants

  18. EnergySmart: Toward Energy-Efficient Manycores for Near-Threshold Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torrellas, Josep

    and static energy. According to initial estimates [7, 13], NTC can decrease the energy per operationEnergySmart: Toward Energy-Efficient Manycores for Near-Threshold Computing Ulya R. Karpuzcu on-chip voltage (Vdd) domains. However, this paper finds that such an approach is energy inefficient

  19. THE LOW-TEMPERATURE THRESHOLD FOR PINK SALMON EGGS IN RELATION TO A PROPOSED HYDROELECTRIC INSTALLATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE LOW-TEMPERATURE THRESHOLD FOR PINK SALMON EGGS IN RELATION TO A PROPOSED HYDROELECTRIC INSTALLATION JACK E. BAILEY' AND DALE R. EVANS' ABSTRACT A proposed hydroelectric installation in southeastern hydroelectric installation could result in temperatures as low as 4.5 0 C during spawning and initial incubation

  20. Temporal Integration of Sound Pressure Determines Thresholds of Auditory-Nerve Fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Jont

    and at variance with one another. They include sound pressure, sound power, or intensity, which are proportional to the square of pressure, and energy, i.e., the integral of sound power over time. Here we showTemporal Integration of Sound Pressure Determines Thresholds of Auditory-Nerve Fibers Peter Heil

  1. A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolokolnikov, Theodore

    A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture S. Adl a, , D. Iron b , T. Kolokolnikov b a Department of Biology, Dalhousie Fungal spores Organic agriculture Pathogen dispersal Conventional agriculture uses herbicides, pesticides

  2. An Algorithm to Learn ReadOnce Threshold Formulas, and some Generic Transformations between Learning Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckmiller, Rolf

    An Algorithm to Learn Read­Once Threshold Formulas, and some Generic Transformations between@cpsc.ucalgary.ca Thomas R. Hancock y Siemens Corporate Research, Inc. 755 College Road East Princeton, NJ 08540 e­mail: hancock@learning.scr.siemens.com Lisa Hellerstein z Department of EECS Northwestern University 2145

  3. An Algorithm to Learn Read-Once Threshold Formulas, and some Generic Transformations between Learning Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckmiller, Rolf

    An Algorithm to Learn Read-Once Threshold Formulas, and some Generic Transformations between. Hancocky Siemens Corporate Research, Inc. 755 College Road East Princeton, NJ 08540 e-mail: hancock@learning.scr.siemens of generic transformations that can be used to convert an algorithm in one learning model into an algorithm

  4. Integrating Preemption Threshold Scheduling and Dynamic Voltage Scaling for Energy Efficient Real-Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rajesh

    scheduling (PTS) enables designing scalable real-time systems. PTS not only decreases the run-time overhead by the Earliest Dead- line First (EDF) policy. We present an algorithm to compute threshold preemption levels- tion is an important aspect of embedded systems design. Generally speaking, the pro- cessor consumes

  5. Effects of creatine loading on electromyographic fatigue threshold during cycle ergometry in college-aged women

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Abbie E.; Walter, Ashley A.; Herda, Trent J.; Ryan, Eric D.; Moon, Jordan R.; Cramer, Joel T.; Stout, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 5 days of Creatine (Cr) loading on the electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMGFT) in college-aged women. Fifteen healthy college-aged women (mean SD = 22.3 1.7 ...

  6. Three-photon above-threshold ionization of magnesium F. Martin,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, R. Stephen

    Three-photon above-threshold ionization of magnesium A. Reber,1 F. Marti´n,2 H. Bachau,3 and R. S of magnesium as an electron source 1 have motivated our theoretical study in three-photon above

  7. Above-threshold ionization near the 3p4d 1 autoionizing state in magnesium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, R. Stephen

    Above-threshold ionization near the 3p4d 1 Fo autoionizing state in magnesium A. Reber,1 T. Baynard ionization of magnesium from the 3 1 P state in the region of the 3p4d 1 Fo autoionizing resonance, in which of magnesium atoms just inside the focus of a magnetic bottle spectrometer MBS 13 . One laser is tuned

  8. The freezing threshold for k-colourings of a random graph Michael Molloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molloy, Mike

    to determine the freezing threshold of most random CSP's for which we can use the planted model, eg. NAE much of the progress on random constraint satisfaction problems (CSP's). In particular, a common the cluster. These hypotheses have impacted the study of random CSP's in the theoretical computer science

  9. Electron-Nuclear Energy Sharing in Above-Threshold Multiphoton Dissociative Ionization of H2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thumm, Uwe

    Electron-Nuclear Energy Sharing in Above-Threshold Multiphoton Dissociative Ionization of H2 J. Wu­4], where the photon energy is shared by the freed electrons and the nuclear fragments. For the molecular ionization [10­15], and the imaging of inter- nuclear distance using nuclear kinetic energy release spec- tra

  10. Monotone cooperative games and their threshold versions Haris Aziz Felix Brandt Paul Harrenstein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cengarle, María Victoria

    Monotone cooperative games and their threshold versions Haris Aziz Felix Brandt Paul Harrenstein,brandtf,harrenst}@tcs.ifi.lmu.de ABSTRACT Cooperative games provide an appropriate framework for fair and stable resource allocation in multiagent systems. This paper focusses on monotone cooperative games, a class which comprises a variety

  11. THRESHOLDING-BASED SEGMENTATION AND APPLE GRADING BY MACHINE Devrim Unay, and Bernard Gosselin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dupont, Stéphane

    THRESHOLDING-BASED SEGMENTATION AND APPLE GRADING BY MACHINE VISION Devrim Unay, and Bernard.tcts.fpms.ac.be ABSTRACT In this paper, a computer vision based system is introduced to automatically grade apple fruits outperformed others with 89 % recognition. 1. INTRODUCTION Computer vision based quality sorting of apple

  12. Non-parametric Multiple-Antenna Blind Spectrum Sensing by Predicted Eigenvalue Threshold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in poor spectrum utilization. The dramatic increase in the demand for radio spectrum and the actual low (secondary user) must be aware of its radio environment and capable of detecting the licensed users, alsoNon-parametric Multiple-Antenna Blind Spectrum Sensing by Predicted Eigenvalue Threshold K. Hassan

  13. $J/?$ suppression in the threshold model at RHIC and LHC energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. K. Chaudhuri

    2007-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In the QGP based threshold model \\cite{Blaizot:2000ev,Blaizot:1996nq}, in addition to the normal nuclear absorption, $J/\\psi$'s are subjected to an 'anomalous' suppression such that above a threshold density $n_{J/\\psi}$, all the $J/\\psi$'s are melted. In the threshold model we have analysed the recent PHENIX data on the centrality dependence of $J/\\psi$ suppression in Au+Au collisions at RHIC. Feedback from decay of the state $\\chi$ is accounted for. $J/\\psi$'s are anomalously suppressed above a threshold density, $n_{J/\\psi}=3.57\\pm 0.17$ $fm^{-2}$. Threshold density for anomalous suppression of the state $\\chi$ is uncertain to a large extent, $n_\\chi=0.32 \\pm 0.32$ $fm^{-2}$. The fraction $F$ of the state $\\chi$ can not be determined unambiguously, depending on the nuclear absorption, it can vary from 20% to 40%. We have also predicted for the suppression in Pb+Pb collisions at LHC energy. In central Pb+Pb collisions, $J/\\psi$'s are suppressed by a factor of 3-4. Suppression pattern is rather similar to that in Au+Au collisions, if not slighty less in central collisions. Using the PHENIX data on the participant number dependence of the Bjorken energy density, we have also estimated the QGP formation time. For critical temperature $T_c$=192 MeV, estimated QGP formation time ranges between 0.07-0.09 fm/c.

  14. Stability threshold of ion temperature gradient driven mode in reversed field pinch plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, S. C. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For the first time in the reversed field pinch (RFP) configuration, the stability threshold of the ion temperature gradient driven (ITG) mode is studied by linear gyrokinetic theory. In comparison with tokamaks, the RFP configuration has a shorter connection length and stronger magnetic curvature drift. These effects result in a stronger instability driving mechanism and a larger growth rate in the fluid limit. However, the kinetic theory shows that the temperature slopes required for the excitation of ITG instability are much steeper than the tokamak ones. This is because the effect of Landau damping also becomes stronger due to the shorter connection length, which is dominant and ultimately determines the stability threshold. The required temperature slope for the instability may only be found in the very edge of the plasma and/or near the border of the dominant magnetic island during the quasi-single helicity state of discharge.

  15. Charge-distribution effect of imaging molecular structure by high-order above-threshold ionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Bingbing; Fu Panming [Laboratory of Optical Physics, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Guo Yingchun [Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Zhang Bin; Zhao Zengxiu [Department of Physics, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Yan Zongchao [Department of Physics, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a triatomic molecular model, we show that the interference pattern in the high-order above-threshold ionization (HATI) spectrum depends dramatically on the charge distribution of the molecular ion. Therefore the charge distribution can be considered a crucial factor for imaging a molecular geometric structure. Based on this study, a general destructive interference formula for each above-threshold ionization channel is obtained for a polyatomic molecule concerning the positions and charge values of each nuclei. Comparisons are made for the HATI spectra of CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}. These results may shed light on imaging complex molecular structure by the HATI spectrum.

  16. Site-Percolation Threshold of Carbon Nanotube Fibers: Fast Inspection of Percolation with Markov Stochastic Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Fangbo; Yakobson, Boris I

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a site-percolation model based on a modified FCC lattice, as well as an efficient algorithm of inspecting percolation which takes advantage of the Markov stochastic theory, in order to study the percolation threshold of carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers. Our Markov-chain based algorithm carries out the inspection of percolation by performing repeated sparse matrix-vector multiplications, which allows parallelized computation to accelerate the inspection for a given configuration. With this approach, we determine that the site-percolation transition of CNT fibers occurs at p_c =0.1533+-0.0013, and analyze the dependence of the effective percolation threshold (corresponding to 0.5 percolation probability) on the length and the aspect ratio of a CNT fiber on a finite-size-scaling basis. We also discuss the aspect ratio dependence of percolation probability with various values of p (not restricted to p_c).

  17. Vibrational Feshbach resonances in near threshold HOCO{sup -} photodetachment: a theoretical study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyabe, Shungo; Haxton, Dan; Lawler, Keith; Orel, Ann; McCurdy, Bill; Rescigno, Tom

    2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a theoretical study of HOCO{sup ?} photodetachment are presented, with a view toward understanding the origin of two peaks observed by Lu and Continetti (Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113005 (2007)) in the photoelectron kinetic energy spectrum very close to threshold. It is shown that the peaks can be attributed to vibrational Feshbach resonances of dipole-bound trans-HOCO{sup ?}, and not s- and p-wave shape resonances as previously assumed. Fixed-nuclei variational electron-HOCO scattering calculations are used to compute photodetachment cross sections and laboratory-frame photoelectron angular distributions. The calculations show a broad A??(#25;{pi}*)-shape resonance several eV above threshold.

  18. Single-shot and single-spot measurement of laser ablation threshold for carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lednev, Vasily N; Obraztsova, Elena D; Kudryashov, Sergey I; Bunkin, Alexey F

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple and convenient procedure for single-shot, single-spot ablation threshold measurement has been developed. It is based on the employment of cylindrical lens to obtain elliptical Gaussian laser spot. The ablated spot chords which are parallel to the minor axis were measured across the spot major axis which is proportional to the fluence cross-section thus providing wide range dependence of damaged spot size versus fluence in one spot measurement. For both conventional and new-developed procedures the ablation threshold for typical Nd:YAG laser parameters (1064 nm, 10 ns) has been measured as 50 mJ/cm2 which is one order of magnitude lower than that for a bulk graphite.

  19. Sub-threshold $\\phi$ and $\\Xi^-$ production by high mass resonances with UrQMD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinheimer, Jan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a possible explanation for the deep sub-threshold, $\\phi$ and $\\Xi^-$ production yields measured with the HADES experiment in Ar+KCl reactions at $E_{\\mathrm{lab}}=1.76$ A GeV and present predictions for Au+Au reactions at $E_{\\mathrm{lab}}=1.23$ A GeV. To explain the surprisingly high yields of $\\phi$ and $\\Xi^-$ hadrons we propose new decay channels for high mass baryon resonances. These new decay channels are constrained by elementary $\\mathrm{p+p}\\rightarrow \\mathrm{p+p+}\\phi$ cross sections, and $\\Xi^-$ production in p+Nb. Based on the fits to the elementary reactions one obtains a satisfactorily description of $\\phi$ and $\\Xi^-$ production in deep sub-threshold Ar+KCl reactions. The results implicate that no new medium effects are required to describe the rare strange particle production data in low energy nuclear collisions.

  20. Search for Sub-threshold Photoproduction of J/Psi Mesons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosted, Peter; Dunne, James; Lee, C.A.; Junnarkar, Parikshit; Arrington, John; Asaturyan, Razmik; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Christy, Michael; Chudakov, Eugene; Clasie, Benjamin; Connell, Simon; Dalton, Mark; Daniel, AJI; Day, Donal; Dutta, Dipangkar; Ent, Rolf; Fomin, Nadia; Gaskell, David; Horn, Tanja; Kalantarians, Narbe; Keppel, Cynthia; Meekins, David; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Navasardyan, Tigran; Roche, Julie; Rodriguez, Victor; Rohe, Daniela; Seely, Charles; Slifer, Karl; Strikman, Mark; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Testa, Giuseppe; Trojer, Roman; Wesselmann, Frank; Wood, Stephen; Zheng, Xiaochao

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A search was made for sub-threshold $J/\\psi$ production from a carbon target using a mixed real and quasi-real Bremsstrahlung photon beam with an endpoint energy of 5.76 GeV. No events were observed, which is consistent with predictions assuming quasi-free production. The results place limits on exotic mechanisms that strongly enhance quasi-free production.

  1. Elastic proton scattering on tritium below the n-$^{3}{He}$ threshold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rimantas Lazauskas

    2009-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Elastic proton scattering on ${}^{3}{H}$ nucleus is studied inbetween p-% ${}^{3}{H}$ and n-${}^{3}{He}$ thresholds, in the energy region where $\\alpha$-particles first excited state is inbeded in the continuum. For this aim Faddeev-Yakubovski equations are solved in configuration space, fully considering effects due to the isospin breaking as well as rigorously treating Coulomb interaction. Different realistic nuclear Hamiltonians are tested, elucidating open problems in nuclear interaction description.

  2. Search for Sub-threshold Photoproduction of J/Psi Mesons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Bosted; J. Dunne; C. A. Lee; P. Junnarkar; J. Arrington; R. Asaturyan; F. Benmokhtar; M. E. Christy; E. Chudakov; B. Clasie; S. H. Connell; M. M. Dalton; A. Daniel; D. Day; D. Dutta; R. Ent; N. Fomin; D. Gaskell; T. Horn; N. Kalantarians; C. E. Keppel; D. G. Meekins; H. Mkrtchyan; T. Navasardyan; J. Roche; V. M. Rodriguez; D. Kiselev; J. Seely; K. Slifer; M. Strikman; S. Tajima; G. Testa; Roman Trojer; F. R. Wesselmann; S. A. Wood; X. C. Zheng

    2008-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A search was made for sub-threshold $J/\\psi$ production from a carbon target using a mixed real and quasi-real Bremsstrahlung photon beam with an endpoint energy of 5.76 GeV. No events were observed, which is consistent with predictions assuming quasi-free production. The results place limits on exotic mechanisms that strongly enhance quasi-free production.

  3. The low threshold parametric decay instabilities leading to anomalous phenomena at ECRH in toroidal devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gusakov, E.; Popov, A.; Saveliev, A. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute of RAS, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A possibility of 3D electron Bernstein wave trapping in intensive magnetic field aligned density fluctuation or blob in toroidal plasma is demonstrated. Semi-analytic approach for description of associated plasma cavity is developed. A mechanism of low-threshold parametric decay instability driven by 2{sup nd} harmonic extraordinary pump microwave and leading to excitation of localized electron Bernstein wave and low frequency heavily damped oscillations is proposed and analyzed.

  4. Limiting absorption principle for some long range perturbations of Dirac systems at threshold energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nabile Boussaid; Sylvain Golnia

    2009-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We establish a limiting absorption principle for some long range perturbations of the Dirac systems at threshold energies. We cover multi-center interactions with small coupling constants. The analysis is reduced to study a family of non-self-adjoint operators. The technique is based on a positive commutator theory for non self-adjoint operators, which we develop in appendix. We also discuss some applications to the dispersive Helmholzt model in the quantum regime.

  5. Multiphoton detachment of H-. II. Intensity-dependent photodetachment rates and threshold behaviorcomplex-scaling generalized pseudospectral method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Shih-I; Wang, Jingyan; Laughlin, Cecil

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    intensity considered ranges from 1 to 40 GW/cm2 and the laser frequency covers 0.200.42 eV (in the c.m. frame). Finally we perform a simulation of intensity-averaged multiphoton detachment rates by considering the experimental conditions of the laser and H...

  6. Renormalization Group Evolution of Neutrino Parameters in Presence of Seesaw Threshold Effects and Majorana Phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shivani Gupta; Sin Kyu Kang; C. S. Kim

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the renormalization group evolution (RGE) for different mixing scenarios in the presence of seesaw threshold effects from high energy scale (GUT) to the low electroweak (EW) scale in the Standard Model (SM) and Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We consider four mixing scenarios namely Tri-Bimaximal Mixing, Bimaximal Mixing, Hexagonal Mixing and Golden Ratio Mixing which come from different flavor symmetries at the GUT scale. We find that the Majorana phases play an important role in the RGE running of these mixing patterns along with the seesaw threshold corrections. We present a comparative study of the RGE of all these mixing scenarios both with and without Majorana CP phases when seesaw threshold corrections are taken into consideration. We find that in the absence of these Majorana phases both the RGE running and seesaw effects may lead to $\\theta_{13}energies both in the SM and MSSM. However, if the Majorana phases are incorporated to the mixing matrix the running can be enhanced both in the SM and MSSM. Even by incorporating non zero Majorana CP phases in the SM, we do not get $\\theta_{13}$ in its present 3$\\sigma$ range. The current values of the two mass squared differences and mixing angles including $\\theta_{13}$ can be produced in the MSSM case with tan$\\beta$ = 10 and non zero Majorana CP phases at low energy. We also calculate the order of effective Majorana mass and Jarlskog Invariant for each scenario under consideration.

  7. Optical damage threshold of Au nanowires in strong femtosecond laser fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Summers, A M; Paneru, Govind; Kling, M F; Flanders, B N; Trallero-Herrero, C A

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrashort, intense light pulses permit the study of nanomaterials in the optical non-linear regime, potentially leading to optoelectronics that operate in the petahertz domain. These non-linear regimes are often present just below the damage threshold thus requiring the careful tuning of laser parameters to avoid the melting and disintegration of the materials. Detailed studies of the damage threshold of nanoscale materials are therefore needed. We present results on the damage threshold of Au nanowires when illuminated by intense femtosecond pulses. These nanowires were synthesized with the directed electrochemical nanowire assembly (DENA) process in two configurations: (1) free-standing Au nanowires on W electrodes and (2) Au nanowires attached to fused silica slides. In both cases the wires have a single-crystalline structure. For laser pulses with durations of 108 fs and 32 fs at 790 nm at a repetition rate of 2 kHz, we find that the free-standing nanowires melt at intensities close to 3 TW/cm$^2$ and 7....

  8. Few-body aspects of the near threshold pseudoscalar meson production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Moskal

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During last decade large samples of data have been collected on the production of the ground-state pseudoscalar mesons in collisions of proton or deuteron beam with hydrogen or deuterium target. These measurements have been performed in the vicinity of the kinematical threshold for meson production where only a few partial waves in both initial and final state are expected to contribute to the production process. This simplifies significantly the interpretation of the data, yet still appears to be challenging due to the three or four particle final state systems with a complex hadronic potential. We review experiments and phenomenology of the near threshold production of the ground-state mesons in the few-body final states as for example: nucleus-meson and nucleon-nucleon-meson, and report on the status of the search of the mesic-nuclei (a meson-nucleus bound states). Experimental advantages of measurements close to the kinematical threshold are discussed, and general features of the production mechanism of the eta and eta prime mesons in the nucleon-nucleon collisions are presented emphasising results of measurements of spin and izospin dependence of the production cross sections.

  9. Intensity-dependent enhancements in high-order above-threshold ionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milosevic, D. B. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Strasse 2a, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hasovic, E.; Gazibegovic-Busuladzic, A. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Busuladzic, M. [Medical Faculty, University of Sarajevo, Cekalusa 90, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Becker, W. [Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Strasse 2a, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The very pronounced intensity-dependent enhancements of groups of peaks of high-order above-threshold-ionization spectra of rare-gas atoms are investigated using an improved version of the strong-field approximation, which realistically models the respective atom. Two types of enhancements are found and explained in terms of constructive interference of the contributions of a large number of long quantum orbits. The first type is observed for intensities slightly below channel closings. Its intensity dependence is comparatively smooth and it is generated by comparatively few (of the order of 20) orbits. The second type occurs precisely at channel closings and exhibits an extremely sharp intensity dependence. It requires constructive interference of a very large number of long orbits (several hundreds) and generates cusps in the electron spectrum at integer multiples of the laser-photon energy. An interpretation of these enhancements as a threshold phenomenon is also given. An interplay of different types of the threshold anomalies is observed. The position of both types of enhancements, in the photoelectron-energy--laser-intensity plane, shifts to the next channel closing intensity with the change of the ground-state parity. The enhancements gradually disappear with decreasing laser pulse duration. This confirms the interpretation of enhancements as a consequence of the interference of long strong-laser-field-induced quantum orbits.

  10. Interplay of threshold resummation and hadron mass corrections in deep inelastic processes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Accardi, Alberto; Anderle, Daniele P.; Ringer, Felix

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss hadron mass corrections and threshold resummation for deep-inelastic scattering lN-->l'X and semi-inclusive annihilation e+e- -->hX processes, and provide a prescription how to consistently combine these two corrections respecting all kinematic thresholds. We find an interesting interplay between threshold resummation and target mass corrections for deep-inelastic scattering at large values of Bjorken xB. In semi-inclusive annihilation, on the contrary, the two considered corrections are relevant in different kinematic regions and do not affect each other. A detailed analysis is nonetheless of interest in the light of recent high precision data from BaBar and Belle on pion and kaon production, with which we compare our calculations. For both deep inelastic scattering and single inclusive annihilation, the size of the combined corrections compared to the precision of world data is shown to be large. Therefore, we conclude that these theoretical corrections are relevant for global QCD fits in order to extract precise parton distributions at large Bjorken xB, and fragmentation functions over the whole kinematic range.

  11. A Low-threshold Analysis of CDMS Shallow-site Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akerib, D.S.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Attisha, M.J.; /Brown U.; Baudis, L.; /Zurich-Irchel U.; Bauer, D.A.; /Fermilab; Bolozdynya, A.I.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Brink, P.L.; /SLAC; Bunker, R.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Cabrera, B.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Caldwell, D.O.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Chang, C.L.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Clarke, R.M.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Cooley, J.; /Southern Methodist U.; Crisler, M.B.; /Fermilab; Cushman, P.; /Minnesota U.; DeJongh, F.; /Fermilab; Dixon, R.; /Fermilab; Driscoll, D.D.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Filippini, J.; /Caltech; Funkhouser, S.; /UC, Berkeley; Gaitskell, R.J.; /Brown U.; Golwala, S.R.; /Caltech /Fermilab /Fermilab /Colorado U., Denver /Case Western Reserve U. /Texas A-M /Minnesota U. /UC, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Caltech /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /UC, Santa Barbara /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Minnesota U. /Queen's U., Kingston /Minnesota U. /St. Olaf Coll. /Florida U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Texas A-M /UC, Santa Barbara /Syracuse U. /UC, Berkeley /Princeton U. /Case Western Reserve U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /UC, Santa Barbara /Fermilab /Santa Clara U.

    2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Data taken during the final shallow-site run of the first tower of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) detectors have been reanalyzed with improved sensitivity to small energy depositions. Four {approx}224 g germanium and two {approx}105 g silicon detectors were operated at the Stanford Underground Facility (SUF) between December 2001 and June 2002, yielding 118 live days of raw exposure. Three of the germanium and both silicon detectors were analyzed with a new low-threshold technique, making it possible to lower the germanium and silicon analysis thresholds down to the actual trigger thresholds of {approx}1 and {approx}2 keV, respectively. Limits on the spin-independent cross section for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) to elastically scatter from nuclei based on these data exclude interesting parameter space for WIMPs with masses below 9 GeV/c{sup 2}. Under standard halo assumptions, these data partially exclude parameter space favored by interpretations of the DAMA/LIBRA and CoGeNT experiments data as WIMP signals, and exclude new parameter space for WIMP masses between 3 and 4 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  12. Zero Kinetic Energy Photofragment Spectroscopy: The Threshold Dissociation of NO2 J. A. Mueller, S. A. Rogers, and Paul L. Houston*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houston, Paul L.

    at the dissociation threshold of, while for higher energies, a new peak occurs as the energy threshold is reachedZero Kinetic Energy Photofragment Spectroscopy: The Threshold Dissociation of NO2 J. A. Mueller, S. A. Rogers, and Paul L. Houston* Department of Chemistry, Cornell UniVersity, Ithaca, New York 14853

  13. Identification of the stimulated-emission threshold in high-{beta} nanoscale lasers through phase-space reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hachair, X.; Elvira, D.; Le Gratiet, L.; Lemaitre, A.; Abram, I.; Sagnes, I.; Robert-Philip, I.; Beveratos, A. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS-UPR20, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Braive, R. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS-UPR20, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Universite Paris Denis Diderot, 75205 Paris, Cedex 13 (France); Lippi, G. L. [Institut Non Lineaire de Nice, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, 1361 Route des Lucioles, F-06560 Valbonne (France); Institut Non Lineaire de Nice, CNRS UMR 6618, 1361 Route des Lucioles, F-06560 Valbonne (France)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoscale lasers sustain a few optical modes so that the fraction of spontaneous emission {beta} funnelled into the useful (lasing) mode is high (of the order of 10{sup -1}) and the threshold, which traditionally corresponds to an abrupt kink in the light-in-light-out curve, becomes ill defined. We propose an alternative definition of the threshold that is based on the dynamical response of the laser and is valid even for {beta}=1 lasers. The laser dynamics is analyzed through a reconstruction of its phase-space trajectory for pulsed excitations. Crossing the threshold, brings about a change in the shape of the trajectory and in the area contained in it. An unambiguous determination of the threshold in terms of this change is shown theoretically and illustrated experimentally in a photonic-crystal laser.

  14. Measurement and modeling of infrared nonlinear absorption coefficients and laser-induced damage thresholds in Ge and GaSb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, T. J.; Bohn, M. J.; Coutu, R. A. Jr. [Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Gonzalez, L. P.; Murray, J. M.; Guha, S. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Schepler, K. L. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a simultaneous fitting technique to extract nonlinear absorption coefficients from data at two pulse widths, we measure two-photon and free-carrier absorption coefficients for Ge and GaSb at 2.05 and 2.5 {mu}m for the first time, to our knowledge. Results agreed well with published theory. Single-shot damage thresholds were also measured at 2.5 {mu}m and agreed well with modeled thresholds using experimentally determined parameters including nonlinear absorption coefficients and temperature dependent linear absorption. The damage threshold for a single-layer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} anti-reflective coating on Ge was 55% or 35% lower than the uncoated threshold for picosecond or nanosecond pulses, respectively.

  15. Anomaly in the K^0_S Sigma^+ photoproduction cross section off the proton at the K* threshold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Ewald; A. V. Anisovich; B. Bantes; O. Bartholomy; D. Bayadilov; R. Beck; Y. A. Beloglazov; K. -T. Brinkmann; V. Crede; H. Dutz; D. Elsner; K. Fornet-Ponse; F. Frommberger; Ch. Funke; A. B. Gridnev; E. Gutz; W. Hillert; J. Hannappel; P. Hoffmeister; I. Jaegle; O. Jahn; T. Jude; J. Junkersfeld; H. Kalinowsky; S. Kammer; V. Kleber; Frank Klein; Friedrich Klein; E. Klempt; B. Krusche; M. Lang; H. Lhner; I. V. Lopatin; D. Menze; T. Mertens; J. G. Messchendorp; V. Metag; M. Nanova; V. A. Nikonov; D. Novinski; R. Novotny; M. Ostrick; L. Pant; H. van Pee; A. Roy; A. V. Sarantsev; S. Schadmand; Ch. Schmidt; H. Schmieden; B. Schoch; S. Shende; V. Sokhoyan; A. Sle; V. V. Sumachev; T. Szczepanek; U. Thoma; D. Trnka; R. Varma; D. Walther; Ch. Wendel

    2011-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The $\\gamma + p \\rightarrow K^0 + \\Sigma^+$ photoproduction reaction is investigated in the energy region from threshold to $E_\\gamma = 2250$\\,MeV. The differential cross section exhibits increasing forward-peaking with energy, but only up to the $K^*$ threshold. Beyond, it suddenly returns to a flat distribution with the forward cross section dropping by a factor of four. In the total cross section a pronounced structure is observed between the $K^*\\Lambda$ and $K^*\\Sigma$ thresholds. It is speculated whether this signals the turnover of the reaction mechanism from t-channel exchange below the $K^*$ production threshold to an s-channel mechanism associated with the formation of a dynamically generated $K^*$-hyperon intermediate state.

  16. Theory of the temperature dependence of the threshold current of an InGaAsP laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haug, A.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The threshold current of an InGaAsP laser is calculated, where the radiative emission, reflection and absorption losses, and Auger recombination are considered. Moreover, the enhancement of the threshold carrier density at high temperatures is an important point. A mechanism for this enhancement is discussed. Then we obtain an excellent agreement with the measured temperature dependence of the threshold current, in particular the T /SUB o/ -values for Tgreater than or equal toT /SUB B/ and the break point T /SUB B/ . The reason for this break point is that the radiative recombination dominates for T < T /SUB B/ , whereas the strongly temperature dependent valence band Auger process becomes more and more important for T > T /SUB B/ . It is this process which causes the strong increase of the threshold current in the room temperature range.

  17. Wave-packet propagation based calculation of above-threshold ionization in the x-ray regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilley, Matthew; Santra, Robin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the multi-photon process of above-threshold ionization for the light elements hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen in the hard x-ray regime. Numerical challenges are discussed and by comparing Hartree-Fock-Slater calculations to configuration-interaction-singles results we justify the mean-field potential approach in this regime. We present a theoretical prediction of two-photon above-threshold-ionization cross sections for the mentioned elements. Moreover, we study how the importance of above-threshold ionization varies with intensity. We find that for carbon, at x-ray intensities around $10^{23}{\\rm Wcm}^{-2}$, two-photon above-threshold ionization of the K-shell electrons is as probable as one-photon ionization of the L-shell electrons.

  18. Electrodynamic model of the field effect transistor application for THz/subTHz radiation detection: Subthreshold and above threshold operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobrovolsky, V., E-mail: vdobrovolsky@voliacable.com [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Nauki Av., 41, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine)

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Developed in this work is an electrodynamic model of field effect transistor (FET) application for THz/subTHz radiation detection. It is based on solution of the Maxwell equations in the gate dielectric, expression for current in the channel, which takes into account both the drift and diffusion current components, and the equation of current continuity. For the regimes under and above threshold at the strong inversion the response voltage, responsivity, wave impedance, power of ohmic loss in the gate and channel have been found, and the electrical noise equivalent power (ENEP) has been estimated. The responsivity is orders of magnitude higher and ENEP under threshold is orders of magnitude less than these values above threshold. Under the threshold, the electromagnetic field in the gate oxide is identical to field of the plane waves in free-space. At the same time, for strong inversion the charging of the gate capacitance through the resistance of channel determines the electric field in oxide.

  19. Investigation of channel width-dependent threshold voltage variation in a-InGaZnO thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Kuan-Hsien; Chou, Wu-Ching [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Siou; Hung, Yi-Syuan; Sze, Simon M. [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Hung, Pei-Hua; Chu, Ann-Kuo [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Tien-Yu [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Bo-Liang [Advanced Display Technology Research Center, AU Optronics, No. 1, Li-Hsin Rd. 2, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30078, Taiwan (China)

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This Letter investigates abnormal channel width-dependent threshold voltage variation in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors. Unlike drain-induced source barrier lowering effect, threshold voltage increases with increasing drain voltage. Furthermore, the wider the channel, the larger the threshold voltage observed. Because of the surrounding oxide and other thermal insulating material and the low thermal conductivity of the IGZO layer, the self-heating effect will be pronounced in wider channel devices and those with a larger operating drain bias. To further clarify the physical mechanism, fast IV measurement is utilized to demonstrate the self-heating induced anomalous channel width-dependent threshold voltage variation.

  20. Multiple pulse thermal damage thresholds of materials for x-ray free electron laser optics investigated with an ultraviolet laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; London, Richard A.; Bionta, Richard M.; Soufli, Regina; Ryutov, Dmitri; Shirk, Michael; Baker, Sherry L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94539 (United States); Smith, Patrick M.; Nataraj, Pradeep [Kovio, Inc., 1145 Sonora Court, Sunnyvale, California 94086 (United States)

    2008-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical elements to be used for x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) must withstand multiple high-fluence pulses. We have used an ultraviolet laser to study the damage of two candidate materials, crystalline Si and B{sub 4}C-coated Si, emulating the temperature profile expected to occur in optics exposed to XFEL pulses. We found that the damage threshold for 10{sup 5} pulses is {approx}20% to 70% lower than the melting threshold.

  1. The Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem revisited: stochasticity thresholds in nonlinear Hamiltonian systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lapo Casetti; Monica Cerruti-Sola; Marco Pettini; E. G. D. Cohen

    1998-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fermi-Pasta-Ulam $\\alpha$-model of harmonic oscillators with cubic anharmonic interactions is studied from a statistical mechanical point of view. Systems of N= 32 to 128 oscillators appear to be large enough to suggest statistical mechanical behavior. A key element has been a comparison of the maximum Lyapounov coefficient $\\lambda_{max}$ of the FPU $\\alpha$-model and that of the Toda lattice. For generic initial conditions, $\\lambda_{max}(t)$ is indistinguishable for the two models up to times that increase with decreasing energy (at fixed N). Then suddenly a bifurcation appears, which can be discussed in relation to the breakup of regular, soliton-like structures. After this bifurcation, the $\\lambda_{max}$ of the FPU model appears to approach a constant, while the $\\lambda_{max}$ of the Toda lattice appears to approach zero, consistent with its integrability. This suggests that for generic initial conditions the FPU $\\alpha$-model is chaotic and will therefore approach equilibrium and equipartition of energy. There is, however, a threshold energy density $\\epsilon_c(N)\\sim 1/N^2$, below which trapping occurs; here the dynamics appears to be regular, soliton-like and the approach to equilibrium - if any - takes longer than observable on any available computer. Above this threshold the system appears to behave in accordance with statistical mechanics, exhibiting an approach to equilibrium in physically reasonable times. The initial conditions chosen by Fermi, Pasta and Ulam were not generic and below threshold and would have required possibly an infinite time to reach equilibrium.

  2. Renormalization Group Evolution of Neutrino Parameters in Presence of Seesaw Threshold Effects and Majorana Phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shivani Gupta; Sin Kyu Kang; C. S. Kim

    2014-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the renormalization group evolution (RGE) for different mixing scenarios in the presence of seesaw threshold effects from high energy scale (GUT) to the low electroweak (EW) scale in the Standard Model (SM) and the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We consider four mixing scenarios namely Tri-Bimaximal Mixing, Bimaximal Mixing, Hexagonal Mixing and Golden Ratio Mixing which come from different flavor symmetries at the GUT scale. All these mixing scenarios give vanishing reactor angle ($\\theta_{13}$) and maximal atmospheric mixing angle. The solar mixing angle has different value for all four cases. In the light of non zero value of $\\theta_{13}$ it becomes interesting to study the present status of these symmetries, i.e. whether they can generate the current neutrino oscillation data at low energy scale or not. We find that the Majorana phases play an important role in the RGE running of these mixing patterns along with the seesaw threshold corrections. We present a comparative study of the RGE of all these mixing scenarios both with and without Majorana CP phases when seesaw threshold corrections are taken into consideration. We find that in the absence of these Majorana phases both the RGE running and seesaw effects may lead to $\\theta_{13}energies both in the SM and the MSSM. However, if the Majorana phases are incorporated to the mixing matrix the running can be enhanced both in the SM and the MSSM. Even by incorporating non zero Majorana CP phases in the SM, we do not get $\\theta_{13}$ in its present 3$\\sigma$ range. The current values of the two mass squared differences and mixing angles including $\\theta_{13}$ can be produced in the MSSM case with tan$\\beta$ = 10 and non zero Majorana CP phases at low energy.

  3. 190-fs passively mode-locked thulium fiber laser with a low threshold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, R.C.; Spock, D.E.; Pan, N.; Elliot, J. [Raytheon Company, Electronic Systems, 131 Spring Street, Lexington, Massachusetts 02173 (United States)

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a self-starting passively mode-locked thulium-doped silica fiber laser capable of 190-fs pulses. This practical, compact package is driven by a single 50-mW passively cooled diode laser, has a launched pump-power threshold of 18 mW for mode locking, and produces a 50-MHz train of mode-locked 20-pJ pulses at a wavelength near 1.9 {mu}m. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  4. Kinetic Model for a Threshold Filter in an Enzymatic System for Bioanalytical and Biocomputing Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimir Privman; Sergii Domanskyi; Shay Mailloux; Yaovi Holade; Evgeny Katz

    2014-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A recently experimentally observed biochemical "threshold filtering" mechanism by processes catalyzed by the enzyme malate dehydrogenase is explained in terms of a model that incorporates an unusual mechanism of inhibition of this enzyme that has a reversible mechanism of action. Experimental data for a system in which the output signal is produced by biocatalytic processes of the enzyme glucose dehydrogenase are analyzed to verify the model's validity. We also establish that fast reversible conversion of the output product to another compound, without the additional inhibition, cannot on its own result in filtering.

  5. Mechanical fluctuations suppress the threshold of soft-glassy solids : the secular drift scenario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adeline Pons; Axelle Amon; Thierry Darnige; Jrme Crassous; Eric Clment

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a dynamical mechanism leading to the fluidization of soft-glassy amorphous mate-rial driven below the yield-stress by external mechanical fluctuations. The model is based on the combination of memory effect and non-linearity, leading to an accumulation of tiny effects over a long-term. We test this scenario on a granular packing driven mechanically below the Coulomb threshold. We bring evidences for an effective viscous response directly related to small stress modulations in agreement with the theoretical prediction of a generic secular drift.

  6. Energy scan by $?$ mesons and threshold energy for the confinement-deconfinement phase transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. K. Chaudhuri

    2010-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We argue that the ratio of $\\phi$ mesons multiplicity over cube of the mean $p_T$ is proportional to the degeneracy of the medium produced in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The ratio extracted from the existing $\\phi$ meson data in the energy range $\\sqrt{s}$=6.3-200 GeV, indicate that beyond a threshold energy $\\sqrt{s}_{th}=15.74\\pm 8.10$ GeV, the medium crosses over from a confined phase to a deconfined phase.

  7. Final state interactions at the threshold of Higgs boson pair production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhentao

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effect of final state interactions at the threshold of Higgs boson pair production in the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model. We consider three major processes of the pair production in the model: lepton pair annihilation, ZZ fusion, and WW fusion. We find that the corrections caused by the effect for these processes are markedly different. According to our results, the effect can cause non-negligible corrections to the cross sections for lepton pair annihilation and small corrections for ZZ fusion, and this effect is negligible for WW fusion.

  8. Crack closure effects on fatigue crack growth thresholds and remaining life in an HSLA steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, J.A.; Mostovoy, S. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering; Chen, L. [Texas Instruments, Attleboro, MA (United States); Yankov, E.Y. [A. Finkl and Sons, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of crack closure on the near-threshold corrosion fatigue crack growth behavior of Mil S-24645 HSLA steel and its weld metal have been investigated in air, ASTM seawater at the free corrosion potential, and ASTM seawater at {minus}0.8V and {minus}1.0V (SCE) using frequencies of 10, 2, and 0.2 Hz, and a stress ratio, R = 0.1. Remaining life, in the presence and absence of crack closure, has been estimated as a function of applied stress range for a structure containing a 3-mm-deep surface semi-elliptical flaw.

  9. QCD CORRECTIONS TO DILEPTON PRODUCTION NEAR PARTONIC THRESHOLD IN PP SCATTERING.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SHIMIZU, H.; STERMAN, G.; VOGELSANG, W.; YOKOYA, H.

    2005-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a recent study of the QCD corrections to dilepton production near partonic threshold in transversely polarized {bar p}p scattering, We analyze the role of the higher-order perturbative QCD corrections in terms of the available fixed-order contributions as well as of all-order soft-gluon resummations for the kinematical regime of proposed experiments at GSI-FAIR. We find that perturbative corrections are large for both unpolarized and polarized cross sections, but that the spin asymmetries are stable. The role of the far infrared region of the momentum integral in the resummed exponent and the effect of the NNLL resummation are briefly discussed.

  10. Multiscale analysis of the laser-induced damage threshold in optical coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capoulade, Jeremie; Gallais, Laurent; Natoli, Jean-Yves; Commandre, Mireille

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the influence of laser beam size on laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) in the case of single- and multiple-shot irradiation. The study was performed on hafnia thin films deposited with various technologies (evaporation, sputtering, with or without ion assistance). LIDT measurements were carried out at 1064 nm and 12 ns with a spot size ranging from a few tens to a few hundreds of micrometers, in 1-on-1 and R-on-1 modes. These measurements were compared with simulations obtained with the statistical theory of laser-induced damage caused by initiating inclusions.

  11. Dynamics of $K^+$ Production in Heavy Ion Collisions close to Threshold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christoph Hartnack

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article the production of $K^+$ at energies close to the threshold is studied in detail. The production mechanisms, the influence of in-medium effects, cross sections, the nuclear equation of state and the dynamics of the nucleons on the kaon dynamics are discussed. A special regard will be taken on the collision of Au+Au at 1.5 GeV, a reaction that has recently been analyzed in detail by experiments performed by the KaoS and FOPI collaborations at the SIS accelerator at GSI.

  12. Modeling of recurrent threshold crossings due to noise with long memory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Abhishek Narayan

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee: Laszlo B. Kish Committee Members: Don R. Halverson C.B. William H. Marlow....S., The University of Texas at Arlington Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Laszlo B. Kish This thesis addresses the recurrent threshold crossing behavior of long-time correlated noise. The behavior of long-time correlated noise like f , 5.1 , and 2 can...

  13. Method and apparatus for analog pulse pile-up rejection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for pulse pile-up rejection are disclosed. The apparatus comprises a delay value application constituent configured to receive a threshold-crossing time value, and provide an adjustable value according to a delay value and the threshold-crossing time value; and a comparison constituent configured to receive a peak-occurrence time value and the adjustable value, compare the peak-occurrence time value with the adjustable value, indicate pulse acceptance if the peak-occurrence time value is less than or equal to the adjustable value, and indicate pulse rejection if the peak-occurrence time value is greater than the adjustable value.

  14. Method and apparatus for analog pulse pile-up rejection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for pulse pile-up rejection are disclosed. The apparatus comprises a delay value application constituent configured to receive a threshold-crossing time value, and provide an adjustable value according to a delay value and the threshold-crossing time value; and a comparison constituent configured to receive a peak-occurrence time value and the adjustable value, compare the peak-occurrence time value with the adjustable value, indicate pulse acceptance if the peak-occurrence time value is less than or equal to the adjustable value, and indicate pulse rejection if the peak-occurrence time value is greater than the adjustable value.

  15. A precision measurement of the $p$($e,e^\\prime p\\,$)$?^0$ reaction at threshold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Chirapatpimol; M. H. Shabestari; R. A. Lindgren; L. C. Smith; J. R. M. Annand; D. W. Higinbotham; B. Moffit; V. Nelyubin; B. E. Norum; K. Allada; K. Aniol; K. Ardashev; D. S. Armstrong; R. A. Arndt; F. Benmokhtar; A. M. Bernstein; W. Bertozzi; W. J. Briscoe; L. Bimbot; A. Camsonne; J. -P. Chen; S. Choi; E. Chudakov; E. Cisbani; F. Cusanno; M. M. Dalton; C. Dutta; K. Egiyan; C. Fernandez-Ramirez; R. Feuerbach; K. G. Fissum; S. Frullani; F. Garibaldi; O. Gayou; R. Gilman; S. Gilad; J. Goity; J. Gomez; B. Hahn; D. Hamilton; J. -O. Hansen; J. Huang; R. Igarashi; D. Ireland; C. W. de Jager; X. Jin; X. Jiang; T. Jinasundera; J. Kellie; C. E. Keppel; N. Kolb; J. LeRose; N. Liyanage; K. Livingston; D. McNulty; L. Mercado; R. Michaels; M. Mihovilovic; S. Qian; X. Qian; S. Mailyan; V. Mamyan; S. Marrone; P. Monaghan; S. Nanda; C. F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; D. Protopopescu; V. Punjabi; Y. Qiang; I. A. Rachek; A. Rakhman; G. Ron; G. Rosner; A. Saha; B. Sawatzky; A. Shahinyan; S. Sirca; N. Sparveris; R. R. Subedi; R. Suleiman; I. Strakovsky; V. Sulkosky; J. Moinelo; H. Voskanyan; K. Wang; Y. Wang; J. Watson; D. Watts; B. Wojtsekhowski; R. L. Workman; H. Yao; X. Zhan; Y. Zhang

    2015-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    New results are reported from a measurement of $\\pi^0$ electroproduction near threshold using the $p(e,e^{\\prime} p)\\pi^0$ reaction. The experiment was designed to determine precisely the energy dependence of $s-$ and $p-$wave electromagnetic multipoles as a stringent test of the predictions of Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT). The data were taken with an electron beam energy of 1192 MeV using a two-spectrometer setup in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. For the first time, complete coverage of the $\\phi^*_{\\pi}$ and $\\theta^*_{\\pi}$ angles in the $p \\pi^0$ center-of-mass was obtained for invariant energies above threshold from 0.5 MeV up to 15 MeV. The 4-momentum transfer $Q^2$ coverage ranges from 0.05 to 0.155 (GeV/c)$^2$ in fine steps. A simple phenomenological analysis of our data shows strong disagreement with $p-$wave predictions from ChPT for $Q^2>0.07$ (GeV/c)$^2$, while the $s-$wave predictions are in reasonable agreement.

  16. Logic gates at the surface code threshold: Superconducting qubits poised for fault-tolerant quantum computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Barends; J. Kelly; A. Megrant; A. Veitia; D. Sank; E. Jeffrey; T. C. White; J. Mutus; A. G. Fowler; B. Campbell; Y. Chen; Z. Chen; B. Chiaro; A. Dunsworth; C. Neill; P. O`Malley; P. Roushan; A. Vainsencher; J. Wenner; A. N. Korotkov; A. N. Cleland; John M. Martinis

    2014-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A quantum computer can solve hard problems - such as prime factoring, database searching, and quantum simulation - at the cost of needing to protect fragile quantum states from error. Quantum error correction provides this protection, by distributing a logical state among many physical qubits via quantum entanglement. Superconductivity is an appealing platform, as it allows for constructing large quantum circuits, and is compatible with microfabrication. For superconducting qubits the surface code is a natural choice for error correction, as it uses only nearest-neighbour coupling and rapidly-cycled entangling gates. The gate fidelity requirements are modest: The per-step fidelity threshold is only about 99%. Here, we demonstrate a universal set of logic gates in a superconducting multi-qubit processor, achieving an average single-qubit gate fidelity of 99.92% and a two-qubit gate fidelity up to 99.4%. This places Josephson quantum computing at the fault-tolerant threshold for surface code error correction. Our quantum processor is a first step towards the surface code, using five qubits arranged in a linear array with nearest-neighbour coupling. As a further demonstration, we construct a five-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state using the complete circuit and full set of gates. The results demonstrate that Josephson quantum computing is a high-fidelity technology, with a clear path to scaling up to large-scale, fault-tolerant quantum circuits.

  17. Blister Threshold Based Thermal Limits for the U-Mo Monolithic Fuel System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. M. Wachs; I. Glagolenko; F. J. Rice; A. B. Robinson; B. H. Rabin; M. K. Meyer

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel failure is most commonly induced in research and test reactor fuel elements by exposure to an under-cooled or over-power condition that results in the fuel temperature exceeding a critical threshold above which blisters form on the plate. These conditions can be triggered by normal operational transients (i.e. temperature overshoots that may occur during reactor startup or power shifts) or mild upset events (e.g., pump coastdown, small blockages, mis-loading of fuel elements into higher-than-planned power positions, etc.). The rise in temperature has a number of general impacts on the state of a fuel plate that include, for example, stress relaxation in the cladding (due to differential thermal expansion), softening of the cladding, increased mobility of fission gases, and increased fission-gas pressure in pores, all of which can encourage the formation of blisters on the fuel-plate surface. These blisters consist of raised regions on the surface of fuel plates that occur when the cladding plastically deforms in response to fission-gas pressure in large pores in the fuel meat and/or mechanical buckling of the cladding over damaged regions in the fuel meat. The blister temperature threshold decreases with irradiation because the mechanical properties of the fuel plate degrade while under irradiation (due to irradiation damage and fission-product accumulation) and because the fission-gas inventory progressively increases (and, thus, so does the gas pressure in pores).

  18. A study on reactor core failure thresholds to safety operation of LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazuo, Haga; Hiroshi, Endo; Tomoko, Ishizu; Yoshihisa, Shindo [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization, Safety Analysis and Evaluation Division, Kamiya-cho MT Bldg., 4-3-20, Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Japan Nuclear Safety Organization (JNES) has been developing the methodology and computer codes for applying level-1 PSA to LMFBR. Many of our efforts have been directed to the judging conditions of reactor core damage and the time allowed to initiate the accident management. Several candidates of the reactor core failure threshold were examined to a typical proto-type LMFBR with MOX fuel based on the plant thermal-hydraulic analyses to the actual progressions leading to the core damage. The results of the present study showed that the judging condition of coolant-boundary integrity failure, 750 degree-C of the boundary temperature, is enough as the threshold of core damage to PLOHS (protected loss-of-heat sink). High-temperature fuel cladding creep failure will not take place before the coolant-boundary reaches the judging temperature and sodium boiling will not occur due to the system pressure rise. In cases of ATWS (anticipated transient without scrum) the accident progression is so fast and the reactor core damage will be inevitable even a realistic negative reactivity insertion due to the temperature rise is considered. Only in the case of ULOHS (unprotected loss-of-heat sink) a relatively long time of 11 min will be allowed till the shut-down of the reactor before the core damage. (authors)

  19. The study of threshold behaviour of effective potential for $^{6}$Li+$^{58,64}$Ni systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Biswas; Subinit Roy; M. Sinha; M. K. Pradhan; A. Mukherjee; P. Basu; H. Majumdar; K. Ramachandran; A. Shrivastava

    2008-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The elastic scattering for $^6$Li+$^{64}$Ni system was measured in the bombarding energy range of 13 MeV $\\leq$ $E_{lab}$ $\\leq$ 26 MeV. A phenomenological optical model analysis was performed and the behaviour of the surface strengths of the potential components with decreasing energy was extracted. A further analysis of the measured angular distributions, along with the existing data for $^6$Li+$^{58}$Ni, was performed with two different model potentials - one with the folded potential normalized with a complex factor (OMP1) and the other with a {\\it hybrid} potential composed of a renormalized folded real and a phenomenological imaginary (OMP2) potential components - were used in the calculation. All the model potentials predict similar energy dependent behaviour for the interaction potential around the barrier. The observed energy dependence of the strengths of the real and imaginary potentials corroborate with the dispersion relation prediction for both the $^6$Li+$^{64}$Ni and $^6$Li+$^{58}$Ni systems. Though the evidence of breakup is distinct in the energy variation of the potential strengths, close to the barrier the variation is more in the line of conventional threshold anomaly. Also the threshold behaviour of the interaction potential does not indicate any distinct isotopic dependence.

  20. Production of K+K? pairs in proton-proton collisions below the ? meson threshold

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ye, Q. J.; Hartmann, M.; Chiladze, D.; Dymov, S.; Dzyuba, A.; Gao, H.; Gebel, R.; Hejny, V.; Kacharava, A.; Lorentz, B.; Mchedlishvili, D.; Merzliakov, S.; Mielke, M.; Mikirtytchiants, S.; Ohm, H.; Papenbrock, M.; Polyanskiy, A.; Serdyuk, V.; Stein, H. J.; Strher, H.; Trusov, S.; Valdau, Yu.; Wilkin, C.; Wstner, P.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The pp?ppK+K? reaction was measured below the ? threshold at a beam energy of 2.568 GeV using the COSY-ANKE magnetic spectrometer. By assuming that the four-body phase space is distorted only by the product of two-body final-state interactions, fits to a variety of one-dimensional distributions permit the evaluation of differential and total cross sections. The shapes of the distributions in the Kp and Kpp invariant masses are reproduced only if the K?p interaction is even stronger than that found at higher energy. The cusp effect in the K+K? distribution at the K0K{bar}0 threshold is much more clear and some evidence is also found for coupling between the K?p and K?0n channels. However, the energy dependence of the total cross section cannot be reproduced by considering only a simple product of such pairwise final-state interactions.

  1. Reaction {pi}N {yields} {pi}{pi}N near threshold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frlez, E.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The LAMPF E1179 experiment used the {pi}{sup 0} spectrometer and an array of charged particle range counters to detect and record {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}, {pi}{sup 0}p, and {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}p coincidences following the reaction {pi}{sup +}p {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}p near threshold. The total cross sections for single pion production were measured at the incident pion kinetic energies 190, 200, 220, 240, and 260 MeV. Absolute normalizations were fixed by measuring {pi}{sup +}p elastic scattering at 260 MeV. A detailed analysis of the {pi}{sup 0} detection efficiency was performed using cosmic ray calibrations and pion single charge exchange measurements with a 30 MeV {pi}{sup {minus}} beam. All published data on {pi}N {yields} {pi}{pi}N, including our results, are simultaneously fitted to yield a common chiral symmetry breaking parameter {xi} ={minus}0.25{plus_minus}0.10. The threshold matrix element {vert_bar}{alpha}{sub 0}({pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}p){vert_bar} determined by linear extrapolation yields the value of the s-wave isospin-2 {pi}{pi} scattering length {alpha}{sub 0}{sup 2}({pi}{pi}) = {minus}0.041{plus_minus}0.003 m{sub {pi}}{sup {minus}1}, within the framework of soft-pion theory.

  2. Bound and resonance states of the dipolar anion of hydrogen cyanide: competition between threshold effects and rotation in an open quantum system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Fossez; N. Michel; W. Nazarewicz; M. P?oszajczak; Y. Jaganathen

    2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Bound and resonance states of the dipole-bound anion of hydrogen cyanide HCN$^-$ are studied using a non-adiabatic pseudopotential method and the Berggren expansion technique involving bound states, decaying resonant states, and non-resonant scattering continuum. We devise an algorithm to identify the resonant states in the complex energy plane. To characterize spatial distributions of electronic wave functions, we introduce the body-fixed density and use it to assign families of resonant states into collective rotational bands. We find that the non-adiabatic coupling of electronic motion to molecular rotation results in a transition from the strong-coupling to weak-coupling regime. In the strong coupling limit, the electron moving in a subthreshold, spatially extended halo state follows the rotational motion of the molecule. Above the ionization threshold, electron's motion in a resonance state becomes largely decoupled from molecular rotation. Widths of resonance-band members depend primarily on the electron orbital angular momentum.

  3. Dynamics of strangeness production in heavy-ion collisions near threshold energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao-Qing Feng; Gen-Ming Jin

    2010-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the framework of the improved isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamics (ImIQMD) model, the dynamics of strangeness (K$^{0,+}$, $\\Lambda$ and $\\Sigma^{-,0,+}$) production in heavy-ion collisions near threshold energies is investigated systematically, in which the strange particles are considered to be mainly produced by the inelastic collisions of baryon-baryon and pion-baryon. The collisions in the region of supra-saturation densities of the dense baryonic matter formed in heavy-ion collisions dominate the yields of strangeness production. The total multiplicities as functions of incident energies and collision centralities are calculated with the Skyrme parameter SLy6. The excitation function of strangeness production is analyzed and also compared with the KaoS data for the K$^{+}$ production in the reactions $^{12}$C+$^{12}$C and $^{197}$Au+$^{197}$Au.

  4. Study of a Threshold Cherenkov Counter Based on Silica Aerogels with Low Refractive Indices ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Adachi; T. Sumiyoshi; K. Hayashi; N. Iida; R. Enomoto; K. Tsukada; R. Suda; S. Matsumoto; K. Natori; M. Yokoyama; H. Yokogawa

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To identify ? and K in the region of 1.0 ? 2.5 GeV/c, a threshold Cherenkov counter equipped with silica aerogels has been investigated. Silica aerogels with a low refractive index of 1.013 have been successfully produced using a new technique. By making use of these aerogels as radiators, we have constructed a Cherenkov counter and have checked its properties in a test beam. The obtained results have demonstrated that our aerogel was transparent enough to make up for loss of the Cherenkov photon yield due to a low refractive index. Various configurations for the photon collection system and some types of photomultipliers, such as the fine-mesh type, for a read out were also tested. From these studies, our design of a Cherenkov counter dedicated to ?/K separation up to a few GeV/c with an efficiency greater than 90 % was considered. 1

  5. Above-threshold ionization of diatomic molecules by few-cycle laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gazibegovic-Busuladzic, A. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Hasovic, E. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Str. 2a, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Busuladzic, M. [Medical Faculty, University of Sarajevo, Cekalusa 90, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Milosevic, D. B. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Str. 2a, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bistrik 7, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Kelkensberg, F.; Siu, W. K. [FOM-Institute AMOLF, Science park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrakking, M. J. J. [Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Str. 2a, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); FOM-Institute AMOLF, Science park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lepine, F. [Universite Lyon 1 (France); CNRS (France); LASIM, UMR 5579, 43 bvd. du 11 novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Sansone, G.; Nisoli, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Physics, National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies (CNR-IFN), Piazza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133, Milano (Italy); Znakovskaya, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Kling, M. F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Above-threshold ionization of diatomic molecules by infrared carrier-envelope phase (CEP) stable few-cycle laser pulses is analyzed both experimentally and theoretically. The theoretical approach is based on the recently developed molecular improved strong-field approximation (ISFA), generalized to few-cycle pulses. Instead of using the first Born approximation, the rescattering matrix element in the ISFA is now calculated exactly. This modification leads to the appearance of characteristic minima in the differential cross section as a function of the scattering angle. Experimental angle-resolved photoelectron spectra of N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} molecules are obtained using the velocity map imaging technique. A relatively good agreement of experimental and simulated angle-resolved spectra, CEP-dependent asymmetry maps, and extracted electron-molecular ion elastic scattering differential cross sections is obtained.

  6. Influence of cleaning process on the laser-induced damage threshold of substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen Zhengxiang; Ding Tao; Ye Xiaowen; Wang Xiaodong; Ma Bin; Cheng Xinbin; Liu Huasong; Ji Yiqin; Wang Zhanshan

    2011-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The cleaning process of optical substrates plays an important role during the manufacture of high-power laser coatings. Two kinds of substrates, fused silica and BK7 glass, and two cleaning processes, called process 1 and process 2 having different surfactant solutions and different ultrasonic cleaning parameters, are adopted to compare the influence of the ultrasonic cleaning technique on the substrates. The evaluation standards of the cleaning results include contaminant-removal efficiency, weak absorption, and laser-induced damage threshold of the substrates. For both fused silica and BK7, process 2 is more efficient than process 1. Because acid and alkaline solutions can increase the roughness of BK7, process 2 is unsuitable for BK7 glass cleaning. The parameters of the cleaning protocol should be changed depending on the material of the optical components and the type of contamination.

  7. Impact of contaminates on the laser damage threshold of 1w HR coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, M A; Stolz, C J; Donohue, E; Hollingsworth, W G; Listiyo, K; Pryatel, J A; Hackel, R P

    2005-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In operational laser systems, it is often difficult to keep optical components completely free of foreign material. We have investigated the performance of high damage threshold 1.053 {micro}m high reflectors in the presence of surface contaminants. We have looked at the impact of stainless steel, aluminum, Azurlite{reg_sign}, dust, cotton fibers and polyester fibers on the performance of the mirrors under laser irradiation. The first four contaminants were deposited in sizes ranging from 30 microns to 150 microns. The fibers included lengths ranging to several millimeters. The testing was done at either a single fluence in the range of 6 J/cm{sup 2} to 24 J/cm{sup 2}, or a ramped sequence of shots starting at 1 J/cm{sup 2}. We will present data showing the onset of damage, the type of damage, and the propensity to damage growth in the fluence range studied.

  8. Deep sub-threshold $?$ and $?$ production in nuclear collisions with the UrQMD transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Graef; J. Steinheimer; Feng Li; Marcus Bleicher

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results on deep sub threshold hyperon production in nuclear collisions, with the UrQMD transport model. Introducing anti-kaon+baryon and hyperon+hyperon strangeness exchange reactions we obtain a good description of experimental data on single strange hadron production in Ar+KCl reactions at $E_{lab}=1.76$ A GeV. We find that the hyperon strangeness exchange is the dominant process contributing to the $\\Xi^-$ yield, however remains short of explaining the $\\Xi^-/\\Lambda$ ratio measured with the HADES experiment. We also discuss possible reasons for the discrepancy with previous studies and the experimental results, finding that many details of the transport simulation may have significant effects on the final $\\Xi^-$ yield.

  9. Threshold-Resummed Cross Section for the Drell-Yan Process in Pion-Nucleon Collisions at COMPASS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthias Aicher; Andreas Schfer; Werner Vogelsang

    2011-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a study of the Drell-Yan process in pion-proton collisions including next-to-leading-logarithmic threshold-resummed contributions. We analyze rapidity-integrated as well as rapidity-differential cross sections in the kinematic regime relevant for the COMPASS fixed target experiment. We find that resummation leads to a significant enhancement of the cross section compared to fixed-order calculations in this regime. Particularly large corrections arise at large forward and backward rapidities of the lepton pair. We also study the scale dependence of the cross section and find it to be substantially reduced by threshold resummation.

  10. Correlation methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Correlation methods have been developed to provide a quick and relatively simple technique for estimating the performance of passive solar systems. The correlations are done with respect to data generated from simulation models. The techniques and accuracies are described. Both the Solar Load Ratio and Un-Utilizability methods are described. The advantages and limitations of correlation methods as design tools are discussed.

  11. ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR DISCRIMINATING STARDUST IN AEROGEL CAPTURE MEDIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sean Brennan; Hope A. Ishii; John P. Bradley; Katharina Luening; Piero Pianetta

    Methods using X-ray fluorescence have been developed to identify cometary material captured in aerogel during the NASA Stardust mission to Comet 81P/Wild 2. These analytical methods are necessitated by the levels of trace contaminants present in the aerogel. The cometary material disaggregates during deceleration in the aerogel, so fluorescence mapping of the entire track (which can be several millimeters long) is necessary. Distinguishing those pixels which have cometary material and aerogel from those which have only cometary material can be very challenging. We have chosen a dual threshold method, with some pixels clearly having only aerogel (plus contaminants) and other pixels clearly having cometary and aerogel material. Between these two threshold levels is a set of pixels which cannot be easily ascribed to one or the other. By leaving these pixels out of the analysis, the estimate of cometary material is improved.

  12. Method for microbeam radiation therapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slatkin, D.N.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Spanne, P.O.

    1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed of performing radiation therapy on a patient, involving exposing a target, usually a tumor, to a therapeutic dose of high energy electromagnetic radiation, preferably X-ray radiation. The dose is in the form of at least two non-overlapping microbeams of radiation, each microbeam having a width of less than about 1 millimeter. Target tissue exposed to the microbeams receives a radiation dose during the exposure that exceeds the maximum dose that such tissue can survive. Non-target tissue between the microbeams receives a dose of radiation below the threshold amount of radiation that can be survived by the tissue, and thereby permits the non-target tissue to regenerate. The microbeams may be directed at the target from one direction, or from more than one direction in which case the microbeams overlap within the target tissue enhancing the lethal effect of the irradiation while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. No Drawings

  13. A peaks-over-threshold analysis of extreme traffic load effects on bridges Franziska Schmidt, Xiao Yi Zhou, Franois Toutlemonde

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    extreme traffic load or traffic load effect. These are: i. a half-normal curve fitted to the end1 A peaks-over-threshold analysis of extreme traffic load effects on bridges Franziska Schmidt focuses on modeling and estimating tail parameters of bridge traffic load effects by generalized Pareto

  14. Comparison of near-threshold reactivity of ground-state and spin-orbit excited chlorine atoms with methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    indicate that the Cl* CH4 reaction is unimportant in the near-threshold collision energy range of 0 at both low and high temperatures. Among other possible sources for this behavior, Ravishankara and Wine3. This postulate is based on the assump- tion that the extra spin-orbit energy 881 cm 1 of Cl* is available

  15. hal-00170874,version1-10Sep2007 report number Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations of threshold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and optical properties of materials. For instance, a suitable ion irradiation may harden a material, lead: threshold displacement energies, ab initio molecular dynamics, silicon carbide 1 #12;Particle irradiation to a local oxydation state, or activate a magnetic order. The utility of ion irradiation is also well known

  16. Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen minimum zone (7001100 m)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Lisa

    Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen increased animal activity associated with increasing bottom-water oxygen concentration. We examined faunal community responses to oxygen and organic matter gradients across the lower oxygen minimum zone (OMZ

  17. Damage Threshold of Platinum Coating used for Optics for Self-Seeding of Soft X-ray Free Electron Laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Krzywinski, Jacek; Cocco, Daniele; Moeller, Stefan; Ratner, Daniel

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the experimental damage threshold of platinum coating on a silicon substrate illuminated by soft x-ray radiation at grazing incidence angle of 2.1 deg. The coating was the same as the blazed grating used for the soft X-ray self-seeding optics of the Linac Coherent Light Source free electron laser. The irradiation condition was chosen such that the absorbed dose was similar to the maximum dose expected for the grating. The expected dose was simulated by solving the Helmholtz equation in non-homogenous media. The experiment was performed at 900 eV photon energy for both single pulse and multi-shot conditions. We have not observed single shot damage. This corresponds to a single shot damage threshold being higher than 3 J/cm2. The multiple shot damage threshold measured for 10 shots and about 600 shots was determined to be 0.95 J/cm2 and 0.75 J/cm2 respectively. The damage threshold occurred at an instantaneous dose which is higher that the melt dose of platinum.

  18. Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von der Linde, D.

    to the optical components required to utilize XFEL beams, including radiation damage. Theoretical workDamage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength SC were exposed to single 25 fs long pulses of 32.5 nm free-electron-laser radiation at fluences of up

  19. A Thermally-Aware Methodology for Design-Specific Optimization of Supply and Threshold Voltages in Nanometer Scale ICs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    411 A Thermally-Aware Methodology for Design-Specific Optimization of Supply and Threshold Voltages and associated thermal effects have strong impact on the packaging, cooling costs, and reliability for deep submicron technologies [2-5]. For power-constrained applications, lowering supply voltage (Vdd) offers

  20. High-order above-threshold ionization of argon: Plateau resonances and the Floquet quasienergy spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potvliege, R. M.; Vucic, Svetlana [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Institute of Physics, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade-Zemun (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Floquet quasienergy spectrum of argon in a strong laser field of 800 nm wavelength is calculated for intensities up to 7x10{sup 13} W cm{sup -2}, and beyond for some states, using a discrete complex basis set. Many of the dressed excited states of interest shift nonponderomotively in complicated ways but keep an ionization width narrow enough to produce sharp enhancements of above-threshold ionization (ATI) through Stark-shift-induced resonances. The quasienergy map is compared to high-resolution ATI spectra for 120 fs Ti:sapphire pulses [Nandor et al., Phys. Rev. A 60, R1771 (1999)]. The plateau enhancements happen at intensities where the dressed ground state is in resonance or in the wing of resonances with dressed excited states. The resonant dressed states are identified. In many cases, the same state is responsible for an enhancement of ATI in the low as well as the high orders. No evidence is found for enhancements that are not concomitant with any curve crossing and could thereby be interpreted as channel-closing enhancement.

  1. Experimental onset threshold and magnetic pressure pileup for 3D Sweet-Parker reconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Intrator, Thomas P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sun, Xuan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lapenta, Giovanni [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Furno, Ivo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; [NON LANL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In space, astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, magnetic reconnect ion converts magnetic into particle energy during unsteady, explosive events. The abrupt onset and cessation has been a long standing puzzle. We show the first three-dimensional (3D) laboratory example of onset and stagnation of Sweet-Parker type magnetic reconnection between magnetized and parallel current (flux) ropes driven by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) attraction and 3D instability. Mutually attracting flux ropes advect and merge oppositely directed magnetic fields. Magnetic flux is annihilated, but reaches soon a threshold where magnetic flux and pressure pile up, and reconnection magnetic topology appears. This occurs when inflow speeds exceed the SweetParker speed v{sub SP} = v{sub A} / S{sup 1/2}, where v{sub A} is the Alfven speed and S is the Lundquist number for the reconnection layer, as magnetic flux arrives faster than flux annihilation can process it. Finally piled up fields generate MHD reaction forces that stall the inflow and the reconnection process.

  2. No-Impact Threshold Values for NRAPs Reduced Order Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, George V.; Murray, Christopher J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Jordan, Preston D.; Sharma, Maneesh

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to develop methodologies for establishing baseline datasets and statistical protocols for determining statistically significant changes between background concentrations and predicted concentrations that would be used to represent a contamination plume in the Gen II models being developed by NRAPs Groundwater Protection team. The initial effort examined selected portions of two aquifer systems; the urban shallow-unconfined aquifer system of the Edwards-Trinity Aquifer System (being used to develop the ROM for carbon-rock aquifers, and the a portion of the High Plains Aquifer (an unconsolidated and semi-consolidated sand and gravel aquifer, being used to development the ROM for sandstone aquifers). Threshold values were determined for Cd, Pb, As, pH, and TDS that could be used to identify contamination due to predicted impacts from carbon sequestration storage reservoirs, based on recommendations found in the EPAs Unified Guidance for Statistical Analysis of Groundwater Monitoring Data at RCRA Facilities (US Environmental Protection Agency 2009). Results from this effort can be used to inform a no change scenario with respect to groundwater impacts, rather than the use of an MCL that could be significantly higher than existing concentrations in the aquifer.

  3. Study of a Threshold Cherenkov Counter Based on Silica Aerogels with Low Refractive Indices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Adachi et al

    1994-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    To identify $\\pi^{\\pm}$ and $K^{\\pm}$ in the region of $1.0\\sim 2.5$ GeV/c, a threshold Cherenkov counter equipped with silica aerogels has been investigated. Silica aerogels with a low refractive index of 1.013 have been successfully produced using a new technique. By making use of these aerogels as radiators, we have constructed a Cherenkov counter and have checked its properties in a test beam. The obtained results have demonstrated that our aerogel was transparent enough to make up for loss of the Cherenkov photon yield due to a low refractive index. Various configurations for the photon collection system and some types of photomultipliers, such as the fine-mesh type, for a read out were also tested. From these studies, our design of a Cherenkov counter dedicated to $\\pi / K$ separation up to a few GeV/c %in the momentum range of $1.0 \\sim 2.5$ GeV/c with an efficiency greater than $90$ \\% was considered.

  4. Investigation of the passivity, hydrogen embrittlement and threshold stress of duplex stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gojic, M.; Metikos-Hukovic, M.; Babic, R. [Univ. of Zagreb (Croatia)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrochemical behavior of duplex stainless steel has been studied in various environments. Its passivity state was investigated in borate-buffer using cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy techniques. The susceptibility towards sulfide stress cracking and hydrogen embrittlement were tested at a constant load under cathodic polarization in the NACE solution saturated with H{sub 2}S and 0.5 M sulfuric acid solution containing As{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a promoter. SEM analysis accompanied these investigations. It is proposed that the highly protective quality of the passive film formed on the investigated duplex stainless steel may be associated with the presence of multiple oxidation rates (Cr{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 6+}) formed in the solid state along with (CrO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}) anions and the great variety of possible bridging ligand states (OH{sup {minus}}, H{sub 2}O, O{sup 2{minus}}). This leads to a significant degree of bonding flexibility and supports amorphous, i.e., glassy structure of the passive film. Therefore, the stresses that would be associated with epitaxy, are easily alleviated without the creation of long-range defect structures. The investigated duplex stainless steel shows high resistance to hydrogen embrittlement and sulfide stress cracking. The embrittlement index was determined to be 26%, while the threshold stress amounts to 84% of the yield strength.

  5. Phase space path-integral formulation of the above-threshold ionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milosevic, D. B. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina) [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Str. 2a, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bistrik 7, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Atoms and molecules submitted to a strong laser field can emit electrons of high energies in the above-threshold ionization (ATI) process. This process finds a highly intuitive and also quantitative explanation in terms of Feynman's path integral and the concept of quantum orbits [P. Salieres et al., Science 292, 902 (2001)]. However, the connection with the Feynman path-integral formalism is explained only by intuition and analogy and within the so-called strong-field approximation (SFA). Using the phase space path-integral formalism we have obtained an exact result for the momentum-space matrix element of the total time-evolution operator. Applying this result to the ATI we show that the SFA and the so-called improved SFA are, respectively, the zeroth- and the first-order terms of the expansion in powers of the laser-free effective interaction of the electron with the rest of the atom (molecule). We have also presented the second-order term of this expansion which is responsible for the ATI with double scattering of the ionized electron.

  6. A Threshold Gas \\v{C}erenkov Detector for the Spin Asymmetries of the Nucleon Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Whitney R; Kaczanowicz, Ed; Lukhanin, Alexander; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Sawatzky, Brad

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the design, construction, commissioning, and performance of a threshold gas \\v{C}erenkov counter in an open configuration, which operates in a high luminosity environment and produces a high photo-electron yield. Part of a unique open geometry detector package known as the Big Electron Telescope Array, this \\v{C}erenkov counter served to identify scattered electrons and reject produced pions in an inclusive scattering experiment known as the Spin Asymmetries of the Nucleon Experiment E07-003 at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) also known as Jefferson Lab. The experiment consisted of a measurement of double spin asymmetries $A_{\\parallel}$ and $A_{\\perp}$ of a polarized electron beam impinging on a polarized ammonia target. The \\v{C}erenkov counter's performance is characterised by a yield of about 20 photoelectrons per electron or positron track. Thanks to this large number of photoelectrons per track, the \\v{C}erenkov counter had enough resolution to identify electron-p...

  7. Maximum approximate entropy and r threshold: A new approach for regularity changes detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juan F. Restrepo; Gastn Schlotthauer; Mara E. Torres

    2014-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximate entropy (ApEn) has been widely used as an estimator of regularity in many scientific fields. It has proved to be a useful tool because of its ability to distinguish different system's dynamics when there is only available short-length noisy data. Incorrect parameter selection (embedding dimension $m$, threshold $r$ and data length $N$) and the presence of noise in the signal can undermine the ApEn discrimination capacity. In this work we show that $r_{max}$ ($ApEn(m,r_{max},N)=ApEn_{max}$) can also be used as a feature to discern between dynamics. Moreover, the combined use of $ApEn_{max}$ and $r_{max}$ allows a better discrimination capacity to be accomplished, even in the presence of noise. We conducted our studies using real physiological time series and simulated signals corresponding to both low- and high-dimensional systems. When $ApEn_{max}$ is incapable of discerning between different dynamics because of the noise presence, our results suggest that $r_{max}$ provides additional information that can be useful for classification purposes. Based on cross-validation tests, we conclude that, for short length noisy signals, the joint use of $ApEn_{max}$ and $r_{max}$ can significantly decrease the misclassification rate of a linear classifier in comparison with their isolated use.

  8. Method to improve reliability of a fuel cell system using low performance cell detection at low power operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Tayoung; Ganapathy, Sriram; Jung, Jaehak; Savage, David R.; Lakshmanan, Balasubramanian; Vecasey, Pamela M.

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for detecting a low performing cell in a fuel cell stack using measured cell voltages. The method includes determining that the fuel cell stack is running, the stack coolant temperature is above a certain temperature and the stack current density is within a relatively low power range. The method further includes calculating the average cell voltage, and determining whether the difference between the average cell voltage and the minimum cell voltage is greater than a predetermined threshold. If the difference between the average cell voltage and the minimum cell voltage is greater than the predetermined threshold and the minimum cell voltage is less than another predetermined threshold, then the method increments a low performing cell timer. A ratio of the low performing cell timer and a system run timer is calculated to identify a low performing cell.

  9. Does Beta React to Market Conditions?: Estimates of Bull and Bear Betas using a Nonlinear Market Model with Endogenous Threshold Parameter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kearns, Michael

    Does Beta React to Market Conditions?: Estimates of Bull and Bear Betas using a Nonlinear Market Model with Endogenous Threshold Parameter by George Woodward and Heather Anderson Department transition between bull and bear states and allows the data to determine the threshold value. The estimated

  10. Measurement of the generalized form factors near threshold via ?*p ? n?+ at high Q2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, K; Adhikari, K P; Adikaram, D; Anghinolfi, M; Baghdasaryan, H; Ball, J; Battaglieri, M; Batourine, V; Bedlinskiy, I; Bennett, R P; Biselli, A S; Bookwalter, C; Boiarinov, S; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Charles, G; Cole, P L; Contalbrigo, M; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; El Alaoui, A; El Fassi, L; Euginio, P; Fedotov, G; Fradi, A; Gabrielyan, M Y; Gevorgyan, N; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gohn, W; Golovatch, E; Graham, L; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Heddle, D; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Jenkins, D; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Khandaker, M; Khertarpal, P; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, F J; Kubarovsky, A; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Kvaltine, N D; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, J D; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McKinnon, B; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mineeva, T; Mirazita, M; Mokeev, V; Moutarde, H; Munevar, E; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Paolone, M; Pappalardo, L; Paremuzyan, R; Park, S; Anefalos Pereira, S; Phelps, E; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Pozdniakov, S; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Y; Ricco, G; Rimal, D; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabati ee, F; Saini, M S; Salgado, C; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Seraydaryan, H; Sharabian, Y G; Smith, E S; Smith, G D; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Tang, W; Taylor, C E; Tian, Y; Tkachenko, S; Trivedi, A; Ungaro, M; Vernarsky, B; Vlassov, A V; Voutier, E; Watts, D P; Weygand, D P; Wood, M H; Zachariou, N; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z W

    2012-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the first extraction of the pion-nucleon multipoles near the production threshold for the n?+ channel at relatively high momentum transfer (Q2 up to 4.2 GeV2). The dominance of the s-wave transverse multipole (E0+), expected in this region, allowed us to access the generalized form factor G1 within the light-cone sum rule (LCSR) framework as well as the axial form factor GA. The data analyzed in this work were collected by the nearly 4? CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) using a 5.754-GeV electron beam on a proton target. The differential cross section and the ?-N multipole E0+/GD were measured using two different methods, the LCSR and a direct multipole fit. The results from the two methods are found to be consistent and almost Q2 independent.

  11. System and method for optically locating microchannel positions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brewer, Laurence R. (Oakland, CA); Kimbrough, Joseph (Pleasanton, CA); Balch, Joseph (Livermore, CA); Davidson, J. Courtney (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method is disclosed for optically locating a microchannel position. A laser source generates a primary laser beam which is directed at a microchannel plate. The microchannel plates include microchannels at various locations. A back-reflectance beam detector receives a back-reflected beam from the plate. The back-reflected beam is generated when the primary beam reflects off of the plate. A photodiode circuit generates a trigger signal when the back-reflected beam exceeds a predetermined threshold, indicating a presence of the microchannel. The method of the present invention includes the steps of generating a primary beam, directing the primary beam to a plate containing a microchannel, receiving from the plate a back-reflected beam generated in response to the primary beam, and generating a trigger signal when the back-reflected beam exceeds a predetermined threshold which corresponds to a presence of the microchannel.

  12. e08-008: Exclusive study of deuteron electrodisintegration near threshold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanretty, Charles [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of threshold electrodisintegration of and elastic scattering on the only stable two nucleon system, the deuteron, can reveal specific aspects of the N-N interaction. The simplicity of electrodisintegration along with the simplicity of the deuteron makes this study most appropriate for revealing these interactions. By using an incident beam of polarized electrons and by measuring the polarization of the recoiling proton, the ratio of the electric (G{sub E} ) and magnetic (G{sub M} ) form factors for d((vector e),e?(vector p)) (and p((vector e) ,e?(vector p))) reactions may be extracted. This experiment was conducted in Hall A at Jefferson Lab in Newport News, Virginia using a beam of polarized electrons provided by the CEBAF Accelerator incident on a liquid deuterium (and hydrogen) target. The scattered electron and the recoiling (polarized) proton were detected using the High Resolution Spectrometers of Hall A. To determine the polarization of the recoil proton, an analyzing material was placed perpendicular to the protons trajectory through the spectrometer, in front of a set of straw chambers. Due to the spin-orbit interactions involved in the scattering of the proton from the analyzer material, asymmetries seen in the distribution of events detected by these straw chambers reveal the polarization of the recoil proton. By tracking the spin procession of the polarized protons from the straw chambers back to the target, the transferred and induced polarization of the proton may be determined. The (double-spin) asymmetries observed in the straw chambers will first be studied for the well-known elastic p((vector e), e?(vector p)) process and compared to the asymmetries for d((vector e),e?(vector p))n(x{sub B}=1) . The analysis will then be repeated to determine how these asymmetries change with increasing x{sub B} (to the kinematic limit for deuteron electrodisintegration).

  13. Near-threshold excitation in light rare-earth compounds: A new interpretation of 3 d appearance-potential spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinkers, H.; Stiller, R.; Merz, H. (Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Munster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, D-4400 Munster, Federal Republic of Germany (DE))

    1989-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-step model describing the transitions in electron-excited appearance-potential spectroscopy (APS) is presented for the 3{ital d} thresholds of La and Ce compounds. The model permits a consistent interpretation of APS spectra taken with different modes (soft x-ray APS (SXAPS), Auger-electron APS, disappearance-potential spectroscopy). Within this model an investigation has been performed on La and Ce compounds exhibiting different valencies: LaB{sub 6}, CeB{sub 6}, and CeO{sub 2}. The spectra are discussed in terms of atomiclike 4{ital f} states. The fine structure reflects the multiplet structure of the excited configurations modified by state-selective excitation probabilities near the threshold and---in SXAPS---by dipole selection rules. The interpretation of the APS data is supported by comparison with multiplet calculations and core-level electron-energy-loss spectra recorded at low excitation energy.

  14. Lead-chalcogenide mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers with improved threshold: Theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fill, Matthias [ETH Zurich, Laser Spectroscopy and Sensing Lab, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland) [ETH Zurich, Laser Spectroscopy and Sensing Lab, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Phocone AG, 8005 Zurich (Switzerland)] [Switzerland; Debernardi, Pierluigi [IEIIT-CNR, Torino 10129 (Italy)] [IEIIT-CNR, Torino 10129 (Italy); Felder, Ferdinand [Phocone AG, 8005 Zurich (Switzerland)] [Phocone AG, 8005 Zurich (Switzerland); Zogg, Hans [ETH Zurich (Switzerland)] [ETH Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Mid-infrared Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VECSEL) based on narrow gap lead-chalcogenide (IV-VI) semiconductors exhibit strongly reduced threshold powers if the active layers are structured laterally for improved optical confinement. This is predicted by 3-d optical calculations; they show that lateral optical confinement is needed to counteract the anti-guiding features of IV-VIs due to their negative temperature dependence of the refractive index. An experimental proof is performed with PbSe quantum well based VECSEL grown on a Si-substrate by molecular beam epitaxy and emitting around 3.3??m. With proper mesa-etching, the threshold intensity is about 8-times reduced.

  15. Method and system for controlling a synchronous machine over full operating range

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walters, James E. (Carmel, IN); Gunawan, Fani S. (Westfield, IN); Xue, Yanhong (Westfield, IN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    System and method for controlling a synchronous machine are provided. The method allows for calculating a stator voltage index. The method further allows for relating the magnitude of the stator voltage index against a threshold voltage value. An offset signal is generated based on the results of the relating step. A respective state of operation of the machine is determined. The offset signal is processed based on the respective state of the machine.

  16. A 2.6-W Sub-threshold Mixed-signal ECG SoC S. C. Jocke1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calhoun, Benton H.

    A 2.6-µW Sub-threshold Mixed-signal ECG SoC S. C. Jocke1 , J. F. Bolus1 , S. N. Wooters1 , A. DC) that acquires and processes an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal for wireless ECG monitoring. The SoC uses a sub the ECG data. The C operates from 0.24 V to 1.2 V and consumes as little as 1.51 pJ per instruction

  17. Estimating Methods

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the project's scope, the purpose of the estimate, and the availability of estimating resources, the estimator can choose one or a combination of techniques when estimating an activity or project. Estimating methods, estimating indirect and direct costs, and other estimating considerations are discussed in this chapter.

  18. Characterization methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, J.T. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods discussed in this compilation of notes and diagrams are Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and other surface analysis techniques (auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and scanning tunnelling microscopy). A comparative evaluation of different techniques is performed. In-vacuo and in-situ analyses are described.

  19. A new cloud and aerosol layer detection method based on micropulse lidar measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhanqing

    A new cloud and aerosol layer detection method based on micropulse lidar measurements Chuanfeng algorithm to detect aerosols and clouds based on micropulse lidar measurements. A semidiscretization is then introduced. Combined with empirical threshold values, we determine if the signal waves indicate clouds

  20. A Family of Second-Order Methods for Convex l1-Regularized ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Jun 25, 2012 ... This paper is concerned with the minimization of an objective that is the sum of a convex ... and a second-order iterative soft-thresholding method. We also ...... Since Rk = Pk?1 ?Nk?1, the last two optimality conditions in...

  1. STATISTICAL METHODS FOR RELATING TEMPERATURE EXTREMES TO LARGE-SCALE METEOROLOGICAL PATTERNS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    1 STATISTICAL METHODS FOR RELATING TEMPERATURE EXTREMES TO LARGE-SCALE METEOROLOGICAL PATTERNS Rick Extreme Value Analysis: Block Maxima (3) Conditional Extreme Value Analysis: Peaks over Threshold (4) Application to California Temperature Extremes (5) Remaining Work #12;3 #12;4 #12;5 (1) Introduction

  2. $J/?$ production in Au+Au/Cu+Cu collisions at $\\sqrt{s}_{NN}$=200 GeV and the threshold model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. K. Chaudhuri

    2006-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the QGP motivated threshold model, where all the $J/\\psi$'s are suppressed above a threshold density, we have analyzed the preliminary PHENIX data on the centrality dependence of nuclear modification factor for $J/\\psi$'s in Cu+Cu and in Au+Au collisions, at RHIC energy, $\\sqrt{s}_{NN}$=200 GeV. Centrality dependence of $J/\\psi$ suppression in Au+Au collisions are well explained in the model for threshold densities in ranges of 3.6-3.7 $fm^{-2}$. $J/\\psi$ suppression in Cu+Cu collisions on the other hand are not explained in the model.

  3. Method and system for managing an electrical output of a turbogenerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahlhut, Ronnie Dean (Bettendorf, IA); Vuk, Carl Thomas (Denver, IA)

    2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The system and method manages an electrical output of a turbogenerator in accordance with multiple modes. In a first mode, a direct current (DC) bus receives power from a turbogenerator output via a rectifier where turbogenerator revolutions per unit time (e.g., revolutions per minute (RPM)) or an electrical output level of a turbogenerator output meet or exceed a minimum threshold. In a second mode, if the turbogenerator revolutions per unit time or electrical output level of a turbogenerator output are less than the minimum threshold, the electric drive motor or a generator mechanically powered by the engine provides electrical energy to the direct current bus.

  4. Infrared emitting device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurtz, Steven R. (Albuquerque, NM); Biefeld, Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM); Dawson, L. Ralph (Albuquerque, NM); Howard, Arnold J. (Albuquerque, NM); Baucom, Kevin C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An infrared emitting device and method. The infrared emitting device comprises a III-V compound semiconductor substrate upon which are grown a quantum-well active region having a plurality of quantum-well layers formed of a ternary alloy comprising InAsSb sandwiched between barrier layers formed of a ternary alloy having a smaller lattice constant and a larger energy bandgap than the quantum-well layers. The quantum-well layers are preferably compressively strained to increase the threshold energy for Auger recombination; and a method is provided for determining the preferred thickness for the quantum-well layers. Embodiments of the present invention are described having at least one cladding layer to increase the optical and carrier confinement in the active region, and to provide for waveguiding of the light generated within the active region. Examples have been set forth showing embodiments of the present invention as surface- and edge-emitting light emitting diodes (LEDs), an optically-pumped semiconductor laser, and an electrically-injected semiconductor diode laser. The light emission from each of the infrared emitting devices of the present invention is in the midwave infrared region of the spectrum from about 2 to 6 microns.

  5. Deeply-bound $K^- pp$ state in the $^3$He(in-flight $K^-$, $n$) spectrum and its moving pole near the $??N$ threshold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Koike; T. Harada

    2009-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of a deeply-bound $K^- pp$ state with $I=1/2$, $J^\\pi=0^-$ by the $^3$He(in-flight $K^-$, $n$) reaction is theoretically investigated in a distorted-wave impulse approximation using the Green's function method. The expected inclusive and semi-exclusive spectra at $p_{K^-} = 1.0$ GeV/c and $\\theta_{\\rm lab} = 0^{\\circ}$ are calculated for the forthcoming J-PARC E15 experiment. We demonstrate these spectra with several types of phenomenological $K^-$-``$pp$'' optical potentials $U^{\\rm opt}(E)$ which have an energy-dependent imaginary part multiplied by a phase space suppression factor, fitting to recent theoretical predictions or experimental candidates of the $K^-pp$ bound state. The results show that a cusp-like peak at the $\\pi \\Sigma N$ threshold is an unique signal for the $K^-pp$ bound state in the spectrum including the [$K^-pp$] $\\to$ $Y + N$ decay process from the two-nucleon $K^-$ absorption, as well as a distinct peak of the $K^-pp$ bound state. The shape of the spectrum is explained by a trajectory of a moving pole of the $K^-pp$ bound state in the complex energy plane. The importance of the spectrum with [$K^-pp$] $\\to$ $Y + N$ from the two-nucleon $K^-$ absorption is emphasized in order to extract clear evidence of the $K^-pp$ bound state.

  6. Method of quantitating dsDNA

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stark, Peter C. (Los Alamos, NM); Kuske, Cheryl R. (Los Alamos, NM); Mullen, Kenneth I. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for quantitating dsDNA in an aqueous sample solution containing an unknown amount of dsDNA. A first aqueous test solution containing a known amount of a fluorescent dye-dsDNA complex and at least one fluorescence-attenutating contaminant is prepared. The fluorescence intensity of the test solution is measured. The first test solution is diluted by a known amount to provide a second test solution having a known concentration of dsDNA. The fluorescence intensity of the second test solution is measured. Additional diluted test solutions are similarly prepared until a sufficiently dilute test solution having a known amount of dsDNA is prepared that has a fluorescence intensity that is not attenuated upon further dilution. The value of the maximum absorbance of this solution between 200-900 nanometers (nm), referred to herein as the threshold absorbance, is measured. A sample solution having an unknown amount of dsDNA and an absorbance identical to that of the sufficiently dilute test solution at the same chosen wavelength is prepared. Dye is then added to the sample solution to form the fluorescent dye-dsDNA-complex, after which the fluorescence intensity of the sample solution is measured and the quantity of dsDNA in the sample solution is determined. Once the threshold absorbance of a sample solution obtained from a particular environment has been determined, any similarly prepared sample solution taken from a similar environment and having the same value for the threshold absorbance can be quantified for dsDNA by adding a large excess of dye to the sample solution and measuring its fluorescence intensity.

  7. Method and apparatus for monitoring a hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmieg, Steven J; Viola, Michael B; Cheng, Shi-Wai S; Mulawa, Patricia A; Hilden, David L; Sloane, Thompson M; Lee, Jong H

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for monitoring a hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device of an exhaust aftertreatment system of an internal combustion engine operating lean of stoichiometry includes injecting a reductant into an exhaust gas feedstream upstream of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device at a predetermined mass flowrate of the reductant, and determining a space velocity associated with a predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device. When the space velocity exceeds a predetermined threshold space velocity, a temperature differential across the predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device is determined, and a threshold temperature as a function of the space velocity and the mass flowrate of the reductant is determined. If the temperature differential across the predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device is below the threshold temperature, operation of the engine is controlled to regenerate the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device.

  8. Evaluation of Shear Strength Threshold of Concern for Retrieval of Interim-Stored K-Basin Sludge in the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    K-Basin sludge will be recovered into the Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) and will be stored in the T Plant for interim storage (at least 10 years). Long-term sludge storage tests conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory show that high uranium content K Basin sludge can self-cement and form a strong sludge with a bulk shear strength of up to 65 kPa. Some of this sludge has "paste" and "chunks" with shear strengths of approximately 3~5 kPa and 380 ~ 770 kPa, respectively. High uranium content sludge samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (e.g., 185C, 10 h) have been observed to form agglomerates with a shear strength up to 170 kPa. After interim storage at T Plant, the sludge in the STSCs will be mobilized by water jets impinging the sludge. The objective of the evaluation was to determine the range of sludge shear strength for which there is high confidence that a water-jet retrieval system can mobilize stored K-Basin sludge from STSCs. The shear strength at which the sludge can be retrieved is defined as the "shear strength threshold of concern." If the sludge shear strength is greater than the value of the shear strength threshold of concern, a water-jet retrieval system will be unlikely to mobilize the sludge up to the containers walls. The shear strength threshold of concern can be compared with the range of possible shear strengths of K-Basin stored sludge to determine if the current post interim-storage, water-jet retrieval method is adequate. Fourteen effective cleaning radius (ECR) models were reviewed, and their validity was examined by applying them to Hanford 241-SY-101 and 241-AZ-101 Tanks to reproduce the measured ECR produced by the mixer pumps. The validation test identified that the Powell-3 and Crowe-2 ECR models are more accurate than other ECR models reviewed. These ECR models were used to address a question as to whether the effective cleaning radius of a water jet is sufficient or if it can be readily expanded to cover the range of possible shear strengths. These results will assist CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) to establish the technical basis of the feasibility of the sludge retrieval and storage plan and to develop an adequate water jet system to retrieve the stored K-Basin sludge in the STSCs. The STSCs are 2:1 elliptical-head vessels, 58 inches in diameter and 105 inches tall. Each STSC will contain 0.5 to 2.1 m3 of settled sludge with the specific loading dependent upon sludge type.

  9. SupplementalFigures1 Supplementary Figure S1: Sample Mean Excess (SME) for a range of thresholds at the grid point closest to 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    SupplementalFigures1 2 Supplementary Figure S1: Sample Mean Excess (SME) for a range of thresholds at the grid point closest to 3 Bergen, Norway in the BCMHIRHAM5 downscaling. The SME

  10. Damage Mechanisms In Polymers Upon NIR Femtosecond Pulse Laser Irradiation: Sub-Threshold Processes And Their Implications For Laser Safety Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonse, Joern; Krueger, Joerg [BAM Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany); Solis, Javier [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Optica, CSIC, Serrano 121, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Spielmann, Christian [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Lippert, Thomas [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This contribution investigates laser-induced damage of thin film and bulk polymer samples, with the focus on physical processes occurring close to the damage threshold. In-situ real-time reflectivity (RTR) measurements with picosecond (ps) and nanosecond (ns) temporal resolution were performed on thin polymer films on a timescale up to a few microseconds ({mu}s). A model for polymer thin film damage is presented, indicating that irreversible chemical modification processes take place already below the fluence threshold for macroscopic damage. On dye-doped bulk polymer filters (as used for laser goggles), transmission studies using fs-and ps-laser pulses reveal the optical saturation behavior of the material and its relation to the threshold of permanent damage. Implications of the sub-threshold processes for laser safety applications will be discussed for thin film and bulk polymer damage.

  11. A continuum model with a percolation threshold and tunneling-assisted interfacial conductivity for carbon nanotube-based nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yang; Weng, George J., E-mail: weng@jove.rutgers.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 (United States); Meguid, Shaker A. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada); Hamouda, Abdel Magid [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar)

    2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuum model that possesses several desirable features of the electrical conduction process in carbon-nanotube (CNT) based nanocomposites is developed. Three basic elements are included: (i) percolation threshold, (ii) interface effects, and (iii) tunneling-assisted interfacial conductivity. We approach the first one through the selection of an effective medium theory. We approach the second one by the introduction of a diminishing layer of interface with an interfacial conductivity to build a 'thinly coated' CNT. The third one is introduced through the observation that interface conductivity can be enhanced by electron tunneling which in turn can be facilitated with the formation of CNT networks. We treat this last issue in a continuum fashion by taking the network formation as a statistical process that can be represented by Cauchy's probability density function. The outcome is a simple and yet widely useful model that can simultaneously capture all these fundamental characteristics. It is demonstrated that, without considering the interface effect, the predicted conductivity would be too high, and that, without accounting for the additional contribution from the tunneling-assisted interfacial conductivity, the predicted conductivity beyond the percolation threshold would be too low. It is with the consideration of all three elements that the theory can fully account for the experimentally measured data. We further use the developed model to demonstrate that, despite the anisotropy of the intrinsic CNT conductivity, it is its axial component along the CNT direction that dominates the overall conductivity. This theory is also proved that, even with a totally insulating matrix, it is still capable of delivering non-zero conductivity beyond the percolation threshold.

  12. Tensiometer methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grover, Blair K.; Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.; Casper, William L.

    2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for collecting data regarding a matric potential of a media includes providing a tensiometer having a stainless steel tensiometer casing, the stainless steel tensiometer casing comprising a tip portion which includes a wetted porous stainless steel membrane through which a matric potential of a media is sensed; driving the tensiometer into the media using an insertion tube comprising a plurality of probe casing which are selectively coupled to form the insertion tube as the tensiometer is progressively driven deeper into the media, wherein the wetted porous stainless steel membrane is in contact with the media; and sensing the matric potential the media exerts on the wetted porous stainless steel membrane by a pressure sensor in fluid hydraulic connection with the porous stainless steel membrane. A tensiometer includes a stainless steel casing.

  13. Casting methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

    2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

  14. Direct Production of Tripartite Pump-Signal-Idler Entanglement in the Above-Threshold Optical Parametric Oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. S. Villar; M. Martinelli; C. Fabre; P. Nussenzveig

    2006-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the quantum correlations existing among the three output fields (pump, signal, and idler) of a triply resonant non-degenerate Optical Parametric Oscillator operating above threshold. By applying the standard criteria [P. van Loock and A. Furusawa, Phys. Rev. A 67, 052315 (2003)], we show that strong tripartite continuous-variable entanglement is present in this well-known and simple system. Furthermore, since the entanglement is generated directly from a nonlinear process, the three entangled fields can have very different frequencies, opening the way for multicolored quantum information networks.

  15. Method and apparatus for biological sequence comparison

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marr, T.G.; Chang, W.I.

    1997-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for comparing biological sequences from a known source of sequences, with a subject (query) sequence. The apparatus takes as input a set of target similarity levels (such as evolutionary distances in units of PAM), and finds all fragments of known sequences that are similar to the subject sequence at each target similarity level, and are long enough to be statistically significant. The invention device filters out fragments from the known sequences that are too short, or have a lower average similarity to the subject sequence than is required by each target similarity level. The subject sequence is then compared only to the remaining known sequences to find the best matches. The filtering member divides the subject sequence into overlapping blocks, each block being sufficiently large to contain a minimum-length alignment from a known sequence. For each block, the filter member compares the block with every possible short fragment in the known sequences and determines a best match for each comparison. The determined set of short fragment best matches for the block provide an upper threshold on alignment values. Regions of a certain length from the known sequences that have a mean alignment value upper threshold greater than a target unit score are concatenated to form a union. The current block is compared to the union and provides an indication of best local alignment with the subject sequence. 5 figs.

  16. Complete direct method for electron-hydrogen scattering: Application to the collinear and Temkin-Poet models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartlett, Philip L.; Stelbovics, Andris T. [Centre for Atomic, Molecular and Surface Physics, Murdoch University, Perth 6150 (Australia)

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an efficient generalization of the exterior complex scaling (ECS) method to extract discrete inelastic and ionization amplitudes for electron-impact scattering of atomic hydrogen. This fully quantal method is demonstrated over a range of energies for the collinear and Temkin-Poet models and near-threshold ionization is examined in detail for singlet and triplet scattering. Our numerical calculations for total ionization cross sections near threshold strongly support the classical threshold law of Wannier [Phys. Rev. 90, 817 (1953)] ({sigma}{proportional_to}E{sup 1.128{+-}}{sup 0.004}) for the L=0 singlet collinear model and the semiclassical threshold law of Peterkop [J. Phys. B 16, L587 (1983)] ({sigma}{proportional_to}E{sup 3.37{+-}}{sup 0.02}) for the L=0 triplet collinear model, and are consistent with the semiclassical threshold law of Macek and Ihra [Phys. Rev. A 55, 2024 (1997)] ({sigma}{proportional_to}exp[(-6.87{+-}0.01)E{sup -1/6}]) for the singlet Temkin-Poet model.

  17. Infrared emitting device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurtz, S.R.; Biefeld, R.M.; Dawson, L.R.; Howard, A.J.; Baucom, K.C.

    1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The infrared emitting device comprises a III-V compound semiconductor substrate upon which are grown a quantum-well active region having a plurality of quantum-well layers formed of a ternary alloy comprising InAsSb sandwiched between barrier layers formed of a ternary alloy having a smaller lattice constant and a larger energy bandgap than the quantum-well layers. The quantum-well layers are preferably compressively strained to increase the threshold energy for Auger recombination; and a method is provided for determining the preferred thickness for the quantum-well layers. Embodiments of the present invention are described having at least one cladding layer to increase the optical and carrier confinement in the active region, and to provide for waveguiding of the light generated within the active region. Examples have been set forth showing embodiments of the present invention as surface- and edge-emitting light emitting diodes (LEDs), an optically-pumped semiconductor laser, and an electrically-injected semiconductor diode laser. The light emission from each of the infrared emitting devices of the present invention is in the midwave infrared region of the spectrum from about 2 to 6 microns. 8 figs.

  18. Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hau-Riege, S; London, R A; Bionta, R M; McKernan, M A; Baker, S L; Krzywinski, J; Sobierajski, R; Nietubyc, R; Pelka, J B; Jurek, M; Klinger, D; Juha, L; Chalupsky, J; Cihelka, J; Hajkova, V; Koptyaev, S; Velyhan, A; Krasa, J; Kuba, J; Tiedtke, K; Toleikis, S; Tschentscher, T; Wabnitz, H; Bergh, M; Caleman, C; Sokolowski-Tinten, K; Stojanovic, N; Zastrau, U; Tronnier, A; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J

    2007-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We exposed samples of B4C, amorphous C, chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD)-diamond C, Si, and SiC to single 25 fs-long pulses of 32.5 nm free-electron-laser radiation at fluences of up to 2.2 J/cm{sup 2}. The samples were chosen as candidate materials for x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) optics. We found that the threshold for surface-damage is on the order of the fluence required for thermal melting. For larger fluences, the crater depths correspond to temperatures on the order of the critical temperature, suggesting that the craters are formed by two-phase vaporization [1]. XFELs have the promise of producing extremely high-intensity ultrashort pulses of coherent, monochromatic radiation in the 1 to 10 keV regime. The expected high output fluence and short pulse duration pose significant challenges to the optical components, including radiation damage. It has not been possible to obtain direct experimental verification of the expected damage thresholds since appropriate x-ray sources are not yet available. FLASH has allowed us to study the interaction of high-fluence short-duration photon pulses with materials at the shortest wavelength possible to date. With these experiments, we have come closer to the extreme conditions expected in XFEL-matter interaction scenarios than previously possible.

  19. Lowering the background level and the energy threshold of Micromegas x-ray detectors for axion searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. J. Iguaz; S. Aune; F. Aznar; J. F. Castel; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; E. Ferrer-Ribas; J. Galan; J. A. Garcia; J. G. Garza; I. Giomataris; I. G. Irastorza; T. Papaevangelou; A. Rodriguez; A. Tomas; T. Vafeiadis; S. C. Yildiz

    2015-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Axion helioscopes search for solar axions by their conversion in x-rays in the presence of high magnetic fields. The use of low background x-ray detectors is an essential component contributing to the sensitivity of these searches. In this work, we review the recent advances on Micromegas detectors used in the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) and proposed for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The actual setup in CAST has achieved background levels below 10$^{-6}$ keV$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. This reduction is based on active and passive shielding techniques, the selection of radiopure materials, offline discrimination techniques and the high granularity of the readout. We describe in detail the background model of the detector, based on its operation at CAST site and at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC), as well as on Geant4 simulations. The best levels currently achieved at LSC are low than 10$^{-7}$ keV$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ and show good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. Finally, we present some ideas and results for reducing the energy threshold of these detectors below 1 keV, using high-transparent windows, autotrigger electronics and studying the cluster shape at different energies. As a high flux of axion-like-particles is expected in this energy range, a sub-keV threshold detector could enlarge the physics case of axion helioscopes.

  20. Dressed-bound-state molecular strong-field approximation: Application to above-threshold ionization of heteronuclear diatomic molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasovic, E. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, BA-71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Strasse 2a, DE-12489 Berlin (Germany); Busuladzic, M. [Medical Faculty, University of Sarajevo, Cekalusa 90, BA-71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Becker, W. [Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Strasse 2a, DE-12489 Berlin (Germany); Milosevic, D. B. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, BA-71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Strasse 2a, DE-12489 Berlin (Germany); Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bistrik 7, BA-71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The molecular strong-field approximation (MSFA), which includes dressing of the molecular bound state, is introduced and applied to above-threshold ionization of heteronuclear diatomic molecules. Expressions for the laser-induced molecular dipole and polarizability as functions of the laser parameters (intensity and frequency) and molecular parameters [molecular orientation, dipole, and parallel and perpendicular polarizabilities of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)] are presented. Our previous MSFA theory, which incorporates the rescattering effects, is generalized from homonuclear to heteronuclear diatomic molecules. Angle- and energy-resolved high-order above-threshold ionization spectra of oriented heteronuclear diatomic molecules, exemplified by the carbon monoxide (CO) molecule, exhibit pronounced minima, which can be related to the shape of their HOMO-electron-density distribution. For the CO molecule we have found an analytical condition for the positions of these minima. We have also shown that the effect of the dressing of the HOMO is twofold: (i) the laser-induced Stark shift decreases the ionization yield and (ii) the laser-induced time-dependent dipole and polarizability change the oscillatory structure of the spectra.

  1. Production of K+K? pairs in proton-proton collisions below the ? meson threshold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Q. J.; Hartmann, M.; Chiladze, D.; Dymov, S.; Dzyuba, A.; Gao, H.; Gebel, R.; Hejny, V.; Kacharava, A.; Lorentz, B.; Mchedlishvili, D.; Merzliakov, S.; Mielke, M.; Mikirtytchiants, S.; Ohm, H.; Papenbrock, M.; Polyanskiy, A.; Serdyuk, V.; Stein, H. J.; Strher, H.; Trusov, S.; Valdau, Yu.; Wilkin, C.; Wstner, P.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The pp?ppK+K? reaction was measured below the ? threshold at a beam energy of 2.568 GeV using the COSY-ANKE magnetic spectrometer. By assuming that the four-body phase space is distorted only by the product of two-body final-state interactions, fits to a variety of one-dimensional distributions permit the evaluation of differential and total cross sections. The shapes of the distributions in the Kp and Kpp invariant masses are reproduced only if the K?p interaction is even stronger than that found at higher energy. The cusp effect in the K+K? distribution at the K0K{bar}0 threshold is much more clear and some evidence is also found for coupling between the K?p and K?0n channels. However, the energy dependence of the total cross section cannot be reproduced by considering only a simple product of such pairwise final-state interactions.

  2. Ultralow-threshold laser and blue shift cooperative luminescence in a Yb{sup 3+} doped silica microsphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Yantang, E-mail: g@fzu.edu.cn; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Peijin [College of Physics and Information Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fu Zhou, 350108 (China)] [College of Physics and Information Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fu Zhou, 350108 (China); Guo, Changlei [College of Physics and Information Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fu Zhou, 350108 (China) [College of Physics and Information Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fu Zhou, 350108 (China); Department of Electronic Engineering, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental investigation on ultralow threshold laser and blue shift cooperative luminescence (CL) in a Yb{sup 3+} doped silica microsphere (YDSM) with continuous-wave 976 nm laser diode pumping is reported. The experimental results show that the YDSM emits laser oscillation with ultralow threshold of 2.62 ?W, and the laser spectrum is modulated by the microsphere morphology characteristics. In addition, blue emission of YDSM is also observed with the increase of pump power, which is supposed to be generated by CL of excited Yb ion-pairs with the absorption of 976 nm photons and Si-O vibration phonons, and the process is explained with an energy level diagram. This property of the blue shift CL with phonons absorption in the Yb{sup 3+}doped microcavity makes it attractive for the application of laser cooling based on anti-Stokes fluorescence emission, if the Yb{sup 3+}doped microcavity made from with low phonon energy host materials.

  3. Transition threshold in Ge{sub x}Sb{sub 10}Se{sub 90?x} glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Wen-Hou [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Centre for Ultrahigh Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), Laser Physics Centre, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Fang, Liang, E-mail: lfang@cqu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Shen, Xiang [Laboratory of Infrared Material and Devices, Advanced Technology Research Institute, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Wang, Rong-Ping [Centre for Ultrahigh Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), Laser Physics Centre, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Ge{sub x}Sb{sub 10}Se{sub 90?x} glasses with Ge content from 7.5 to 32.5?at.?% have been prepared by melt-quench technique, and the physical parameters including glass transition temperature (T{sub g}), density (?), compactness (C), shear elastic moduli (C{sub s}), compression elastic moduli (C{sub c}), refractive index (n), and optical bandgap (E{sub g}) have been investigated. While all these physical parameters show threshold behavior in the glass with a chemically stoichiometric composition. Raman spectra analysis also indicates that, with increasing Ge content, Se-chains or rings gradually disappear until all Se-atoms are consumed in the glass with a chemically stoichiometric composition. With further increasing Ge content, homopolar Ge-Ge and Sb-Sb bonds are formed and the chemical order in the glasses is violated. The threshold behavior of the physical properties in the Ge{sub x}Sb{sub 10}Se{sub 90?x} glasses can be traced to demixing of networks above the chemically stoichiometric composition.

  4. A precision measurement of the $p$($e,e^\\prime p\\,$)$\\pi^0$ reaction at threshold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chirapatpimol, K; Lindgren, R A; Smith, L C; Annand, J R M; Higinbotham, D W; Moffit, B; Nelyubin, V; Norum, B E; Allada, K; Aniol, K; Ardashev, K; Armstrong, D S; Arndt, R A; Benmokhtar, F; Bernstein, A M; Bertozzi, W; Briscoe, W J; Bimbot, L; Camsonne, A; Chen, J -P; Choi, S; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Cusanno, F; Dalton, M M; Dutta, C; Egiyan, K; Fernandez-Ramirez, C; Feuerbach, R; Fissum, K G; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Gilman, R; Gilad, S; Goity, J; Gomez, J; Hahn, B; Hamilton, D; Hansen, J -O; Huang, J; Igarashi, R; Ireland, D; de Jager, C W; Jin, X; Jiang, X; Jinasundera, T; Kellie, J; Keppel, C E; Kolb, N; LeRose, J; Liyanage, N; Livingston, K; McNulty, D; Mercado, L; Michaels, R; Mihovilovic, M; Qian, S; Qian, X; Mailyan, S; Mamyan, V; Marrone, S; Monaghan, P; Nanda, S; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Protopopescu, D; Punjabi, V; Qiang, Y; Rachek, I A; Rakhman, A; Ron, G; Rosner, G; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Shahinyan, A; Sirca, S; Sparveris, N; Subedi, R R; Suleiman, R; Strakovsky, I; Sulkosky, V; Moinelo, J; Voskanyan, H; Wang, K; Wang, Y; Watson, J; Watts, D; Wojtsekhowski, B; Workman, R L; Yao, H; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New results are reported from an experiment to measure $\\pi^0$ electroproduction at and above threshold using the $p(e,e^{\\prime} p)\\pi^0$ reaction. The experiment was designed to precisely determine the energy dependence of $s-$ and $p-$wave electromagnetic multipoles as a stringent test of the predictions of Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT). The data were taken with an electron beam energy of 1192 MeV using a two-spectrometer setup in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. For the first time, complete coverage of the $\\phi^*_{\\pi}$ and $\\theta^*_{\\pi}$ angles in the $p \\pi^0$ center-of-mass was obtained for invariant energies above threshold from 0.5~MeV up to 15~MeV. The 4-momentum transfer $Q^2$ coverage ranges from 0.05 to 0.155 (GeV/c)$^2$ in fine steps. A simple phenomenological analysis of our data shows strong disagreement with $p-$wave predictions from ChPT for $Q^2>0.07$ (GeV/c)$^2$, while the $s-$wave predictions are in reasonable agreement.

  5. Observation of a backward peak in the gamma d ---> pi0 d cross- section near the eta threshold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yordanka Ilieva; Barry Berman; Alexander Kudryavtsev; I.I. Strakovsky; V.E. Tarasov; Moscov Amaryan; Pawel Ambrozewicz; Marco Anghinolfi; G. Asryan; Harutyun Avakian; Hovhannes Baghdasaryan; Nathan Baillie; Jacques Ball; Nathan Baltzell; V. Batourine; Marco Battaglieri; Ivan Bedlinski; Ivan Bedlinskiy; Matthew Bellis; Nawal Benmouna; Angela Biselli; Sylvain Bouchigny; Sergey Boyarinov; Robert Bradford; Derek Branford; William Briscoe; William Brooks; Stephen Bueltmann; Volker Burkert; Cornel Butuceanu; John Calarco; Sharon Careccia; Daniel Carman; Shifeng Chen; Philip Cole; Patrick Collins; Philip Coltharp; Donald Crabb; Volker Crede; R. De Masi; Enzo De Sanctis; Raffaella De Vita; Pavel Degtiarenko; Alexandre Deur; Richard Dickson; Chaden Djalali; Gail Dodge; Joseph Donnelly; David Doughty; Michael Dugger; Oleksandr Dzyubak; Hovanes Egiyan; Kim Egiyan; Latifa Elouadrhiri; Paul Eugenio; Gleb Fedotov; Gerald Feldman; Herbert Funsten; Michel Garcon; Gagik Gavalian; Gerard Gilfoyle; Kevin Giovanetti; Francois-Xavier Girod; John Goetz; Atilla Gonenc; Ralf Gothe; Keith Griffioen; Michel Guidal; Nevzat Guler; Lei Guo; Vardan Gyurjyan; Kawtar Hafidi; Rafael Hakobyan; F. Hersman; Kenneth Hicks; Ishaq Hleiqawi; Maurik Holtrop; Charles Hyde; Charles Hyde-Wright; David Ireland; Boris Ishkhanov; Eugeny Isupov; Mark Ito; David Jenkins; Hyon-Suk Jo; Kyungseon Joo; Henry Juengst; Narbe Kalantarians; James Kellie; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Andreas Klein; Franz Klein; Mikhail Kossov; Zebulun Krahn; Laird Kramer; V. Kubarovsky; Joachim Kuhn; Sebastian Kuhn; Sergey Kuleshov; Jeff Lachniet; Jean Laget; Jorn Langheinrich; David Lawrence; Kenneth Livingston; Haiyun Lu; Marion MacCormick; Nikolai Markov; Bryan McKinnon; Bernhard Mecking; Mac Mestayer; Curtis Meyer; Tsutomu Mibe; Konstantin Mikhaylov; Marco Mirazita; Rory Miskimen; Viktor Mokeev; Kei Moriya; Steven Morrow; M. Moteabbed; E. Munevar; Gordon Mutchler; Pawel Nadel-Turonski; Rakhsha Nasseripour; Silvia Niccolai; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Bogdan Niczyporuk; Megh Niroula; Rustam Niyazov; Mina Nozar; Mikhail Osipenko; Alexander Ostrovidov; K. Park; Evgueni Pasyuk; Craig Paterson; Joshua Pierce; Nikolay Pivnyuk; Oleg Pogorelko; S. Pozdniakov; John Price; Yelena Prok; Dan Protopopescu; Brian Raue; Giovanni Ricco; Marco Ripani; Barry Ritchie; Federico Ronchetti; Guenther Rosner; Patrizia Rossi; Franck Sabatie; Carlos Salgado; Joseph Santoro; Vladimir Sapunenko; Reinhard Schumacher; Vladimir Serov; Youri Sharabian; Nikolay Shvedunov; Elton Smith; Lee Smith; Daniel Sober; Aleksey Stavinskiy; Samuel Stepanyan; Stepan Stepanyan; Burnham Stokes; Paul Stoler; Steffen Strauch; Mauro Taiuti; David Tedeschi; Ulrike Thoma; Avtandil Tkabladze; Svyatoslav Tkachenko; Clarisse Tur; Maurizio Ungaro; Michael Vineyard; Alexander Vlassov; Lawrence Weinstein; Dennis Weygand; M. Williams; Elliott Wolin; Michael Wood; Amrit Yegneswaran; Lorenzo Zana; Jixie Zhang; Bo Zhao; Zhiwen Zhao

    2007-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    High-quality cross sections for the reaction gamma+d->pi^0+d have been measured using the CLAS at Jefferson Lab over a wide energy range near and above the eta-meson photoproduction threshold. At backward c.m. angles for the outgoing pions, we observe a resonance-like structure near E_gamma=700 MeV. Our model analysis shows that it can be explained by eta excitation in the intermediate state. The effect is the result of the contribution of the N(1535)S_11 resonance to the amplitudes of the subprocesses occurring between the two nucleons and of a two-step process in which the excitation of an intermediate eta meson dominates.

  6. Threshold Photoelectron Photoion Coincidence (TPEPICO) Studies: The Road to ? 0.1 kJ/mol Thermochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baer, Tomas [University of North Carolina

    2013-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) technique is utilized to investigate the dissociation dynamics and thermochemistry of energy selected medium to large organic molecular ions. The reactions include parallel and consecutive steps that are modeled with the statistical theory in order to extract dissociation onsets for multiple dissociation paths. These studies are carried out with the aid of molecular orbital calculations of both ions and the transition states connecting the ion structure to their products. The results of these investigations yield accurate heats of formation of ions, free radicals, and stable molecules. In addition, they provide information about the potential energy surface that governs the dissociation process. Isomerization reactions prior to dissociation are readily inferred from the TPEPICO data.

  7. Fluence Thresholds for Laser-Induced Damage of Optical Components in the Injector Laser of the SSRL Gun Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boton, P

    2005-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Damage threshold fluences for several optical components were measured at three wavelengths using the injector laser at SSRL's Gun Test Facility. Measurements were conducted using the fundamental ir wavelength at 1053 nanometers and harmonics at 526 nm and 263 nm with 3.4ps pulses (1/e{sup 2} full width intensity); ir measurements were also conducted with 850 ps pulses. Practical surfaces relevant to the laser system performance are emphasized. Damage onset was evidenced by an alteration of the specular reflection of a cw probe laser (650 nm) from the irradiated region of the target surface. For the case of stretched ir pulses, damage to a Nd:glass rod was observed to begin at a site within the bulk material and to progress back toward the incident surface.

  8. Determination of the melting threshold of TiO{sub 2} thin films processed by excimer laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Overschelde, O. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface, Universite de Mons, 23, Place du Parc, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Delsate, T. [Service de Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Universite de Mons, 6 Avenue du champ de Mars, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Snyders, R. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface, Universite de Mons, 23, Place du Parc, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Materia Nova Research Center, 1 Avenue Copernic, 7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Processing surfaces by laser needs an understanding of the mechanisms generated by irradiation. In this work, to gain understanding of the mechanisms occurring during irradiation of TiO{sub 2} thin films by means of KrF excimer laser, we have performed infrared time resolved reflectivity measurements. This experimental investigation revealed modifications of the heating/cooling cycle as a function of the fluence (F). These modifications start appearing for a fluence value of about {approx}0.25 J/cm{sup 2} which is associated with the melting threshold of the film. Additionally, we have solved numerically the heat equation of the system with specific boundary conditions. From these calculations, we have established the thermal history of the film during the 25 ns irradiation pulse. The data reveal that a part of the medium liquefies around a fluence of 0.23 J/cm{sup 2} in good agreement with the experimental data.

  9. Control of threshold voltage on the excimer laser annealed poly-Si TFT`s by oxygen plasma treatment on poly-Si surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, J.I.; Lee, S.G.; Moon, D.G.; Ha, Y.M.; Hong, C.H.; Soh, H.S. [LG Electronics Inc., Anyang, Kyongki (Korea, Republic of). LCD Research Lab.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygen plasma treatment was performed on the excimer laser annealed poly-Si surface, followed by gate oxide deposition with low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) in order to control the threshold voltage of excimer laser annealed poly-Si thin film transistors (TFTs). Threshold voltages of n-channel TFTs increase from 0.4 to 2.8 V by varying the treatment time from 0 to 7 min. It is shown the effective charge density increased toward negative direction with increase of the treatment time. In addition to the increase of threshold voltage, the oxygen plasma treatment on the Si surface led to an increase in the deposition rate of LPCVD oxide films with an apparent reduction of carbon around the interface between gate insulator and poly-Si film after oxygen plasma treatment.

  10. Method and apparatus for welding precipitation hardenable materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, H. Jr.; Harris, I.D.; Ratka, J.O.; Spiegelberg, W.D.

    1994-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for welding together members consisting of precipitation age hardened materials includes the steps of selecting a weld filler material that has substantially the same composition as the materials being joined, and an age hardening characteristic temperature age threshold below that of the aging kinetic temperature range of the materials being joined, whereby after welding the members together, the resulting weld and heat affected zone (HAZ) are heat treated at a temperature below that of the kinetic temperature range of the materials joined, for obtaining substantially the same mechanical characteristics for the weld and HAZ, as for the parent material of the members joined. 5 figures.

  11. Method and apparatus for welding precipitation hardenable materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, Jr., Holt (Hopewell, NJ); Harris, Ian D. (Dublin, OH); Ratka, John O. (Cleveland Heights, OH); Spiegelberg, William D. (Parma, OH)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for welding together members consisting of precipitation age hardened materials includes the steps of selecting a weld filler material that has substantially the same composition as the materials being joined, and an age hardening characteristic temperature age threshold below that of the aging kinetic temperature range of the materials being joined, whereby after welding the members together, the resulting weld and heat affected zone (HAZ) are heat treated at a temperature below that of the kinetic temperature range of the materials joined, for obtaining substantially the same mechanical characteristics for the weld and HAZ, as for the parent material of the members joined.

  12. Optical domain analog to digital conversion methods and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vawter, Gregory A

    2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for optical analog to digital conversion are disclosed. An optical signal is converted by mapping the optical analog signal onto a wavelength modulated optical beam, passing the mapped beam through interferometers to generate analog bit representation signals, and converting the analog bit representation signals into an optical digital signal. A photodiode receives an optical analog signal, a wavelength modulated laser coupled to the photodiode maps the optical analog signal to a wavelength modulated optical beam, interferometers produce an analog bit representation signal from the mapped wavelength modulated optical beam, and sample and threshold circuits corresponding to the interferometers produce a digital bit signal from the analog bit representation signal.

  13. Measured hot-electron intensity thresholds quantified by a two-plasmon-decay resonant common-wave gain in various experimental configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michel, D. T.; Maximov, A. V.; Short, R. W.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D.; Hu, S. X.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Myatt, J. F.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.; Froula, D. H. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14636 (United States)] [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14636 (United States)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The fraction of laser energy converted into hot electrons by the two-plasmon-decay instability is found to have different overlapped intensity thresholds for various configurations on the Omega Laser Facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997); J. H. Kelly et al., J. Phys. IV 133, 75 (2006)]. A factor-of-2 difference in the overlapped intensity threshold is observed between two- and four-beam configurations. The overlapped intensity threshold increases by a factor of 2 between the 4- and 18-beam configurations and by a factor of 3 between the 4- and 60-beam configurations. This is explained by a linear common-wave model where multiple laser beams drive a common electron-plasma wave in a wavevector region that bisects the laser beams (resonant common-wave region in k-space). These experimental results indicate that the hot-electron threshold depends on the hydrodynamic parameters at the quarter-critical density surface, the configuration of the laser beams, and the sum of the intensity of the beams that share the same angle with the common-wave vector.

  14. Evidence for a Narrow Near-Threshold Structure in the J/ psi phi Mass Spectrum in B+-->J/ psi phi K+ Decays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Si

    Evidence is reported for a narrow structure near the J/?? threshold in exclusive B+?J/??K+ decays produced in (p)over-bar p collisions at ?s=1.96??TeV. A signal of 145 events, with statistical significance in excess of ...

  15. Optical Nonlinearity in Ar and N2 near the Ionization Threshold J. K. Wahlstrand, Y.-H. Cheng, Y.-H. Chen, and H. M. Milchberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milchberg, Howard

    Optical Nonlinearity in Ar and N2 near the Ionization Threshold J. K. Wahlstrand, Y.-H. Cheng, Y measure the nonlinear optical response in argon and nitrogen in a thin gas target to laser intensities.103901 PACS numbers: 42.65.An, 42.65.Jx, 42.65.Re The optical Kerr effect, the intensity-dependent refrac

  16. Fusion rules and the Patera-Sharp generating-function method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Begin; C. Cummins; P. Mathieu; M. A. Walton

    2002-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We review some contributions on fusion rules that were inspired by the work of Sharp, in particular, the generating-function method for tensor-product coefficients that he developed with Patera. We also review the Kac-Walton formula, the concepts of threshold level, fusion elementary couplings, fusion generating functions and fusion bases. We try to keep the presentation elementary and exemplify each concept with the simple $\\su(2)_k$ case.

  17. DAKOTA reliability methods applied to RAVEN/RELAP-7.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swiler, Laura Painton; Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID; Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID; Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the result of a NEAMS project focused on the use of reliability methods within the RAVEN and RELAP-7 software framework for assessing failure probabilities as part of probabilistic risk assessment for nuclear power plants. RAVEN is a software tool under development at the Idaho National Laboratory that acts as the control logic driver and post-processing tool for the newly developed Thermal-Hydraulic code RELAP-7. Dakota is a software tool developed at Sandia National Laboratories containing optimization, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty quantification algorithms. Reliability methods are algorithms which transform the uncertainty problem to an optimization problem to solve for the failure probability, given uncertainty on problem inputs and a failure threshold on an output response. The goal of this work is to demonstrate the use of reliability methods in Dakota with RAVEN/RELAP-7. These capabilities are demonstrated on a demonstration of a Station Blackout analysis of a simplified Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR).

  18. Increasing the laser-induced damage threshold of single-crystal ZnGeP{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zawilski, Kevin T.; Setzler, Scott D.; Schunemann, Peter G.; Pollak, Thomas M. [BAE Systems, Advanced Systems and Technology, P.O. Box 868, MER15-1813, Nashua, New Hampshire 03061-0868 (United States)

    2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of single-crystal zinc germanium phosphide (ZGP), ZnGeP{sub 2}, was increased to 2 J/cm{sup 2} at 2.05 {mu}m and a 10 kHz pulse rate frequency (double the previously measured value of 1 J/cm{sup 2}). This increased LIDT was achieved by improving the polishing of ZGP optical parametric oscillator crystals. Two different polishing techniques were evaluated. Surfaces were characterized using scanning white-light interferometry to determine rms surface roughness and sample flatness. The photon backscatter technique was used to determine the degree of surface and subsurface damage in the sample induced through the fabrication process. The effect of subsurface damage in the samples was studied by removing different amounts of material during polishing for otherwise identical samples. Statistical LIDT was measured using a high-average-power, repetitively Q-switched Tm,Ho:YLF 2.05 {mu}m pump laser. On average, lower surface roughness and photon backscatter measurements were a good indicator of ZGP samples exhibiting higher LIDT. The removal of more material during polishing significantly improved the LIDT of otherwise identical samples, indicating the importance of subsurface damage defects in the LIDT of ZGP.

  19. High-energy threshold reaction rates on 0.8 GeV proton-irradiated thick Pb-target

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. E. Titarenko; V. F. Batyaev; A. Yu. Titarenko; M. A. Butko; K. V. Pavlov; R. S. Tikhonov; S. N. Florya; S. G. Mashnik; W. Gudowski

    2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This works presents results of activation-aided determination of threshold reaction rates in 92 209Bi, natPb, 197Au, 181Ta, 169Tm, natIn, 93Nb, 64Zn, 65Cu, 63Cu, 59Co, 19F, and 12C samples and in 121 27Al samples. All the samples were aligned with the proton beam axis inside and outside the demountable 92-cm thick Pb target of 15-cm diameter assembled of 23 4-cm thick discs. The samples were placed on 12 target disks to reproduce the long axis distribution of protons and neutrons. In June 2006, the target was exposed for 18 hours to a 800-MeV proton beam extracted from the ITEP U-10 accelerator. The proton fluence and the proton beam shape were determined using the 27Al(p,x)7Be monitor reaction. The reaction rates were determined by the direct gamma-spectrometry techniques. In total, 1196 gamma-spectra have been measured, and about 1500 reaction rates determined. The measured reaction rates were simulated by the MCNPX code using the following databases: ENDF/B6 for neutrons below 20 MeV, MENDL2 for 20-100 MeV neutrons, and MENDL2P for proton cross sections up to 200 MeV. An acceptable agreement of simulations with experimental data has been found.

  20. A semi-analytic power balance model for low (L) to high (H) mode transition power threshold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, R., E-mail: rsingh129@yahoo.co.in [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar 2382 428 (India); Jhang, Hogun [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kaw, P. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar 2382 428 (India); Diamond, P. H. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0424 (United States); Nordman, H. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gteborg (Sweden); Bourdelle, C. [Euratom-CEA Association, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA Cadarache F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon Sur Verdon, A. 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a semi-analytic model for low (L) to high (H) mode transition power threshold (P{sub th}). Two main assumptions are made in our study. First, high poloidal mode number drift resistive ballooning modes (high-m DRBM) are assumed to be the dominant turbulence driver in a narrow edge region near to last closed flux surface. Second, the pre-transition edge profile and turbulent diffusivity at the narrow edge region pertain to turbulent equipartition. An edge power balance relation is derived by calculating the dissipated power flux through both turbulent conduction and convection, and radiation in the edge region. P{sub th} is obtained by imposing the turbulence quench rule due to sheared E??B rotation. Evaluation of P{sub th} shows a good agreement with experimental results in existing machines. Increase of P{sub th} at low density (i.e., the existence of roll-over density in P{sub th} vs. density) is shown to originate from the longer scale length of the density profile than that of the temperature profile.

  1. SUBJECT: Increase in Equipment Capitalization Threshold to $5,000 As of July 1, 2011 the Florida Board of Governors approved BOG Regulation 9.001, 9.002, 9.003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    resources greater than $250 all have been capitalized. As of July 1, 2011 the threshold is increased from personal property items with a cost of greater $5,000 and library resources with a cost greater than $250SUBJECT: Increase in Equipment Capitalization Threshold to $5,000 As of July 1, 2011 the Florida

  2. FY 2010 Second Quarter Report Evaluation of the Liu-Daum-McGraw (LDM) Drizzle Threshold Parameterization using Measurements from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere Land Study (VOCALS) Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGraw, R; Kleinman, LI; Springston, SR; Daum, PH; Senum, G; Wang, J

    2011-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Metric for Quarter 2: Evaluate LDM (Liu, Daum, McGraw) drizzle threshold parameterization for a range of cloud conditions by comparing the threshold function computed using measurements of cloud droplet number concentration and cloud liquid water content to measurements of drizzle droplet number concentrations and/or drizzle water content.

  3. Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy Health andof Energy EmbrittlementFactEducation »Clean Coal »

  4. Threshold Reflectivity Zc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layered NbS2 andThe1A: HandlingJeffersonThree-year Rolling

  5. Anomalous reduction of the switching voltage of Bi-doped Ge{sub 0.5}Se{sub 0.5} ovonic threshold switching devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Juhee [Electronic Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanomaterials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hyung-Woo [Electronic Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Material Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang-yeol [Electronic Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Aerospace University, Goyang 412-791 (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Byung-ki; Lee, Suyoun, E-mail: slee-eels@kist.re.kr [Electronic Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Switching devices based on Ovonic Threshold Switching (OTS) have been considered as a solution to overcoming limitations of Si-based electronic devices, but the reduction of switching voltage is a major challenge. Here, we investigated the effect of Bi-doping in Ge{sub 0.5}Se{sub 0.5} thin films on their thermal, optical, electrical properties, as well as on the characteristics of OTS devices. As Bi increased, it was found that both of the optical energy gap (E{sub g}{sup opt}) and the depth of trap states decreased resulting in a drastic reduction of the threshold voltage (V{sub th}) by over 50%. In addition, E{sub g}{sup opt} was found to be about three times of the conduction activation energy for each composition. These results are explained in terms of the Mott delocalization effect by doping Bi.

  6. Introduction Conjugate Gradient Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    Introduction Conjugate Gradient Method Deflation Domain Decomposition Research Master Thesis Presentation #12;Introduction Conjugate Gradient Method Deflation Domain Decomposition Research Plaxis Finite Kaliszka Master Thesis Literature Study Presentation #12;Introduction Conjugate Gradient Method Deflation

  7. Systems and methods for initializing a charging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ransom, Ray M.; Perisic, Milun; Kajouke, Lateef A.

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are provided for initiating a charging system. The method, for example, may include, but is not limited to, providing, by the charging system, an incrementally increasing voltage to a battery up to a first predetermined threshold while the energy conversion module has a zero-percent duty cycle, providing, by the charging system, an incrementally increasing voltage to the battery from an initial voltage level of the battery up to a peak voltage of a voltage source while the energy conversion module has a zero-percent duty cycle, and providing, by the charging system, an incrementally increasing voltage to the battery by incrementally increasing the duty cycle of the energy conversion module.

  8. Systems and methods for initializing a charging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ransom, Ray M; Perisic, Milun; Kajouke, Lateef A

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are provided for initiating a charging system. The method, for example, may include, but is not limited to, providing, by the charging system, an incrementally increasing voltage to a battery up to a first predetermined threshold while the energy conversion module has a zero-percent duty cycle, providing, by the charging system, an incrementally increasing voltage to the battery from an initial voltage level of the battery up to a peak voltage of a voltage source while the energy conversion module has a zero-percent duty cycle, and providing, by the charging system, an incrementally increasing voltage to the battery by incrementally increasing the duty cycle of the energy conversion module.

  9. Method for nonlinear optimization for gas tagging and other systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Ting (Chicago, IL); Gross, Kenny C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Wegerich, Stephan (Glendale Heights, IL)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for providing nuclear fuel rods with a configuration of isotopic gas tags. The method includes selecting a true location of a first gas tag node, selecting initial locations for the remaining n-1 nodes using target gas tag compositions, generating a set of random gene pools with L nodes, applying a Hopfield network for computing on energy, or cost, for each of the L gene pools and using selected constraints to establish minimum energy states to identify optimal gas tag nodes with each energy compared to a convergence threshold and then upon identifying the gas tag node continuing this procedure until establishing the next gas tag node until all remaining n nodes have been established.

  10. Method for nonlinear optimization for gas tagging and other systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, T.; Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.

    1998-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system are disclosed for providing nuclear fuel rods with a configuration of isotopic gas tags. The method includes selecting a true location of a first gas tag node, selecting initial locations for the remaining n-1 nodes using target gas tag compositions, generating a set of random gene pools with L nodes, applying a Hopfield network for computing on energy, or cost, for each of the L gene pools and using selected constraints to establish minimum energy states to identify optimal gas tag nodes with each energy compared to a convergence threshold and then upon identifying the gas tag node continuing this procedure until establishing the next gas tag node until all remaining n nodes have been established. 6 figs.

  11. Physics-based, Bayesian sequential detection method and system for radioactive contraband

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Candy, James V; Axelrod, Michael C; Breitfeller, Eric F; Chambers, David H; Guidry, Brian L; Manatt, Douglas R; Meyer, Alan W; Sale, Kenneth E

    2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A distributed sequential method and system for detecting and identifying radioactive contraband from highly uncertain (noisy) low-count, radionuclide measurements, i.e. an event mode sequence (EMS), using a statistical approach based on Bayesian inference and physics-model-based signal processing based on the representation of a radionuclide as a monoenergetic decomposition of monoenergetic sources. For a given photon event of the EMS, the appropriate monoenergy processing channel is determined using a confidence interval condition-based discriminator for the energy amplitude and interarrival time and parameter estimates are used to update a measured probability density function estimate for a target radionuclide. A sequential likelihood ratio test is then used to determine one of two threshold conditions signifying that the EMS is either identified as the target radionuclide or not, and if not, then repeating the process for the next sequential photon event of the EMS until one of the two threshold conditions is satisfied.

  12. Methods for improved forewarning of condition changes in monitoring physical processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hively, Lee M.

    2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention teaches further improvements in methods for forewarning of critical events via phase-space dissimilarity analysis of data from biomedical equipment, mechanical devices, and other physical processes. One improvement involves objective determination of a forewarning threshold (U.sub.FW), together with a failure-onset threshold (U.sub.FAIL) corresponding to a normalized value of a composite measure (C) of dissimilarity; and providing a visual or audible indication to a human observer of failure forewarning and/or failure onset. Another improvement relates to symbolization of the data according the binary numbers representing the slope between adjacent data points. Another improvement relates to adding measures of dissimilarity based on state-to-state dynamical changes of the system. And still another improvement relates to using a Shannon entropy as the measure of condition change in lieu of a connected or unconnected phase space.

  13. Method Of Charging Maintenance-Free Nickel Metal Hydride Storage Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berlureau, Thierry (Bordeaux, FR); Liska, Jean-Louis (Bordeaux, FR)

    1999-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of charging an industrial maintenance-free Ni-MH storage cell, the method comprising in combination a first stage at a constant current I.sub.1 lying in the range I.sub.c /10 to I.sub.c /2, and a second stage at a constant current I.sub.2 lying in the range I.sub.c /50 to I.sub.c /10, the changeover from the first stage to the second stage taking place when the time derivative of the temperature reaches a threshold value which varies as a function of the temperature at the time of the changeover.

  14. We've found an error in our paper. In the threshold signature scheme that we used, there are restrictions on the threshold value. In particular if the key is shared over a degree t polynomial, then 2t+1 players (not t+1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    and will be updating the paper accordingly. Securing Bitcoin wallets via threshold signatures Steven Goldfeder stevenag@cs.princeton.edu Arvind Narayanan arvindn@cs.princeton.edu ABSTRACT The Bitcoin ecosystem has suffered frequent thefts serious. Due to the irre- versibility, automation, and pseudonymity of transactions, Bitcoin currently

  15. Dissociation of internal energy-selected methyl bromide ion revealed from threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence velocity imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Xiaofeng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China) [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Zhou, Xiaoguo, E-mail: xzhou@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: yanbing@jlu.edu.cn; Liu, Shilin [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China) [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Sun, Zhongfa [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)] [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu, Fuyi; Sheng, Liusi [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China)] [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Yan, Bing, E-mail: xzhou@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: yanbing@jlu.edu.cn [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)] [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Dissociative photoionization of methyl bromide (CH{sub 3}Br) in an excitation energy range of 10.4516.90 eV has been investigated by using threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) velocity imaging. The coincident time-of-flight mass spectra indicate that the ground state X{sup 2}E of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +} is stable, and both A{sup 2}A{sub 1} and B{sup 2}E ionic excited states are fully dissociative to produce the unique fragment ion of CH{sub 3}{sup +}. From TPEPICO 3D time-sliced velocity images of CH{sub 3}{sup +} dissociated from specific state-selected CH{sub 3}Br{sup +} ion, kinetic energy release distribution (KERD) and angular distribution of CH{sub 3}{sup +} fragment ion are directly obtained. Both spin-orbit states of Br({sup 2}P) atom can be clearly observed in fast dissociation of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +}(A{sup 2}A{sub 1}) ion along CBr rupture, while a KERD of Maxwell-Boltzmann profile is obtained in dissociation of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +}(B{sup 2}E) ion. With the aid of the re-calculated potential energy curves of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +} including spin-orbit coupling, dissociation mechanisms of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +} ion in A{sup 2}A{sub 1} and B{sup 2}E states along CBr rupture are revealed. For CH{sub 3}Br{sup +}(A{sup 2}A{sub 1}) ion, the CH{sub 3}{sup +} + Br({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) channel is occurred via an adiabatic dissociation by vibration, while the Br({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) formation is through vibronic coupling to the high vibrational level of X{sup 2}E state followed by rapid dissociation. CBr bond breaking of CH{sub 3}Br{sup +}(B{sup 2}E) ion can occur via slow internal conversion to the excited vibrational level of the lower electronic states and then dissociation.

  16. Second moment method for a family of boolean CSP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boufkhad, Yacine

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The estimation of phase transitions in random boolean Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSP) is based on two fundamental tools: the first and second moment methods. While the first moment method on the number of solutions permits to compute upper bounds on any boolean CSP, the second moment method used for computing lower bounds proves to be more tricky and in most cases gives only the trivial lower bound 0. In this paper, we define a subclass of boolean CSP covering the monotone versions of many known NP-Complete boolean CSPs. We give a method for computing non trivial lower bounds for any member of this subclass. This is achieved thanks to an application of the second moment method to some selected solutions called characteristic solutions that depend on the boolean CSP considered. We apply, as an example, this method to establish that the threshold r_{k} of monotone 1-in-k-SAT is \\log k/k\\leq r_{k}\\leq\\log^{2}k/k

  17. Radiochemical method development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, M.D.; Aldstadt, J.H.; Alvarado, J.S.; Crain, J.S.; Orlandini, K.A.; Smith, L.L.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have developed methods for chemical characterization of the environment under a multitask project that focuses on improvement of radioanalytical methods with an emphasis on faster and cheaper routine methods. The authors have developed improved methods for separation of environmental levels of technetium-99, radium, and actinides from soil and water; separation of actinides from soil and water matrix interferences; and isolation of strontium. They are also developing methods for simultaneous detection of multiple isotopes (including nonradionuclides) by using a new instrumental technique, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The new ICP-MS methods have greater sensitivity and efficiency and could replace many radiometric techniques. They are using flow injection analysis to integrate and automate the separation methods with the ICP-MS methodology. The final product of all activities will be methods that are available (published in the U.S. Department of Energy`s analytical methods compendium) and acceptable for use in regulatory situations.

  18. Method for enhanced control of welding processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheaffer, Donald A. (Livermore, CA); Renzi, Ronald F. (Tracy, CA); Tung, David M. (Livermore, CA); Schroder, Kevin (Pleasanton, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and system for producing high quality welds in welding processes, in general, and gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding, in particular by controlling weld penetration. Light emitted from a weld pool is collected from the backside of a workpiece by optical means during welding and transmitted to a digital video camera for further processing, after the emitted light is first passed through a short wavelength pass filter to remove infrared radiation. By filtering out the infrared component of the light emitted from the backside weld pool image, the present invention provides for the accurate determination of the weld pool boundary. Data from the digital camera is fed to an imaging board which focuses on a 100.times.100 pixel portion of the image. The board performs a thresholding operation and provides this information to a digital signal processor to compute the backside weld pool dimensions and area. This information is used by a control system, in a dynamic feedback mode, to automatically adjust appropriate parameters of a welding system, such as the welding current, to control weld penetration and thus, create a uniform weld bead and high quality weld.

  19. Please cite this article in press as: Hart, S.J., Laroque, C.P., Searching for thresholds in climateradial growth rela-tionships of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir, Jasper National Park, Alberta, Canada. Dendrochronologia (2012),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walters, Bradley B.

    in climate­radial growth rela- tionships of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir, Jasper National Park, Alberta for thresholds in climate­radial growth relationships of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir, Jasper National Park

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS METHODS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horvth, kos

    ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS METHODS LABORATORY PRACTICES #12;Foundations of Environmental Science Lecture Enviromental Physics Methods Laboratory Practices #12;Etvs Lornd University Faculty of Science ENVIRONMENTAL tanknyvsorozat" (KMR Foundations of Environmental Science Lecture Series). KEYWORDS: Environmental physics

  1. Method of intrinsic marking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adams, David P; McDonald, Joel Patrick; Jared, Bradley Howell; Hodges, V. Carter; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Blair, Dianna S

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of pulsed laser intrinsic marking can provide a unique identifier to detect tampering or counterfeiting.

  2. Probability of detection models for eddy current NDE methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajesh, S.N.

    1993-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of probability of detection (POD) models for a variety of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods is motivated by a desire to quantify the variability introduced during the process of testing. Sources of variability involved in eddy current methods of NDE include those caused by variations in liftoff, material properties, probe canting angle, scan format, surface roughness and measurement noise. This thesis presents a comprehensive POD model for eddy current NDE. Eddy current methods of nondestructive testing are used widely in industry to inspect a variety of nonferromagnetic and ferromagnetic materials. The development of a comprehensive POD model is therefore of significant importance. The model incorporates several sources of variability characterized by a multivariate Gaussian distribution and employs finite element analysis to predict the signal distribution. The method of mixtures is then used for estimating optimal threshold values. The research demonstrates the use of a finite element model within a probabilistic framework to the spread in the measured signal for eddy current nondestructive methods. Using the signal distributions for various flaw sizes the POD curves for varying defect parameters have been computed. In contrast to experimental POD models, the cost of generating such curves is very low and complex defect shapes can be handled very easily. The results are also operator independent.

  3. Two-Source Double-Slit Interference in Angle-Resolved High-Energy Above-Threshold Ionization Spectra of Diatoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okunishi, M.; Itaya, R.; Shimada, K.; Pruemper, G.; Ueda, K. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Busuladzic, M. [Medical Faculty, Cekalusa 90, University of Sarajevo, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Gazibegovic-Busuladzic, A. [Faculty of Science, Zmaja od Bosne 35, University of Sarajevo, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Milosevic, D. B. [Faculty of Science, Zmaja od Bosne 35, University of Sarajevo, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Strasse 2a, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Becker, W. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Strasse 2a, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    When an electron from a diatomic molecule undergoes tunneling-rescattering ionization, a novel form of destructive interference can be realized that involves all four geometric orbits that are available to the electron when it is freed, because both ionization and rescattering may take place at the same or at different centers. We find experimentally and confirm theoretically that in orientation-averaged angle-resolved high-order above-threshold ionization spectra the corresponding destructive interference is visible for O{sub 2} but not for N{sub 2}. This effect is different from the suppression of ionization that is well known to occur for O{sub 2}.

  4. Observation of a Near-Threshold {omega}J/{psi} Mass Enhancement in Exclusive B{yields}K{omega}J/{psi} Decays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, S.-K. [Gyeongsang National University, Chinju (Korea, Republic of); Olsen, S.L.; Browder, T.E.; Fang, F.; Trabelsi, K.; Varner, G. [University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States); Abe, K.; Adachi, I.; Gershon, T.; Hastings, N.C.; Hazumi, M.; Ishikawa, A.; Iwasaki, Y.; Katayama, N.; Kichimi, H.; Nakao, M.; Nakazawa, H.; Nishida, S.; Sagawa, H.; Sakai, Y. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan)] [and others

    2005-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the observation of a near-threshold enhancement in the {omega}J/{psi} invariant mass distribution for exclusive B{yields}K{omega}J/{psi} decays. The results are obtained from a 253 fb{sup -1} data sample that contains 275x10{sup 6} BB pairs that were collected near the {upsilon}(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. The statistical significance of the {omega}J/{psi} mass enhancement is estimated to be greater than 8{sigma}.

  5. Accelerated molecular dynamics methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, Danny [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The molecular dynamics method, although extremely powerful for materials simulations, is limited to times scales of roughly one microsecond or less. On longer time scales, dynamical evolution typically consists of infrequent events, which are usually activated processes. This course is focused on understanding infrequent-event dynamics, on methods for characterizing infrequent-event mechanisms and rate constants, and on methods for simulating long time scales in infrequent-event systems, emphasizing the recently developed accelerated molecular dynamics methods (hyperdynamics, parallel replica dynamics, and temperature accelerated dynamics). Some familiarity with basic statistical mechanics and molecular dynamics methods will be assumed.

  6. 4 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY, VOL. 8, NO. 1, JANUARY 2009 Threshold Voltage and OnOff Ratio Tuning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    in both inverter fanout-of-4 (FO4) delay (4.7?) and energy per cycle (2.6?) [5]. Multiple-tube CNFETs also enable new methods for tuning the device characteristics previously impossible with single-tube CNFETs performance and reduced power dissipation. Similarly, a poor ION/IOFF can cause slow output transitions

  7. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

    2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  8. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniels, Michael A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Heaps, Ronald J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Steffler, Eric D (Idaho Falls, ID); Swank, William D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  9. Study of digital pulse shape discrimination method for n-? separation of EJ-301 liquid scintillation detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bo Wan; Xueying Zhang; Liang Chen; Honglin Ge; Fei Ma; Hongbin Zhang; Yongqin Ju; Yanbin Zhang; Yanyan Li; Xiaowei Xu

    2015-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A digital pulse shape discrimination system based on a programmable module NI-5772 has been established and tested with EJ-301 liquid scintillation detector. The module was operated by means of running programs developed in LabVIEW with the sampling frequency up to 1.6GS/s. Standard gamma sources 22Na, 137Cs and 60Co were used to calibrate the EJ-301 liquid scintillation detector, and the gamma response function has been obtained. Digital algorithms for charge comparison method and zero-crossing method have been developed. The experimental results showed that both digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms could discriminate neutrons from gamma-rays. Moreover, the zero-crossing method shows better n-{\\gamma} discrimination at 80 keVee and lower, whereas the charge comparison method gives better results at higher thresholds. In addition, the figure-of-merit (FOM) of two different dimension detectors were extracted at 9 energy thresholds, and it was found that the smaller one presented a better n-{\\gamma} separation property for fission neutrons.

  10. Measurement of cross sections of p(e,e'pi^+)n for near pion threshold and high-lying resonances at high Q^2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kijun Park

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the last decade, remarkable experimental data have been collected in an extensive programs to study the excitation of nucleon resonance (N*) at Jefferson Laboratory through pion electroproduction using polarized electron beam and unpolarized proton target. The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) is well suited for the study of a broad range of kinematics in the invariant mass W and photon virtuality Q{sup 2} with nearly complete angular coverage for the hadronic decays. Electron scattering allows us to probe the effective degrees of freedom in excited nucleon states from meson-baryon to dressed quarks in terms of varying the distance scale. The study of nucleon structure allows us to understand these effective degrees of freedom. In this proceeding, I present preliminary cross sections for single pion production in mass range of high-lying resonances as well as near the pion threshold. Analysis of N{pi}{sup +} cross sections together with N{pi}{sup 0} and N {pi}{pi} exclusive electroproduction data, will allow us for the first time to determine electrocouplings of several high-lying excited proton states (W {ge} 1.6 GeV) at photon virtualities that correspond to the transition toward the dominance of quark degrees of freedom. I also present preliminary result on the E{sub 0+} multipole near pion threshold at 2.0 GeV{sup 2} {le} Q{sup 2} {le} 4.5 GeV{sup 2} using exclusive N{pi}{sup +} electroproduction data.

  11. Threshold effects for resistance to optical damage and nonvolatile holographic storage properties in In:Mn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhen Xihe; Li Qiang; Xu Yuheng

    2005-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The threshold concentration for In2O3 was found in In:Mn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals by measurement of the infrared spectra of the crystals. The resistance of the In:Mn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals to optical damage is characterized by changes in photoinduced birefringence as well as by distortion of the transmitted beam pattern. The resistance increases remarkably when the concentration of In2O3 exceeds its threshold. The resistance to optical damage of a In(3.0 mol. %):Mn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystal is 2 orders of magnitude higher that of a Mn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystal. The dependence of defects on the resistance to optical damage of the In:Mn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals is discussed in detail. Nonvolatile holographic storage was achieved for all crystals, and the sensitivity of the In(3.0 mol. %):Mn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystal is much higher than that of the others.

  12. Study of {psi}(2S) decays to {gamma}pp, {pi}{sup 0}pp, and {eta}pp, and search for pp threshold enhancements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Das, S.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Patterson, J. R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Ryd, A.; Sadoff, A. J.; Shi, X.; Sun, W. M. [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Yelton, J. [University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Rubin, P. [George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States)

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The decays of {psi}(2S) into {gamma}pp, {pi}{sup 0}pp, and {eta}pp have been studied with the CLEO-c detector using a sample of 24.5x10{sup 6} {psi}(2S) events obtained from e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilations at {radical}(s)=3686 MeV. The data show evidence for the excitation of several N{sup *} resonances in p{pi}{sup 0} and p{eta} channels in {pi}{sup 0}pp and {eta}pp decays, and f{sub 2} states in {gamma}pp decay. Branching fractions for decays of {psi}(2S) to {gamma}pp, {pi}{sup 0}pp, and {eta}pp have been determined. No evidence for pp threshold enhancements was found in the reactions {psi}(2S){yields}Xpp, where X={gamma}, {pi}{sup 0}, {eta}. We do, however, find confirming evidence for a pp threshold enhancement in J/{psi}{yields}{gamma}pp as previously reported by BES.

  13. On using Extreme Values to detect global stability thresholds in multi-stable systems: The case of transitional plane Couette flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davide Faranda; Valerio Lucarini; Paul Manneville; Jeroen Wouters

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Extreme Value Theory (EVT) is exploited to determine the global stability threshold $R_g$ of plane Couette flow --the flow of a viscous fluid in the space between two parallel plates-- whose laminar or turbulent behavior depends on the Reynolds number R. Even if the existence of a global stability threshold has been detected in simulations and experiments, its numerical value has not been unequivocally defined. $R_g$ is the value such that for $R > R_g$ turbulence is sustained, whereas for $R energy fluctuations. When $R_g$, both the positive and negative extremes are bounded. As the critical Reynolds number is approached from above, the probability of observing a very low minimum increases causing asymmetries in the distributions of maxima and minima. On the other hand, the maxima distribution is unaffected as the fluctuations towards higher values of the perturbation energy remain bounded. This tipping point can be detected by fitting the data to the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution and by identifying $R_g$ as the value of $R$ such that the shape parameter of the GEV for the minima changes sign from negative to positive. The results are supported by the analysis of theoretical models which feature a bistable behavior.

  14. Photoproduction of pi0pi0 and pi0pi+-pairs off the proton from threshold to the second resonance region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Zehr; B. Krusche; P. Aguar; J. Ahrens; J. R. M. Annand; H. J. Arends; R. Beck; V. Bekrenev; B. Boillat; A. Braghieri; D. Branford; W. J. Briscoe; J. Brudvik; S. Cherepnya; R. F. B. Codling; E. J. Downie; P. Drexler; D. I. Glazier; L. V. Fil'kov; R. Gregor; E. Heid; D. Hornidge; I. Jaegle; O. Jahn; V. L. Kashevarov; A. Knezevic; R. Kondratiev; M. Korolija; M. Kotulla; D. Krambrich; A. Kulbardis; M. Lang; V. Lisin; K. Livingston; S. Lugert; I. J. D. MacGregor; D. M. Manley; Y. Maghrbi; M. Martinez; J. C. McGeorge; D. Mekterovic; V. Metag; B. M. K. Nefkens; A. Nikolaev; M. Ostrick; P. Pedroni; F. Pheron; A. Polonski; S. Prakhov; J. W. Price; G. Rosner; M. Rost; T. Rostomyan; S. Schumann; D. Sober; A. Starostin; I. Supek; C. M. Tarbert; A. Thomas; M. Unverzagt; Th. Walcher; D. P. Watts

    2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Precise total cross-sections and invariant-mass distributions have been measured for photoproduction of pion pairs off the proton producing $p\\pi^0\\pi^0$ and $n\\pi^+\\pi^0$ final states from the threshold region up to 800 MeV incident photon energy. Additionally, beam helicity asymmetries have been measured in the second resonance region (550 MeV - 820 MeV). The experiment was performed at the tagged photon beam of the Mainz MAMI accelerator with the Crystal Ball and TAPS detectors combined to give an almost 4$\\pi$ solid-angle electromagnetic calorimeter. The results are much more precise than any previous measurements and confirm the chiral perturbation theory predictions for the threshold behavior of these reactions. In the second resonance region, the invariant-mass distributions of meson-meson and meson-nucleon pairs are in reasonable agreement with model predictions, but none of the models reproduce the asymmetries for the mixed-charge channel.

  15. Method of degrading trinitrotoluene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, R.L.; Vass, A.

    1996-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed of eluting trinitrotoluene (TNT) from soil using a dispersant from bacterial intra-amoebic isolate 1s, ATCC 75229.

  16. Method of degrading trinitrotoluene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN); Vass, Arpad (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of eluting trinitrotoluene (TNT) from soil using a dispersant from bacterial intra-amoebic isolate 1s, ATCC 75229.

  17. Finite Volume Element Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    FVE is closely related to the control volume finite element method ... simple stencils, to apply to a fairly wide range of fluid flow equations, to effectively treat.

  18. Computational Physics and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wang, Shanlin Warsa, James Weijer, Wilbert Wienke, Bruce Wohlbier, John Wollaber, Allan Zerr, (Joe)Robert Capabilities Advanced transport methods for particles and thermal...

  19. Method and apparatus for effecting light-off of a catalytic converter in a hybrid powertrain system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roos, Bryan Nathaniel; Spohn, Brian L

    2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A powertrain system includes a hybrid transmission and an internal combustion engine coupled to an exhaust aftertreatment device. A method for operating the powertrain system includes operating the hybrid transmission to generate tractive torque responsive to an operator torque request with the internal combustion engine in an engine-off state so long as the tractive torque is less than a threshold. The internal combustion engine is operated in an engine-on state at preferred operating conditions to effect light-off of the exhaust aftertreatment device and the hybrid transmission is coincidentally operated to generate tractive torque responsive to the operator torque request when the operator torque request exceeds the threshold. The internal combustion engine is then operated in the engine-on state to generate tractive torque responsive to the operator torque request.

  20. Water treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH); Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

    1991-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  1. Sampling system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Decker, David L; Lyles, Brad F; Purcell, Richard G; Hershey, Ronald Lee

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for supporting a tubing bundle during installation or removal. The apparatus includes a clamp for securing the tubing bundle to an external wireline. The method includes deploying the tubing bundle and wireline together, The tubing bundle is periodically secured to the wireline using a clamp.

  2. Water treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

    1991-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  3. Method of forming nanodielectrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuncer, Enis [Knoxville, TN; Polyzos, Georgios [Oak Ridge, TN

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a nanoparticle filled dielectric material. The method includes mixing nanoparticle precursors with a polymer material and reacting the nanoparticle mixed with the polymer material to form nanoparticles dispersed within the polymer material to form a dielectric composite.

  4. Methods for data classification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garrity, George (Okemos, MI); Lilburn, Timothy G. (Front Royal, VA)

    2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides methods for classifying data and uncovering and correcting annotation errors. In particular, the present invention provides a self-organizing, self-correcting algorithm for use in classifying data. Additionally, the present invention provides a method for classifying biological taxa.

  5. Systems and methods for commutating inductor current using a matrix converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ransom, Ray M; Kajouke, Lateef A; Perisic, Milun

    2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are provided for delivering current using a matrix converter in a vehicle. An electrical system comprises an AC interface, a first conversion module coupled to the AC interface, an inductive element coupled between the AC interface and the first conversion module, and a control module coupled to the first conversion module. The control module is configured to operate the first conversion module in a bidirectional operating mode to commutate current bidirectionally. When a magnitude of the current through the inductive element is greater than a first threshold value, the control module operates the conversion module in a unidirectional operating mode, wherein current is commutated unidirectionally.

  6. Reconstructing the nucleon-nucleon potential by a new coupled-channel inversion method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrey Pupasov; Boris F. Samsonov; Jean-Marc Sparenberg; Daniel Baye

    2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A second-order supersymmetric transformation is presented, for the two-channel Schr\\"odinger equation with equal thresholds. It adds a Breit-Wigner term to the mixing parameter, without modifying the eigenphase shifts, and modifies the potential matrix analytically. The iteration of a few such transformations allows a precise fit of realistic mixing parameters in terms of a Pade expansion of both the scattering matrix and the effective-range function. The method is applied to build an exactly-solvable potential for the neutron-proton $^3S_1$-$^3D_1$ case.

  7. Normalized Tritium Quantification Approach (NoTQA) a Method for Quantifying Tritium Contaminated Trash and Debris at LLNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dominick, J L; Rasmussen, C L

    2008-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Several facilities and many projects at LLNL work exclusively with tritium. These operations have the potential to generate large quantities of Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) with the same or similar radiological characteristics. A standardized documented approach to characterizing these waste materials for disposal as radioactive waste will enhance the ability of the Laboratory to manage them in an efficient and timely manner while ensuring compliance with all applicable regulatory requirements. This standardized characterization approach couples documented process knowledge with analytical verification and is very conservative, overestimating the radioactivity concentration of the waste. The characterization approach documented here is the Normalized Tritium Quantification Approach (NoTQA). This document will serve as a Technical Basis Document which can be referenced in radioactive waste characterization documentation packages such as the Information Gathering Document. In general, radiological characterization of waste consists of both developing an isotopic breakdown (distribution) of radionuclides contaminating the waste and using an appropriate method to quantify the radionuclides in the waste. Characterization approaches require varying degrees of rigor depending upon the radionuclides contaminating the waste and the concentration of the radionuclide contaminants as related to regulatory thresholds. Generally, as activity levels in the waste approach a regulatory or disposal facility threshold the degree of required precision and accuracy, and therefore the level of rigor, increases. In the case of tritium, thresholds of concern for control, contamination, transportation, and waste acceptance are relatively high. Due to the benign nature of tritium and the resulting higher regulatory thresholds, this less rigorous yet conservative characterization approach is appropriate. The scope of this document is to define an appropriate and acceptable characterization method for quantification of tritium contaminated trash and debris. The characterization technique is applicable to surface and subsurface tritium contaminated materials with surfaces amenable to swiping. Some limitations of this characterization technique are identified.

  8. Cleaning method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

    1981-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

  9. Method for inducing hypothermia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Lance B. (Chicago, IL); Hoek, Terry Vanden (Chicago, IL); Kasza, Kenneth E. (Palos Park, IL)

    2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  10. Method for inducing hypothermia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Lance B. (Chicago, IL); Hoek, Terry Vanden (Chicago, IL); Kasza, Kenneth E. (Palos Park, IL)

    2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  11. Catalytic reforming methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  12. Method for inducing hypothermia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.

    2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

  13. Scintillation efficiency measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) below the DAMA/LIBRA energy threshold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jingke; Calaprice, Frank; Westerdale, Shawn; Froborg, Francis; Suerfu, Burkhant; Alexander, Thomas; Aprahamian, Ani; Back, Henning O; Casarella, Clark; Fang, Xiao; Gupta, Yogesh K; Ianni, Aldo; Lamere, Edward; Lippincott, W Hugh; Liu, Qian; Lyons, Stephanie; Siegl, Kevin; Smith, Mallory; Tan, Wanpeng; Kolk, Bryant Vande

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal depends on the NaI(Tl) scintillation efficiency of nuclear recoils. Previous measurements for Na recoils have large discrepancies, especially in the DAMA/LIBRA modulation energy region. We report a quenching effect measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) from 3keV$_{\\text{nr}}$ to 52keV$_{\\text{nr}}$, covering the whole DAMA/LIBRA energy region for light WIMP interpretations. By using a low-energy, pulsed neutron beam, a double time-of-flight technique, and pulse-shape discrimination methods, we obtained the most accurate measurement of this kind for NaI(Tl) to date. The results differ significantly from the DAMA reported values at low energies, but fall between the other previous measurements. We present the implications of the new quenching results for the dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal.

  14. High-order perturbation expansion of non-Hermitian Floquet theory for multiphoton and above-threshold ionization processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, Shih-I

    1999-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    within the interval @ 0,N 21 # . Equation ~34! is valid in general except for the m 50, l5l0 case. In this special case the sum does not include i5 j0: @ G # j l00,j8l005 (i50 i j0 N21 @ f i ,l0 (0) # j@f i ,l0 (0) # j 8 Ei ,l020 (0) . ~35! As one can... Floquet matrix. The motivations of this paper are two- fold. First, we outline a procedure that works for both weak and intermediate laser intensities but does not require the diagonalization of the full Floquet matrix. Second, the method will not only...

  15. Methods for measuring turbine efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Kelly, F.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes the most common methods used for measuring hydro turbine efficiency. These methods are the acoustic flowmeter method, the Gibson (pressure-time) method, pressure drop across a flow restriction, propeller-driven flowmeters, the volumetric method, Winter-Kennedy taps, and the thermodynamic method. A new computerized variation of the Gibson method is also described.

  16. Semiparametric Methods and Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhongjian

    2014-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    theoretical semiparametric methods, we study the dynamic effectiveness of marketing mix variables and the competition among the pioneer and early followers in pharmaceutical industry. With two pharmaceutical categories data, we find dynamic effectiveness...

  17. Bayesian methods in bioinformatics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    - niques for drawing random samples from the posterior for inference. We show that the approach achieves very competitive performance as compared to other methods. The second part focuses on modeling DNA microarray data. Microarray technology enables us...

  18. Stochastic Methods Gabriel Zachmann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behnke, Sven

    1 Stochastic Methods Gabriel Zachmann Universität Bonn Motivation ADB-Trees Stochastic Closest-Trees [Klein & Zachmann, 2003] 2. Stochastic Closest Features Tracking [Raghupathi et al., 2004; Debunne & Guy

  19. Universiteit Antwerpen Research Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nierstrasz, Oscar

    crash, Denver Airport Baggage) Lives are at stake (e.g., automatic pilot, nuclear power plants vs. Performing a Case Study + Proposition + Unit of Analysis + Threats to Validity Research Methods 3

  20. Method for synthesizing boracities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolf, Gary A [Kennewick, WA

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing boracites is disclosed in which a solution of divalent metal acetate, boric acid, and halogen acid is evaporated to dryness and the resulting solid is heated in an inert atmosphere under pressure.

  1. Evidence for a Narrow Near-Threshold Structure in the $J/\\psi\\phi$ Mass Spectrum in $B^+\\to J/\\psi\\phi K^+$ Decays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Adelman, Jahred A.; /Chicago U., EFI; Akimoto, T.; /Tsukuba U.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Amerio, S.; /INFN, Padua; Amidei, Dante E.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Northwestern U.; Annovi, Alberto; /Frascati; Antos, Jaroslav; /Comenius U.; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U. /Waseda U.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evidence is reported for a narrow structure near the J/{psi}{phi} threshold in exclusive B{sup +} {yields} J/{psi}{phi}K{sup +} decays produced in {bar p}p collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. A signal of 14 {+-} 5 events, with statistical significance in excess of 3.8 standard deviations, is observed in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.7 fb{sup -1}, collected by the CDF II detector. The mass and natural width of the structure are measured to be 4143.0 {+-} 2.9(stat) {+-} 1.2(syst) MeV/c{sup 2} and 11.7{sub -5.0}{sup +8.3}(stat) {+-} 3.7(syst) MeV/c{sup 2}.

  2. Optical breakdown threshold in nanosecond high repetition second harmonic generation by periodically poled Mg-doped LiTaO{sub 3} crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louchev, Oleg A.; Wada, Satoshi [Center for Advanced Photonics, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)] [Center for Advanced Photonics, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hatano, Hideki; Kitamura, Kenji [Division of Environment and Energy Materials, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)] [Division of Environment and Energy Materials, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Our study shows that a local temperature increase of ?1 K in the crystal lattice caused by second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon absorption of 532 nm radiation at the rear of periodically poled stoichiometric LiTaO{sub 3} crystal by changing spontaneous polarization induces a pyroelectric field ?10 kV/cm, accelerating free electrons to an energy of ?10 eV, followed by optical breakdown and crystal damage. Theoretical analysis leads to an explicit expression for the threshold laser fluence of optical breakdown giving ?1.2 J/cm{sup 2} for 1064 nm input radiation in 6.8 kHz pulsed SHG operation, agreeing well with the experimentally found value ?1.32 J/cm{sup 2}.

  3. Method of treating depression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henn, Fritz

    2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  4. Method of treating depression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henn, Fritz (East Patchogue, NY)

    2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  5. Pushing schedule derivation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henriquez, B. [Compania Siderurgica Huachipato S.A., Talcahuano (Chile)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a Pushing Schedule Derivation Method has allowed the company to sustain the maximum production rate at CSH`s Coke Oven Battery, in spite of having single set oven machinery with a high failure index as well as a heat top tendency. The stated method provides for scheduled downtime of up to two hours for machinery maintenance purposes, periods of empty ovens for decarbonization and production loss recovery capability, while observing lower limits and uniformity of coking time.

  6. Method of saccharifying cellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric A. (Brookline, MA); Demain, Arnold L. (Wellesley, MA); Madia, Ashwin (Decatur, IL)

    1985-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of a reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.

  7. Method of saccharifying cellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, E.A.; Demain, A.L.; Madia, A.

    1983-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of thiol reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.

  8. Sub-250?nm low-threshold deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based heterostructure laser employing HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} dielectric mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kao, Tsung-Ting; Liu, Yuh-Shiuan; Mahbub Satter, Md.; Li, Xiao-Hang; Lochner, Zachary; Douglas Yoder, P.; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Dupuis, Russell D.; Shen, Shyh-Chiang, E-mail: shyh.shen@ece.gatech.edu; Ryou, Jae-Hyun [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 777 Atlantic Dr. NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0250 (United States)] [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 777 Atlantic Dr. NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0250 (United States); Fischer, Alec M.; Wei, Yong; Xie, Hongen; Ponce, Fernando A. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States)

    2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a sub-250-nm, optically pumped, deep-ultraviolet laser using an Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N-based multi-quantum-well structure grown on a bulk Al-polar c-plane AlN substrate. TE-polarization-dominant lasing action was observed at room temperature with a threshold pumping power density of 250?kW/cm{sup 2}. After employing high-reflectivity SiO{sub 2}/HfO{sub 2} dielectric mirrors on both facets, the threshold pumping power density was further reduced to 180?kW/cm{sup 2}. The internal loss and threshold modal gain can be calculated as 2?cm{sup ?1} and 10.9?cm{sup ?1}, respectively.

  9. Method for characterization of repetitive frequency laser resistance of optical coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Dong; He Hongbo; Zhao Yuanan; Li Dawei; Fan Zhengxiu

    2009-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The characterization of repetitive frequency (S-on-1) laser resistance of optical coatings was investigated experimentally based on damage pattern divided into slight damage and severe damage. It was discovered that, when only the slight damage pattern was counted, a peak would be seen in the damage probability curve, and the laser fluence at this peak was stable as pulse sequence S changed. The stable laser fluence at this peak, therefore, could be employed to characterize the repetitive frequency laser resistance of optical coatings. This method is different from the method proposed by the International Organization for Standardization [ISO 11254-2(2001)] and has the advantage of simplicity in practical applications. According to our analysis, it is a method that can obtain the functional damage threshold of optics.

  10. Relativistic R-matrix close-coupling method based on the effective Hamiltonian in many-body perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vilkas, Marius J.; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki [Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 23346 San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931-3346 (United States)

    2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A relativistic R-matrix close-coupling method is developed and implemented based on effective many-body Hamiltonians for accurate representation of the target and collisional states in multielectron ions. The effective Hamiltonian in relativistic multireference many-body perturbation theory accurately accounts for short-range many-body interactions unaccounted for in the extant nonrelativistic and Breit-Pauli R-matrix methods. The method is successfully applied to the near-threshold electron impact excitation of the 3s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{yields}3s3p {sup 3}P transition in Mg-like argon (Ar{sup 6+}) ion where the observed disagreement between the experimental absolute total cross sections and those predicted by using the Breit-Pauli R-matrix method reveals an inadequacy of the R-matrix methods based on the configuration-interaction representation of the basis states.

  11. Methods of forming steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J. (Iona, ID); Burch, Joseph V. (Shelley, ID)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a steel. A metallic glass is formed and at least a portion of the glass is converted to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A molten alloy is formed and cooled the alloy at a rate which forms a metallic glass. The metallic glass is devitrified to convert the glass to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A first metallic glass steel substrate is provided, and a molten alloy is formed over the first metallic glass steel substrate to heat and devitrify at least some of the underlying metallic glass of the substrate.

  12. Actinide extraction methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D. (Moore, ID) [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID) [Pocatello, ID

    2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.

  13. Method of grid generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnette, Daniel W. (Veguita, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a method of grid generation that uses the geometry of the problem space and the governing relations to generate a grid. The method can generate a grid with minimized discretization errors, and with minimal user interaction. The method of the present invention comprises assigning grid cell locations so that, when the governing relations are discretized using the grid, at least some of the discretization errors are substantially zero. Conventional grid generation is driven by the problem space geometry; grid generation according to the present invention is driven by problem space geometry and by governing relations. The present invention accordingly can provide two significant benefits: more efficient and accurate modeling since discretization errors are minimized, and reduced cost grid generation since less human interaction is required.

  14. Unorthodox theoretical methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nedd, Sean

    2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of the ReaxFF force field to correlate with NMR mobilities of amine catalytic substituents on a mesoporous silica nanosphere surface is considered. The interfacing of the ReaxFF force field within the Surface Integrated Molecular Orbital/Molecular Mechanics (SIMOMM) method, in order to replicate earlier SIMOMM published data and to compare with the ReaxFF data, is discussed. The development of a new correlation consistent Composite Approach (ccCA) is presented, which incorporates the completely renormalized coupled cluster method with singles, doubles and non-iterative triples corrections towards the determination of heats of formations and reaction pathways which contain biradical species.

  15. Biomass treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friend, Julie (Claymont, DE); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, III; Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Lyons, Robert C. (Arvada, CO)

    2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  16. INTRODUCTION CURRENT METHODS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auerbach, Scott M.

    membrane, leaving salt and contaminants behind. Another common method of desalination is vacuum distillation, in which water is separated from salt and other contaminants based on the fact that water and leave behind the brine from the salt water, thereby purifying potable water. Presently, the major

  17. Sampling system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit.

  18. Heart imaging method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, H. Dale (Richland, WA); Gribble, R. Parks (Richland, WA); Busse, Lawrence J. (Littleton, CO)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for providing an image of the human heart's electrical system derives time-of-flight data from an array of EKG electrodes and this data is transformed into phase information. The phase information, treated as a hologram, is reconstructed to provide an image in one or two dimensions of the electrical system of the functioning heart.

  19. Cooling load estimation methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, R.D.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described. Correlations are described that permit auxiliary cooling estimates from monthly average insolation and weather data. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy required of a given building.

  20. The Use of Decision Threshold Adjustment in Classification for Cancer Prediction James J. Chen1, Chen-An Tsai2, Hojin Moon1, Hongshik Ahn3, John J. Young1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahn, Hongshik

    The Use of Decision Threshold Adjustment in Classification for Cancer Prediction James J. Chen1 #12;INTRODUCTION Classification/prediction (machine learning) has been a widely used data mining technique in many areas of research and applications. Class prediction has been used to predict the activity

  1. Study of digital pulse shape discrimination method for n-{\\gamma} separation of EJ-301 liquid scintillation detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, Bo; Chen, Liang; Ge, Honglin; Ma, Fei; Zhang, Hongbin; Ju, Yongqin; Zhang, Yanbin; Li, Yanyan; Xu, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A digital pulse shape discrimination system based on a programmable module NI-5772 has been established and tested with EJ-301 liquid scintillation detector. The module was operated by means of running programs developed in LabVIEW with the sampling frequency up to 1.6GS/s. Standard gamma sources 22Na, 137Cs and 60Co were used to calibrate the EJ-301 liquid scintillation detector, and the gamma response function has been obtained. Digital algorithms for charge comparison method and zero-crossing method have been developed. The experimental results showed that both digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms could discriminate neutrons from gamma-rays. Moreover, the zero-crossing method shows better n-{\\gamma} discrimination at 80 keVee and lower, whereas the charge comparison method gives better results at higher thresholds. In addition, the figure-of-merit (FOM) of two different dimension detectors were extracted at 9 energy thresholds, and it was found that the smaller one presented a better n-{\\gamma} separ...

  2. Cold isopressing method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jack C. (Getzville, NY); Stawisuck, Valerie M. (North Tonawanda, NY); Prasad, Ravi (East Amherst, NY)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cold isopressing method in which two or more layers of material are formed within an isopressing mold. One of the layers consists of a tape-cast film. The layers are isopressed within the isopressing mold, thereby to laminate the layers and to compact the tape-cast film. The isopressing mold can be of cylindrical configuration with the layers being coaxial cylindrical layers. The materials used in forming the layers can contain green ceramic materials and the resultant structure can be fired and sintered as necessary and in accordance with known methods to produce a finished composite, ceramic structure. Further, such green ceramic materials can be of the type that are capable of conducting hydrogen or oxygen ions at high temperature with the object of utilizing the finished composite ceramic structure as a ceramic membrane element.

  3. Ion sensing method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Richard Harding; Martin, Glenn Brian

    2004-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention allows the determination of trace levels of ionic substances in a sample solution (ions, metal ions, and other electrically charged molecules) by coupling a separation method, such as liquid chromatography, with ion selective electrodes (ISE) prepared so as to allow detection at activities below 10.sup.-6 M. The separation method distributes constituent molecules into fractions due to unique chemical and physical properties, such as charge, hydrophobicity, specific binding interactions, or movement in an electrical field. The separated fractions are detected by means of the ISE(s). These ISEs can be used singly or in an array. Accordingly, modifications in the ISEs are used to permit detection of low activities, specifically, below 10.sup.-6 M, by using low activities of the primary analyte (the molecular species which is specifically detected) in the inner filling solution of the ISE. Arrays constructed in various ways allow flow-through sensing for multiple ions.

  4. Die singulation method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swiler, Thomas P [Albuquerque, NM; Garcia, Ernest J [Albuquerque, NM; Francis, Kathryn M [Rio Rancho, NM

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with a HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  5. Die singulation method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swiler, Thomas P.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Francis, Kathryn M.

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with an HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  6. Biological tracer method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strong-Gunderson, J.M.; Palumbo, A.V.

    1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a biological tracer method for characterizing the movement of a material through a medium, comprising the steps of: introducing a biological tracer comprising a microorganism having ice nucleating activity into a medium; collecting at least one sample of the medium from a point removed from the introduction point; and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. The present invention is also a method for using a biological tracer as a label for material identification by introducing a biological tracer having ice nucleating activity into a material, collecting a sample of a portion of the labelled material and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. 2 figs.

  7. Biological tracer method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strong-Gunderson, Janet M. (Ten Mile, TN); Palumbo, Anthony V. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a biological tracer method for characterizing the movement of a material through a medium, comprising the steps of: introducing a biological tracer comprising a microorganism having ice nucleating activity into a medium; collecting at least one sample of the medium from a point removed from the introduction point; and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. The present invention is also a method for using a biological tracer as a label for material identification by introducing a biological tracer having ice nucleating activity into a material, collecting a sample of a portion of the labelled material and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer.

  8. Vapor spill monitoring method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bianchini, Gregory M. (Livermore, CA); McRae, Thomas G. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

  9. Method of casting aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm.sup.3 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of alcogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent.

  10. Method of casting aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poco, J.F.

    1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm[sup 3] to 0.6 g/cm[sup 3]. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of aerogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent. 2 figures.

  11. Method for detecting biomolecules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huo, Qisheng (Albuquerque, NM); Liu, Jun (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for detecting and measuring the concentration of biomolecules in solution, utilizing a conducting electrode in contact with a solution containing target biomolecules, with a film with controllable pore size distribution characteristics applied to at least one surface of the conducting electrode. The film is functionalized with probe molecules that chemically interact with the target biomolecules at the film surface, blocking indicator molecules present in solution from diffusing from the solution to the electrode, thereby changing the electrochemical response of the electrode

  12. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, Shou-heng (Kaohsiung, TW); Liu, Zhao-rong (Beijing, CN); Yan, Naiqiang (Berkeley, CA)

    2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  13. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, Shou-Heng (Kaohsiung, TW); Liu, Zhao-Rong (Beijing, CN); Yan, Naiqiang (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  14. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, Shou-heng (Kaohsiung, TW); Liu, Zhao-rong (Bejing, CN); Yan, Naiqiang (Burkeley, CA)

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  15. Innovative sludge stabilization method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riggenbach, J.D.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sludge is generated in many water and wastewater treatment processes, both biological and physical/chemical. Examples include biological sludges from sanitary and industrial wastewater treatment operations and chemical sludges such as those produced when metals are removed from metal plating wastewater. Even some potable water plants produce sludge, such as when alum is used as a flocculating agent to clarify turbid water. Because sludge is produced from such a variety of operations, different techniques have been developed to remove water from sludges and reduce the sludge volume and mass, thus making the sludge more suitable for recovery or disposal. These techniques include mechanical (e.g., filter presses), solar (sludge drying beds), and thermal. The least expensive of these methods, neglecting land costs, involves sludge drying beds and lagoons. The solar method was widely used in sewage treatment plants for many years, but has fallen in disfavor in the US; mechanical and thermal methods have been preferred. Since environmental remediation often requires managing sludges, this article presents a discussion of a variation of sludge lagoons known as evaporative sludge stabilization. Application of this process to the closure of two 2.5 acre (10117 m{sup 2}) hazardous waste surface impoundments will be discussed. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  16. High-resolution total-cross-section measurements for electron scattering from Ar, Kr, and Xe employing a threshold-photoelectron source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurokawa, M.; Kitajima, M.; Toyoshima, K.; Kishino, T.; Odagiri, T. [Department of Chemistry, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Kato, H.; Hoshino, M.; Tanaka, H. [Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Ito, K. [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Absolute total cross sections for electron scattering from Ar and Xe at electron energies ranging from 7 meV to 20 eV were obtained with the experimental technique employing the threshold-photoelectron source. The measured total cross sections are in good agreement with those obtained by other groups down to 100 meV, above which several experimental works have been reported. Scattering lengths for electron scattering from Ar, Kr, and Xe were determined from the present total cross sections and our recent results for Kr using the modified effective range theory. The values of the scattering length obtained in the present analysis differ from the values determined from the previous swarm experiments and beam experiments. The resonant structures in the total cross sections due to Feshbach resonances of Ar, Kr, and Xe with an improved energy resolution were also measured. Analyses of the resonant structure were carried out based on the spin-dependent resonant scattering theory in order to determine the values of the natural width of Feshbach resonances of Ar, Kr, and Xe precisely.

  17. Current-induced electrical self-oscillations across out-of-plane threshold switches based on VO{sub 2} layers integrated in crossbars geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaumont, A.; Leroy, J.; Crunteanu, A., E-mail: aurelian.crunteanu@xlim.fr [XLIM Research Institute UMR 7252, CNRS/University of Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges (France); Orlianges, J.-C. [SPCTS UMR 7513, CNRS/University of Limoges, 12 rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges (France)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrically activated metal-insulator transition (MIT) in vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) is widely studied from both fundamental and practical points of view. It can give valuable insights on the currently controversial phase transition mechanism in this material and, at the same time, allows the development of original MIT-based electronic devices. Electrically triggered insulator-metal transitions are demonstrated in novel out-of-plane, metal-oxide-metal type devices integrating a VO{sub 2} thin film, upon applying moderate threshold voltages. It is shown that the current-voltage characteristics of such devices present clear negative differential resistance effects supporting the onset of continuous, current-driven phase oscillations across the vanadium dioxide material. The frequencies of these self-sustained oscillations are ranging from 90 to 300?kHz and they may be tuned by adjusting the injected current. A phenomenological model of the device and its command circuit is developed, and allows to extract the analytical expressions of the oscillation frequencies and to simulate the electrical oscillatory phenomena developed across the VO{sub 2} material. Such out-of-plane devices may further contribute to the general understanding of the driving mechanism in metal-insulator transition materials and devices, a prerequisite to promising applications in high speed/high frequency networks of oscillatory or resistive memories circuits.

  18. Investigation of the sulfur and lithium to sulfur ratio threshold in stress corrosion cracking of sensitized alloy 600 in borated thiosulfate solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandy, R.; Kelly, K.

    1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The stress corrosion cracking of sensitized Alloy 600 was investigated in aerated solutions of sodium thiosulfate generally containing 1.3% boric acid. The aim of the investigation, among others, was to determine the existence, if any, of a threshold level of sulfur, and lithium to sulfur ratio governing the SCC. Specimens were first solution annealed at 1135/sup 0/C for 45 minutes, water quenched, and then sensitized at 621/sup 0/C for 18 hours. Reverse U-bends were tested at room temperature, whereas slow strain rate and constant load tests were performed at 80/sup 0/C. All tests were performed in solutions open to the atmosphere. The results indicate that in the borated thiosulfate solution containing 7 ppM sulfur, 5 ppM lithium as lithium hydroxide is sufficient to inhibit SCC in U-bends. The occurrence of inhibition seems to correlate to the rapid increase of pH and conductivity of the solution as a result of the lithium hydroxide addition. In the slow strain rate tests in the borated solution containing 0.7 ppM lithium as lithium hydroxide, significant stress corrosion cracking is observed at a sulfur level of 30 ppb, i.e., a lithium to sulfur ratio of 23. In a parallel test in 30 ppb sulfur level but without any lithium hydroxide, the stress corrosion cracking is more severe than that in the lithiated environment, thus implying that lithium hydroxide plays some role in the stress corrosion cracking inhibition.

  19. Strong-field approximation for ionization of a diatomic molecule by a strong laser field. III. High-order above-threshold ionization by an elliptically polarized field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busuladzic, M. [Medical Faculty, University of Sarajevo, Cekalusa 90, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Gazibegovic-Busuladzic, A. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Milosevic, D. B. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Strasse 2a, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate high-order above-threshold ionization (HATI) of diatomic molecules having different symmetries by an elliptically polarized laser field using the modified molecular strong-field approximation. The yields of high-energy electrons contributing to the plateau region of the photoelectron spectra strongly depend on the employed ellipticity. This is more pronounced if the major axis of the polarization ellipse is parallel or perpendicular to the molecular axis and at the end of the high-energy plateau. For the O{sub 2} molecule (characterized by {pi}{sub g} symmetry) the maximum yield is observed for some value of the ellipticity {epsilon} different from zero. On the other hand, in the same circumstances, the N{sub 2} molecule ({sigma}{sub g}) behaves as an atom, i.e., the yield is maximum for {epsilon}=0. These characteristics of the photoelectron spectra remain valid in a wide region of the molecular orientations and laser peak intensities. The symmetry properties of the molecular HATI spectra are considered in detail: by changing the molecular orientation one or other type of the symmetry emerges or disappears. Presenting differential ionization spectra in the ionized electron energy-emission angle plane we have observed similar interference effects as in the HATI spectra governed by a linearly polarized field.

  20. Multiphoton above-threshold detachment of Li-: Exterior-complex-scaling generalized-pseudospectral method for calculations of complex-quasienergy resonances in Floquet formulation of time-dependent density-functional theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, Shih-I

    2002-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    -independent non-Hermitian Floquet matrix eigen- value problem @1922#. Such a TDDFT-Floquet formalism provides a general time-independent approach for nonpertur- bative treatment of multiphoton processes of many-electron quantum systems in periodic, quasiperiodic... state for the eigen- value problem. Accordingly, there is no concept of the initial state in the Floquet formulation of TDDFT. The Floquet states are the eigenstates of the Hermitian operator H in the extended Hilbert space S. In this respect, Floquet...

  1. Hydraulic mining method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, Lester H. (Kent, WA); Knoke, Gerald S. (Kent, WA)

    1985-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

  2. Method for welding beryllium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dixon, Raymond D. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, Frank M. (Espanola, NM); O'Leary, Richard F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon.

  3. Brush Management Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welch, Tommy G.

    2000-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    such junipers and deposition as oaks mesquite on sand- clay loams Grazon ET, Controls most species 5+ May temporarily in- Crossbow, except junipers and jure grasses in imme- Diesel lime pricklyash diate area of woody (basal bark plant, depending on application... vegetation caused by disking make the method most applicable to deep soils that can be seeded. Chaining Chaining is used to knock down and thin moderate to thick stands of brush (Figure 9). Chaining alone gives only temporary control. It is most effective...

  4. Method of joining ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henager, Jr., Charles H. (Kennewick, WA); Brimhall, John L. (West Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the method of the present invention, joining a first bi-element carbide to a second bi-element carbide, has the steps of: (a) forming a bond agent containing a metal carbide and silicon; (b) placing the bond agent between the first and second bi-element carbides to form a pre-assembly; and (c) pressing and heating the pre-assembly in a non-oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature effective to induce a displacement reaction creating a metal silicon phase bonding the first and second bi-element carbides.

  5. Method for resonant measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, George W. (5201 Rio Grande Blvd., N.W., Albuquerque, NM 87107); Migliori, Albert (Rte. 4, Box 258 Tano Rd., Sante Fe, NM 87501); Dixon, Raymond D. (396 Connie Ave., White Rock, NM 87544)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of measurement of objects to determine object flaws, Poisson's ratio (.sigma.) and shear modulus (.mu.) is shown and described. First, the frequency for expected degenerate responses is determined for one or more input frequencies and then splitting of degenerate resonant modes are observed to identify the presence of flaws in the object. Poisson's ratio and the shear modulus can be determined by identification of resonances dependent only on the shear modulus, and then using that shear modulus to find Poisson's ratio using other modes dependent on both the shear modulus and Poisson's ratio.

  6. Method of drying articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: a. Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and b. contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores.

  7. Method of drying articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, M.A.; Kiggans, J.O. Jr.

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of drying a green particulate article includes the steps of: (a) Providing a green article which includes a particulate material and a pore phase material, the pore phase material including a solvent; and (b) contacting the green article with a liquid desiccant for a period of time sufficient to remove at least a portion of the solvent from the green article, the pore phase material acting as a semipermeable barrier to allow the solvent to be sorbed into the liquid desiccant, the pore phase material substantially preventing the liquid desiccant from entering the pores. 3 figs.

  8. Construction Material And Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S. (Orland Park, IL); Antink, Allison L. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic. The ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.

  9. Methods of making monolayers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alford, Kentin L. (Pasco, WA); Simmons, Kevin L. (Kennewick, WA); Samuels, William D. (Richland, WA); Zemanian, Thomas S. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (Albuquerque, NM); Shin, Yongsoon (Richland, WA); Fryxell, Glen E. (Kennewick, WA)

    2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention pertains to methods of forming monolayers on various surfaces. The surfaces can be selected from a wide array of materials, including, for example, aluminum dioxide, silicon dioxide, carbon and SiC. The substrates can be planar or porous. The monolayer is formed under enhanced pressure conditions. The monolayer contains functionalized molecules, and accordingly functionalizes a surface of the substrate. The properties of the functionalized substrate can enhance the substrate's applicability for numerous purposes including, for example, utilization in extracting contaminants, or incorporation into a polymeric matrix.

  10. Method for producing hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preston, J.L.

    1980-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In a method for producing high quality hydrogen, the carbon monoxide level of a hydrogen stream which also contains hydrogen sulfide is shifted in a bed of iron oxide shift catalyst to a desired low level of carbon monoxide using less catalyst than the minimum amount of catalyst which would otherwise be required if there were no hydrogen sulfide in the gas stream. Under normal operating conditions the presence of even relatively small amounts of hydrogen sulfide can double the activity of the catalyst such that much less catalyst may be used to do the same job.

  11. Control system design method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, David G. (Tijeras, NM); Robinett, III, Rush D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  12. Computational Physics and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New SubstationCleanCommunity2 Computational Physics and Methods Performing innovative

  13. Threshold values of autoresonant pumping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. M. Kiselev

    2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    There exists stable growing solution of primary resonant equation for a autoresonant pumping with decreasing amplitude. The primary term of asymptotics is $O(\\sqrt{t})$ and does not depend on order of the force from some interval. We point to the interval for the amplitude of the pumping for which the growing stable solution exists.

  14. Sommerfeld radiation condition at threshold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erik Skibsted

    2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We prove Besov space bounds of the resolvent at low energies in any dimension for a class of potentials that are negative and obey a virial condition with these conditions imposed at infinity only. We do not require spherical symmetry. The class of potentials includes in dimension $\\geq3$ the attractive Coulomb potential. There are two boundary values of the resolvent at zero energy which we characterize by radiation conditions. These radiation conditions are zero energy versions of the well-known Sommerfeld radiation condition.

  15. STEPLENGTH THRESHOLDS FOR INVARIANCE PRESERVING ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Note that equations (1) and (2) can be treated as autonomous systems or as controlled systems. ...... development of hybrid and electric vehicles. The TAMOP

  16. Making Diagnostic Thresholds Less Arbitrary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unger, Alexis Ariana

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    UNGER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Steve Balsis Committee Members, Aaron Taylor Rick.... Steve Balsis, and my committee members, Dr. Aaron Taylor, and Dr. Rick Peterson, for their guidance and support throughout the course of this research. In addition, I would like to lend my thanks to my friends and colleagues, as well...

  17. Novel method for hit-position reconstruction using voltage signals in plastic scintillators and its application to Positron Emission Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Raczynski; P. Moskal; P. Kowalski; W. Wislicki; T. Bednarski; P. Bialas; E. Czerwinski; L . Kaplon; A. Kochanowski; G. Korcyl; J. Kowal; T. Kozik; W. Krzemien; E. Kubicz; M. Molenda; I. Moskal; Sz. Niedzwiecki; M. Palka; M. Pawlik-Niedzwiecka; Z. Rudy; P. Salabura; N. G. Sharma; M. Silarski; A. Slomski; J. Smyrski; A. Strzelecki; A. Wieczorek; M. Zielinski; N. Zon

    2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently inorganic scintillator detectors are used in all commercial Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomograph (TOF-PET) devices. The J-PET collaboration investigates a possibility of construction of a PET scanner from plastic scintillators which would allow for single bed imaging of the whole human body. This paper describes a novel method of hit-position reconstruction based on sampled signals and an example of an application of the method for a single module with a 30 cm long plastic strip, read out on both ends by Hamamatsu R4998 photomultipliers. The sampling scheme to generate a vector with samples of a PET event waveform with respect to four user-defined amplitudes is introduced. The experimental setup provides irradiation of a chosen position in the plastic scintillator strip with an annihilation gamma quanta of energy 511~keV. The statistical test for a multivariate normal (MVN) distribution of measured vectors at a given position is developed, and it is shown that signals sampled at four thresholds in a voltage domain are approximately normally distributed variables. With the presented method of a vector analysis made out of waveform samples acquired with four thresholds, we obtain a spatial resolution of about 1 cm and a timing resolution of about 80 ps

  18. Method for forming materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tolle, Charles R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Clark, Denis E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smartt, Herschel B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Miller, Karen S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2009-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A material-forming tool and a method for forming a material are described including a shank portion; a shoulder portion that releasably engages the shank portion; a pin that releasably engages the shoulder portion, wherein the pin defines a passageway; and a source of a material coupled in material flowing relation relative to the pin and wherein the material-forming tool is utilized in methodology that includes providing a first material; providing a second material, and placing the second material into contact with the first material; and locally plastically deforming the first material with the material-forming tool so as mix the first material and second material together to form a resulting material having characteristics different from the respective first and second materials.

  19. Tensiometer methods and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grover, Blair K.; Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.; Casper, William L.

    2004-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for collecting data regarding a matric potential of a media includes providing a tensiometer having a stainless steel tensiometer casing, the stainless steel tensiometer casing comprising a tip portion which includes a wetted porous stainless steel membrane through which a matric potential of a media is sensed; driving the tensiometer into the media using an insertion tube comprising a plurality of probe casing which are selectively coupled to form the insertion tube as the tensiometer is progressively driven deeper into the media, wherein the wetted porous stainless steel membrane is in contact with the media; and sensing the matric potential the media exerts on the wetted porous stainless steel membrane by a pressure sensor in fluid hydraulic connection with the porous stainless steel membrane. A tensiometer includes a stainless steel casing.

  20. Freeze drying method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

  1. Error detection method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Eric J.

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus, program product, and method that run an algorithm on a hardware based processor, generate a hardware error as a result of running the algorithm, generate an algorithm output for the algorithm, compare the algorithm output to another output for the algorithm, and detect the hardware error from the comparison. The algorithm is designed to cause the hardware based processor to heat to a degree that increases the likelihood of hardware errors to manifest, and the hardware error is observable in the algorithm output. As such, electronic components may be sufficiently heated and/or sufficiently stressed to create better conditions for generating hardware errors, and the output of the algorithm may be compared at the end of the run to detect a hardware error that occurred anywhere during the run that may otherwise not be detected by traditional methodologies (e.g., due to cooling, insufficient heat and/or stress, etc.).

  2. Method for welding beryllium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dixon, R.D.; Smith, F.M.; O`Leary, R.F.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for joining beryllium pieces which comprises: depositing aluminum alloy on at least one beryllium surface; contacting that beryllium surface with at least one other beryllium surface; and welding the aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces together. The aluminum alloy may be deposited on the beryllium using gas metal arc welding. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be subjected to elevated temperatures and pressures to reduce porosity before welding the pieces together. The aluminum alloy coated beryllium surfaces may be machined into a desired welding joint configuration before welding. The beryllium may be an alloy of beryllium or a beryllium compound. The aluminum alloy may comprise aluminum and silicon. 9 figs.

  3. Hydroforming device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guza, David E. (Powell, OH)

    2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus (10, 110) and method to form a workpiece (32, 132) into a useful product (28, 128) using a pressurized fluid (14), also termed as "hydroforming". The workpiece may be a tube or may be one or a plurality of sheets of a material. The apparatus has a chamber (12) adapted to contain a quantity of a fluid, a hydroforming means positioned within the chamber, and means for substantially immersing the workpiece in the fluid before, during and after the hydroforming operation. Dies (16, 18) enclose the workpiece and provide a cavity of desired shape against which the workpiece is expanded by the pressurized fluid. The chamber may be open or closed to the atmosphere during operation and the fluid temperature and/or level may be controlled.

  4. Thermal Recovery Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, P.D.; Moss, J.T.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal Recovery Methods describes the basic concepts of thermal recovery and explains the injection patterns used to exploit reservoir conditions. Basic reservoir engineering is reviewed with an emphasis on changes in flow characteristics caused by temperature. The authors discuss an energy balance for steam and combustion drive, and they explain in situ reactions. Heat loss, combustion drive, and steam displacement also are examined in detail, as well as cyclic steam injection, downhole ignition, well heating, and low-temperature oxidation. Contents: Thermal processes; Formation and reservoir evaluations; Well patterns and spacing; Flow and process equations; Laboratory simulation of thermal recovery; Heat loss and transmission; Displacement and production; Equipment; Basic data for field selection; Laboratory evaluation of combustion characteristics; Thermal properties of reservoirs and fluids.

  5. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, Richard L. (Canoga Park, CA); McKenzie, Donald E. (Woodland Hills, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.

  6. Floating Silicon Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kellerman, Peter

    2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Floating Silicon Method (FSM) project at Applied Materials (formerly Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates), has been funded, in part, by the DOE under a Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross Cutting Technologies grant (number DE-EE0000595) for the past four years. The original intent of the project was to develop the FSM process from concept to a commercially viable tool. This new manufacturing equipment would support the photovoltaic industry in following ways: eliminate kerf losses and the consumable costs associated with wafer sawing, allow optimal photovoltaic efficiency by producing high-quality silicon sheets, reduce the cost of assembling photovoltaic modules by creating large-area silicon cells which are free of micro-cracks, and would be a drop-in replacement in existing high efficiency cell production process thereby allowing rapid fan-out into the industry.

  7. Catalysts and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Charles E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Noceti, Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved catlayst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal chloride and of a rare earth chloride. On contact of the catalyst with a gas flow of methane, HC1 and oxygen, more than 60% of the methane is converted and of that converted more than 40% occurs as monochloromethane. Advantageously, the monochloromethane can be used to produce gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons with the recycle of HCl for further reaction. This catalyst is also of value for the production of formic acid as are analogous catalysts with lead, silver or nickel chlorides substituted for the cobalt chloride.

  8. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silva, L.J.; Bray, L.A.

    1995-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: (a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; (b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; (c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and (d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications. 3 figs.

  9. Method of bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saller, deceased, Henry A. (late of Columbus, OH); Hodge, Edwin S. (Columbus, OH); Paprocki, Stanley J. (Columbus, OH); Dayton, Russell W. (Columbus, OH)

    1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1. A method of making a fuel-containing structure for nuclear reactors, comprising providing an assembly comprising a plurality of fuel units; each fuel unit consisting of a core plate containing thermal-neutron-fissionable material, sheets of cladding metal on its bottom and top surfaces, said cladding sheets being of greater width and length than said core plates whereby recesses are formed at the ends and sides of said core plate, and end pieces and first side pieces of cladding metal of the same thickness as the core plate positioned in said recesses, the assembly further comprising a plurality of second side pieces of cladding metal engaging the cladding sheets so as to space the fuel units from one another, and a plurality of filler plates of an acid-dissolvable nonresilient material whose melting point is above 2000.degree. F., each filler plate being arranged between a pair of said second side pieces and the cladding plates of two adjacent fuel units, the filler plates having the same thickness as the second side pieces; the method further comprising enclosing the entire assembly in an envelope; evacuating the interior of the entire assembly through said envelope; applying inert gas under a pressure of about 10,000 psi to the outside of said envelope while at the same time heating the assembly to a temperature above the flow point of the cladding metal but below the melting point of any material of the assembly, whereby the envelope is pressed against the assembly and integral bonds are formed between plates, sheets, first side pieces, and end pieces and between the sheets and the second side pieces; slowly cooling the assembly to room temperature; removing the envelope; and dissolving the filler plates without attacking the cladding metal.

  10. Investigation of a pulsed current annealing method in reusing MOSFET dosimeters for in vivo IMRT dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Guang-Wen; Qi, Zhen-Yu, E-mail: qizhy@sysucc.org.cn; Deng, Xiao-Wu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center and State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Collaborative Innovation Center of Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou 510060 (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center and State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Collaborative Innovation Center of Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou 510060 (China); Rosenfeld, Anatoly [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)] [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To explore the feasibility of pulsed current annealing in reusing metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters forin vivo intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dosimetry. Methods: Several MOSFETs were irradiated atd{sub max} using a 6 MV x-ray beam with 5 V on the gate and annealed with zero bias at room temperature. The percentage recovery of threshold voltage shift during multiple irradiation-annealing cycles was evaluated. Key dosimetry characteristics of the annealed MOSFET such as the dosimeter's sensitivity, reproducibility, dose linearity, and linearity of response within the dynamic range were investigated. The initial results of using the annealed MOSFETs for IMRT dosimetry practice were also presented. Results: More than 95% of threshold voltage shift can be recovered after 24-pulse current continuous annealing in 16 min. The mean sensitivity degradation was found to be 1.28%, ranging from 1.17% to 1.52%, during multiple annealing procedures. Other important characteristics of the annealed MOSFET remained nearly consistent before and after annealing. Our results showed there was no statistically significant difference between the annealed MOSFETs and their control samples in absolute dose measurements for IMRT QA (p = 0.99). The MOSFET measurements agreed with the ion chamber results on an average of 0.16% 0.64%. Conclusions: Pulsed current annealing provides a practical option for reusing MOSFETs to extend their operational lifetime. The current annealing circuit can be integrated into the reader, making the annealing procedure fully automatic.

  11. Enforcing positivity in intrusive PC-UQ methods for reactive ODE systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najm, Habib N. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Valorani, Mauro [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Dept., Sapienza University of Rome, Rome (Italy)

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the relation between the development of a non-negligible probability of negative states and the instability of numerical integration of the intrusive Galerkin ordinary differential equation system describing uncertain chemical ignition. To prevent this instability without resorting to either multi-element local polynomial chaos (PC) methods or increasing the order of the PC representation in time, we propose a procedure aimed at modifying the amplitude of the PC modes to bring the probability of negative state values below a user-defined threshold. This modification can be effectively described as a filtering procedure of the spectral PC coefficients, which is applied on-the-fly during the numerical integration when the current value of the probability of negative states exceeds the prescribed threshold. We demonstrate the filtering procedure using a simple model of an ignition process in a batch reactor. This is carried out by comparing different observables and error measures as obtained by non-intrusive Monte Carlo and Gauss-quadrature integration and the filtered intrusive procedure. The filtering procedure has been shown to effectively stabilize divergent intrusive solutions, and also to improve the accuracy of stable intrusive solutions which are close to the stability limits.

  12. New 34Cl proton-threshold states and the thermonuclear 33S(p,gamma)34Cl rate in ONe novae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Parikh; T. Faestermann; R. Hertenberger; R. Kruecken; D. Schafstadler; H. -F. Wirth; T. Behrens; V. Bildstein; S. Bishop; K. Eppinger; C. Herlitzius; C. Hinke; M. Schlarb; D. Seiler; K. Wimmer

    2009-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of presolar grains in primitive meteorites has shown isotopic ratios largely characteristic of the conditions thought to prevail in various astrophysical environments. A possible indicator for a grain of ONe nova origin is a large 33S abundance: nucleosynthesis calculations predict as much as 150 times the solar abundance of 33S in the ejecta of nova explosions on massive ONe white dwarfs. This overproduction factor may, however, vary by factors of at least 0.01 - 3 because of uncertainties of several orders of magnitude in the 33S(p,gamma)34Cl reaction rate at nova peak temperatures (Tpeak ~ 0.1 - 0.4 GK). These uncertainties arise due to the lack of nuclear physics information for states within ~ 600 keV of the 33S+p threshold in 34Cl (Sp(34Cl) = 5143 keV). To better constrain this rate we have measured, for the first time, the 34S(3He,t)34Cl reaction over the region Ex(34Cl) = 4.9 - 6 MeV. We confirm previous states and find 15 new states in this energy region. New 33S(p,gamma)34Cl resonances at ER = 281(2), 301(2) and 342(2) keV may dominate this rate at relevant nova temperatures. Our results could affect predictions of sulphur isotopic ratios in nova ejecta (e.g., 32S/33S) that may be used as diagnostic tools for the nova paternity of grains.

  13. Threshold of trichloroethylene contamination in maternal drinking waters affecting fetal heart development in the rat. Environ Health Perspect 111(3):289?292

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paula D. Johnson; Stanley J. Goldberg; Mary Z. Mays; Brenda V. Dawson

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Halogenated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (TCE) are among the most common water supply contaminants in the United States and abroad. Epidemiologic studies have found an association but not a cause-and-effect relation between halogenated hydrocarbon contamination and increased incidence of congenital cardiac malformations or other defective birth outcomes. Avian and rat studies demonstrated statistically significant increases in the number of congenital cardiac malformations in those treated with high doses of TCE, either via intrauterine pump or in maternal drinking water, compared with controls. This study attempts to determine if there is a threshold dose exposure to TCE above which the developing heart is more likely to be affected. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly placed in test groups and exposed to various concentrations of TCE (2.5 ppb, 250 ppb, 1.5 ppm, 1,100 ppm) in drinking water or distilled water (control group) throughout pregnancy. The percentage of abnormal hearts in the treated groups ranged from 0 to 10.48%, with controls having 2.1 % abnormal hearts, and the number of litters with fetuses with abnormal hearts ranged from 0 to 66.7%, and the control percentage was 16.4%. The data from this study indicate not only that there is a statistically significant probability overall of a dose response to increasing levels of TCE exposure, but also that this trend begins to manifest at relatively low levels of exposure (i.e., < 250 ppb). Maternal rats exposed to more than this level of TCE during pregnancy showed an associated increased incidence of cardiac malformations in their developing rat fetuses. Key words: cardiac malformations, cardiac teratogenicity, environmental contaminants, halogenated hydrocarbon, heart defects, heart development, TCE, trichloroethylene. Environ Health Perspect 111:289292 (2003). doi:10.1289/ehp.5125 available via

  14. Variable metric conjugate gradient methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, T.; Manteuffel, T.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 Motivation. In this paper we present a framework that includes many well known iterative methods for the solution of nonsymmetric linear systems of equations, Ax = b. Section 2 begins with a brief review of the conjugate gradient method. Next, we describe a broader class of methods, known as projection methods, to which the conjugate gradient (CG) method and most conjugate gradient-like methods belong. The concept of a method having either a fixed or a variable metric is introduced. Methods that have a metric are referred to as either fixed or variable metric methods. Some relationships between projection methods and fixed (variable) metric methods are discussed. The main emphasis of the remainder of this paper is on variable metric methods. In Section 3 we show how the biconjugate gradient (BCG), and the quasi-minimal residual (QMR) methods fit into this framework as variable metric methods. By modifying the underlying Lanczos biorthogonalization process used in the implementation of BCG and QMR, we obtain other variable metric methods. These, we refer to as generalizations of BCG and QMR.

  15. Prediction method of basic domain structure in Fe3%Si(110) single crystal with grooved surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwata, K., E-mail: iwata.24h.keiji@jp.nssmc.com [Advanced Technology Research Laboratories, Nippon Steel and Sumitomo Metal Corporation, Futtsu, Chiba 293-8511 (Japan); Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Fujikura, M. [Yawata R and D Laboratories, Nippon Steel and Sumitomo Metal Corporation, Tobata, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8501 (Japan); Arai, S. [Steel Research Laboratories, Nippon Steel and Sumitomo Metal Corporation, Futtsu, Chiba 293-8511 (Japan); Ishiyama, K. [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper proposes the method to accurately predict the 180 basic domain width (D{sub w}) in demagnetized states of the grooved Fe3%Si(110) single crystal with the tilt angle of [001] out of the sheet surface (?). The evaluation of D{sub w} enables the estimation of the anomalous eddy current losses. In this paper, D{sub w} is optimized to minimize the magnetic Gibbs free energy represented by vector potentials using the finite element method and the conjugate gradient method. The ?*-method is adopted to approximate the magnetization relaxation. The stray field energy generated by the magnetic charges occurring on both grooves cross section and sheet surfaces is considered in our proposed method. The validity of the proposed method was confirmed by comparison with the observed D{sub w}. As a result, we could reveal the ? dependence of D{sub w} against the groove depth. Moreover, the theoretical threshold of the domain refinement due to the grooves has been suggested.

  16. Resistive switching and threshold switching behaviors in La{sub 0.1}Bi{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}O{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, S. Y.; Qiu, Xue; Feng, Yu; Hou, X. G.; Yu, D. S.; Li, D. J. [College of Physics and Electronic Information Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074 (China); Liu, W. F. [Tianjin Key laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, Faculty of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Gao, J. [Department of Physics, the University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of cobalt doping on the electrical conductivity of La{sub 0.1}Bi{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}O{sub 3} (LBFCO, x = 0, 0.01, 0.03) ceramics were investigated. It is found that the leakage current increases with cobalt dopant concentration in LBFCO. On the application of bias voltage LBFCO ceramics with cobalt doping exhibits resistive switching effects at room temperature and threshold switching effects at elevated temperatures (50 Degree-Sign C and 80 Degree-Sign C). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of LBFCO ceramics show that cobalt dopant is bivalent as an acceptor, which induces an enhancement of oxygen vacancy concentration in LBFCO ceramics. Possible mechanisms for both resistive switching and threshold switching effects are discussed on the basis of the interplay of bound ferroelectric charges and mobile charged defects.

  17. Generalized Multicoincidence Analysis Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Glen A.; Smith, Leon E.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Ellis, J. E.; Valsan, Andrei B.; Mengesha, Wondwosen

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to conduct automated trace radionuclide analysis at or near the sample collection point would provide a valuable tool for emergency response, nuclear forensics and environmental monitoring. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing systems for this purpose based on dual gamma-ray spectrometers, e.g. NaI(TI) or HPGe, combined with thin organic scintillator sensors to detect light charged particles. Translating the coincident signatures recorded by these systems, which include , and , into the concentration of detectable radionuclides in the sample requires generalized multicoincidence analysis tools. The development and validation of the Coincidence Lookup Library, which currently contains the probabilities of single and coincidence signatures from more than 420 isotopes, is described. Also discussed is a method to calculate the probability of observing a coincidence signature which incorporates true coincidence summing effects. These effects are particularly important for high-geometric-efficiency detection systems. Finally, a process for validating the integrated analysis software package is demonstrated using GEANT 4 simulations of the prototype detector systems.

  18. Bismuth generator method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, Lane Allan (Richland, WA); DesChane, Jaquetta R. (Pasco, WA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for separating .sup.213 Bi from a solution of radionuclides wherein the solution contains a concentration of the chloride ions and hydrogen ions adjusted to allow the formation of a chloride complex. The solution is then brought into contact with an anion exchange resin, whereupon .sup.213 Bi is absorbed from the solution and adhered onto the anion exchange resin in the chloride complex. Other non-absorbing radionuclides such as .sup.225 Ra, .sup.225 Ac, and .sup.221 Fr, along with HCl are removed from the anion exchange resin with a scrub solution. The .sup.213 Bi is removed from the anion exchange resin by washing the anion exchange resin with a stripping solution free of chloride ions and with a reduced hydrogen ion concentration which breaks the chloride anionic complex, releasing the .sup.213 Bi as a cation. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the anion exchange resin is provided as a thin membrane, allowing for extremely rapid adherence and stripping of the .sup.213 Bi. A preferred stripping solution for purification of .sup.213 Bi for use in medical applications includes sodium acetate, pH 5.5. A protein conjugated with bifunctional chelating agents in vivo with the NaOAc, to receive the .sup.213 Bi as it is being released from the anion exchange resin.

  19. Method of Separating Tangents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adilsultan Lepes

    2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The well known Jensen inequality, holds true for every convex functions. However, we found that it is possible to apply it to some problems related to nonconvex functions for which Jensen's inequality holds true locally. Having considered a set of such functions, we noted some general patterns. We show that the key point, which provides Jensen's inequality holds true locally, is that the plot of function should be situated at only one side from the local base curve defined compatible with conditional variables. Moreover, we have achieved even more general result. It turned out that the graph of the function can be located on either sides of the local base curve, with the conditions. This result allows one to prove easily difficult types of inequalities, and on the other hand to broaden applications in physics, economy, and information theory. On the basis of the conducted analysis of different sources it is possible to claim, that our method is applicable to about three fourths of studied inequalities related to Jensen's inequality.

  20. Method for biological purification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lucido, John A. (Mt. Sinai, NY); Keenan, Daniel (Rockville Centre, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Shelenkova, Ludmila (Yaphank, NY)

    2001-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is disclosed for containing a microorganism culture in an active exponential growth and delivering a supply of microorganisms to an environment containing wastes for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of the wastes. The apparatus comprises a bioreactor and an operably connected controller. The bioreactor has a bioreactor chamber for containing a supply of microorganisms, a second chamber for containing a supply of water and inorganic nutrients, and a third chamber for containing a supply of organic nutrients. The bioreactor is operably connected to the controller in which a first pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the second chamber and third chamber, and a second pump is operably connected in fluid communication between the bioreactor chamber and the environment containing wastes to be biodegraded. The controller further includes a timer and regulator operably connected to the first and second pumps to effectively maintain the microorganisms in exponential growth in the bioreactor chamber and to deliver microorganisms to an environment to be treated. Also, disclosed is a method for bio-augmenting the biodegradation of wastes.

  1. Desulfurization apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rong, Charles; Jiang, Rongzhong; Chu, Deryn

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for desulfurization comprising first and second metal oxides; a walled enclosure having an inlet and an exhaust for the passage of gas to be treated; the first and second metal oxide being combinable with hydrogen sulfide to produce a reaction comprising a sulfide and water; the first metal oxide forming a first layer and the second metal oxide forming a second layer within the walled surroundings; the first and second layers being positioned so the first layer removes the bulk amount of the hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas prior to passage through the second layer, and the second layer removes substantially all of the remaining hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas; the first metal oxide producing a stoichiometrical capacity in excess of 500 mg sulfur/gram; the second metal oxide reacts with the hydrogen sulfide more favorably but has a stoichometrical capacity which is less than the first reactant; whereby the optimal amount by weight of the first and second metal oxides is achieved by utilizing two to three units by weight of the first metal oxide for every unit of the second metal oxide.

  2. Chapter 1, Introduction: The Uniform Methods Project: Methods...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SR-7A30-53827 April 2013 The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures 1 - 1 Chapter 1 - Table of Contents About the...

  3. Concerted unimolecular triple dissociation of s-tetrazine: Transition-state structural optimizations using configuration interaction and coupled cluster methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scuseria, G.E. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (USA)); Schaefer, H.F. III (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA))

    1990-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    High level ab initio quantum mechanical methods have been applied to the reaction s-tetrazine {yields} 2HCN + N{sub 2}. Basis sets as large as triple-{zeta} plus double polarization (TZ2P) were used in conjunction with configuration interaction and coupled cluster methods including in some cases all triple excitations (CCSDT-1). The result is an enormous decrease in the predicted triple dissociation barrier height from 79.4 kcal (double-{zeta} plus polarization basis set, self-consistent-field method) to the final barrier of 38.3 kcal. After correction for zero-point vibrational energies, the predicted activation energy is only 33.1 kcal. Since this prediction falls well below the threshold for photodissociation (51.8 kcal), new experiments are called for.

  4. Threshold characteristics of semiconductor microdisk lasers R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, U. Mohideen, S. L. McCall, S. J. Peat-ton, and R. A. Logan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Anthony F. J.

    characteristics of InGaAs/InGaAsP microdisk lasers with optical emission near a wavelength /2=1.52 pm. More than 5 in a factor of l/f' in the calculated mode spacing. Loss due to optical absorption in the cold cavity (pumping well below threshold) leads to Q;`=aU 2rrn,s fg where a is the absorption coefficient obtained

  5. Methods of Purchasing Purchasing methods include the different

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    " purchases must be reviewed and approved by the Controller's Office. This may result in the end user beingMethods of Purchasing Purchasing methods include the different processes of ordering goods and/or services, and encumbering funds. #12;Method of Purchase Field Purchase Orders (FPO) Accepted

  6. Method of microbially degrading trinitrotoluene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN); Vass, Arpad (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of degrading trinitrotoluene (TNT) includes contacting the TNT with intra-amoebic isolate CR-1, ATCC 75528.

  7. MONITORING AN UNDERGROUND REPOSITORY WITH MODERN SEISMOLOGICAL METHODS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Majer, Ernest L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactor Fuel in the Climax Granite, Nevada Test Site: UCRL~KBS, electric heaters in granite were used for the study ofabruptly in Westerly granite at a threshold temperature of

  8. Conjugate Gradient Method Numerisches Rechnen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conjugate Gradient Method Numerisches Rechnen (fr Informatiker) M. Grepl J. Berger & J.T. Frings Numerisches Rechnen #12;Conjugate Gradient Method The Quadratic Form Steepest Descent Conjugate Directions/Gradients IGPM, RWTH Aachen Numerisches Rechnen #12;Conjugate Gradient Method The Quadratic Form Steepest Descent

  9. ANALYTICAL METHODS in CHEMICAL ECOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ANALYTICAL METHODS in CHEMICAL ECOLOGY a post graduate course (doktorandkurs) when: February 10 ­ 28, 2014 where: Chemical Ecology, Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agriculture (SLU to modern analytical methods used in Chemical Ecological and Ecotoxicological research, such as: methods

  10. Formal Methods Formalism vs. Verification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feitelson, Dror

    lights in the room are controlled by a switch" There exists a single switch that controls all lights For each light, there exists a unique switch that controls it #12;Lesser Formal Methods Be precise - Say methods", Computer 41(3), pp. 28-34, Jan 2010 #12;Formal methods are not really being used by industry

  11. Method of making alkyl esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Brian (Wheat Ridge, CO)

    2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of making alkyl esters are described herein. The methods are capable of using raw, unprocessed, low-cost feedstocks and waste grease. Generally, the method involves converting a glyceride source to a fatty acid composition and esterifying the fatty acid composition to make alkyl esters. In an embodiment, a method of making alkyl esters comprises providing a glyceride source. The method further comprises converting the glyceride source to a fatty acid composition comprising free fatty acids and less than about 1% glyceride by mass. Moreover, the method comprises esterifying the fatty acid composition in the presence of a solid acid catalyst at a temperature ranging firm about 70.degree. C. to about 120.degree. C. to produce alkyl esters, such that at least 85% of the free fatty acids are converted to alkyl esters. The method also incorporates the use of packed bed reactors for glyceride conversion and/or fatty acid esterification to make alkyl esters.

  12. Method and apparatus for low power analog-to-digital conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Nambiar, Neena

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for analog-to-digital conversion. An Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) includes M ADC.sub.j, j=1, 2, . . . , M. Each ADC.sub.j comprises a number of cells each of which comprises a first switch, a second switch, a current sink and an inverter. An inverter of a cell in an ADC.sub.j changes state in response to a current associate with an input signal of the ADC.sub.j exceeding a threshold, thus switching on the next cell. Each ADC.sub.j is enabled to perform analog-to-digital conversion on a residual current of a previous ADC.sub.j-1 after the previous ADC.sub.j-1 has completed its analog-to-digital conversion and has been disabled.

  13. RADON 131 7. ANALYTICAL METHODS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the analytical methods that are available for detecting, measuring, and/or monitoring radon and its progeny. The intent is not to provide an exhaustive list of analytical methods. Rather, the intention is to identify well-established methods that are used as the standard methods of analysis. Many of the analytical methods used for environmental samples are the methods approved by federal agencies and organizations such as EPA and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Other methods presented in this chapter are those that are approved by groups such as the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and the American Public Health Association (APHA). Additionally, analytical methods are included that modify previously used methods to obtain lower detection limits and/or to improve accuracy and precision. 7.1 BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS Table 7-1 lists various methods used to detect radon progeny in biological samples. Since the half-life of radon is short, its measurement in biological samples, such as serum, urine, blood, etc., is not practical. Measurements of the longer lived radon progeny 210 Pb and 210 Po in biological samples may be used as an indication of radon exposure; however, ingestion of these isotopes from food and drinking water or direct exposure from other environmental media are considered the primary sources of exposure for these

  14. Methods of manipulating stressed epistructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W

    2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of processing an epistructure or processing a semiconductor device including associating a conformal and flexible handle with the epistructure and removing the epistructure and handle as a unit from the parent substrate. The method further includes causing the epistructure and handle unit to conform to a shape that differs from the shape the epistructure otherwise inherently assumes upon removal from the parent substrate. A device prepared according to the disclosed methods.

  15. Method of manufacturing superconductor wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Motowidlo, Leszek

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming Nb.sub.3Sn superconducting wire is provided. The method employs a powder-in-tube process using a high-tin intermetallic compound, such as MnSn.sub.2, for producing the Nb.sub.3Sn. The use of a high-tin intermetallic compound enables the process to perform hot extrusion without melting the high-tin intermetallic compound. Alternatively, the method may entail drawing the wire without hot extrusion.

  16. Method for protein structure alignment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blankenbecler, Richard; Ohlsson, Mattias; Peterson, Carsten; Ringner, Markus

    2005-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a method for protein structure alignment. More particularly, the present invention provides a method for identification, classification and prediction of protein structures. The present invention involves two key ingredients. First, an energy or cost function formulation of the problem simultaneously in terms of binary (Potts) assignment variables and real-valued atomic coordinates. Second, a minimization of the energy or cost function by an iterative method, where in each iteration (1) a mean field method is employed for the assignment variables and (2) exact rotation and/or translation of atomic coordinates is performed, weighted with the corresponding assignment variables.

  17. Algebraic Statistics methods Giovanni Pistone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceragioli, Francesca

    Algebraic Statistics methods for DOE Giovanni Pistone Department of Mathematics Politecnico di Torino, Italy giovanni.pistone@polito.it Eva Riccomagno Department of Mathematics Politecnico di Torino

  18. Method of producing synthetic pitch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennel, Elliot B. (Morgantown, WV); Stansberry, Peter G. (North Olmsted, OH); Stiller, Alfred H. (Morgantown, WV); Zondlo, John W. (Albright, WV)

    2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Embodiments of a method are described for modifying pitches, oils, tars, and binders by using these materials as solvents to extract organic chemicals from coal.

  19. Method for fabricating ceramic composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goretta, Kenneth C. (Downers Grove, IL); Singh, Dileep (Naperville, IL); Polzin, Bryant J. (Downers Grove, IL); Cruse, Terry (Lisle, IL); Picciolo, John J. (Lockport, IL)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing composite ceramic material is provided wherein a core ceramic structure is produced and simultaneously enveloped with a sleeve of similar material.

  20. Evaluation of Islanding Detection Methods

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    4.1 Passive Methods Resident in the Inverter ... 17 4.1.1 Underover Voltage and Underover Frequency...17 4.1.1.1...

  1. NEWTON'S METHOD FOR MULTIOBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The method does not scalarize the original vector optimization problem, ... for an optimization problem with an objective function with a partially ordered vector...

  2. An efficient method to evaluate energy variances for extrapolation methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Puddu

    2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy variance extrapolation method consists in relating the approximate energies in many-body calculations to the corresponding energy variances and inferring eigenvalues by extrapolating to zero variance. The method needs a fast evaluation of the energy variances. For many-body methods that expand the nuclear wave functions in terms of deformed Slater determinants, the best available method for the evaluation of energy variances scales with the sixth power of the number of single-particle states. We propose a new method which depends on the number of single-particle orbits and the number of particles rather than the number of single-particle states. We discuss as an example the case of ${}^4He$ using the chiral N3LO interaction in a basis consisting up to 184 single-particle states.

  3. Method of producing polyalkylated oligoalkylenepolyamines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elangovan, Arumugasamy

    2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing polyalkylated oligoalkylenepolyamines is provided. The method includes contacting oligoalkylenepolyamine with a reagent composition comprising (a) alkyl bromide and/or alkyl chloride; (b) a basic agent; and (c) iodide salt. The alkylation reaction may be carried out in a polar, aprotic organic solvent.

  4. Challenging Proteins Principles and Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobsen, Steve

    .............................................................................................................................................................12 Small-scale expression screening of histidine-tagged membrane proteins from E. coli lysates Gel Filtration Principles and Methods 18-1022-18 Recombinant Protein Purification Handbook Principles and Methods 18-1142-75 Protein Purification Handbook 18-1132-29 Hydrophobic Interaction and Reversed Phase

  5. Tomotherapy treatment plan quality assurance: The impact of applied criteria on passing rate in gamma index method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bresciani, Sara; Di Dia, Amalia; Maggio, Angelo; Cutaia, Claudia; Miranti, Anna; Infusino, Erminia; Stasi, Michele [Medical Physics Division, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCCS), 10060 Candiolo (Italy)] [Medical Physics Division, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCCS), 10060 Candiolo (Italy)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Pretreatment patient plan verification with gamma index (GI) metric analysis is standard procedure for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the variability of the local and global gamma index obtained during standard pretreatment quality assurance (QA) measurements for plans performed with Tomotherapy unit. The QA measurements were performed with a 3D diode array, using variable passing criteria: 3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, 1%/1 mm, each with both local and global normalization.Methods: The authors analyzed the pretreatment QA results for 73 verifications; 37 were prostate cancer plans, 16 were head and neck plans, and 20 were other clinical sites. All plans were treated using the Tomotherapy Hi-Art System. Pretreatment QA plans were performed with the commercially available 3D diode array ArcCHECK. This device has 1386 diodes arranged in a helical geometry spaced 1 cm apart. The dose measurements were acquired on the ArcCHECK and then compared with the calculated dose using the standard gamma analysis method. The gamma passing rate (%GP), defined as the percentage of points satisfying the condition GI < 1, was calculated for different criteria (3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, 1%/1 mm) and for both global and local normalization. In the case of local normalization method, the authors set three dose difference threshold (DDT) values of 2, 3, and 5 cGy. Dose difference threshold is defined as the minimum absolute dose error considered in the analysis when using local normalization. Low-dose thresholds (TH) of 5% and 10% were also applied and analyzed.Results: Performing a paired-t-test, the authors determined that the gamma passing rate is independent of the threshold values for all of the adopted criteria (5%TH vs 10%TH, p > 0.1). Our findings showed that mean %GPs for local (or global) normalization for the entire study group were 93% (98%), 84% (92%), and 66% (61%) for 3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, and 1%/1 mm criteria, respectively. DDT was equal to 2 cGy for the local normalization analysis cases. The authors observed great variability in the resulting %GP. With 3%/3 mm gamma criteria, the overall passing rate with local normalization was 4.6% less on the average than with global one, as expected. The wide difference between %GP calculated with global or local approach is also confirmed by an unpaired t-test statistical analysis.Conclusions: The variability of %GP obtained confirmed the necessity to establish defined agreement criteria that could be universal and comparable between institutions. In particular, while the gamma passing rate does not depend on the choice of threshold, the choice of DDT strongly influences the gamma passing rate for local calculations. The difference between global and local %GP was statistically significant for prostate and other treatment sites when DDT was changed from 2 to 3 cGy.

  6. Method of synthesizing tungsten nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thoma, Steven G; Anderson, Travis M

    2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to synthesize tungsten nanoparticles has been developed that enables synthesis of nanometer-scale, monodisperse particles that can be stabilized only by tetrahydrofuran. The method can be used at room temperature, is scalable, and the product concentrated by standard means. Since no additives or stabilizing surfactants are required, this method is particularly well suited for producing tungsten nanoparticles for dispersion in polymers. If complete dispersion is achieved due to the size of the nanoparticles, then the optical properties of the polymer can be largely maintained.

  7. Security control methods for CEDR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotem, D.

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the findings of recent studies on the security problem in statistical databases and examine their applicability to the specific needs of CEDR. The document is organized as follows: In Section 2 we describe some general control methods which are available on most commercial database software. In Section 3 we provide a classification of statistical security methods. In Section 4 we analyze the type of users of CEDR and the security control methods which may be applied to each type. In Section 5 we summarize the findings of this study and recommend possible solutions.

  8. Manufacturing method of photonic crystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, In Sung; Lee, Tae Ho; Ahn, Jin Ho; Biswas, Rana; Constant, Kristen P.; Ho, Kai-Ming; Lee, Jae-Hwang

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A manufacturing method of a photonic crystal is provided. In the method, a high-refractive-index material is conformally deposited on an exposed portion of a periodic template composed of a low-refractive-index material by an atomic layer deposition process so that a difference in refractive indices or dielectric constants between the template and adjacent air becomes greater, which makes it possible to form a three-dimensional photonic crystal having a superior photonic bandgap. Herein, the three-dimensional structure may be prepared by a layer-by-layer method.

  9. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  10. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1990-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  11. Method of monolithic module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gee, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Garrett, Stephen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Morgan, William P. (Albuquerque, NM); Worobey, Walter (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for "monolithic module assembly" which translate many of the advantages of monolithic module construction of thin-film PV modules to wafered c-Si PV modules. Methods employ using back-contact solar cells positioned atop electrically conductive circuit elements affixed to a planar support so that a circuit capable of generating electric power is created. The modules are encapsulated using encapsulant materials such as EVA which are commonly used in photovoltaic module manufacture. The methods of the invention allow multiple cells to be electrically connected in a single encapsulation step rather than by sequential soldering which characterizes the currently used commercial practices.

  12. Reduced shedding regenerator and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qiu, Songgang (Richland, WA); Augenblick, John E. (Richland, WA); Erbeznik, Raymond M. (Kennewick, WA)

    2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A reduced shedding regenerator and method are disclosed with regenerator surfaces to minimize shedding of particles from the regenerator thereby alleviating a source of potential damage and malfunction of a thermal regenerative machine using the regenerator.

  13. New methods for econometric inference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chetverikov, D. N. (Denis Nikolaevich)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monotonicity is a key qualitative prediction of a wide array of economic models derived via robust comparative statics. It is therefore important to design effective and practical econometric methods for testing this ...

  14. Method for controlling powertrain pumps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sime, Karl Andrew; Spohn, Brian L; Demirovic, Besim; Martini, Ryan D; Miller, Jean Marie

    2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of controlling a pump supplying a fluid to a transmission includes sensing a requested power and an excess power for a powertrain. The requested power substantially meets the needs of the powertrain, while the excess power is not part of the requested power. The method includes sensing a triggering condition in response to the ability to convert the excess power into heat in the transmission, and determining that an operating temperature of the transmission is below a maximum. The method also includes determining a calibrated baseline and a dissipation command for the pump. The calibrated baseline command is configured to supply the fluid based upon the requested power, and the dissipation command is configured to supply additional fluid and consume the excess power with the pump. The method operates the pump at a combined command, which is equal to the calibrated baseline command plus the dissipation command.

  15. ALTERNATING DIRECTION METHODS FOR SPARSE ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Since zero entries in the inverse covariance matrix correspond to the conditional ..... All the codes of the ADM approach were written by Matlab 7.1. .... graphs via chordal embedding, Optimization Methods and Software 23 (4) (2008), pp. 501-.

  16. Method of Dehalogenation using Diamonds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farcasiu, Malvina; Kaufman, Phillip B.; Ladner, Edward P.; Anderson, Richard R.

    1999-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing olefins and halogenated olefins is provided comprising contacting halogenated compounds with diamonds for a sufficient time and at a sufficient temperature to convert the halogenated compounds to olefins and halogenated olefins via elimination reactions.

  17. Hedge Algorithm and Subgradient Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    can be interpreted as an approximation of the utility function over gains and losses used ... fixing the step-size, from a simple approximate line-search method to...

  18. Peptides and methods against diabetes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albertini, Richard J. (Underhill Center, VT); Falta, Michael T. (Hinesburg, VT)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to methods of preventing or reducing the severity of diabetes. In one embodiment, the method involves administering to the individual a peptide having substantially the sequence of a on-conserved region sequence of a T cell receptor present on the surface of T cells mediating diabetes or a fragment thereof, wherein the peptide or fragment is capable of causing an effect on the immune system to regulate the T cells. In particular, the T cell receptor has the V.beta. regional V.beta.6 or V.beta.14. In another embodiment, the method involves gene therapy. The invention also relates to methods of diagnosing diabetes by determining the presence of diabetes predominant T cell receptors.

  19. Information storage media and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA); Endres, George W. (Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method for storing and retrieving information. More specifically, the present invention is a method for forming predetermined patterns, or data structures, using materials which exhibit enhanced absorption of light at certain wavelengths or, when interrogated with a light having a first wavelength, provide a luminescent response at a second wavelength. These materials may exhibit this response to light inherently, or may be made to exhibit this response by treating the materials with ionizing radiation.

  20. Method for grinding precision components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramanath, Srinivasan (Holden, MA); Kuo, Shih Yee (Westboro, MA); Williston, William H. (Holden, MA); Buljan, Sergej-Tomislav (Acton, MA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for precision cylindrical grinding of hard brittle materials, such as ceramics or glass and composites comprising ceramics or glass, provides material removal rates as high as 19-380 cm.sup.3 /min/cm. The abrasive tools used in the method comprise a strong, light weight wheel core bonded to a continuous rim of abrasive segments containing superabrasive grain in a dense metal bond matrix.

  1. Analytical methods under emergency conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sedlet, J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This lecture discusses methods for the radiochemical determination of internal contamination of the body under emergency conditions, here defined as a situation in which results on internal radioactive contamination are needed quickly. The purpose of speed is to determine the necessity for medical treatment to increase the natural elimination rate. Analytical methods discussed include whole-body counting, organ counting, wound monitoring, and excreta analysis. 12 references. (ACR)

  2. Method for grinding precision components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanath, S.; Kuo, S.Y.; Williston, W.H.; Buljan, S.T.

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for precision cylindrical grinding of hard brittle materials, such as ceramics or glass and composites comprising ceramics or glass, provides material removal rates as high as 19--380 cm{sup 3}/min/cm. The abrasive tools used in the method comprise a strong, light weight wheel core bonded to a continuous rim of abrasive segments containing superabrasive grain in a dense metal bond matrix.

  3. Laminate armor and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chu, Henry S; Lillo, Thomas M; Zagula, Thomas M

    2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Laminate armor and methods of manufacturing laminate armor. Specifically, laminate armor plates comprising a commercially pure titanium layer and a titanium alloy layer bonded to the commercially pure titanium outer layer are disclosed, wherein an average thickness of the titanium alloy inner layer is about four times an average thickness of the commercially pure titanium outer layer. In use, the titanium alloy layer is positioned facing an area to be protected. Additionally, roll-bonding methods for manufacturing laminate armor plates are disclosed.

  4. Method for determining gene knockouts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maranas, Costas D. (Port Matilda, PA); Burgard, Anthony R. (State College, PA); Pharkya, Priti (State College, PA)

    2011-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for determining candidates for gene deletions and additions using a model of a metabolic network associated with an organism, the model includes a plurality of metabolic reactions defining metabolite relationships, the method includes selecting a bioengineering objective for the organism, selecting at least one cellular objective, forming an optimization problem that couples the at least one cellular objective with the bioengineering objective, and solving the optimization problem to yield at least one candidate.

  5. Method for determining gene knockouts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maranas, Costa D; Burgard, Anthony R; Pharkya, Priti

    2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for determining candidates for gene deletions and additions using a model of a metabolic network associated with an organism, the model includes a plurality of metabolic reactions defining metabolite relationships, the method includes selecting a bioengineering objective for the organism, selecting at least one cellular objective, forming an optimization problem that couples the at least one cellular objective with the bioengineering objective, and solving the optimization problem to yield at least one candidate.

  6. SLR methods for attached sunspaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.W.; McFarland, R.D.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar load ratio (SLR) methods applied to sunspaces are reviewed. Procedures are described both for the 28 sunspace basic design types and for the design variations that can be accommodated within the SLR method. Emphasis is placed on aspects of design, operation, and analysis that relate to the production of both plants and heat. Issues discussed include geometry, shading of mass, temperature limits, and energy loss caused by the exfiltration of water vapor.

  7. Communication-avoiding Krylov subspace methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoemmen, Mark

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CG 5.1 Conjugate gradient method . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2s-step conjugate gradient methods on a multiprocessor system98] R. Fletcher, Conjugate gradient methods for indefinite

  8. Conjugate Gradient Methods in Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamshardian, Mortaza; Jennrich, Robert

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R. I. (1988), "Conjugate Gradient Methods in Confirmatoryapply generalized conjugate gradient methods in an attemptby used. The conjugate gradient method, which is simple and

  9. Graph regularization methods for Web spam detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abernethy, Jacob; Chapelle, Olivier; Castillo, Carlos

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An introduction to the conjugate gradient method without theonly implemented the conjugate gradient method. Note onemployed was the conjugate gradient method, de- scribed in

  10. Method, memory media and apparatus for detection of grid disconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ye, Zhihong (Clifton Park, NY); Du, Pengwei (Troy, NY)

    2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A phase shift procedure for detecting a disconnect of a power grid from a feeder that is connected to a load and a distributed generator. The phase shift procedure compares a current phase shift of the output voltage of the distributed generator with a predetermined threshold and if greater, a command is issued for a disconnect of the distributed generator from the feeder. To extend the range of detection, the phase shift procedure is used when a power mismatch between the distributed generator and the load exceeds a threshold and either or both of an under/over frequency procedure and an under/over voltage procedure is used when any power mismatch does not exceed the threshold.

  11. Seismic Fracture Characterization Methods for Enhanced Geothermal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Seismic Fracture Characterization Methods for Enhanced Geothermal Systems Seismic Fracture Characterization Methods for Enhanced Geothermal Systems Project objective: Make Seismic...

  12. Seismic Fracture Characterization Methods for Enhanced Geothermal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Seismic Fracture Characterization Methods for Enhanced Geothermal Systems; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Seismic Fracture Characterization Methods for...

  13. Comparison of homotopy analysis method and homotopy perturbation method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeffrey, David

    equation Songxin Liang , David J. Jeffrey Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario an evolution equation used as the second example in a recent paper by Ganji et al (2007). It is found and t except t = 0. It is also found that the solution given by the variational iteration method (VIM

  14. COMPARING DETECTION METHODS OF AFLATOXIN AND EXPLORING AFLATOXIN DECONTAMINATION METHODS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, David

    DECONTAMINATION METHODS Pages in Study: 81 Candidate for Degree of Master of Science Ethanol fermentation if aflatoxin concentrated in the distilled ethanol and/or dry distillers grain end-products. Alliquots of fermented mash, distilled ethanol, stillage, and dry distillers grain (DDG) were analyzed via LC

  15. Deflation Methods in Fermion Inverters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter Wilcox

    2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    I will review recent developments in matrix deflation methods, by Ronald Morgan/Walter Wilcox, Andreas Stathopoulos/Konstantinos Orginos, and Martin L\\"uscher, with application to lattice QCD fermion inversion. I will begin with a short review of deflation-related work in the field. The Morgan/Wilcox algorithms using GMRES and BiCGStab for deflation will be described. Typical results for quenched (Wilson and twisted mass) and dynamical configurations (CP-PACS and ETMC) will be displayed and discussed. I will outline how inclusion of multiple right-hand sides and multiple shifts can be accommodated within versions of these methods. I will also review deflation methods based on Conjugate Gradient introduced by Stathopoulos and Orginos for hermitian systems with multiple right-hand sides as well as L\\"uscher's non-hermitian domain decomposition algorithm using Generalized Conjugate Residual.}

  16. Method for protecting a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J.

    2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention includes a method of producing a hard metallic material by forming a mixture containing at least 55% iron and at least one of B, C, Si and P. The mixture is formed into an alloy and cooled to form a metallic material having a hardness of greater than about 9.2 GPa. The invention includes a method of forming a wire by combining a metal strip and a powder. The strip and the powder are rolled to form a wire containing at least 55% iron and from 27 additional elements including at lease one of C, Si and B. The invention also includes a method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate by processing a solid mass to form a power, applying the powder to a surface to form a layer containing metallic glass, and converting the glass to a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  17. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony (Houston, TX); Bauldreay, Joanna M. (Chester, GB)

    2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  18. Shell model Monte Carlo methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koonin, S.E. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.K. Kellogg Radiation Lab.; Dean, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We review quantum Monte Carlo methods for dealing with large shell model problems. These methods reduce the imaginary-time many-body evolution operator to a coherent superposition of one-body evolutions in fluctuating one-body fields; resultant path integral is evaluated stochastically. We first discuss the motivation, formalism, and implementation of such Shell Model Monte Carlo methods. There then follows a sampler of results and insights obtained from a number of applications. These include the ground state and thermal properties of pf-shell nuclei, thermal behavior of {gamma}-soft nuclei, and calculation of double beta-decay matrix elements. Finally, prospects for further progress in such calculations are discussed. 87 refs.

  19. Robotic follow system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Anderson, Matthew O [Idaho Falls, ID

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Robot platforms, methods, and computer media are disclosed. The robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for a robot to follow a target in its environment. The method includes receiving a target bearing and sensing whether the robot is blocked front. If the robot is blocked in front, then the robot's motion is adjusted to avoid the nearest obstacle in front. If the robot is not blocked in front, then the method senses whether the robot is blocked toward the target bearing and if so, sets the rotational direction opposite from the target bearing, and adjusts the rotational velocity and translational velocity. If the robot is not blocked toward the target bearing, then the rotational velocity is adjusted proportional to an angle of the target bearing and the translational velocity is adjusted proportional to a distance to the nearest obstacle in front.

  20. Method and apparatus for generating low energy nuclear particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, James R. (Shoreham, NY); Reich, Morris (Flushing, NY); Ludewig, Hans (Brookhaven, NY); Todosow, Michael (Miller Place, NY)

    1999-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A particle accelerator (12) generates an input particle beam having an initial energy level above a threshold for generating secondary nuclear particles. A thin target (14) is rotated in the path of the input beam for undergoing nuclear reactions to generate the secondary particles and correspondingly decrease energy of the input beam to about the threshold. The target (14) produces low energy secondary particles and is effectively cooled by radiation and conduction. A neutron scatterer (44) and a neutron filter (42) are also used for preferentially degrading the secondary particles into a lower energy range if desired.